Science.gov

Sample records for resolved pyrometry cases

  1. Laser pyrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    A method of determining the emissivity of a hot target from a laser-based reflectance measurement which is conducted simultaneously with a measurement of the target radiance is described. Once the correct radiance and emissivity are determined, one calculates the true target temperature from these parameters via the Planck equations. The design and performance of a laser pyrometer is described. The accuracy of laser pyrometry and the effect of ambient radiance are addressed.

  2. Pyrometry simulator (pyrosim) for diagnostic design.

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H., III

    2011-10-01

    Signal estimates are crucial to the design of time-resolved pyrometry measurements. These estimates affect fundamental design decisions, including the optical relay (fiber versus open beam), spectral range (visible or infrared), and amplification needs (possibly at the expense of time resolution). The pyrosim program makes such estimates, allowing the collected power, photon flux, and measured signal to be determined in a broad range of pyrometry measurements. Geometrical collection limits can be applied; sample emissivity, transfer efficiency, and detector sensitivity may also be specified, either as constants or functions of wavelength.

  3. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOEpatents

    Breiland, William G.; Gurary, Alexander I.; Boguslavskiy, Vadim

    2002-01-01

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  4. Turbine pyrometry for advanced engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Strange, R. R.

    1987-06-01

    The turbine pyrometry requirements for advanced engine designs are examined. The practical use of current optical pyrometer systems is limited to situations where the reflected radiation comprises not more than 50 percent of the total signal. Alternative approaches, including techniques known as 'Advanced Dual Spectral Area Pyrometer', 'Active Pyrometry', passive synchronous detection pyrometry, and techniques that use thermographic phosphors, are discussed. It is suggested that the methods that use thermographic phosphors at low temperatures can be extended to high temperatures and gas turbine engine environment and can be adapted to the vane scanning pyrometer application.

  5. Multiwavelength pyrometry to correct for reflected radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel L. P.

    1990-01-01

    Computer curve fitting is used in multiwavelength pyrometry to measure the temperature of a surface in the presence of reflected radiation by decomposing its radiation spectrum. Computer-simulated spectra (at a surface temperature of 1000 K; in the wavelength region 0.3 to 20 microns; with a reflected radiation-source temperature of 700 to 2500 K; and reflector emissivity from 0.1 to 0.9) were generated and decomposed. This method of pyrometry determined the surface temperatures under these conditions to within 5 percent. The practicability of the method was further demonstrated by the successful analysis of a related problem--decomposition of the real spectrum of an infrared source containing two emitters to determine their temperatures.

  6. Some considerations relating to aero engine pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, P. J.

    1986-11-01

    With turbine blade optical pyrometry rapidly becoming accepted by the aerospace community as a viable flight control technique, some of the traditional and emerging demands are described, with examples of how they are being addressed. Many of these demands are now being met by skillful application of materials technology, electronic engineering, signal processing and fluid flow techniques, but it is probable that flight conditions will impose a more pragmatic approach than customarily adopted towards test bed installations.

  7. Single-fiber multi-color pyrometry

    DOEpatents

    Small, IV, Ward; Celliers, Peter

    2000-01-01

    This invention is a fiber-based multi-color pyrometry set-up for real-time non-contact temperature and emissivity measurement. The system includes a single optical fiber to collect radiation emitted by a target, a reflective rotating chopper to split the collected radiation into two or more paths while modulating the radiation for lock-in amplification (i.e., phase-sensitive detection), at least two detectors possibly of different spectral bandwidths with or without filters to limit the wavelength regions detected and optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the sensitive areas of the detectors. A computer algorithm is used to calculate the true temperature and emissivity of a target based on blackbody calibrations. The system components are enclosed in a light-tight housing, with provision for the fiber to extend outside to collect the radiation. Radiation emitted by the target is transmitted through the fiber to the reflective chopper, which either allows the radiation to pass straight through or reflects the radiation into one or more separate paths. Each path includes a detector with or without filters and corresponding optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the active area of the detector. The signals are recovered using lock-in amplification. Calibration formulas for the signals obtained using a blackbody of known temperature are used to compute the true temperature and emissivity of the target. The temperature range of the pyrometer system is determined by the spectral characteristics of the optical components.

  8. Single-fiber multi-color pyrometry

    DOEpatents

    Small, IV, Ward; Celliers, Peter

    2004-01-27

    This invention is a fiber-based multi-color pyrometry set-up for real-time non-contact temperature and emissivity measurement. The system includes a single optical fiber to collect radiation emitted by a target, a reflective rotating chopper to split the collected radiation into two or more paths while modulating the radiation for lock-in amplification (i.e., phase-sensitive detection), at least two detectors possibly of different spectral bandwidths with or without filters to limit the wavelength regions detected and optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the sensitive areas of the detectors. A computer algorithm is used to calculate the true temperature and emissivity of a target based on blackbody calibrations. The system components are enclosed in a light-tight housing, with provision for the fiber to extend outside to collect the radiation. Radiation emitted by the target is transmitted through the fiber to the reflective chopper, which either allows the radiation to pass straight through or reflects the radiation into one or more separate paths. Each path includes a detector with or without filters and corresponding optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the active area of the detector. The signals are recovered using lock-in amplification. Calibration formulas for the signals obtained using a blackbody of known temperature are used to compute the true temperature and emissivity of the target. The temperature range of the pyrometer system is determined by the spectral characteristics of the optical components.

  9. Case report and review of resolved fusariosis.

    PubMed

    Helm, T N; Longworth, D L; Hall, G S; Bolwell, B J; Fernandez, B; Tomecki, K J

    1990-08-01

    Erythematous macules, nonpalpable and palpable purpura, and flaccid pustules developed in a 59-year-old man with acute lymphocytic leukemia 8 days after reinduction chemotherapy with cytosine arabinoside and daunorubicin. Tissue and blood cultures grew Fusarium proliferatum, and a skin biopsy specimen revealed fungal vasculitis. Anemia and muscle weakness accompanied the disseminated infection, for which the patient received granulocyte transfusions and amphotericin B, ketoconazole, rifampin, and griseofulvin. Skin lesions and fungemia resolved with recovery of the bone marrow, and 51 days after the completion of his chemotherapy he returned home. If promptly recognized and aggressively treated, disseminated fusariosis is responsive to therapy. Infection with Fusarium species should be suspected in profoundly neutropenic patients in whom disseminated palpable purpura and myositis develop concomitantly. PMID:2203833

  10. Monte Carlo studies of multiwavelength pyrometry using linearized equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gathers, G. R.

    1992-03-01

    Multiwavelength pyrometry has been advertised as giving significant improvement in precision by overdetermining the solution with extra wavelengths and using least squares methods. Hiernaut et al. [1] have described a six-wavelength pyrometer for measurements in the range 2000 to 5000 K. They use the Wien approximation and model the logarithm of the emissivity as a linear function of wavelength in order to produce linear equations. The present work examines the measurement errors associated with their technique.

  11. Thin-Filament Pyrometry Developed for Measuring Temperatures in Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, Peter B.

    2004-01-01

    Many valuable advances in combustion science have come from observations of microgravity flames. This research is contributing to the improved efficiency and reduced emissions of practical combustors and is benefiting terrestrial and spacecraft fire safety. Unfortunately, difficulties associated with microgravity have prevented many types of measurements in microgravity flames. In particular, temperature measurements in flames are extremely important but have been limited in microgravity. A novel method of measuring temperatures in microgravity flames is being developed in-house at the National Center for Microgravity Research and the NASA Glenn Research Center and is described here. Called thin-filament pyrometry, it involves using a camera to determine the local gas temperature from the intensity of inserted fibers glowing in a flame. It is demonstrated here to provide accurate measurements of gas temperatures in a flame simultaneously at many locations. The experiment is shown. The flame is a laminar gas jet diffusion flame fueled by methane (CH4) flowing from a 14-mm round burner at a pressure of 1 atm. A coflowing stream of air is used to prevent flame flicker. Nine glowing fibers are visible. These fibers are made of silicon carbide (SiC) and have a diameter of 15 m (for comparison, the average human hair is 75 m in diameter). Because the fibers are so thin, they do little to disturb the flame and their temperature remains close to that of the local gas. The flame and glowing filaments were imaged with a digital black-and-white video camera. This camera has an imaging area of 1000 by 1000 pixels and a wide dynamic range of 12 bits. The resolution of the camera and optics was 0.1 mm. Optical filters were placed in front of the camera to limit incoming light to 750, 850, 950, and 1050 nm. Temperatures were measured in the same flame in the absence of fibers using 50-m Btype thermocouples. These thermocouples provide very accurate temperatures, but they

  12. Full-spectrum multiwavelength pyrometry for nongray surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel; Williams, W. D.

    1992-01-01

    A full-spectrum (encompassing radiation on both sides of the Wien displacement peak) multiwavelength pyrometer was developed. It measures the surface temperature of arbitrary nongray ceramics by curve fitting a spectrum in this spectral region to a Planck function of temperature T. This function of T is modified by the surface spectral emissivity. The emissivity function was derived experimentally from additional spectra that were obtained by using an auxiliary radiation source and from application of Kirchhoff's law. This emissivity was verified by results that were obtained independently by using electromagnetic and solid-state theories. In the presence of interfering reflected radiation this general pyrometry improves the accuracy of the measured temperature by measuring an additional spectrum that characterizes the interfering radiation source.

  13. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Tairan; Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou

    2014-04-15

    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100–2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700–1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  14. Application of two-colour pyrometry for measuring the surface temperature of a body activated by laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Kirillov, V M; Skvortsov, L A

    2006-08-31

    The features of contactless measurements of the surface temperature of bodies by the method of two-colour pyrometry of samples activated by periodic laser pulses are considered. The requirements imposed on the parameters of laser radiation and a measuring circuit are formulated. It is shown experimentally that surface temperatures close to room temperature can be measured with an error not exceeding 3% after elimination of the superfluous static component of the excess temperature. The sensitivity of the method is estimated. Advantages of laser photothermal radiometry with repetitively pulsed excitation of surfaces over the case when samples are subjected to harmonic amplitude-modulated laser radiation are discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  15. Real-time optical monitoring of thin film growth by in situ pyrometry through multiple layers and effective media approximation modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Benedic, F.; Bruno, P.; Pigeat, Ph.

    2007-03-26

    A model combining multiple layer description and effective media approximation is developed for pyrometry in the case of thin film synthesis, in order to estimate the film property evolution along its thickness during the growth process in real time. The model is used to investigate optical properties of polycrystalline diamond film prepared by H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} microwave plasma. It is shown that in the presence of nitrogen, the growth is strongly nonhomogeneous. The deposit, initially composed of large amounts of void and nondiamond phases, evolves rapidly towards highest quality dense film where the diamond phase is predominant.

  16. Design, Construction and Calibration of a Near-Infrared Four-Color Pyrometry System for Laser-Driven High Pressure Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, S. J.; Jeanloz, R.; Collins, G.; Spaulding, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Current dynamic compression experiments, using both quasi-isentropic and shock-compression, allow access to pressure-temperature states both on and off the principle Hugoniot and over a wide range of conditions of direct relevance to planetary interiors. Such studies necessitate reliable temperature measurements below 4000-5000 K. Such relatively low temperature states are also of particular interest for materials such as methane and water that do not experience much heating under shock compression. In order to measure these temperatures as a function of time across the sample, a four-color, near-infrared pyrometry system is being developed for use at the Janus laser facility (LLNL) with channels at wavelengths of 932nm-1008nm, 1008nm-1108nm, 1108nm-1208nm, and 1208nm-1300nm. Each color band is fiber-coupled to an InGaAs PIN photodiode with a rise time of less than 60 ps, read using an 18 GHz oscilloscope in order to ensure time resolutions of under 200 ps. This will allow for high temporal resolution measurements of laser-driven shock compression experiments with total durations of 5-15 ns as well as correlation with simultaneous time-resolved velocity interferometry and visual-wavelength pyrometry. Calibration of the system is being accomplished using quartz targets, as the EOS for quartz is well known, along with a calibrated integrating sphere of known spectral radiance.

  17. Colleges Sharpen Tactics for Resolving Academic-Integrity Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Students have cheated for centuries, but the problem is knottier than it used to be. The Internet and its infinite dishonest shortcuts have made many cases more complex, and antiplagiarism software like Turnitin flags more potential offenses than could be caught before. At the same time, professors' and college presidents' run-ins with plagiarism…

  18. Resolving a Teacher-Student Conflict: An Intrinsic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacson, Atara

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an episode that occurred during a semester-long academic course called: Conduct Problems and Class Navigation. It focuses on investigating the behavior of a student who, because of her uniqueness, was an interesting candidate for an intrinsic case study. This paper presents a distinctive way of handling an interfering and…

  19. SNP Markers as Additional Information to Resolve Complex Kinship Cases

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, M. Lurdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Laréu, Maria Victoria; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background DNA profiling with sets of highly polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers has been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic casework for nearly 20 years. However, in some cases of complex kinship investigation, the information provided by the conventionally used STR markers is not enough, often resulting in low likelihood ratio (LR) calculations. In these cases, it becomes necessary to increment the number of loci under analysis to reach adequate LRs. Recently, it has been proposed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used as a supportive tool to STR typing, eventually even replacing the methods/markers now employed. Methods In this work, we describe the results obtained in 7 revised complex paternity cases when applying a battery of STRs, as well as 52 human identification SNPs (SNPforID 52plex identification panel) using a SNaPshot methodology followed by capillary electrophoresis. Results Our results show that the analysis of SNPs, as complement to STR typing in forensic casework applications, would at least increase by a factor of 4 total PI values and correspondent Essen-Möller's W value. Conclusions We demonstrated that SNP genotyping could be a key complement to STR information in challenging casework of disputed paternity, such as close relative individualization or complex pedigrees subject to endogamous relations. PMID:26733770

  20. Mystery of Sciatica Resolved - A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chikkanna, Jayanth Kumar Bangalore; Gopal, Surendra; Sampath, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas are common, benign, slow growing tumours of peripheral nerve sheath arising from the schwann cells of the neuroectoderm. They do not transverse the nerve but remain within the sheath on top of the nerve. They rarely present in the sciatic nerve. Sciatic schwannomas may mimic symptoms of herniated disc, usually with radiation of pain to buttocks and thigh region with inability to walk for long distances and sometimes may present with claudication. In the absence of low back pain and with a normal Lumbo-Sacral MRI study, causes intrinsic to sciatic nerve needs to be thought off, which often delays the diagnosis. Rarity in our case-patient presented with tingling sensation and inability to squat on hard surface for more than 10 minutes with a normal x-ray and MRI study of lumbosacral spine. PMID:26894136

  1. Free-surface temperature measurement of shock-loaded tin using ultrafast infrared pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondot, Michel; Remiot, Christian

    1991-11-01

    The main problem regarding free surface temperature measurement by infrared pyrometry is the lack of emissivity data of shocked materials. Moreover, the short rise time in an hydrodynamic experiment requires particular detectors and experimental measurement technique. This paper describes a three channel pyrometer adapted to the study of shocked tin sample melted in release. The radiative infrared emission is collected by ZnSe lens and carried from the firing chamber to the pyrometer by fluoride glass optical fiber. In order to deduce the temperature from the electrical signals amplified before recording on a numerical oscilloscope, we use different narrow filters associated with a previous static calibration of the detectors by means of a continuously heated black body. The spectral integration of Planck's formula and the comparison between the static calibration with the black body and the dynamic signals give, for each experiment, three temperature-emissivity couples in agreement with Planck's theory. The originality of this measurement technique is the use of a 15 meter infrared optical triple core fiber for transporting the radiation from the target to the detectors, which simultaneously permits the measurement of three temperature-emissivity couples in the case of very small and hermetic experimental set-up. The main characteristics of this pyrometer are: a rise time of about 20 nanoseconds; an analysis area with a diameter smaller than 5 millimeters; continuous free surface temperature measurement during more than 5 microseconds; and the study of the wavelengths between 2 and 5 micrometers. Experiments have been achieved with optical polished tin samples. The abacus voltages, temperature, and emissivity versus time for a 45 GPa shock pressure is discussed.

  2. Progress in Infrared Pyrometry Measurements of Shocked Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Cazamias, J U; Hare, D E; Poulsen, P

    2001-11-05

    Temperature measurement is one of the grand challenges still facing experimental shock physics. A shock experiment fundamentally measures E({sigma}{sub x}, {var_epsilon}{sub 11}) which is an incomplete equation of state since temperature (or entropy) remains unspecified. Ideally, one would like to experimentally determine a free energy F(T, {var_epsilon}{sub ij}) from which all other thermo-mechanical properties might be derived. In practice, temperature measurement would allow direct comparison with theory/simulation since T and {var_epsilon}{sub 11} are in most theories the underlying variables. Temperature is a sensitive measure of energy partitioning, knowledge of which would increase our understanding phase boundaries and thermally activated processes (such as chemical reactivity (including dissociation and ionization)). Temperature measurement would also allow a thermodynamically consistent coupling of hydrodynamic equations of state to the material's constitutive (deformation) behavior. The measurement of the temperature of a material that has undergone severe strains at small time-scales is extremely difficult, and we are developing a method using infrared reflectance and pyrometry. The emitted power from a warm surface is measured over a range of wavelengths using a multi-channel IR detector with a response time of {approx}0.1 {micro}s. Each channel of the detector passes the radiation from a selected wavelength interval into a detector. Pyrometers typically have anywhere from three to six channels, and not all channels may have enough signal to contribute to the measurement under any given condition. The difficulty in the measurement lies in relating the radiance (power per unit area per solid angle) in each channel to the temperature of the surface since the radiance is determined not only by the temperature, but also by the emissivity of the surface. The emissivity is not a constant for any real surface, but varies both with angle of observation and

  3. Microsecond Time-Resolved Pyrometry during Rapid Resistive Heating of Samples in a Kolsky Bar Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, D.; Yoon, H. W.; Rhorer, R.; Burns, T.

    2003-09-01

    Analysis of machining processes is important in the understanding and improving of manufacturing methods. The modeling of machining processes relies on high-strain rate, high-temperature material properties. A split-Hopkinson pressure bar (or Kolsky bar) is being installed in a NIST high-current pulse-heating facility. By heating the material sample rapidly with a controlled current pulse immediately before the mechanical impact in the bar, structural changes in the sample are inhibited, thus better simulating conditions during machining. A stress-strain relationship can be determined at various temperatures for test materials. We describe the design and the development of a millisecond-resolution split-Hopkinson apparatus, where the sample is resistively heated by the passage of a sub-second-duration electric current pulse. The impact bar is constructed out of maraging steel and the sample is a cylinder of AISI 1045 steel. The current is transmitted through the oiled-bronze sleeve bushing of the impact bar. The temperature measurements are performed using a near-infrared micro-pyrometer (NIMPY). The NIMPY consists of a refractive 5× microscope objective with a numerical aperture of 0.14 attached to a traditional microscope body. The thermal measurement is performed with an InGaAs detector with ˜ 1 μs response time. The procedure used to calibrate the pyrometer with a variable temperature blackbody is described. A brief description of a model of the pulse heating process is given and the predicted sample temperature history is compared with measured temperature data.

  4. Lentigines in resolving psoriatic plaques: rarely reported sequelae in pediatric cases.

    PubMed

    LaRosa, Caroline L; Foulke, Galen T; Feigenbaum, Dana F; Cordoro, Kelly M; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2015-01-01

    Lentigo formation has been described in adults after the resolution of psoriatic plaques treated with various standard psoriasis treatments. We describe three cases of lentigines developing in areas of resolving psoriatic plaques: two in patients treated with etanercept and one before starting etanercept. A possible pathomechanism is proposed. PMID:25727728

  5. Bariatric Bypass Surgery to Resolve Complicated Childhood Morbid Obesity: Case Report Study: Erratum.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    In the article ''Bariatric Bypass Surgery to Resolve Complicated Childhood Morbid Obesity: Case Report Study'', which appeared in Volume 94, Issue 49 of Medicine, Dr. Elrazek's name was incorrectly presented as Abd Elrazek M. Ali Hussein when it should have read Abd Elrazek Abd Elrazek. The article has since been corrected online. PMID:27231816

  6. A Case of Subacute Encephalopathy Developing After Treatment With Clofarabine and Methotrexate That Resolved With Corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Tzachanis, Dimitrios; Haider, Mintallah; Papazisis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This is the case of a 24-year-old woman with relapsed acute undifferentiated leukemia who developed subacute encephalopathy with hemiparesis and dysarthria after treatment with high dose and intrathecal methotrexate, clofarabine, and cytarabine that resolved rapidly and completely after the administration of corticosteroids. We hypothesize that clofarabine might predispose to methotrexate-induced central nervous system toxicity by increasing endothelial permeability (capillary leak syndrome) and suggest that corticosteroids are effective in the treatment of this type of encephalopathy. PMID:24987945

  7. Effect of radiometric errors on accuracy of temperature-profile measurement by spectral scanning using absorption-emission pyrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The spectral-scanning method may be used to determine the temperature profile of a jet- or rocket-engine exhaust stream by measurements of gas radiation and transmittance, at two or more wavelengths. A single, fixed line of sight is used, using immobile radiators outside of the gas stream, and there is no interference with the flow. At least two sets of measurements are made, each set consisting of the conventional three radiometric measurements of absorption-emission pyrometry, but each set is taken over a different spectral interval that gives different weight to the radiation from a different portion of the optical path. Thereby, discrimination is obtained with respect to location along the path. A given radiometric error causes an error in computed temperatures. The ratio between temperature error and radiometric error depends on profile shape, path length, temperature level, and strength of line absorption, and the absorption coefficient and its temperature dependency. These influence the choice of wavelengths, for any given gas. Conditions for minimum temperature error are derived. Numerical results are presented for a two-wavelength measurement on a family of profiles that may be expected in a practical case of hydrogen-oxygen combustion. Under favorable conditions, the fractional error in temperature approximates the fractional error in radiant-flux measurement.

  8. Common but unappreciated sources of error in one, two, and multiple-color pyrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spjut, R. Erik

    1988-01-01

    The most common sources of error in optical pyrometry are examined. They can be classified as either noise and uncertainty errors, stray radiation errors, or speed-of-response errors. Through judicious choice of detectors and optical wavelengths the effect of noise errors can be minimized, but one should strive to determine as many of the system properties as possible. Careful consideration of the optical-collection system can minimize stray radiation errors. Careful consideration must also be given to the slowest elements in a pyrometer when measuring rapid phenomena.

  9. Inverse analysis of non-uniform temperature distributions using multispectral pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Tairan; Duan, Minghao; Tian, Jibin; Shi, Congling

    2016-05-01

    Optical diagnostics can be used to obtain sub-pixel temperature information in remote sensing. A multispectral pyrometry method was developed using multiple spectral radiation intensities to deduce the temperature area distribution in the measurement region. The method transforms a spot multispectral pyrometer with a fixed field of view into a pyrometer with enhanced spatial resolution that can give sub-pixel temperature information from a "one pixel" measurement region. A temperature area fraction function was defined to represent the spatial temperature distribution in the measurement region. The method is illustrated by simulations of a multispectral pyrometer with a spectral range of 8.0-13.0 μm measuring a non-isothermal region with a temperature range of 500-800 K in the spot pyrometer field of view. The inverse algorithm for the sub-pixel temperature distribution (temperature area fractions) in the "one pixel" verifies this multispectral pyrometry method. The results show that an improved Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is effective for this ill-posed inverse problem with relative errors in the temperature area fractions of (-3%, 3%) for most of the temperatures. The analysis provides a valuable reference for the use of spot multispectral pyrometers for sub-pixel temperature distributions in remote sensing measurements.

  10. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.

    2014-10-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ε ~ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ε ~ 0.1–0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity.

  11. High-Speed Imaging Optical Pyrometry for Study of Boron Nitride Nanotube Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Jennifer A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Lee, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    A high-speed imaging optical pyrometry system is designed for making in-situ measurements of boron temperature during the boron nitride nanotube synthesis process. Spectrometer measurements show molten boron emission to be essentially graybody in nature, lacking spectral emission fine structure over the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Camera calibration experiments are performed and compared with theoretical calculations to quantitatively establish the relationship between observed signal intensity and temperature. The one-color pyrometry technique described herein involves measuring temperature based upon the absolute signal intensity observed through a narrowband spectral filter, while the two-color technique uses the ratio of the signals through two spectrally separated filters. The present study calibrated both the one- and two-color techniques at temperatures between 1,173 K and 1,591 K using a pco.dimax HD CMOS-based camera along with three such filters having transmission peaks near 550 nm, 632.8 nm, and 800 nm.

  12. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V.

    2014-10-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ɛ ˜ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ɛ ˜ 0.1-0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity.

  13. Presumed Allergic Proctocolitis Resolves with Probiotic Monotherapy: A Report of 4 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Victoria J.; Shreffler, Wayne G.; Yuan, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patients: — Final Diagnosis: Allergic proctocolitis Symptoms: Hematochezia • fussiness Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The prevalence of allergic diseases has been dramatically rising in the United States and other developed nations over recent decades. Growing evidence suggests a partial role for the microbiome in the development of these allergic diseases. Food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (AP) (also referred to as cow’s milk protein intolerance or allergy) is among the earliest and most common food allergic diseases of infancy, yet its patho physiology is not well understood. The currently accepted clinical practice is to restrict the diet until 12 months of age. Case Reports: We present 4 cases of clinically diagnosed AP whose symptoms quickly and completely resolved with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) monotherapy. All 4 infants avoided any dietary restrictions. The range of time from probiotic initiation to symptom resolution was 7–28 days. Conclusions: These cases suggest an important role for the infant intestinal microbiome in the development of gastrointestinal mucosal food allergies such as AP. Prospective investigation of the intestinal microbiome in infants with AP may further our understanding of this disease’s pathogenesis. The potential use of probiotic monotherapy in the treatment of AP also warrants further investigation. PMID:27568925

  14. Comprehensive Pyrometry of Incandescent Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in the Visible and Near Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Scott Benjamin

    Pyrometry via blackbody radiation is used to measure temperature of systems throughout physics. The spectrum, described by Planck's law, depends solely on the temperature T and surface area A of a black source. However, the derivation of Planck's law considers only the limit where wavelength lambda << L, the linear dimension of the source. Many nanosystems, however, exist in the opposite limit, lambda ≳ L, in the visible and near infrared. We investigate this subwavelength limit of thermal radiation by bringing multi-walled carbon nanotubes, for which r << lambda ≲ L, to incandescence via joule heating. Their light is measured in an optical microscope, and their geometry is measured with a transmission electron microscope. With complete knowledge of the source geometry and the photon emission, a full characterization of the temperature, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity of each nanofilament is possible. We find that the filaments emit highly polarized light with suprablack effective emissivities, indicative of thermal radiation originating in a phase coherent manner from the nanotube's volume as opposed to its surface area, in concordance with classical electromagnetism. Multiwavelength pyrometry is then performed on graphene, which has linear dimensions in the classical blackbody limit and theoretical gray emission. This pyrometry allows us to measure the number of layers in the graphene, a result confirmed with absorption measurements in agreement with Kirchoff's law of thermal radiation. Light emitted from incandescent graphene's bulk is found to be unpolarized, yet exhibits polarization as high as 20% near the sheet edge in accordance with diffraction theory. However, light polarized to 5% is observed originating from the bulk away from the hot region, which we attribute to anisotropy in the temperature gradient. We also find that as temperature of a nanotube and graphene increases, the signal in the near infrared becomes suppressed compared

  15. On the resolvent of multidimensional operators with frequently changing boundary conditions in the case of the homogenized Dirichlet condition

    SciTech Connect

    Sharapov, T F

    2014-10-31

    We consider an elliptic operator in a multidimensional domain with frequently changing boundary conditions in the case when the homogenized operator contains the Dirichlet boundary condition. We prove the uniform resolvent convergence of the perturbed operator to the homogenized operator and obtain estimates for the rate of convergence. A complete asymptotic expansion is constructed for the resolvent when it acts on sufficiently smooth functions. Bibliography: 41 titles.

  16. Presumed Allergic Proctocolitis Resolves with Probiotic Monotherapy: A Report of 4 Cases.

    PubMed

    Martin, Victoria J; Shreffler, Wayne G; Yuan, Qian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence of allergic diseases has been dramatically rising in the United States and other developed nations over recent decades. Growing evidence suggests a partial role for the microbiome in the development of these allergic diseases. Food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (AP) (also referred to as cow's milk protein intolerance or allergy) is among the earliest and most common food allergic diseases of infancy, yet its pathophysiology is not well understood. The currently accepted clinical practice is to restrict the diet until 12 months of age. CASE REPORT We present 4 cases of clinically diagnosed AP whose symptoms quickly and completely resolved with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) monotherapy. All 4 infants avoided any dietary restrictions. The range of time from probiotic initiation to symptom resolution was 7-28 days. CONCLUSIONS These cases suggest an important role for the infant intestinal microbiome in the development of gastrointestinal mucosal food allergies such as AP. Prospective investigation of the intestinal microbiome in infants with AP may further our understanding of this disease's pathogenesis. The potential use of probiotic monotherapy in the treatment of AP also warrants further investigation. PMID:27568925

  17. Sellar Chondroma with Endocrine Dysfunction that Resolved after Surgery: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yujiro; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Nakakuki, Takuya; Takei, Mao; Ishii, Yudo; Teramoto, Akira; Morita, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Chondromas originating from the sella turcica are rare, and the most common initial symptoms are headache and visual disturbance. We describe a case of sellar chondroma with endocrine impairment as an initial manifestation that completely resolved after surgery. A 40-year-old Japanese woman with amenorrhea and galactorrhea for the last 2 years was referred to our department of neurosurgery for the evaluation of high prolactin levels and a tumor in the sella turcica. A biochemical assessment indicated endocrine dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography indicated a tumor in the sella turcica. The patient's presentation favored the preoperative diagnosis of pituitary adenoma or Rathke's cleft cyst. However, because calcification was detected, other types of tumors, such as craniopharyngioma, meningioma, and chordoma, were also considered. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery was performed, and the possibility of a bony tumor was recognized. Finally, the tumor was completely removed, and the histopathological findings confirmed chondroma. The postoperative course was uneventful, and endocrine function improved. Five years after surgery, the patient is doing well without pituitary insufficiency, pituitary hormone medications, or signs of tumor recurrence. In cases of sellar chondroma, endocrine dysfunction sometimes precedes other symptoms, such as headache and visual disturbance. When examining a patient with an intrasellar tumor harboring calcification, clinicians must consider the possibility of sellar chondroma. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this case is the first of sellar chondroma treated with endoscopic surgery to be reported. PMID:26156668

  18. Control of dispersed-phase temperature in plasma flows by the spectral-brightness pyrometry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmatov, A. V.; Gulyaev, I. P.; Gulyaev, P. Yu; Iordan, V. I.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, we propose a new method for measuring the distribution of temperature in the ensembles of condensed-phase particles in plasma spray flows. Interrelation between the spectral temperature of the particles and the distribution of camera brightness signal is revealed. The established inter-relation enables an in-situ calibration of measuring instruments using the objects under study. The spectral-brightness pyrometry method was approbated on a Plazer plasma-arc wire spraying facility at the Paton Institute of Electrical Welding (Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev) and on the Thermoplasma 50-1 powder spraying facility at the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk). The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grants Nos. 14-08-90428 and 15-48-00100).

  19. A3B5 photodiode sensors for low-temperature pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikova, Galina Y.; Aleksandrov, Sergey E.; Gavrilov, Gennadiy A.

    2011-05-01

    Mid-infrared immersion lens photodiodes developed at the Ioffe Institute have high spectral selectivity (λmax/▵λ~0.1...0.15) at different wavelengths -2.9, 3.3, 4.2 and 4.7 microns, the response time (up to 10-9s) and detectivity (D* ~ 109-1011, (cm√Hz)/W) being significantly higher than those of currently known detectors of thermal radiation[1].The analysis of the transfer function of the temperature sensors based on A3B5 photodiodes has shown that they permit implementing the methods of color and two-color pyrometry providing a significant decrease of the methodical error in optical temperature measurements associated with unknown values of object surface emissivity and uncontrollable changes in the environment transmission.

  20. Length of Time to Resolve Criminal Charges of Child Sexual Abuse: A Three-County Case Study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Wendy A; Lippert, Tonya; Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg; Jones, Lisa M

    2015-08-01

    The present study sought to examine the court culture of three Oregon counties and their timelines for resolving felony child sexual abuse cases. Specifically, we examined (a) case outcomes, churning (i.e., the extent to which four court events were rescheduled), the length of time to reach a criminal case resolution, and how this length of time compared to that for felonies generally; (b) whether mandatory minimum sentences affected resolution timeliness; and (c) key stakeholders' perceptions about their local court culture. Data included retrospective case-file abstraction (N = 532) on all felony child sex crimes for a 2-year period and interviews with legal professionals (N = 23). Across all three counties, a minority of child sexual abuse cases (18% to 47%) were resolved within the target timeframe of 4 months. In contrast, most felonies (65% to 77%) were resolved within this timeframe. The rescheduling of trials and the requirement of mandatory minimum sentences for some felony child sexual abuse crimes increased the time until case resolution. Results suggest that court cultures that are hierarchical and cooperative may lead to longer case resolution times than court cultures that are self-managing or autonomous. Implications of these results and other results are discussed. PMID:26206709

  1. Bariatric Bypass Surgery to Resolve Complicated Childhood Morbid Obesity: Case Report Study.

    PubMed

    Elbanna, Abduh; Eldin, Mohammed Tag; Fathy, Mohammad; Osman, Osama; Abdelfattah, Mohammed; Safwat, Abdelrahman; Elkader, Mohammed Sedki Abd; Bilasy, Shymaa E; Salama, Khaled; Elnour, Asim A; Shehab, Abdullah; Baghdady, Shazly; Amer, Mohamed; Alboraie, Mohamed; Ragb, Aly; Abd Elrazek, Abd Elrazek

    2015-12-01

    Children obesity has become one of the most important public health problems in many countries worldwide. Although the awareness of childhood obesity as a modifiable health risk is high, but many societies do not prioritize this issue as a health care problem, which may lead to comorbidities and even premature death. Despite the rising interest in bariatric surgery for children, only laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is being considered in resolving childhood obesity who failed other dietary or drug therapies; however many of LSG procedures failed to reduce the weight in children or resulted in complications postsurgery.Here, we present a novel bariatric procedure to clue out a female child 13 years old presented with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease-associated morbid obesity. The surgical bariatric technique applied both fundal resection and surgical bypass in pediatric obesity using the Elbanna novel bariatric technique.Bariatric surgical bypass may be considered in complicated-childhood cases who failed all other options. PMID:26656361

  2. Unusual case of non-resolving necrotizing pneumonia: A last resort measure for cure.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, Naseem; Baig-Ansari, Naila; Fatimi, Saulat Hasnain

    2016-06-01

    To our knowledge, this is an unusual case of a community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with sepsis secondary to Streptococcus pneumoniae that required lung resection for a non-resolving consolidation. A 74 year old previously healthy woman, presented with acute fever, chills and pleuritic chest pain in Emergency Department (ED). A diagnosis of CAP was established with a Pneumonia Severity Index CURB-65 score of 5/5. In the ER, she was promptly and appropriately managed with antibiotics and aggressive supportive therapy. She remained on ten days of intravenous antibiotics. However, 48 hours post antibiotic course, she returned to ER with fever and signs of sepsis. Despite timely and appropriate management, the consolidated lobe remained the focus of sepsis for over four weeks. The patient recovered after the offending lobe was resected. Histopathology of the lung tissue revealed acute and chronic inflammation. However, no malignancy, bacterial infection or broncho-pleural fistula was found. Eighteen months post-surgery, the patient remains well. PMID:27339583

  3. Psychological Strategies for Resolving Interpersonal Conflicts among Administrators in Tertiary Institutions: A Case of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obi, Joy Sylvia C.; Obineli, Amaka S.

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed at studying the psychological strategies for resolving interpersonal conflict among administrators in Tertiary Institutions with Nnamdi Azikiwe University as the case study. Gaining an understanding of these strategies may assist administrators of educational programs in handling interpersonal conflicts in more constructive and…

  4. Pyrometry in the Multianvil Press: New approach for temperature measurement in large volume press experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanehira, T.; Wang, Y.; Prakapenka, V.; Rivers, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Temperature measurement in large volume press experiments has been based on thermocouple emf, which has well known problems: unknown pressure dependence of emf [e.g., 1], chemical reaction between thermocouple and other materials, deformation related texture development in the thermocouple wires [2], and so on. Thus, different techniques to measure temperatures in large volume press experiments other than thermocouples are required to measure accurate temperatures under high pressures. Here we report a new development using pyrometry in the multianvil press, where temperatures are derived on the basis of spectral radiometry. Several high pressure runs were conducted using the 1000 ton press with a DIA module installed at 13 ID-D GSECARS beamline at Advanced Photon Source (APS) [3]. The cubic pressure medium, 14 mm edge length, was made of soft-fired pyrophyllite with a graphite furnace. A moissanite (SiC) single crystal was built inside the pressure medium as a window for the thermal emission signal to go through. An MgO disk with 1.0 mm thickness was inserted in a gap between the top of the SiC crystal and thermocouple hot junction. The bottom of the window crystal was in direct contact with the tip of the anvil, which had a 1.5 mm diameter hole drilled all the way through the anvil axis. An optical fiber was inserted in this hole and the open end of fiber was in contact with the SiC crystal. Thermal spectral radiance from the inner cell assembly was obtained via the fiber and recorded by an Ocean Optics HP2000 spectrometer. The system response of spectrometer was calibrated by a tungsten ribbon ramp (OL550S, Optronic Laboratories, Inc.) with standard of spectral radiance. The cell assembly was compressed up to target value of 15 tons and then temperature was increased up to 1573 K. Radiation spectra were mainly obtained above 873 K and typical integration time was 1 ms or 10 ms. Data collection was done in the process of increase and decrease of temperature. In

  5. Spontaneously resolving cerebellar syndrome as a sequelae of dengue viral infection: a case series from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Weeratunga, Praveen N; Caldera, H P Manjula C; Gooneratne, I Kishara; Gamage, Ranjanie; Perera, W Sujith P; Ranasinghe, Gayan V; Niraj, Mahboob

    2014-06-01

    Sri Lanka is hyperendemic for dengue viral infection. Dengue has a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations including previously reported Sri Lankan cases with a 6th nerve palsy and a cerebellar syndrome from a co-infection with dengue and Epstein-Barr virus. This series describes a spontaneously resolving cerebellar syndrome following a dengue viral infection. Dengue is potentially an important cause of cerebellar syndromes in countries hyperendemic for the disease; patients need further studies to identify the responsible serotypes. PMID:23840070

  6. RESOLVING NEIGHBORHOOD-SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING: A CASE STUDY IN WILMINGTON, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality modeling is useful for characterizing exposures to air pollutants. While models typically provide results on regional scales, there is a need for refined modeling approaches capable of resolving concentrations on the scale of tens of meters, across modeling domains 1...

  7. Resolving the Dilemma of International School Curriculum: The Case of Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagun, Sila; Corlu, M. Sencer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to explore the predictors of the Diploma Program scores in biology to resolve the dilemma regarding which international school curriculum is better to prepare students for the Diploma Program. A purposive sample of 135 high school students was drawn from a private international school in Turkey. Data was…

  8. Blow-in fracture of the orbital roof presenting as a case of non-resolving choroidal effusion.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bipasha; Bhende, Muna

    2010-01-01

    A 34-year-old male patient was referred to us as a case of non-resolving suprachoroidal hemorrhage. History revealed decrease in right eye vision following trauma to forehead. B scan ultrasonography (USG) of the right eye showed a high-reflective structure indenting the globe. It turned out to be an inferiorly displaced fracture fragment from the orbital roof on computerized tomography (CT) scan. The choroidal elevation disappeared after open reduction of the fracture fragment and patient had good recovery of vision. USG and CT scan were helpful in the diagnosis and management of this case. PMID:20534928

  9. Identifying and discriminating phase transitions along decaying shocks with line imaging Doppler interferometric velocimetry and streaked optical pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast line-imaging velocity interferometer system for any reflector and streaked optical pyrometry are now commonly used to obtain high precision equation of state and electronic transport data under dynamic compression at major high energy density science facilities. We describe a simple way to improve distinguishing phase transformation signatures from other signals when monitoring decaying shock waves. The line-imaging capability of these optical diagnostics offers additional supporting evidence to the assignment of particular anomalies—such as plateaus or reversals—to the occurrence of a phase transition along the Hugoniot. We illustrate the discussion with two example datasets collected during laser driven shock compression of quartz and stishovite.

  10. Report on the multicolor pyrometry session at the Second NASA Non-Contact Temperature-Measurement Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spjut, R. Erik

    1989-01-01

    The session met jointly with the other special sessions. Due to time constraints, the concerns of multicolor pyrometry were not addressed in depth. Multicolor pyrometry attempts to determine an object's temperature and emittance as a function of wavelength from simultaneous measurement of the spectral radiance of the object at multiple wavelengths. The main issues are those of the most appropriate model for the wavelength dependence of the emittance, the number of undetermined parameters, and the error in the measured temperature. It has long been known that it is inappropriate to attempt to model the emittance with a functional form that contains as many unknowns as wavelengths. Such attempts will lead to gross errors in the measured temperature. However, more recent work by Hunter and Khan has indicated that emittance can be modeled by a function with many fewer degrees of freedom than sampled wavelengths (e.g., it may be appropriate to use a second order polynomial to fit data from a forty-color pyrometer). In a platform lecture, Khan described algorithms for determination of the parameters by minimization of the errors between the model and the data in a least-squares sense. The first was a linear method and the second was a non-linear method where the emittance could assume any functional form. Both methods were shown to be very sensitive to random noise and non-linearity in the measurement system.

  11. Resolved Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Following Stent Graft Treatment: A Report of Five Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Rimon, Uri; Garniek, Alexander; Golan, Gil; Bensaid, Paul; Galili, Yair; Schneiderman, Jacob; Morag, Benyamina

    2004-03-15

    Complete aneurysm resolution is the hallmark of successful endoluminal stent-graft treatment. We describe 5 patients in whom an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disappeared completely at mid-term follow-up after endovascular stent-graft placement. We reviewed 45 patients (43 men and 2 women) who underwent AAA repair using an endovascular technique, from April 1997 to December 2001. Mean AAA diameter was 58.3 mm. On 48-month follow-up, 12 aneurysms had not changed in size, 4 had grown, 16 had shrunk, and 5 had resolved completely. We describe these 5 patients in detail. The 5 patients were all men, mean age 68 years; their mean aneurysmal sac diameter was 54 mm. The only common finding in all of them was patency of lumbar and inferior mesenteric arteries at pre-procedure evaluation as well as at follow-up. Mean time to complete resolution was 18 months. No major complications were encountered. AAA may resolve completely after endovascular stent-graft implantation. Patent side branches may perhaps contribute to AAA disappearance by antegrade flow. A larger patient population should be reviewed, however, before any statistical conclusion can be drawn.

  12. Resolving phylogenetic incongruence to articulate homology and phenotypic evolution: a case study from Nematoda.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, Erik J; Baldwin, James G

    2010-05-01

    Modern morphology-based systematics, including questions of incongruence with molecular data, emphasizes analysis over similarity criteria to assess homology. Yet detailed examination of a few key characters, using new tools and processes such as computerized, three-dimensional ultrastructural reconstruction of cell complexes, can resolve apparent incongruence by re-examining primary homologies. In nematodes of Tylenchomorpha, a parasitic feeding phenotype is thus reconciled with immediate free-living outgroups. Closer inspection of morphology reveals phenotypes congruent with molecular-based phylogeny and points to a new locus of homology in mouthparts. In nematode models, the study of individually homologous cells reveals a conserved modality of evolution among dissimilar feeding apparati adapted to divergent lifestyles. Conservatism of cellular components, consistent with that of other body systems, allows meaningful comparative morphology in difficult groups of microscopic organisms. The advent of phylogenomics is synergistic with morphology in systematics, providing an honest test of homology in the evolution of phenotype. PMID:20106846

  13. Resolving disputes under the Americans with Disabilities Act. A case example of an employee with a back impairment.

    PubMed

    Blanck, P D

    1995-04-01

    To illustrate the importance of proactive medical professional participation in Americans with Disabilities Act reasonable accommodation cases, this article describes the use of alternative dispute resolution techniques to resolve a case involving a blue collar employee with a work-related lower back injury. The problems in accommodating employees with back and spine injuries are being experienced by many employers. To date, the largest number of discrimination claims filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission under the Americans with Disabilities Act involve individuals with back and spine impairments. This article identifies eight decision-points in the Americans with Disabilities Act accommodation process that are relevant to employers, persons with disabilities, medical professionals, union representatives, and legal counsel. PMID:7701403

  14. Microscale Obstacle Resolving Air Quality Model Evaluation with the Michelstadt Case

    PubMed Central

    Rakai, Anikó; Kristóf, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Modelling pollutant dispersion in cities is challenging for air quality models as the urban obstacles have an important effect on the flow field and thus the dispersion. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models with an additional scalar dispersion transport equation are a possible way to resolve the flowfield in the urban canopy and model dispersion taking into consideration the effect of the buildings explicitly. These models need detailed evaluation with the method of verification and validation to gain confidence in their reliability and use them as a regulatory purpose tool in complex urban geometries. This paper shows the performance of an open source general purpose CFD code, OpenFOAM for a complex urban geometry, Michelstadt, which has both flow field and dispersion measurement data. Continuous release dispersion results are discussed to show the strengths and weaknesses of the modelling approach, focusing on the value of the turbulent Schmidt number, which was found to give best statistical metric results with a value of 0.7. PMID:24027450

  15. Microscale obstacle resolving air quality model evaluation with the Michelstadt case.

    PubMed

    Rakai, Anikó; Kristóf, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Modelling pollutant dispersion in cities is challenging for air quality models as the urban obstacles have an important effect on the flow field and thus the dispersion. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models with an additional scalar dispersion transport equation are a possible way to resolve the flowfield in the urban canopy and model dispersion taking into consideration the effect of the buildings explicitly. These models need detailed evaluation with the method of verification and validation to gain confidence in their reliability and use them as a regulatory purpose tool in complex urban geometries. This paper shows the performance of an open source general purpose CFD code, OpenFOAM for a complex urban geometry, Michelstadt, which has both flow field and dispersion measurement data. Continuous release dispersion results are discussed to show the strengths and weaknesses of the modelling approach, focusing on the value of the turbulent Schmidt number, which was found to give best statistical metric results with a value of 0.7. PMID:24027450

  16. Childhood onset vulvar lichen sclerosus does not resolve at puberty: a prospective case series.

    PubMed

    Smith, Saxon D; Fischer, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    When vulvar lichen sclerosus occurs in prepubertal children it is widely believed that it is likely to remit at puberty. However when it occurs in adult women it is accepted that remission is unlikely and that in addition untreated or inadequately treated disease may be complicated by significant disturbance of vulvar architecture and less commonly squamous cell carcinoma. Our database reveals 18 girls who developed lichen sclerosus prior to puberty who are now adolescents or young adults. Twelve have remained under surveillance and the other six patients have been lost to follow-up. We report a prospective series of these 12 patients. Three patients have achieved complete remission sustained for three or more years, all prior to menarche. Nine patients, or 75% of the cohort, who still had active lichen sclerosus at puberty continue to require maintenance therapy after menarche. Of the 12, six have had significant disturbance of vulvar architecture. The concept that prepubertal lichen sclerosus resolves at puberty would appear not to be true in the majority of patients. Even when diagnosed early and treated effectively, childhood onset lichen sclerosus may be complicated by distortion of vulvar architecture. PMID:20199450

  17. Mycobacterium avium complex olecranon bursitis resolves without antimicrobials or surgical intervention: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Working, Selene; Tyser, Andrew; Levy, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nontuberculous mycobacteria are an uncommon cause of septic olecranon bursitis, though cases have increasingly been described in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Guidelines recommend a combination of surgical resection and antimicrobials for treatment. This case is the first reported case of nontuberculous mycobacterial olecranon bursitis that resolved without medical or surgical intervention. Case presentation A 67-year-old female developed a painless, fluctuant swelling of the olecranon bursa following blunt trauma to the elbow. Due to persistent bursal swelling, she underwent three separate therapeutic bursal aspirations, two involving intrabursal steroid injection. After the third aspiration, the bursa became erythematous and severely swollen, and bursal fluid grew Mycobacterium avium complex. Triple-drug antimycobacterial therapy was initiated, but discontinued abruptly due to a rash. Surgery was not performed. The patient was observed off antimicrobials, and gradually clinically improved with a compressive dressing. By 14 months after initial presentation, clinical exam revealed complete resolution of the previously erythematous bursal mass. Discussion This is the first reported case of nontuberculous mycobacterial olecranon bursitis managed successfully without surgery or antimicrobials. Musculoskeletal nontuberculous mycobacterial infections are challenging given the lack of clinical data about optimal duration and choice of antimicrobials or the role of surgery. Additionally, the potential toxicity and drug interactions of antimycobacterials are not insignificant and warrant close monitoring if treatment is pursued. Conclusion This case raises an important clinical question of whether close observation off antimicrobials is appropriate in select cases of immunocompetent patients with localized atypical mycobacterial disease of soft tissue and skeletal structures. PMID:26793457

  18. Case Study: Psychiatric Misdiagnosis of Non-24-Hours Sleep-Wake Schedule Disorder Resolved by Melatonin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagan, Yaron; Ayalon, Liat

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes a 14-year-old male suffering from significant academic and personal difficulties, who has been diagnosed with depression, schizotypal personality disorder, and learning disabilities. Because of excessive sleepiness, assessment for a potential sleep disorder was performed. An overnight polysomnographic study revealed no…

  19. Long-term treatment of a breastfeeding mother with fluconazole-resolved nipple pain caused by yeast: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bodley, V; Powers, D

    1997-12-01

    This case follows a breastfeeding mother with cracked nipples undergoing antibiotic treatment (dicloxacillin) for mastitis. Nipple candidiasis also presented with burning, stinging pain radiating from the nipples into the breast, lasting throughout feedings and beyond. Over a 7-week period, the asymptomatic infant was treated with the oral antifungal, nystatin. After other antifungal treatment regimens (oral nystatin, tristatin ointment) had been deemed unsuccessful for the mother, the physician prescribed fluconazole (200 mg loading dose plus 100 mg/day for 15 days) which reduced, but did not eliminate, the nipple yeast and accompanying pain. Fluconazole was continued for an additional 30 days (200 mg/day) for a total of 6 weeks of treatment with this medication. Concurrently, a topical yeast medication (tristatin ointment) was used for a total of 8 weeks on the nipples/areola, after which the overt pain was resolved. Although the mastitis resolved after 1 week, the cracked nipples did not completely heal for several months. During the initial 3 weeks of treatment, neither over-the-counter pain medication nor acetaminophen with codeine relieved this mother's pain. Hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen (10/650 mg/tablet) (Lorcet) offered the pain relief necessary for this mother to continue to breastfeed. PMID:9429366

  20. Measuring star formation with resolved observations: the test case of M 33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boquien, M.; Calzetti, D.; Aalto, S.; Boselli, A.; Braine, J.; Buat, V.; Combes, F.; Israel, F.; Kramer, C.; Lord, S.; Relaño, M.; Rosolowsky, E.; Stacey, G.; Tabatabaei, F.; van der Tak, F.; van der Werf, P.; Verley, S.; Xilouris, M.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Measuring star formation on a local scale is important to constrain star formation laws. It is not clear yet, however, whether and how the measure of star formation is affected by the spatial scale at which a galaxy is observed. Aims: We wish to understand the impact of the resolution on the determination of the spatially resolved star formation rate (SFR) and other directly associated physical parameters such as the attenuation. Methods: We carried out a multi-scale, pixel-by-pixel study of the nearby galaxy M 33. Assembling FUV, Hα, 8 μm, 24 μm, 70 μm, and 100 μm maps, we have systematically compared the emission in individual bands with various SFR estimators from a resolution of 33 pc to 2084 pc. Results: There are strong, scale-dependent, discrepancies of up to a factor 3 between monochromatic SFR estimators and Hα+24 μm. The scaling factors between individual IR bands and the SFR show a strong dependence on the spatial scale and on the intensity of star formation. Finally, strong variations of the differential reddening between the nebular emission and the stellar continuum are seen, depending on the specific SFR (sSFR) and on the resolution. At the finest spatial scales, there is little differential reddening at high sSFR. The differential reddening increases with decreasing sSFR. At the coarsest spatial scales the differential reddening is compatible with the canonical value found for starburst galaxies. Conclusions: Our results confirm that monochromatic estimators of the SFR are unreliable at scales smaller than 1 kpc. Furthermore, the extension of local calibrations to high-redshift galaxies presents non-trivial challenges because the properties of these systems may be poorly known. The maps (FITS files) and the data cube used in this article are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A8

  1. Gradient effects on two-color soot optical pyrometry in a heavy-duty DI diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark P.B.; Singh, Satbir; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2008-04-15

    Two-color soot optical pyrometry is a widely used technique for measuring soot temperature and volume fraction in many practical combustion devices, but line-of-sight soot temperature and volume fraction gradients can introduce significant uncertainties in the measurements. For diesel engines, these uncertainties usually can only be estimated based on assumptions about the soot property gradients along the line of sight, because full three-dimensional transient diesel soot distribution data are not available. Such information is available, however, from multidimensional computer model simulations, which are phenomenologically based, and have been validated against available in-cylinder soot measurements and diesel engine exhaust soot emissions. Using the model-predicted in-cylinder soot distributions, uncertainties in diesel two-color pyrometry data are assessed, both for a conventional high-sooting, high-temperature combustion (HTC) operating condition, and for a low-sooting, low-temperature combustion (LTC) condition. The simulation results confirm that the two-color soot measurements are strongly biased toward the properties of the hot soot. For the HTC condition, line-of-sight gradients in soot temperature span 600 K, causing relatively large errors. The two-color temperature is 200 K higher than the soot-mass-averaged value, while the two-color volume fraction is 50% lower. For the LTC condition, the two-color measurement errors are half as large as for the HTC condition, because the model-predicted soot temperature gradients along the line of sight are half as large. By contrast, soot temperature and volume fraction gradients across the field of view introduce much smaller errors of less than 50 K in temperature and 20% in volume fraction. (author)

  2. Analysis of multi-band pyrometry for emissivity and temperature measurements of gray surfaces at ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, António

    2016-05-01

    A multi-band pyrometry model is developed to evaluate the potential of measuring temperature and emissivity of assumably gray target surfaces at 300 K. Twelve wavelength bands between 2 and 60 μm are selected to define the spectral characteristics of the pyrometers. The pyrometers are surrounded by an enclosure with known background temperature. Multi-band pyrometry modeling results in an overdetermined system of equations, in which the solution for temperature and emissivity is obtained through an optimization procedure that minimizes the sum of the squared residuals of each system equation. The Monte Carlo technique is applied to estimate the uncertainties of temperature and emissivity, resulting from the propagation of the uncertainties of the pyrometers. Maximum reduction in temperature uncertainty is obtained from dual-band to tri-band systems, a small reduction is obtained from tri-band to quad-band, with a negligible reduction above quad-band systems (a reduction between 6.5% and 12.9% is obtained from dual-band to quad-band systems). However, increasing the number of bands does not always reduce uncertainty, and uncertainty reduction depends on the specific band arrangement, indicating the importance of choosing the most appropriate multi-band spectral arrangement if uncertainty is to be reduced. A reduction in emissivity uncertainty is achieved when the number of spectral bands is increased (a reduction between 6.3% and 12.1% is obtained from dual-band to penta-band systems). Besides, emissivity uncertainty increases for pyrometers with high wavelength spectral arrangements. Temperature and emissivity uncertainties are strongly dependent on the difference between target and background temperatures: uncertainties are low when the background temperature is far from the target temperature, tending to very high values as the background temperature approaches the target temperature.

  3. An Interesting Case of Non-Resolving Hepatogastric Fistula – An Unseen Cause

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Sunil V; Gambhire, Pravir A; Jain, Samit S; Rathi, Pravin M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic tuberculosis presents one of the rare forms of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. It is usually secondary to infection in the lung or the gut. Tuberculous liver abscess is the rarer manifestation even in endemic areas of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Hepatogastric fistula secondary to tuberculous liver abscess has never been reported in literature. We herein report a case of a disseminated tuberculous liver abscess complicated by hepatogastric fistula, which posed a considerable diagnostic challenge. It was treated successfully with anti tubercular drugs. Liver abscess with atypical features and non responsive to antibiotics should raise the suspicious of tuberculosis or fungal infections. PMID:27042532

  4. Artifacts in time-resolved NUS: A case study of NOE build-up curves from 2D NOESY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dass, Rupashree; Kasprzak, Paweł; Koźmiński, Wiktor; Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Multidimensional NMR spectroscopy requires time-consuming sampling of indirect dimensions and so is usually used to study stable samples. However, dynamically changing compounds or their mixtures commonly occur in problems of natural science. Monitoring them requires the use multidimensional NMR in a time-resolved manner - in other words, a series of quick spectra must be acquired at different points in time. Among the many solutions that have been proposed to achieve this goal, time-resolved non-uniform sampling (TR-NUS) is one of the simplest. In a TR-NUS experiment, the signal is sampled using a shuffled random schedule and then divided into overlapping subsets. These subsets are then processed using one of the NUS reconstruction methods, for example compressed sensing (CS). The resulting stack of spectra forms a temporal "pseudo-dimension" that shows the changes caused by the process occurring in the sample. CS enables the use of small subsets of data, which minimizes the averaging of the effects studied. Yet, even within these limited timeframes, the sample undergoes certain changes. In this paper we discuss the effect of varying signal amplitude in a TR-NUS experiment. Our theoretical calculations show that the variations within the subsets lead to t1 -noise, which is dependent on the rate of change of the signal amplitude. We verify these predictions experimentally. As a model case we choose a novel 2D TR-NOESY experiment in which mixing time is varied in parallel with shuffled NUS in the indirect dimension. The experiment, performed on a sample of strychnine, provides a near-continuous NOE build-up curve, whose shape closely reflects the t1 -noise level. 2D TR-NOESY reduces the measurement time compared to the conventional approach and makes it possible to verify the theoretical predictions about signal variations during TR-NUS.

  5. Artifacts in time-resolved NUS: A case study of NOE build-up curves from 2D NOESY.

    PubMed

    Dass, Rupashree; Kasprzak, Paweł; Koźmiński, Wiktor; Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Multidimensional NMR spectroscopy requires time-consuming sampling of indirect dimensions and so is usually used to study stable samples. However, dynamically changing compounds or their mixtures commonly occur in problems of natural science. Monitoring them requires the use multidimensional NMR in a time-resolved manner - in other words, a series of quick spectra must be acquired at different points in time. Among the many solutions that have been proposed to achieve this goal, time-resolved non-uniform sampling (TR-NUS) is one of the simplest. In a TR-NUS experiment, the signal is sampled using a shuffled random schedule and then divided into overlapping subsets. These subsets are then processed using one of the NUS reconstruction methods, for example compressed sensing (CS). The resulting stack of spectra forms a temporal "pseudo-dimension" that shows the changes caused by the process occurring in the sample. CS enables the use of small subsets of data, which minimizes the averaging of the effects studied. Yet, even within these limited timeframes, the sample undergoes certain changes. In this paper we discuss the effect of varying signal amplitude in a TR-NUS experiment. Our theoretical calculations show that the variations within the subsets lead to t1-noise, which is dependent on the rate of change of the signal amplitude. We verify these predictions experimentally. As a model case we choose a novel 2D TR-NOESY experiment in which mixing time is varied in parallel with shuffled NUS in the indirect dimension. The experiment, performed on a sample of strychnine, provides a near-continuous NOE build-up curve, whose shape closely reflects the t1-noise level. 2D TR-NOESY reduces the measurement time compared to the conventional approach and makes it possible to verify the theoretical predictions about signal variations during TR-NUS. PMID:26896866

  6. A challenge and an opportunity for medical regulators--considering the public's interests in cases using ADR to resolve disputes about physicians' practices: a Canadian analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Lorraine E

    2002-01-01

    Disputes between patients or their families and the patient's treating physician are not uncommon. While many of these disputes are resolved by the disputants alone or informally with others, many are resolved through formal adjudication processes of court litigation or through processes of medical regulators. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) options either within the courts or within regulatory bodies are becoming more popular as decision-makers realize the benefits to using these options in appropriate cases. ADR offers both opportunities for advancing our appropriate dealings of these disputes and challenges in terms of ensuring that the public's interests are met. This article examines the public's interests in cases using mediation to resolve disputes about physician's practices from a Canadian perspective. The article concludes with recommendations to protect the public interests and to respect the rights of disputants. PMID:12017437

  7. A Risperidone-Induced Prolactinoma Resolved when a Woman with Schizoaffective Disorder Switched to Ziprasidone: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Arcari, Gail T.; Mendes, Asante K.

    2012-01-01

    Antipsychotic drug therapy, e.g., risperidone, can be associated with endocrine abnormalities, including an increase in serum prolactin level (sPrl) due to a drug-induced benign pituitary tumor (prolactinoma). A few case reports have noted a resolution of hyperprolactinemia and prolactinoma after cessation of risperidone treatment. We report a similar finding for a woman with schizoaffective disorder, manic type. Due to a neurological disorder involving the tongue (tardive dyskinesia), a woman with schizoaffective disorder switched from 50mg thioridazine after 21 years to 2mg of risperidone at bedtime for 10 years. Elevated sPrl was noted in June and August 2005 (83.8 and 100.1µg/L; normal: 3.4–24.1µg/L) and a cranial magnetic resonance imaging scan showed evidence of a small area of decreased signal in the pituitary gland consistent with a microadenoma. The subject transitioned slowly to ziprasidone and off risperidone in October and November of 2005. The prolactinoma completely resolved with the switch to ziprasidone. It is recommended that sPrl be measured annually in patients taking antipsychotic drugs to test for any indication of pituitary prolactinoma that could suggest the need to switch the primary treatment to another drug. PMID:23074699

  8. The case for establishing a board of review for resolving environmental issues: The science court in Canada.

    PubMed

    Giesy, John P; Solomon, Keith R; Kacew, Sam; Mackay, Donald; Stobo, Gerald; Kennedy, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Technology and scientific advancements are accelerating changes in society at a pace that is challenging the abilities of government regulatory agencies and legal courts to understand the benefits and costs of these changes to humans, wildlife, and their environments. The social, economic, and political facets of concern, such as the potential effects of chemicals, complicate the preparation of regulatory standards and practices intended to safeguard the public. Court judges and attorneys and, in some cases, lay juries are tasked with interpreting the data and implications underlying these new advancements, often without the technical background necessary to understand complex subjects and subsequently make informed decisions. Here, we describe the scientific-quasi-judicial process adopted in Canada under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, which could serve as a model for resolving conflicts between regulatory agencies and the regulated community. An example and process and lessons learned from the first Board of Review, which was for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5; CAS# 541-02-06), are provided. Notable among these lessons are: 1) the need to apply state-of-the-science insights into the regulatory process, 2) to encourage agencies to continuously review and update their assessment processes, criteria, and models, and 3) provide these processes in guidance documents that are transparent and available to all stakeholders and generally foster closer cooperation between regulators, the academic community, industry, and nongovernment organizations (NGOs). Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:572-579. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26460810

  9. Statin Intolerance Because of Myalgia, Myositis, Myopathy, or Myonecrosis Can in Most Cases be Safely Resolved by Vitamin D Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Khayznikov, Maksim; Hemachrandra, Kallish; Pandit, Ramesh; Kumar, Ashwin; Wang, Ping; Glueck, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    D can be safely resolved by vitamin D supplementation (50,000-100,000 units /week) in most cases (88-95%). PMID:25838999

  10. Comparisons of Gas-phase Temperature Measurements in a Flame Using Thin-Filament Pyrometry and Thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter; Dietrich, Daniel; Valentine, Russell; Feier, Ioan

    2003-01-01

    Less-intrusive, fast-responding, and full-field temperature measurements have long been a desired tool for the research community. Recently, the emission of a silicon-carbide (SiC) fiber placed in a flowing hot (or reacting) gas has been used to measure the temperature profile along the length of the fiber. The relationship between the gas and fiber temperature comes from an energy balance on the fiber. In the present work, we compared single point flame temperature measurements using thin-filament pyrometry (TFP) and thermocouples. The data was from vertically traversing a thermocouple and a SiC fiber through a methanol/air diffusion flame of a porous-metal wick burner. The results showed that the gas temperature using the TFP technique agreed with the thermocouple measurements (25.4 m diameter wire) within 3.5% for temperatures above 1200 K. Additionally, we imaged the entire SiC fiber (with a spatial resolution of 0.14 mm) while it was in the flame using a high resolution CCD camera. The intensity level along the fiber length is a function of the temperature. This results in a one-dimensional temperature profiles at various heights above the burner wick. This temperature measurement technique, while having a precision of less than 1 K, showed data scatter as high as 38 K. Finally, we discuss the major sources of uncertainty in gas temperature measurement using TFP.

  11. Streaked optical pyrometry of ion heated compound targets in the study of plasma mix at high density interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, Gilliss; Roycroft, Rebecca; Wagner, Craig; Bernstein, Aaron; Ditmire, Todd; Hegelich, B. Manuel; Albright, Brian; Fernández, Juan; Bang, Woosuk; Bradley, Paul; Gautier, D. Cort; Hamilton, Christopher; Palaniyappan, Sasi; Santiago Cordoba, Miguel; Vold, Erik; Lin, Yin

    2015-11-01

    The interaction and mixing of different species of plasma at high energy density is of fundamental interest for HED physics and relevant to inertial confinement fusion. An ongoing campaign is underway at the Trident laser facility to study the dynamics at the interface of high and low atomic number materials under warm dense matter conditions. The experiments utilize laser-accelerated ions, such as aluminum, to flash heat solid targets to temperatures >1 eV. We report on streaked pyrometry measurements made in a recent experimental run, which shed light on the dynamics of heating induced in various target materials by these ion sources. Timescale as well as spatial extent of the heating can vary greatly depending on the dominant ion species and spectra. This work was supported by NNSA cooperative agreement DE-NA0002008 and the Los Alamos National Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program under the auspices of the U.S. DOE NNSAS, LLC, Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-06.

  12. Determination of char combustion kinetics parameters: Comparison of point detector and imaging-based particle-sizing pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiemann, Martin; Geier, Manfred; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Vorobiev, Nikita; Scherer, Viktor

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the char burnout characteristics of two German coals (a lignite and a high-volatile bituminous coal) were investigated using two different experimental configurations and optical techniques in two distinct laboratories for measurement of temperature and size of burning particles. The optical diagnostic hardware is quite different in the two systems, but both perform two-color pyrometry and optical sizing measurements on individual particles burning in isolation from each other in high-temperature laminar flows to characterize the char consumption kinetics. The performance of the specialized systems is compared for two different combustion atmospheres (with 6.6 and 12 vol.% O2) and gas temperatures between 1700 and 1800 K. The measured particle temperatures and diameters are converted to char burning rate parameters for several residence times during the course of the particles' burnout. The results confirm that comparable results are obtained with the two configurations, although higher levels of variability in the measured data were observed in the imaging-based pyrometer setup. Corresponding uncertainties in kinetics parameters were larger, and appear to be more sensitive to systematic measurement errors when lower oxygen contents are used in the experiments. Consequently, burnout experiments in environments with sufficiently high O2 contents may be used to measure reliable char burning kinetics rates. Based on simulation results for the two coals, O2 concentrations in the range 10%-30% are recommended for kinetic rate measurements on 100 μm particles.

  13. Two cases of malignant lymphoma with reactivation of resolved hepatitis B virus infection after bendamustine hydrochloride monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hiraki, Yoshiki; Kawano, Akira; Shigematsu, Hirohisa; Miki, Koichiro; Nomura, Hideyuki; Shimoda, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    A 63-year-old female and a 63-year-old male with resolved HBV infection suffered a relapse of malignant lymphoma. After bendamustine hydrochloride monotherapy, HBV reactivation occurred. Entecavir treatment was commenced immediately, with tests for HBV DNA negative without development of hepatitis. Regular monitoring of HBV DNA based on the guidelines from the Japan Society of Hepatology was useful. PMID:27593368

  14. Time-resolved CIDEP study of the photogenerated camphorquinone radical anion: a case of dual singlet and triplet precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Depew, M.C.; Wan, J.K.S.

    1986-12-04

    Photoreduction of camphorquinone in 2-propanol produced electron spin polarized camphorquinone radical anions. The time-resolved electron spin resonance spectra of the spin-polarized radical anions provided the first evidence of dual singlet and triplet precursors in the CIDEP phenomenon. With the results from fluorescence quenching experiments, the time dependence of the CIDEP spectra can be accounted for qualitatively by the changes of the relative contributions to the polarization among the singlet pair, F and triplet pairs, and the triplet mechanisms.

  15. (U) Implementation and demonstration of a time-resolved pyrometry/spectroscopy capability in shock compression experiments on metal oxide powders

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, Peter Marvin; Lang, Jr., John Michael; Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw; Scharff, Robert Jason

    2015-04-08

    Temperature is notably the most difficult quantity to measure in shock compression experiments; however, it is critical for accurately constraining theoretical or tabular equations of state. Until now, the temperature achieved during the shock loading of porous materials could only be calculated. The technique presented in this report measures, for the first time, the shocked temperature of porous systems.

  16. Single-crystal sapphire tubes as economical probes for optical pyrometry in harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, Jakub; Houzvicka, Jindrich; Bok, Jiri; Praus, Petr; Mojzes, Peter

    2011-12-20

    One-end-sealed single-crystal sapphire tubes are presented as a simple, robust, and economical alternative for bulky lightpipe probes. Thermal radiation from a blackbody cavity created at the inner surface of the sealed end is gathered by a simple lens-based collecting system and transmitted via optical fiber to the remote detection unit. Simplicity and applicability of the concept are demonstrated by the combination of commercially available sapphire tubes with a common optical pyrometer. Radiation thermometers with sapphire tubes as invasive probes can be useful for applications requiring immunity to electromagnetic interference, resistance to harsh environments, simple replacement in the case of failure, and enhanced mechanical firmness, enabling wider range probe positioning inside the medium of interest.

  17. Resolving Rupture Directivity of Moderate Strike-Slip Earthquakes in Sparse Network with Ambient Noise Location: A Case Study with the 2011 M5.6 Oklahoma Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X.; Ni, S.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake rupture directivity is essential for improving reliability of shakemap and understanding seismogenic processes by resolving the ruptured fault. Compared with field geological survey and InSAR technique, rupture directivity analysis based on seismological data provides rapid characterization of the rupture finiteness parameters or is almost the only way for resolving ruptured fault for earthquakes weaker than M5. In recent years, ambient seismic noise has been widely used in tomography and as well as earthquake location. Barmin et al. (2011) and Levshin et al. (2012) proposed to locate the epicenter by interpolating the estimated Green's functions (EGFs) determined by cross-correlation of ambient noise to arbitrary hypothetical event locations. This method does not rely on an earth model, but it requires a dense local array. Zhan et al. (2011) and Zeng et al. (2014) used the EGFs between a nearby station and remote stations as calibration for 3D velocity structure and then obtained the centroid location. In contrast, the hypocenter can be determined by P wave onsets. When assuming unilateral rupture, we can resolve the rupture directivity with relative location of the centroid location and hypocenter. We apply this method to the 2011 M5.6 Oklahoma earthquake. One M4.8 foreshock and one M4+ aftershock are chosen as reference event to calibrate the systematic bias of ambient noise location. The resolved rupture plane strikes southwest-northeast, consistent with the spatial distribution of aftershocks (McNamara et al., 2015) and finite fault inversion result (Sun et al., 2014). This method works for unilaterally ruptured strike-slip earthquakes, and more case studies are needed to test its effectiveness.

  18. Size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei concentration measurements in the Arctic: two case studies from the summer of 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zábori, J.; Rastak, N.; Yoon, Y. J.; Riipinen, I.; Ström, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is one of the most vulnerable regions affected by climate change. Extensive measurement data are needed to understand the atmospheric processes governing this vulnerability. Among these, data describing cloud formation potential are of particular interest, since the indirect effect of aerosols on the climate system is still poorly understood. In this paper we present, for the first time, size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) data obtained in the Arctic. The measurements were conducted during two periods in the summer of 2008: one in June and one in August, at the Zeppelin research station (78°54´ N, 11°53´ E) in Svalbard. Trajectory analysis indicates that during the measurement period in June 2008, air masses predominantly originated from the Arctic, whereas the measurements from August 2008 were influenced by mid-latitude air masses. CCN supersaturation (SS) spectra obtained on the 27 June, before size-resolved measurements were begun, and spectra from the 21 and 24 August, conducted before and after the measurement period, revealed similarities between the 2 months. From the ratio between CCN concentration and the total particle number concentration (CN) as a function of dry particle diameter (Dp) at a SS of 0.4 %, the activation diameter (D50), corresponding to CCN / CN = 0.50, was estimated. D50 was found to be 60 and 67 nm for the examined periods in June and August 2008, respectively. Corresponding D50 hygroscopicity parameter (κ) values were estimated to be 0.4 and 0.3 for June and August 2008, respectively. These values can be compared to hygroscopicity values estimated from bulk chemical composition, where κ was calculated to be 0.5 for both June and August 2008. While the agreement between the 2 months is reasonable, the difference in κ between the different methods indicates a size dependence in the particle composition, which is likely explained by a higher fraction of inorganics in the bulk aerosol samples.

  19. Aerosol size-resolved trace metal composition in remote northern tropical Atlantic marine environment: case study Cape Verde islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomba, K. W.; Müller, K.; van Pinxteren, D.; Herrmann, H.

    2013-05-01

    Size-resolved trace metal concentrations of 15 elements in aerosol particles at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) under remote background conditions were investigated through analysis of aerosol samples collected during intensive field studies from January 2007 to November 2011 using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The identification of the main air mass origin that influence remote marine aerosol in the northern tropical Atlantic has been investigated. In total, 317 samples were collected. The dataset was analyzed according to the main air mass inflow at the station. We found that remote conditions make up about 45% of the meteorological conditions in a year at CVAO and thus the northern tropical Atlantic. Surprisingly, air masses from North America are often responsible for higher trace metal concentrations in this region. Elements such as Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, and V were mostly found in the submicron size fractions, while elements with dominant crustal or oceanic origin such as Fe, Ti, Mn, Sr, and Rb were found in the coarse fractions (>1 μm). The highest metal concentrations, especially for Zn (3.23 ng m-3), Cu (0.81 ng m-3), Sr (2.63 ng m-3), and Cr (0.53 ng m-3), were observed in air masses originating from North America and the concentrations were within the same concentration range to those reported previously in the literature for remote marine aerosols. Fe (12.26 ng m-3), Ti (0.91 ng m-3), and Mn (0.35 ng m-3) showed higher concentrations when air mass came from Europe and the Canary Islands. Pb concentration was low (<0.20 ng m-3) and did not vary significantly with air mass direction. The low Pb concentration is indicative of the complete phase-out of leaded gasoline even in African countries. Crustal enrichment factor values decreased from fine to coarse-mode particles with low values (<4) observed for Fe, Mn, and Rb, and high values (>20) for Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Se. The observed enrichment of the elements was attributed to

  20. Aerosol size-resolved trace metal composition in remote northern tropical Atlantic marine environment: case study Cape Verde Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomba, K. W.; Müller, K.; van Pinxteren, D.; Herrmann, H.

    2012-11-01

    Size-resolved trace metal concentrations of 15 elements in aerosol particles at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) under remote background conditions were investigated through analysis of aerosol samples collected during intensive field studies from January 2007 to November 2011 using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The identification of the main air mass origin that influence remote marine aerosol in the northern tropical Atlantic has been investigated. In total 317 samples were collected. The dataset was analyzed according to the main air mass inflow at the station. We found that remote conditions make up about 45% of the meteorological conditions in a year at CVAO and thus the northern tropical Atlantic. Surprisingly, air masses from North America are often responsible for higher trace metal concentrations in this region. Elements such as Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, and V were mostly found in the submicron size fractions while elements with dominant crustal or oceanic origin such as Fe, Ti, Mn, Sr, and Rb, were found in the coarse fractions (>1 μm). The highest metal concentrations especially for Zn (3.23 ng m-3), Cu (0.81 ng m-3), Sr (2.63 ng m-3), and Cr (0.53 ng mm-3), were observed in air masses originating from North America and the concentrations were within the same concentration range to those reported previously in the literature for remote marine aerosols. Fe (12.26 ng m-3), Ti (0.91 ng m-3) and Mn (0.35 ng m-3) showed higher concentrations when air mass came from Europe and the Canary Islands. Pb concentration was low (< 0.20 ng m-3) and did not vary significantly with air mass direction. The low Pb concentration is indicative of the complete phased out of leaded gasoline even in African countries. Crustal enrichment factor values decreased from fine to coarse mode particles with low values (< 4) observed for Fe, Mn, and Rb and high values (> 20) for Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Se. The observed enrichment of the elements was attributed to

  1. Combined x-ray scattering, radiography, and velocity interferometry/streaked optical pyrometry measurements of warm dense carbon using a novel technique of shock-and-release

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, K.; Collins, L. A.; Kagan, G.; Kress, J. D.; Montgomery, D. S.; Srinivasan, B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Tzeferacos, P.; Benage, J. F.

    2014-05-15

    This work focused on a new application of the shock-and-release technique for equation of state (EOS) measurements. Warm dense matter states at near normal solid density and at temperatures close to 10 eV in diamond and graphite samples were created using a deep release from a laser-driven shock at the OMEGA laser facility. Independent temperature, density, and pressure measurements that do not depend on any theoretical models or simulations were obtained using imaging x-ray Thomson scattering, radiography, velocity interferometry, and streaked optical pyrometry. The experimental results were reproduced by the 2-D FLASH radiation hydrodynamics simulations finding a good agreement. The final EOS measurement was then compared with widely used SESAME EOS models as well as quantum molecular dynamics simulation results for carbon, which were very consistent with the experimental data.

  2. Resolving the High-energy Universe with Strong Gravitational Lensing: The Case of PKS 1830-211

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnacka, Anna; Geller, Margaret J.; Dell'Antonio, Ian P.; Benbow, Wystan

    2015-08-01

    Gravitational lensing is a potentially powerful tool for elucidating the origin of gamma-ray emission from distant sources. Cosmic lenses magnify the emission from distant sources and produce time delays between mirage images. Gravitationally induced time delays depend on the position of the emitting regions in the source plane. The Fermi/LAT telescope continuously monitors the entire sky and detects gamma-ray flares, including those from gravitationally lensed blazars. Therefore, temporal resolution at gamma-ray energies can be used to measure these time delays, which, in turn, can be used to resolve the origin of the gamma-ray flares spatially. We provide a guide to the application and Monte Carlo simulation of three techniques for analyzing these unresolved light curves: the autocorrelation function, the double power spectrum, and the maximum peak method. We apply these methods to derive time delays from the gamma-ray light curve of the gravitationally lensed blazar PKS 1830-211. The result of temporal analysis combined with the properties of the lens from radio observations yield an improvement in spatial resolution at gamma-ray energies by a factor of 10,000. We analyze four active periods. For two of these periods the emission is consistent with origination from the core, and for the other two the data suggest that the emission region is displaced from the core by more than ˜1.5 kpc. For the core emission, the gamma-ray time delays, 23+/- 0.5 {days} and 19.7+/- 1.2 days, are consistent with the radio time delay of {26}-5+4 days.

  3. Resolving cognitive dissonance by acquisition of self-organizational skills may decrease drug-resistant seizures — A case report

    PubMed Central

    Michaelis, Rosa; Andrews, Donna J.; Reiter, Joel M.; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido

    2014-01-01

    A recent review of psychobehavioral therapy for epilepsy recommends case reports as a research design to explore specific psychological mediators of psychobehavioral interventions for epilepsy that address the bidirectional relationship between psychological states and seizures. The report was prepared according to the consensus-based CARE guidelines for standardized clinical case reporting. This is a case of a 16-year-old male individual with a diagnosed seizure disorder and learning disability who continued to have daytime and nighttime seizures on a regular basis despite exhausting of available conventional treatment options. A psychological assessment led to the working hypothesis that cognitive dissonance between fear of failure and high expectations of self had led to a “broken” self-image and active avoidance of responsibility that resulted in intense emotional distress which correlated with the occurrence of seizures. This working hypothesis resulted in a treatment plan that employed the acquisition of self-organizational skills and relaxation techniques as the main therapeutic strategy. Motivational strategies were employed to facilitate the regulation of lifestyle-related seizure precipitants. In this case, the acquisition of self-organizational skills and the development of seizure interruption techniques correlated with a clinically significant decrease of seizures. Methodological limitations of the interpretation of the presented data are discussed. PMID:25667872

  4. Anemia resolved by thoracoscopic resection of a mediastinal mass: a case report of unicentric Castleman’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jong Hui; Hong, Sook Hee; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Park, Chan Beom; Choi, Kuk Bin; Shin, Ok Ran

    2015-01-01

    Castleman’s disease (CD) is an uncommon benign lymphoproliferative disorder that usually presents as a single or multiple mediastinal mass. In unicentric CD, constitutional symptoms are rare, but are curable with surgical resection. However, serious intraoperative bleeding often requires conversion to thoracotomy. We present a case of unicentric CD in a 25-year-old woman with anemia, who was successfully treated by thoracoscopic resection. We describe the clinical course from the initial presentation to diagnosis and surgical cure. PMID:26380750

  5. In situ time-resolved measurements of carbon nanotube and nanohorn growth

    SciTech Connect

    Geohegan, David B; Puretzky, Alexander A; Styers-Barnett, David J; Hu, Hui; Zhao, Bin; Cui, Hongtao; Rouleau, Christopher M; Eres, Gyula; Jackson, Jeremy Joseph; Wood, Richard F; Pannala, Sreekanth; Wells, Jack C

    2007-01-01

    Growth mechanisms of carbon nanotubes are investigated and compared for both high- and low-temperature synthesis methods through experiments utilizing time-resolved, in situ imaging and spectros-copy. High-speed videography and pyrometry measured the timeframes for growth for single-wall car-bon nanotubes (SWNTs) and nanohorns (SWNHs) by laser vaporization (LV) at 1150 C, revealing that C can self-assemble at high temperatures preferentially into SWNH structures without catalyst assistance at rates comparable to catalyst-assisted SWNT growth by either laser vaporization or chemical vapor depo-sition (CVD). Laser interferometry and videography reveal the coordinated growth of vertically-aligned nanotube arrays (VANTAs) by CVD at 550-900 C.

  6. Stereotactic radiosurgery planning based on time-resolved CTA for arteriovenous malformation: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ryan C; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Josiah, Darnell; Gonzalez, Javier; Schmidt, Matthew; Tarabishy, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Sanjay

    2016-08-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery has long been recognized as the optimal form of management for high-grade arteriovenous malformations not amenable to surgical resection. Radiosurgical plans have generally relied upon the integration of stereotactic magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), standard contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or computed tomography angiography (CTA) with biplane digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Current options are disadvantageous in that catheter-based biplane DSA is an invasive test associated with a small risk of complications and perhaps more importantly, the two-dimensional nature of DSA is an inherent limitation in creating radiosurgical contours. The necessity of multiple scans to create DSA contours for radiosurgical planning puts patients at increased risk. Furthermore, the inability to import two-dimensional plans into some radiosurgery programs, such as Cyberknife TPS, limits treatment options for patients. Defining the nidus itself is sometimes difficult in any of the traditional modalities as all draining veins and feeding arteries are included in the images. This sometimes necessitates targeting a larger volume, than strictly necessary, with stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of the AVM. In this case report, we show the ability to use a less-invasive and three-dimensional form of angiography based on time-lapsed CTA (4D-CTA) rather than traditional DSA for radiosurgical planning. 4D-CTA may allow generation of a series of images, which can show the flow of contrast through the AVM. A review of these series may allow the surgeon to pick and use a volume set that best outlines the nidus with least interference from feeding arteries or draining veins. In addition, 4D-CTA scans can be uploaded into radiosurgery programs and allow three-dimensional targeting. This is the first reported case demonstrating the use of a 4D CTA and an MRI to delineate the AVM nidus for Gamma Knife radiosurgery, with complete

  7. RESOLVE Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Ray; Coan, Mary; Cryderman, Kate; Captain, Janine

    2013-01-01

    The RESOLVE project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing risk reduction testing this summer and fall within a vacuum chamber to understand and characterize component and integrated system performance. Testing of line heaters, printed circuit heaters, pressure transducers, temperature sensors, regulators, and valves in atmospheric and vacuum environments was done. Test procedures were developed to guide experimental tests and test reports to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. In addition, knowledge and experience was gained with preparing a vacuum chamber with fluid and electrical connections. Further testing will include integrated testing of the fluid subsystem with the gas supply system, near-infrared spectrometer, WDD, Sample Delivery System, and GC-MS in the vacuum chamber. This testing will provide hands-on exposure to a flight forward spaceflight subsystem, the processes associated with testing equipment in a vacuum chamber, and experience working in a laboratory setting. Examples of specific analysis conducted include: pneumatic analysis to calculate the WDD's efficiency at extracting water vapor from the gas stream to form condensation; thermal analysis of the conduction and radiation along a line connecting two thermal masses; and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) heater control analysis. Since LAVA is a scientific subsystem, the near-infrared spectrometer and GC-MS instruments will be tested during the ETU testing phase.

  8. RESOLVE Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Ray O.

    2012-01-01

    The RESOLVE project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph- mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing risk reduction testing this summer and fall within a vacuum chamber to understand and characterize C!Jmponent and integrated system performance. Ray will be assisting with component testing of line heaters, printed circuit heaters, pressure transducers, temperature sensors, regulators, and valves in atmospheric and vacuum environments. He will be developing procedures to guide these tests and test reports to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. In addition, he will gain experience with preparing a vacuum chamber with fluid and electrical connections. Further testing will include integrated testing of the fluid subsystem with the gas supply system, near-infrared spectrometer, WDD, Sample Delivery System, and GC-MS in the vacuum chamber. This testing will provide hands-on exposure to a flight forward spaceflight subsystem, the processes associated with testing equipment in a vacuum chamber, and experience working in a laboratory setting. Examples of specific analysis Ray will conduct include: pneumatic analysis to calculate the WOO's efficiency at extracting water vapor from the gas stream to form condensation; thermal analysis of the conduction and radiation along a line connecting two thermal masses; and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) heater control analysis. In this Research and Technology environment, Ray will be asked to problem solve real-time as issues arise. Since LAVA is a scientific subsystem, Ray will be utilizing his chemical engineering background to

  9. Sensitivity of a Cloud-Resolving Model to the Bulk and Explicit Bin Microphysical Schemes. Part 1; Validations with a PRE-STORM Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiao-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Khain, Alexander P.; Simpson, Joanne; Johnson, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    A cloud-resolving model is used to study sensitivities of two different microphysical schemes, one is the bulk type, and the other is an explicit bin scheme, in simulating a mid-latitude squall line case (PRE-STORM, June 10-11, 1985). Simulations using different microphysical schemes are compared with each other and also with the observations. Both the bulk and bin models reproduce the general features during the developing and mature stage of the system. The leading convective zone, the trailing stratiform region, the horizontal wind flow patterns, pressure perturbation associated with the storm dynamics, and the cool pool in front of the system all agree well with the observations. Both the observations and the bulk scheme simulation serve as validations for the newly incorporated bin scheme. However, it is also shown that, the bulk and bin simulations have distinct differences, most notably in the stratiform region. Weak convective cells exist in the stratiform region in the bulk simulation, but not in the bin simulation. These weak convective cells in the stratiform region are remnants of the previous stronger convections at the leading edge of the system. The bin simulation, on the other hand, has a horizontally homogeneous stratiform cloud structure, which agrees better with the observations. Preliminary examinations of the downdraft core strength, the potential temperature perturbation, and the evaporative cooling rate show that the differences between the bulk and bin models are due mainly to the stronger low-level evaporative cooling in convective zone simulated in the bulk model. Further quantitative analysis and sensitivity tests for this case using both the bulk and bin models will be presented in a companion paper.

  10. In-line process control for laser welding of titanium by high dynamic range ratio pyrometry and plasma spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempe, B.; Taudt, C.; Baselt, T.; Rudek, F.; Maschke, R.; Basan, F.; Hartmann, P.

    2014-02-01

    The production of complex titanium components for various industries using laser welding processes has received growing attention in recent years. It is important to know whether the result of the cohesive joint meets the quality requirements of standardization and ultimately the customer requirements. Erroneous weld seams can have fatal consequences especially in the field of car manufacturing and medicine technology. To meet these requirements, a real-time process control system has been developed which determines the welding quality through a locally resolved temperature profile. By analyzing the resulting weld plasma received data is used to verify the stability of the laser welding process. The determination of the temperature profile is done by the detection of the emitted electromagnetic radiation from the material in a range of 500 nm to 1100 nm. As detectors, special high dynamic range CMOS cameras are used. As the emissivity of titanium depends on the wavelength, the surface and the angle of radiation, measuring the temperature is a problem. To solve these a special pyrometer setting with two cameras is used. That enables the compensation of these effects by calculating the difference between the respective pixels on simultaneously recorded images. Two spectral regions with the same emissivity are detected. Therefore the degree of emission and surface effects are compensated and canceled out of the calculation. Using the spatially resolved temperature distribution the weld geometry can be determined and the laser process can be controlled. The active readjustment of parameters such as laser power, feed rate and inert gas injection increases the quality of the welding process and decreases the number of defective goods.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of evaluation of the efficiency of aircraft liquid waste treatment using resolvable sanitizing liquid: a case study in Changchun.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianling; Yang, Jiaqi; Zhao, Nan; Sheng, Lianxi; Zhao, Yuanhui; Tang, Zhanhui

    2011-12-01

    The physical, chemical, and biological indices of aircraft liquid wastes collected from multiple airplanes at Longjia Airport, Changchun, China were measured according to "Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard," evaluating treatment efficiency of resolvable sanitizing liquid. The results indicate that, after being treated by the resolvable sanitizing liquid, the indices of all first-class pollutants met the requirements of the standard, while among the second-class pollutants, the suspension content, biochemical oxygen demand after 5 days, and chemical oxygen demand as well as the contents of amino nitrogen, total phosphorus, anionic surfactants, total copper, absorbable organic halogen, and phenolic compounds did not reach the discharge standard. Particularly, the level of fecal coliform bacteria in the aircraft liquid wastes can meet the standard specification by adding more than 1 mL/L resolvable sanitizing liquid. The aircraft wastewater treated by resolvable sanitizing liquid cannot be directly discharged back into the environment as well as urban drainage systems. PMID:21340546

  12. Resolving the fine-scale density structure of oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere from small-scale geoid anomalies: a case study from the Mendocino Fracture zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadio, C.; Korenaga, J.

    2013-12-01

    As oceanic lithosphere corresponds to the top boundary layer of mantle convection, its gross density structure reflects how the convecting mantle is actually cooled near the surface. A recent wavelet analysis of the geoid data around the Mendocino fracture zone has revealed 100- to 200-km scale anomalies, which notably deviate from any of reference evolution models and therefore call for prominent density anomalies at relatively shallow depths (Cadio and Korenaga, 2012). Given their spatial scales and weak correlation with seafloor topography, their sources must be within or right beneath the oceanic lithosphere. Such short-wavelength geoid anomalies carry important information regarding the fine-scale density structure of the oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere. A new inversion scheme has been developed to investigate these local anomalies. To overcome the nonuniqueness of potential-field data, we reduce the model space by using spectral localization, reference models, and a priori bounds on the amplitude of geologically possible density perturbations that can be caused by thermal or chemical processes within the convecting mantle. Our approach is based on Bayesian statistics and is implemented by combining forward modeling with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. The depth and the vertical extent of density anomalies derived from our inversion indicate that they are intimately related to the structure of the lowermost lithosphere. They reflect very likely small-scale convection induced by lateral temperature gradient across the fracture zone. The amplitude of density perturbations varying between -25 to 30 kg m-3 and their spatial organization are also in agreement with predictions derived from numerical simulations of such instabilities (Huang et al., 2003; Dumoulin et al., 2008). A global analysis of these local anomalies will allow us to resolve the fine-scale density structure of shallow oceanic mantle not only along fracture zones, but also in other parts

  13. Resolved Observations of Transition Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casassus, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Resolved observations are bringing new constraints on the origin of radial gaps in protoplanetary disks. The kinematics, sampled in detail in one case-study, are indicative of non-Keplerian flows, corresponding to warped structures and accretion which may both play a role in the development of cavities. Disk asymmetries seen in the radio continuum are being interpreted in the context of dust segregation via aerodynamic trapping. We summarise recent observational progress, and describe prospects for improvements in the near term.

  14. Resolving the Pericenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisdom, Jack

    2015-10-01

    The Wisdom-Holman mapping method and its variations have become a mainstay of research in solar system dynamics. But the method is not without its limitations. Rauch & Holman noted that at large eccentricities sufficiently small steps must be taken to resolve the pericenter. In this paper, I explore in more detail what it means to resolve the pericenter.

  15. Multiwavelength pyrometry for nongray bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    A multiwavelength technique was developed and applied to measure the temperatures of nongray surfaces. The instruments required are a spectral radiometer, a dedicated auxiliary radiation source, and a computer. In general, three radiation spectra are recorded: (1) spectrum S sub 0 of the auxiliary radiation source; (2) spectrum S sub 1 of the surface-emitted radiation; and (3) spectrum S sub 2, the sum of the radiation of S sub 1 plus the reflected radiation due to the incidence of the auxiliary radiation source on the surface. Subtracting spectrum S sub 1 from spectrum Sub 2 yields the reflection spectrum resulting from the incidence radiation. From these spectra, a quantity z(lambda) is derived and is related to the reflectivity r(lambda) by r(lambda) = z(lambda)/f, where f is a constant. Spectrum S sub 1 is represented mathematically as the product of a wavelength-dependent emissivity obtained from Kirchhoff's law and a Planck function of temperature T. Application of two-variable (lambda and z), nonlinear, least-squares curve-fitting computer software to fit spectrum S sub 1 to this mathematical expression yielded the surface temperature. This technique also measured the spectral reflectivity and emissivity of the surface. Instrumentation necessary to extend measurement to elevated temperatures and in the presence of reflective interference is discussed.

  16. Investigation of real-time microstructure evolution in steep thermal gradients using in-situ spatially resolved X-ray diffraction: A case study for Ti fusion welds

    SciTech Connect

    Ressler, T.; Wong, J.; Elmer, J.W. |

    1998-12-24

    A recently developed spatially resolved X-ray diffraction (SRXRD) technique utilizing intense synchrotron radiation has been refined to yield phase and microstructural information down to 200 {micro}m in spatial extent in materials subjected to steep thermal gradients during processing. This SRXRD technique has been applied to map completely the phases and their solid-state transformation in the so-called heat-affected zone (HAZ) in titanium fusion welds in situ during the welding process. Detailed profile analysis of the SRXRD patterns revealed four principal microstructural regions at temperature in the vicinity of the HAZ surrounding the liquid weld pool: (i) a completely transformed {beta}-Ti zone 2--3 mm adjacent to the liquid weld pool; (ii) a mixed {alpha} + {beta}-it region surrounding the pure {beta}-Ti zone, (iii) a back-transformed {alpha}-Ti zone on the backside of the HAZ where pure {beta}-Ti once existed at temperature well above the {alpha} {r_arrow} {beta} transformation isotherm, and (iv) a more diffused region outside the HAZ where annealing and recrystallization of the {alpha}-it base metal occur. The high-temperature microstructures so derived corroborate well the expected transformation kinetics in pure titanium, and the observed phase transformation boundaries are in good agreement with those predicted from the transformation isotherms calculated from a simplified heat-flow model. Based on a detailed assessment of the SRXRD setup employed, improved experimentations such as a smaller beam spot emitted from third generation synchrotron sources, better mechanical stability (tighter scattering geometry), and use of an area detector would enable more quantitative structural information for future phase dynamics studies exemplified by this work.

  17. Deriving the intermediate spectra and photocycle kinetics from time-resolved difference spectra of bacteriorhodopsin. The simpler case of the recombinant D96N protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimanyi, L.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1993-01-01

    The bacteriorhodopsin photocycle contains more than five spectrally distinct intermediates, and the complexity of their interconversions has precluded a rigorous solution of the kinetics. A representation of the photocycle of mutated D96N bacteriorhodopsin near neutral pH was given earlier (Varo, G., and J. K. Lanyi. 1991. Biochemistry. 30:5008-5015) as BRhv-->K<==>L<==>M1-->M2--> BR. Here we have reduced a set of time-resolved difference spectra for this simpler system to three base spectra, each assumed to consist of an unknown mixture of the pure K, L, and M difference spectra represented by a 3 x 3 matrix of concentration values between 0 and 1. After generating all allowed sets of spectra for K, L, and M (i.e., M1 + M2) at a 1:50 resolution of the matrix elements, invalid solutions were eliminated progressively in a search based on what is expected, empirically and from the theory of polyene excited states, for rhodopsin spectra. Significantly, the average matrix values changed little after the first and simplest of the search criteria that disallowed negative absorptions and more than one maximum for the M intermediate. We conclude from the statistics that during the search the solutions strongly converged into a narrow region of the multidimensional space of the concentration matrix. The data at three temperatures between 5 and 25 degrees C yielded a single set of spectra for K, L, and M; their fits are consistent with the earlier derived photocycle model for the D96N protein.

  18. Student Discipline Intervention Strategies: A Case Study of Two Institutions' Processes Utilized to Resolve Misconduct of Students Who Concomitantly Experience a Mental Health Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, Gary G.

    2011-01-01

    This study contributes to the research regarding processes and procedures utilized by two institutions of higher education to respond to students who participate in inappropriate behavior and who are concomitantly experiencing a mental health crisis. A case study analysis of two institutions of higher education was used to examine this issue. The…

  19. A Case Study of Environmental, Health and Safety Issues Involving the Burlington, Massachusetts Public School System. "Tips, Suggestions, and Resources for Investigating and Resolving EHS Issues in Schools."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresser, Todd H.

    An investigation was initiated concerning the environmental health within the Burlington, Massachusetts public school system to determine what specific environmental hazards were present and determine ways of eliminating them. This report presents 20 case studies that detail the environmental health issues involved, the approaches taken in…

  20. Resolving Problems through Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Examines state variations in use of mediation to resolve domestic relations disputes. Mediation may be optional or mandatory, requested by the parties or the judge. Mediator qualifications vary considerably. Child support is less likely than custody and visitation to be the sole topic for mediation. More states are likely to use mediation in…

  1. Has Abstractness Been Resolved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omoush, Ahmad

    1989-01-01

    A discussion focusing on the abstractness of analysis in phonology, debated since the 1960s, describes the issue, reviews the literature on the subject, cites specific natural language examples, and examines the extent to which the issue has been resolved. An underlying representation is said to be abstract if it is different from the derived one,…

  2. Angiographic suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz by venous hypertension resolving after embolization in a case of spinal epidural arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Eckart Sorte, Danielle; Pardo, Carlos A; Gailloud, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    A case of complete angiographic suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz and anterior spinal artery in a patient with a spinal epidural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is reported. Slow flow AVFs typically present with progressive myelopathy secondary to spinal venous hypertension (SVH). The lack of a normal venous phase during angiography and its restoration after treatment is commonly observed with these lesions, yet a similar phenomenon seems exceptional at the arterial level. Right T11 intercostal artery angiograms obtained before and after treatment of a left L4 epidural AVF documented the initial suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz and anterior spinal artery, and their normal appearance immediately after correction of the SVH by embolization. This report confirms that SVH can angiographically suppress prominent and functionally important spinal arteries, re-emphasizing the potential role played by secondary arterial changes in SVH induced myelopathy. This hemodynamic phenomenon also represents a potential pitfall during diagnostic and therapeutic endovascular procedures. PMID:25712983

  3. Angiographic suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz by venous hypertension resolving after embolization in a case of spinal epidural arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Sorte, Danielle Eckart; Pardo, Carlos A; Gailloud, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    A case of complete angiographic suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz and anterior spinal artery in a patient with a spinal epidural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is reported. Slow flow AVFs typically present with progressive myelopathy secondary to spinal venous hypertension (SVH). The lack of a normal venous phase during angiography and its restoration after treatment is commonly observed with these lesions, yet a similar phenomenon seems exceptional at the arterial level. Right T11 intercostal artery angiograms obtained before and after treatment of a left L4 epidural AVF documented the initial suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz and anterior spinal artery, and their normal appearance immediately after correction of the SVH by embolization. This report confirms that SVH can angiographically suppress prominent and functionally important spinal arteries, re-emphasizing the potential role played by secondary arterial changes in SVH induced myelopathy. This hemodynamic phenomenon also represents a potential pitfall during diagnostic and therapeutic endovascular procedures. PMID:25028420

  4. Angiographic suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz by venous hypertension resolving after embolization in a case of spinal epidural arteriovenous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Eckart Sorte, Danielle; Pardo, Carlos A; Gailloud, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    A case of complete angiographic suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz and anterior spinal artery in a patient with a spinal epidural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is reported. Slow flow AVFs typically present with progressive myelopathy secondary to spinal venous hypertension (SVH). The lack of a normal venous phase during angiography and its restoration after treatment is commonly observed with these lesions, yet a similar phenomenon seems exceptional at the arterial level. Right T11 intercostal artery angiograms obtained before and after treatment of a left L4 epidural AVF documented the initial suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz and anterior spinal artery, and their normal appearance immediately after correction of the SVH by embolization. This report confirms that SVH can angiographically suppress prominent and functionally important spinal arteries, re-emphasizing the potential role played by secondary arterial changes in SVH induced myelopathy. This hemodynamic phenomenon also represents a potential pitfall during diagnostic and therapeutic endovascular procedures. PMID:25028420

  5. Cytogenomics and gene expression in a case of metachronous bilateral renal cell carcinomas with drop metastasis: Resolving a diagnostic dilemma with molecular technologies.

    PubMed

    Takei, Hidehiro; Barrios, Roberto; Monzon, Federico A

    2013-06-01

    Metachronous bilateral renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are rare but well known. We present a case of metachronous bilateral RCCs with a ureter orifice metastasis, for which the pathological diagnosis was confirmed with single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP-M) and gene expression assay (GEA). A 53-year-old man presented with a right ureteral obstruction. A cystoscopy showed a large pedunculated tumor emanating from the right ureteral orifice, consistent with a drop metastasis, which was biopsied. He had a history of a clear cell RCC (ccRCC) 1.5 years prior and a right renal pelvic mass found 8 months later. Histologically, the biopsied right ureteral tumor demonstrated sheets of poorly differentiated cancer cells composed of a mixture of spindled and focal clear cell components. The main differential diagnosis was metastatic RCC versus urothelial carcinoma, but the immunohistochemical profile was not contributory. SNP-M revealed a genomic profile consistent with a metastatic ccRCC with loss of chromosome 3p. GEA showed a gene expression pattern consistent with kidney origin. The cytogenomic array also identified chromosome copy number patterns that were shared between both kidney tumors. This finding suggests that both tumors had a common origin, and thus, the metachronous ccRCC in the contralateral kidney represents a metastasis. PMID:23782335

  6. Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry To Resolve Complex Clinical Cases of Patients with Recurrent Bacteremias

    PubMed Central

    Nori, Priya; Ostrowsky, Belinda; Dorokhova, Olena; Gialanella, Philip; Moy, Morgan; Muggia, Victoria; Grossberg, Robert; Kornblum, John; Lin, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid and accurate method of identifying microorganisms. Throughout Europe, it is already in routine use but has not yet been widely implemented in the United States, pending FDA approval. Here, we describe two medically complex patients at a large tertiary-care academic medical center with recurring bacteremias caused by distinct but related species. Bacterial identifications were initially obtained using the Vitek-2 system with the GPI card for Enterococcus and the API system for staphylococci. Initial results misled clinicians as to the source and proper management of these patients. Retrospective investigation with MALDI-TOF MS clarified the diagnosis by identifying a single microorganism as the pathogen in each case. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports in the United States demonstrating the use of MALDI-TOF MS to facilitate the clinical diagnosis in patients with recurrent bacteremias of unclear source. PMID:23536408

  7. Resolving Negotiations Impasses in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Richard G., Ed.

    This publication is intended to help school management personnel become more familiar with the nature of and the means for resolving negotiations impasses. Aspects of mediation and arbitration are discussed, and basic negotiating techniques that help school boards win arbitration cases are presented. Also provided are a sample arbitration case…

  8. Resource Prospector: The RESOLVE Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J.; Smith, J.; J., Captain; Paz, A.; Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R.; Zacny, K.

    2015-10-01

    NASA has been developing a lunar volatiles exploration payload named RESOLVE. Now the primary science payload on-board the Resource Prospector (RP) mission, RESOLVE, consists of several instruments that evaluate lunar volatiles.

  9. Dual Brushless Resolver Rate Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A resolver rate sensor is disclosed in which dual brushless resolvers are mechanically coupled to the same output shaft. Diverse inputs are provided to each resolver by providing the first resolver with a DC input and the second resolver with an AC sinusoidal input. A trigonometric identity in which the sum of the squares of the sin and cosine components equal one is used to advantage in providing a sensor of increased accuracy. The first resolver may have a fixed or variable DC input to permit dynamic adjustment of resolver sensitivity thus permitting a wide range of coverage. In one embodiment of the invention the outputs of the first resolver are directly inputted into two separate multipliers and the outputs of the second resolver are inputted into the two separate multipliers, after being demodulated in a pair of demodulator circuits. The multiplied signals are then added in an adder circuit to provide a directional sensitive output. In another embodiment the outputs from the first resolver is modulated in separate modulator circuits and the output from the modulator circuits are used to excite the second resolver. The outputs from the second resolver are demodulated in separate demodulator circuit and added in an adder circuit to provide a direction sensitive rate output.

  10. Deciding to Change OpenURL Link Resolvers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Megan; Leonard, Andrea; Wiswell, John

    2015-01-01

    This article will be of interest to librarians, particularly those in consortia that are evaluating OpenURL link resolvers. This case study contrasts WebBridge (an Innovative Interface product) and LinkSource (EBSCO's product). This study assisted us in the decision-making process of choosing an OpenURL link resolver that was sustainable to…

  11. Cloud Resolving Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2007-01-01

    One of the most promising methods to test the representation of cloud processes used in climate models is to use observations together with cloud-resolving models (CRMs). CRMs use more sophisticated and realistic representations of cloud microphysical processes, and they can reasonably well resolve the time evolution, structure, and life cycles of clouds and cloud systems (with sizes ranging from about 2-200 km). CRMs also allow for explicit interaction between clouds, outgoing longwave (cooling) and incoming solar (heating) radiation, and ocean and land surface processes. Observations are required to initialize CRMs and to validate their results. This paper provides a brief discussion and review of the main characteristics of CRMs as well as some of their major applications. These include the use of CRMs to improve our understanding of: (1) convective organization, (2) cloud temperature and water vapor budgets, and convective momentum transport, (3) diurnal variation of precipitation processes, (4) radiative-convective quasi-equilibrium states, (5) cloud-chemistry interaction, (6) aerosol-precipitation interaction, and (7) improving moist processes in large-scale models. In addition, current and future developments and applications of CRMs will be presented.

  12. RESOLVE 2010 Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, J.; Quinn, J.; Moss, T.; Weis, K.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the field tests conducted in 2010 of the Regolith Environment Science & Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE). The Resolve program consist of several mechanism: (1) Excavation and Bulk Regolith Characterization (EBRC) which is designed to act as a drill and crusher, (2) Regolith Volatiles Characterization (RVC) which is a reactor and does gas analysis,(3) Lunar Water Resources Demonstration (LWRD) which is a fluid system, water and hydrogen capture device and (4) the Rover. The scientific goal of this test is to demonstrate evolution of low levels of hydrogen and water as a function of temperature. The Engineering goals of this test are to demonstrate:(1) Integration onto new rover (2) Miniaturization of electronics rack (3) Operation from battery packs (elimination of generator) (4) Remote command/control and (5) Operation while roving. Views of the 2008 and the 2010 mechanisms, a overhead view of the mission path, a view of the terrain, the two drill sites, and a graphic of the Master Events Controller Graphical User Interface (MEC GUI) are shown. There are descriptions of the Gas chromatography (GC), the operational procedure, water and hydrogen doping of tephra. There is also a review of some of the results, and future direction for research and tests.

  13. Selecting Resolving Agents with Respect to Their Eutectic Compositions.

    PubMed

    Szeleczky, Zsolt; Semsey, Sándor; Bagi, Péter; Pálovics, Emese; Faigl, Ferenc; Fogassy, Elemér

    2016-03-01

    In order to develop a resolution procedure for a given racemic compound, the first and the most important step is finding the most suitable resolving agent. We studied 18 individual resolutions that were carried out with resolving agents having high eutectic composition. We found that very high enantiomeric excess values were obtained in all cases. We assume that the eutectic composition of a given resolving agent is one of the most important properties that should always be considered during the search for the most efficient resolving agent. PMID:26797938

  14. Georges Bank conflict resolved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    The International Court of Justice has resolved the long-term conflict between the United States and Canada over claims to mineral and living resources lying along the countries' common Atlantic maritime border. On October 12, in a 4-1 decision, the World Court rejected the United States' claim to the entire Georges Bank area, a region of the Continental Shelf off Massachusetts and Nova Scotia that is a prime fishing ground and is believed to have good potential for oil and gas deposits as well. The disputed area is roughly the top third of the Georges Bank area. The court awarded each country approximately half of this disputed area. No appeals are allowed under this decision.

  15. Dual Brushless Resolver Rate Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention relates to dual analog angular rate sensors which are implemented without the use of mechanical brushes. A resolver rate sensor which includes two brushless resolvers which are mechanically coupled to the same output shaft is provided with inputs which are provided to each resolver by providing the first resolver with a DC input and the second resolver with an AC sinusoidal input. A trigonometric identity in which the sum of the squares of the sin and cosine components equal one is used to advantage in providing a sensor of increased accuracy. The first resolver may have a fixed or variable DC input to permit dynamic adjustment of resolver sensitivity thus permitting a wide range of coverage. Novelty and advantages of the invention reside in the excitation of a resolver with a DC signal and in the utilization of two resolvers and the trigonometric identity of cos(exp 2)(theta) + sin(exp 2)(theta) = 1 to provide an accurate rate sensor which is sensitive to direction and accurate through zero rate.

  16. RESOLVE and ECO: Survey Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannappan, Sheila; Moffett, Amanda J.; Norris, Mark A.; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Stark, David; Berlind, Andreas A.; Snyder, Elaine M.; Norman, Dara J.; Hoversten, Erik A.; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    The REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey is a volume-limited census of stellar, gas, and dynamical mass as well as star formation and galaxy interactions within >50,000 cubic Mpc of the nearby cosmic web, reaching down to dwarf galaxies of baryonic mass ~10^9 Msun and spanning multiple large-scale filaments, walls, and voids. RESOLVE is surrounded by the ~10x larger Environmental COntext (ECO) catalog, with matched custom photometry and environment metrics enabling analysis of cosmic variance with greater statistical power. For the ~1500 galaxies in its two equatorial footprints, RESOLVE goes beyond ECO in providing (i) deep 21cm data with adaptive sensitivity ensuring HI mass detections or upper limits <10% of the stellar mass and (ii) 3D optical spectroscopy including both high-resolution ionized gas or stellar kinematic data for each galaxy and broad 320-725nm spectroscopy spanning [OII] 3727, Halpha, and Hbeta. RESOLVE is designed to complement other radio and optical surveys in providing diverse, contiguous, and uniform local/global environment data as well as unusually high completeness extending into the gas-dominated dwarf galaxy regime. RESOLVE also offers superb reprocessed photometry including full, deep NUV coverage and synergy with other equatorial surveys as well as unique northern and southern facilities such as Arecibo, the GBT, and ALMA. The RESOLVE and ECO surveys have been supported by funding from NSF grants AST-0955368 and OCI-1156614.

  17. Resolving Lifshitz Horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Wang, Huajia; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-04-24

    Via the AdS/CFT correspondence, ground states of field theories at finite charge density are mapped to extremal black brane solutions. Studies of simple gravity + matter systems in this context have uncovered wide new classes of extremal geometries. The Lifshitz metrics characterizing field theories with non-trivial dynamical critical exponent z {ne} 1 emerge as one common endpoint in doped holographic toy models. However, the Lifshitz horizon exhibits mildly singular behaviour - while curvature invariants are finite, there are diverging tidal forces. Here we show that in some of the simplest contexts where Lifshitz metrics emerge, Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories, generic corrections lead to a replacement of the Lifshitz metric, in the deep infrared, by a re-emergent AdS{sub 2} x R{sup 2} geometry. Thus, at least in these cases, the Lifshitz scaling characterizes the physics over a wide range of energy scales, but the mild singularity is cured by quantum or stringy effects.

  18. Resolving Conflicts in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddings, Evyonne

    1992-01-01

    Describes a lesson plan that explains the role of compromise as a method of resolving conflicts for use in a sixth-grade world cultures class. Includes activities, assessment, reteaching activities, and an extension project involving student skits. (DK)

  19. An important cause of non-resolving pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Shoki, Alborz; Gomes, Marcio M; Gupta, Ashish; Kify, Omar; Pakhale, Smita; Mulpuru, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a young patient with a history of non-resolving pneumonia. She was diagnosed with a limited form of Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA), by percutaneous core needle lung biopsy. In this report, we discuss the definition and clinical implications of limited GPA, treatment options, and highlight the importance of considering vasculitis in the differential diagnosis of non-resolving pneumonia. PMID:27482510

  20. Spatially Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knop, Robert Andrew, Jr.

    This thesis presents infrared spectroscopy of the circumnuclear regions of 23 Seyfert galaxies. Observations are spectrally resolved with a resolution of λΔλ~1000 and spatially resolved to ~1'', corresponding to ~102 pc for the objects in the sample. The instrument used for the observations, the Palomar Near-Infrared Spectrometer, is described, and problems peculiar to reduction of data from it are discussed. The lines observed include Paβ, Brγ, (FeII) (λ=1.2567μm), and H2 (λ=2.1213μm). In nine objects, the coronal line (SIX) (λ=1.2524μm) is also detected. Spatially resolved line emission is clearly visible in approximately half of the objects observed. The data for five of the objects showing the best spatially resolved infrared line emission are analyzed in detail. These objects include Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151 and Seyfert 2 galaxies Mk 1066, NGC 2110, NGC 4388, and Mk 3. The data for the remaining objects is presented in tabular form, and each object is discussed briefly. The data argue that processes associated with the Seyfert nucleus are responsible for the bulk of the observed (FeII) emission. Kinematic and spatial associations can be drawn between features in the (FeII) line profiles and other processes associated with the active nucleus, such as outflows seen in ionized optical emission and radio lobes. Most of the (FeII) appears to emerge from partially ionized regions excited by nuclear x-rays, with an additional contribution from fast shocks. Some of the H2 emission also appears to be associated with the nuclear activity. However, in some cases the H2 emission is observed to have a different spatial distribution from (FeII) and the H+ emission. The H2 emission is probably thermally excited. No significant differences are found between the infrared line emission of Seyfert and Seyfert 1.x galaxies.

  1. Resolvability of positron decay channels

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M.J.; Howell, R.H.; Rosenberg, I.J.; Meyer, P.

    1985-03-07

    Many data analysis treatments of positron experiments attempt to resolve two or more positron decay or exist channels which may be open simultaneously. Examples of the need to employ such treatments of the experimental results can be found in the resolution of the constituents of a defect ensemble, or in the analysis of the complex spectra which arise from the interaction of slow positrons at or near the surfaces of solids. Experimental one- and two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation experiments in Al single crystals have shown that two defect species (mono- and divacancies) can be resolved under suitable conditions. Recent experiments at LLNL indicate that there are a variety of complex exit channels open to positrons interacting at surfaces, and ultimely these decay channels must also be suitably resolved from one another. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Emissivity independent low-temperature pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolezal, Ivan; Hes, Lubos

    2008-03-01

    Uncertainty of a target emissivity and environment transmittance and possible reflected radiation are major origins of pyrometer inaccuracy. Measurement without knowledge of emissivity requires gaining at least two independent signals relating to the target. The patented method takes advantage of two same infrared detectors but maintained on different temperatures. A simplified approach implies a radiation enclosure that consists of 2 bodies (target vs. detector), thus a formula for temperature obtained from a set of 2 equations appears simple. Infrared detectors that can work at considerable high temperature are unavailable so temperature range of this method is limited. In an experimental facility, the first thermopile detector is heated by a transistor, the second one is cooled by a Peltier cooler. The swivel radiant heater of cube shape exhibits single of 4 surfaces with different emissivity towards the detectors. The radiation is both concentrated and switched to single detector by a pivoted toric mirror. Close mutual arrangement without optics is optional. All sensors and actuators are connected to a Data Acquisition Switch Unit. The experiment including control loops is fully managed by a PC program. Various side effects of realization like probably an influence of housing radiation at ambient temperature and reflection cause that simple formula is not adequate so that multivariable regression had to be involved. Experimental results are shown in graphs.

  3. Multiple-Wavelength Pyrometry Independent Of Emissivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Multiple-wavelength pyrometric method provides for determination of two sequential temperatures of same surface or temperatures of two surfaces made of same material. Temperatures measured, without knowing emissivity, by uncalibrated spectral radiometer.

  4. VIIRS Nightfire: multispectral satellite pyrometry at night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhizhin, M. N.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Nightfire algorithm detects and characterizes sub-pixel hot sources using multispectral data collected globally each night by the Suomi NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The spectral bands utilized span visible, near-infrared (NIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR). The primary detection band is in the SWIR, centered at 1.6 μm. Without solar input, the SWIR spectral band records sensor noise, punctuated by high radiant emissions associated with gas flares, biomass burning, volcanoes, and industrial sites like steel mills. Planck curve fitting of the hot source radiances yields temperature (K) and emission scaling factor (ESF). Additional calculations are done to estimate source size (m2), radiant heat intensity (W/m2) and radiant heat (MW). Nightfire retrieved temperature estimates for sub-pixel hot sources ranging from 600 to 6000 K. The IR sources can be ranked worldwide to reveal a list of top 100 largest gas flaring sites. An intercomparison study of biomass burning in Sumatra from June 2013 found Nightfire radiant heat (MW) to be highly correlated to MODIS Fire Radiative Power (MW).

  5. Wilson loops in warped resolved deformed conifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Stephen

    2011-11-15

    We calculate quark-antiquark potentials using the relationship between the expectation value of the Wilson loop and the action of a probe string in the string dual. We review and categorise the possible forms of the dependence of the energy on the separation between the quarks. In particular, we examine the possibility of there being a minimum separation for probe strings which do not penetrate close to the origin of the bulk space, and derive a condition which determines whether this is the case. We then apply these considerations to the flavoured resolved deformed conifold background of Gaillard et al. (2010) . We suggest that the unusual behaviour that we observe in this solution is likely to be related to the IR singularity which is not present in the unflavoured case. - Highlights: > We calculate quark-antiquark potentials using the Wilson loop and the action of a probe string in the string dual. > We review and categorise the possible forms of the dependence of the energy on the separation between the quarks. > We look in particular at the flavoured resolved deformed conifold. > There appears to be unusual behaviour which seems likely to be related to the IR singularity introduced by flavours.

  6. Role of runoff-infiltration partitioning and resolved overland flow on land-atmosphere feedbacks: A case-study with the WRF-Hydro coupled modeling system for West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnault, Joel; Wagner, Seven; Rummler, Thomas; Fersch, Benjamin; Bliefernicht, Jan; Andresen, Sabine; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of land-atmosphere feedbacks requires detailed representation of land processes in atmospheric models. Our focus here is on runoff-infiltration partitioning and resolved overland flow. In the standard version of WRF, runoff-infiltration partitioning is described as a purely vertical process. In WRF-Hydro, runoff is enhanced with lateral water flows. The study region is the Sissili catchment (12800 km2) in West Africa and the study period March 2003 - February 2004. Our WRF setup includes an outer and inner domain at 10 and 2 km resolution covering the West African and Sissili region, respectively. In our WRF-Hydro setup the inner domain is coupled with a sub-grid at 500 m resolution to compute overland and river flow. Model results are compared with TRMM precipitation, MTE evapotranspiration, CCI soil moisture, CRU temperature, and streamflow observation. The role of runoff infiltration partitioning and resolved overland flow on land-atmosphere feedbacks is addressed with a sensitivity analysis of WRF results to the runoff-infiltration partitioning parameter and a comparison between WRF and WRF-Hydro results, respectively. In the outer domain, precipitation is sensitive to runoff-infiltration partitioning at the scale of the Sissili area (~100x100 km2), but not of area A (500x2500 km2). In the inner domain, where precipitation patterns are mainly prescribed by lateral boundary conditions, sensitivity is small, but additionally resolved overland flow here clearly increases infiltration and evapotranspiration at the beginning of the wet season when soils are still dry. Our WRF-Hydro setup shows potential for joint atmospheric and terrestrial water balance studies, and reproduces observed daily discharge with a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient of 0.43.

  7. TIME-RESOLVED VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Andrei Tokmakoff, MIT; Paul Champion, Northeastern University; Edwin J. Heilweil, NIST; Keith A. Nelson, MIT; Larry Ziegler, Boston University

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE’s Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all five of DOE’s grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  8. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  9. Virginia Resolves, 1993-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, S. Rex, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    These two issues of "Virginia Resolves" provide articles of interest to the social studies reader and provides ideas for social studies instruction and curriculum. The fall issue features seven articles: (1) "Death and the Young Child" (Rosanne J. Marek); (2) "Simulations: Bibliography for the Middle and Elementary Teachers" (William Coleman Redd…

  10. Approaches to resolving trade disputes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D W; Thiermann, A B

    2003-08-01

    The authors discuss the various approaches to resolving trade disputes available to Member Countries of the OIE (World organisation for animal health). The paper first describes the rights and obligations of Member Countries in setting health measures for the importation of animals and animal products, according to the provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). The authors indicate how OIE standards may be used to set import measures and introduce issues such as equivalence and the use of provisional measures, which are both areas of potential conflict. The authors then describe the options available for resolving disputes--bilateral discussions, mediation through the OIE, the use of the WTO SPS Committee and the formal WTO dispute settlement process, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each. PMID:15884603

  11. When communication fails: resolving end-of-life impasses.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Lisa Z; Schopp, Georgeanne

    2014-06-01

    Various protocols and advance directives can prepare physician assistants for difficult conversations with patients about end-of-life care. This case scenario explores the roles and influences that complicated one patient's care and how the situation was resolved. PMID:24853152

  12. Time-resolved molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junliang; Blaga, Cosmin I.; Agostini, Pierre; DiMauro, Louis F.

    2016-06-01

    Time-resolved molecular imaging is a frontier of ultrafast optical science and physical chemistry. In this article, we review present and future key spectroscopic and microscopic techniques for ultrafast imaging of molecular dynamics and show their differences and connections. The advent of femtosecond lasers and free electron x-ray lasers bring us closer to this goal, which eventually will extend our knowledge about molecular dynamics to the attosecond time domain.

  13. STED microscopy resolves nanoparticle assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willig, K. I.; Keller, J.; Bossi, M.; Hell, S. W.

    2006-06-01

    We demonstrate the ability of stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, a far-field fluorescence imaging technique with diffraction-unlimited resolution, to reveal the spatial order of fluorescent nanoparticles. Unlike its confocal counterpart, here STED microscopy resolves the arrangements of densely packed 40 nm beads, supramolecular aggregates in a cell membrane, and colloidal nanoparticles. Both raw and linearly deconvolved data disclose unprecedented details of both biological and non-biological nanopatterns.

  14. Resolving the CaP-bone interface

    PubMed Central

    Grandfield, Kathryn; Palmquist, Anders; Engqvist, Håkan; Thomsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that the interfacial relationship between synthetic materials and tissue is influential in the success of implant materials. Instability at the implant interface has been shown, in some cases, to lead to complete implant failure. Bioceramics, and in particular calcium phosphates, form a large fraction of the implantable devices on the market today due to the biocompatibility they exhibit in contact with bone and tooth-like tissues. The characterization of such bioceramic-tissue interfaces has played a crucial role in understanding the behavior of bioceramics in vivo. In this review, we shed light on the preparation methods, technological approaches and key advances in resolving the interface between calcium phosphate bioceramics and bone, and share a future outlook on this field. PMID:23507782

  15. Flip-flop resolving time test circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, F.; Chaney, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Integrated circuit (IC) flip-flop resolving time parameters are measured by wafer probing, without need of dicing or bonding, throught the incorporation of test structures on an IC together with the flip-flop to be measured. Several delays that are fabricated as part of the test circuit, including a voltage-controlled delay with a resolution of a few picosecs, are calibrated as part of the test procedure by integrating them into, and out of, the delay path of a ring oscillator. Each of the delay values is calculated by subtracting the period of the ring oscillator with the delay omitted from the period with the delay included. The delay measurement technique is sufficiently general for other applications. The technique is illustrated for the case of the flip-flop parameters of a 5-micron feature size NMOS circuit.

  16. Differential phase shift keyed signal resolver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, P. M.; Wallingford, W. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A differential phase shift keyed signal resolver resolves the differential phase shift in the incoming signal to determine the data content thereof overcoming phase uncertainty without requiring a transmitted reference signal.

  17. Improved Magnetic-Field-Component Resolvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. D.

    1982-01-01

    New resolvers for vectorially summing outputs of aircraft-mounted magnetometers are lighter and more economical to fabricate than conventional electromagnetic resolvers. One resolver is based on potentiometric principles, the second uses polarization filters, and the third has variable-capacitance elements. Optical, capacitive and potentiometric devices have applications in aircraft navigation systems.

  18. Phase-resolved cyclotron spectroscopy of polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ryan

    In this thesis we use phase-resolved cyclotron spectroscopy to study polars. Polars are a subset of cataclysmic variables where the primary WD is highly magnetic. In this case, the accretion flow is constrained along the magnetic field lines and eventually deposited on the WD, where the accreting material interacts with the atmosphere, forming a standing hydrodynamic shock at a location termed the accretion region, and emitting cyclotron radiation. Due to its field strength, cyclotron radiation from polars falls at either UV, optical or NIR wavelengths. While a substantial amount of optical cyclotron spectra have been published on polars, the NIR remains relatively unstudied. In this thesis, we present NIR spectroscopy for fifteen polars. Additionally, while a single cyclotron spectrum is needed to constrain the shock parameters, phase- resolved spectroscopy allows for a more in-depth analysis of the shock structure and the geometry of the accretion region. Of the fifteen polars observed, eight yielded spectra of adequate quality to be modeled in this manner: EF Eri, EQ Cet, AN UMa, VV Pup, AM Her, ST LMi, MR Ser, and MQ Dra. Initially, we used the industry standard "Constant Lambda (CL)" code to model each object. The code is fast, but produces only globally averaged values of the salient shock parameters: B - the magnetic field strength, kT - the plasma temperature, logL - the "size parameter" of the accretion column, and TH- the viewing angle between the observer and the magnetic field. For each object we present CL models for our NIR phase-resolved cyclotron spectra. Subsequently, we use a more advanced "Structured-Shock" code built by Fischer & Beuermann (2001)("F&B") to remodel three objects: EQ Cet, MQ Dra, and EF Eri. The F&B code allows for input of more physical parameters and most importantly does ray tracing through a simulated one-dimensional accretion column. To determine the outgoing spectrum, temperature and velocity profiles are needed to

  19. Resolving thermoelectric "paradox" in superconductors.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Connor D; Matrozova, Ekaterina A; Petrashov, Victor T

    2016-02-01

    For almost a century, thermoelectricity in superconductors has been one of the most intriguing topics in physics. During its early stages in the 1920s, the mere existence of thermoelectric effects in superconductors was questioned. In 1944, it was demonstrated that the effects may occur in inhomogeneous superconductors. Theoretical breakthrough followed in the 1970s, when the generation of a measurable thermoelectric magnetic flux in superconducting loops was predicted; however, a major crisis developed when experiments showed puzzling discrepancies with the theory. Moreover, different experiments were inconsistent with each other. This led to a stalemate in bringing theory and experiment into agreement. With this work, we resolve this stalemate, thus solving this long-standing "paradox," and open prospects for exploration of novel thermoelectric phenomena predicted recently. PMID:26933688

  20. Use of bioremediation to resolve a petroleum hydrocarbon contamination lawsuit

    SciTech Connect

    Gaglione, R.J.; Johnston, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Bioremediation was selected to remediate a public works site in the South Bay of San Diego County, California. The soil and groundwater at this site was contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and was the subject of extensive litigation. The parties agreed to resolve the dispute by using a combination of bioremediation and excavation/disposal. This paper includes an overview of the legal and technical issues involved in addressing the problems that were encountered and how those problems were solved. A model is presented for economically resolving environmental disputes in which the parties jointly agree to remediation of a site using bioremediation or similar techniques. This case study addresses the problems encountered because of the differing needs and goals of the legal and scientific communities. Notwithstanding the conflicts, it is demonstrated that the parties can, in most cases, work together toward remediation and resolution.

  1. Resolving the Issues with Flywheel Position Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fehrmann, Elizabeth A.

    2004-01-01

    pieces: a flat middle section to monitor vertical motion, and an angled section around the circumference, which, when observed from above, produces a sine-wave displacement through the entire 360" revolution. My first job when I arrived this summer was to calibrate the sensors that would be mounted on the inside of the flywheel casing to monitor the position (angular and vertical) of the shaft. After calibration, I used the sensors to evaluate voltage outputs created by position differences between two pairs of sensors on the angled portion of the resolver for eight different angular positions, moving the resolver vertically and laterally through its entire potential range of motion. The results of these tests will be used to determine the rotor angular (and axial) position from the sensor readings once the new flywheel unit is assembled. The sensorless algorighm mentioned above consists of two operations: the signal injection method and the back electro-motive force (EMF). The signal injection is meant to work at low speeds, while the back EMF algorithm is meant to work at higher speeds. Both work together to determine the correct estimate of rotor position and speed based on the measured motor/generator current. It was determined that we wanted to know exactly how accurate our estimation methods were, and so a resolver (a commercially available mechanical sensor mounted to the motor/generator shaft to measure rotor position and speed) and a "Resolver to Digital" (R2D) circuit board was purchased to make the comparison to the existing estimation. My work related to the R2D board has included the following: creating two connector cables (one to power the circuit and one to get readable output off the board), writing Simulink code to process the board's output, and building a dSpace panel to control and monitor the circuit. The next step in the process will be to perform tests to compare the estimated rotor position and speed from the sensorless algorithm to the actual

  2. Resolving Seamounts in Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, K. M.; Smith, W. H.

    2006-12-01

    We have examined three factors influencing the use of satellite altimeter data to map seamounts and guyots in the deep ocean: (1) the resolution of seamount and guyot gravity anomalies by altimetry; (2) the non-linearity of the relationship between gravity and bathymetry; and (3) the homogeneity of the mass density within the seamount or guyot. When altimeter data are used to model the marine gravity anomaly field the result may have limited resolution due to noise levels in the altimeter data, track spacing of the satellite profiles, inclination angles of the orbits, and filters used to combine and interpolate the data (Sandwell and Smith, JGR, 1997). We compared the peak-to-trough amplitude of gravity anomalies in Sandwell and Smith`'s version 15.1 field to peak-to-trough amplitudes measured by gravimeters on board ships. The satellite gravity field amplitudes match ship measurements well over seamounts and guyots having volumes exceeding ~2000 km3. Over smaller volume seamounts, where the anomalies have most of their power at quite short wavelengths, the satellite field under-estimates the anomaly amplitude. If less filtering could be done, or a new mission with a lower noise level were flown, more of the anomalies associated with small seamounts might be resolved. Smith and Sandwell (Science, 1997) predicted seafloor topography from altimetric gravity assuming that the density of seafloor topography is nearly constant over ~100 km distances, and that the relationship between gravity and topography may be approximated by a liner filter over those distances. In fact, the true theoretical relationship is non-linear (Parker, Geophys. J. R. astr. Soc, 1972); it can be expressed as an N-th order expansion, with the N=1 term representing a linear filter and the N>1 terms accounting for higher-order corrections. We find that N=2 is a sufficient approximation at both seamounts and guyots. Constant density models of large volume guyots do not fit the observed gravity

  3. Wave-Group Resolving vs Wave-Resolving Modeling of Surf and Swash Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelvink, J. A.; McCall, R. T.; Mehvar, S.; Dastgheib, A.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical modeling of beach and dune erosion, overwashing and breaching has gained much from inclusion of wave-group related infragravity motions in models such as XBeach (Roelvink et al, 2009). The main assumption in this model is that on the upper beach the incident-band, short waves are to a large extent dissipated, whereas infragravity wave motions have more oomph and are the ones making it to the dune foot and even over it. It is then justified to resolve the variations in short-wave energy and resulting long-wave motions, while parameterizing the short wave motions. This model has been applied successfully in many cases, both lab and field, concerning sandy beaches and dunes. However, as the sand gets coarser and beaches steeper, more and more incident wave energy is found in the swash, and at some point the parameterizations and associated coefficients start dominating the process. For gravel beaches, McCall et al (2014) have made use of a wave-resolving mode of XBeach, which makes use of a one-layer, nonhydrostatic approach developed by Zijlema et al. (2011). They have included a groundwater model and have shown that both the infiltration-exfiltration processes and the incident-band swash are important in getting the swash hydrodynamics on gravel beaches right. This work is continuing with promising results for morphodynamic response during extreme events. At the same time, we are investigating the skill of both approaches for wave runup and overtopping and are testing the morphodynamic behavior of the wave-resolving model in comparison with data and the original XBeach. So far, at the sandy end of the spectrum, both approaches give good and very similar results. In our presentation we will highlight some of these results and will present a sensitivity study where both approaches will be run and compared for a range of coastal profiles, including hard end structures. This will allow us to give clear guidelines for when to use the (much more computer

  4. Role of Evaluating MGMT Status and 1p36 Deletion in Radiosurgery-Induced Anaplastic Ependymoma That Rapidly and Completely Resolved by Temozolomide Alone: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hirono, Seiichiro; Iwadate, Yasuo; Kambe, Michiyo; Hiwasa, Takaki; Takiguchi, Masaki; Nakatani, Yukio; Saeki, Naokatsu

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic gamma knife surgery (GKS)-induced brain tumors are extremely rare, and no ependymal tumors induced by GKS have been reported. Therefore, little is known about their clinical, pathologic, and genetic features. In addition, a regimen of adjuvant chemotherapy for anaplastic ependymoma (AE) has not been established. A 77-year-old man presented with a gait disturbance and left-side cerebellar ataxia more than 19 years after GKS performed for a cerebellar arteriovenous malformation. Imaging studies demonstrated an enhancing mass in the irradiated field with signs of intraventricular dissemination. Surgical resection confirmed the diagnosis of AE. Temozolomide (TMZ) was administrated postoperatively because the methylated promoter region of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and 1p36 deletion were observed. Surprisingly, images 16 days after TMZ initiation demonstrated a complete resolution of the residual tumor that was maintained after three cycles of TMZ. This first case report of GKS-induced AE emphasizes the importance of genetic evaluation of MGMT and chromosomal deletion of 1p36 that are not commonly performed in primary ependymal tumors. In addition, it is speculated that a GKS-induced tumor may have a different genetic background compared with the primary tumor because the pathogenesis of the tumors differed. PMID:26251808

  5. Role of Evaluating MGMT Status and 1p36 Deletion in Radiosurgery-Induced Anaplastic Ependymoma That Rapidly and Completely Resolved by Temozolomide Alone: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Seiichiro; Iwadate, Yasuo; Kambe, Michiyo; Hiwasa, Takaki; Takiguchi, Masaki; Nakatani, Yukio; Saeki, Naokatsu

    2015-07-01

    Stereotactic gamma knife surgery (GKS)-induced brain tumors are extremely rare, and no ependymal tumors induced by GKS have been reported. Therefore, little is known about their clinical, pathologic, and genetic features. In addition, a regimen of adjuvant chemotherapy for anaplastic ependymoma (AE) has not been established. A 77-year-old man presented with a gait disturbance and left-side cerebellar ataxia more than 19 years after GKS performed for a cerebellar arteriovenous malformation. Imaging studies demonstrated an enhancing mass in the irradiated field with signs of intraventricular dissemination. Surgical resection confirmed the diagnosis of AE. Temozolomide (TMZ) was administrated postoperatively because the methylated promoter region of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and 1p36 deletion were observed. Surprisingly, images 16 days after TMZ initiation demonstrated a complete resolution of the residual tumor that was maintained after three cycles of TMZ. This first case report of GKS-induced AE emphasizes the importance of genetic evaluation of MGMT and chromosomal deletion of 1p36 that are not commonly performed in primary ependymal tumors. In addition, it is speculated that a GKS-induced tumor may have a different genetic background compared with the primary tumor because the pathogenesis of the tumors differed. PMID:26251808

  6. Regolith Volatile Characterization (RVC) in RESOLVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, Janine; Lueck, Dale; Gibson, Tracy; Levine, Lanfang

    2010-01-01

    used in the field demo for RESOLVE. The first modification was to decrease the weight associated with the GC, this included eliminating the explosion proof case (Figure 1) and replacing it with a lightweight case as well as using an on board COPV tank for the neon carrier gas. The next goal was to add a second oven for the molecular sieve column to allow for dual temperature control during GC operation; the separation of hydrogen and helium is optimum at lower temperatures while the water analysis required higher temperatures creating a competing design requirement. The second oven also allows a lower limit of detection for water quantification and avoids the possibility of water condensing in the GC which could ruin the column characteristics. The final goal was to modify the column arrangement to optimize the system for our specific application. Figure 2 shows the internal details of the module optimized optimized for our field application. The modifications and performance of the gas analysis system will be discussed in detail.

  7. D-terms on the resolved conifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Keshav; Franche, Paul; Knauf, Anke; Sully, James

    2009-04-01

    We derive a novel deformation of the warped resolved conifold background with supersymmetry breaking ISD (1,2) fluxes by adding D7-branes to this type IIB theory. We find spontaneous supersymmetry breaking without generating a bulk cosmological constant. In the compactified form, our background will no longer be a Calabi-Yau manifold as it allows a non-vanishing first Chern class. In the presence of D7-branes the (1,2) fluxes can give rise to non-trivial D-terms. We study the Ouyang embedding of D7-branes in detail and find that in this case the D-terms are indeed non-zero. In the limit when we approach the singular conifold, the D-terms vanish for Ouyang's embedding, although supersymmetry appears to be broken. We also construct the F-theory lift of our background and demonstrate how these IIB (1,2) fluxes lift to non-primitive (2,2) flux on the fourfold. The seven branes correspond to normalisable harmonic forms. We briefly sketch a possible way to attain an inflaton potential in this background once extra D3-branes are introduced and point out some possibilities of restoring supersymmetry in our background that could in principle be used as the end point of the inflationary set-up. In a companion paper we will analyse in details the inflationary dynamics in this background.

  8. Numerical solution of under-resolved detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosatto, Luca; Vigevano, Luigi

    2008-02-01

    A new fractional-step method is proposed for the numerical solution of high speed reacting flows, where the chemical time scales are often much smaller than the fluid dynamical time scales. When the problem is stiff, because of insufficient spatial/temporal resolution, a well-known spurious numerical phenomenon occurs in standard finite volume schemes: the incorrect calculation of the speed of propagation of discontinuities. The new method is first illustrated considering a one-dimensional scalar hyperbolic advection/reaction equation with stiff source term, which may be considered as a model problem to under-resolved detonations. During the reaction step, the proposed scheme replaces the cell average representation with a two-value reconstruction, which allows us to locate the discontinuity position inside the cell during the computation of the source term. This results in the correct propagation of discontinuities even in the stiff case. The method is proved to be second-order accurate for smooth solutions of scalar equations and is applied successfully to the solution of the one-dimensional reactive Euler equations for Chapman-Jouguet detonations.

  9. Four-phase differential phase shift resolver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, P. M.; Wallingford, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    Two systems have been developed to resolve phase uncertainty without transmitting reference signals. In both methods signal is impressed on carrier as differential, rather than absolute, phase shift. At the receiver four-phase demodulation and logic process unambiguously resolves differential phase shift of input carrier.

  10. Helping You Buy: Link Resolver Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Ross

    2006-01-01

    To any library with an electronic collection of any significance, the OpenURL link resolver has (or should) become an indispensable service for helping its users retrieve full text from citations. Although they are a relatively new technology (in library terms, at any rate), link resolvers arguably have become as important as the OPAC; they locate…

  11. High-resolving mass spectrographs and spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollnik, Hermann

    2015-11-01

    Discussed are different types of high resolving mass spectrographs and spectrometers. In detail outlined are (1) magnetic and electric sector field mass spectrographs, which are the oldest systems, (2) Penning Trap mass spectrographs and spectrometers, which have achieved very high mass-resolving powers, but are technically demanding (3) time-of-flight mass spectrographs using high energy ions passing through accelerator rings, which have also achieved very high mass-resolving powers and are equally technically demanding, (4) linear time-of-flight mass spectrographs, which have become the most versatile mass analyzers for low energy ions, while the even higher performing multi-pass systems have only started to be used, (5) orbitraps, which also have achieved remarkably high mass-resolving powers for low energy ions.

  12. Time-Resolved Photoluminescence and Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, W. K.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.; Dippo, P.; Geisz, J.; Wanlass, M. W.; Kurtz, S.

    2005-01-01

    The time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) technique and its ability to characterize recombination in bulk photovoltaic semiconductor materials are reviewed. Results from a variety of materials and a few recent studies are summarized and compared.

  13. Multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating

    SciTech Connect

    Siders, C.W.; Siders, J.L.W.; Omenetto, F.G.; Taylor, A.J.

    1999-04-01

    The authors review multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating (MI-FROG) as a technique, uniquely suited for pump-probe coherent spectroscopy using amplified visible and near-infrared short-pulse systems and/or emissive targets, for time-resolving ultrafast phase shifts and intensity changes. Application of polarization-gate MI-FROG to the study of ultrafast ionization in gases is presented.

  14. Resolving social conflict among females without overt aggression

    PubMed Central

    Cant, Michael A.; Young, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Members of animal societies compete over resources and reproduction, but the extent to which such conflicts of interest are resolved peacefully (without recourse to costly or wasteful acts of aggression) varies widely. Here, we describe two theoretical mechanisms that can help to understand variation in the incidence of overt behavioural conflict: (i) destruction competition and (ii) the use of threats. The two mechanisms make different assumptions about the degree to which competitors are socially sensitive (responsive to real-time changes in the behaviour of their social partners). In each case, we discuss how the model assumptions relate to biological reality and highlight the genetic, ecological and informational factors that are likely to promote peaceful conflict resolution, drawing on empirical examples. We suggest that, relative to males, reproductive conflict among females may be more frequently resolved peacefully through threats of punishment, rather than overt acts of punishment, because (i) offspring are more costly to produce for females and (ii) reproduction is more difficult to conceal. The main need now is for empirical work to test whether the mechanisms described here can indeed explain how social conflict can be resolved without overt aggression. PMID:24167306

  15. A quantum optomechanical interface beyond the resolved sideband limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, James S.; Khosla, Kiran; Madsen, Lars S.; Vanner, Michael R.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical oscillators which respond to radiation pressure are a promising means of transferring quantum information between light and matter. Optical–mechanical state swaps are a key operation in this setting. Existing proposals for optomechanical state swap interfaces are only effective in the resolved sideband limit. Here, we show that it is possible to fully and deterministically exchange mechanical and optical states outside of this limit, in the common case that the cavity linewidth is larger than the mechanical resonance frequency. This high-bandwidth interface opens up a significantly larger region of optomechanical parameter space, allowing generation of non-classical motional states of high-quality, low-frequency mechanical oscillators.

  16. Spectral resolvability of iterated rippled noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, William A.

    2005-04-01

    A forward-masking experiment was used to estimate the spectral ripple of iterated rippled noise (IRN) that is possibly resolved by the auditory system. Tonal signals were placed at spectral peaks and valleys of IRN maskers for a wide variety of IRN conditions that included different delays, number of iterations, and stimulus durations. The differences in the forward-masked thresholds of tones at spectral peaks and valleys were used to estimate spectral resolvability, and these results were compared to estimates obtained from a gamma-tone filter bank. The IRN spectrum has spectral peaks that are harmonics of the reciprocal of the delay used to generate IRN stimuli. As the number of iterations in the generation of IRN stimuli increases so does the difference in the spectral peak-to-valley ratio. For high number of iterations, long delays, and long durations evidence for spectral resolvability existed up to the 6th harmonic. For all other conditions spectral resolvability appeared to disappear at harmonics lower than the 6th, or was not measurable at all. These data will be discussed in terms of the role spectral resolvability might play in processing the pitch, pitch strength, and timbre of IRN stimuli. [Work supported by a grant from NIDCD.

  17. Time-resolved transillumination and optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haller, Emmanuel B.

    1996-01-01

    In response to an invitation by the editor-in-chief, I would like to present the current status of time-domain imaging. With exciting new photon diffusion techniques being developed in the frequency domain and promising optical coherence tomography, time-resolved transillumination is in constant evolution and the subject of passionate discussions during the numerous conferences dedicated to this subject. The purpose of time-resolved optical tomography is to provide noninvasive, high-resolution imaging of the interior of living bodies by the use of nonionizing radiation. Moreover, the use of visible to near-infrared wavelength yields metabolic information. Breast cancer screening is the primary potential application for time-resolved imaging. Neurology and tissue characterization are also possible fields of applications. Time- resolved transillumination and optical tomography should not only improve diagnoses, but the welfare of the patient. As no overview of this technique has yet been presented to my knowledge, this paper briefly describes the various methods enabling time-resolved transillumination and optical tomography. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods, as well as the clinical challenges they face are discussed. Although an analytic and computable model of light transport through tissues is essential for a meaningful interpretation of the transillumination process, this paper will not dwell on the mathematics of photon propagation.

  18. Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Franziska; Lübcke, Andrea; Heine, Nadja; Schultz, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    We present a novel setup for the investigation of ultrafast dynamic processes in a liquid jet using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. A magnetic-bottle type spectrometer with a high collection efficiency allows the very sensitive detection of photoelectrons emitted from a 10 μm thick liquid jet. This translates into good signal/noise ratio and rapid data acquisition making femtosecond time-resolved experiments feasible. We describe the experimental setup, a detailed spectrometer characterization based on the spectroscopy of nitric oxide in the gas phase, and results from femtosecond time-resolved experiments on sodium iodide solutions. The latter experiments reveal the formation and evolution of the solvated electron and we characterize two distinct spectral components corresponding to initially thermalized and unthermalized solvated electrons. The absence of dark states in photoionization, the direct measurement of electron binding energies, and the ability to resolve dynamic processes on the femtosecond time scale make time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy from the liquid jet a very promising method for the characterization of photochemical processes in liquids.

  19. Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Franziska; Lübcke, Andrea; Heine, Nadja; Schultz, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    We present a novel setup for the investigation of ultrafast dynamic processes in a liquid jet using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. A magnetic-bottle type spectrometer with a high collection efficiency allows the very sensitive detection of photoelectrons emitted from a 10 μm thick liquid jet. This translates into good signal/noise ratio and rapid data acquisition making femtosecond time-resolved experiments feasible. We describe the experimental setup, a detailed spectrometer characterization based on the spectroscopy of nitric oxide in the gas phase, and results from femtosecond time-resolved experiments on sodium iodide solutions. The latter experiments reveal the formation and evolution of the solvated electron and we characterize two distinct spectral components corresponding to initially thermalized and unthermalized solvated electrons. The absence of dark states in photoionization, the direct measurement of electron binding energies, and the ability to resolve dynamic processes on the femtosecond time scale make time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy from the liquid jet a very promising method for the characterization of photochemical processes in liquids. PMID:21133461

  20. The conforming brain and deontological resolve.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Melanie; LaViers, Lisa; Prietula, Michael J; Berns, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Our personal values are subject to forces of social influence. Deontological resolve captures how strongly one relies on absolute rules of right and wrong in the representation of one's personal values and may predict willingness to modify one's values in the presence of social influence. Using fMRI, we found that a neurobiological metric for deontological resolve based on relative activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) during the passive processing of sacred values predicted individual differences in conformity. Individuals with stronger deontological resolve, as measured by greater VLPFC activity, displayed lower levels of conformity. We also tested whether responsiveness to social reward, as measured by ventral striatal activity during social feedback, predicted variability in conformist behavior across individuals but found no significant relationship. From these results we conclude that unwillingness to conform to others' values is associated with a strong neurobiological representation of social rules. PMID:25170989

  1. Depth-resolved fluorescence of biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yicong; Xi, Peng; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Yim, So Fan; Yu, Mei-Yung; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2005-06-01

    The depth-resolved autofluorescence ofrabbit oral tissue, normal and dysplastic human ectocervical tissue within l20μm depth were investigated utilizing a confocal fluorescence spectroscopy with the excitations at 355nm and 457nm. From the topmost keratinizing layer of oral and ectocervical tissue, strong keratin fluorescence with the spectral characteristics similar to collagen was observed. The fluorescence signal from epithelial tissue between the keratinizing layer and stroma can be well resolved. Furthermore, NADH and FADfluorescence measured from the underlying non-keratinizing epithelial layer were strongly correlated to the tissue pathology. This study demonstrates that the depth-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy can reveal fine structural information on epithelial tissue and potentially provide more accurate diagnostic information for determining tissue pathology.

  2. The Conforming Brain and Deontological Resolve

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, Melanie; LaViers, Lisa; Prietula, Michael J.; Berns, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Our personal values are subject to forces of social influence. Deontological resolve captures how strongly one relies on absolute rules of right and wrong in the representation of one's personal values and may predict willingness to modify one's values in the presence of social influence. Using fMRI, we found that a neurobiological metric for deontological resolve based on relative activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) during the passive processing of sacred values predicted individual differences in conformity. Individuals with stronger deontological resolve, as measured by greater VLPFC activity, displayed lower levels of conformity. We also tested whether responsiveness to social reward, as measured by ventral striatal activity during social feedback, predicted variability in conformist behavior across individuals but found no significant relationship. From these results we conclude that unwillingness to conform to others' values is associated with a strong neurobiological representation of social rules. PMID:25170989

  3. Time resolved thermal lens in edible oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, T. A. S.; Pedreira, P. R. B.; Medina, A. N.; Pereira, J. R. D.; Bento, A. C.; Baesso, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    In this work time resolved thermal lens spectrometry is applied to investigate the optical properties of the following edible oils: soya, sunflower, canola, and corn oils. The experiments were performed at room temperature using the mode mismatched thermal lens configuration. The results showed that when the time resolved procedure is adopted the technique can be applied to investigate the photosensitivity of edible oils. Soya oil presented a stronger photochemical reaction as compared to the other investigated samples. This observation may be relevant for future studies evaluating edible oils storage conditions and also may contribute to a better understanding of the physical and chemical properties of this important foodstuff.

  4. Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Thuering, T.; Stampanoni, M.; Barber, W. C.; Iwanczyk, J. S.; Seo, Y.; Alhassen, F.

    2013-05-13

    Although compatible with polychromatic radiation, the sensitivity in X-ray phase contrast imaging with a grating interferometer is strongly dependent on the X-ray spectrum. We used an energy resolving detector to quantitatively investigate the dependency of the noise from the spectral bandwidth and to consequently optimize the system-by selecting the best energy band matching the experimental conditions-with respect to sensitivity maximization and, eventually, dose. Further, since theoretical calculations of the spectrum are usually limited due to non-ideal conditions, an energy resolving detector accurately quantifies the spectral changes induced by the interferometer including flux reduction and beam hardening.

  5. Lucas–Kanade fluid trajectories for time-resolved PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegavian, Robin; Leclaire, Benjamin; Champagnat, Frédéric; Illoul, Cédric; Losfeld, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new method for estimating fluid trajectories in time-resolved PIV. It relies on a Lucas–Kanade paradigm and consists in a simple and direct extension of a two-frame estimation with FOLKI-PIV (Champagnat et al 2011 Exp. Fluids 50 1169–82). The so-called Lucas–Kanade Fluid Trajectories (LKFT) are assumed to be polynomial in time, and are found as the minimizer of a global functional, in which displacements are sought so as to match the intensities of a series of images pairs in the sequence, in the least-squares sense. All pairs involve the central image, similar to other recent time-resolved approaches (FTC (Lynch and Scarano 2013 Meas. Sci. Technol. 24 035305) and FTEE (Jeon et al 2014 Exp. Fluids 55 1–16)). As switching from a two-frame to a time-resolved objective simply amounts to adding terms in a functional, no significant additional algorithmic element is required. Similar to FOLKI-PIV the method is very well suited for GPU acceleration, which is an important feature as computational complexity increases with the image sequence size. Tests on synthetic data exhibiting peak-locking show that increasing the image sequence size strongly reduces both associated bias and random error, and that LKFT has a remaining total error comparable to that of FTEE on this case. Results on case B of the third PIV challenge (Stanislas et al 2008 Exp. Fluids 45 27–71) also show its ability to drastically reduce the error in situations with low signal-to-noise ratio. These results are finally confirmed on experimental images acquired in the near-field of a low Reynolds number jet. Strong reductions in peak-locking, spatial and temporal noise compared to two-frame estimation are also observed, on the displacement components themselves, as well as on spatial or temporal derivatives, such as vorticity and material acceleration.

  6. Resolving subdwarf B stars in binaries by HST imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.; Moehler, S.; Napiwotzki, R.; Thejll, P.; Green, E. M.

    2002-03-01

    The origin of subluminous B stars is still an unsolved problem in stellar evolution. Single star as well as close binary evolution scenarios have been invoked but until now have met with little success. We have carried out a small survey of spectroscopic binary candidates (19 systems consisting of an sdB star and late type companion) with the Planetary Camera of the WFPC2 onboard Hubble Space Telescope to test these scenarios. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that by imaging the programme stars in the R-band about one third of the sample (6-7 stars) should be resolved at a limiting angular resolution of 0.1 arcsec if they have linear separations like main sequence stars (``single star evolution''). None should be resolvable if all systems were produced by close binary evolution. In addition we expect three triple systems to be present in our sample. Most of these, if not all, should be resolvable. Components were resolved in 6 systems with separations between 0.2 arcsec and 4.5 arcsec. However, only in the two systems TON 139 and PG 1718+519 (separations 0.32 arcsec and 0.24 arcsec, respectively) do the magnitudes of the resolved components match the expectations from the deconvolution of the spectral energy distribution. These two stars could be physical binaries whereas in the other cases the nearby star may be a chance projection or a third component. Radial velocity measurements indicate that the resolved system TON 139 is a triple system, with the sdB having a close companion that does not contribute detectably to the integrated light of the system. Radial velocity information for the second resolved system, PG 1718+519, is insufficient. Assuming that it is not a triple system, it would be the only resolved system in our sample. Accordingly the success rate would be only 5% which is clearly below the prediction for single star evolution. We conclude that the distribution of separations of sdB binaries deviates strongly from that of normal stars. Our results

  7. Resolving the percentage of component terrains within single resolution elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, S. E.; Switzer, P.; Kowalik, W. S.; Lyon, R. J. P.

    1980-01-01

    An approximate maximum likelihood technique employing a widely available discriminant analysis program is discussed that has been developed for resolving the percentage of component terrains within single resolution elements. The method uses all four channels of Landsat data simultaneously and does not require prior knowledge of the percentage of components in mixed pixels. It was tested in five cases that were chosen to represent mixtures of outcrop, soil and vegetation which would typically be encountered in geologic studies with Landsat data. For all five cases, the method proved to be superior to single band weighted average and linear regression techniques and permitted an estimate of the total area occupied by component terrains to within plus or minus 6% of the true area covered. Its major drawback is a consistent overestimation of the pixel component percent of the darker materials (vegetation) and an underestimation of the pixel component percent of the brighter materials (sand).

  8. A systematic format for resolving ethical issues in clinical periodontics.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Alexander J

    2012-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are becoming increasingly common in dentistry and periodontics. Clinicians, challenged with such dilemmas, may not know how to apply the appropriate moral reasoning needed to resolve these situations especially when any of the five fundamental principles of ethics that form the foundation of the American Dental Association Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct--patient autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity--come into conflict with each other. The author describes one clinical case that presented with an ethical dilemma. An analytic framework, used in medicine, is introduced and used to solve the clinical case on whether to proceed with periodontal surgery on a patient who is not aware of his terminal prognosis from metastatic prostate cancer. Upon using the analytic framework, recommendations are made on the ethically appropriate path for the periodontist to follow in providing care for the patient's periodontal problem consistent with the principles of patient autonomy, respect for persons, and veracity. PMID:23189804

  9. A Student Activity on Visual Resolving Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, T. H.; Henriksen, P. N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    We present a simple activity in which students measure the resolving power of their eyes. The approach can be used at various levels of sophistication with students having a wide variety of skills and scientific training. We discuss our experiences using this activity with a class of non-science majors as well as with a group of pre-engineering…

  10. Resolving Eta Carinae and It's Ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull Theodore R.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy of Eta Carinae and the Homunculus has led to considerable new insight on the excitation mechanisms, the elemental abundances, and the physical properties of ejecta from Eta Carinae. With HST/STIS we have been able to resolve the central source into many substructures.

  11. Resolvability and the Tetrahedral Configuration of Carbon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses evidence for the tetrahedral configuration of the carbon atom, indicating that three symmetrical configurations are theoretically possible for coordination number four. Includes table indicating that resolvability of compounds of type CR'R"R"'R"" is a necessary but not sufficient condition for proving tetrahedral configuration. (JN)

  12. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  13. Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy and Energy-Resolving Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhauer, Frank; Raab, Walfried

    2015-08-01

    Imaging spectroscopy has seen rapid progress over the past 25 years, leading to breakthroughs in many fields of astronomy that would not have been otherwise possible. This review overviews the visible/infrared imaging spectroscopy techniques as well as energy-resolving detectors. We introduce the working principle of scanning Fabry-Perot and Fourier transform spectrometers and explain the most common integral field concepts based on mirror slicers, lenslet arrays, and fibers. The main advantage of integral field spectrographs is the simultaneous measurement of spatial and spectral information. Although Fabry-Perot and Fourier transform spectrometers can provide a larger field of view, it is ultimately the higher sensitivity of integral field units that make them the technique of choice. This is arguably the case for image slicers, which make the most efficient use of the available detector pixels and have equal or higher transmission than lenslet arrays and fiber integral field units, respectively. We also address the more specific issues of large étendue operation, focal ratio degradation, anamorphic magnification, and diffraction-limited operation. This review also covers the emerging technology of energy-resolving detectors, which promise very simple and efficient instrument designs. These energy-resolving detectors are based on superconducting thin film technology and exploit either the very small superconducting energy to count the number of quasi-particles excited in the absorption of the photon or the extremely steep phase transition between the normal- and superconducting phase to measure a temperature increase. We have put special emphasis on an overview of the underlying physical phenomena as well as on the recent technological progress and astronomical path finder experiments.

  14. Time resolved astronomy with the SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, D. A. H.; Crawford, S.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; McPhate, J.; Nordsieck, K. H.; Potter, S. B.; O'Donoghue, D.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Schellart, P.; Spark, M.; Welsh, B. Y.; Zietsman, E.

    2010-07-01

    While time resolved astronomical observations are not new, the extension of such studies to sub-second time resolution is and has resulted in the opening of a new observational frontier, High Time Resolution Astronomy (HTRA). HTRA studies are well suited to objects like compact binary stars (CVs and X-ray binaries) and pulsars, while asteroseismology of pulsating stars, occultations, transits and the study of transients, will all benefit from such HTRA studies. HTRA has been a SALT science driver from the outset and the first-light instruments, namely the UV-VIS imager, SALTICAM, and the multi-purpose Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS), both have high time resolution modes. These are described, together with some observational examples. We also discuss the commissioning observations with the photon counting Berkeley Visible Image Tube camera (BVIT) on SALT. Finally we describe the software tools, developed in Python, to reduce SALT time resolved observations.

  15. Deflection evaluation using time-resolved radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.A.; Lucero, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Time-resolved radiography is the creation of an x-ray image for which both the start-exposure and stop-exposure times are known with respect to the event under study. The combination of image and timing are used to derive information about the event. We have applied time-resolved radiography to evaluate motions of explosive-driven events. In the particular application discussed here, our intent is to measure maximum deflections of the components involved. Exposures are made during the time just before to just after the event of interest occurs. A smear or blur of motion out to its furthest extent is recorded on the image. Comparison of the dynamic images with static images allows deflection measurements to be made. 2 figs.

  16. Time-resolved multiple probe spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Greetham, G. M.; Sole, D.; Clark, I. P.; Parker, A. W.; Pollard, M. R.; Towrie, M.

    2012-10-15

    Time-resolved multiple probe spectroscopy combines optical, electronic, and data acquisition capabilities to enable measurement of picosecond to millisecond time-resolved spectra within a single experiment, using a single activation pulse. This technology enables a wide range of dynamic processes to be studied on a single laser and sample system. The technique includes a 1 kHz pump, 10 kHz probe flash photolysis-like mode of acquisition (pump-probe-probe-probe, etc.), increasing the amount of information from each experiment. We demonstrate the capability of the instrument by measuring the photolysis of tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO){sub 6}) monitored by IR absorption spectroscopy, following picosecond vibrational cooling of product formation through to slower bimolecular diffusion reactions on the microsecond time scale.

  17. WAVELENGTH-RESOLVED REMPI MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE MONITORING OF TOXIC INCINERATION TRACE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Structure-selective measurement techniques are needed for the assessment of the toxic loading of incinerator gases. This review article shows that wavelength-resolved, resonance-enhanced, multiphoton- ionization (REMPY) mass spectrometry can be used to this end. In this case, how...

  18. On types of the resolvent of a complete second order differential operator

    SciTech Connect

    Ospanov, Kordan Nauryzkhanovich

    2015-09-18

    In this work we consider the complete second order differential operator, the intermediate coefficient of which is growing rapidly. We find the conditions when its resolvent is compact or belongs to Schatten class, in particular, it is a nuclear operator. The most accurate results are obtained when the coefficient oscillates weakly. In this case we shown that the operator is separable.

  19. Time-resolved circularly polarized protein phosphorescence.

    PubMed Central

    Schauerte, J A; Steel, D G; Gafni, A

    1992-01-01

    The existence of circular polarization in room-temperature protein phosphorescence is demonstrated, and time-resolved circularly polarized phosphorescence (TR-CPP) is used to characterize unique tryptophan environments in multitryptophan proteins. Circularly polarized luminescence studies provide information regarding the excited state chirality of a lumiphore which can be used to extract sensitive structural information. It is shown by time resolving the circular polarization that it is possible to correlate the excited state chirality with unique decay components in a multiexponential phosphorescence decay profile. The present study presents a concurrent analysis of room-temperature time-resolved phosphorescence and TR-CPP of bacterial glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase as well as those of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase. Only one of the two tryptophan residues per subunit of dimeric alcohol dehydrogenase is believed to phosphorescence, while the dimeric glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase has eight tryptophan residues per subunit and shows a corresponding complexity in its phosphorescence decay profile. The anisotropy factor [g(em) = delta I/(Itotal/2); delta I = Ileft circular-Iright circular] for alcohol dehydrogenase is time independent, suggesting a unique excited state chirality. The phosphorescence decay of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase can be well fitted with four exponential terms of 4, 23, 76, and 142 msec, and the TR-CPP of this enzyme shows a strong time dependence that can be resolved into four individual time-independent anisotropy factors of -4.0, -2.1, +6.5, and +6.9 (x10(-3)), each respectively associated with one of the four lifetime components. These results demonstrate how the use of TR-CPP can facilitate the study of proteins with multiple lumiphores. PMID:1438204

  20. Resolving Bias in Laser Ablation Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, James; Horstwood, Matthew; Gehrels, George

    2013-06-01

    Increasingly, scientific investigations requiring geochronology utilize laser ablation (LA)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), taking advantage of the efficiency and throughput possible for uranium-thorium-lead (U-Th-Pb) dating. A number of biases exist when comparing data among laboratories and an ongoing community-based effort is working to resolve and eliminate these biases to improve the accuracy of scientific interpretation based on these data.

  1. The Mass Census for RESOLVE and ECO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Kathleen D.; Kannappan, Sheila; Stark, David; Moffett, Amanda J.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Baker, Ashley; Lagos, Claudia; Norris, Mark A.; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    We quantify the stellar, baryonic, and dynamical mass census for galaxies and groups in the volume-limited RESOLVE and ECO surveys, which are complete for galaxies with baryonic mass >10^9 Msun. First, we present optimized methods of stellar and gas mass estimation based on newly reprocessed multi-wavelength imaging, deep fractional mass-limited 21cm data, and a probability density field approach to the photometric gas fractions technique. Second, we examine the stellar and baryonic mass functions for RESOLVE and ECO, including an analysis of how galaxy mass functions vary between distinct, physically motivated group halo mass regimes. These "conditional" mass functions display complex substructure suggesting that the galaxy population is shaped through satellite destruction and merging during the process of multiple-occupancy group formation. Third, we present the group-integrated stellar and baryonic mass functions and examine the cold baryon fraction of groups as a function of group halo mass. We find that group halo mass measurements based on abundance matching and dynamical mass estimates sometimes disagree, pointing to the existence of a wide range of cold baryon fractions in groups at intermediate halo mass. Finally, we provide a brief overview of RESOLVE's dynamical mass census, which relies on new 3D optical spectroscopy probing both stellar and gas kinematics. This work has been supported by the NSF through grants AST-0955368 and OCI-1156614, the NC Space Grant Graduate Research Fellowship Program, and a UNC Royster Society of Fellows Dissertation Completion Fellowship.

  2. Frequency resolving power of the human's hearing.

    PubMed

    Supin AYa; Popov, V V; Milekhina, O N

    1994-01-01

    Frequency resolving power (FRP) of the human's hearing was measured using the rippled noise as a probe. To examine the ripple discrimination, a phase-reversal test was used: the rippled noise was replaced by that with the opposite peak and through positions. This switch can be detected only when rippled structure of the noise spectrum is discriminated. The highest ripple density when the switch was detectable was taken as a FRP measure. Narrow-band rippled spectra were used to measure the FRP within a frequency range of 0.175 to 11 kHz. The highest resolvable ripple density in absolute measure (ripples number per kHz) was about 21/kHz at frequencies below 0.5 kHz and fell down at higher frequencies. Resolvable ripple density in relative measure (central frequency divided by ripple spacing) was about 22 relative units at frequencies above 2.8 kHz and fell down at lower frequencies. PMID:8015725

  3. Photon-number-resolving superconducting nanowire detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Francesco; Zhou, Zili; Gaggero, Alessandro; Gaudio, Rosalinda; Jahanmirinejad, Saeedeh; Sahin, Döndü; Marsili, Francesco; Leoni, Roberto; Fiore, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, photon-number-resolving (PNR) detectors have attracted great interest, mainly because they can play a key role in diverse application fields. A PNR detector with a large dynamic range would represent an ideal photon detector, bringing the linear response of conventional analogue detectors down to the single-photon level. Several technologies, such as InGaAs single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs), arrays of silicon photomultipliers, InGaAs SPADs with self-differencing circuits and transition edge sensors have shown photon number resolving capability. Superconducting nanowires provide free-running single-photon sensitivity from visible to mid-infrared frequencies, low dark counts, excellent timing resolution (<60 ps) and short dead time (˜10 ns), at an easily accessible temperature (2-3 K), but they do not inherently resolve the photon number. In this framework, PNR detectors based on arrays of superconducting nanowires have been proposed. In this article we describe a number of methods and device configurations that have been pursued to obtain PNR capability using superconducting nanowire detectors.

  4. Diagnosis of meningioma by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Butte, Pramod V; Pikul, Brian K; Hever, Aviv; Yong, William H; Black, Keith L; Marcu, Laura

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the use of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) as an adjunctive tool for the intraoperative rapid evaluation of tumor specimens and delineation of tumor from surrounding normal tissue. Tissue autofluorescence is induced with a pulsed nitrogen laser (337 nm, 1.2 ns) and the intensity decay profiles are recorded in the 370 to 500 nm spectral range with a fast digitizer (0.2 ns resolution). Experiments are conducted on excised specimens (meningioma, dura mater, cerebral cortex) from 26 patients (97 sites). Spectral intensities and time-dependent parameters derived from the time-resolved spectra of each site are used for tissue characterization. A linear discriminant analysis algorithm is used for tissue classification. Our results reveal that meningioma is characterized by unique fluorescence characteristics that enable discrimination of tumor from normal tissue with high sensitivity (>89%) and specificity (100%). The accuracy of classification is found to increase (92.8% cases in the training set and 91.8% in the cross-validated set correctly classified) when parameters from both the spectral and the time domain are used for discrimination. Our findings establish the feasibility of using TR-LIFS as a tool for the identification of meningiomas and enables further development of real-time diagnostic tools for analyzing surgical tissue specimens of meningioma or other brain tumors. PMID:16409091

  5. Time Resolved Raman and Fluorescence Spectrometer for Planetary Mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Rossman, George

    2010-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a prime candidate for the next generation of planetary instruments, as it addresses the primary goal of mineralogical analysis which is structure and composition. It does not require sample preparation and provides unique mineral fingerprints, even for mixed phase samples. However, large fluorescence return from many mineral samples under visible light excitation can seriously compromise the quality of the spectra or even render Raman spectra unattainable. Fluorescence interference is likely to be a problem on Mars and is evident in Raman spectra of Martian Meteorites[1]. Our approach uses time resolution for elimination of fluorescence from Raman spectra, allowing for traditional visible laser excitation (532 nm). Since Raman occurs instantaneously with the laser pulse and fluorescence lifetimes vary from nsec to msec depending on the mineral, it is possible to separate them out in time. Complementary information can also be obtained simultaneously using the time resolved fluorescence data. The Simultaneous Spectral Temporal Adaptive Raman Spectrometer (SSTARS) is a planetary instrument under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, capable of time-resolved in situ Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. A streak camera and pulsed miniature microchip laser provide psec scale time resolution. Our ability to observe the complete time evolution of Raman and fluorescence in minerals provides a foundation for design of pulsed Raman and fluorescence spectrometers in diverse planetary environments. We will discuss the SSTARS instrument design and performance capability. We will also present time-resolved pulsed Raman spectra collected from a relevant set of minerals selected using available data on Mars mineralogy[2]. Of particular interest are minerals resulting from aqueous alteration on Mars. For comparison, we will present Raman spectra obtained using a commercial continuous wave (CW) green (514 nm) Raman system. In many cases using a CW laser

  6. PREFACE: Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Lin, Nian

    2010-07-01

    Scanning tunnelling microscopy has revolutionized our ability to image, manipulate, and investigate solid surfaces on the length scale of individual atoms and molecules. The strength of this technique lies in its imaging capabilities, since for many scientists 'seeing is believing'. However, scanning tunnelling microscopy also suffers from a severe limitation, namely its poor time resolution. Recording a scanning tunnelling microscopy image typically requires a few tens of seconds for a conventional scanning tunnelling microscope to a fraction of a second for a specially designed fast scanning tunnelling microscope. Designing and building such a fast scanning tunnelling microscope is a formidable task in itself and therefore, only a limited number of these microscopes have been built [1]. There is, however, another alternative route to significantly enhance the time resolution of a scanning tunnelling microscope. In this alternative method, the tunnelling current is measured as a function of time with the feedback loop switched off. The time resolution is determined by the bandwidth of the IV converter rather than the cut-off frequency of the feedback electronics. Such an approach requires a stable microscope and goes, of course, at the expense of spatial information. In this issue, we have collected a set of papers that gives an impression of the current status of this rapidly emerging field [2]. One of the very first attempts to extract information from tunnel current fluctuations was reported by Tringides' group in the mid-1990s [3]. They showed that the collective diffusion coefficient can be extracted from the autocorrelation of the time-dependent tunnelling current fluctuations produced by atom motion in and out of the tunnelling junction. In general, current-time traces provide direct information on switching/conformation rates and distributions of residence times. In the case where these processes are thermally induced it is rather straightforward to map

  7. Observations of Rotationally Resolved C3 in Translucent Sight Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ádámkovics, Máté; Blake, Geoffrey A.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2003-09-01

    The rotationally resolved spectrum of the A1Πu<--X1Σ+g 000-000 transition of C3, centered at 4051.6 Å, has been observed along 10 translucent lines of sight. To interpret these spectra, a new method for the determination of column densities and analysis of excitation profiles involving the simulation and fitting of observed spectra has been developed. The populations of lower rotational levels (J<=14) in C3 are best fitted by thermal distributions that are consistent with the kinetic temperatures determined from the excitation profile of C2. Just as in the case of C2, higher rotational levels (J>14) of C3 show increased nonthermal population distributions in clouds that have been determined to have total gas densities below ~500 cm-3.

  8. Simulations of Non-resolved, Infrared Imaging of Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jim, K.; Kuluhiwa, K.; Scott, B. Knox, R.; Frith, J.; Gibson, B.

    Simulations of near-infrared, non-resolved imaging of earth-orbiting satellites during nighttime and daytime were created to consider the feasibility of such observations. By using the atmospheric radiative transfer code MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission), we incorporate site-specific mean weather conditions for several possible locations. In general, the dominant effect to be modeled is the sky radiance, which has a strong dependence upon the solar angle and the nature of the distribution of aerosols. Other significant effects included in the model are telescope design, camera design, and detector selection. The simulations are used in turn to predict the signal to noise ratio (SNR) in standard astronomical filter bands for several test cases of satellite-sun-observer geometries. The SNR model is then used to devise a method to design an optimal filter band for these observations.

  9. An optimal resolved rate law for kindematically redundant manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourgeois, B. J.

    1987-01-01

    The resolved rate law for a manipulator provides the instantaneous joint rates required to satisfy a given instantaneous hand motion. When the joint space has more degrees of freedom than the task space, the manipulator is kinematically redundant and the kinematic rate equations are underdetermined. These equations can be locally optimized, but the resulting pseudo-inverse solution was found to cause large joint rates in some case. A weighting matrix in the locally optimized (pseudo-inverse) solution is dynamically adjusted to control the joint motion as desired. Joint reach limit avoidance is demonstrated in a kinematically redundant planar arm model. The treatment is applicable to redundant manipulators with any number of revolute joints and to nonplanar manipulators.

  10. Fully resolved simulation of self-propulsion of aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curet, Oscar M.; Alali, Ibrahim; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Maciver, Malcolm A.

    2008-11-01

    We present a computational approach for fully resolved simulation of self-propulsion of organisms through a fluid. Our implicit algorithm solves for the translational and rotational motion of the organism for prescribed deformation kinematics. In addition, the solution for the surrounding flow field is also obtained. The approach is easy to apply to the body forms of a variety of organisms. Our final goal is to use this computational tool to help in understanding the mechanisms of movement and its control in aquatic animals. In this abstract we present validation of this method for different organisms. To validate the method with respect to analytical solutions, we consider two cases: 1) a flagellum which propagates plane waves, and 2) a flagellum that propagates helical waves. To validate the method with respect to empirical measurements we consider data from two organisms: 1) jellyfish (data from John Dabiri at Caltech), and 2) zebrafish (data from Melina Hale at The University of Chicago).

  11. Warped resolved L{sup a,b,c} cones

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetic, Mirjam; Vazquez-Poritz, J. F.

    2008-06-15

    We construct supergravity solutions describing a stack of D3-branes localized at a point on a blown-up cycle of a resolved L{sup a,b,c} cone. The geometry flows from AdS{sub 5}xL{sup a,b,c} to AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}/Z{sub k}. The corresponding quiver gauge theory undergoes a renormalization group flow between two superconformal fixed points, which leads to semi-infinite chains of flows between the various L{sup a,b,c} fixed points. The general system is described by a triplet of Heun equations, which can each be solved by an expansion with a three-term recursion relation, though there are closed-form solutions for certain cases. This enables us to read off the operators that acquire nonzero vacuum expectation values as the quiver gauge theory flows away from a fixed point.

  12. An optimal resolved rate law for kinematically redundant manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourgeois, B. J.

    1987-01-01

    The resolved rate law for a manipulator provides the instantaneous joint rates required to satisfy a given instantaneous hand motion. When the joint space has more degrees of freedom than the task space, the manipulator is kinematically redundant and the kinematic rate equations are underdetermined. These equations can be locally optimized, but the resulting pseudo-inverse solution has been found to cause large joint rates in some cases. A weighting matrix in the locally optimized (pseudo-inverse) solution is dynamically adjusted to control the joint motion as desired. Joint reach limit avoidance is demonstrated in a kinematically redundant planar arm model. The treatment is applicable to redundant manipulators with any number of revolute joints and to non-planar manipulators.

  13. Time-resolved air monitoring using Fourier absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, H.W.

    1995-12-31

    Two categories where spectroscopic techniques excel are the capabilities to perform air analyses in situ and to obtain data at very high time resolutions. Because of these features, the Department of Pesticide Regulation augmented its extensive air monitoring capabilities with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer using open-path optical systems for time resolved ambient air monitoring. A description of the instrumentation and the data analysis procedures will be presented based on two data sets obtained with this FTIR system. In one case, a 100 m folded optical path was used to measure methyl bromide concentrations after fumigation in a warehouse with a time resolution of 15 min and a detection limit of 0.2 ppm. And trying to assess the capability of this FTIR spectrometer to determine flux, water vapor concentrations were measured with a four-meter path length at a time resolution of 0.6 seconds.

  14. Broadband Mid-Infrared Comb-Resolved Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kevin; Mills, Andrew; Mohr, Christian; Jiang, Jie; Fermann, Martin; Maslowski, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    We report on a comb-resolved, broadband, direct-comb spectroscopy system in the mid-IR and its application to the detection of trace gases and molecular line shape analysis. By coupling an optical parametric oscillator (OPO), a 100 m multipass cell, and a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), sensitive, comb-resolved broadband spectroscopy of dilute gases is possible. The OPO has radiation output at 3.1-3.7 and 4.5-5.5 μm. The laser repetition rate is scanned to arbitrary values with 1 Hz accuracy around 417 MHz. The comb-resolved spectrum is produced with an absolute frequency axis depending only on the RF reference (in this case a GPS disciplined oscillator), stable to 1 part in 10^9. The minimum detectable absorption is 1.6x10-6 wn Hz-1/2. The operating range of the experimental setup enables access to strong fundamental transitions of numerous molecular species for applications based on trace gas detection such as environmental monitoring, industrial gas calibration or medical application of human breath analysis. In addition to these capabilities, we show the application for careful line shape analysis of argon-broadened CO band spectra around 4.7 μm. Fits of the obtained spectra clearly illustrate the discrepancy between the measured spectra and the Voigt profile (VP), indicating the need to include effects such as Dicke narrowing and the speed-dependence of the collisional width and shift in the line shape model, as was shown in previous cw-laser studies. In contrast to cw-laser based experiments, in this case the entire spectrum (˜ 250 wn) covering the whole P and R branches can be measured in 16 s with 417 MHz resolution, decreasing the acquisition time by orders of magnitude. The parallel acquisition allows collection of multiple lines simultaneously, removing the correlation of possible temperature and pressure drifts. While cw-systems are capable of measuring spectra with higher precision, this demonstration opens the door for fast

  15. Numerical simulations of altocumulus with a cloud resolving model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.; Krueger, S.K.

    1996-04-01

    Altocumulus and altostratus clouds together cover approximately 22% of the earth`s surface. They play an important role in the earth`s energy budget through their effect on solar and infrared radiation. However, there has been little altocumulus cloud investigation by either modelers or observational programs. Starr and Cox (SC) (1985a,b) simulated an altostratus case as part of the same study in which they modeled a thin layer of cirrus. Although this calculation was originally described as representing altostratus, it probably better represents altocumulus stratiformis. In this paper, we simulate altocumulus cloud with a cloud resolving model (CRM). We simply describe the CRM first. We calculate the same middle-level cloud case as SC to compare our results with theirs. We will look at the role of cloud-scale processes in response to large-scale forcing. We will also discuss radiative effects by simulating diurnal and nocturnal cases. Finally, we discuss the utility of a 1D model by comparing 1D simulations and 2D simulations.

  16. Resolving the question of color naming universals

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Paul; Regier, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The existence of cross-linguistic universals in color naming is currently contested. Early empirical studies, based principally on languages of industrialized societies, suggested that all languages may draw on a universally shared repertoire of color categories. Recent work, in contrast, based on languages from nonindustrialized societies, has suggested that color categories may not be universal. No comprehensive objective tests have yet been conducted to resolve this issue. We conduct such tests on color naming data from languages of both industrialized and nonindustrialized societies and show that strong universal tendencies in color naming exist across both sorts of language. PMID:12855768

  17. Focal axis resolver for offset reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Described are electrical means for determining the focal axis of an offset reflector antenna whose physical rim is not coincident with the boundary of the electrical aperture. Even and odd sensing functions are employed in the focal region, leading to both amplitude and phase criteria for resolving a focal axis generally inclined with respect to the system axis. The analytical aspects of the problem are discussed, and an example related to a 4-meter Large-Antenna Multiple-Frequency Microwave Radiometer (LAMMR) is included. The technique is useful for focal axis determination in mathematical simulations and in the physical world.

  18. Ultrafast Time-Resolved Photoelectric Emission.

    PubMed

    Juffmann, Thomas; Klopfer, Brannon B; Skulason, Gunnar E; Kealhofer, Catherine; Xiao, Fan; Foreman, Seth M; Kasevich, Mark A

    2015-12-31

    The emission times of laser-triggered electrons from a sharp tungsten tip are directly characterized under ultrafast, near-infrared laser excitation at Keldysh parameters of 6.6<γ<19.1. Emission delays up to 10 fs are observed, which are inferred from the energy gain of photoelectrons emitted into a synchronously driven microwave cavity. Few femtosecond timing resolution is achieved in a configuration capable of measuring timing shifts up to 55 ps. The technique can also be used to measure the microwave phase inside the cavity with a precision below 70 fs upon the energy resolved detection of a single electron. PMID:26764997

  19. Partially resolved super transition array method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brian G.; Iglesias, Carlos A.; Chen, Mau H.

    2015-03-01

    The partially resolved transition array model for radiative transitions between ordinary electronic configurations is extended to the super configuration approach. The specific application incorporates intermediate coupling effects into transition arrays to describe the transition from LS to JJ coupling without the ad hoc approximations introduced in past formulations. More generally, the extended concept permits stepwise refinement of the super transition array method towards the line-by-line limit in ordinary configurations. Thus, the formalism forms a framework for a hybrid scheme to combine detailed line accounting and statistical methods.

  20. Resolving the Azimuthal Ambiguity in Vector Magnetogram Data with the Divergence-Free Condition: Theoretical Examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, A.; Barnes, G.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that the azimuthal ambiguity that is present in solar vector magnetogram data can be resolved with line-of-sight and horizontal heliographic derivative information by using the divergence-free property of magnetic fields without additional assumptions. We discuss the specific derivative information that is sufficient to resolve the ambiguity away from disk center, with particular emphasis on the line-of-sight derivative of the various components of the magnetic field. Conversely, we also show cases where ambiguity resolution fails because sufficient line-of-sight derivative information is not available. For example, knowledge of only the line-of-sight derivative of the line-of-sight component of the field is not sufficient to resolve the ambiguity away from disk center.

  1. Error-measure for anisotropic grid-adaptation in turbulence-resolving simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toosi, Siavash; Larsson, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Grid-adaptation requires an error-measure that identifies where the grid should be refined. In the case of turbulence-resolving simulations (DES, LES, DNS), a simple error-measure is the small-scale resolved energy, which scales with both the modeled subgrid-stresses and the numerical truncation errors in many situations. Since this is a scalar measure, it does not carry any information on the anisotropy of the optimal grid-refinement. The purpose of this work is to introduce a new error-measure for turbulence-resolving simulations that is capable of predicting nearly-optimal anisotropic grids. Turbulent channel flow at Reτ ~ 300 is used to assess the performance of the proposed error-measure. The formulation is geometrically general, applicable to any type of unstructured grid.

  2. Time Resolved Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; H. Kugel; A.L. Roquemore; J. Hogan; W.R. Wampler; the NSTX team

    2004-08-03

    Time-resolved measurements of deposition in current tokamaks are crucial to gain a predictive understanding of deposition with a view to mitigating tritium retention and deposition on diagnostic mirrors expected in next-step devices. Two quartz crystal microbalances have been installed on NSTX at a location 0.77m outside the last closed flux surface. This configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. The deposits were analyzed ex-situ and found to be dominantly carbon, oxygen, and deuterium. A rear facing quartz crystal recorded deposition of lower sticking probability molecules at 10% of the rate of the front facing one. Time resolved measurements over a 4-week period with 497 discharges, recorded 29.2 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} of deposition, however surprisingly, 15.9 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} of material loss occurred at 7 discharges. The net deposited mass of 13.3 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} matched the mass of 13.5 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} measured independently by ion beam analysis. Monte Carlo modeling suggests that transient processes are likely to dominate the deposition.

  3. Multiresolution foveated laparoscope with high resolvability

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yi; Hua, Hong; Nguyen, Mike

    2016-01-01

    A key limitation of the state-of-the-art laparoscopes for minimally invasive surgery is the tradeoff between the field of view and spatial resolution in a single-view camera system. As such, surgical procedures are usually performed at a zoomed-in view, which limits the surgeon’s ability to see much outside the immediate focus of interest and causes a situational awareness challenge. We proposed a multiresolution foveated laparoscope (MRFL) aiming to address this limitation. The MRFL is able to simultaneously capture wide-angle overview and high-resolution images in real time; it can scan and engage the high-resolution images to any subregion of the entire surgical field in analogy to the fovea of human eye. The MRFL is able to render equivalently 10 million pixel resolution with a low data bandwidth requirement. The system has a large working distance (WD) from 80 to 180 mm. The spatial resolvability is about 45 μm in the object space at an 80 mm WD, while the resolvability of a conventional laparoscope is about 250 μm at a typically 50 mm surgical distance. PMID:23811873

  4. Multiresolution foveated laparoscope with high resolvability.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yi; Hua, Hong; Nguyen, Mike

    2013-07-01

    A key limitation of the state-of-the-art laparoscopes for minimally invasive surgery is the tradeoff between the field of view and spatial resolution in a single-view camera system. As such, surgical procedures are usually performed at a zoomed-in view, which limits the surgeon's ability to see much outside the immediate focus of interest and causes a situational awareness challenge. We proposed a multiresolution foveated laparoscope (MRFL) aiming to address this limitation. The MRFL is able to simultaneously capture wide-angle overview and high-resolution images in real time; it can scan and engage the high-resolution images to any subregion of the entire surgical field in analogy to the fovea of human eye. The MRFL is able to render equivalently 10 million pixel resolution with a low data bandwidth requirement. The system has a large working distance (WD) from 80 to 180 mm. The spatial resolvability is about 45 μm in the object space at an 80 mm WD, while the resolvability of a conventional laparoscope is about 250 μm at a typically 50 mm surgical distance. PMID:23811873

  5. Resolving the Moth at Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchêne, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

    2013-09-01

    HD 61005, also known as "The Moth," is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back "wings" thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the "wings" observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

  6. RESOLVING THE MOTH AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchene, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

    2013-09-01

    HD 61005, also known as ''The Moth'', is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back ''wings'' thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the ''wings'' observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

  7. Versatile approach for frequency resolved wavefront characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frumker, Eugene; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Niikura, Hiromichi; Villeneuve, David M.; Corkum, Paul B.

    2011-03-01

    Spatial characterization of high harmonics (HH) and XUV coherent radiation is of paramount importance, along with its temporal characterization. For many applications it will be necessary to accurately measure the beam properties, just as it is important to know the beam characteristics for many laser experiments. For example, high harmonics and attosecond pulses are being proposed as a front-end for the next generation X-ray free electron lasers. This oscillator-amplifier-like arrangement will require well characterized high harmonic sources. On the other hand, the electromagnetic radiation carries the combined signature of underlying quantum physical processes at the molecular level and of the cooperative phase matching. For example, accurate reconstruction of the high harmonic spatial wavefront, along with its temporal profile, gives us a complete range of tools to apply to the fundamental quantum properties and dynamics associated with high harmonic generation. We present a new concept of frequency resolved wavefront characterization that is particularly suitable for characterizing XUV radiation. In keeping with tradition in the area we give it an acronym - SWORD (Spectral Wavefront Optical Reconstruction by Diffraction). Our approach is based on an analysis of the diffraction pattern of a slit situated in front of a flat-field spectrometer. As the slit is scanned, the spectrally resolved diffraction pattern is recorded. Analyzing the measured diffractogram, we can reconstruct the wavefront. The technique can be easily extended beyond the XUV spectral region. When combined with temporal characterization techniques all information about the beam can be measured.

  8. Rotationally resolved infrared spectroscopy of adamantane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirali, O.; Boudon, V.; Oomens, J.; Vervloet, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first rotationally resolved spectra of adamantane (C10H16) applying gas-phase Fourier transform infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy. High-resolution IR spectra are recorded in the 33-4500 cm-1range using as source of IR radiation both synchrotron radiation (at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron) as well as a classical globar. Adamantane is a spherical top molecule with tetrahedral symmetry (Td point group) and has no permanent dipole moment in its vibronic ground state. Of the 72 fundamental vibrational modes in adamantane, only 11 are IR active. Here we present rotationally resolved spectra for seven of them: ν30, ν28, ν27, ν26, ν25, ν24, and ν23. The typical rotational structure of spherical tops is observed and analyzed using the STDS software developed in the Dijon group, which provides the first accurate energy levels and rotational constants for seven fundamental modes. Rotational levels with quantum numbers as high as J = 107 have been identified and included in the fit leading to a typical standard deviation of about 10-3 cm-1.

  9. Infrared Pyrometry From Room Temperature To 700 Degrees C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Donald R.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.

    1989-01-01

    Consistent readings obtained when specimens prepared appropriately. New method largely overcomes limitations. Transmission of infrared increased by replacing customary metal-coated glass viewing port with quartz viewing port covered with tantalum mesh. Commercially available infrared microscope with focal distance of 53 cm focuses on spot only 1 mm wide on specimen. Microscope operated as radiometer. Output of detector varies by several orders of magnitude, processed by logarithmic amplifier before reading.

  10. Acoustic Pyrometry Applied to Gas Turbines and Jet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.

    1999-01-01

    Internal gas temperature is one of the most fundamental parameters related to engine efficiency and emissions production. The most common methods for measuring gas temperature are physical probes, such as thermocouples and thermistors, and optical methods, such as Coherent Anti Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) or Rayleigh scattering. Probes are relatively easy to use, but they are intrusive, their output must be corrected for errors due to radiation and conduction, and their upper use temperature is limited. Optical methods are nonintrusive, and they measure some intrinsic property of the gas that is directly related to its temperature (e.g., lifetime or the ratio of line strengths). However, optical methods are usually difficult to use, and optical access is not always available. Lately, acoustic techniques have been receiving some interest as a way to overcome these limitations.

  11. Correction-free pyrometry in radiant wall furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Andrew S. W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A specular, spherical, or near-spherical target is located within a furnace having inner walls and a viewing window. A pyrometer located outside the furnace 'views' the target through pyrometer optics and the window, and it is positioned so that its detector sees only the image of the viewing window on the target. Since this image is free of any image of the furnace walls, it is free from wall radiance, and correction-free target radiance is obtained. The pyrometer location is determined through a nonparaxial optical analysis employing differential optical ray tracing methods to derive a series of exact relations for the image location.

  12. Tachometer Derived From Brushless Shaft-Angle Resolver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

    1995-01-01

    Tachometer circuit operates in conjunction with brushless shaft-angle resolver. By performing sequence of straightforward mathematical operations on resolver signals and utilizing simple trigonometric identity, generates voltage proportional to rate of rotation of shaft. One advantage is use of brushless shaft-angle resolver as main source of rate signal: no brushes to wear out, no brush noise, and brushless resolvers have proven robustness. No switching of signals to generate noise. Another advantage, shaft-angle resolver used as shaft-angle sensor, tachometer input obtained without adding another sensor. Present circuit reduces overall size, weight, and cost of tachometer.

  13. Frequency resolving power measured by rippled noise.

    PubMed

    Supin AYa; Popov, V V; Milekhina, O N; Tarakanov, M B

    1994-07-01

    Frequency resolving power (FRP) was measured in normal humans using rippled noise with a phase-reversal test. The principle of the test was to find the highest ripple density at which an interchange of mutual peak and trough position (the phase reversal) in the rippled spectrum is detectable. In the frequency range below 0.5 kHz FRP was found to be about 21 ripples per kHz when tested by both broad-band and narrow-band rippled noise. In the frequency range above 2 kHz, FRP measured by the narrow-band rippled noise was 22 to 23 relative units (relation of the noise central frequency to the ripple frequency spacing). PMID:7961175

  14. Resolvent-Techniques for Multiple Exercise Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Sören; Lempa, Jukka

    2015-02-15

    We study optimal multiple stopping of strong Markov processes with random refraction periods. The refraction periods are assumed to be exponentially distributed with a common rate and independent of the underlying dynamics. Our main tool is using the resolvent operator. In the first part, we reduce infinite stopping problems to ordinary ones in a general strong Markov setting. This leads to explicit solutions for wide classes of such problems. Starting from this result, we analyze problems with finitely many exercise rights and explain solution methods for some classes of problems with underlying Lévy and diffusion processes, where the optimal characteristics of the problems can be identified more explicitly. We illustrate the main results with explicit examples.

  15. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Miao; Hwang, Thomas S.; Campbell, J. Peter; Bailey, Steven T.; Wilson, David J.; Huang, David; Jia, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Shadowgraphic projection artifacts from superficial vasculature interfere with the visualization of deeper vascular networks in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). We developed a novel algorithm to remove this artifact by resolving the ambiguity between in situ and projected flow signals. The algorithm identifies voxels with in situ flow as those where intensity-normalized decorrelation values are higher than all shallower voxels in the same axial scan line. This “projection-resolved” (PR) algorithm effectively suppressed the projection artifact on both en face and cross-sectional angiograms and enhanced depth resolution of vascular networks. In the human macula, the enhanced angiograms show three distinct vascular plexuses in the inner retina and no vessels in the outer retina. We demonstrate that PR OCT-A cleanly removes flow projection from the normally avascular outer retinal slab while preserving the density and continuity of the intermediate and deep retinal capillary plexuses. PMID:27231591

  17. Resolved CCD Photometry of Pluto and Charon

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.H.; Waddell, P.; Christian, C.A.

    1988-04-01

    Highly resolved CCD images of Pluto and Charon near maximum separation are measured with point spread function fitting techniques to determine independent magnitudes and an accurate separation for Pluto and Charon. A measured separation of 0.923 + or - 0.005 arcsec at a position angle of 173.3 + or - 0.3 deg on June 18, 1987 UT produced a value of 19558.0 + or - 153.0 km for the radius of Charon's orbit. An apparent B magnitude of 14.877 + or - 0.009 and (B-I) color of 1.770 + or - 0.015 are determined for Pluto, while Charon is fainter with B = 18.826 + or - 0.011 and slightly bluer with (B-I) = 1.632 + or - 0.018. 18 references.

  18. Spatially resolved spectral-imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Bloom, Joshua Simon; Tyson, John Anthony

    2016-02-09

    A spatially resolved spectral device comprising a dispersive array to receive an incident light comprising a principal ray. The dispersive array comprising a plurality of dichroic layers, each of the plurality of dichroic layers disposed in a path of a direction of the principal ray. Each of the plurality of dichroic layers configured to at least one of reflect or transmit a different wavelength range of the incident light. The device further comprising a detection array operatively coupled with the dispersive array. The detection array comprising a photosensitive component including a plurality of detection pixels, each of the plurality of detection pixels having a light-receiving surface disposed parallel to the direction of the principal ray to detect a respective one of the different wavelength ranges of incident light reflected from a corresponding one of the plurality of dichroic layers.

  19. Time-Resolved Imaging Of Transient Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, L. S.; Wong, C. S.; Yap, S. L.; Singh, J.; Ahmad, Z.

    2009-07-07

    Pulsed capillary discharge is a compact device that is used to perform fast electrical discharge that is used to produce transient plasma. In this work, a more economical imaging technique is developed in order to study the dynamics of the plasma that is formed in a capillary tube. The imaging system consists of two main devices, a four-frame gated micro-channel plate and a Nikon Coolpix5000 camera. The time-resolved imaging that we have performed in order to study the dynamics of the plasma that is formed in a 10 mm long and 1 mm diameter low pressure capillary tube is reported. The images obtained portrayed that the plasma is heated up when the magnitude of the current is around the maximum and cools down when the current magnitude is around the minimum.

  20. Spatially resolved winds on an exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louden, Tom Michael; Wheatley, Peter

    2015-12-01

    We will present evidence that the atmosphere of the hot Jupiter HD 189733b has a strong eastward motion, with red-shifted absorption detected on the leading limb of the planet and blue-shifted absorption on the trailing limb. Our results are based on a time-resolved model of the sodium transmission spectrum measured with the HARPS spectrograph. The model includes limb darkening and stellar rotation, and it accounts implicitly for the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect.Our results can be understood as a combination of tidally locked planetary rotation and an eastward equatorial jet. The equatorial jet has long been predicted in atmospheric circulation models, and it helps to explain Spitzer maps of the dayside thermal emission of HD 189733b that show the hottest point of the planetary atmosphere offset to the east of the substellar point. In addition to testing atmospheric circulation models, our results demonstrate the feasibility of studying weather systems on distant planets.

  1. Resolving thermoelectric “paradox” in superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Shelly, Connor D.; Matrozova, Ekaterina A.; Petrashov, Victor T.

    2016-01-01

    For almost a century, thermoelectricity in superconductors has been one of the most intriguing topics in physics. During its early stages in the 1920s, the mere existence of thermoelectric effects in superconductors was questioned. In 1944, it was demonstrated that the effects may occur in inhomogeneous superconductors. Theoretical breakthrough followed in the 1970s, when the generation of a measurable thermoelectric magnetic flux in superconducting loops was predicted; however, a major crisis developed when experiments showed puzzling discrepancies with the theory. Moreover, different experiments were inconsistent with each other. This led to a stalemate in bringing theory and experiment into agreement. With this work, we resolve this stalemate, thus solving this long-standing “paradox,” and open prospects for exploration of novel thermoelectric phenomena predicted recently. PMID:26933688

  2. Resolving coastal conflicts using marine spatial planning.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Arthur O; Stevens, Tim F; Rodwell, Lynda D

    2014-01-15

    We applied marine spatial planning (MSP) to manage conflicts in a multi-use coastal area of Kenya. MSP involves several steps which were supported by using geographical information systems (GISs), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and optimization. GIS was used in identifying overlapping coastal uses and mapping conflict hotspots. MCDA was used to incorporate the preferences of user groups and managers into a formal decision analysis procedure. Optimization was applied in generating optimal allocation alternatives to competing uses. Through this analysis three important objectives that build a foundation for future planning of Kenya's coastal waters were achieved: 1) engaging competing stakeholders; 2) illustrating how MSP can be adapted to aid decision-making in multi-use coastal regions; and 3) developing a draft coastal use allocation plan. The successful application of MSP to resolve conflicts in coastal regions depends on the level of stakeholder involvement, data availability and the existing knowledge base. PMID:24361729

  3. Assessment of Mixed Layer Mesoscale Parameterization in Eddy Resolving Simulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayson, C. A.; Luneva, M. V.; Dubovikov, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    In eddy resolving simulations we test a mixed layer mesoscale parameterization, developed recently by Canuto and Dubovikov (2011). The parameterization yields the horizontal and vertical mesoscale fluxes in terms of coarse-resolution fields and eddy kinetic energy. An expression for the later in terms of mean fields has been found too to get a closed parameterization in terms of the mean fields only. In 40 numerical experiments we simulated the two types of flows: idealized flows driven by baroclinic instabilities only, and more realistic flows, driven by wind and surface fluxes as well as by inflow-outflow in shallow and narrow straits. The diagnosed quasi-instantaneous horizontal and vertical mesoscale buoyancy fluxes (averaged over 1o - 2o and 10 days) demonstrate a strong scatter typical for turbulent flows, however, the fluxes are highly correlated with the parameterization. After averaged over 3-4 months, diffusivities diagnosed from the eddy resolving simulations, are quite consistent with the parameterization for a broad range of parameters. Diagnosed vertical mesoscale fluxes restratify mixed layer and are in a good agreement with the parameterization unless vertical turbulent mixing in the upper layer becomes strong enough to compare with mesoscale advection. In the later case, numerical simulations demonstrate that the deviation of the fluxes from the parameterization is controlled by the dimensionless parameter γ, estimating the ratio of vertical diffusion term to a mesoscale advection. The empirical dependence of vertical flux on γ is found. An analysis using a modified omega-equation reveals that the effects of the vertical mixing of vorticity is responsible for the two-three fold amplification of vertical mesoscale flux. Possible physical mechanisms, responsible for the amplification of vertical mesoscale flux are discussed.

  4. Detection of a poorly resolved airplane using SWIR polarization imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Laura M.; Shaw, Joseph A.; Chenault, David B.

    2016-05-01

    Polarization can be used to detect manmade objects on the ground and in the air, as it provides additional information beyond intensity and color. Skylight can be strongly polarized, so the detection of airplanes in flight requires careful consideration of the skylight degree and angle of polarization (DoLP, AoP). In this study, we detect poorly resolved airplanes (>= 4 pixels on target) in flight during daytime partly cloudy and smoky conditions in Bozeman, Montana. We used a Polaris Sensor Technologies SWIR-MWIR rotating imaging polarimeter to measure the polarization signatures of airplanes and the surrounding skylight from 1.5 to 1.8 μm in the short-wave infrared (SWIR). An airplane flying in a clear region of partly cloudy sky was found to be 69% polarized at an elevation angle of 13° with respect to the horizon and the surrounding skylight was 4-8% polarized (maximum skylight DoLP was found to be 7-14% at an elevation angle of 50°). As the airplane increased in altitude, the DoLP for both airplane and surrounding sky pixels increased as the airplane neared the band of maximum sky polarization. We also observed that an airplane can be less polarized than its surrounding skylight when there is heavy smoke present. In such a case, the airplane was 30-38% polarized at an elevation angle of 17°, while the surrounding skylight was approximately 40% polarized (maximum skylight DoLP was 40-55% at an elevation angle of 34°). In both situations the airplane was most consistently observed in DoLP images rather than S0 or AoP images. In this paper, we describe the results in detail and discuss how this phenomenology could detect barely resolved aircrafts.

  5. Resolving local ambiguity using semantics of shape.

    SciTech Connect

    Diegert, Carl F.

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate a new semantic method for automatic analysis of wide-area, high-resolution overhead imagery to tip and cue human intelligence analysts to human activity. In the open demonstration, we find and trace cars and rooftops. Our methodology, extended to analysis of voxels, may be applicable to understanding morphology and to automatic tracing of neurons in large-scale, serial-section TEM datasets. We defined an algorithm and software implementation that efficiently finds all combinations of image blobs that satisfy given shape semantics, where image blobs are formed as a general-purpose, first step that 'oversegments' image pixels into blobs of similar pixels. We will demonstrate the remarkable power (ROC) of this combinatorial-based work flow for automatically tracing any automobiles in a scene by applying semantics that require a subset of image blobs to fill out a rectangular shape, with width and height in given intervals. In most applications we find that the new combinatorial-based work flow produces alternative (overlapping) tracings of possible objects (e.g. cars) in a scene. To force an estimation (tracing) of a consistent collection of objects (cars), a quick-and-simple greedy algorithm is often sufficient. We will demonstrate a more powerful resolution method: we produce a weighted graph from the conflicts in all of our enumerated hypotheses, and then solve a maximal independent vertex set problem on this graph to resolve conflicting hypotheses. This graph computation is almost certain to be necessary to adequately resolve multiple, conflicting neuron topologies into a set that is most consistent with a TEM dataset.

  6. Gingival Enlargement Induced by Felodipine Resolves with a Conventional Periodontal Treatment and Drug Modification

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, David; Yie, Helen S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 47-year-old male who suffered from GE around his lower anterior teeth as soon as he started treatment with Felodipine 400 mg. We show that oral hygiene measures, antibiotics, and conventional periodontal treatment (scaling and root planing SRP) were all not sufficient to resolve the drug induced GE, which will persist and/or recur provided that systemic effect of the offending medication is still present. The condition immediately resolved after switching to a different medication. The mechanism of GE is complex and not fully understood yet. It is mainly due to overexpression of a number of growth factors due to high concentrations of calcium ions (Ca2+). This affects fibroblasts proliferation and DNA synthesis and leads to a heavy chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate. Our case was managed according to the suggested protocols in previous case studies. The unique features in our case were the immediate onset of the adverse effect after starting the medication and the absence of any underlying medical condition apart from high blood pressure. Improving the oral hygiene together with SRP and cessation of the medication resolves drug induced GE. PMID:27034854

  7. Gingival Enlargement Induced by Felodipine Resolves with a Conventional Periodontal Treatment and Drug Modification.

    PubMed

    Khzam, Nabil; Bailey, David; Yie, Helen S; Bakr, Mahmoud M

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 47-year-old male who suffered from GE around his lower anterior teeth as soon as he started treatment with Felodipine 400 mg. We show that oral hygiene measures, antibiotics, and conventional periodontal treatment (scaling and root planing SRP) were all not sufficient to resolve the drug induced GE, which will persist and/or recur provided that systemic effect of the offending medication is still present. The condition immediately resolved after switching to a different medication. The mechanism of GE is complex and not fully understood yet. It is mainly due to overexpression of a number of growth factors due to high concentrations of calcium ions (Ca(2+)). This affects fibroblasts proliferation and DNA synthesis and leads to a heavy chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate. Our case was managed according to the suggested protocols in previous case studies. The unique features in our case were the immediate onset of the adverse effect after starting the medication and the absence of any underlying medical condition apart from high blood pressure. Improving the oral hygiene together with SRP and cessation of the medication resolves drug induced GE. PMID:27034854

  8. Electron-transfer acceleration investigated by time resolved infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vlček, Antonín; Kvapilová, Hana; Towrie, Michael; Záliš, Stanislav

    2015-03-17

    Ultrafast electron transfer (ET) processes are important primary steps in natural and artificial photosynthesis, as well as in molecular electronic/photonic devices. In biological systems, ET often occurs surprisingly fast over long distances of several tens of angströms. Laser-pulse irradiation is conveniently used to generate strongly oxidizing (or reducing) excited states whose reactions are then studied by time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. While photoluminescence decay and UV-vis absorption supply precise kinetics data, time-resolved infrared absorption (TRIR) and Raman-based spectroscopies have the advantage of providing additional structural information and monitoring vibrational energy flows and dissipation, as well as medium relaxation, that accompany ultrafast ET. We will discuss three cases of photoinduced ET involving the Re(I)(CO)3(N,N) moiety (N,N = polypyridine) that occur much faster than would be expected from ET theories. [Re(4-N-methylpyridinium-pyridine)(CO)3(N,N)](2+) represents a case of excited-state picosecond ET between two different ligands that remains ultrafast even in slow-relaxing solvents, beating the adiabatic limit. This is caused by vibrational/solvational excitation of the precursor state and participation of high-frequency quantum modes in barrier crossing. The case of Re-tryptophan assemblies demonstrates that excited-state Trp → *Re(II) ET is accelerated from nanoseconds to picoseconds when the Re(I)(CO)3(N,N) chromophore is appended to a protein, close to a tryptophan residue. TRIR in combination with DFT calculations and structural studies reveals an interaction between the N,N ligand and the tryptophan indole. It results in partial electronic delocalization in the precursor excited state and likely contributes to the ultrafast ET rate. Long-lived vibrational/solvational excitation of the protein Re(I)(CO)3(N,N)···Trp moiety, documented by dynamic IR band shifts, could be another accelerating factor. The last

  9. Time-resolved crystallography and protein design: signalling photoreceptors and optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Keith

    2014-07-17

    Time-resolved X-ray crystallography and solution scattering have been successfully conducted on proteins on time-scales down to around 100 ps, set by the duration of the hard X-ray pulses emitted by synchrotron sources. The advent of hard X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs), which emit extremely intense, very brief, coherent X-ray pulses, opens the exciting possibility of time-resolved experiments with femtosecond time resolution on macromolecular structure, in both single crystals and solution. The X-ray pulses emitted by an FEL differ greatly in many properties from those emitted by a synchrotron, in ways that at first glance make time-resolved measurements of X-ray scattering with the required accuracy extremely challenging. This opens up several questions which I consider in this brief overview. Are there likely to be chemically and biologically interesting structural changes to be revealed on the femtosecond time-scale? How shall time-resolved experiments best be designed and conducted to exploit the properties of FELs and overcome challenges that they pose? To date, fast time-resolved reactions have been initiated by a brief laser pulse, which obviously requires that the system under study be light-sensitive. Although this is true for proteins of the visual system and for signalling photoreceptors, it is not naturally the case for most interesting biological systems. To generate more biological targets for time-resolved study, can this limitation be overcome by optogenetic, chemical or other means? PMID:24914168

  10. Time-resolved crystallography and protein design: signalling photoreceptors and optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Moffat, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved X-ray crystallography and solution scattering have been successfully conducted on proteins on time-scales down to around 100 ps, set by the duration of the hard X-ray pulses emitted by synchrotron sources. The advent of hard X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs), which emit extremely intense, very brief, coherent X-ray pulses, opens the exciting possibility of time-resolved experiments with femtosecond time resolution on macromolecular structure, in both single crystals and solution. The X-ray pulses emitted by an FEL differ greatly in many properties from those emitted by a synchrotron, in ways that at first glance make time-resolved measurements of X-ray scattering with the required accuracy extremely challenging. This opens up several questions which I consider in this brief overview. Are there likely to be chemically and biologically interesting structural changes to be revealed on the femtosecond time-scale? How shall time-resolved experiments best be designed and conducted to exploit the properties of FELs and overcome challenges that they pose? To date, fast time-resolved reactions have been initiated by a brief laser pulse, which obviously requires that the system under study be light-sensitive. Although this is true for proteins of the visual system and for signalling photoreceptors, it is not naturally the case for most interesting biological systems. To generate more biological targets for time-resolved study, can this limitation be overcome by optogenetic, chemical or other means? PMID:24914168

  11. Resolving the inner disk of UX Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreplin, A.; Madlener, D.; Chen, L.; Weigelt, G.; Kraus, S.; Grinin, V.; Tambovtseva, L.; Kishimoto, M.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: The cause of the UX Ori variability in some Herbig Ae/Be stars is still a matter of debate. Detailed studies of the circumstellar environment of UX Ori objects (UXORs) are required to test the hypothesis that the observed drop in photometry might be related to obscuration events. Methods: Using near- and mid-infrared interferometric AMBER and MIDI observations, we resolved the inner circumstellar disk region around UX Ori. Results: We fitted the K-, H-, and N-band visibilities and the spectral energy distribution (SED) of UX Ori with geometric and parametric disk models. The best-fit K-band geometric model consists of an inclined ring and a halo component. We obtained a ring-fit radius of 0.45 ± 0.07 AU (at a distance of 460 pc), an inclination of 55.6 ± 2.4°, a position angle of the system axis of 127.5 ± 24.5°, and a flux contribution of the over-resolved halo component to the total near-infrared excess of 16.8 ± 4.1%. The best-fit N-band model consists of an elongated Gaussian with a HWHM ~ 5 AU of the semi-major axis and an axis ration of a/b ~ 3.4 (corresponding to an inclination of ~72°). With a parametric disk model, we fitted all near- and mid-infrared visibilities and the SED simultaneously. The model disk starts at an inner radius of 0.46 ± 0.06 AU with an inner rim temperature of 1498 ± 70 K. The disk is seen under an nearly edge-on inclination of 70 ± 5°. This supports any theories that require high-inclination angles to explain obscuration events in the line of sight to the observer, for example, in UX Ori objects where orbiting dust clouds in the disk or disk atmosphere can obscure the central star. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal Observatory under program IDs: 090.C-0769, 074.C-0552.

  12. The Spatially-Resolved Star Formation History of the M31 Disk from Resolved Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Alexia R.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2015-02-01

    The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) is an HST multi-cycle treasury program that has mapped the resolved stellar populations of ~1/3 of the disk of M31 from the UV through the near-IR. This data provides color and luminosity information for more than 150 million stars. Using stellar evolution models, we model the optical color-magnitude diagram to derive spatially-resolved recent star formation histories (SFHs) over large areas of M31 with 100 pc resolution. These include individual star-forming regions as well as quiescent portions of the disk. With these gridded SFHs, we create movies of star formation activity to study the evolution of individual star-forming events across the disk. We analyze the structure of star formation and examine the relation between star formation and gas throughout the disk and particularly in the 10-kpc star-forming ring. We find that the ring has been continuously forming stars for at least 500 Myr. As the only large disk galaxy that is close enough to obtain the photometry for this type of spatially-resolved SFH mapping, M31 plays an important role in our understanding of the evolution of an L* galaxy.

  13. Building an OpenURL Resolver in Your Own Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Mark

    2004-01-01

    OpenURL resolver is the next big thing for libraries. An OpenURL resolver is simply a piece of software that sucks in attached data and serves up a Web page that tells one where he or she can get the book or article represented by it. In this article, the author describes how he designed an OpenURL resolver for his library, the Lewis & Clark…

  14. Multi-speed multi-phase resolver converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean (Inventor); Howard, David (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A multiphase converter circuit generates a plurality of sinusoidal outputs of displaced phase and given speed value from the output of an angular resolver system attachable to a motor excited by these multi-phase outputs, the resolver system having a lower speed value than that of the motor. The angular resolver system provides in parallel format sequential digital numbers indicative of the amount of rotation of the shaft of an angular position sensor associated with the angular resolver system. These numbers are used to excite simultaneously identical addresses of a plurality of addressable memory systems, each memory system having stored therein at sequential addresses sequential values of a sinusoidal wavetrain of a given number of sinusoids. The stored wavetrain values represent sinusoids displaced from each other in phase according to the number of output phases desired. A digital-to-analog converter associated with each memory system converts each accessed word to a corresponding analog value to generate attendant to rotation of the angular resolver a sinusoidal wave of proper phase at each of the plurality of outputs. By properly orienting the angular resolver system with respect to the rotor of the motor, essentially ripple-free torque is supplied to the rotor. The angular resolver system may employ an analog resolver feeding an integrated circuit resolver-to-digital converter to produce the requisite digital values serving as addresses. Alternative versions employing incremental or absolute encoders are also described.

  15. Multi-speed multi-phase resolver converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A multiphase converter circuit generates a plurality of sinusoidal outputs of displaced phase and given speed value from the output of an angular resolver system attachable to a motor excited by these multi-phase outputs, the resolver system having a lower speed value than that of the motor. The angular resolver system provides in parallel format sequential digital numbers indicative of the amount of rotation of the shaft of an angular position sensor associated with the angular resolver system. These numbers are used to excite simultaneously identical addresses of a plurality of addressable memory systems, each memory system having stored therein at sequential addresses sequential values of a sinusoidal wavetrain of a given number of sinusoids. The stored wavetrain values represent sinusoids displaced from each other in phase according to the number of output phases desired. A digital-to-analog converter associated with each memory system converts each accessed word to a corresponding analog value to generate attendant to rotation of the angular resolver a sinusoidal wave of proper phase at each of the plurality of outputs. By properly orienting the angular resolver system with respect to the rotor of the motor, essentially ripple-free torque is supplied to the rotor. The angular resolver system may employ an analog resolver feeding an integrated circuit resolver-to-digital converter to produce the requisite digital values serving as addresses. Alternative versions employing incremental or absolute encoders are also described.

  16. Femtosecond resolved solvation dynamics in polar solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlow, Michael A.; Jarzeba, Włodzimierz; Kang, Tai Jong; Barbara, Paul F.

    1989-01-01

    The transient solvation of a polar fluorescent probe has been studied by the time resolved Stokes shift technique with roughly five times shorter time resolution than previously reported. New shorter time components in the solvation relaxation function C(t) have been discovered for methanol, propionitrile, and propylene carbonate; the C(t) function for acetonitrile is singly exponential within the limitations of the instrument. The observed C(t) has been compared to theoretical calculations using the dielectric continuum (DC) model for each solvent, with non-Debye expressions for the solvent dielectric response. For methanol the DC model predictions agree closely with experiment. For the polar aprotic solvents propylene carbonate and propionitrile, the shape of the experimental decay is different from the DC predictions, but the average decay times <τs> are closer to the DC predictions than previously reported. The comparison of theory and experiment is clearly limited by the inconsistencies and limited frequency range of the dielectric relaxation data found in the literature. The dynamic solvation measurements have also been compared to predictions of the mean spherical approximation as applied to solvation dynamics, which appear to give slower solvation rates than are observed experimentally.

  17. Temperature resolved reproduction of medieval luster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Pantos, E.; Smith, A. D.; Martin, C. M.; Labrador, A.

    2008-01-01

    Luster is a golden metallic-like decoration produced on glazed ceramics since early Islamic times (Iraq, 9th AD). Luster is obtained by the reaction of a luster paint and the glaze surface over which it is applied. A temperature-resolved XRD experiment was designed to study the high temperature reactions in the luster paint while the luster layer is formed. The luster paint composition has been made based on the original luster paints found during the excavation of the 13th AD workshop site at Paterna (Valencia). The sulfo-reducing atmosphere created during the decomposition of cinnabar promotes the reduction of Cu2+ containing compounds to Cu+ and the presence of Hg vapours delays the precipitation of metal silver. Moreover, evidence of the formation of a melt in which the copper and silver-containing compounds dissolve has also been obtained. The thickness of the luster paint applied results in the formation of luster layers of different hues and colours. The use of a mixture of copper and silver paint results in the formation of dark-brown luster layer similar to the ones produced in early Islamic times in Iraq and showed also the characteristic blue iridescences.

  18. Time Resolved Spectroscopy of Eclipsing Polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Paul

    2005-09-01

    No changes have been made since the last annual progress report was submitted in conjunction with a unilateral NCX. Dr. Barrett was affected by an STScI Reduction in Force (RIF). He is now employed by the Johns Hopkins University and plans to continue his research there. No expenses have been charged to this grant, however the FUSE data for the eclipsing polar V1432 Aql has been received and processed using CALFWSE v3.0.6. The resulting summed spectrum has been used for a preliminary analysis of the interstellar absorption towards V1432 Aql. We find a hydrogen column density of less than 1.5e21 cm^-2. We have used this result in the paper "X-Ray Emission and Optical Polarization of V1432 Aquilae: An Asynchronous Polar" to fix the hydrogen column density in the soft (<0.5 keV) X-ray band when analyzing the XMM-Newton spectra of this polar. This has enabled us to find an accurate temperature for the blackbody component of 88+/-2 eV, which is significantly higher than that of other polars (20 - 40 eV). We hope to complete our analysis of the phase-resolved emission line spectra of V1432 Aql and to prepare the results for publication in a refereed journal. We hope to begin work on this star within the next few months.

  19. Solving geologic problems resolving relevant anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, M.

    2012-12-01

    Remotely sensed data such as high resolution aeromagnetics can shed new light on the setting of tectonic and volcanic areas. This technique is, in fact, particularly suitable to study these areas due to the potential magnetic contrasts linked to volcanic structures. Furthermore, surveying poorly accessible sites with airborne geophysics can be expeditious and effective. The addition of new sensors on airborne platforms improves the efficiency of surveys and provides multi-source imaging. Also it is an aid to better resolving geophysical anomalies and/or surface features relevant to an effective geologic interpretation. The INGV Airborne Geophysics Science Team has investigated a large variety of active volcanoes and tectonic areas in different types of environment. One investigation revealed an unknown buried volcano in the Mediterranean Sea, developed along seismically active faults. Airborne magnetic data collected over Tenerife, Canary Islands, provided new evidence about the structure and growth of ocean island volcanoes. Other data sets delineate hidden tectonic and volcanic structures in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy. These examples and other newly acquired aeromagnetic data, integrated with additional airborne observations will be presented and discussed.

  20. Resolving the formation of modern Chladni figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan, P. H.; Tung, J. C.; Liang, H. C.; Chiang, P. Y.; Huang, K. F.; Chen, Y. F.

    2015-09-01

    The resonant spectrum of a thin plate driven with a mechanical oscillator is precisely measured to distinguish modern Chladni figures (CFs) observed at the resonant frequencies from classical CFs observed at the non-resonant frequencies. Experimental results reveal that modern CFs generally display an important characteristic of avoided crossings of nodal lines, whereas the nodal lines of classical CFs form a regular grid. The formation of modern CFs and the resonant frequency spectrum are resolved with a theoretical model that characterizes the interaction between the plate and the driving source into the inhomogeneous Kirchhoff-Love equation. The derived formula for determining resonant frequencies is shown to be exactly identical to the meromorphic function given in singular billiards that deals with the coupling strength on the transition between integrable and chaotic features. The good agreement between experimental results and theoretical predictions verifies the significant role of the strong-coupling effect in the formation of modern CFs. More importantly, it is confirmed that the apparatus for generating modern CFs can be developed to serve as an expedient system for exploring the nodal domains of chaotic wave functions as well as the physics of the strong coupling with a point scatterer.

  1. Time Resolved Spectroscopy of Eclipsing Polars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Paul

    2005-01-01

    No changes have been made since the last annual progress report was submitted in conjunction with a unilateral NCX. Dr. Barrett was affected by an STScI Reduction in Force (RIF). He is now employed by the Johns Hopkins University and plans to continue his research there. No expenses have been charged to this grant, however the FUSE data for the eclipsing polar V1432 Aql has been received and processed using CALFWSE v3.0.6. The resulting summed spectrum has been used for a preliminary analysis of the interstellar absorption towards V1432 Aql. We find a hydrogen column density of less than 1.5e21 cm^-2. We have used this result in the paper "X-Ray Emission and Optical Polarization of V1432 Aquilae: An Asynchronous Polar" to fix the hydrogen column density in the soft (<0.5 keV) X-ray band when analyzing the XMM-Newton spectra of this polar. This has enabled us to find an accurate temperature for the blackbody component of 88+/-2 eV, which is significantly higher than that of other polars (20 - 40 eV). We hope to complete our analysis of the phase-resolved emission line spectra of V1432 Aql and to prepare the results for publication in a refereed journal. We hope to begin work on this star within the next few months.

  2. Resolving Conflicting Predictions from Multimapping Reads.

    PubMed

    Canzar, Stefan; Elbassioni, Khaled; Jones, Mitchell; Mestre, Julián

    2016-03-01

    The first step in the analysis of data produced by ultra-high-throughput next-generation sequencing technology is to map short sequence "reads" to a reference genome, if available. Sequencing errors, repeat regions, and polymorphisms may lead a read to align to multiple locations in the genome reasonably well. While ignoring such multimapping reads, or some of their alignments, will reduce the sensitivity of almost any type of downstream analysis (e.g., detecting structural variants), erroneous mappings will typically yield false positive predictions. Here we propose a framework that aims to identify true predictions among a large set of candidate predictions by selecting for each read a unique mapping that collectively imply conflict-free predictions. We formulate this problem as the maximum facility location problem, for which we propose LP-rounding heuristics. We provide a theoretic guarantee on the quality of the solution and demonstrate the utility of our algorithm in resolving conflicting deletions implied by simulated reads mapping ambiguously to Craig Venter's genome model and Illumina sequencing reads of the well-studied NA12878 individual. PMID:26745826

  3. Time resolved ion beam induced charge collection

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON,FREDERICK W.; WALSH,DAVID S.; DOYLE,BARNEY L.; DODD,PAUL E.

    2000-04-01

    Under this effort, a new method for studying the single event upset (SEU) in microelectronics has been developed and demonstrated. Called TRIBICC, for Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection, this technique measures the transient charge-collection waveform from a single heavy-ion strike with a {minus}.03db bandwidth of 5 GHz. Bandwidth can be expanded up to 15 GHz (with 5 ps sampling windows) by using an FFT-based off-line waveform renormalization technique developed at Sandia. The theoretical time resolution of the digitized waveform is 24 ps with data re-normalization and 70 ps without re-normalization. To preserve the high bandwidth from IC to the digitizing oscilloscope, individual test structures are assembled in custom high-frequency fixtures. A leading-edge digitized waveform is stored with the corresponding ion beam position at each point in a two-dimensional raster scan. The resulting data cube contains a spatial charge distribution map of up to 4,096 traces of charge (Q) collected as a function of time. These two dimensional traces of Q(t) can cover a period as short as 5 ns with up to 1,024 points per trace. This tool overcomes limitations observed in previous multi-shot techniques due to the displacement damage effects of multiple ion strikes that changed the signal of interest during its measurement. This system is the first demonstration of a single-ion transient measurement capability coupled with spatial mapping of fast transients.

  4. Some Algorithms For Simulating Size-resolved Aerosol Dynamics Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debry, E.; Sportisse, B.

    The objective of this presentation is to show some algorithms used to solve aerosol dynamics in 3D dispersion models. INTRODUCTION The gas phase pollution has been widely studied and some models are now available . The situation is quite different with respect to atmospheric aerosols . However at- mospheric particulate matter significantly influences atmospheric properties such as radiative balance, cloud formation, gas pollutants concentrations ( gas to particle con- version ), and has an impact on man health. As aerosols properties ( optical, hygroscopic, noxiousness ) depend mainly on their size, it appears important to be able to follow the aerosol ( or particle ) size distribution (PSD) during time. This former is modified by physical processes as coagulation, condensation or evaporation, nucleation and removal. Aerosol dynamics is usually modelized by the well-known General Dynamics Equation (GDE) [1]. MODELS Several models already exist to solve this equation. Multi-modal models are widely used [2] [3] because of the few parameters needed, but the GDE is solved only on its moments and the PSD is assumed to remain in a log-normal form. On the contrary, size-resolved models implies a discretization of the aerosol size spec- trum into several bins and to solve the GDE within each one. This step can be per- formed either by resolving each process separately ( splitting ), for example coagula- tion can be resolved by the well-known "size-binning" algorithms [4] and condensa- tion leads to an advection equation on the PSD [5], or by coupling all processes, what the finite elements [6] and stochastic methods [7] allows. Stochastic algorithms may not be competitive compared to deterministic ones with respect to the computation time, but they provide reference solutions useful to validate more operational codes on realistic cases, as analytic solutions of the GDE exist only for academic cases. REFERENCES [1] Seinfeld, J.H. and Pandis,S.N. Atmospheric chemistry and

  5. Hyperfine-resolved 3.4-{mu}m spectroscopy of CH{sub 3}I with a widely tunable difference frequency generation source and a cavity-enhanced cell: A case study of a local Coriolis interaction between the v{sub 1}=1 and (v{sub 2},v{sub 6}{sup l})=(1,2{sup 2}) states

    SciTech Connect

    Okubo, Sho; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Sasada, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-15

    Saturated absorption spectra of the {nu}{sub 1} fundamental band of CH{sub 3}I are recorded with a cavity-enhanced cell and a tunable difference frequency generation source having an 86-cm{sup -1} range. The recorded spectral lines are 250 kHz wide, and most of them are resolved into the individual hyperfine components. The Coriolis interaction between the v{sub 1}=1 and (v{sub 2},v{sub 6}{sup l})=(1,2{sup 2}) states locally perturbing the hyperfine structures is analyzed to yield the Coriolis and hyperfine coupling constants with uncertainties similar to those in typical microwave spectroscopy. The spectrometer has demonstrated the potential for precisely determining the energy structure in the vibrational excited states.

  6. ARPES view of orbitally resolved quasiparticle lifetimes in iron pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouet, Véronique; LeBoeuf, David; Lin, Ping-Hui; Mansart, Joseph; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Bertran, François; Forget, Anne; Colson, Dorothée

    2016-02-01

    We study with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) the renormalization and quasiparticle lifetimes of the dx y and dx z/dy z orbitals in two iron pnictides, LiFeAs and Ba (Fe0.92Co0.08 )2As2 (Co8). We find that both quantities depend on orbital character rather than on the position on the Fermi surface (for example, hole or electron pocket). In LiFeAs, the renormalizations are larger for dx y, while they are similar for both types of orbitals in Co8. The most salient feature, which proved robust against all the ARPES caveats we could think of, is that the lifetimes for dx y exhibit a markedly different behavior than those for dx z/dy z. They have smaller values near EF and exhibit larger ω and temperature dependences. While the behavior of dx y is compatible with a Fermi-liquid description, that is not the case for dx z/dy z. This situation should have important consequences for the physics of iron pnictides, which have not been considered up to now. More generally, it raises interesting questions about how a Fermi-liquid regime can be established in a multiband system with small effective bandwidths.

  7. Confronting and resolving competing values behind conservation objectives.

    PubMed

    Karp, Daniel S; Mendenhall, Chase D; Callaway, Elizabeth; Frishkoff, Luke O; Kareiva, Peter M; Ehrlich, Paul R; Daily, Gretchen C

    2015-09-01

    Diverse motivations for preserving nature both inspire and hinder its conservation. Optimal conservation strategies may differ radically depending on the objective. For example, creating nature reserves may prevent extinctions through protecting severely threatened species, whereas incentivizing farmland hedgerows may benefit people through bolstering pest-eating or pollinating species. Win-win interventions that satisfy multiple objectives are alluring, but can also be elusive. To achieve better outcomes, we developed and implemented a practical typology of nature conservation framed around seven common conservation objectives. Using an intensively studied bird assemblage in southern Costa Rica as a case study, we applied the typology in the context of biodiversity's most pervasive threat: habitat conversion. We found that rural habitats in a varied tropical landscape, comprising small farms, villages, forest fragments, and forest reserves, provided biodiversity-driven processes that benefit people, such as pollination, seed dispersal, and pest consumption. However, species valued for their rarity, endemism, and evolutionary distinctness declined in farmland. Conserving tropical forest on farmland increased species that international tourists value, but not species discussed in Costa Rican newspapers. Despite these observed trade-offs, our analyses also revealed promising synergies. For example, we found that maintaining forest cover surrounding farms in our study region would likely enhance most conservation objectives at minimal expense to others. Overall, our typology provides a framework for resolving the competing objectives of modern conservation. PMID:26283400

  8. Time-resolved local strain tracking microscopy for cell mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, O.; Aksoy, B.; Akalin, O. B.; Bayraktar, H.; Alaca, B. E.

    2016-02-01

    A uniaxial cell stretching technique to measure time-resolved local substrate strain while simultaneously imaging adherent cells is presented. The experimental setup comprises a uniaxial stretcher platform compatible with inverted microscopy and transparent elastomer samples with embedded fluorescent beads. This integration enables the acquisition of real-time spatiotemporal data, which is then processed using a single-particle tracking algorithm to track the positions of fluorescent beads for the subsequent computation of local strain. The present local strain tracking method is demonstrated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) samples of rectangular and dogbone geometries. The comparison of experimental results and finite element simulations for the two sample geometries illustrates the capability of the present system to accurately quantify local deformation even when the strain distribution is non-uniform over the sample. For a regular dogbone sample, the experimentally obtained value of local strain at the center of the sample is 77%, while the average strain calculated using the applied cross-head displacement is 48%. This observation indicates that considerable errors may arise when cross-head measurement is utilized to estimate strain in the case of non-uniform sample geometry. Finally, the compatibility of the proposed platform with biological samples is tested using a unibody PDMS sample with a well to contain cells and culture media. HeLa S3 cells are plated on collagen-coated samples and cell adhesion and proliferation are observed. Samples with adherent cells are then stretched to demonstrate simultaneous cell imaging and tracking of embedded fluorescent beads.

  9. Structurally Resolved Abundances and Depletions in the Rho OPH Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seab, C.

    1995-07-01

    The mechanism that determines the pattern of depletion ofelements in the interstellar medium has been a problem for along time. It is clear that some of the most refractoryelements such as Si, Fe, and Mg, are heavily depleted onto theinterstellar grains. On the other hand, some elements such asS and Zn are normally either undepleted or very lightlydepleted. The difference between the two cases is notunderstood. We propose to address this question with adetailed study of the depletion patterns in the Rho Ophiuchicloud. This study is strongly based on a combination of thecapabilities of two modern instruments: the GHRS for high-resolution UV data, and the Ultra High Resolution Facility(UHRF) of the AAT. This instrument has been used to obtain NaI line profiles in the Rho Oph cloud with a resolution ofR=1,000,000. The combination of these two types of data willbe used to resolve the velocity structure of the elementdepletions in the cloud.

  10. The properties of spatial resolved ionized gas uncovered by CALIFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    We present here the last results we obtained on the spatial resolved analysis of the the stellar populations and ionized gas of disk-dominated galaxies based on CALIFA data. CALIFA is an ongoing IFS survey of galaxies in the Local Univese (0.005case of disk-dominated galaxies, we analysed the stellar populations using different inversion methods and line analysis, and the ionized gas identifying the main properties of the HII-regions within the FoV. Both analyisis produce coherent analysis indicating that disk-galaxies growth inside out, with a chemical enrichment dominated by local processes, and limited effects of radial mixing or global outflows.