Science.gov

Sample records for resolved pyrometry cases

  1. Laser pyrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    A method of determining the emissivity of a hot target from a laser-based reflectance measurement which is conducted simultaneously with a measurement of the target radiance is described. Once the correct radiance and emissivity are determined, one calculates the true target temperature from these parameters via the Planck equations. The design and performance of a laser pyrometer is described. The accuracy of laser pyrometry and the effect of ambient radiance are addressed.

  2. Pyrometry simulator (pyrosim) for diagnostic design.

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H., III

    2011-10-01

    Signal estimates are crucial to the design of time-resolved pyrometry measurements. These estimates affect fundamental design decisions, including the optical relay (fiber versus open beam), spectral range (visible or infrared), and amplification needs (possibly at the expense of time resolution). The pyrosim program makes such estimates, allowing the collected power, photon flux, and measured signal to be determined in a broad range of pyrometry measurements. Geometrical collection limits can be applied; sample emissivity, transfer efficiency, and detector sensitivity may also be specified, either as constants or functions of wavelength.

  3. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOEpatents

    Breiland, William G.; Gurary, Alexander I.; Boguslavskiy, Vadim

    2002-01-01

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  4. Turbine pyrometry for advanced engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Strange, R. R.

    1987-06-01

    The turbine pyrometry requirements for advanced engine designs are examined. The practical use of current optical pyrometer systems is limited to situations where the reflected radiation comprises not more than 50 percent of the total signal. Alternative approaches, including techniques known as 'Advanced Dual Spectral Area Pyrometer', 'Active Pyrometry', passive synchronous detection pyrometry, and techniques that use thermographic phosphors, are discussed. It is suggested that the methods that use thermographic phosphors at low temperatures can be extended to high temperatures and gas turbine engine environment and can be adapted to the vane scanning pyrometer application.

  5. Multiwavelength pyrometry to correct for reflected radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel L. P.

    1990-01-01

    Computer curve fitting is used in multiwavelength pyrometry to measure the temperature of a surface in the presence of reflected radiation by decomposing its radiation spectrum. Computer-simulated spectra (at a surface temperature of 1000 K; in the wavelength region 0.3 to 20 microns; with a reflected radiation-source temperature of 700 to 2500 K; and reflector emissivity from 0.1 to 0.9) were generated and decomposed. This method of pyrometry determined the surface temperatures under these conditions to within 5 percent. The practicability of the method was further demonstrated by the successful analysis of a related problem--decomposition of the real spectrum of an infrared source containing two emitters to determine their temperatures.

  6. Some considerations relating to aero engine pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, P. J.

    1986-11-01

    With turbine blade optical pyrometry rapidly becoming accepted by the aerospace community as a viable flight control technique, some of the traditional and emerging demands are described, with examples of how they are being addressed. Many of these demands are now being met by skillful application of materials technology, electronic engineering, signal processing and fluid flow techniques, but it is probable that flight conditions will impose a more pragmatic approach than customarily adopted towards test bed installations.

  7. Single-fiber multi-color pyrometry

    DOEpatents

    Small, IV, Ward; Celliers, Peter

    2000-01-01

    This invention is a fiber-based multi-color pyrometry set-up for real-time non-contact temperature and emissivity measurement. The system includes a single optical fiber to collect radiation emitted by a target, a reflective rotating chopper to split the collected radiation into two or more paths while modulating the radiation for lock-in amplification (i.e., phase-sensitive detection), at least two detectors possibly of different spectral bandwidths with or without filters to limit the wavelength regions detected and optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the sensitive areas of the detectors. A computer algorithm is used to calculate the true temperature and emissivity of a target based on blackbody calibrations. The system components are enclosed in a light-tight housing, with provision for the fiber to extend outside to collect the radiation. Radiation emitted by the target is transmitted through the fiber to the reflective chopper, which either allows the radiation to pass straight through or reflects the radiation into one or more separate paths. Each path includes a detector with or without filters and corresponding optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the active area of the detector. The signals are recovered using lock-in amplification. Calibration formulas for the signals obtained using a blackbody of known temperature are used to compute the true temperature and emissivity of the target. The temperature range of the pyrometer system is determined by the spectral characteristics of the optical components.

  8. Single-fiber multi-color pyrometry

    DOEpatents

    Small, IV, Ward; Celliers, Peter

    2004-01-27

    This invention is a fiber-based multi-color pyrometry set-up for real-time non-contact temperature and emissivity measurement. The system includes a single optical fiber to collect radiation emitted by a target, a reflective rotating chopper to split the collected radiation into two or more paths while modulating the radiation for lock-in amplification (i.e., phase-sensitive detection), at least two detectors possibly of different spectral bandwidths with or without filters to limit the wavelength regions detected and optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the sensitive areas of the detectors. A computer algorithm is used to calculate the true temperature and emissivity of a target based on blackbody calibrations. The system components are enclosed in a light-tight housing, with provision for the fiber to extend outside to collect the radiation. Radiation emitted by the target is transmitted through the fiber to the reflective chopper, which either allows the radiation to pass straight through or reflects the radiation into one or more separate paths. Each path includes a detector with or without filters and corresponding optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the active area of the detector. The signals are recovered using lock-in amplification. Calibration formulas for the signals obtained using a blackbody of known temperature are used to compute the true temperature and emissivity of the target. The temperature range of the pyrometer system is determined by the spectral characteristics of the optical components.

  9. Case report and review of resolved fusariosis.

    PubMed

    Helm, T N; Longworth, D L; Hall, G S; Bolwell, B J; Fernandez, B; Tomecki, K J

    1990-08-01

    Erythematous macules, nonpalpable and palpable purpura, and flaccid pustules developed in a 59-year-old man with acute lymphocytic leukemia 8 days after reinduction chemotherapy with cytosine arabinoside and daunorubicin. Tissue and blood cultures grew Fusarium proliferatum, and a skin biopsy specimen revealed fungal vasculitis. Anemia and muscle weakness accompanied the disseminated infection, for which the patient received granulocyte transfusions and amphotericin B, ketoconazole, rifampin, and griseofulvin. Skin lesions and fungemia resolved with recovery of the bone marrow, and 51 days after the completion of his chemotherapy he returned home. If promptly recognized and aggressively treated, disseminated fusariosis is responsive to therapy. Infection with Fusarium species should be suspected in profoundly neutropenic patients in whom disseminated palpable purpura and myositis develop concomitantly. PMID:2203833

  10. Monte Carlo studies of multiwavelength pyrometry using linearized equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gathers, G. R.

    1992-03-01

    Multiwavelength pyrometry has been advertised as giving significant improvement in precision by overdetermining the solution with extra wavelengths and using least squares methods. Hiernaut et al. [1] have described a six-wavelength pyrometer for measurements in the range 2000 to 5000 K. They use the Wien approximation and model the logarithm of the emissivity as a linear function of wavelength in order to produce linear equations. The present work examines the measurement errors associated with their technique.

  11. Thin-Filament Pyrometry Developed for Measuring Temperatures in Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, Peter B.

    2004-01-01

    Many valuable advances in combustion science have come from observations of microgravity flames. This research is contributing to the improved efficiency and reduced emissions of practical combustors and is benefiting terrestrial and spacecraft fire safety. Unfortunately, difficulties associated with microgravity have prevented many types of measurements in microgravity flames. In particular, temperature measurements in flames are extremely important but have been limited in microgravity. A novel method of measuring temperatures in microgravity flames is being developed in-house at the National Center for Microgravity Research and the NASA Glenn Research Center and is described here. Called thin-filament pyrometry, it involves using a camera to determine the local gas temperature from the intensity of inserted fibers glowing in a flame. It is demonstrated here to provide accurate measurements of gas temperatures in a flame simultaneously at many locations. The experiment is shown. The flame is a laminar gas jet diffusion flame fueled by methane (CH4) flowing from a 14-mm round burner at a pressure of 1 atm. A coflowing stream of air is used to prevent flame flicker. Nine glowing fibers are visible. These fibers are made of silicon carbide (SiC) and have a diameter of 15 m (for comparison, the average human hair is 75 m in diameter). Because the fibers are so thin, they do little to disturb the flame and their temperature remains close to that of the local gas. The flame and glowing filaments were imaged with a digital black-and-white video camera. This camera has an imaging area of 1000 by 1000 pixels and a wide dynamic range of 12 bits. The resolution of the camera and optics was 0.1 mm. Optical filters were placed in front of the camera to limit incoming light to 750, 850, 950, and 1050 nm. Temperatures were measured in the same flame in the absence of fibers using 50-m Btype thermocouples. These thermocouples provide very accurate temperatures, but they

  12. Full-spectrum multiwavelength pyrometry for nongray surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel; Williams, W. D.

    1992-01-01

    A full-spectrum (encompassing radiation on both sides of the Wien displacement peak) multiwavelength pyrometer was developed. It measures the surface temperature of arbitrary nongray ceramics by curve fitting a spectrum in this spectral region to a Planck function of temperature T. This function of T is modified by the surface spectral emissivity. The emissivity function was derived experimentally from additional spectra that were obtained by using an auxiliary radiation source and from application of Kirchhoff's law. This emissivity was verified by results that were obtained independently by using electromagnetic and solid-state theories. In the presence of interfering reflected radiation this general pyrometry improves the accuracy of the measured temperature by measuring an additional spectrum that characterizes the interfering radiation source.

  13. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Tairan; Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou

    2014-04-15

    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100–2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700–1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  14. Application of two-colour pyrometry for measuring the surface temperature of a body activated by laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Kirillov, V M; Skvortsov, L A

    2006-08-31

    The features of contactless measurements of the surface temperature of bodies by the method of two-colour pyrometry of samples activated by periodic laser pulses are considered. The requirements imposed on the parameters of laser radiation and a measuring circuit are formulated. It is shown experimentally that surface temperatures close to room temperature can be measured with an error not exceeding 3% after elimination of the superfluous static component of the excess temperature. The sensitivity of the method is estimated. Advantages of laser photothermal radiometry with repetitively pulsed excitation of surfaces over the case when samples are subjected to harmonic amplitude-modulated laser radiation are discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  15. Real-time optical monitoring of thin film growth by in situ pyrometry through multiple layers and effective media approximation modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Benedic, F.; Bruno, P.; Pigeat, Ph.

    2007-03-26

    A model combining multiple layer description and effective media approximation is developed for pyrometry in the case of thin film synthesis, in order to estimate the film property evolution along its thickness during the growth process in real time. The model is used to investigate optical properties of polycrystalline diamond film prepared by H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} microwave plasma. It is shown that in the presence of nitrogen, the growth is strongly nonhomogeneous. The deposit, initially composed of large amounts of void and nondiamond phases, evolves rapidly towards highest quality dense film where the diamond phase is predominant.

  16. Design, Construction and Calibration of a Near-Infrared Four-Color Pyrometry System for Laser-Driven High Pressure Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, S. J.; Jeanloz, R.; Collins, G.; Spaulding, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Current dynamic compression experiments, using both quasi-isentropic and shock-compression, allow access to pressure-temperature states both on and off the principle Hugoniot and over a wide range of conditions of direct relevance to planetary interiors. Such studies necessitate reliable temperature measurements below 4000-5000 K. Such relatively low temperature states are also of particular interest for materials such as methane and water that do not experience much heating under shock compression. In order to measure these temperatures as a function of time across the sample, a four-color, near-infrared pyrometry system is being developed for use at the Janus laser facility (LLNL) with channels at wavelengths of 932nm-1008nm, 1008nm-1108nm, 1108nm-1208nm, and 1208nm-1300nm. Each color band is fiber-coupled to an InGaAs PIN photodiode with a rise time of less than 60 ps, read using an 18 GHz oscilloscope in order to ensure time resolutions of under 200 ps. This will allow for high temporal resolution measurements of laser-driven shock compression experiments with total durations of 5-15 ns as well as correlation with simultaneous time-resolved velocity interferometry and visual-wavelength pyrometry. Calibration of the system is being accomplished using quartz targets, as the EOS for quartz is well known, along with a calibrated integrating sphere of known spectral radiance.

  17. Colleges Sharpen Tactics for Resolving Academic-Integrity Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Students have cheated for centuries, but the problem is knottier than it used to be. The Internet and its infinite dishonest shortcuts have made many cases more complex, and antiplagiarism software like Turnitin flags more potential offenses than could be caught before. At the same time, professors' and college presidents' run-ins with plagiarism…

  18. Resolving a Teacher-Student Conflict: An Intrinsic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacson, Atara

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an episode that occurred during a semester-long academic course called: Conduct Problems and Class Navigation. It focuses on investigating the behavior of a student who, because of her uniqueness, was an interesting candidate for an intrinsic case study. This paper presents a distinctive way of handling an interfering and…

  19. SNP Markers as Additional Information to Resolve Complex Kinship Cases

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, M. Lurdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Laréu, Maria Victoria; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background DNA profiling with sets of highly polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers has been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic casework for nearly 20 years. However, in some cases of complex kinship investigation, the information provided by the conventionally used STR markers is not enough, often resulting in low likelihood ratio (LR) calculations. In these cases, it becomes necessary to increment the number of loci under analysis to reach adequate LRs. Recently, it has been proposed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used as a supportive tool to STR typing, eventually even replacing the methods/markers now employed. Methods In this work, we describe the results obtained in 7 revised complex paternity cases when applying a battery of STRs, as well as 52 human identification SNPs (SNPforID 52plex identification panel) using a SNaPshot methodology followed by capillary electrophoresis. Results Our results show that the analysis of SNPs, as complement to STR typing in forensic casework applications, would at least increase by a factor of 4 total PI values and correspondent Essen-Möller's W value. Conclusions We demonstrated that SNP genotyping could be a key complement to STR information in challenging casework of disputed paternity, such as close relative individualization or complex pedigrees subject to endogamous relations. PMID:26733770

  20. Mystery of Sciatica Resolved - A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chikkanna, Jayanth Kumar Bangalore; Gopal, Surendra; Sampath, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas are common, benign, slow growing tumours of peripheral nerve sheath arising from the schwann cells of the neuroectoderm. They do not transverse the nerve but remain within the sheath on top of the nerve. They rarely present in the sciatic nerve. Sciatic schwannomas may mimic symptoms of herniated disc, usually with radiation of pain to buttocks and thigh region with inability to walk for long distances and sometimes may present with claudication. In the absence of low back pain and with a normal Lumbo-Sacral MRI study, causes intrinsic to sciatic nerve needs to be thought off, which often delays the diagnosis. Rarity in our case-patient presented with tingling sensation and inability to squat on hard surface for more than 10 minutes with a normal x-ray and MRI study of lumbosacral spine. PMID:26894136

  1. Free-surface temperature measurement of shock-loaded tin using ultrafast infrared pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondot, Michel; Remiot, Christian

    1991-11-01

    The main problem regarding free surface temperature measurement by infrared pyrometry is the lack of emissivity data of shocked materials. Moreover, the short rise time in an hydrodynamic experiment requires particular detectors and experimental measurement technique. This paper describes a three channel pyrometer adapted to the study of shocked tin sample melted in release. The radiative infrared emission is collected by ZnSe lens and carried from the firing chamber to the pyrometer by fluoride glass optical fiber. In order to deduce the temperature from the electrical signals amplified before recording on a numerical oscilloscope, we use different narrow filters associated with a previous static calibration of the detectors by means of a continuously heated black body. The spectral integration of Planck's formula and the comparison between the static calibration with the black body and the dynamic signals give, for each experiment, three temperature-emissivity couples in agreement with Planck's theory. The originality of this measurement technique is the use of a 15 meter infrared optical triple core fiber for transporting the radiation from the target to the detectors, which simultaneously permits the measurement of three temperature-emissivity couples in the case of very small and hermetic experimental set-up. The main characteristics of this pyrometer are: a rise time of about 20 nanoseconds; an analysis area with a diameter smaller than 5 millimeters; continuous free surface temperature measurement during more than 5 microseconds; and the study of the wavelengths between 2 and 5 micrometers. Experiments have been achieved with optical polished tin samples. The abacus voltages, temperature, and emissivity versus time for a 45 GPa shock pressure is discussed.

  2. Progress in Infrared Pyrometry Measurements of Shocked Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Cazamias, J U; Hare, D E; Poulsen, P

    2001-11-05

    Temperature measurement is one of the grand challenges still facing experimental shock physics. A shock experiment fundamentally measures E({sigma}{sub x}, {var_epsilon}{sub 11}) which is an incomplete equation of state since temperature (or entropy) remains unspecified. Ideally, one would like to experimentally determine a free energy F(T, {var_epsilon}{sub ij}) from which all other thermo-mechanical properties might be derived. In practice, temperature measurement would allow direct comparison with theory/simulation since T and {var_epsilon}{sub 11} are in most theories the underlying variables. Temperature is a sensitive measure of energy partitioning, knowledge of which would increase our understanding phase boundaries and thermally activated processes (such as chemical reactivity (including dissociation and ionization)). Temperature measurement would also allow a thermodynamically consistent coupling of hydrodynamic equations of state to the material's constitutive (deformation) behavior. The measurement of the temperature of a material that has undergone severe strains at small time-scales is extremely difficult, and we are developing a method using infrared reflectance and pyrometry. The emitted power from a warm surface is measured over a range of wavelengths using a multi-channel IR detector with a response time of {approx}0.1 {micro}s. Each channel of the detector passes the radiation from a selected wavelength interval into a detector. Pyrometers typically have anywhere from three to six channels, and not all channels may have enough signal to contribute to the measurement under any given condition. The difficulty in the measurement lies in relating the radiance (power per unit area per solid angle) in each channel to the temperature of the surface since the radiance is determined not only by the temperature, but also by the emissivity of the surface. The emissivity is not a constant for any real surface, but varies both with angle of observation and

  3. Microsecond Time-Resolved Pyrometry during Rapid Resistive Heating of Samples in a Kolsky Bar Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, D.; Yoon, H. W.; Rhorer, R.; Burns, T.

    2003-09-01

    Analysis of machining processes is important in the understanding and improving of manufacturing methods. The modeling of machining processes relies on high-strain rate, high-temperature material properties. A split-Hopkinson pressure bar (or Kolsky bar) is being installed in a NIST high-current pulse-heating facility. By heating the material sample rapidly with a controlled current pulse immediately before the mechanical impact in the bar, structural changes in the sample are inhibited, thus better simulating conditions during machining. A stress-strain relationship can be determined at various temperatures for test materials. We describe the design and the development of a millisecond-resolution split-Hopkinson apparatus, where the sample is resistively heated by the passage of a sub-second-duration electric current pulse. The impact bar is constructed out of maraging steel and the sample is a cylinder of AISI 1045 steel. The current is transmitted through the oiled-bronze sleeve bushing of the impact bar. The temperature measurements are performed using a near-infrared micro-pyrometer (NIMPY). The NIMPY consists of a refractive 5× microscope objective with a numerical aperture of 0.14 attached to a traditional microscope body. The thermal measurement is performed with an InGaAs detector with ˜ 1 μs response time. The procedure used to calibrate the pyrometer with a variable temperature blackbody is described. A brief description of a model of the pulse heating process is given and the predicted sample temperature history is compared with measured temperature data.

  4. Lentigines in resolving psoriatic plaques: rarely reported sequelae in pediatric cases.

    PubMed

    LaRosa, Caroline L; Foulke, Galen T; Feigenbaum, Dana F; Cordoro, Kelly M; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2015-01-01

    Lentigo formation has been described in adults after the resolution of psoriatic plaques treated with various standard psoriasis treatments. We describe three cases of lentigines developing in areas of resolving psoriatic plaques: two in patients treated with etanercept and one before starting etanercept. A possible pathomechanism is proposed. PMID:25727728

  5. Bariatric Bypass Surgery to Resolve Complicated Childhood Morbid Obesity: Case Report Study: Erratum.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    In the article ''Bariatric Bypass Surgery to Resolve Complicated Childhood Morbid Obesity: Case Report Study'', which appeared in Volume 94, Issue 49 of Medicine, Dr. Elrazek's name was incorrectly presented as Abd Elrazek M. Ali Hussein when it should have read Abd Elrazek Abd Elrazek. The article has since been corrected online. PMID:27231816

  6. A Case of Subacute Encephalopathy Developing After Treatment With Clofarabine and Methotrexate That Resolved With Corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Tzachanis, Dimitrios; Haider, Mintallah; Papazisis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This is the case of a 24-year-old woman with relapsed acute undifferentiated leukemia who developed subacute encephalopathy with hemiparesis and dysarthria after treatment with high dose and intrathecal methotrexate, clofarabine, and cytarabine that resolved rapidly and completely after the administration of corticosteroids. We hypothesize that clofarabine might predispose to methotrexate-induced central nervous system toxicity by increasing endothelial permeability (capillary leak syndrome) and suggest that corticosteroids are effective in the treatment of this type of encephalopathy. PMID:24987945

  7. Effect of radiometric errors on accuracy of temperature-profile measurement by spectral scanning using absorption-emission pyrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchele, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The spectral-scanning method may be used to determine the temperature profile of a jet- or rocket-engine exhaust stream by measurements of gas radiation and transmittance, at two or more wavelengths. A single, fixed line of sight is used, using immobile radiators outside of the gas stream, and there is no interference with the flow. At least two sets of measurements are made, each set consisting of the conventional three radiometric measurements of absorption-emission pyrometry, but each set is taken over a different spectral interval that gives different weight to the radiation from a different portion of the optical path. Thereby, discrimination is obtained with respect to location along the path. A given radiometric error causes an error in computed temperatures. The ratio between temperature error and radiometric error depends on profile shape, path length, temperature level, and strength of line absorption, and the absorption coefficient and its temperature dependency. These influence the choice of wavelengths, for any given gas. Conditions for minimum temperature error are derived. Numerical results are presented for a two-wavelength measurement on a family of profiles that may be expected in a practical case of hydrogen-oxygen combustion. Under favorable conditions, the fractional error in temperature approximates the fractional error in radiant-flux measurement.

  8. Common but unappreciated sources of error in one, two, and multiple-color pyrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spjut, R. Erik

    1988-01-01

    The most common sources of error in optical pyrometry are examined. They can be classified as either noise and uncertainty errors, stray radiation errors, or speed-of-response errors. Through judicious choice of detectors and optical wavelengths the effect of noise errors can be minimized, but one should strive to determine as many of the system properties as possible. Careful consideration of the optical-collection system can minimize stray radiation errors. Careful consideration must also be given to the slowest elements in a pyrometer when measuring rapid phenomena.

  9. Inverse analysis of non-uniform temperature distributions using multispectral pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Tairan; Duan, Minghao; Tian, Jibin; Shi, Congling

    2016-05-01

    Optical diagnostics can be used to obtain sub-pixel temperature information in remote sensing. A multispectral pyrometry method was developed using multiple spectral radiation intensities to deduce the temperature area distribution in the measurement region. The method transforms a spot multispectral pyrometer with a fixed field of view into a pyrometer with enhanced spatial resolution that can give sub-pixel temperature information from a "one pixel" measurement region. A temperature area fraction function was defined to represent the spatial temperature distribution in the measurement region. The method is illustrated by simulations of a multispectral pyrometer with a spectral range of 8.0-13.0 μm measuring a non-isothermal region with a temperature range of 500-800 K in the spot pyrometer field of view. The inverse algorithm for the sub-pixel temperature distribution (temperature area fractions) in the "one pixel" verifies this multispectral pyrometry method. The results show that an improved Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is effective for this ill-posed inverse problem with relative errors in the temperature area fractions of (-3%, 3%) for most of the temperatures. The analysis provides a valuable reference for the use of spot multispectral pyrometers for sub-pixel temperature distributions in remote sensing measurements.

  10. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.

    2014-10-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ε ~ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ε ~ 0.1–0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity.

  11. High-Speed Imaging Optical Pyrometry for Study of Boron Nitride Nanotube Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inman, Jennifer A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Lee, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    A high-speed imaging optical pyrometry system is designed for making in-situ measurements of boron temperature during the boron nitride nanotube synthesis process. Spectrometer measurements show molten boron emission to be essentially graybody in nature, lacking spectral emission fine structure over the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Camera calibration experiments are performed and compared with theoretical calculations to quantitatively establish the relationship between observed signal intensity and temperature. The one-color pyrometry technique described herein involves measuring temperature based upon the absolute signal intensity observed through a narrowband spectral filter, while the two-color technique uses the ratio of the signals through two spectrally separated filters. The present study calibrated both the one- and two-color techniques at temperatures between 1,173 K and 1,591 K using a pco.dimax HD CMOS-based camera along with three such filters having transmission peaks near 550 nm, 632.8 nm, and 800 nm.

  12. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V.

    2014-10-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ɛ ˜ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ɛ ˜ 0.1-0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity.

  13. Presumed Allergic Proctocolitis Resolves with Probiotic Monotherapy: A Report of 4 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Victoria J.; Shreffler, Wayne G.; Yuan, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patients: — Final Diagnosis: Allergic proctocolitis Symptoms: Hematochezia • fussiness Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The prevalence of allergic diseases has been dramatically rising in the United States and other developed nations over recent decades. Growing evidence suggests a partial role for the microbiome in the development of these allergic diseases. Food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (AP) (also referred to as cow’s milk protein intolerance or allergy) is among the earliest and most common food allergic diseases of infancy, yet its patho physiology is not well understood. The currently accepted clinical practice is to restrict the diet until 12 months of age. Case Reports: We present 4 cases of clinically diagnosed AP whose symptoms quickly and completely resolved with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) monotherapy. All 4 infants avoided any dietary restrictions. The range of time from probiotic initiation to symptom resolution was 7–28 days. Conclusions: These cases suggest an important role for the infant intestinal microbiome in the development of gastrointestinal mucosal food allergies such as AP. Prospective investigation of the intestinal microbiome in infants with AP may further our understanding of this disease’s pathogenesis. The potential use of probiotic monotherapy in the treatment of AP also warrants further investigation. PMID:27568925

  14. Comprehensive Pyrometry of Incandescent Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in the Visible and Near Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Scott Benjamin

    Pyrometry via blackbody radiation is used to measure temperature of systems throughout physics. The spectrum, described by Planck's law, depends solely on the temperature T and surface area A of a black source. However, the derivation of Planck's law considers only the limit where wavelength lambda << L, the linear dimension of the source. Many nanosystems, however, exist in the opposite limit, lambda ≳ L, in the visible and near infrared. We investigate this subwavelength limit of thermal radiation by bringing multi-walled carbon nanotubes, for which r << lambda ≲ L, to incandescence via joule heating. Their light is measured in an optical microscope, and their geometry is measured with a transmission electron microscope. With complete knowledge of the source geometry and the photon emission, a full characterization of the temperature, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity of each nanofilament is possible. We find that the filaments emit highly polarized light with suprablack effective emissivities, indicative of thermal radiation originating in a phase coherent manner from the nanotube's volume as opposed to its surface area, in concordance with classical electromagnetism. Multiwavelength pyrometry is then performed on graphene, which has linear dimensions in the classical blackbody limit and theoretical gray emission. This pyrometry allows us to measure the number of layers in the graphene, a result confirmed with absorption measurements in agreement with Kirchoff's law of thermal radiation. Light emitted from incandescent graphene's bulk is found to be unpolarized, yet exhibits polarization as high as 20% near the sheet edge in accordance with diffraction theory. However, light polarized to 5% is observed originating from the bulk away from the hot region, which we attribute to anisotropy in the temperature gradient. We also find that as temperature of a nanotube and graphene increases, the signal in the near infrared becomes suppressed compared

  15. On the resolvent of multidimensional operators with frequently changing boundary conditions in the case of the homogenized Dirichlet condition

    SciTech Connect

    Sharapov, T F

    2014-10-31

    We consider an elliptic operator in a multidimensional domain with frequently changing boundary conditions in the case when the homogenized operator contains the Dirichlet boundary condition. We prove the uniform resolvent convergence of the perturbed operator to the homogenized operator and obtain estimates for the rate of convergence. A complete asymptotic expansion is constructed for the resolvent when it acts on sufficiently smooth functions. Bibliography: 41 titles.

  16. Sellar Chondroma with Endocrine Dysfunction that Resolved after Surgery: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yujiro; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Nakakuki, Takuya; Takei, Mao; Ishii, Yudo; Teramoto, Akira; Morita, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Chondromas originating from the sella turcica are rare, and the most common initial symptoms are headache and visual disturbance. We describe a case of sellar chondroma with endocrine impairment as an initial manifestation that completely resolved after surgery. A 40-year-old Japanese woman with amenorrhea and galactorrhea for the last 2 years was referred to our department of neurosurgery for the evaluation of high prolactin levels and a tumor in the sella turcica. A biochemical assessment indicated endocrine dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography indicated a tumor in the sella turcica. The patient's presentation favored the preoperative diagnosis of pituitary adenoma or Rathke's cleft cyst. However, because calcification was detected, other types of tumors, such as craniopharyngioma, meningioma, and chordoma, were also considered. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery was performed, and the possibility of a bony tumor was recognized. Finally, the tumor was completely removed, and the histopathological findings confirmed chondroma. The postoperative course was uneventful, and endocrine function improved. Five years after surgery, the patient is doing well without pituitary insufficiency, pituitary hormone medications, or signs of tumor recurrence. In cases of sellar chondroma, endocrine dysfunction sometimes precedes other symptoms, such as headache and visual disturbance. When examining a patient with an intrasellar tumor harboring calcification, clinicians must consider the possibility of sellar chondroma. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this case is the first of sellar chondroma treated with endoscopic surgery to be reported. PMID:26156668

  17. Presumed Allergic Proctocolitis Resolves with Probiotic Monotherapy: A Report of 4 Cases.

    PubMed

    Martin, Victoria J; Shreffler, Wayne G; Yuan, Qian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence of allergic diseases has been dramatically rising in the United States and other developed nations over recent decades. Growing evidence suggests a partial role for the microbiome in the development of these allergic diseases. Food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (AP) (also referred to as cow's milk protein intolerance or allergy) is among the earliest and most common food allergic diseases of infancy, yet its pathophysiology is not well understood. The currently accepted clinical practice is to restrict the diet until 12 months of age. CASE REPORT We present 4 cases of clinically diagnosed AP whose symptoms quickly and completely resolved with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) monotherapy. All 4 infants avoided any dietary restrictions. The range of time from probiotic initiation to symptom resolution was 7-28 days. CONCLUSIONS These cases suggest an important role for the infant intestinal microbiome in the development of gastrointestinal mucosal food allergies such as AP. Prospective investigation of the intestinal microbiome in infants with AP may further our understanding of this disease's pathogenesis. The potential use of probiotic monotherapy in the treatment of AP also warrants further investigation. PMID:27568925

  18. Control of dispersed-phase temperature in plasma flows by the spectral-brightness pyrometry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmatov, A. V.; Gulyaev, I. P.; Gulyaev, P. Yu; Iordan, V. I.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, we propose a new method for measuring the distribution of temperature in the ensembles of condensed-phase particles in plasma spray flows. Interrelation between the spectral temperature of the particles and the distribution of camera brightness signal is revealed. The established inter-relation enables an in-situ calibration of measuring instruments using the objects under study. The spectral-brightness pyrometry method was approbated on a Plazer plasma-arc wire spraying facility at the Paton Institute of Electrical Welding (Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev) and on the Thermoplasma 50-1 powder spraying facility at the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk). The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grants Nos. 14-08-90428 and 15-48-00100).

  19. A3B5 photodiode sensors for low-temperature pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikova, Galina Y.; Aleksandrov, Sergey E.; Gavrilov, Gennadiy A.

    2011-05-01

    Mid-infrared immersion lens photodiodes developed at the Ioffe Institute have high spectral selectivity (λmax/▵λ~0.1...0.15) at different wavelengths -2.9, 3.3, 4.2 and 4.7 microns, the response time (up to 10-9s) and detectivity (D* ~ 109-1011, (cm√Hz)/W) being significantly higher than those of currently known detectors of thermal radiation[1].The analysis of the transfer function of the temperature sensors based on A3B5 photodiodes has shown that they permit implementing the methods of color and two-color pyrometry providing a significant decrease of the methodical error in optical temperature measurements associated with unknown values of object surface emissivity and uncontrollable changes in the environment transmission.

  20. Bariatric Bypass Surgery to Resolve Complicated Childhood Morbid Obesity: Case Report Study.

    PubMed

    Elbanna, Abduh; Eldin, Mohammed Tag; Fathy, Mohammad; Osman, Osama; Abdelfattah, Mohammed; Safwat, Abdelrahman; Elkader, Mohammed Sedki Abd; Bilasy, Shymaa E; Salama, Khaled; Elnour, Asim A; Shehab, Abdullah; Baghdady, Shazly; Amer, Mohamed; Alboraie, Mohamed; Ragb, Aly; Abd Elrazek, Abd Elrazek

    2015-12-01

    Children obesity has become one of the most important public health problems in many countries worldwide. Although the awareness of childhood obesity as a modifiable health risk is high, but many societies do not prioritize this issue as a health care problem, which may lead to comorbidities and even premature death. Despite the rising interest in bariatric surgery for children, only laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is being considered in resolving childhood obesity who failed other dietary or drug therapies; however many of LSG procedures failed to reduce the weight in children or resulted in complications postsurgery.Here, we present a novel bariatric procedure to clue out a female child 13 years old presented with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease-associated morbid obesity. The surgical bariatric technique applied both fundal resection and surgical bypass in pediatric obesity using the Elbanna novel bariatric technique.Bariatric surgical bypass may be considered in complicated-childhood cases who failed all other options. PMID:26656361

  1. Unusual case of non-resolving necrotizing pneumonia: A last resort measure for cure.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, Naseem; Baig-Ansari, Naila; Fatimi, Saulat Hasnain

    2016-06-01

    To our knowledge, this is an unusual case of a community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with sepsis secondary to Streptococcus pneumoniae that required lung resection for a non-resolving consolidation. A 74 year old previously healthy woman, presented with acute fever, chills and pleuritic chest pain in Emergency Department (ED). A diagnosis of CAP was established with a Pneumonia Severity Index CURB-65 score of 5/5. In the ER, she was promptly and appropriately managed with antibiotics and aggressive supportive therapy. She remained on ten days of intravenous antibiotics. However, 48 hours post antibiotic course, she returned to ER with fever and signs of sepsis. Despite timely and appropriate management, the consolidated lobe remained the focus of sepsis for over four weeks. The patient recovered after the offending lobe was resected. Histopathology of the lung tissue revealed acute and chronic inflammation. However, no malignancy, bacterial infection or broncho-pleural fistula was found. Eighteen months post-surgery, the patient remains well. PMID:27339583

  2. Length of Time to Resolve Criminal Charges of Child Sexual Abuse: A Three-County Case Study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Wendy A; Lippert, Tonya; Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg; Jones, Lisa M

    2015-08-01

    The present study sought to examine the court culture of three Oregon counties and their timelines for resolving felony child sexual abuse cases. Specifically, we examined (a) case outcomes, churning (i.e., the extent to which four court events were rescheduled), the length of time to reach a criminal case resolution, and how this length of time compared to that for felonies generally; (b) whether mandatory minimum sentences affected resolution timeliness; and (c) key stakeholders' perceptions about their local court culture. Data included retrospective case-file abstraction (N = 532) on all felony child sex crimes for a 2-year period and interviews with legal professionals (N = 23). Across all three counties, a minority of child sexual abuse cases (18% to 47%) were resolved within the target timeframe of 4 months. In contrast, most felonies (65% to 77%) were resolved within this timeframe. The rescheduling of trials and the requirement of mandatory minimum sentences for some felony child sexual abuse crimes increased the time until case resolution. Results suggest that court cultures that are hierarchical and cooperative may lead to longer case resolution times than court cultures that are self-managing or autonomous. Implications of these results and other results are discussed. PMID:26206709

  3. Psychological Strategies for Resolving Interpersonal Conflicts among Administrators in Tertiary Institutions: A Case of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obi, Joy Sylvia C.; Obineli, Amaka S.

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed at studying the psychological strategies for resolving interpersonal conflict among administrators in Tertiary Institutions with Nnamdi Azikiwe University as the case study. Gaining an understanding of these strategies may assist administrators of educational programs in handling interpersonal conflicts in more constructive and…

  4. Pyrometry in the Multianvil Press: New approach for temperature measurement in large volume press experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanehira, T.; Wang, Y.; Prakapenka, V.; Rivers, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Temperature measurement in large volume press experiments has been based on thermocouple emf, which has well known problems: unknown pressure dependence of emf [e.g., 1], chemical reaction between thermocouple and other materials, deformation related texture development in the thermocouple wires [2], and so on. Thus, different techniques to measure temperatures in large volume press experiments other than thermocouples are required to measure accurate temperatures under high pressures. Here we report a new development using pyrometry in the multianvil press, where temperatures are derived on the basis of spectral radiometry. Several high pressure runs were conducted using the 1000 ton press with a DIA module installed at 13 ID-D GSECARS beamline at Advanced Photon Source (APS) [3]. The cubic pressure medium, 14 mm edge length, was made of soft-fired pyrophyllite with a graphite furnace. A moissanite (SiC) single crystal was built inside the pressure medium as a window for the thermal emission signal to go through. An MgO disk with 1.0 mm thickness was inserted in a gap between the top of the SiC crystal and thermocouple hot junction. The bottom of the window crystal was in direct contact with the tip of the anvil, which had a 1.5 mm diameter hole drilled all the way through the anvil axis. An optical fiber was inserted in this hole and the open end of fiber was in contact with the SiC crystal. Thermal spectral radiance from the inner cell assembly was obtained via the fiber and recorded by an Ocean Optics HP2000 spectrometer. The system response of spectrometer was calibrated by a tungsten ribbon ramp (OL550S, Optronic Laboratories, Inc.) with standard of spectral radiance. The cell assembly was compressed up to target value of 15 tons and then temperature was increased up to 1573 K. Radiation spectra were mainly obtained above 873 K and typical integration time was 1 ms or 10 ms. Data collection was done in the process of increase and decrease of temperature. In

  5. Spontaneously resolving cerebellar syndrome as a sequelae of dengue viral infection: a case series from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Weeratunga, Praveen N; Caldera, H P Manjula C; Gooneratne, I Kishara; Gamage, Ranjanie; Perera, W Sujith P; Ranasinghe, Gayan V; Niraj, Mahboob

    2014-06-01

    Sri Lanka is hyperendemic for dengue viral infection. Dengue has a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations including previously reported Sri Lankan cases with a 6th nerve palsy and a cerebellar syndrome from a co-infection with dengue and Epstein-Barr virus. This series describes a spontaneously resolving cerebellar syndrome following a dengue viral infection. Dengue is potentially an important cause of cerebellar syndromes in countries hyperendemic for the disease; patients need further studies to identify the responsible serotypes. PMID:23840070

  6. Resolving the Dilemma of International School Curriculum: The Case of Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagun, Sila; Corlu, M. Sencer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to explore the predictors of the Diploma Program scores in biology to resolve the dilemma regarding which international school curriculum is better to prepare students for the Diploma Program. A purposive sample of 135 high school students was drawn from a private international school in Turkey. Data was…

  7. RESOLVING NEIGHBORHOOD-SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING: A CASE STUDY IN WILMINGTON, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality modeling is useful for characterizing exposures to air pollutants. While models typically provide results on regional scales, there is a need for refined modeling approaches capable of resolving concentrations on the scale of tens of meters, across modeling domains 1...

  8. Blow-in fracture of the orbital roof presenting as a case of non-resolving choroidal effusion.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bipasha; Bhende, Muna

    2010-01-01

    A 34-year-old male patient was referred to us as a case of non-resolving suprachoroidal hemorrhage. History revealed decrease in right eye vision following trauma to forehead. B scan ultrasonography (USG) of the right eye showed a high-reflective structure indenting the globe. It turned out to be an inferiorly displaced fracture fragment from the orbital roof on computerized tomography (CT) scan. The choroidal elevation disappeared after open reduction of the fracture fragment and patient had good recovery of vision. USG and CT scan were helpful in the diagnosis and management of this case. PMID:20534928

  9. Identifying and discriminating phase transitions along decaying shocks with line imaging Doppler interferometric velocimetry and streaked optical pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast line-imaging velocity interferometer system for any reflector and streaked optical pyrometry are now commonly used to obtain high precision equation of state and electronic transport data under dynamic compression at major high energy density science facilities. We describe a simple way to improve distinguishing phase transformation signatures from other signals when monitoring decaying shock waves. The line-imaging capability of these optical diagnostics offers additional supporting evidence to the assignment of particular anomalies—such as plateaus or reversals—to the occurrence of a phase transition along the Hugoniot. We illustrate the discussion with two example datasets collected during laser driven shock compression of quartz and stishovite.

  10. Report on the multicolor pyrometry session at the Second NASA Non-Contact Temperature-Measurement Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spjut, R. Erik

    1989-01-01

    The session met jointly with the other special sessions. Due to time constraints, the concerns of multicolor pyrometry were not addressed in depth. Multicolor pyrometry attempts to determine an object's temperature and emittance as a function of wavelength from simultaneous measurement of the spectral radiance of the object at multiple wavelengths. The main issues are those of the most appropriate model for the wavelength dependence of the emittance, the number of undetermined parameters, and the error in the measured temperature. It has long been known that it is inappropriate to attempt to model the emittance with a functional form that contains as many unknowns as wavelengths. Such attempts will lead to gross errors in the measured temperature. However, more recent work by Hunter and Khan has indicated that emittance can be modeled by a function with many fewer degrees of freedom than sampled wavelengths (e.g., it may be appropriate to use a second order polynomial to fit data from a forty-color pyrometer). In a platform lecture, Khan described algorithms for determination of the parameters by minimization of the errors between the model and the data in a least-squares sense. The first was a linear method and the second was a non-linear method where the emittance could assume any functional form. Both methods were shown to be very sensitive to random noise and non-linearity in the measurement system.

  11. Resolved Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Following Stent Graft Treatment: A Report of Five Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Rimon, Uri; Garniek, Alexander; Golan, Gil; Bensaid, Paul; Galili, Yair; Schneiderman, Jacob; Morag, Benyamina

    2004-03-15

    Complete aneurysm resolution is the hallmark of successful endoluminal stent-graft treatment. We describe 5 patients in whom an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disappeared completely at mid-term follow-up after endovascular stent-graft placement. We reviewed 45 patients (43 men and 2 women) who underwent AAA repair using an endovascular technique, from April 1997 to December 2001. Mean AAA diameter was 58.3 mm. On 48-month follow-up, 12 aneurysms had not changed in size, 4 had grown, 16 had shrunk, and 5 had resolved completely. We describe these 5 patients in detail. The 5 patients were all men, mean age 68 years; their mean aneurysmal sac diameter was 54 mm. The only common finding in all of them was patency of lumbar and inferior mesenteric arteries at pre-procedure evaluation as well as at follow-up. Mean time to complete resolution was 18 months. No major complications were encountered. AAA may resolve completely after endovascular stent-graft implantation. Patent side branches may perhaps contribute to AAA disappearance by antegrade flow. A larger patient population should be reviewed, however, before any statistical conclusion can be drawn.

  12. Resolving phylogenetic incongruence to articulate homology and phenotypic evolution: a case study from Nematoda.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, Erik J; Baldwin, James G

    2010-05-01

    Modern morphology-based systematics, including questions of incongruence with molecular data, emphasizes analysis over similarity criteria to assess homology. Yet detailed examination of a few key characters, using new tools and processes such as computerized, three-dimensional ultrastructural reconstruction of cell complexes, can resolve apparent incongruence by re-examining primary homologies. In nematodes of Tylenchomorpha, a parasitic feeding phenotype is thus reconciled with immediate free-living outgroups. Closer inspection of morphology reveals phenotypes congruent with molecular-based phylogeny and points to a new locus of homology in mouthparts. In nematode models, the study of individually homologous cells reveals a conserved modality of evolution among dissimilar feeding apparati adapted to divergent lifestyles. Conservatism of cellular components, consistent with that of other body systems, allows meaningful comparative morphology in difficult groups of microscopic organisms. The advent of phylogenomics is synergistic with morphology in systematics, providing an honest test of homology in the evolution of phenotype. PMID:20106846

  13. Resolving disputes under the Americans with Disabilities Act. A case example of an employee with a back impairment.

    PubMed

    Blanck, P D

    1995-04-01

    To illustrate the importance of proactive medical professional participation in Americans with Disabilities Act reasonable accommodation cases, this article describes the use of alternative dispute resolution techniques to resolve a case involving a blue collar employee with a work-related lower back injury. The problems in accommodating employees with back and spine injuries are being experienced by many employers. To date, the largest number of discrimination claims filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission under the Americans with Disabilities Act involve individuals with back and spine impairments. This article identifies eight decision-points in the Americans with Disabilities Act accommodation process that are relevant to employers, persons with disabilities, medical professionals, union representatives, and legal counsel. PMID:7701403

  14. Microscale obstacle resolving air quality model evaluation with the Michelstadt case.

    PubMed

    Rakai, Anikó; Kristóf, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Modelling pollutant dispersion in cities is challenging for air quality models as the urban obstacles have an important effect on the flow field and thus the dispersion. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models with an additional scalar dispersion transport equation are a possible way to resolve the flowfield in the urban canopy and model dispersion taking into consideration the effect of the buildings explicitly. These models need detailed evaluation with the method of verification and validation to gain confidence in their reliability and use them as a regulatory purpose tool in complex urban geometries. This paper shows the performance of an open source general purpose CFD code, OpenFOAM for a complex urban geometry, Michelstadt, which has both flow field and dispersion measurement data. Continuous release dispersion results are discussed to show the strengths and weaknesses of the modelling approach, focusing on the value of the turbulent Schmidt number, which was found to give best statistical metric results with a value of 0.7. PMID:24027450

  15. Childhood onset vulvar lichen sclerosus does not resolve at puberty: a prospective case series.

    PubMed

    Smith, Saxon D; Fischer, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    When vulvar lichen sclerosus occurs in prepubertal children it is widely believed that it is likely to remit at puberty. However when it occurs in adult women it is accepted that remission is unlikely and that in addition untreated or inadequately treated disease may be complicated by significant disturbance of vulvar architecture and less commonly squamous cell carcinoma. Our database reveals 18 girls who developed lichen sclerosus prior to puberty who are now adolescents or young adults. Twelve have remained under surveillance and the other six patients have been lost to follow-up. We report a prospective series of these 12 patients. Three patients have achieved complete remission sustained for three or more years, all prior to menarche. Nine patients, or 75% of the cohort, who still had active lichen sclerosus at puberty continue to require maintenance therapy after menarche. Of the 12, six have had significant disturbance of vulvar architecture. The concept that prepubertal lichen sclerosus resolves at puberty would appear not to be true in the majority of patients. Even when diagnosed early and treated effectively, childhood onset lichen sclerosus may be complicated by distortion of vulvar architecture. PMID:20199450

  16. Microscale Obstacle Resolving Air Quality Model Evaluation with the Michelstadt Case

    PubMed Central

    Rakai, Anikó; Kristóf, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Modelling pollutant dispersion in cities is challenging for air quality models as the urban obstacles have an important effect on the flow field and thus the dispersion. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models with an additional scalar dispersion transport equation are a possible way to resolve the flowfield in the urban canopy and model dispersion taking into consideration the effect of the buildings explicitly. These models need detailed evaluation with the method of verification and validation to gain confidence in their reliability and use them as a regulatory purpose tool in complex urban geometries. This paper shows the performance of an open source general purpose CFD code, OpenFOAM for a complex urban geometry, Michelstadt, which has both flow field and dispersion measurement data. Continuous release dispersion results are discussed to show the strengths and weaknesses of the modelling approach, focusing on the value of the turbulent Schmidt number, which was found to give best statistical metric results with a value of 0.7. PMID:24027450

  17. Case Study: Psychiatric Misdiagnosis of Non-24-Hours Sleep-Wake Schedule Disorder Resolved by Melatonin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagan, Yaron; Ayalon, Liat

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes a 14-year-old male suffering from significant academic and personal difficulties, who has been diagnosed with depression, schizotypal personality disorder, and learning disabilities. Because of excessive sleepiness, assessment for a potential sleep disorder was performed. An overnight polysomnographic study revealed no…

  18. Mycobacterium avium complex olecranon bursitis resolves without antimicrobials or surgical intervention: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Working, Selene; Tyser, Andrew; Levy, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nontuberculous mycobacteria are an uncommon cause of septic olecranon bursitis, though cases have increasingly been described in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Guidelines recommend a combination of surgical resection and antimicrobials for treatment. This case is the first reported case of nontuberculous mycobacterial olecranon bursitis that resolved without medical or surgical intervention. Case presentation A 67-year-old female developed a painless, fluctuant swelling of the olecranon bursa following blunt trauma to the elbow. Due to persistent bursal swelling, she underwent three separate therapeutic bursal aspirations, two involving intrabursal steroid injection. After the third aspiration, the bursa became erythematous and severely swollen, and bursal fluid grew Mycobacterium avium complex. Triple-drug antimycobacterial therapy was initiated, but discontinued abruptly due to a rash. Surgery was not performed. The patient was observed off antimicrobials, and gradually clinically improved with a compressive dressing. By 14 months after initial presentation, clinical exam revealed complete resolution of the previously erythematous bursal mass. Discussion This is the first reported case of nontuberculous mycobacterial olecranon bursitis managed successfully without surgery or antimicrobials. Musculoskeletal nontuberculous mycobacterial infections are challenging given the lack of clinical data about optimal duration and choice of antimicrobials or the role of surgery. Additionally, the potential toxicity and drug interactions of antimycobacterials are not insignificant and warrant close monitoring if treatment is pursued. Conclusion This case raises an important clinical question of whether close observation off antimicrobials is appropriate in select cases of immunocompetent patients with localized atypical mycobacterial disease of soft tissue and skeletal structures. PMID:26793457

  19. Long-term treatment of a breastfeeding mother with fluconazole-resolved nipple pain caused by yeast: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bodley, V; Powers, D

    1997-12-01

    This case follows a breastfeeding mother with cracked nipples undergoing antibiotic treatment (dicloxacillin) for mastitis. Nipple candidiasis also presented with burning, stinging pain radiating from the nipples into the breast, lasting throughout feedings and beyond. Over a 7-week period, the asymptomatic infant was treated with the oral antifungal, nystatin. After other antifungal treatment regimens (oral nystatin, tristatin ointment) had been deemed unsuccessful for the mother, the physician prescribed fluconazole (200 mg loading dose plus 100 mg/day for 15 days) which reduced, but did not eliminate, the nipple yeast and accompanying pain. Fluconazole was continued for an additional 30 days (200 mg/day) for a total of 6 weeks of treatment with this medication. Concurrently, a topical yeast medication (tristatin ointment) was used for a total of 8 weeks on the nipples/areola, after which the overt pain was resolved. Although the mastitis resolved after 1 week, the cracked nipples did not completely heal for several months. During the initial 3 weeks of treatment, neither over-the-counter pain medication nor acetaminophen with codeine relieved this mother's pain. Hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen (10/650 mg/tablet) (Lorcet) offered the pain relief necessary for this mother to continue to breastfeed. PMID:9429366

  20. Measuring star formation with resolved observations: the test case of M 33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boquien, M.; Calzetti, D.; Aalto, S.; Boselli, A.; Braine, J.; Buat, V.; Combes, F.; Israel, F.; Kramer, C.; Lord, S.; Relaño, M.; Rosolowsky, E.; Stacey, G.; Tabatabaei, F.; van der Tak, F.; van der Werf, P.; Verley, S.; Xilouris, M.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Measuring star formation on a local scale is important to constrain star formation laws. It is not clear yet, however, whether and how the measure of star formation is affected by the spatial scale at which a galaxy is observed. Aims: We wish to understand the impact of the resolution on the determination of the spatially resolved star formation rate (SFR) and other directly associated physical parameters such as the attenuation. Methods: We carried out a multi-scale, pixel-by-pixel study of the nearby galaxy M 33. Assembling FUV, Hα, 8 μm, 24 μm, 70 μm, and 100 μm maps, we have systematically compared the emission in individual bands with various SFR estimators from a resolution of 33 pc to 2084 pc. Results: There are strong, scale-dependent, discrepancies of up to a factor 3 between monochromatic SFR estimators and Hα+24 μm. The scaling factors between individual IR bands and the SFR show a strong dependence on the spatial scale and on the intensity of star formation. Finally, strong variations of the differential reddening between the nebular emission and the stellar continuum are seen, depending on the specific SFR (sSFR) and on the resolution. At the finest spatial scales, there is little differential reddening at high sSFR. The differential reddening increases with decreasing sSFR. At the coarsest spatial scales the differential reddening is compatible with the canonical value found for starburst galaxies. Conclusions: Our results confirm that monochromatic estimators of the SFR are unreliable at scales smaller than 1 kpc. Furthermore, the extension of local calibrations to high-redshift galaxies presents non-trivial challenges because the properties of these systems may be poorly known. The maps (FITS files) and the data cube used in this article are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A8

  1. Analysis of multi-band pyrometry for emissivity and temperature measurements of gray surfaces at ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, António

    2016-05-01

    A multi-band pyrometry model is developed to evaluate the potential of measuring temperature and emissivity of assumably gray target surfaces at 300 K. Twelve wavelength bands between 2 and 60 μm are selected to define the spectral characteristics of the pyrometers. The pyrometers are surrounded by an enclosure with known background temperature. Multi-band pyrometry modeling results in an overdetermined system of equations, in which the solution for temperature and emissivity is obtained through an optimization procedure that minimizes the sum of the squared residuals of each system equation. The Monte Carlo technique is applied to estimate the uncertainties of temperature and emissivity, resulting from the propagation of the uncertainties of the pyrometers. Maximum reduction in temperature uncertainty is obtained from dual-band to tri-band systems, a small reduction is obtained from tri-band to quad-band, with a negligible reduction above quad-band systems (a reduction between 6.5% and 12.9% is obtained from dual-band to quad-band systems). However, increasing the number of bands does not always reduce uncertainty, and uncertainty reduction depends on the specific band arrangement, indicating the importance of choosing the most appropriate multi-band spectral arrangement if uncertainty is to be reduced. A reduction in emissivity uncertainty is achieved when the number of spectral bands is increased (a reduction between 6.3% and 12.1% is obtained from dual-band to penta-band systems). Besides, emissivity uncertainty increases for pyrometers with high wavelength spectral arrangements. Temperature and emissivity uncertainties are strongly dependent on the difference between target and background temperatures: uncertainties are low when the background temperature is far from the target temperature, tending to very high values as the background temperature approaches the target temperature.

  2. Gradient effects on two-color soot optical pyrometry in a heavy-duty DI diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark P.B.; Singh, Satbir; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2008-04-15

    Two-color soot optical pyrometry is a widely used technique for measuring soot temperature and volume fraction in many practical combustion devices, but line-of-sight soot temperature and volume fraction gradients can introduce significant uncertainties in the measurements. For diesel engines, these uncertainties usually can only be estimated based on assumptions about the soot property gradients along the line of sight, because full three-dimensional transient diesel soot distribution data are not available. Such information is available, however, from multidimensional computer model simulations, which are phenomenologically based, and have been validated against available in-cylinder soot measurements and diesel engine exhaust soot emissions. Using the model-predicted in-cylinder soot distributions, uncertainties in diesel two-color pyrometry data are assessed, both for a conventional high-sooting, high-temperature combustion (HTC) operating condition, and for a low-sooting, low-temperature combustion (LTC) condition. The simulation results confirm that the two-color soot measurements are strongly biased toward the properties of the hot soot. For the HTC condition, line-of-sight gradients in soot temperature span 600 K, causing relatively large errors. The two-color temperature is 200 K higher than the soot-mass-averaged value, while the two-color volume fraction is 50% lower. For the LTC condition, the two-color measurement errors are half as large as for the HTC condition, because the model-predicted soot temperature gradients along the line of sight are half as large. By contrast, soot temperature and volume fraction gradients across the field of view introduce much smaller errors of less than 50 K in temperature and 20% in volume fraction. (author)

  3. An Interesting Case of Non-Resolving Hepatogastric Fistula – An Unseen Cause

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Sunil V; Gambhire, Pravir A; Jain, Samit S; Rathi, Pravin M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic tuberculosis presents one of the rare forms of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. It is usually secondary to infection in the lung or the gut. Tuberculous liver abscess is the rarer manifestation even in endemic areas of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Hepatogastric fistula secondary to tuberculous liver abscess has never been reported in literature. We herein report a case of a disseminated tuberculous liver abscess complicated by hepatogastric fistula, which posed a considerable diagnostic challenge. It was treated successfully with anti tubercular drugs. Liver abscess with atypical features and non responsive to antibiotics should raise the suspicious of tuberculosis or fungal infections. PMID:27042532

  4. Artifacts in time-resolved NUS: A case study of NOE build-up curves from 2D NOESY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dass, Rupashree; Kasprzak, Paweł; Koźmiński, Wiktor; Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Multidimensional NMR spectroscopy requires time-consuming sampling of indirect dimensions and so is usually used to study stable samples. However, dynamically changing compounds or their mixtures commonly occur in problems of natural science. Monitoring them requires the use multidimensional NMR in a time-resolved manner - in other words, a series of quick spectra must be acquired at different points in time. Among the many solutions that have been proposed to achieve this goal, time-resolved non-uniform sampling (TR-NUS) is one of the simplest. In a TR-NUS experiment, the signal is sampled using a shuffled random schedule and then divided into overlapping subsets. These subsets are then processed using one of the NUS reconstruction methods, for example compressed sensing (CS). The resulting stack of spectra forms a temporal "pseudo-dimension" that shows the changes caused by the process occurring in the sample. CS enables the use of small subsets of data, which minimizes the averaging of the effects studied. Yet, even within these limited timeframes, the sample undergoes certain changes. In this paper we discuss the effect of varying signal amplitude in a TR-NUS experiment. Our theoretical calculations show that the variations within the subsets lead to t1 -noise, which is dependent on the rate of change of the signal amplitude. We verify these predictions experimentally. As a model case we choose a novel 2D TR-NOESY experiment in which mixing time is varied in parallel with shuffled NUS in the indirect dimension. The experiment, performed on a sample of strychnine, provides a near-continuous NOE build-up curve, whose shape closely reflects the t1 -noise level. 2D TR-NOESY reduces the measurement time compared to the conventional approach and makes it possible to verify the theoretical predictions about signal variations during TR-NUS.

  5. Artifacts in time-resolved NUS: A case study of NOE build-up curves from 2D NOESY.

    PubMed

    Dass, Rupashree; Kasprzak, Paweł; Koźmiński, Wiktor; Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Multidimensional NMR spectroscopy requires time-consuming sampling of indirect dimensions and so is usually used to study stable samples. However, dynamically changing compounds or their mixtures commonly occur in problems of natural science. Monitoring them requires the use multidimensional NMR in a time-resolved manner - in other words, a series of quick spectra must be acquired at different points in time. Among the many solutions that have been proposed to achieve this goal, time-resolved non-uniform sampling (TR-NUS) is one of the simplest. In a TR-NUS experiment, the signal is sampled using a shuffled random schedule and then divided into overlapping subsets. These subsets are then processed using one of the NUS reconstruction methods, for example compressed sensing (CS). The resulting stack of spectra forms a temporal "pseudo-dimension" that shows the changes caused by the process occurring in the sample. CS enables the use of small subsets of data, which minimizes the averaging of the effects studied. Yet, even within these limited timeframes, the sample undergoes certain changes. In this paper we discuss the effect of varying signal amplitude in a TR-NUS experiment. Our theoretical calculations show that the variations within the subsets lead to t1-noise, which is dependent on the rate of change of the signal amplitude. We verify these predictions experimentally. As a model case we choose a novel 2D TR-NOESY experiment in which mixing time is varied in parallel with shuffled NUS in the indirect dimension. The experiment, performed on a sample of strychnine, provides a near-continuous NOE build-up curve, whose shape closely reflects the t1-noise level. 2D TR-NOESY reduces the measurement time compared to the conventional approach and makes it possible to verify the theoretical predictions about signal variations during TR-NUS. PMID:26896866

  6. A challenge and an opportunity for medical regulators--considering the public's interests in cases using ADR to resolve disputes about physicians' practices: a Canadian analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Lorraine E

    2002-01-01

    Disputes between patients or their families and the patient's treating physician are not uncommon. While many of these disputes are resolved by the disputants alone or informally with others, many are resolved through formal adjudication processes of court litigation or through processes of medical regulators. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) options either within the courts or within regulatory bodies are becoming more popular as decision-makers realize the benefits to using these options in appropriate cases. ADR offers both opportunities for advancing our appropriate dealings of these disputes and challenges in terms of ensuring that the public's interests are met. This article examines the public's interests in cases using mediation to resolve disputes about physician's practices from a Canadian perspective. The article concludes with recommendations to protect the public interests and to respect the rights of disputants. PMID:12017437

  7. A Risperidone-Induced Prolactinoma Resolved when a Woman with Schizoaffective Disorder Switched to Ziprasidone: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Arcari, Gail T.; Mendes, Asante K.

    2012-01-01

    Antipsychotic drug therapy, e.g., risperidone, can be associated with endocrine abnormalities, including an increase in serum prolactin level (sPrl) due to a drug-induced benign pituitary tumor (prolactinoma). A few case reports have noted a resolution of hyperprolactinemia and prolactinoma after cessation of risperidone treatment. We report a similar finding for a woman with schizoaffective disorder, manic type. Due to a neurological disorder involving the tongue (tardive dyskinesia), a woman with schizoaffective disorder switched from 50mg thioridazine after 21 years to 2mg of risperidone at bedtime for 10 years. Elevated sPrl was noted in June and August 2005 (83.8 and 100.1µg/L; normal: 3.4–24.1µg/L) and a cranial magnetic resonance imaging scan showed evidence of a small area of decreased signal in the pituitary gland consistent with a microadenoma. The subject transitioned slowly to ziprasidone and off risperidone in October and November of 2005. The prolactinoma completely resolved with the switch to ziprasidone. It is recommended that sPrl be measured annually in patients taking antipsychotic drugs to test for any indication of pituitary prolactinoma that could suggest the need to switch the primary treatment to another drug. PMID:23074699

  8. The case for establishing a board of review for resolving environmental issues: The science court in Canada.

    PubMed

    Giesy, John P; Solomon, Keith R; Kacew, Sam; Mackay, Donald; Stobo, Gerald; Kennedy, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Technology and scientific advancements are accelerating changes in society at a pace that is challenging the abilities of government regulatory agencies and legal courts to understand the benefits and costs of these changes to humans, wildlife, and their environments. The social, economic, and political facets of concern, such as the potential effects of chemicals, complicate the preparation of regulatory standards and practices intended to safeguard the public. Court judges and attorneys and, in some cases, lay juries are tasked with interpreting the data and implications underlying these new advancements, often without the technical background necessary to understand complex subjects and subsequently make informed decisions. Here, we describe the scientific-quasi-judicial process adopted in Canada under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, which could serve as a model for resolving conflicts between regulatory agencies and the regulated community. An example and process and lessons learned from the first Board of Review, which was for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5; CAS# 541-02-06), are provided. Notable among these lessons are: 1) the need to apply state-of-the-science insights into the regulatory process, 2) to encourage agencies to continuously review and update their assessment processes, criteria, and models, and 3) provide these processes in guidance documents that are transparent and available to all stakeholders and generally foster closer cooperation between regulators, the academic community, industry, and nongovernment organizations (NGOs). Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:572-579. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26460810

  9. Statin Intolerance Because of Myalgia, Myositis, Myopathy, or Myonecrosis Can in Most Cases be Safely Resolved by Vitamin D Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Khayznikov, Maksim; Hemachrandra, Kallish; Pandit, Ramesh; Kumar, Ashwin; Wang, Ping; Glueck, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    D can be safely resolved by vitamin D supplementation (50,000-100,000 units /week) in most cases (88-95%). PMID:25838999

  10. Comparisons of Gas-phase Temperature Measurements in a Flame Using Thin-Filament Pyrometry and Thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter; Dietrich, Daniel; Valentine, Russell; Feier, Ioan

    2003-01-01

    Less-intrusive, fast-responding, and full-field temperature measurements have long been a desired tool for the research community. Recently, the emission of a silicon-carbide (SiC) fiber placed in a flowing hot (or reacting) gas has been used to measure the temperature profile along the length of the fiber. The relationship between the gas and fiber temperature comes from an energy balance on the fiber. In the present work, we compared single point flame temperature measurements using thin-filament pyrometry (TFP) and thermocouples. The data was from vertically traversing a thermocouple and a SiC fiber through a methanol/air diffusion flame of a porous-metal wick burner. The results showed that the gas temperature using the TFP technique agreed with the thermocouple measurements (25.4 m diameter wire) within 3.5% for temperatures above 1200 K. Additionally, we imaged the entire SiC fiber (with a spatial resolution of 0.14 mm) while it was in the flame using a high resolution CCD camera. The intensity level along the fiber length is a function of the temperature. This results in a one-dimensional temperature profiles at various heights above the burner wick. This temperature measurement technique, while having a precision of less than 1 K, showed data scatter as high as 38 K. Finally, we discuss the major sources of uncertainty in gas temperature measurement using TFP.

  11. Determination of char combustion kinetics parameters: Comparison of point detector and imaging-based particle-sizing pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiemann, Martin; Geier, Manfred; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Vorobiev, Nikita; Scherer, Viktor

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the char burnout characteristics of two German coals (a lignite and a high-volatile bituminous coal) were investigated using two different experimental configurations and optical techniques in two distinct laboratories for measurement of temperature and size of burning particles. The optical diagnostic hardware is quite different in the two systems, but both perform two-color pyrometry and optical sizing measurements on individual particles burning in isolation from each other in high-temperature laminar flows to characterize the char consumption kinetics. The performance of the specialized systems is compared for two different combustion atmospheres (with 6.6 and 12 vol.% O2) and gas temperatures between 1700 and 1800 K. The measured particle temperatures and diameters are converted to char burning rate parameters for several residence times during the course of the particles' burnout. The results confirm that comparable results are obtained with the two configurations, although higher levels of variability in the measured data were observed in the imaging-based pyrometer setup. Corresponding uncertainties in kinetics parameters were larger, and appear to be more sensitive to systematic measurement errors when lower oxygen contents are used in the experiments. Consequently, burnout experiments in environments with sufficiently high O2 contents may be used to measure reliable char burning kinetics rates. Based on simulation results for the two coals, O2 concentrations in the range 10%-30% are recommended for kinetic rate measurements on 100 μm particles.

  12. Streaked optical pyrometry of ion heated compound targets in the study of plasma mix at high density interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, Gilliss; Roycroft, Rebecca; Wagner, Craig; Bernstein, Aaron; Ditmire, Todd; Hegelich, B. Manuel; Albright, Brian; Fernández, Juan; Bang, Woosuk; Bradley, Paul; Gautier, D. Cort; Hamilton, Christopher; Palaniyappan, Sasi; Santiago Cordoba, Miguel; Vold, Erik; Lin, Yin

    2015-11-01

    The interaction and mixing of different species of plasma at high energy density is of fundamental interest for HED physics and relevant to inertial confinement fusion. An ongoing campaign is underway at the Trident laser facility to study the dynamics at the interface of high and low atomic number materials under warm dense matter conditions. The experiments utilize laser-accelerated ions, such as aluminum, to flash heat solid targets to temperatures >1 eV. We report on streaked pyrometry measurements made in a recent experimental run, which shed light on the dynamics of heating induced in various target materials by these ion sources. Timescale as well as spatial extent of the heating can vary greatly depending on the dominant ion species and spectra. This work was supported by NNSA cooperative agreement DE-NA0002008 and the Los Alamos National Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program under the auspices of the U.S. DOE NNSAS, LLC, Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-06.

  13. Two cases of malignant lymphoma with reactivation of resolved hepatitis B virus infection after bendamustine hydrochloride monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hiraki, Yoshiki; Kawano, Akira; Shigematsu, Hirohisa; Miki, Koichiro; Nomura, Hideyuki; Shimoda, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    A 63-year-old female and a 63-year-old male with resolved HBV infection suffered a relapse of malignant lymphoma. After bendamustine hydrochloride monotherapy, HBV reactivation occurred. Entecavir treatment was commenced immediately, with tests for HBV DNA negative without development of hepatitis. Regular monitoring of HBV DNA based on the guidelines from the Japan Society of Hepatology was useful. PMID:27593368

  14. Time-resolved CIDEP study of the photogenerated camphorquinone radical anion: a case of dual singlet and triplet precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Depew, M.C.; Wan, J.K.S.

    1986-12-04

    Photoreduction of camphorquinone in 2-propanol produced electron spin polarized camphorquinone radical anions. The time-resolved electron spin resonance spectra of the spin-polarized radical anions provided the first evidence of dual singlet and triplet precursors in the CIDEP phenomenon. With the results from fluorescence quenching experiments, the time dependence of the CIDEP spectra can be accounted for qualitatively by the changes of the relative contributions to the polarization among the singlet pair, F and triplet pairs, and the triplet mechanisms.

  15. (U) Implementation and demonstration of a time-resolved pyrometry/spectroscopy capability in shock compression experiments on metal oxide powders

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, Peter Marvin; Lang, Jr., John Michael; Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw; Scharff, Robert Jason

    2015-04-08

    Temperature is notably the most difficult quantity to measure in shock compression experiments; however, it is critical for accurately constraining theoretical or tabular equations of state. Until now, the temperature achieved during the shock loading of porous materials could only be calculated. The technique presented in this report measures, for the first time, the shocked temperature of porous systems.

  16. Single-crystal sapphire tubes as economical probes for optical pyrometry in harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, Jakub; Houzvicka, Jindrich; Bok, Jiri; Praus, Petr; Mojzes, Peter

    2011-12-20

    One-end-sealed single-crystal sapphire tubes are presented as a simple, robust, and economical alternative for bulky lightpipe probes. Thermal radiation from a blackbody cavity created at the inner surface of the sealed end is gathered by a simple lens-based collecting system and transmitted via optical fiber to the remote detection unit. Simplicity and applicability of the concept are demonstrated by the combination of commercially available sapphire tubes with a common optical pyrometer. Radiation thermometers with sapphire tubes as invasive probes can be useful for applications requiring immunity to electromagnetic interference, resistance to harsh environments, simple replacement in the case of failure, and enhanced mechanical firmness, enabling wider range probe positioning inside the medium of interest.

  17. Resolving Rupture Directivity of Moderate Strike-Slip Earthquakes in Sparse Network with Ambient Noise Location: A Case Study with the 2011 M5.6 Oklahoma Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X.; Ni, S.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake rupture directivity is essential for improving reliability of shakemap and understanding seismogenic processes by resolving the ruptured fault. Compared with field geological survey and InSAR technique, rupture directivity analysis based on seismological data provides rapid characterization of the rupture finiteness parameters or is almost the only way for resolving ruptured fault for earthquakes weaker than M5. In recent years, ambient seismic noise has been widely used in tomography and as well as earthquake location. Barmin et al. (2011) and Levshin et al. (2012) proposed to locate the epicenter by interpolating the estimated Green's functions (EGFs) determined by cross-correlation of ambient noise to arbitrary hypothetical event locations. This method does not rely on an earth model, but it requires a dense local array. Zhan et al. (2011) and Zeng et al. (2014) used the EGFs between a nearby station and remote stations as calibration for 3D velocity structure and then obtained the centroid location. In contrast, the hypocenter can be determined by P wave onsets. When assuming unilateral rupture, we can resolve the rupture directivity with relative location of the centroid location and hypocenter. We apply this method to the 2011 M5.6 Oklahoma earthquake. One M4.8 foreshock and one M4+ aftershock are chosen as reference event to calibrate the systematic bias of ambient noise location. The resolved rupture plane strikes southwest-northeast, consistent with the spatial distribution of aftershocks (McNamara et al., 2015) and finite fault inversion result (Sun et al., 2014). This method works for unilaterally ruptured strike-slip earthquakes, and more case studies are needed to test its effectiveness.

  18. Size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei concentration measurements in the Arctic: two case studies from the summer of 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zábori, J.; Rastak, N.; Yoon, Y. J.; Riipinen, I.; Ström, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is one of the most vulnerable regions affected by climate change. Extensive measurement data are needed to understand the atmospheric processes governing this vulnerability. Among these, data describing cloud formation potential are of particular interest, since the indirect effect of aerosols on the climate system is still poorly understood. In this paper we present, for the first time, size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) data obtained in the Arctic. The measurements were conducted during two periods in the summer of 2008: one in June and one in August, at the Zeppelin research station (78°54´ N, 11°53´ E) in Svalbard. Trajectory analysis indicates that during the measurement period in June 2008, air masses predominantly originated from the Arctic, whereas the measurements from August 2008 were influenced by mid-latitude air masses. CCN supersaturation (SS) spectra obtained on the 27 June, before size-resolved measurements were begun, and spectra from the 21 and 24 August, conducted before and after the measurement period, revealed similarities between the 2 months. From the ratio between CCN concentration and the total particle number concentration (CN) as a function of dry particle diameter (Dp) at a SS of 0.4 %, the activation diameter (D50), corresponding to CCN / CN = 0.50, was estimated. D50 was found to be 60 and 67 nm for the examined periods in June and August 2008, respectively. Corresponding D50 hygroscopicity parameter (κ) values were estimated to be 0.4 and 0.3 for June and August 2008, respectively. These values can be compared to hygroscopicity values estimated from bulk chemical composition, where κ was calculated to be 0.5 for both June and August 2008. While the agreement between the 2 months is reasonable, the difference in κ between the different methods indicates a size dependence in the particle composition, which is likely explained by a higher fraction of inorganics in the bulk aerosol samples.

  19. Aerosol size-resolved trace metal composition in remote northern tropical Atlantic marine environment: case study Cape Verde islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomba, K. W.; Müller, K.; van Pinxteren, D.; Herrmann, H.

    2013-05-01

    Size-resolved trace metal concentrations of 15 elements in aerosol particles at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) under remote background conditions were investigated through analysis of aerosol samples collected during intensive field studies from January 2007 to November 2011 using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The identification of the main air mass origin that influence remote marine aerosol in the northern tropical Atlantic has been investigated. In total, 317 samples were collected. The dataset was analyzed according to the main air mass inflow at the station. We found that remote conditions make up about 45% of the meteorological conditions in a year at CVAO and thus the northern tropical Atlantic. Surprisingly, air masses from North America are often responsible for higher trace metal concentrations in this region. Elements such as Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, and V were mostly found in the submicron size fractions, while elements with dominant crustal or oceanic origin such as Fe, Ti, Mn, Sr, and Rb were found in the coarse fractions (>1 μm). The highest metal concentrations, especially for Zn (3.23 ng m-3), Cu (0.81 ng m-3), Sr (2.63 ng m-3), and Cr (0.53 ng m-3), were observed in air masses originating from North America and the concentrations were within the same concentration range to those reported previously in the literature for remote marine aerosols. Fe (12.26 ng m-3), Ti (0.91 ng m-3), and Mn (0.35 ng m-3) showed higher concentrations when air mass came from Europe and the Canary Islands. Pb concentration was low (<0.20 ng m-3) and did not vary significantly with air mass direction. The low Pb concentration is indicative of the complete phase-out of leaded gasoline even in African countries. Crustal enrichment factor values decreased from fine to coarse-mode particles with low values (<4) observed for Fe, Mn, and Rb, and high values (>20) for Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Se. The observed enrichment of the elements was attributed to

  20. Aerosol size-resolved trace metal composition in remote northern tropical Atlantic marine environment: case study Cape Verde Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomba, K. W.; Müller, K.; van Pinxteren, D.; Herrmann, H.

    2012-11-01

    Size-resolved trace metal concentrations of 15 elements in aerosol particles at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) under remote background conditions were investigated through analysis of aerosol samples collected during intensive field studies from January 2007 to November 2011 using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The identification of the main air mass origin that influence remote marine aerosol in the northern tropical Atlantic has been investigated. In total 317 samples were collected. The dataset was analyzed according to the main air mass inflow at the station. We found that remote conditions make up about 45% of the meteorological conditions in a year at CVAO and thus the northern tropical Atlantic. Surprisingly, air masses from North America are often responsible for higher trace metal concentrations in this region. Elements such as Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, and V were mostly found in the submicron size fractions while elements with dominant crustal or oceanic origin such as Fe, Ti, Mn, Sr, and Rb, were found in the coarse fractions (>1 μm). The highest metal concentrations especially for Zn (3.23 ng m-3), Cu (0.81 ng m-3), Sr (2.63 ng m-3), and Cr (0.53 ng mm-3), were observed in air masses originating from North America and the concentrations were within the same concentration range to those reported previously in the literature for remote marine aerosols. Fe (12.26 ng m-3), Ti (0.91 ng m-3) and Mn (0.35 ng m-3) showed higher concentrations when air mass came from Europe and the Canary Islands. Pb concentration was low (< 0.20 ng m-3) and did not vary significantly with air mass direction. The low Pb concentration is indicative of the complete phased out of leaded gasoline even in African countries. Crustal enrichment factor values decreased from fine to coarse mode particles with low values (< 4) observed for Fe, Mn, and Rb and high values (> 20) for Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Se. The observed enrichment of the elements was attributed to

  1. Combined x-ray scattering, radiography, and velocity interferometry/streaked optical pyrometry measurements of warm dense carbon using a novel technique of shock-and-release

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, K.; Collins, L. A.; Kagan, G.; Kress, J. D.; Montgomery, D. S.; Srinivasan, B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Tzeferacos, P.; Benage, J. F.

    2014-05-15

    This work focused on a new application of the shock-and-release technique for equation of state (EOS) measurements. Warm dense matter states at near normal solid density and at temperatures close to 10 eV in diamond and graphite samples were created using a deep release from a laser-driven shock at the OMEGA laser facility. Independent temperature, density, and pressure measurements that do not depend on any theoretical models or simulations were obtained using imaging x-ray Thomson scattering, radiography, velocity interferometry, and streaked optical pyrometry. The experimental results were reproduced by the 2-D FLASH radiation hydrodynamics simulations finding a good agreement. The final EOS measurement was then compared with widely used SESAME EOS models as well as quantum molecular dynamics simulation results for carbon, which were very consistent with the experimental data.

  2. Resolving the High-energy Universe with Strong Gravitational Lensing: The Case of PKS 1830-211

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnacka, Anna; Geller, Margaret J.; Dell'Antonio, Ian P.; Benbow, Wystan

    2015-08-01

    Gravitational lensing is a potentially powerful tool for elucidating the origin of gamma-ray emission from distant sources. Cosmic lenses magnify the emission from distant sources and produce time delays between mirage images. Gravitationally induced time delays depend on the position of the emitting regions in the source plane. The Fermi/LAT telescope continuously monitors the entire sky and detects gamma-ray flares, including those from gravitationally lensed blazars. Therefore, temporal resolution at gamma-ray energies can be used to measure these time delays, which, in turn, can be used to resolve the origin of the gamma-ray flares spatially. We provide a guide to the application and Monte Carlo simulation of three techniques for analyzing these unresolved light curves: the autocorrelation function, the double power spectrum, and the maximum peak method. We apply these methods to derive time delays from the gamma-ray light curve of the gravitationally lensed blazar PKS 1830-211. The result of temporal analysis combined with the properties of the lens from radio observations yield an improvement in spatial resolution at gamma-ray energies by a factor of 10,000. We analyze four active periods. For two of these periods the emission is consistent with origination from the core, and for the other two the data suggest that the emission region is displaced from the core by more than ˜1.5 kpc. For the core emission, the gamma-ray time delays, 23+/- 0.5 {days} and 19.7+/- 1.2 days, are consistent with the radio time delay of {26}-5+4 days.

  3. Resolving cognitive dissonance by acquisition of self-organizational skills may decrease drug-resistant seizures — A case report

    PubMed Central

    Michaelis, Rosa; Andrews, Donna J.; Reiter, Joel M.; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido

    2014-01-01

    A recent review of psychobehavioral therapy for epilepsy recommends case reports as a research design to explore specific psychological mediators of psychobehavioral interventions for epilepsy that address the bidirectional relationship between psychological states and seizures. The report was prepared according to the consensus-based CARE guidelines for standardized clinical case reporting. This is a case of a 16-year-old male individual with a diagnosed seizure disorder and learning disability who continued to have daytime and nighttime seizures on a regular basis despite exhausting of available conventional treatment options. A psychological assessment led to the working hypothesis that cognitive dissonance between fear of failure and high expectations of self had led to a “broken” self-image and active avoidance of responsibility that resulted in intense emotional distress which correlated with the occurrence of seizures. This working hypothesis resulted in a treatment plan that employed the acquisition of self-organizational skills and relaxation techniques as the main therapeutic strategy. Motivational strategies were employed to facilitate the regulation of lifestyle-related seizure precipitants. In this case, the acquisition of self-organizational skills and the development of seizure interruption techniques correlated with a clinically significant decrease of seizures. Methodological limitations of the interpretation of the presented data are discussed. PMID:25667872

  4. Anemia resolved by thoracoscopic resection of a mediastinal mass: a case report of unicentric Castleman’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jong Hui; Hong, Sook Hee; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Park, Chan Beom; Choi, Kuk Bin; Shin, Ok Ran

    2015-01-01

    Castleman’s disease (CD) is an uncommon benign lymphoproliferative disorder that usually presents as a single or multiple mediastinal mass. In unicentric CD, constitutional symptoms are rare, but are curable with surgical resection. However, serious intraoperative bleeding often requires conversion to thoracotomy. We present a case of unicentric CD in a 25-year-old woman with anemia, who was successfully treated by thoracoscopic resection. We describe the clinical course from the initial presentation to diagnosis and surgical cure. PMID:26380750

  5. In situ time-resolved measurements of carbon nanotube and nanohorn growth

    SciTech Connect

    Geohegan, David B; Puretzky, Alexander A; Styers-Barnett, David J; Hu, Hui; Zhao, Bin; Cui, Hongtao; Rouleau, Christopher M; Eres, Gyula; Jackson, Jeremy Joseph; Wood, Richard F; Pannala, Sreekanth; Wells, Jack C

    2007-01-01

    Growth mechanisms of carbon nanotubes are investigated and compared for both high- and low-temperature synthesis methods through experiments utilizing time-resolved, in situ imaging and spectros-copy. High-speed videography and pyrometry measured the timeframes for growth for single-wall car-bon nanotubes (SWNTs) and nanohorns (SWNHs) by laser vaporization (LV) at 1150 C, revealing that C can self-assemble at high temperatures preferentially into SWNH structures without catalyst assistance at rates comparable to catalyst-assisted SWNT growth by either laser vaporization or chemical vapor depo-sition (CVD). Laser interferometry and videography reveal the coordinated growth of vertically-aligned nanotube arrays (VANTAs) by CVD at 550-900 C.

  6. Stereotactic radiosurgery planning based on time-resolved CTA for arteriovenous malformation: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ryan C; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Josiah, Darnell; Gonzalez, Javier; Schmidt, Matthew; Tarabishy, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Sanjay

    2016-08-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery has long been recognized as the optimal form of management for high-grade arteriovenous malformations not amenable to surgical resection. Radiosurgical plans have generally relied upon the integration of stereotactic magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), standard contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or computed tomography angiography (CTA) with biplane digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Current options are disadvantageous in that catheter-based biplane DSA is an invasive test associated with a small risk of complications and perhaps more importantly, the two-dimensional nature of DSA is an inherent limitation in creating radiosurgical contours. The necessity of multiple scans to create DSA contours for radiosurgical planning puts patients at increased risk. Furthermore, the inability to import two-dimensional plans into some radiosurgery programs, such as Cyberknife TPS, limits treatment options for patients. Defining the nidus itself is sometimes difficult in any of the traditional modalities as all draining veins and feeding arteries are included in the images. This sometimes necessitates targeting a larger volume, than strictly necessary, with stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of the AVM. In this case report, we show the ability to use a less-invasive and three-dimensional form of angiography based on time-lapsed CTA (4D-CTA) rather than traditional DSA for radiosurgical planning. 4D-CTA may allow generation of a series of images, which can show the flow of contrast through the AVM. A review of these series may allow the surgeon to pick and use a volume set that best outlines the nidus with least interference from feeding arteries or draining veins. In addition, 4D-CTA scans can be uploaded into radiosurgery programs and allow three-dimensional targeting. This is the first reported case demonstrating the use of a 4D CTA and an MRI to delineate the AVM nidus for Gamma Knife radiosurgery, with complete

  7. RESOLVE Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Ray; Coan, Mary; Cryderman, Kate; Captain, Janine

    2013-01-01

    The RESOLVE project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing risk reduction testing this summer and fall within a vacuum chamber to understand and characterize component and integrated system performance. Testing of line heaters, printed circuit heaters, pressure transducers, temperature sensors, regulators, and valves in atmospheric and vacuum environments was done. Test procedures were developed to guide experimental tests and test reports to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. In addition, knowledge and experience was gained with preparing a vacuum chamber with fluid and electrical connections. Further testing will include integrated testing of the fluid subsystem with the gas supply system, near-infrared spectrometer, WDD, Sample Delivery System, and GC-MS in the vacuum chamber. This testing will provide hands-on exposure to a flight forward spaceflight subsystem, the processes associated with testing equipment in a vacuum chamber, and experience working in a laboratory setting. Examples of specific analysis conducted include: pneumatic analysis to calculate the WDD's efficiency at extracting water vapor from the gas stream to form condensation; thermal analysis of the conduction and radiation along a line connecting two thermal masses; and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) heater control analysis. Since LAVA is a scientific subsystem, the near-infrared spectrometer and GC-MS instruments will be tested during the ETU testing phase.

  8. RESOLVE Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Ray O.

    2012-01-01

    The RESOLVE project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph- mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing risk reduction testing this summer and fall within a vacuum chamber to understand and characterize C!Jmponent and integrated system performance. Ray will be assisting with component testing of line heaters, printed circuit heaters, pressure transducers, temperature sensors, regulators, and valves in atmospheric and vacuum environments. He will be developing procedures to guide these tests and test reports to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. In addition, he will gain experience with preparing a vacuum chamber with fluid and electrical connections. Further testing will include integrated testing of the fluid subsystem with the gas supply system, near-infrared spectrometer, WDD, Sample Delivery System, and GC-MS in the vacuum chamber. This testing will provide hands-on exposure to a flight forward spaceflight subsystem, the processes associated with testing equipment in a vacuum chamber, and experience working in a laboratory setting. Examples of specific analysis Ray will conduct include: pneumatic analysis to calculate the WOO's efficiency at extracting water vapor from the gas stream to form condensation; thermal analysis of the conduction and radiation along a line connecting two thermal masses; and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) heater control analysis. In this Research and Technology environment, Ray will be asked to problem solve real-time as issues arise. Since LAVA is a scientific subsystem, Ray will be utilizing his chemical engineering background to

  9. Sensitivity of a Cloud-Resolving Model to the Bulk and Explicit Bin Microphysical Schemes. Part 1; Validations with a PRE-STORM Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiao-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Khain, Alexander P.; Simpson, Joanne; Johnson, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    A cloud-resolving model is used to study sensitivities of two different microphysical schemes, one is the bulk type, and the other is an explicit bin scheme, in simulating a mid-latitude squall line case (PRE-STORM, June 10-11, 1985). Simulations using different microphysical schemes are compared with each other and also with the observations. Both the bulk and bin models reproduce the general features during the developing and mature stage of the system. The leading convective zone, the trailing stratiform region, the horizontal wind flow patterns, pressure perturbation associated with the storm dynamics, and the cool pool in front of the system all agree well with the observations. Both the observations and the bulk scheme simulation serve as validations for the newly incorporated bin scheme. However, it is also shown that, the bulk and bin simulations have distinct differences, most notably in the stratiform region. Weak convective cells exist in the stratiform region in the bulk simulation, but not in the bin simulation. These weak convective cells in the stratiform region are remnants of the previous stronger convections at the leading edge of the system. The bin simulation, on the other hand, has a horizontally homogeneous stratiform cloud structure, which agrees better with the observations. Preliminary examinations of the downdraft core strength, the potential temperature perturbation, and the evaporative cooling rate show that the differences between the bulk and bin models are due mainly to the stronger low-level evaporative cooling in convective zone simulated in the bulk model. Further quantitative analysis and sensitivity tests for this case using both the bulk and bin models will be presented in a companion paper.

  10. In-line process control for laser welding of titanium by high dynamic range ratio pyrometry and plasma spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempe, B.; Taudt, C.; Baselt, T.; Rudek, F.; Maschke, R.; Basan, F.; Hartmann, P.

    2014-02-01

    The production of complex titanium components for various industries using laser welding processes has received growing attention in recent years. It is important to know whether the result of the cohesive joint meets the quality requirements of standardization and ultimately the customer requirements. Erroneous weld seams can have fatal consequences especially in the field of car manufacturing and medicine technology. To meet these requirements, a real-time process control system has been developed which determines the welding quality through a locally resolved temperature profile. By analyzing the resulting weld plasma received data is used to verify the stability of the laser welding process. The determination of the temperature profile is done by the detection of the emitted electromagnetic radiation from the material in a range of 500 nm to 1100 nm. As detectors, special high dynamic range CMOS cameras are used. As the emissivity of titanium depends on the wavelength, the surface and the angle of radiation, measuring the temperature is a problem. To solve these a special pyrometer setting with two cameras is used. That enables the compensation of these effects by calculating the difference between the respective pixels on simultaneously recorded images. Two spectral regions with the same emissivity are detected. Therefore the degree of emission and surface effects are compensated and canceled out of the calculation. Using the spatially resolved temperature distribution the weld geometry can be determined and the laser process can be controlled. The active readjustment of parameters such as laser power, feed rate and inert gas injection increases the quality of the welding process and decreases the number of defective goods.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of evaluation of the efficiency of aircraft liquid waste treatment using resolvable sanitizing liquid: a case study in Changchun.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianling; Yang, Jiaqi; Zhao, Nan; Sheng, Lianxi; Zhao, Yuanhui; Tang, Zhanhui

    2011-12-01

    The physical, chemical, and biological indices of aircraft liquid wastes collected from multiple airplanes at Longjia Airport, Changchun, China were measured according to "Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard," evaluating treatment efficiency of resolvable sanitizing liquid. The results indicate that, after being treated by the resolvable sanitizing liquid, the indices of all first-class pollutants met the requirements of the standard, while among the second-class pollutants, the suspension content, biochemical oxygen demand after 5 days, and chemical oxygen demand as well as the contents of amino nitrogen, total phosphorus, anionic surfactants, total copper, absorbable organic halogen, and phenolic compounds did not reach the discharge standard. Particularly, the level of fecal coliform bacteria in the aircraft liquid wastes can meet the standard specification by adding more than 1 mL/L resolvable sanitizing liquid. The aircraft wastewater treated by resolvable sanitizing liquid cannot be directly discharged back into the environment as well as urban drainage systems. PMID:21340546

  12. Resolving the fine-scale density structure of oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere from small-scale geoid anomalies: a case study from the Mendocino Fracture zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadio, C.; Korenaga, J.

    2013-12-01

    As oceanic lithosphere corresponds to the top boundary layer of mantle convection, its gross density structure reflects how the convecting mantle is actually cooled near the surface. A recent wavelet analysis of the geoid data around the Mendocino fracture zone has revealed 100- to 200-km scale anomalies, which notably deviate from any of reference evolution models and therefore call for prominent density anomalies at relatively shallow depths (Cadio and Korenaga, 2012). Given their spatial scales and weak correlation with seafloor topography, their sources must be within or right beneath the oceanic lithosphere. Such short-wavelength geoid anomalies carry important information regarding the fine-scale density structure of the oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere. A new inversion scheme has been developed to investigate these local anomalies. To overcome the nonuniqueness of potential-field data, we reduce the model space by using spectral localization, reference models, and a priori bounds on the amplitude of geologically possible density perturbations that can be caused by thermal or chemical processes within the convecting mantle. Our approach is based on Bayesian statistics and is implemented by combining forward modeling with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. The depth and the vertical extent of density anomalies derived from our inversion indicate that they are intimately related to the structure of the lowermost lithosphere. They reflect very likely small-scale convection induced by lateral temperature gradient across the fracture zone. The amplitude of density perturbations varying between -25 to 30 kg m-3 and their spatial organization are also in agreement with predictions derived from numerical simulations of such instabilities (Huang et al., 2003; Dumoulin et al., 2008). A global analysis of these local anomalies will allow us to resolve the fine-scale density structure of shallow oceanic mantle not only along fracture zones, but also in other parts

  13. Resolved Observations of Transition Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casassus, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Resolved observations are bringing new constraints on the origin of radial gaps in protoplanetary disks. The kinematics, sampled in detail in one case-study, are indicative of non-Keplerian flows, corresponding to warped structures and accretion which may both play a role in the development of cavities. Disk asymmetries seen in the radio continuum are being interpreted in the context of dust segregation via aerodynamic trapping. We summarise recent observational progress, and describe prospects for improvements in the near term.

  14. Resolving the Pericenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisdom, Jack

    2015-10-01

    The Wisdom-Holman mapping method and its variations have become a mainstay of research in solar system dynamics. But the method is not without its limitations. Rauch & Holman noted that at large eccentricities sufficiently small steps must be taken to resolve the pericenter. In this paper, I explore in more detail what it means to resolve the pericenter.

  15. Multiwavelength pyrometry for nongray bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    A multiwavelength technique was developed and applied to measure the temperatures of nongray surfaces. The instruments required are a spectral radiometer, a dedicated auxiliary radiation source, and a computer. In general, three radiation spectra are recorded: (1) spectrum S sub 0 of the auxiliary radiation source; (2) spectrum S sub 1 of the surface-emitted radiation; and (3) spectrum S sub 2, the sum of the radiation of S sub 1 plus the reflected radiation due to the incidence of the auxiliary radiation source on the surface. Subtracting spectrum S sub 1 from spectrum Sub 2 yields the reflection spectrum resulting from the incidence radiation. From these spectra, a quantity z(lambda) is derived and is related to the reflectivity r(lambda) by r(lambda) = z(lambda)/f, where f is a constant. Spectrum S sub 1 is represented mathematically as the product of a wavelength-dependent emissivity obtained from Kirchhoff's law and a Planck function of temperature T. Application of two-variable (lambda and z), nonlinear, least-squares curve-fitting computer software to fit spectrum S sub 1 to this mathematical expression yielded the surface temperature. This technique also measured the spectral reflectivity and emissivity of the surface. Instrumentation necessary to extend measurement to elevated temperatures and in the presence of reflective interference is discussed.

  16. Deriving the intermediate spectra and photocycle kinetics from time-resolved difference spectra of bacteriorhodopsin. The simpler case of the recombinant D96N protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimanyi, L.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1993-01-01

    The bacteriorhodopsin photocycle contains more than five spectrally distinct intermediates, and the complexity of their interconversions has precluded a rigorous solution of the kinetics. A representation of the photocycle of mutated D96N bacteriorhodopsin near neutral pH was given earlier (Varo, G., and J. K. Lanyi. 1991. Biochemistry. 30:5008-5015) as BRhv-->K<==>L<==>M1-->M2--> BR. Here we have reduced a set of time-resolved difference spectra for this simpler system to three base spectra, each assumed to consist of an unknown mixture of the pure K, L, and M difference spectra represented by a 3 x 3 matrix of concentration values between 0 and 1. After generating all allowed sets of spectra for K, L, and M (i.e., M1 + M2) at a 1:50 resolution of the matrix elements, invalid solutions were eliminated progressively in a search based on what is expected, empirically and from the theory of polyene excited states, for rhodopsin spectra. Significantly, the average matrix values changed little after the first and simplest of the search criteria that disallowed negative absorptions and more than one maximum for the M intermediate. We conclude from the statistics that during the search the solutions strongly converged into a narrow region of the multidimensional space of the concentration matrix. The data at three temperatures between 5 and 25 degrees C yielded a single set of spectra for K, L, and M; their fits are consistent with the earlier derived photocycle model for the D96N protein.

  17. Investigation of real-time microstructure evolution in steep thermal gradients using in-situ spatially resolved X-ray diffraction: A case study for Ti fusion welds

    SciTech Connect

    Ressler, T.; Wong, J.; Elmer, J.W. |

    1998-12-24

    A recently developed spatially resolved X-ray diffraction (SRXRD) technique utilizing intense synchrotron radiation has been refined to yield phase and microstructural information down to 200 {micro}m in spatial extent in materials subjected to steep thermal gradients during processing. This SRXRD technique has been applied to map completely the phases and their solid-state transformation in the so-called heat-affected zone (HAZ) in titanium fusion welds in situ during the welding process. Detailed profile analysis of the SRXRD patterns revealed four principal microstructural regions at temperature in the vicinity of the HAZ surrounding the liquid weld pool: (i) a completely transformed {beta}-Ti zone 2--3 mm adjacent to the liquid weld pool; (ii) a mixed {alpha} + {beta}-it region surrounding the pure {beta}-Ti zone, (iii) a back-transformed {alpha}-Ti zone on the backside of the HAZ where pure {beta}-Ti once existed at temperature well above the {alpha} {r_arrow} {beta} transformation isotherm, and (iv) a more diffused region outside the HAZ where annealing and recrystallization of the {alpha}-it base metal occur. The high-temperature microstructures so derived corroborate well the expected transformation kinetics in pure titanium, and the observed phase transformation boundaries are in good agreement with those predicted from the transformation isotherms calculated from a simplified heat-flow model. Based on a detailed assessment of the SRXRD setup employed, improved experimentations such as a smaller beam spot emitted from third generation synchrotron sources, better mechanical stability (tighter scattering geometry), and use of an area detector would enable more quantitative structural information for future phase dynamics studies exemplified by this work.

  18. A Case Study of Environmental, Health and Safety Issues Involving the Burlington, Massachusetts Public School System. "Tips, Suggestions, and Resources for Investigating and Resolving EHS Issues in Schools."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresser, Todd H.

    An investigation was initiated concerning the environmental health within the Burlington, Massachusetts public school system to determine what specific environmental hazards were present and determine ways of eliminating them. This report presents 20 case studies that detail the environmental health issues involved, the approaches taken in…

  19. Student Discipline Intervention Strategies: A Case Study of Two Institutions' Processes Utilized to Resolve Misconduct of Students Who Concomitantly Experience a Mental Health Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, Gary G.

    2011-01-01

    This study contributes to the research regarding processes and procedures utilized by two institutions of higher education to respond to students who participate in inappropriate behavior and who are concomitantly experiencing a mental health crisis. A case study analysis of two institutions of higher education was used to examine this issue. The…

  20. Resolving Problems through Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Examines state variations in use of mediation to resolve domestic relations disputes. Mediation may be optional or mandatory, requested by the parties or the judge. Mediator qualifications vary considerably. Child support is less likely than custody and visitation to be the sole topic for mediation. More states are likely to use mediation in…

  1. Has Abstractness Been Resolved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omoush, Ahmad

    1989-01-01

    A discussion focusing on the abstractness of analysis in phonology, debated since the 1960s, describes the issue, reviews the literature on the subject, cites specific natural language examples, and examines the extent to which the issue has been resolved. An underlying representation is said to be abstract if it is different from the derived one,…

  2. Angiographic suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz by venous hypertension resolving after embolization in a case of spinal epidural arteriovenous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Eckart Sorte, Danielle; Pardo, Carlos A; Gailloud, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    A case of complete angiographic suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz and anterior spinal artery in a patient with a spinal epidural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is reported. Slow flow AVFs typically present with progressive myelopathy secondary to spinal venous hypertension (SVH). The lack of a normal venous phase during angiography and its restoration after treatment is commonly observed with these lesions, yet a similar phenomenon seems exceptional at the arterial level. Right T11 intercostal artery angiograms obtained before and after treatment of a left L4 epidural AVF documented the initial suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz and anterior spinal artery, and their normal appearance immediately after correction of the SVH by embolization. This report confirms that SVH can angiographically suppress prominent and functionally important spinal arteries, re-emphasizing the potential role played by secondary arterial changes in SVH induced myelopathy. This hemodynamic phenomenon also represents a potential pitfall during diagnostic and therapeutic endovascular procedures. PMID:25028420

  3. Angiographic suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz by venous hypertension resolving after embolization in a case of spinal epidural arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Eckart Sorte, Danielle; Pardo, Carlos A; Gailloud, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    A case of complete angiographic suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz and anterior spinal artery in a patient with a spinal epidural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is reported. Slow flow AVFs typically present with progressive myelopathy secondary to spinal venous hypertension (SVH). The lack of a normal venous phase during angiography and its restoration after treatment is commonly observed with these lesions, yet a similar phenomenon seems exceptional at the arterial level. Right T11 intercostal artery angiograms obtained before and after treatment of a left L4 epidural AVF documented the initial suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz and anterior spinal artery, and their normal appearance immediately after correction of the SVH by embolization. This report confirms that SVH can angiographically suppress prominent and functionally important spinal arteries, re-emphasizing the potential role played by secondary arterial changes in SVH induced myelopathy. This hemodynamic phenomenon also represents a potential pitfall during diagnostic and therapeutic endovascular procedures. PMID:25712983

  4. Angiographic suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz by venous hypertension resolving after embolization in a case of spinal epidural arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Sorte, Danielle Eckart; Pardo, Carlos A; Gailloud, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    A case of complete angiographic suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz and anterior spinal artery in a patient with a spinal epidural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is reported. Slow flow AVFs typically present with progressive myelopathy secondary to spinal venous hypertension (SVH). The lack of a normal venous phase during angiography and its restoration after treatment is commonly observed with these lesions, yet a similar phenomenon seems exceptional at the arterial level. Right T11 intercostal artery angiograms obtained before and after treatment of a left L4 epidural AVF documented the initial suppression of the artery of Adamkiewicz and anterior spinal artery, and their normal appearance immediately after correction of the SVH by embolization. This report confirms that SVH can angiographically suppress prominent and functionally important spinal arteries, re-emphasizing the potential role played by secondary arterial changes in SVH induced myelopathy. This hemodynamic phenomenon also represents a potential pitfall during diagnostic and therapeutic endovascular procedures. PMID:25028420

  5. Cytogenomics and gene expression in a case of metachronous bilateral renal cell carcinomas with drop metastasis: Resolving a diagnostic dilemma with molecular technologies.

    PubMed

    Takei, Hidehiro; Barrios, Roberto; Monzon, Federico A

    2013-06-01

    Metachronous bilateral renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are rare but well known. We present a case of metachronous bilateral RCCs with a ureter orifice metastasis, for which the pathological diagnosis was confirmed with single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP-M) and gene expression assay (GEA). A 53-year-old man presented with a right ureteral obstruction. A cystoscopy showed a large pedunculated tumor emanating from the right ureteral orifice, consistent with a drop metastasis, which was biopsied. He had a history of a clear cell RCC (ccRCC) 1.5 years prior and a right renal pelvic mass found 8 months later. Histologically, the biopsied right ureteral tumor demonstrated sheets of poorly differentiated cancer cells composed of a mixture of spindled and focal clear cell components. The main differential diagnosis was metastatic RCC versus urothelial carcinoma, but the immunohistochemical profile was not contributory. SNP-M revealed a genomic profile consistent with a metastatic ccRCC with loss of chromosome 3p. GEA showed a gene expression pattern consistent with kidney origin. The cytogenomic array also identified chromosome copy number patterns that were shared between both kidney tumors. This finding suggests that both tumors had a common origin, and thus, the metachronous ccRCC in the contralateral kidney represents a metastasis. PMID:23782335

  6. Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry To Resolve Complex Clinical Cases of Patients with Recurrent Bacteremias

    PubMed Central

    Nori, Priya; Ostrowsky, Belinda; Dorokhova, Olena; Gialanella, Philip; Moy, Morgan; Muggia, Victoria; Grossberg, Robert; Kornblum, John; Lin, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid and accurate method of identifying microorganisms. Throughout Europe, it is already in routine use but has not yet been widely implemented in the United States, pending FDA approval. Here, we describe two medically complex patients at a large tertiary-care academic medical center with recurring bacteremias caused by distinct but related species. Bacterial identifications were initially obtained using the Vitek-2 system with the GPI card for Enterococcus and the API system for staphylococci. Initial results misled clinicians as to the source and proper management of these patients. Retrospective investigation with MALDI-TOF MS clarified the diagnosis by identifying a single microorganism as the pathogen in each case. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports in the United States demonstrating the use of MALDI-TOF MS to facilitate the clinical diagnosis in patients with recurrent bacteremias of unclear source. PMID:23536408

  7. Resolving Negotiations Impasses in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Richard G., Ed.

    This publication is intended to help school management personnel become more familiar with the nature of and the means for resolving negotiations impasses. Aspects of mediation and arbitration are discussed, and basic negotiating techniques that help school boards win arbitration cases are presented. Also provided are a sample arbitration case…

  8. Resource Prospector: The RESOLVE Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J.; Smith, J.; J., Captain; Paz, A.; Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R.; Zacny, K.

    2015-10-01

    NASA has been developing a lunar volatiles exploration payload named RESOLVE. Now the primary science payload on-board the Resource Prospector (RP) mission, RESOLVE, consists of several instruments that evaluate lunar volatiles.

  9. Dual Brushless Resolver Rate Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A resolver rate sensor is disclosed in which dual brushless resolvers are mechanically coupled to the same output shaft. Diverse inputs are provided to each resolver by providing the first resolver with a DC input and the second resolver with an AC sinusoidal input. A trigonometric identity in which the sum of the squares of the sin and cosine components equal one is used to advantage in providing a sensor of increased accuracy. The first resolver may have a fixed or variable DC input to permit dynamic adjustment of resolver sensitivity thus permitting a wide range of coverage. In one embodiment of the invention the outputs of the first resolver are directly inputted into two separate multipliers and the outputs of the second resolver are inputted into the two separate multipliers, after being demodulated in a pair of demodulator circuits. The multiplied signals are then added in an adder circuit to provide a directional sensitive output. In another embodiment the outputs from the first resolver is modulated in separate modulator circuits and the output from the modulator circuits are used to excite the second resolver. The outputs from the second resolver are demodulated in separate demodulator circuit and added in an adder circuit to provide a direction sensitive rate output.

  10. Deciding to Change OpenURL Link Resolvers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Megan; Leonard, Andrea; Wiswell, John

    2015-01-01

    This article will be of interest to librarians, particularly those in consortia that are evaluating OpenURL link resolvers. This case study contrasts WebBridge (an Innovative Interface product) and LinkSource (EBSCO's product). This study assisted us in the decision-making process of choosing an OpenURL link resolver that was sustainable to…

  11. Cloud Resolving Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2007-01-01

    One of the most promising methods to test the representation of cloud processes used in climate models is to use observations together with cloud-resolving models (CRMs). CRMs use more sophisticated and realistic representations of cloud microphysical processes, and they can reasonably well resolve the time evolution, structure, and life cycles of clouds and cloud systems (with sizes ranging from about 2-200 km). CRMs also allow for explicit interaction between clouds, outgoing longwave (cooling) and incoming solar (heating) radiation, and ocean and land surface processes. Observations are required to initialize CRMs and to validate their results. This paper provides a brief discussion and review of the main characteristics of CRMs as well as some of their major applications. These include the use of CRMs to improve our understanding of: (1) convective organization, (2) cloud temperature and water vapor budgets, and convective momentum transport, (3) diurnal variation of precipitation processes, (4) radiative-convective quasi-equilibrium states, (5) cloud-chemistry interaction, (6) aerosol-precipitation interaction, and (7) improving moist processes in large-scale models. In addition, current and future developments and applications of CRMs will be presented.

  12. RESOLVE 2010 Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, J.; Quinn, J.; Moss, T.; Weis, K.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the field tests conducted in 2010 of the Regolith Environment Science & Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE). The Resolve program consist of several mechanism: (1) Excavation and Bulk Regolith Characterization (EBRC) which is designed to act as a drill and crusher, (2) Regolith Volatiles Characterization (RVC) which is a reactor and does gas analysis,(3) Lunar Water Resources Demonstration (LWRD) which is a fluid system, water and hydrogen capture device and (4) the Rover. The scientific goal of this test is to demonstrate evolution of low levels of hydrogen and water as a function of temperature. The Engineering goals of this test are to demonstrate:(1) Integration onto new rover (2) Miniaturization of electronics rack (3) Operation from battery packs (elimination of generator) (4) Remote command/control and (5) Operation while roving. Views of the 2008 and the 2010 mechanisms, a overhead view of the mission path, a view of the terrain, the two drill sites, and a graphic of the Master Events Controller Graphical User Interface (MEC GUI) are shown. There are descriptions of the Gas chromatography (GC), the operational procedure, water and hydrogen doping of tephra. There is also a review of some of the results, and future direction for research and tests.

  13. Selecting Resolving Agents with Respect to Their Eutectic Compositions.

    PubMed

    Szeleczky, Zsolt; Semsey, Sándor; Bagi, Péter; Pálovics, Emese; Faigl, Ferenc; Fogassy, Elemér

    2016-03-01

    In order to develop a resolution procedure for a given racemic compound, the first and the most important step is finding the most suitable resolving agent. We studied 18 individual resolutions that were carried out with resolving agents having high eutectic composition. We found that very high enantiomeric excess values were obtained in all cases. We assume that the eutectic composition of a given resolving agent is one of the most important properties that should always be considered during the search for the most efficient resolving agent. PMID:26797938

  14. Georges Bank conflict resolved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    The International Court of Justice has resolved the long-term conflict between the United States and Canada over claims to mineral and living resources lying along the countries' common Atlantic maritime border. On October 12, in a 4-1 decision, the World Court rejected the United States' claim to the entire Georges Bank area, a region of the Continental Shelf off Massachusetts and Nova Scotia that is a prime fishing ground and is believed to have good potential for oil and gas deposits as well. The disputed area is roughly the top third of the Georges Bank area. The court awarded each country approximately half of this disputed area. No appeals are allowed under this decision.

  15. Dual Brushless Resolver Rate Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention relates to dual analog angular rate sensors which are implemented without the use of mechanical brushes. A resolver rate sensor which includes two brushless resolvers which are mechanically coupled to the same output shaft is provided with inputs which are provided to each resolver by providing the first resolver with a DC input and the second resolver with an AC sinusoidal input. A trigonometric identity in which the sum of the squares of the sin and cosine components equal one is used to advantage in providing a sensor of increased accuracy. The first resolver may have a fixed or variable DC input to permit dynamic adjustment of resolver sensitivity thus permitting a wide range of coverage. Novelty and advantages of the invention reside in the excitation of a resolver with a DC signal and in the utilization of two resolvers and the trigonometric identity of cos(exp 2)(theta) + sin(exp 2)(theta) = 1 to provide an accurate rate sensor which is sensitive to direction and accurate through zero rate.

  16. RESOLVE and ECO: Survey Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannappan, Sheila; Moffett, Amanda J.; Norris, Mark A.; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Stark, David; Berlind, Andreas A.; Snyder, Elaine M.; Norman, Dara J.; Hoversten, Erik A.; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    The REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey is a volume-limited census of stellar, gas, and dynamical mass as well as star formation and galaxy interactions within >50,000 cubic Mpc of the nearby cosmic web, reaching down to dwarf galaxies of baryonic mass ~10^9 Msun and spanning multiple large-scale filaments, walls, and voids. RESOLVE is surrounded by the ~10x larger Environmental COntext (ECO) catalog, with matched custom photometry and environment metrics enabling analysis of cosmic variance with greater statistical power. For the ~1500 galaxies in its two equatorial footprints, RESOLVE goes beyond ECO in providing (i) deep 21cm data with adaptive sensitivity ensuring HI mass detections or upper limits <10% of the stellar mass and (ii) 3D optical spectroscopy including both high-resolution ionized gas or stellar kinematic data for each galaxy and broad 320-725nm spectroscopy spanning [OII] 3727, Halpha, and Hbeta. RESOLVE is designed to complement other radio and optical surveys in providing diverse, contiguous, and uniform local/global environment data as well as unusually high completeness extending into the gas-dominated dwarf galaxy regime. RESOLVE also offers superb reprocessed photometry including full, deep NUV coverage and synergy with other equatorial surveys as well as unique northern and southern facilities such as Arecibo, the GBT, and ALMA. The RESOLVE and ECO surveys have been supported by funding from NSF grants AST-0955368 and OCI-1156614.

  17. Resolving Lifshitz Horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Wang, Huajia; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-04-24

    Via the AdS/CFT correspondence, ground states of field theories at finite charge density are mapped to extremal black brane solutions. Studies of simple gravity + matter systems in this context have uncovered wide new classes of extremal geometries. The Lifshitz metrics characterizing field theories with non-trivial dynamical critical exponent z {ne} 1 emerge as one common endpoint in doped holographic toy models. However, the Lifshitz horizon exhibits mildly singular behaviour - while curvature invariants are finite, there are diverging tidal forces. Here we show that in some of the simplest contexts where Lifshitz metrics emerge, Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories, generic corrections lead to a replacement of the Lifshitz metric, in the deep infrared, by a re-emergent AdS{sub 2} x R{sup 2} geometry. Thus, at least in these cases, the Lifshitz scaling characterizes the physics over a wide range of energy scales, but the mild singularity is cured by quantum or stringy effects.

  18. Resolving Conflicts in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddings, Evyonne

    1992-01-01

    Describes a lesson plan that explains the role of compromise as a method of resolving conflicts for use in a sixth-grade world cultures class. Includes activities, assessment, reteaching activities, and an extension project involving student skits. (DK)

  19. An important cause of non-resolving pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Shoki, Alborz; Gomes, Marcio M; Gupta, Ashish; Kify, Omar; Pakhale, Smita; Mulpuru, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a young patient with a history of non-resolving pneumonia. She was diagnosed with a limited form of Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA), by percutaneous core needle lung biopsy. In this report, we discuss the definition and clinical implications of limited GPA, treatment options, and highlight the importance of considering vasculitis in the differential diagnosis of non-resolving pneumonia. PMID:27482510

  20. Spatially Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knop, Robert Andrew, Jr.

    This thesis presents infrared spectroscopy of the circumnuclear regions of 23 Seyfert galaxies. Observations are spectrally resolved with a resolution of λΔλ~1000 and spatially resolved to ~1'', corresponding to ~102 pc for the objects in the sample. The instrument used for the observations, the Palomar Near-Infrared Spectrometer, is described, and problems peculiar to reduction of data from it are discussed. The lines observed include Paβ, Brγ, (FeII) (λ=1.2567μm), and H2 (λ=2.1213μm). In nine objects, the coronal line (SIX) (λ=1.2524μm) is also detected. Spatially resolved line emission is clearly visible in approximately half of the objects observed. The data for five of the objects showing the best spatially resolved infrared line emission are analyzed in detail. These objects include Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151 and Seyfert 2 galaxies Mk 1066, NGC 2110, NGC 4388, and Mk 3. The data for the remaining objects is presented in tabular form, and each object is discussed briefly. The data argue that processes associated with the Seyfert nucleus are responsible for the bulk of the observed (FeII) emission. Kinematic and spatial associations can be drawn between features in the (FeII) line profiles and other processes associated with the active nucleus, such as outflows seen in ionized optical emission and radio lobes. Most of the (FeII) appears to emerge from partially ionized regions excited by nuclear x-rays, with an additional contribution from fast shocks. Some of the H2 emission also appears to be associated with the nuclear activity. However, in some cases the H2 emission is observed to have a different spatial distribution from (FeII) and the H+ emission. The H2 emission is probably thermally excited. No significant differences are found between the infrared line emission of Seyfert and Seyfert 1.x galaxies.

  1. Resolvability of positron decay channels

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M.J.; Howell, R.H.; Rosenberg, I.J.; Meyer, P.

    1985-03-07

    Many data analysis treatments of positron experiments attempt to resolve two or more positron decay or exist channels which may be open simultaneously. Examples of the need to employ such treatments of the experimental results can be found in the resolution of the constituents of a defect ensemble, or in the analysis of the complex spectra which arise from the interaction of slow positrons at or near the surfaces of solids. Experimental one- and two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation experiments in Al single crystals have shown that two defect species (mono- and divacancies) can be resolved under suitable conditions. Recent experiments at LLNL indicate that there are a variety of complex exit channels open to positrons interacting at surfaces, and ultimely these decay channels must also be suitably resolved from one another. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Multiple-Wavelength Pyrometry Independent Of Emissivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Multiple-wavelength pyrometric method provides for determination of two sequential temperatures of same surface or temperatures of two surfaces made of same material. Temperatures measured, without knowing emissivity, by uncalibrated spectral radiometer.

  3. VIIRS Nightfire: multispectral satellite pyrometry at night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhizhin, M. N.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Nightfire algorithm detects and characterizes sub-pixel hot sources using multispectral data collected globally each night by the Suomi NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The spectral bands utilized span visible, near-infrared (NIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR). The primary detection band is in the SWIR, centered at 1.6 μm. Without solar input, the SWIR spectral band records sensor noise, punctuated by high radiant emissions associated with gas flares, biomass burning, volcanoes, and industrial sites like steel mills. Planck curve fitting of the hot source radiances yields temperature (K) and emission scaling factor (ESF). Additional calculations are done to estimate source size (m2), radiant heat intensity (W/m2) and radiant heat (MW). Nightfire retrieved temperature estimates for sub-pixel hot sources ranging from 600 to 6000 K. The IR sources can be ranked worldwide to reveal a list of top 100 largest gas flaring sites. An intercomparison study of biomass burning in Sumatra from June 2013 found Nightfire radiant heat (MW) to be highly correlated to MODIS Fire Radiative Power (MW).

  4. Emissivity independent low-temperature pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolezal, Ivan; Hes, Lubos

    2008-03-01

    Uncertainty of a target emissivity and environment transmittance and possible reflected radiation are major origins of pyrometer inaccuracy. Measurement without knowledge of emissivity requires gaining at least two independent signals relating to the target. The patented method takes advantage of two same infrared detectors but maintained on different temperatures. A simplified approach implies a radiation enclosure that consists of 2 bodies (target vs. detector), thus a formula for temperature obtained from a set of 2 equations appears simple. Infrared detectors that can work at considerable high temperature are unavailable so temperature range of this method is limited. In an experimental facility, the first thermopile detector is heated by a transistor, the second one is cooled by a Peltier cooler. The swivel radiant heater of cube shape exhibits single of 4 surfaces with different emissivity towards the detectors. The radiation is both concentrated and switched to single detector by a pivoted toric mirror. Close mutual arrangement without optics is optional. All sensors and actuators are connected to a Data Acquisition Switch Unit. The experiment including control loops is fully managed by a PC program. Various side effects of realization like probably an influence of housing radiation at ambient temperature and reflection cause that simple formula is not adequate so that multivariable regression had to be involved. Experimental results are shown in graphs.

  5. Wilson loops in warped resolved deformed conifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Stephen

    2011-11-15

    We calculate quark-antiquark potentials using the relationship between the expectation value of the Wilson loop and the action of a probe string in the string dual. We review and categorise the possible forms of the dependence of the energy on the separation between the quarks. In particular, we examine the possibility of there being a minimum separation for probe strings which do not penetrate close to the origin of the bulk space, and derive a condition which determines whether this is the case. We then apply these considerations to the flavoured resolved deformed conifold background of Gaillard et al. (2010) . We suggest that the unusual behaviour that we observe in this solution is likely to be related to the IR singularity which is not present in the unflavoured case. - Highlights: > We calculate quark-antiquark potentials using the Wilson loop and the action of a probe string in the string dual. > We review and categorise the possible forms of the dependence of the energy on the separation between the quarks. > We look in particular at the flavoured resolved deformed conifold. > There appears to be unusual behaviour which seems likely to be related to the IR singularity introduced by flavours.

  6. Role of runoff-infiltration partitioning and resolved overland flow on land-atmosphere feedbacks: A case-study with the WRF-Hydro coupled modeling system for West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnault, Joel; Wagner, Seven; Rummler, Thomas; Fersch, Benjamin; Bliefernicht, Jan; Andresen, Sabine; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of land-atmosphere feedbacks requires detailed representation of land processes in atmospheric models. Our focus here is on runoff-infiltration partitioning and resolved overland flow. In the standard version of WRF, runoff-infiltration partitioning is described as a purely vertical process. In WRF-Hydro, runoff is enhanced with lateral water flows. The study region is the Sissili catchment (12800 km2) in West Africa and the study period March 2003 - February 2004. Our WRF setup includes an outer and inner domain at 10 and 2 km resolution covering the West African and Sissili region, respectively. In our WRF-Hydro setup the inner domain is coupled with a sub-grid at 500 m resolution to compute overland and river flow. Model results are compared with TRMM precipitation, MTE evapotranspiration, CCI soil moisture, CRU temperature, and streamflow observation. The role of runoff infiltration partitioning and resolved overland flow on land-atmosphere feedbacks is addressed with a sensitivity analysis of WRF results to the runoff-infiltration partitioning parameter and a comparison between WRF and WRF-Hydro results, respectively. In the outer domain, precipitation is sensitive to runoff-infiltration partitioning at the scale of the Sissili area (~100x100 km2), but not of area A (500x2500 km2). In the inner domain, where precipitation patterns are mainly prescribed by lateral boundary conditions, sensitivity is small, but additionally resolved overland flow here clearly increases infiltration and evapotranspiration at the beginning of the wet season when soils are still dry. Our WRF-Hydro setup shows potential for joint atmospheric and terrestrial water balance studies, and reproduces observed daily discharge with a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient of 0.43.

  7. TIME-RESOLVED VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Andrei Tokmakoff, MIT; Paul Champion, Northeastern University; Edwin J. Heilweil, NIST; Keith A. Nelson, MIT; Larry Ziegler, Boston University

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE’s Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all five of DOE’s grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  8. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  9. Virginia Resolves, 1993-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, S. Rex, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    These two issues of "Virginia Resolves" provide articles of interest to the social studies reader and provides ideas for social studies instruction and curriculum. The fall issue features seven articles: (1) "Death and the Young Child" (Rosanne J. Marek); (2) "Simulations: Bibliography for the Middle and Elementary Teachers" (William Coleman Redd…

  10. Approaches to resolving trade disputes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D W; Thiermann, A B

    2003-08-01

    The authors discuss the various approaches to resolving trade disputes available to Member Countries of the OIE (World organisation for animal health). The paper first describes the rights and obligations of Member Countries in setting health measures for the importation of animals and animal products, according to the provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). The authors indicate how OIE standards may be used to set import measures and introduce issues such as equivalence and the use of provisional measures, which are both areas of potential conflict. The authors then describe the options available for resolving disputes--bilateral discussions, mediation through the OIE, the use of the WTO SPS Committee and the formal WTO dispute settlement process, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each. PMID:15884603

  11. When communication fails: resolving end-of-life impasses.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Lisa Z; Schopp, Georgeanne

    2014-06-01

    Various protocols and advance directives can prepare physician assistants for difficult conversations with patients about end-of-life care. This case scenario explores the roles and influences that complicated one patient's care and how the situation was resolved. PMID:24853152

  12. Time-resolved molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junliang; Blaga, Cosmin I.; Agostini, Pierre; DiMauro, Louis F.

    2016-06-01

    Time-resolved molecular imaging is a frontier of ultrafast optical science and physical chemistry. In this article, we review present and future key spectroscopic and microscopic techniques for ultrafast imaging of molecular dynamics and show their differences and connections. The advent of femtosecond lasers and free electron x-ray lasers bring us closer to this goal, which eventually will extend our knowledge about molecular dynamics to the attosecond time domain.

  13. STED microscopy resolves nanoparticle assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willig, K. I.; Keller, J.; Bossi, M.; Hell, S. W.

    2006-06-01

    We demonstrate the ability of stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, a far-field fluorescence imaging technique with diffraction-unlimited resolution, to reveal the spatial order of fluorescent nanoparticles. Unlike its confocal counterpart, here STED microscopy resolves the arrangements of densely packed 40 nm beads, supramolecular aggregates in a cell membrane, and colloidal nanoparticles. Both raw and linearly deconvolved data disclose unprecedented details of both biological and non-biological nanopatterns.

  14. Resolving the CaP-bone interface

    PubMed Central

    Grandfield, Kathryn; Palmquist, Anders; Engqvist, Håkan; Thomsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that the interfacial relationship between synthetic materials and tissue is influential in the success of implant materials. Instability at the implant interface has been shown, in some cases, to lead to complete implant failure. Bioceramics, and in particular calcium phosphates, form a large fraction of the implantable devices on the market today due to the biocompatibility they exhibit in contact with bone and tooth-like tissues. The characterization of such bioceramic-tissue interfaces has played a crucial role in understanding the behavior of bioceramics in vivo. In this review, we shed light on the preparation methods, technological approaches and key advances in resolving the interface between calcium phosphate bioceramics and bone, and share a future outlook on this field. PMID:23507782

  15. Flip-flop resolving time test circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, F.; Chaney, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Integrated circuit (IC) flip-flop resolving time parameters are measured by wafer probing, without need of dicing or bonding, throught the incorporation of test structures on an IC together with the flip-flop to be measured. Several delays that are fabricated as part of the test circuit, including a voltage-controlled delay with a resolution of a few picosecs, are calibrated as part of the test procedure by integrating them into, and out of, the delay path of a ring oscillator. Each of the delay values is calculated by subtracting the period of the ring oscillator with the delay omitted from the period with the delay included. The delay measurement technique is sufficiently general for other applications. The technique is illustrated for the case of the flip-flop parameters of a 5-micron feature size NMOS circuit.

  16. Differential phase shift keyed signal resolver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, P. M.; Wallingford, W. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A differential phase shift keyed signal resolver resolves the differential phase shift in the incoming signal to determine the data content thereof overcoming phase uncertainty without requiring a transmitted reference signal.

  17. Improved Magnetic-Field-Component Resolvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. D.

    1982-01-01

    New resolvers for vectorially summing outputs of aircraft-mounted magnetometers are lighter and more economical to fabricate than conventional electromagnetic resolvers. One resolver is based on potentiometric principles, the second uses polarization filters, and the third has variable-capacitance elements. Optical, capacitive and potentiometric devices have applications in aircraft navigation systems.

  18. Phase-resolved cyclotron spectroscopy of polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ryan

    In this thesis we use phase-resolved cyclotron spectroscopy to study polars. Polars are a subset of cataclysmic variables where the primary WD is highly magnetic. In this case, the accretion flow is constrained along the magnetic field lines and eventually deposited on the WD, where the accreting material interacts with the atmosphere, forming a standing hydrodynamic shock at a location termed the accretion region, and emitting cyclotron radiation. Due to its field strength, cyclotron radiation from polars falls at either UV, optical or NIR wavelengths. While a substantial amount of optical cyclotron spectra have been published on polars, the NIR remains relatively unstudied. In this thesis, we present NIR spectroscopy for fifteen polars. Additionally, while a single cyclotron spectrum is needed to constrain the shock parameters, phase- resolved spectroscopy allows for a more in-depth analysis of the shock structure and the geometry of the accretion region. Of the fifteen polars observed, eight yielded spectra of adequate quality to be modeled in this manner: EF Eri, EQ Cet, AN UMa, VV Pup, AM Her, ST LMi, MR Ser, and MQ Dra. Initially, we used the industry standard "Constant Lambda (CL)" code to model each object. The code is fast, but produces only globally averaged values of the salient shock parameters: B - the magnetic field strength, kT - the plasma temperature, logL - the "size parameter" of the accretion column, and TH- the viewing angle between the observer and the magnetic field. For each object we present CL models for our NIR phase-resolved cyclotron spectra. Subsequently, we use a more advanced "Structured-Shock" code built by Fischer & Beuermann (2001)("F&B") to remodel three objects: EQ Cet, MQ Dra, and EF Eri. The F&B code allows for input of more physical parameters and most importantly does ray tracing through a simulated one-dimensional accretion column. To determine the outgoing spectrum, temperature and velocity profiles are needed to

  19. Resolving thermoelectric "paradox" in superconductors.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Connor D; Matrozova, Ekaterina A; Petrashov, Victor T

    2016-02-01

    For almost a century, thermoelectricity in superconductors has been one of the most intriguing topics in physics. During its early stages in the 1920s, the mere existence of thermoelectric effects in superconductors was questioned. In 1944, it was demonstrated that the effects may occur in inhomogeneous superconductors. Theoretical breakthrough followed in the 1970s, when the generation of a measurable thermoelectric magnetic flux in superconducting loops was predicted; however, a major crisis developed when experiments showed puzzling discrepancies with the theory. Moreover, different experiments were inconsistent with each other. This led to a stalemate in bringing theory and experiment into agreement. With this work, we resolve this stalemate, thus solving this long-standing "paradox," and open prospects for exploration of novel thermoelectric phenomena predicted recently. PMID:26933688

  20. Use of bioremediation to resolve a petroleum hydrocarbon contamination lawsuit

    SciTech Connect

    Gaglione, R.J.; Johnston, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Bioremediation was selected to remediate a public works site in the South Bay of San Diego County, California. The soil and groundwater at this site was contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and was the subject of extensive litigation. The parties agreed to resolve the dispute by using a combination of bioremediation and excavation/disposal. This paper includes an overview of the legal and technical issues involved in addressing the problems that were encountered and how those problems were solved. A model is presented for economically resolving environmental disputes in which the parties jointly agree to remediation of a site using bioremediation or similar techniques. This case study addresses the problems encountered because of the differing needs and goals of the legal and scientific communities. Notwithstanding the conflicts, it is demonstrated that the parties can, in most cases, work together toward remediation and resolution.

  1. Resolving the Issues with Flywheel Position Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fehrmann, Elizabeth A.

    2004-01-01

    pieces: a flat middle section to monitor vertical motion, and an angled section around the circumference, which, when observed from above, produces a sine-wave displacement through the entire 360" revolution. My first job when I arrived this summer was to calibrate the sensors that would be mounted on the inside of the flywheel casing to monitor the position (angular and vertical) of the shaft. After calibration, I used the sensors to evaluate voltage outputs created by position differences between two pairs of sensors on the angled portion of the resolver for eight different angular positions, moving the resolver vertically and laterally through its entire potential range of motion. The results of these tests will be used to determine the rotor angular (and axial) position from the sensor readings once the new flywheel unit is assembled. The sensorless algorighm mentioned above consists of two operations: the signal injection method and the back electro-motive force (EMF). The signal injection is meant to work at low speeds, while the back EMF algorithm is meant to work at higher speeds. Both work together to determine the correct estimate of rotor position and speed based on the measured motor/generator current. It was determined that we wanted to know exactly how accurate our estimation methods were, and so a resolver (a commercially available mechanical sensor mounted to the motor/generator shaft to measure rotor position and speed) and a "Resolver to Digital" (R2D) circuit board was purchased to make the comparison to the existing estimation. My work related to the R2D board has included the following: creating two connector cables (one to power the circuit and one to get readable output off the board), writing Simulink code to process the board's output, and building a dSpace panel to control and monitor the circuit. The next step in the process will be to perform tests to compare the estimated rotor position and speed from the sensorless algorithm to the actual

  2. Resolving Seamounts in Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, K. M.; Smith, W. H.

    2006-12-01

    We have examined three factors influencing the use of satellite altimeter data to map seamounts and guyots in the deep ocean: (1) the resolution of seamount and guyot gravity anomalies by altimetry; (2) the non-linearity of the relationship between gravity and bathymetry; and (3) the homogeneity of the mass density within the seamount or guyot. When altimeter data are used to model the marine gravity anomaly field the result may have limited resolution due to noise levels in the altimeter data, track spacing of the satellite profiles, inclination angles of the orbits, and filters used to combine and interpolate the data (Sandwell and Smith, JGR, 1997). We compared the peak-to-trough amplitude of gravity anomalies in Sandwell and Smith`'s version 15.1 field to peak-to-trough amplitudes measured by gravimeters on board ships. The satellite gravity field amplitudes match ship measurements well over seamounts and guyots having volumes exceeding ~2000 km3. Over smaller volume seamounts, where the anomalies have most of their power at quite short wavelengths, the satellite field under-estimates the anomaly amplitude. If less filtering could be done, or a new mission with a lower noise level were flown, more of the anomalies associated with small seamounts might be resolved. Smith and Sandwell (Science, 1997) predicted seafloor topography from altimetric gravity assuming that the density of seafloor topography is nearly constant over ~100 km distances, and that the relationship between gravity and topography may be approximated by a liner filter over those distances. In fact, the true theoretical relationship is non-linear (Parker, Geophys. J. R. astr. Soc, 1972); it can be expressed as an N-th order expansion, with the N=1 term representing a linear filter and the N>1 terms accounting for higher-order corrections. We find that N=2 is a sufficient approximation at both seamounts and guyots. Constant density models of large volume guyots do not fit the observed gravity

  3. Wave-Group Resolving vs Wave-Resolving Modeling of Surf and Swash Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelvink, J. A.; McCall, R. T.; Mehvar, S.; Dastgheib, A.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical modeling of beach and dune erosion, overwashing and breaching has gained much from inclusion of wave-group related infragravity motions in models such as XBeach (Roelvink et al, 2009). The main assumption in this model is that on the upper beach the incident-band, short waves are to a large extent dissipated, whereas infragravity wave motions have more oomph and are the ones making it to the dune foot and even over it. It is then justified to resolve the variations in short-wave energy and resulting long-wave motions, while parameterizing the short wave motions. This model has been applied successfully in many cases, both lab and field, concerning sandy beaches and dunes. However, as the sand gets coarser and beaches steeper, more and more incident wave energy is found in the swash, and at some point the parameterizations and associated coefficients start dominating the process. For gravel beaches, McCall et al (2014) have made use of a wave-resolving mode of XBeach, which makes use of a one-layer, nonhydrostatic approach developed by Zijlema et al. (2011). They have included a groundwater model and have shown that both the infiltration-exfiltration processes and the incident-band swash are important in getting the swash hydrodynamics on gravel beaches right. This work is continuing with promising results for morphodynamic response during extreme events. At the same time, we are investigating the skill of both approaches for wave runup and overtopping and are testing the morphodynamic behavior of the wave-resolving model in comparison with data and the original XBeach. So far, at the sandy end of the spectrum, both approaches give good and very similar results. In our presentation we will highlight some of these results and will present a sensitivity study where both approaches will be run and compared for a range of coastal profiles, including hard end structures. This will allow us to give clear guidelines for when to use the (much more computer

  4. Role of Evaluating MGMT Status and 1p36 Deletion in Radiosurgery-Induced Anaplastic Ependymoma That Rapidly and Completely Resolved by Temozolomide Alone: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hirono, Seiichiro; Iwadate, Yasuo; Kambe, Michiyo; Hiwasa, Takaki; Takiguchi, Masaki; Nakatani, Yukio; Saeki, Naokatsu

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic gamma knife surgery (GKS)-induced brain tumors are extremely rare, and no ependymal tumors induced by GKS have been reported. Therefore, little is known about their clinical, pathologic, and genetic features. In addition, a regimen of adjuvant chemotherapy for anaplastic ependymoma (AE) has not been established. A 77-year-old man presented with a gait disturbance and left-side cerebellar ataxia more than 19 years after GKS performed for a cerebellar arteriovenous malformation. Imaging studies demonstrated an enhancing mass in the irradiated field with signs of intraventricular dissemination. Surgical resection confirmed the diagnosis of AE. Temozolomide (TMZ) was administrated postoperatively because the methylated promoter region of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and 1p36 deletion were observed. Surprisingly, images 16 days after TMZ initiation demonstrated a complete resolution of the residual tumor that was maintained after three cycles of TMZ. This first case report of GKS-induced AE emphasizes the importance of genetic evaluation of MGMT and chromosomal deletion of 1p36 that are not commonly performed in primary ependymal tumors. In addition, it is speculated that a GKS-induced tumor may have a different genetic background compared with the primary tumor because the pathogenesis of the tumors differed. PMID:26251808

  5. Role of Evaluating MGMT Status and 1p36 Deletion in Radiosurgery-Induced Anaplastic Ependymoma That Rapidly and Completely Resolved by Temozolomide Alone: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Seiichiro; Iwadate, Yasuo; Kambe, Michiyo; Hiwasa, Takaki; Takiguchi, Masaki; Nakatani, Yukio; Saeki, Naokatsu

    2015-07-01

    Stereotactic gamma knife surgery (GKS)-induced brain tumors are extremely rare, and no ependymal tumors induced by GKS have been reported. Therefore, little is known about their clinical, pathologic, and genetic features. In addition, a regimen of adjuvant chemotherapy for anaplastic ependymoma (AE) has not been established. A 77-year-old man presented with a gait disturbance and left-side cerebellar ataxia more than 19 years after GKS performed for a cerebellar arteriovenous malformation. Imaging studies demonstrated an enhancing mass in the irradiated field with signs of intraventricular dissemination. Surgical resection confirmed the diagnosis of AE. Temozolomide (TMZ) was administrated postoperatively because the methylated promoter region of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and 1p36 deletion were observed. Surprisingly, images 16 days after TMZ initiation demonstrated a complete resolution of the residual tumor that was maintained after three cycles of TMZ. This first case report of GKS-induced AE emphasizes the importance of genetic evaluation of MGMT and chromosomal deletion of 1p36 that are not commonly performed in primary ependymal tumors. In addition, it is speculated that a GKS-induced tumor may have a different genetic background compared with the primary tumor because the pathogenesis of the tumors differed. PMID:26251808

  6. Regolith Volatile Characterization (RVC) in RESOLVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, Janine; Lueck, Dale; Gibson, Tracy; Levine, Lanfang

    2010-01-01

    used in the field demo for RESOLVE. The first modification was to decrease the weight associated with the GC, this included eliminating the explosion proof case (Figure 1) and replacing it with a lightweight case as well as using an on board COPV tank for the neon carrier gas. The next goal was to add a second oven for the molecular sieve column to allow for dual temperature control during GC operation; the separation of hydrogen and helium is optimum at lower temperatures while the water analysis required higher temperatures creating a competing design requirement. The second oven also allows a lower limit of detection for water quantification and avoids the possibility of water condensing in the GC which could ruin the column characteristics. The final goal was to modify the column arrangement to optimize the system for our specific application. Figure 2 shows the internal details of the module optimized optimized for our field application. The modifications and performance of the gas analysis system will be discussed in detail.

  7. D-terms on the resolved conifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Keshav; Franche, Paul; Knauf, Anke; Sully, James

    2009-04-01

    We derive a novel deformation of the warped resolved conifold background with supersymmetry breaking ISD (1,2) fluxes by adding D7-branes to this type IIB theory. We find spontaneous supersymmetry breaking without generating a bulk cosmological constant. In the compactified form, our background will no longer be a Calabi-Yau manifold as it allows a non-vanishing first Chern class. In the presence of D7-branes the (1,2) fluxes can give rise to non-trivial D-terms. We study the Ouyang embedding of D7-branes in detail and find that in this case the D-terms are indeed non-zero. In the limit when we approach the singular conifold, the D-terms vanish for Ouyang's embedding, although supersymmetry appears to be broken. We also construct the F-theory lift of our background and demonstrate how these IIB (1,2) fluxes lift to non-primitive (2,2) flux on the fourfold. The seven branes correspond to normalisable harmonic forms. We briefly sketch a possible way to attain an inflaton potential in this background once extra D3-branes are introduced and point out some possibilities of restoring supersymmetry in our background that could in principle be used as the end point of the inflationary set-up. In a companion paper we will analyse in details the inflationary dynamics in this background.

  8. Numerical solution of under-resolved detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosatto, Luca; Vigevano, Luigi

    2008-02-01

    A new fractional-step method is proposed for the numerical solution of high speed reacting flows, where the chemical time scales are often much smaller than the fluid dynamical time scales. When the problem is stiff, because of insufficient spatial/temporal resolution, a well-known spurious numerical phenomenon occurs in standard finite volume schemes: the incorrect calculation of the speed of propagation of discontinuities. The new method is first illustrated considering a one-dimensional scalar hyperbolic advection/reaction equation with stiff source term, which may be considered as a model problem to under-resolved detonations. During the reaction step, the proposed scheme replaces the cell average representation with a two-value reconstruction, which allows us to locate the discontinuity position inside the cell during the computation of the source term. This results in the correct propagation of discontinuities even in the stiff case. The method is proved to be second-order accurate for smooth solutions of scalar equations and is applied successfully to the solution of the one-dimensional reactive Euler equations for Chapman-Jouguet detonations.

  9. Four-phase differential phase shift resolver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, P. M.; Wallingford, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    Two systems have been developed to resolve phase uncertainty without transmitting reference signals. In both methods signal is impressed on carrier as differential, rather than absolute, phase shift. At the receiver four-phase demodulation and logic process unambiguously resolves differential phase shift of input carrier.

  10. Helping You Buy: Link Resolver Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Ross

    2006-01-01

    To any library with an electronic collection of any significance, the OpenURL link resolver has (or should) become an indispensable service for helping its users retrieve full text from citations. Although they are a relatively new technology (in library terms, at any rate), link resolvers arguably have become as important as the OPAC; they locate…

  11. High-resolving mass spectrographs and spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollnik, Hermann

    2015-11-01

    Discussed are different types of high resolving mass spectrographs and spectrometers. In detail outlined are (1) magnetic and electric sector field mass spectrographs, which are the oldest systems, (2) Penning Trap mass spectrographs and spectrometers, which have achieved very high mass-resolving powers, but are technically demanding (3) time-of-flight mass spectrographs using high energy ions passing through accelerator rings, which have also achieved very high mass-resolving powers and are equally technically demanding, (4) linear time-of-flight mass spectrographs, which have become the most versatile mass analyzers for low energy ions, while the even higher performing multi-pass systems have only started to be used, (5) orbitraps, which also have achieved remarkably high mass-resolving powers for low energy ions.

  12. Time-Resolved Photoluminescence and Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, W. K.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.; Dippo, P.; Geisz, J.; Wanlass, M. W.; Kurtz, S.

    2005-01-01

    The time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) technique and its ability to characterize recombination in bulk photovoltaic semiconductor materials are reviewed. Results from a variety of materials and a few recent studies are summarized and compared.

  13. Multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating

    SciTech Connect

    Siders, C.W.; Siders, J.L.W.; Omenetto, F.G.; Taylor, A.J.

    1999-04-01

    The authors review multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating (MI-FROG) as a technique, uniquely suited for pump-probe coherent spectroscopy using amplified visible and near-infrared short-pulse systems and/or emissive targets, for time-resolving ultrafast phase shifts and intensity changes. Application of polarization-gate MI-FROG to the study of ultrafast ionization in gases is presented.

  14. Resolving social conflict among females without overt aggression

    PubMed Central

    Cant, Michael A.; Young, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Members of animal societies compete over resources and reproduction, but the extent to which such conflicts of interest are resolved peacefully (without recourse to costly or wasteful acts of aggression) varies widely. Here, we describe two theoretical mechanisms that can help to understand variation in the incidence of overt behavioural conflict: (i) destruction competition and (ii) the use of threats. The two mechanisms make different assumptions about the degree to which competitors are socially sensitive (responsive to real-time changes in the behaviour of their social partners). In each case, we discuss how the model assumptions relate to biological reality and highlight the genetic, ecological and informational factors that are likely to promote peaceful conflict resolution, drawing on empirical examples. We suggest that, relative to males, reproductive conflict among females may be more frequently resolved peacefully through threats of punishment, rather than overt acts of punishment, because (i) offspring are more costly to produce for females and (ii) reproduction is more difficult to conceal. The main need now is for empirical work to test whether the mechanisms described here can indeed explain how social conflict can be resolved without overt aggression. PMID:24167306

  15. A quantum optomechanical interface beyond the resolved sideband limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, James S.; Khosla, Kiran; Madsen, Lars S.; Vanner, Michael R.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical oscillators which respond to radiation pressure are a promising means of transferring quantum information between light and matter. Optical–mechanical state swaps are a key operation in this setting. Existing proposals for optomechanical state swap interfaces are only effective in the resolved sideband limit. Here, we show that it is possible to fully and deterministically exchange mechanical and optical states outside of this limit, in the common case that the cavity linewidth is larger than the mechanical resonance frequency. This high-bandwidth interface opens up a significantly larger region of optomechanical parameter space, allowing generation of non-classical motional states of high-quality, low-frequency mechanical oscillators.

  16. Time-resolved transillumination and optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haller, Emmanuel B.

    1996-01-01

    In response to an invitation by the editor-in-chief, I would like to present the current status of time-domain imaging. With exciting new photon diffusion techniques being developed in the frequency domain and promising optical coherence tomography, time-resolved transillumination is in constant evolution and the subject of passionate discussions during the numerous conferences dedicated to this subject. The purpose of time-resolved optical tomography is to provide noninvasive, high-resolution imaging of the interior of living bodies by the use of nonionizing radiation. Moreover, the use of visible to near-infrared wavelength yields metabolic information. Breast cancer screening is the primary potential application for time-resolved imaging. Neurology and tissue characterization are also possible fields of applications. Time- resolved transillumination and optical tomography should not only improve diagnoses, but the welfare of the patient. As no overview of this technique has yet been presented to my knowledge, this paper briefly describes the various methods enabling time-resolved transillumination and optical tomography. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods, as well as the clinical challenges they face are discussed. Although an analytic and computable model of light transport through tissues is essential for a meaningful interpretation of the transillumination process, this paper will not dwell on the mathematics of photon propagation.

  17. Spectral resolvability of iterated rippled noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, William A.

    2005-04-01

    A forward-masking experiment was used to estimate the spectral ripple of iterated rippled noise (IRN) that is possibly resolved by the auditory system. Tonal signals were placed at spectral peaks and valleys of IRN maskers for a wide variety of IRN conditions that included different delays, number of iterations, and stimulus durations. The differences in the forward-masked thresholds of tones at spectral peaks and valleys were used to estimate spectral resolvability, and these results were compared to estimates obtained from a gamma-tone filter bank. The IRN spectrum has spectral peaks that are harmonics of the reciprocal of the delay used to generate IRN stimuli. As the number of iterations in the generation of IRN stimuli increases so does the difference in the spectral peak-to-valley ratio. For high number of iterations, long delays, and long durations evidence for spectral resolvability existed up to the 6th harmonic. For all other conditions spectral resolvability appeared to disappear at harmonics lower than the 6th, or was not measurable at all. These data will be discussed in terms of the role spectral resolvability might play in processing the pitch, pitch strength, and timbre of IRN stimuli. [Work supported by a grant from NIDCD.

  18. Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Franziska; Lübcke, Andrea; Heine, Nadja; Schultz, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    We present a novel setup for the investigation of ultrafast dynamic processes in a liquid jet using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. A magnetic-bottle type spectrometer with a high collection efficiency allows the very sensitive detection of photoelectrons emitted from a 10 μm thick liquid jet. This translates into good signal/noise ratio and rapid data acquisition making femtosecond time-resolved experiments feasible. We describe the experimental setup, a detailed spectrometer characterization based on the spectroscopy of nitric oxide in the gas phase, and results from femtosecond time-resolved experiments on sodium iodide solutions. The latter experiments reveal the formation and evolution of the solvated electron and we characterize two distinct spectral components corresponding to initially thermalized and unthermalized solvated electrons. The absence of dark states in photoionization, the direct measurement of electron binding energies, and the ability to resolve dynamic processes on the femtosecond time scale make time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy from the liquid jet a very promising method for the characterization of photochemical processes in liquids.

  19. Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Franziska; Lübcke, Andrea; Heine, Nadja; Schultz, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    We present a novel setup for the investigation of ultrafast dynamic processes in a liquid jet using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. A magnetic-bottle type spectrometer with a high collection efficiency allows the very sensitive detection of photoelectrons emitted from a 10 μm thick liquid jet. This translates into good signal/noise ratio and rapid data acquisition making femtosecond time-resolved experiments feasible. We describe the experimental setup, a detailed spectrometer characterization based on the spectroscopy of nitric oxide in the gas phase, and results from femtosecond time-resolved experiments on sodium iodide solutions. The latter experiments reveal the formation and evolution of the solvated electron and we characterize two distinct spectral components corresponding to initially thermalized and unthermalized solvated electrons. The absence of dark states in photoionization, the direct measurement of electron binding energies, and the ability to resolve dynamic processes on the femtosecond time scale make time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy from the liquid jet a very promising method for the characterization of photochemical processes in liquids. PMID:21133461

  20. Depth-resolved fluorescence of biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yicong; Xi, Peng; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Yim, So Fan; Yu, Mei-Yung; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2005-06-01

    The depth-resolved autofluorescence ofrabbit oral tissue, normal and dysplastic human ectocervical tissue within l20μm depth were investigated utilizing a confocal fluorescence spectroscopy with the excitations at 355nm and 457nm. From the topmost keratinizing layer of oral and ectocervical tissue, strong keratin fluorescence with the spectral characteristics similar to collagen was observed. The fluorescence signal from epithelial tissue between the keratinizing layer and stroma can be well resolved. Furthermore, NADH and FADfluorescence measured from the underlying non-keratinizing epithelial layer were strongly correlated to the tissue pathology. This study demonstrates that the depth-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy can reveal fine structural information on epithelial tissue and potentially provide more accurate diagnostic information for determining tissue pathology.

  1. The conforming brain and deontological resolve.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Melanie; LaViers, Lisa; Prietula, Michael J; Berns, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Our personal values are subject to forces of social influence. Deontological resolve captures how strongly one relies on absolute rules of right and wrong in the representation of one's personal values and may predict willingness to modify one's values in the presence of social influence. Using fMRI, we found that a neurobiological metric for deontological resolve based on relative activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) during the passive processing of sacred values predicted individual differences in conformity. Individuals with stronger deontological resolve, as measured by greater VLPFC activity, displayed lower levels of conformity. We also tested whether responsiveness to social reward, as measured by ventral striatal activity during social feedback, predicted variability in conformist behavior across individuals but found no significant relationship. From these results we conclude that unwillingness to conform to others' values is associated with a strong neurobiological representation of social rules. PMID:25170989

  2. The Conforming Brain and Deontological Resolve

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, Melanie; LaViers, Lisa; Prietula, Michael J.; Berns, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Our personal values are subject to forces of social influence. Deontological resolve captures how strongly one relies on absolute rules of right and wrong in the representation of one's personal values and may predict willingness to modify one's values in the presence of social influence. Using fMRI, we found that a neurobiological metric for deontological resolve based on relative activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) during the passive processing of sacred values predicted individual differences in conformity. Individuals with stronger deontological resolve, as measured by greater VLPFC activity, displayed lower levels of conformity. We also tested whether responsiveness to social reward, as measured by ventral striatal activity during social feedback, predicted variability in conformist behavior across individuals but found no significant relationship. From these results we conclude that unwillingness to conform to others' values is associated with a strong neurobiological representation of social rules. PMID:25170989

  3. Time resolved thermal lens in edible oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, T. A. S.; Pedreira, P. R. B.; Medina, A. N.; Pereira, J. R. D.; Bento, A. C.; Baesso, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    In this work time resolved thermal lens spectrometry is applied to investigate the optical properties of the following edible oils: soya, sunflower, canola, and corn oils. The experiments were performed at room temperature using the mode mismatched thermal lens configuration. The results showed that when the time resolved procedure is adopted the technique can be applied to investigate the photosensitivity of edible oils. Soya oil presented a stronger photochemical reaction as compared to the other investigated samples. This observation may be relevant for future studies evaluating edible oils storage conditions and also may contribute to a better understanding of the physical and chemical properties of this important foodstuff.

  4. Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Thuering, T.; Stampanoni, M.; Barber, W. C.; Iwanczyk, J. S.; Seo, Y.; Alhassen, F.

    2013-05-13

    Although compatible with polychromatic radiation, the sensitivity in X-ray phase contrast imaging with a grating interferometer is strongly dependent on the X-ray spectrum. We used an energy resolving detector to quantitatively investigate the dependency of the noise from the spectral bandwidth and to consequently optimize the system-by selecting the best energy band matching the experimental conditions-with respect to sensitivity maximization and, eventually, dose. Further, since theoretical calculations of the spectrum are usually limited due to non-ideal conditions, an energy resolving detector accurately quantifies the spectral changes induced by the interferometer including flux reduction and beam hardening.

  5. Lucas–Kanade fluid trajectories for time-resolved PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegavian, Robin; Leclaire, Benjamin; Champagnat, Frédéric; Illoul, Cédric; Losfeld, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new method for estimating fluid trajectories in time-resolved PIV. It relies on a Lucas–Kanade paradigm and consists in a simple and direct extension of a two-frame estimation with FOLKI-PIV (Champagnat et al 2011 Exp. Fluids 50 1169–82). The so-called Lucas–Kanade Fluid Trajectories (LKFT) are assumed to be polynomial in time, and are found as the minimizer of a global functional, in which displacements are sought so as to match the intensities of a series of images pairs in the sequence, in the least-squares sense. All pairs involve the central image, similar to other recent time-resolved approaches (FTC (Lynch and Scarano 2013 Meas. Sci. Technol. 24 035305) and FTEE (Jeon et al 2014 Exp. Fluids 55 1–16)). As switching from a two-frame to a time-resolved objective simply amounts to adding terms in a functional, no significant additional algorithmic element is required. Similar to FOLKI-PIV the method is very well suited for GPU acceleration, which is an important feature as computational complexity increases with the image sequence size. Tests on synthetic data exhibiting peak-locking show that increasing the image sequence size strongly reduces both associated bias and random error, and that LKFT has a remaining total error comparable to that of FTEE on this case. Results on case B of the third PIV challenge (Stanislas et al 2008 Exp. Fluids 45 27–71) also show its ability to drastically reduce the error in situations with low signal-to-noise ratio. These results are finally confirmed on experimental images acquired in the near-field of a low Reynolds number jet. Strong reductions in peak-locking, spatial and temporal noise compared to two-frame estimation are also observed, on the displacement components themselves, as well as on spatial or temporal derivatives, such as vorticity and material acceleration.

  6. Resolving subdwarf B stars in binaries by HST imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.; Moehler, S.; Napiwotzki, R.; Thejll, P.; Green, E. M.

    2002-03-01

    The origin of subluminous B stars is still an unsolved problem in stellar evolution. Single star as well as close binary evolution scenarios have been invoked but until now have met with little success. We have carried out a small survey of spectroscopic binary candidates (19 systems consisting of an sdB star and late type companion) with the Planetary Camera of the WFPC2 onboard Hubble Space Telescope to test these scenarios. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that by imaging the programme stars in the R-band about one third of the sample (6-7 stars) should be resolved at a limiting angular resolution of 0.1 arcsec if they have linear separations like main sequence stars (``single star evolution''). None should be resolvable if all systems were produced by close binary evolution. In addition we expect three triple systems to be present in our sample. Most of these, if not all, should be resolvable. Components were resolved in 6 systems with separations between 0.2 arcsec and 4.5 arcsec. However, only in the two systems TON 139 and PG 1718+519 (separations 0.32 arcsec and 0.24 arcsec, respectively) do the magnitudes of the resolved components match the expectations from the deconvolution of the spectral energy distribution. These two stars could be physical binaries whereas in the other cases the nearby star may be a chance projection or a third component. Radial velocity measurements indicate that the resolved system TON 139 is a triple system, with the sdB having a close companion that does not contribute detectably to the integrated light of the system. Radial velocity information for the second resolved system, PG 1718+519, is insufficient. Assuming that it is not a triple system, it would be the only resolved system in our sample. Accordingly the success rate would be only 5% which is clearly below the prediction for single star evolution. We conclude that the distribution of separations of sdB binaries deviates strongly from that of normal stars. Our results

  7. Resolving the percentage of component terrains within single resolution elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, S. E.; Switzer, P.; Kowalik, W. S.; Lyon, R. J. P.

    1980-01-01

    An approximate maximum likelihood technique employing a widely available discriminant analysis program is discussed that has been developed for resolving the percentage of component terrains within single resolution elements. The method uses all four channels of Landsat data simultaneously and does not require prior knowledge of the percentage of components in mixed pixels. It was tested in five cases that were chosen to represent mixtures of outcrop, soil and vegetation which would typically be encountered in geologic studies with Landsat data. For all five cases, the method proved to be superior to single band weighted average and linear regression techniques and permitted an estimate of the total area occupied by component terrains to within plus or minus 6% of the true area covered. Its major drawback is a consistent overestimation of the pixel component percent of the darker materials (vegetation) and an underestimation of the pixel component percent of the brighter materials (sand).

  8. A systematic format for resolving ethical issues in clinical periodontics.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Alexander J

    2012-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are becoming increasingly common in dentistry and periodontics. Clinicians, challenged with such dilemmas, may not know how to apply the appropriate moral reasoning needed to resolve these situations especially when any of the five fundamental principles of ethics that form the foundation of the American Dental Association Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct--patient autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity--come into conflict with each other. The author describes one clinical case that presented with an ethical dilemma. An analytic framework, used in medicine, is introduced and used to solve the clinical case on whether to proceed with periodontal surgery on a patient who is not aware of his terminal prognosis from metastatic prostate cancer. Upon using the analytic framework, recommendations are made on the ethically appropriate path for the periodontist to follow in providing care for the patient's periodontal problem consistent with the principles of patient autonomy, respect for persons, and veracity. PMID:23189804

  9. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  10. A Student Activity on Visual Resolving Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, T. H.; Henriksen, P. N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    We present a simple activity in which students measure the resolving power of their eyes. The approach can be used at various levels of sophistication with students having a wide variety of skills and scientific training. We discuss our experiences using this activity with a class of non-science majors as well as with a group of pre-engineering…

  11. Resolving Eta Carinae and It's Ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull Theodore R.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy of Eta Carinae and the Homunculus has led to considerable new insight on the excitation mechanisms, the elemental abundances, and the physical properties of ejecta from Eta Carinae. With HST/STIS we have been able to resolve the central source into many substructures.

  12. Resolvability and the Tetrahedral Configuration of Carbon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses evidence for the tetrahedral configuration of the carbon atom, indicating that three symmetrical configurations are theoretically possible for coordination number four. Includes table indicating that resolvability of compounds of type CR'R"R"'R"" is a necessary but not sufficient condition for proving tetrahedral configuration. (JN)

  13. Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy and Energy-Resolving Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhauer, Frank; Raab, Walfried

    2015-08-01

    Imaging spectroscopy has seen rapid progress over the past 25 years, leading to breakthroughs in many fields of astronomy that would not have been otherwise possible. This review overviews the visible/infrared imaging spectroscopy techniques as well as energy-resolving detectors. We introduce the working principle of scanning Fabry-Perot and Fourier transform spectrometers and explain the most common integral field concepts based on mirror slicers, lenslet arrays, and fibers. The main advantage of integral field spectrographs is the simultaneous measurement of spatial and spectral information. Although Fabry-Perot and Fourier transform spectrometers can provide a larger field of view, it is ultimately the higher sensitivity of integral field units that make them the technique of choice. This is arguably the case for image slicers, which make the most efficient use of the available detector pixels and have equal or higher transmission than lenslet arrays and fiber integral field units, respectively. We also address the more specific issues of large étendue operation, focal ratio degradation, anamorphic magnification, and diffraction-limited operation. This review also covers the emerging technology of energy-resolving detectors, which promise very simple and efficient instrument designs. These energy-resolving detectors are based on superconducting thin film technology and exploit either the very small superconducting energy to count the number of quasi-particles excited in the absorption of the photon or the extremely steep phase transition between the normal- and superconducting phase to measure a temperature increase. We have put special emphasis on an overview of the underlying physical phenomena as well as on the recent technological progress and astronomical path finder experiments.

  14. Deflection evaluation using time-resolved radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.A.; Lucero, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Time-resolved radiography is the creation of an x-ray image for which both the start-exposure and stop-exposure times are known with respect to the event under study. The combination of image and timing are used to derive information about the event. We have applied time-resolved radiography to evaluate motions of explosive-driven events. In the particular application discussed here, our intent is to measure maximum deflections of the components involved. Exposures are made during the time just before to just after the event of interest occurs. A smear or blur of motion out to its furthest extent is recorded on the image. Comparison of the dynamic images with static images allows deflection measurements to be made. 2 figs.

  15. Time-resolved multiple probe spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Greetham, G. M.; Sole, D.; Clark, I. P.; Parker, A. W.; Pollard, M. R.; Towrie, M.

    2012-10-15

    Time-resolved multiple probe spectroscopy combines optical, electronic, and data acquisition capabilities to enable measurement of picosecond to millisecond time-resolved spectra within a single experiment, using a single activation pulse. This technology enables a wide range of dynamic processes to be studied on a single laser and sample system. The technique includes a 1 kHz pump, 10 kHz probe flash photolysis-like mode of acquisition (pump-probe-probe-probe, etc.), increasing the amount of information from each experiment. We demonstrate the capability of the instrument by measuring the photolysis of tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO){sub 6}) monitored by IR absorption spectroscopy, following picosecond vibrational cooling of product formation through to slower bimolecular diffusion reactions on the microsecond time scale.

  16. Time resolved astronomy with the SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, D. A. H.; Crawford, S.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; McPhate, J.; Nordsieck, K. H.; Potter, S. B.; O'Donoghue, D.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Schellart, P.; Spark, M.; Welsh, B. Y.; Zietsman, E.

    2010-07-01

    While time resolved astronomical observations are not new, the extension of such studies to sub-second time resolution is and has resulted in the opening of a new observational frontier, High Time Resolution Astronomy (HTRA). HTRA studies are well suited to objects like compact binary stars (CVs and X-ray binaries) and pulsars, while asteroseismology of pulsating stars, occultations, transits and the study of transients, will all benefit from such HTRA studies. HTRA has been a SALT science driver from the outset and the first-light instruments, namely the UV-VIS imager, SALTICAM, and the multi-purpose Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS), both have high time resolution modes. These are described, together with some observational examples. We also discuss the commissioning observations with the photon counting Berkeley Visible Image Tube camera (BVIT) on SALT. Finally we describe the software tools, developed in Python, to reduce SALT time resolved observations.

  17. On types of the resolvent of a complete second order differential operator

    SciTech Connect

    Ospanov, Kordan Nauryzkhanovich

    2015-09-18

    In this work we consider the complete second order differential operator, the intermediate coefficient of which is growing rapidly. We find the conditions when its resolvent is compact or belongs to Schatten class, in particular, it is a nuclear operator. The most accurate results are obtained when the coefficient oscillates weakly. In this case we shown that the operator is separable.

  18. WAVELENGTH-RESOLVED REMPI MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE MONITORING OF TOXIC INCINERATION TRACE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Structure-selective measurement techniques are needed for the assessment of the toxic loading of incinerator gases. This review article shows that wavelength-resolved, resonance-enhanced, multiphoton- ionization (REMPY) mass spectrometry can be used to this end. In this case, how...

  19. Time-resolved circularly polarized protein phosphorescence.

    PubMed Central

    Schauerte, J A; Steel, D G; Gafni, A

    1992-01-01

    The existence of circular polarization in room-temperature protein phosphorescence is demonstrated, and time-resolved circularly polarized phosphorescence (TR-CPP) is used to characterize unique tryptophan environments in multitryptophan proteins. Circularly polarized luminescence studies provide information regarding the excited state chirality of a lumiphore which can be used to extract sensitive structural information. It is shown by time resolving the circular polarization that it is possible to correlate the excited state chirality with unique decay components in a multiexponential phosphorescence decay profile. The present study presents a concurrent analysis of room-temperature time-resolved phosphorescence and TR-CPP of bacterial glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase as well as those of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase. Only one of the two tryptophan residues per subunit of dimeric alcohol dehydrogenase is believed to phosphorescence, while the dimeric glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase has eight tryptophan residues per subunit and shows a corresponding complexity in its phosphorescence decay profile. The anisotropy factor [g(em) = delta I/(Itotal/2); delta I = Ileft circular-Iright circular] for alcohol dehydrogenase is time independent, suggesting a unique excited state chirality. The phosphorescence decay of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase can be well fitted with four exponential terms of 4, 23, 76, and 142 msec, and the TR-CPP of this enzyme shows a strong time dependence that can be resolved into four individual time-independent anisotropy factors of -4.0, -2.1, +6.5, and +6.9 (x10(-3)), each respectively associated with one of the four lifetime components. These results demonstrate how the use of TR-CPP can facilitate the study of proteins with multiple lumiphores. PMID:1438204

  20. Resolving Bias in Laser Ablation Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, James; Horstwood, Matthew; Gehrels, George

    2013-06-01

    Increasingly, scientific investigations requiring geochronology utilize laser ablation (LA)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), taking advantage of the efficiency and throughput possible for uranium-thorium-lead (U-Th-Pb) dating. A number of biases exist when comparing data among laboratories and an ongoing community-based effort is working to resolve and eliminate these biases to improve the accuracy of scientific interpretation based on these data.

  1. The Mass Census for RESOLVE and ECO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Kathleen D.; Kannappan, Sheila; Stark, David; Moffett, Amanda J.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Baker, Ashley; Lagos, Claudia; Norris, Mark A.; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    We quantify the stellar, baryonic, and dynamical mass census for galaxies and groups in the volume-limited RESOLVE and ECO surveys, which are complete for galaxies with baryonic mass >10^9 Msun. First, we present optimized methods of stellar and gas mass estimation based on newly reprocessed multi-wavelength imaging, deep fractional mass-limited 21cm data, and a probability density field approach to the photometric gas fractions technique. Second, we examine the stellar and baryonic mass functions for RESOLVE and ECO, including an analysis of how galaxy mass functions vary between distinct, physically motivated group halo mass regimes. These "conditional" mass functions display complex substructure suggesting that the galaxy population is shaped through satellite destruction and merging during the process of multiple-occupancy group formation. Third, we present the group-integrated stellar and baryonic mass functions and examine the cold baryon fraction of groups as a function of group halo mass. We find that group halo mass measurements based on abundance matching and dynamical mass estimates sometimes disagree, pointing to the existence of a wide range of cold baryon fractions in groups at intermediate halo mass. Finally, we provide a brief overview of RESOLVE's dynamical mass census, which relies on new 3D optical spectroscopy probing both stellar and gas kinematics. This work has been supported by the NSF through grants AST-0955368 and OCI-1156614, the NC Space Grant Graduate Research Fellowship Program, and a UNC Royster Society of Fellows Dissertation Completion Fellowship.

  2. Frequency resolving power of the human's hearing.

    PubMed

    Supin AYa; Popov, V V; Milekhina, O N

    1994-01-01

    Frequency resolving power (FRP) of the human's hearing was measured using the rippled noise as a probe. To examine the ripple discrimination, a phase-reversal test was used: the rippled noise was replaced by that with the opposite peak and through positions. This switch can be detected only when rippled structure of the noise spectrum is discriminated. The highest ripple density when the switch was detectable was taken as a FRP measure. Narrow-band rippled spectra were used to measure the FRP within a frequency range of 0.175 to 11 kHz. The highest resolvable ripple density in absolute measure (ripples number per kHz) was about 21/kHz at frequencies below 0.5 kHz and fell down at higher frequencies. Resolvable ripple density in relative measure (central frequency divided by ripple spacing) was about 22 relative units at frequencies above 2.8 kHz and fell down at lower frequencies. PMID:8015725

  3. Photon-number-resolving superconducting nanowire detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Francesco; Zhou, Zili; Gaggero, Alessandro; Gaudio, Rosalinda; Jahanmirinejad, Saeedeh; Sahin, Döndü; Marsili, Francesco; Leoni, Roberto; Fiore, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, photon-number-resolving (PNR) detectors have attracted great interest, mainly because they can play a key role in diverse application fields. A PNR detector with a large dynamic range would represent an ideal photon detector, bringing the linear response of conventional analogue detectors down to the single-photon level. Several technologies, such as InGaAs single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs), arrays of silicon photomultipliers, InGaAs SPADs with self-differencing circuits and transition edge sensors have shown photon number resolving capability. Superconducting nanowires provide free-running single-photon sensitivity from visible to mid-infrared frequencies, low dark counts, excellent timing resolution (<60 ps) and short dead time (˜10 ns), at an easily accessible temperature (2-3 K), but they do not inherently resolve the photon number. In this framework, PNR detectors based on arrays of superconducting nanowires have been proposed. In this article we describe a number of methods and device configurations that have been pursued to obtain PNR capability using superconducting nanowire detectors.

  4. Diagnosis of meningioma by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Butte, Pramod V; Pikul, Brian K; Hever, Aviv; Yong, William H; Black, Keith L; Marcu, Laura

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the use of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) as an adjunctive tool for the intraoperative rapid evaluation of tumor specimens and delineation of tumor from surrounding normal tissue. Tissue autofluorescence is induced with a pulsed nitrogen laser (337 nm, 1.2 ns) and the intensity decay profiles are recorded in the 370 to 500 nm spectral range with a fast digitizer (0.2 ns resolution). Experiments are conducted on excised specimens (meningioma, dura mater, cerebral cortex) from 26 patients (97 sites). Spectral intensities and time-dependent parameters derived from the time-resolved spectra of each site are used for tissue characterization. A linear discriminant analysis algorithm is used for tissue classification. Our results reveal that meningioma is characterized by unique fluorescence characteristics that enable discrimination of tumor from normal tissue with high sensitivity (>89%) and specificity (100%). The accuracy of classification is found to increase (92.8% cases in the training set and 91.8% in the cross-validated set correctly classified) when parameters from both the spectral and the time domain are used for discrimination. Our findings establish the feasibility of using TR-LIFS as a tool for the identification of meningiomas and enables further development of real-time diagnostic tools for analyzing surgical tissue specimens of meningioma or other brain tumors. PMID:16409091

  5. Time Resolved Raman and Fluorescence Spectrometer for Planetary Mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Rossman, George

    2010-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a prime candidate for the next generation of planetary instruments, as it addresses the primary goal of mineralogical analysis which is structure and composition. It does not require sample preparation and provides unique mineral fingerprints, even for mixed phase samples. However, large fluorescence return from many mineral samples under visible light excitation can seriously compromise the quality of the spectra or even render Raman spectra unattainable. Fluorescence interference is likely to be a problem on Mars and is evident in Raman spectra of Martian Meteorites[1]. Our approach uses time resolution for elimination of fluorescence from Raman spectra, allowing for traditional visible laser excitation (532 nm). Since Raman occurs instantaneously with the laser pulse and fluorescence lifetimes vary from nsec to msec depending on the mineral, it is possible to separate them out in time. Complementary information can also be obtained simultaneously using the time resolved fluorescence data. The Simultaneous Spectral Temporal Adaptive Raman Spectrometer (SSTARS) is a planetary instrument under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, capable of time-resolved in situ Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. A streak camera and pulsed miniature microchip laser provide psec scale time resolution. Our ability to observe the complete time evolution of Raman and fluorescence in minerals provides a foundation for design of pulsed Raman and fluorescence spectrometers in diverse planetary environments. We will discuss the SSTARS instrument design and performance capability. We will also present time-resolved pulsed Raman spectra collected from a relevant set of minerals selected using available data on Mars mineralogy[2]. Of particular interest are minerals resulting from aqueous alteration on Mars. For comparison, we will present Raman spectra obtained using a commercial continuous wave (CW) green (514 nm) Raman system. In many cases using a CW laser

  6. PREFACE: Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Lin, Nian

    2010-07-01

    Scanning tunnelling microscopy has revolutionized our ability to image, manipulate, and investigate solid surfaces on the length scale of individual atoms and molecules. The strength of this technique lies in its imaging capabilities, since for many scientists 'seeing is believing'. However, scanning tunnelling microscopy also suffers from a severe limitation, namely its poor time resolution. Recording a scanning tunnelling microscopy image typically requires a few tens of seconds for a conventional scanning tunnelling microscope to a fraction of a second for a specially designed fast scanning tunnelling microscope. Designing and building such a fast scanning tunnelling microscope is a formidable task in itself and therefore, only a limited number of these microscopes have been built [1]. There is, however, another alternative route to significantly enhance the time resolution of a scanning tunnelling microscope. In this alternative method, the tunnelling current is measured as a function of time with the feedback loop switched off. The time resolution is determined by the bandwidth of the IV converter rather than the cut-off frequency of the feedback electronics. Such an approach requires a stable microscope and goes, of course, at the expense of spatial information. In this issue, we have collected a set of papers that gives an impression of the current status of this rapidly emerging field [2]. One of the very first attempts to extract information from tunnel current fluctuations was reported by Tringides' group in the mid-1990s [3]. They showed that the collective diffusion coefficient can be extracted from the autocorrelation of the time-dependent tunnelling current fluctuations produced by atom motion in and out of the tunnelling junction. In general, current-time traces provide direct information on switching/conformation rates and distributions of residence times. In the case where these processes are thermally induced it is rather straightforward to map

  7. Fully resolved simulation of self-propulsion of aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curet, Oscar M.; Alali, Ibrahim; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Maciver, Malcolm A.

    2008-11-01

    We present a computational approach for fully resolved simulation of self-propulsion of organisms through a fluid. Our implicit algorithm solves for the translational and rotational motion of the organism for prescribed deformation kinematics. In addition, the solution for the surrounding flow field is also obtained. The approach is easy to apply to the body forms of a variety of organisms. Our final goal is to use this computational tool to help in understanding the mechanisms of movement and its control in aquatic animals. In this abstract we present validation of this method for different organisms. To validate the method with respect to analytical solutions, we consider two cases: 1) a flagellum which propagates plane waves, and 2) a flagellum that propagates helical waves. To validate the method with respect to empirical measurements we consider data from two organisms: 1) jellyfish (data from John Dabiri at Caltech), and 2) zebrafish (data from Melina Hale at The University of Chicago).

  8. Warped resolved L{sup a,b,c} cones

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetic, Mirjam; Vazquez-Poritz, J. F.

    2008-06-15

    We construct supergravity solutions describing a stack of D3-branes localized at a point on a blown-up cycle of a resolved L{sup a,b,c} cone. The geometry flows from AdS{sub 5}xL{sup a,b,c} to AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}/Z{sub k}. The corresponding quiver gauge theory undergoes a renormalization group flow between two superconformal fixed points, which leads to semi-infinite chains of flows between the various L{sup a,b,c} fixed points. The general system is described by a triplet of Heun equations, which can each be solved by an expansion with a three-term recursion relation, though there are closed-form solutions for certain cases. This enables us to read off the operators that acquire nonzero vacuum expectation values as the quiver gauge theory flows away from a fixed point.

  9. An optimal resolved rate law for kinematically redundant manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourgeois, B. J.

    1987-01-01

    The resolved rate law for a manipulator provides the instantaneous joint rates required to satisfy a given instantaneous hand motion. When the joint space has more degrees of freedom than the task space, the manipulator is kinematically redundant and the kinematic rate equations are underdetermined. These equations can be locally optimized, but the resulting pseudo-inverse solution has been found to cause large joint rates in some cases. A weighting matrix in the locally optimized (pseudo-inverse) solution is dynamically adjusted to control the joint motion as desired. Joint reach limit avoidance is demonstrated in a kinematically redundant planar arm model. The treatment is applicable to redundant manipulators with any number of revolute joints and to non-planar manipulators.

  10. Simulations of Non-resolved, Infrared Imaging of Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jim, K.; Kuluhiwa, K.; Scott, B. Knox, R.; Frith, J.; Gibson, B.

    Simulations of near-infrared, non-resolved imaging of earth-orbiting satellites during nighttime and daytime were created to consider the feasibility of such observations. By using the atmospheric radiative transfer code MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission), we incorporate site-specific mean weather conditions for several possible locations. In general, the dominant effect to be modeled is the sky radiance, which has a strong dependence upon the solar angle and the nature of the distribution of aerosols. Other significant effects included in the model are telescope design, camera design, and detector selection. The simulations are used in turn to predict the signal to noise ratio (SNR) in standard astronomical filter bands for several test cases of satellite-sun-observer geometries. The SNR model is then used to devise a method to design an optimal filter band for these observations.

  11. An optimal resolved rate law for kindematically redundant manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourgeois, B. J.

    1987-01-01

    The resolved rate law for a manipulator provides the instantaneous joint rates required to satisfy a given instantaneous hand motion. When the joint space has more degrees of freedom than the task space, the manipulator is kinematically redundant and the kinematic rate equations are underdetermined. These equations can be locally optimized, but the resulting pseudo-inverse solution was found to cause large joint rates in some case. A weighting matrix in the locally optimized (pseudo-inverse) solution is dynamically adjusted to control the joint motion as desired. Joint reach limit avoidance is demonstrated in a kinematically redundant planar arm model. The treatment is applicable to redundant manipulators with any number of revolute joints and to nonplanar manipulators.

  12. Time-resolved air monitoring using Fourier absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, H.W.

    1995-12-31

    Two categories where spectroscopic techniques excel are the capabilities to perform air analyses in situ and to obtain data at very high time resolutions. Because of these features, the Department of Pesticide Regulation augmented its extensive air monitoring capabilities with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer using open-path optical systems for time resolved ambient air monitoring. A description of the instrumentation and the data analysis procedures will be presented based on two data sets obtained with this FTIR system. In one case, a 100 m folded optical path was used to measure methyl bromide concentrations after fumigation in a warehouse with a time resolution of 15 min and a detection limit of 0.2 ppm. And trying to assess the capability of this FTIR spectrometer to determine flux, water vapor concentrations were measured with a four-meter path length at a time resolution of 0.6 seconds.

  13. Observations of Rotationally Resolved C3 in Translucent Sight Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ádámkovics, Máté; Blake, Geoffrey A.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2003-09-01

    The rotationally resolved spectrum of the A1Πu<--X1Σ+g 000-000 transition of C3, centered at 4051.6 Å, has been observed along 10 translucent lines of sight. To interpret these spectra, a new method for the determination of column densities and analysis of excitation profiles involving the simulation and fitting of observed spectra has been developed. The populations of lower rotational levels (J<=14) in C3 are best fitted by thermal distributions that are consistent with the kinetic temperatures determined from the excitation profile of C2. Just as in the case of C2, higher rotational levels (J>14) of C3 show increased nonthermal population distributions in clouds that have been determined to have total gas densities below ~500 cm-3.

  14. Broadband Mid-Infrared Comb-Resolved Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kevin; Mills, Andrew; Mohr, Christian; Jiang, Jie; Fermann, Martin; Maslowski, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    We report on a comb-resolved, broadband, direct-comb spectroscopy system in the mid-IR and its application to the detection of trace gases and molecular line shape analysis. By coupling an optical parametric oscillator (OPO), a 100 m multipass cell, and a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), sensitive, comb-resolved broadband spectroscopy of dilute gases is possible. The OPO has radiation output at 3.1-3.7 and 4.5-5.5 μm. The laser repetition rate is scanned to arbitrary values with 1 Hz accuracy around 417 MHz. The comb-resolved spectrum is produced with an absolute frequency axis depending only on the RF reference (in this case a GPS disciplined oscillator), stable to 1 part in 10^9. The minimum detectable absorption is 1.6x10-6 wn Hz-1/2. The operating range of the experimental setup enables access to strong fundamental transitions of numerous molecular species for applications based on trace gas detection such as environmental monitoring, industrial gas calibration or medical application of human breath analysis. In addition to these capabilities, we show the application for careful line shape analysis of argon-broadened CO band spectra around 4.7 μm. Fits of the obtained spectra clearly illustrate the discrepancy between the measured spectra and the Voigt profile (VP), indicating the need to include effects such as Dicke narrowing and the speed-dependence of the collisional width and shift in the line shape model, as was shown in previous cw-laser studies. In contrast to cw-laser based experiments, in this case the entire spectrum (˜ 250 wn) covering the whole P and R branches can be measured in 16 s with 417 MHz resolution, decreasing the acquisition time by orders of magnitude. The parallel acquisition allows collection of multiple lines simultaneously, removing the correlation of possible temperature and pressure drifts. While cw-systems are capable of measuring spectra with higher precision, this demonstration opens the door for fast

  15. Numerical simulations of altocumulus with a cloud resolving model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.; Krueger, S.K.

    1996-04-01

    Altocumulus and altostratus clouds together cover approximately 22% of the earth`s surface. They play an important role in the earth`s energy budget through their effect on solar and infrared radiation. However, there has been little altocumulus cloud investigation by either modelers or observational programs. Starr and Cox (SC) (1985a,b) simulated an altostratus case as part of the same study in which they modeled a thin layer of cirrus. Although this calculation was originally described as representing altostratus, it probably better represents altocumulus stratiformis. In this paper, we simulate altocumulus cloud with a cloud resolving model (CRM). We simply describe the CRM first. We calculate the same middle-level cloud case as SC to compare our results with theirs. We will look at the role of cloud-scale processes in response to large-scale forcing. We will also discuss radiative effects by simulating diurnal and nocturnal cases. Finally, we discuss the utility of a 1D model by comparing 1D simulations and 2D simulations.

  16. Focal axis resolver for offset reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Described are electrical means for determining the focal axis of an offset reflector antenna whose physical rim is not coincident with the boundary of the electrical aperture. Even and odd sensing functions are employed in the focal region, leading to both amplitude and phase criteria for resolving a focal axis generally inclined with respect to the system axis. The analytical aspects of the problem are discussed, and an example related to a 4-meter Large-Antenna Multiple-Frequency Microwave Radiometer (LAMMR) is included. The technique is useful for focal axis determination in mathematical simulations and in the physical world.

  17. Resolving the question of color naming universals

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Paul; Regier, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The existence of cross-linguistic universals in color naming is currently contested. Early empirical studies, based principally on languages of industrialized societies, suggested that all languages may draw on a universally shared repertoire of color categories. Recent work, in contrast, based on languages from nonindustrialized societies, has suggested that color categories may not be universal. No comprehensive objective tests have yet been conducted to resolve this issue. We conduct such tests on color naming data from languages of both industrialized and nonindustrialized societies and show that strong universal tendencies in color naming exist across both sorts of language. PMID:12855768

  18. Ultrafast Time-Resolved Photoelectric Emission.

    PubMed

    Juffmann, Thomas; Klopfer, Brannon B; Skulason, Gunnar E; Kealhofer, Catherine; Xiao, Fan; Foreman, Seth M; Kasevich, Mark A

    2015-12-31

    The emission times of laser-triggered electrons from a sharp tungsten tip are directly characterized under ultrafast, near-infrared laser excitation at Keldysh parameters of 6.6<γ<19.1. Emission delays up to 10 fs are observed, which are inferred from the energy gain of photoelectrons emitted into a synchronously driven microwave cavity. Few femtosecond timing resolution is achieved in a configuration capable of measuring timing shifts up to 55 ps. The technique can also be used to measure the microwave phase inside the cavity with a precision below 70 fs upon the energy resolved detection of a single electron. PMID:26764997

  19. Partially resolved super transition array method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brian G.; Iglesias, Carlos A.; Chen, Mau H.

    2015-03-01

    The partially resolved transition array model for radiative transitions between ordinary electronic configurations is extended to the super configuration approach. The specific application incorporates intermediate coupling effects into transition arrays to describe the transition from LS to JJ coupling without the ad hoc approximations introduced in past formulations. More generally, the extended concept permits stepwise refinement of the super transition array method towards the line-by-line limit in ordinary configurations. Thus, the formalism forms a framework for a hybrid scheme to combine detailed line accounting and statistical methods.

  20. Resolving the Azimuthal Ambiguity in Vector Magnetogram Data with the Divergence-Free Condition: Theoretical Examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, A.; Barnes, G.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that the azimuthal ambiguity that is present in solar vector magnetogram data can be resolved with line-of-sight and horizontal heliographic derivative information by using the divergence-free property of magnetic fields without additional assumptions. We discuss the specific derivative information that is sufficient to resolve the ambiguity away from disk center, with particular emphasis on the line-of-sight derivative of the various components of the magnetic field. Conversely, we also show cases where ambiguity resolution fails because sufficient line-of-sight derivative information is not available. For example, knowledge of only the line-of-sight derivative of the line-of-sight component of the field is not sufficient to resolve the ambiguity away from disk center.

  1. Error-measure for anisotropic grid-adaptation in turbulence-resolving simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toosi, Siavash; Larsson, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Grid-adaptation requires an error-measure that identifies where the grid should be refined. In the case of turbulence-resolving simulations (DES, LES, DNS), a simple error-measure is the small-scale resolved energy, which scales with both the modeled subgrid-stresses and the numerical truncation errors in many situations. Since this is a scalar measure, it does not carry any information on the anisotropy of the optimal grid-refinement. The purpose of this work is to introduce a new error-measure for turbulence-resolving simulations that is capable of predicting nearly-optimal anisotropic grids. Turbulent channel flow at Reτ ~ 300 is used to assess the performance of the proposed error-measure. The formulation is geometrically general, applicable to any type of unstructured grid.

  2. Multiresolution foveated laparoscope with high resolvability.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yi; Hua, Hong; Nguyen, Mike

    2013-07-01

    A key limitation of the state-of-the-art laparoscopes for minimally invasive surgery is the tradeoff between the field of view and spatial resolution in a single-view camera system. As such, surgical procedures are usually performed at a zoomed-in view, which limits the surgeon's ability to see much outside the immediate focus of interest and causes a situational awareness challenge. We proposed a multiresolution foveated laparoscope (MRFL) aiming to address this limitation. The MRFL is able to simultaneously capture wide-angle overview and high-resolution images in real time; it can scan and engage the high-resolution images to any subregion of the entire surgical field in analogy to the fovea of human eye. The MRFL is able to render equivalently 10 million pixel resolution with a low data bandwidth requirement. The system has a large working distance (WD) from 80 to 180 mm. The spatial resolvability is about 45 μm in the object space at an 80 mm WD, while the resolvability of a conventional laparoscope is about 250 μm at a typically 50 mm surgical distance. PMID:23811873

  3. Resolving the Moth at Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchêne, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

    2013-09-01

    HD 61005, also known as "The Moth," is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back "wings" thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the "wings" observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

  4. RESOLVING THE MOTH AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchene, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

    2013-09-01

    HD 61005, also known as ''The Moth'', is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back ''wings'' thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the ''wings'' observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

  5. Versatile approach for frequency resolved wavefront characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frumker, Eugene; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Niikura, Hiromichi; Villeneuve, David M.; Corkum, Paul B.

    2011-03-01

    Spatial characterization of high harmonics (HH) and XUV coherent radiation is of paramount importance, along with its temporal characterization. For many applications it will be necessary to accurately measure the beam properties, just as it is important to know the beam characteristics for many laser experiments. For example, high harmonics and attosecond pulses are being proposed as a front-end for the next generation X-ray free electron lasers. This oscillator-amplifier-like arrangement will require well characterized high harmonic sources. On the other hand, the electromagnetic radiation carries the combined signature of underlying quantum physical processes at the molecular level and of the cooperative phase matching. For example, accurate reconstruction of the high harmonic spatial wavefront, along with its temporal profile, gives us a complete range of tools to apply to the fundamental quantum properties and dynamics associated with high harmonic generation. We present a new concept of frequency resolved wavefront characterization that is particularly suitable for characterizing XUV radiation. In keeping with tradition in the area we give it an acronym - SWORD (Spectral Wavefront Optical Reconstruction by Diffraction). Our approach is based on an analysis of the diffraction pattern of a slit situated in front of a flat-field spectrometer. As the slit is scanned, the spectrally resolved diffraction pattern is recorded. Analyzing the measured diffractogram, we can reconstruct the wavefront. The technique can be easily extended beyond the XUV spectral region. When combined with temporal characterization techniques all information about the beam can be measured.

  6. Time Resolved Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; H. Kugel; A.L. Roquemore; J. Hogan; W.R. Wampler; the NSTX team

    2004-08-03

    Time-resolved measurements of deposition in current tokamaks are crucial to gain a predictive understanding of deposition with a view to mitigating tritium retention and deposition on diagnostic mirrors expected in next-step devices. Two quartz crystal microbalances have been installed on NSTX at a location 0.77m outside the last closed flux surface. This configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. The deposits were analyzed ex-situ and found to be dominantly carbon, oxygen, and deuterium. A rear facing quartz crystal recorded deposition of lower sticking probability molecules at 10% of the rate of the front facing one. Time resolved measurements over a 4-week period with 497 discharges, recorded 29.2 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} of deposition, however surprisingly, 15.9 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} of material loss occurred at 7 discharges. The net deposited mass of 13.3 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} matched the mass of 13.5 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} measured independently by ion beam analysis. Monte Carlo modeling suggests that transient processes are likely to dominate the deposition.

  7. Multiresolution foveated laparoscope with high resolvability

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yi; Hua, Hong; Nguyen, Mike

    2016-01-01

    A key limitation of the state-of-the-art laparoscopes for minimally invasive surgery is the tradeoff between the field of view and spatial resolution in a single-view camera system. As such, surgical procedures are usually performed at a zoomed-in view, which limits the surgeon’s ability to see much outside the immediate focus of interest and causes a situational awareness challenge. We proposed a multiresolution foveated laparoscope (MRFL) aiming to address this limitation. The MRFL is able to simultaneously capture wide-angle overview and high-resolution images in real time; it can scan and engage the high-resolution images to any subregion of the entire surgical field in analogy to the fovea of human eye. The MRFL is able to render equivalently 10 million pixel resolution with a low data bandwidth requirement. The system has a large working distance (WD) from 80 to 180 mm. The spatial resolvability is about 45 μm in the object space at an 80 mm WD, while the resolvability of a conventional laparoscope is about 250 μm at a typically 50 mm surgical distance. PMID:23811873

  8. Rotationally resolved infrared spectroscopy of adamantane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirali, O.; Boudon, V.; Oomens, J.; Vervloet, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first rotationally resolved spectra of adamantane (C10H16) applying gas-phase Fourier transform infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy. High-resolution IR spectra are recorded in the 33-4500 cm-1range using as source of IR radiation both synchrotron radiation (at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron) as well as a classical globar. Adamantane is a spherical top molecule with tetrahedral symmetry (Td point group) and has no permanent dipole moment in its vibronic ground state. Of the 72 fundamental vibrational modes in adamantane, only 11 are IR active. Here we present rotationally resolved spectra for seven of them: ν30, ν28, ν27, ν26, ν25, ν24, and ν23. The typical rotational structure of spherical tops is observed and analyzed using the STDS software developed in the Dijon group, which provides the first accurate energy levels and rotational constants for seven fundamental modes. Rotational levels with quantum numbers as high as J = 107 have been identified and included in the fit leading to a typical standard deviation of about 10-3 cm-1.

  9. Acoustic Pyrometry Applied to Gas Turbines and Jet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.

    1999-01-01

    Internal gas temperature is one of the most fundamental parameters related to engine efficiency and emissions production. The most common methods for measuring gas temperature are physical probes, such as thermocouples and thermistors, and optical methods, such as Coherent Anti Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) or Rayleigh scattering. Probes are relatively easy to use, but they are intrusive, their output must be corrected for errors due to radiation and conduction, and their upper use temperature is limited. Optical methods are nonintrusive, and they measure some intrinsic property of the gas that is directly related to its temperature (e.g., lifetime or the ratio of line strengths). However, optical methods are usually difficult to use, and optical access is not always available. Lately, acoustic techniques have been receiving some interest as a way to overcome these limitations.

  10. Correction-free pyrometry in radiant wall furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Andrew S. W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A specular, spherical, or near-spherical target is located within a furnace having inner walls and a viewing window. A pyrometer located outside the furnace 'views' the target through pyrometer optics and the window, and it is positioned so that its detector sees only the image of the viewing window on the target. Since this image is free of any image of the furnace walls, it is free from wall radiance, and correction-free target radiance is obtained. The pyrometer location is determined through a nonparaxial optical analysis employing differential optical ray tracing methods to derive a series of exact relations for the image location.

  11. Infrared Pyrometry From Room Temperature To 700 Degrees C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Donald R.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.

    1989-01-01

    Consistent readings obtained when specimens prepared appropriately. New method largely overcomes limitations. Transmission of infrared increased by replacing customary metal-coated glass viewing port with quartz viewing port covered with tantalum mesh. Commercially available infrared microscope with focal distance of 53 cm focuses on spot only 1 mm wide on specimen. Microscope operated as radiometer. Output of detector varies by several orders of magnitude, processed by logarithmic amplifier before reading.

  12. Tachometer Derived From Brushless Shaft-Angle Resolver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

    1995-01-01

    Tachometer circuit operates in conjunction with brushless shaft-angle resolver. By performing sequence of straightforward mathematical operations on resolver signals and utilizing simple trigonometric identity, generates voltage proportional to rate of rotation of shaft. One advantage is use of brushless shaft-angle resolver as main source of rate signal: no brushes to wear out, no brush noise, and brushless resolvers have proven robustness. No switching of signals to generate noise. Another advantage, shaft-angle resolver used as shaft-angle sensor, tachometer input obtained without adding another sensor. Present circuit reduces overall size, weight, and cost of tachometer.

  13. Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Miao; Hwang, Thomas S.; Campbell, J. Peter; Bailey, Steven T.; Wilson, David J.; Huang, David; Jia, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Shadowgraphic projection artifacts from superficial vasculature interfere with the visualization of deeper vascular networks in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). We developed a novel algorithm to remove this artifact by resolving the ambiguity between in situ and projected flow signals. The algorithm identifies voxels with in situ flow as those where intensity-normalized decorrelation values are higher than all shallower voxels in the same axial scan line. This “projection-resolved” (PR) algorithm effectively suppressed the projection artifact on both en face and cross-sectional angiograms and enhanced depth resolution of vascular networks. In the human macula, the enhanced angiograms show three distinct vascular plexuses in the inner retina and no vessels in the outer retina. We demonstrate that PR OCT-A cleanly removes flow projection from the normally avascular outer retinal slab while preserving the density and continuity of the intermediate and deep retinal capillary plexuses. PMID:27231591

  14. Resolved CCD Photometry of Pluto and Charon

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.H.; Waddell, P.; Christian, C.A.

    1988-04-01

    Highly resolved CCD images of Pluto and Charon near maximum separation are measured with point spread function fitting techniques to determine independent magnitudes and an accurate separation for Pluto and Charon. A measured separation of 0.923 + or - 0.005 arcsec at a position angle of 173.3 + or - 0.3 deg on June 18, 1987 UT produced a value of 19558.0 + or - 153.0 km for the radius of Charon's orbit. An apparent B magnitude of 14.877 + or - 0.009 and (B-I) color of 1.770 + or - 0.015 are determined for Pluto, while Charon is fainter with B = 18.826 + or - 0.011 and slightly bluer with (B-I) = 1.632 + or - 0.018. 18 references.

  15. Spatially resolved spectral-imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Bloom, Joshua Simon; Tyson, John Anthony

    2016-02-09

    A spatially resolved spectral device comprising a dispersive array to receive an incident light comprising a principal ray. The dispersive array comprising a plurality of dichroic layers, each of the plurality of dichroic layers disposed in a path of a direction of the principal ray. Each of the plurality of dichroic layers configured to at least one of reflect or transmit a different wavelength range of the incident light. The device further comprising a detection array operatively coupled with the dispersive array. The detection array comprising a photosensitive component including a plurality of detection pixels, each of the plurality of detection pixels having a light-receiving surface disposed parallel to the direction of the principal ray to detect a respective one of the different wavelength ranges of incident light reflected from a corresponding one of the plurality of dichroic layers.

  16. Time-Resolved Imaging Of Transient Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, L. S.; Wong, C. S.; Yap, S. L.; Singh, J.; Ahmad, Z.

    2009-07-07

    Pulsed capillary discharge is a compact device that is used to perform fast electrical discharge that is used to produce transient plasma. In this work, a more economical imaging technique is developed in order to study the dynamics of the plasma that is formed in a capillary tube. The imaging system consists of two main devices, a four-frame gated micro-channel plate and a Nikon Coolpix5000 camera. The time-resolved imaging that we have performed in order to study the dynamics of the plasma that is formed in a 10 mm long and 1 mm diameter low pressure capillary tube is reported. The images obtained portrayed that the plasma is heated up when the magnitude of the current is around the maximum and cools down when the current magnitude is around the minimum.

  17. Frequency resolving power measured by rippled noise.

    PubMed

    Supin AYa; Popov, V V; Milekhina, O N; Tarakanov, M B

    1994-07-01

    Frequency resolving power (FRP) was measured in normal humans using rippled noise with a phase-reversal test. The principle of the test was to find the highest ripple density at which an interchange of mutual peak and trough position (the phase reversal) in the rippled spectrum is detectable. In the frequency range below 0.5 kHz FRP was found to be about 21 ripples per kHz when tested by both broad-band and narrow-band rippled noise. In the frequency range above 2 kHz, FRP measured by the narrow-band rippled noise was 22 to 23 relative units (relation of the noise central frequency to the ripple frequency spacing). PMID:7961175

  18. Resolvent-Techniques for Multiple Exercise Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Sören; Lempa, Jukka

    2015-02-15

    We study optimal multiple stopping of strong Markov processes with random refraction periods. The refraction periods are assumed to be exponentially distributed with a common rate and independent of the underlying dynamics. Our main tool is using the resolvent operator. In the first part, we reduce infinite stopping problems to ordinary ones in a general strong Markov setting. This leads to explicit solutions for wide classes of such problems. Starting from this result, we analyze problems with finitely many exercise rights and explain solution methods for some classes of problems with underlying Lévy and diffusion processes, where the optimal characteristics of the problems can be identified more explicitly. We illustrate the main results with explicit examples.

  19. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Resolving coastal conflicts using marine spatial planning.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Arthur O; Stevens, Tim F; Rodwell, Lynda D

    2014-01-15

    We applied marine spatial planning (MSP) to manage conflicts in a multi-use coastal area of Kenya. MSP involves several steps which were supported by using geographical information systems (GISs), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and optimization. GIS was used in identifying overlapping coastal uses and mapping conflict hotspots. MCDA was used to incorporate the preferences of user groups and managers into a formal decision analysis procedure. Optimization was applied in generating optimal allocation alternatives to competing uses. Through this analysis three important objectives that build a foundation for future planning of Kenya's coastal waters were achieved: 1) engaging competing stakeholders; 2) illustrating how MSP can be adapted to aid decision-making in multi-use coastal regions; and 3) developing a draft coastal use allocation plan. The successful application of MSP to resolve conflicts in coastal regions depends on the level of stakeholder involvement, data availability and the existing knowledge base. PMID:24361729

  1. Resolving thermoelectric “paradox” in superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Shelly, Connor D.; Matrozova, Ekaterina A.; Petrashov, Victor T.

    2016-01-01

    For almost a century, thermoelectricity in superconductors has been one of the most intriguing topics in physics. During its early stages in the 1920s, the mere existence of thermoelectric effects in superconductors was questioned. In 1944, it was demonstrated that the effects may occur in inhomogeneous superconductors. Theoretical breakthrough followed in the 1970s, when the generation of a measurable thermoelectric magnetic flux in superconducting loops was predicted; however, a major crisis developed when experiments showed puzzling discrepancies with the theory. Moreover, different experiments were inconsistent with each other. This led to a stalemate in bringing theory and experiment into agreement. With this work, we resolve this stalemate, thus solving this long-standing “paradox,” and open prospects for exploration of novel thermoelectric phenomena predicted recently. PMID:26933688

  2. Spatially resolved winds on an exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louden, Tom Michael; Wheatley, Peter

    2015-12-01

    We will present evidence that the atmosphere of the hot Jupiter HD 189733b has a strong eastward motion, with red-shifted absorption detected on the leading limb of the planet and blue-shifted absorption on the trailing limb. Our results are based on a time-resolved model of the sodium transmission spectrum measured with the HARPS spectrograph. The model includes limb darkening and stellar rotation, and it accounts implicitly for the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect.Our results can be understood as a combination of tidally locked planetary rotation and an eastward equatorial jet. The equatorial jet has long been predicted in atmospheric circulation models, and it helps to explain Spitzer maps of the dayside thermal emission of HD 189733b that show the hottest point of the planetary atmosphere offset to the east of the substellar point. In addition to testing atmospheric circulation models, our results demonstrate the feasibility of studying weather systems on distant planets.

  3. Assessment of Mixed Layer Mesoscale Parameterization in Eddy Resolving Simulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayson, C. A.; Luneva, M. V.; Dubovikov, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    In eddy resolving simulations we test a mixed layer mesoscale parameterization, developed recently by Canuto and Dubovikov (2011). The parameterization yields the horizontal and vertical mesoscale fluxes in terms of coarse-resolution fields and eddy kinetic energy. An expression for the later in terms of mean fields has been found too to get a closed parameterization in terms of the mean fields only. In 40 numerical experiments we simulated the two types of flows: idealized flows driven by baroclinic instabilities only, and more realistic flows, driven by wind and surface fluxes as well as by inflow-outflow in shallow and narrow straits. The diagnosed quasi-instantaneous horizontal and vertical mesoscale buoyancy fluxes (averaged over 1o - 2o and 10 days) demonstrate a strong scatter typical for turbulent flows, however, the fluxes are highly correlated with the parameterization. After averaged over 3-4 months, diffusivities diagnosed from the eddy resolving simulations, are quite consistent with the parameterization for a broad range of parameters. Diagnosed vertical mesoscale fluxes restratify mixed layer and are in a good agreement with the parameterization unless vertical turbulent mixing in the upper layer becomes strong enough to compare with mesoscale advection. In the later case, numerical simulations demonstrate that the deviation of the fluxes from the parameterization is controlled by the dimensionless parameter γ, estimating the ratio of vertical diffusion term to a mesoscale advection. The empirical dependence of vertical flux on γ is found. An analysis using a modified omega-equation reveals that the effects of the vertical mixing of vorticity is responsible for the two-three fold amplification of vertical mesoscale flux. Possible physical mechanisms, responsible for the amplification of vertical mesoscale flux are discussed.

  4. Detection of a poorly resolved airplane using SWIR polarization imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Laura M.; Shaw, Joseph A.; Chenault, David B.

    2016-05-01

    Polarization can be used to detect manmade objects on the ground and in the air, as it provides additional information beyond intensity and color. Skylight can be strongly polarized, so the detection of airplanes in flight requires careful consideration of the skylight degree and angle of polarization (DoLP, AoP). In this study, we detect poorly resolved airplanes (>= 4 pixels on target) in flight during daytime partly cloudy and smoky conditions in Bozeman, Montana. We used a Polaris Sensor Technologies SWIR-MWIR rotating imaging polarimeter to measure the polarization signatures of airplanes and the surrounding skylight from 1.5 to 1.8 μm in the short-wave infrared (SWIR). An airplane flying in a clear region of partly cloudy sky was found to be 69% polarized at an elevation angle of 13° with respect to the horizon and the surrounding skylight was 4-8% polarized (maximum skylight DoLP was found to be 7-14% at an elevation angle of 50°). As the airplane increased in altitude, the DoLP for both airplane and surrounding sky pixels increased as the airplane neared the band of maximum sky polarization. We also observed that an airplane can be less polarized than its surrounding skylight when there is heavy smoke present. In such a case, the airplane was 30-38% polarized at an elevation angle of 17°, while the surrounding skylight was approximately 40% polarized (maximum skylight DoLP was 40-55% at an elevation angle of 34°). In both situations the airplane was most consistently observed in DoLP images rather than S0 or AoP images. In this paper, we describe the results in detail and discuss how this phenomenology could detect barely resolved aircrafts.

  5. Resolving local ambiguity using semantics of shape.

    SciTech Connect

    Diegert, Carl F.

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate a new semantic method for automatic analysis of wide-area, high-resolution overhead imagery to tip and cue human intelligence analysts to human activity. In the open demonstration, we find and trace cars and rooftops. Our methodology, extended to analysis of voxels, may be applicable to understanding morphology and to automatic tracing of neurons in large-scale, serial-section TEM datasets. We defined an algorithm and software implementation that efficiently finds all combinations of image blobs that satisfy given shape semantics, where image blobs are formed as a general-purpose, first step that 'oversegments' image pixels into blobs of similar pixels. We will demonstrate the remarkable power (ROC) of this combinatorial-based work flow for automatically tracing any automobiles in a scene by applying semantics that require a subset of image blobs to fill out a rectangular shape, with width and height in given intervals. In most applications we find that the new combinatorial-based work flow produces alternative (overlapping) tracings of possible objects (e.g. cars) in a scene. To force an estimation (tracing) of a consistent collection of objects (cars), a quick-and-simple greedy algorithm is often sufficient. We will demonstrate a more powerful resolution method: we produce a weighted graph from the conflicts in all of our enumerated hypotheses, and then solve a maximal independent vertex set problem on this graph to resolve conflicting hypotheses. This graph computation is almost certain to be necessary to adequately resolve multiple, conflicting neuron topologies into a set that is most consistent with a TEM dataset.

  6. Gingival Enlargement Induced by Felodipine Resolves with a Conventional Periodontal Treatment and Drug Modification

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, David; Yie, Helen S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 47-year-old male who suffered from GE around his lower anterior teeth as soon as he started treatment with Felodipine 400 mg. We show that oral hygiene measures, antibiotics, and conventional periodontal treatment (scaling and root planing SRP) were all not sufficient to resolve the drug induced GE, which will persist and/or recur provided that systemic effect of the offending medication is still present. The condition immediately resolved after switching to a different medication. The mechanism of GE is complex and not fully understood yet. It is mainly due to overexpression of a number of growth factors due to high concentrations of calcium ions (Ca2+). This affects fibroblasts proliferation and DNA synthesis and leads to a heavy chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate. Our case was managed according to the suggested protocols in previous case studies. The unique features in our case were the immediate onset of the adverse effect after starting the medication and the absence of any underlying medical condition apart from high blood pressure. Improving the oral hygiene together with SRP and cessation of the medication resolves drug induced GE. PMID:27034854

  7. Gingival Enlargement Induced by Felodipine Resolves with a Conventional Periodontal Treatment and Drug Modification.

    PubMed

    Khzam, Nabil; Bailey, David; Yie, Helen S; Bakr, Mahmoud M

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 47-year-old male who suffered from GE around his lower anterior teeth as soon as he started treatment with Felodipine 400 mg. We show that oral hygiene measures, antibiotics, and conventional periodontal treatment (scaling and root planing SRP) were all not sufficient to resolve the drug induced GE, which will persist and/or recur provided that systemic effect of the offending medication is still present. The condition immediately resolved after switching to a different medication. The mechanism of GE is complex and not fully understood yet. It is mainly due to overexpression of a number of growth factors due to high concentrations of calcium ions (Ca(2+)). This affects fibroblasts proliferation and DNA synthesis and leads to a heavy chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate. Our case was managed according to the suggested protocols in previous case studies. The unique features in our case were the immediate onset of the adverse effect after starting the medication and the absence of any underlying medical condition apart from high blood pressure. Improving the oral hygiene together with SRP and cessation of the medication resolves drug induced GE. PMID:27034854

  8. Electron-transfer acceleration investigated by time resolved infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vlček, Antonín; Kvapilová, Hana; Towrie, Michael; Záliš, Stanislav

    2015-03-17

    Ultrafast electron transfer (ET) processes are important primary steps in natural and artificial photosynthesis, as well as in molecular electronic/photonic devices. In biological systems, ET often occurs surprisingly fast over long distances of several tens of angströms. Laser-pulse irradiation is conveniently used to generate strongly oxidizing (or reducing) excited states whose reactions are then studied by time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. While photoluminescence decay and UV-vis absorption supply precise kinetics data, time-resolved infrared absorption (TRIR) and Raman-based spectroscopies have the advantage of providing additional structural information and monitoring vibrational energy flows and dissipation, as well as medium relaxation, that accompany ultrafast ET. We will discuss three cases of photoinduced ET involving the Re(I)(CO)3(N,N) moiety (N,N = polypyridine) that occur much faster than would be expected from ET theories. [Re(4-N-methylpyridinium-pyridine)(CO)3(N,N)](2+) represents a case of excited-state picosecond ET between two different ligands that remains ultrafast even in slow-relaxing solvents, beating the adiabatic limit. This is caused by vibrational/solvational excitation of the precursor state and participation of high-frequency quantum modes in barrier crossing. The case of Re-tryptophan assemblies demonstrates that excited-state Trp → *Re(II) ET is accelerated from nanoseconds to picoseconds when the Re(I)(CO)3(N,N) chromophore is appended to a protein, close to a tryptophan residue. TRIR in combination with DFT calculations and structural studies reveals an interaction between the N,N ligand and the tryptophan indole. It results in partial electronic delocalization in the precursor excited state and likely contributes to the ultrafast ET rate. Long-lived vibrational/solvational excitation of the protein Re(I)(CO)3(N,N)···Trp moiety, documented by dynamic IR band shifts, could be another accelerating factor. The last

  9. Time-resolved crystallography and protein design: signalling photoreceptors and optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Keith

    2014-07-17

    Time-resolved X-ray crystallography and solution scattering have been successfully conducted on proteins on time-scales down to around 100 ps, set by the duration of the hard X-ray pulses emitted by synchrotron sources. The advent of hard X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs), which emit extremely intense, very brief, coherent X-ray pulses, opens the exciting possibility of time-resolved experiments with femtosecond time resolution on macromolecular structure, in both single crystals and solution. The X-ray pulses emitted by an FEL differ greatly in many properties from those emitted by a synchrotron, in ways that at first glance make time-resolved measurements of X-ray scattering with the required accuracy extremely challenging. This opens up several questions which I consider in this brief overview. Are there likely to be chemically and biologically interesting structural changes to be revealed on the femtosecond time-scale? How shall time-resolved experiments best be designed and conducted to exploit the properties of FELs and overcome challenges that they pose? To date, fast time-resolved reactions have been initiated by a brief laser pulse, which obviously requires that the system under study be light-sensitive. Although this is true for proteins of the visual system and for signalling photoreceptors, it is not naturally the case for most interesting biological systems. To generate more biological targets for time-resolved study, can this limitation be overcome by optogenetic, chemical or other means? PMID:24914168

  10. Time-resolved crystallography and protein design: signalling photoreceptors and optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Moffat, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved X-ray crystallography and solution scattering have been successfully conducted on proteins on time-scales down to around 100 ps, set by the duration of the hard X-ray pulses emitted by synchrotron sources. The advent of hard X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs), which emit extremely intense, very brief, coherent X-ray pulses, opens the exciting possibility of time-resolved experiments with femtosecond time resolution on macromolecular structure, in both single crystals and solution. The X-ray pulses emitted by an FEL differ greatly in many properties from those emitted by a synchrotron, in ways that at first glance make time-resolved measurements of X-ray scattering with the required accuracy extremely challenging. This opens up several questions which I consider in this brief overview. Are there likely to be chemically and biologically interesting structural changes to be revealed on the femtosecond time-scale? How shall time-resolved experiments best be designed and conducted to exploit the properties of FELs and overcome challenges that they pose? To date, fast time-resolved reactions have been initiated by a brief laser pulse, which obviously requires that the system under study be light-sensitive. Although this is true for proteins of the visual system and for signalling photoreceptors, it is not naturally the case for most interesting biological systems. To generate more biological targets for time-resolved study, can this limitation be overcome by optogenetic, chemical or other means? PMID:24914168

  11. Resolving the inner disk of UX Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreplin, A.; Madlener, D.; Chen, L.; Weigelt, G.; Kraus, S.; Grinin, V.; Tambovtseva, L.; Kishimoto, M.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: The cause of the UX Ori variability in some Herbig Ae/Be stars is still a matter of debate. Detailed studies of the circumstellar environment of UX Ori objects (UXORs) are required to test the hypothesis that the observed drop in photometry might be related to obscuration events. Methods: Using near- and mid-infrared interferometric AMBER and MIDI observations, we resolved the inner circumstellar disk region around UX Ori. Results: We fitted the K-, H-, and N-band visibilities and the spectral energy distribution (SED) of UX Ori with geometric and parametric disk models. The best-fit K-band geometric model consists of an inclined ring and a halo component. We obtained a ring-fit radius of 0.45 ± 0.07 AU (at a distance of 460 pc), an inclination of 55.6 ± 2.4°, a position angle of the system axis of 127.5 ± 24.5°, and a flux contribution of the over-resolved halo component to the total near-infrared excess of 16.8 ± 4.1%. The best-fit N-band model consists of an elongated Gaussian with a HWHM ~ 5 AU of the semi-major axis and an axis ration of a/b ~ 3.4 (corresponding to an inclination of ~72°). With a parametric disk model, we fitted all near- and mid-infrared visibilities and the SED simultaneously. The model disk starts at an inner radius of 0.46 ± 0.06 AU with an inner rim temperature of 1498 ± 70 K. The disk is seen under an nearly edge-on inclination of 70 ± 5°. This supports any theories that require high-inclination angles to explain obscuration events in the line of sight to the observer, for example, in UX Ori objects where orbiting dust clouds in the disk or disk atmosphere can obscure the central star. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal Observatory under program IDs: 090.C-0769, 074.C-0552.

  12. The Spatially-Resolved Star Formation History of the M31 Disk from Resolved Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Alexia R.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2015-02-01

    The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) is an HST multi-cycle treasury program that has mapped the resolved stellar populations of ~1/3 of the disk of M31 from the UV through the near-IR. This data provides color and luminosity information for more than 150 million stars. Using stellar evolution models, we model the optical color-magnitude diagram to derive spatially-resolved recent star formation histories (SFHs) over large areas of M31 with 100 pc resolution. These include individual star-forming regions as well as quiescent portions of the disk. With these gridded SFHs, we create movies of star formation activity to study the evolution of individual star-forming events across the disk. We analyze the structure of star formation and examine the relation between star formation and gas throughout the disk and particularly in the 10-kpc star-forming ring. We find that the ring has been continuously forming stars for at least 500 Myr. As the only large disk galaxy that is close enough to obtain the photometry for this type of spatially-resolved SFH mapping, M31 plays an important role in our understanding of the evolution of an L* galaxy.

  13. Building an OpenURL Resolver in Your Own Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Mark

    2004-01-01

    OpenURL resolver is the next big thing for libraries. An OpenURL resolver is simply a piece of software that sucks in attached data and serves up a Web page that tells one where he or she can get the book or article represented by it. In this article, the author describes how he designed an OpenURL resolver for his library, the Lewis & Clark…

  14. Multi-speed multi-phase resolver converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean (Inventor); Howard, David (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A multiphase converter circuit generates a plurality of sinusoidal outputs of displaced phase and given speed value from the output of an angular resolver system attachable to a motor excited by these multi-phase outputs, the resolver system having a lower speed value than that of the motor. The angular resolver system provides in parallel format sequential digital numbers indicative of the amount of rotation of the shaft of an angular position sensor associated with the angular resolver system. These numbers are used to excite simultaneously identical addresses of a plurality of addressable memory systems, each memory system having stored therein at sequential addresses sequential values of a sinusoidal wavetrain of a given number of sinusoids. The stored wavetrain values represent sinusoids displaced from each other in phase according to the number of output phases desired. A digital-to-analog converter associated with each memory system converts each accessed word to a corresponding analog value to generate attendant to rotation of the angular resolver a sinusoidal wave of proper phase at each of the plurality of outputs. By properly orienting the angular resolver system with respect to the rotor of the motor, essentially ripple-free torque is supplied to the rotor. The angular resolver system may employ an analog resolver feeding an integrated circuit resolver-to-digital converter to produce the requisite digital values serving as addresses. Alternative versions employing incremental or absolute encoders are also described.

  15. Multi-speed multi-phase resolver converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A multiphase converter circuit generates a plurality of sinusoidal outputs of displaced phase and given speed value from the output of an angular resolver system attachable to a motor excited by these multi-phase outputs, the resolver system having a lower speed value than that of the motor. The angular resolver system provides in parallel format sequential digital numbers indicative of the amount of rotation of the shaft of an angular position sensor associated with the angular resolver system. These numbers are used to excite simultaneously identical addresses of a plurality of addressable memory systems, each memory system having stored therein at sequential addresses sequential values of a sinusoidal wavetrain of a given number of sinusoids. The stored wavetrain values represent sinusoids displaced from each other in phase according to the number of output phases desired. A digital-to-analog converter associated with each memory system converts each accessed word to a corresponding analog value to generate attendant to rotation of the angular resolver a sinusoidal wave of proper phase at each of the plurality of outputs. By properly orienting the angular resolver system with respect to the rotor of the motor, essentially ripple-free torque is supplied to the rotor. The angular resolver system may employ an analog resolver feeding an integrated circuit resolver-to-digital converter to produce the requisite digital values serving as addresses. Alternative versions employing incremental or absolute encoders are also described.

  16. Resolving Conflicting Predictions from Multimapping Reads.

    PubMed

    Canzar, Stefan; Elbassioni, Khaled; Jones, Mitchell; Mestre, Julián

    2016-03-01

    The first step in the analysis of data produced by ultra-high-throughput next-generation sequencing technology is to map short sequence "reads" to a reference genome, if available. Sequencing errors, repeat regions, and polymorphisms may lead a read to align to multiple locations in the genome reasonably well. While ignoring such multimapping reads, or some of their alignments, will reduce the sensitivity of almost any type of downstream analysis (e.g., detecting structural variants), erroneous mappings will typically yield false positive predictions. Here we propose a framework that aims to identify true predictions among a large set of candidate predictions by selecting for each read a unique mapping that collectively imply conflict-free predictions. We formulate this problem as the maximum facility location problem, for which we propose LP-rounding heuristics. We provide a theoretic guarantee on the quality of the solution and demonstrate the utility of our algorithm in resolving conflicting deletions implied by simulated reads mapping ambiguously to Craig Venter's genome model and Illumina sequencing reads of the well-studied NA12878 individual. PMID:26745826

  17. Time Resolved Spectroscopy of Eclipsing Polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Paul

    2005-09-01

    No changes have been made since the last annual progress report was submitted in conjunction with a unilateral NCX. Dr. Barrett was affected by an STScI Reduction in Force (RIF). He is now employed by the Johns Hopkins University and plans to continue his research there. No expenses have been charged to this grant, however the FUSE data for the eclipsing polar V1432 Aql has been received and processed using CALFWSE v3.0.6. The resulting summed spectrum has been used for a preliminary analysis of the interstellar absorption towards V1432 Aql. We find a hydrogen column density of less than 1.5e21 cm^-2. We have used this result in the paper "X-Ray Emission and Optical Polarization of V1432 Aquilae: An Asynchronous Polar" to fix the hydrogen column density in the soft (<0.5 keV) X-ray band when analyzing the XMM-Newton spectra of this polar. This has enabled us to find an accurate temperature for the blackbody component of 88+/-2 eV, which is significantly higher than that of other polars (20 - 40 eV). We hope to complete our analysis of the phase-resolved emission line spectra of V1432 Aql and to prepare the results for publication in a refereed journal. We hope to begin work on this star within the next few months.

  18. Solving geologic problems resolving relevant anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, M.

    2012-12-01

    Remotely sensed data such as high resolution aeromagnetics can shed new light on the setting of tectonic and volcanic areas. This technique is, in fact, particularly suitable to study these areas due to the potential magnetic contrasts linked to volcanic structures. Furthermore, surveying poorly accessible sites with airborne geophysics can be expeditious and effective. The addition of new sensors on airborne platforms improves the efficiency of surveys and provides multi-source imaging. Also it is an aid to better resolving geophysical anomalies and/or surface features relevant to an effective geologic interpretation. The INGV Airborne Geophysics Science Team has investigated a large variety of active volcanoes and tectonic areas in different types of environment. One investigation revealed an unknown buried volcano in the Mediterranean Sea, developed along seismically active faults. Airborne magnetic data collected over Tenerife, Canary Islands, provided new evidence about the structure and growth of ocean island volcanoes. Other data sets delineate hidden tectonic and volcanic structures in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy. These examples and other newly acquired aeromagnetic data, integrated with additional airborne observations will be presented and discussed.

  19. Resolving the formation of modern Chladni figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan, P. H.; Tung, J. C.; Liang, H. C.; Chiang, P. Y.; Huang, K. F.; Chen, Y. F.

    2015-09-01

    The resonant spectrum of a thin plate driven with a mechanical oscillator is precisely measured to distinguish modern Chladni figures (CFs) observed at the resonant frequencies from classical CFs observed at the non-resonant frequencies. Experimental results reveal that modern CFs generally display an important characteristic of avoided crossings of nodal lines, whereas the nodal lines of classical CFs form a regular grid. The formation of modern CFs and the resonant frequency spectrum are resolved with a theoretical model that characterizes the interaction between the plate and the driving source into the inhomogeneous Kirchhoff-Love equation. The derived formula for determining resonant frequencies is shown to be exactly identical to the meromorphic function given in singular billiards that deals with the coupling strength on the transition between integrable and chaotic features. The good agreement between experimental results and theoretical predictions verifies the significant role of the strong-coupling effect in the formation of modern CFs. More importantly, it is confirmed that the apparatus for generating modern CFs can be developed to serve as an expedient system for exploring the nodal domains of chaotic wave functions as well as the physics of the strong coupling with a point scatterer.

  20. Time resolved ion beam induced charge collection

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON,FREDERICK W.; WALSH,DAVID S.; DOYLE,BARNEY L.; DODD,PAUL E.

    2000-04-01

    Under this effort, a new method for studying the single event upset (SEU) in microelectronics has been developed and demonstrated. Called TRIBICC, for Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection, this technique measures the transient charge-collection waveform from a single heavy-ion strike with a {minus}.03db bandwidth of 5 GHz. Bandwidth can be expanded up to 15 GHz (with 5 ps sampling windows) by using an FFT-based off-line waveform renormalization technique developed at Sandia. The theoretical time resolution of the digitized waveform is 24 ps with data re-normalization and 70 ps without re-normalization. To preserve the high bandwidth from IC to the digitizing oscilloscope, individual test structures are assembled in custom high-frequency fixtures. A leading-edge digitized waveform is stored with the corresponding ion beam position at each point in a two-dimensional raster scan. The resulting data cube contains a spatial charge distribution map of up to 4,096 traces of charge (Q) collected as a function of time. These two dimensional traces of Q(t) can cover a period as short as 5 ns with up to 1,024 points per trace. This tool overcomes limitations observed in previous multi-shot techniques due to the displacement damage effects of multiple ion strikes that changed the signal of interest during its measurement. This system is the first demonstration of a single-ion transient measurement capability coupled with spatial mapping of fast transients.

  1. Temperature resolved reproduction of medieval luster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Pantos, E.; Smith, A. D.; Martin, C. M.; Labrador, A.

    2008-01-01

    Luster is a golden metallic-like decoration produced on glazed ceramics since early Islamic times (Iraq, 9th AD). Luster is obtained by the reaction of a luster paint and the glaze surface over which it is applied. A temperature-resolved XRD experiment was designed to study the high temperature reactions in the luster paint while the luster layer is formed. The luster paint composition has been made based on the original luster paints found during the excavation of the 13th AD workshop site at Paterna (Valencia). The sulfo-reducing atmosphere created during the decomposition of cinnabar promotes the reduction of Cu2+ containing compounds to Cu+ and the presence of Hg vapours delays the precipitation of metal silver. Moreover, evidence of the formation of a melt in which the copper and silver-containing compounds dissolve has also been obtained. The thickness of the luster paint applied results in the formation of luster layers of different hues and colours. The use of a mixture of copper and silver paint results in the formation of dark-brown luster layer similar to the ones produced in early Islamic times in Iraq and showed also the characteristic blue iridescences.

  2. Femtosecond resolved solvation dynamics in polar solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlow, Michael A.; Jarzeba, Włodzimierz; Kang, Tai Jong; Barbara, Paul F.

    1989-01-01

    The transient solvation of a polar fluorescent probe has been studied by the time resolved Stokes shift technique with roughly five times shorter time resolution than previously reported. New shorter time components in the solvation relaxation function C(t) have been discovered for methanol, propionitrile, and propylene carbonate; the C(t) function for acetonitrile is singly exponential within the limitations of the instrument. The observed C(t) has been compared to theoretical calculations using the dielectric continuum (DC) model for each solvent, with non-Debye expressions for the solvent dielectric response. For methanol the DC model predictions agree closely with experiment. For the polar aprotic solvents propylene carbonate and propionitrile, the shape of the experimental decay is different from the DC predictions, but the average decay times <τs> are closer to the DC predictions than previously reported. The comparison of theory and experiment is clearly limited by the inconsistencies and limited frequency range of the dielectric relaxation data found in the literature. The dynamic solvation measurements have also been compared to predictions of the mean spherical approximation as applied to solvation dynamics, which appear to give slower solvation rates than are observed experimentally.

  3. Time Resolved Spectroscopy of Eclipsing Polars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Paul

    2005-01-01

    No changes have been made since the last annual progress report was submitted in conjunction with a unilateral NCX. Dr. Barrett was affected by an STScI Reduction in Force (RIF). He is now employed by the Johns Hopkins University and plans to continue his research there. No expenses have been charged to this grant, however the FUSE data for the eclipsing polar V1432 Aql has been received and processed using CALFWSE v3.0.6. The resulting summed spectrum has been used for a preliminary analysis of the interstellar absorption towards V1432 Aql. We find a hydrogen column density of less than 1.5e21 cm^-2. We have used this result in the paper "X-Ray Emission and Optical Polarization of V1432 Aquilae: An Asynchronous Polar" to fix the hydrogen column density in the soft (<0.5 keV) X-ray band when analyzing the XMM-Newton spectra of this polar. This has enabled us to find an accurate temperature for the blackbody component of 88+/-2 eV, which is significantly higher than that of other polars (20 - 40 eV). We hope to complete our analysis of the phase-resolved emission line spectra of V1432 Aql and to prepare the results for publication in a refereed journal. We hope to begin work on this star within the next few months.

  4. Some Algorithms For Simulating Size-resolved Aerosol Dynamics Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debry, E.; Sportisse, B.

    The objective of this presentation is to show some algorithms used to solve aerosol dynamics in 3D dispersion models. INTRODUCTION The gas phase pollution has been widely studied and some models are now available . The situation is quite different with respect to atmospheric aerosols . However at- mospheric particulate matter significantly influences atmospheric properties such as radiative balance, cloud formation, gas pollutants concentrations ( gas to particle con- version ), and has an impact on man health. As aerosols properties ( optical, hygroscopic, noxiousness ) depend mainly on their size, it appears important to be able to follow the aerosol ( or particle ) size distribution (PSD) during time. This former is modified by physical processes as coagulation, condensation or evaporation, nucleation and removal. Aerosol dynamics is usually modelized by the well-known General Dynamics Equation (GDE) [1]. MODELS Several models already exist to solve this equation. Multi-modal models are widely used [2] [3] because of the few parameters needed, but the GDE is solved only on its moments and the PSD is assumed to remain in a log-normal form. On the contrary, size-resolved models implies a discretization of the aerosol size spec- trum into several bins and to solve the GDE within each one. This step can be per- formed either by resolving each process separately ( splitting ), for example coagula- tion can be resolved by the well-known "size-binning" algorithms [4] and condensa- tion leads to an advection equation on the PSD [5], or by coupling all processes, what the finite elements [6] and stochastic methods [7] allows. Stochastic algorithms may not be competitive compared to deterministic ones with respect to the computation time, but they provide reference solutions useful to validate more operational codes on realistic cases, as analytic solutions of the GDE exist only for academic cases. REFERENCES [1] Seinfeld, J.H. and Pandis,S.N. Atmospheric chemistry and

  5. Hyperfine-resolved 3.4-{mu}m spectroscopy of CH{sub 3}I with a widely tunable difference frequency generation source and a cavity-enhanced cell: A case study of a local Coriolis interaction between the v{sub 1}=1 and (v{sub 2},v{sub 6}{sup l})=(1,2{sup 2}) states

    SciTech Connect

    Okubo, Sho; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Sasada, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-15

    Saturated absorption spectra of the {nu}{sub 1} fundamental band of CH{sub 3}I are recorded with a cavity-enhanced cell and a tunable difference frequency generation source having an 86-cm{sup -1} range. The recorded spectral lines are 250 kHz wide, and most of them are resolved into the individual hyperfine components. The Coriolis interaction between the v{sub 1}=1 and (v{sub 2},v{sub 6}{sup l})=(1,2{sup 2}) states locally perturbing the hyperfine structures is analyzed to yield the Coriolis and hyperfine coupling constants with uncertainties similar to those in typical microwave spectroscopy. The spectrometer has demonstrated the potential for precisely determining the energy structure in the vibrational excited states.

  6. The properties of spatial resolved ionized gas uncovered by CALIFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    We present here the last results we obtained on the spatial resolved analysis of the the stellar populations and ionized gas of disk-dominated galaxies based on CALIFA data. CALIFA is an ongoing IFS survey of galaxies in the Local Univese (0.005case of disk-dominated galaxies, we analysed the stellar populations using different inversion methods and line analysis, and the ionized gas identifying the main properties of the HII-regions within the FoV. Both analyisis produce coherent analysis indicating that disk-galaxies growth inside out, with a chemical enrichment dominated by local processes, and limited effects of radial mixing or global outflows.

  7. Time-resolved neurite mechanics by thermal fluctuation assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gárate, Fernanda; Betz, Timo; Pertusa, María; Bernal, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of simple noninvasive measurements, the knowledge of temporal and spatial variations of axons mechanics remains scarce. By extending thermal fluctuation spectroscopy (TFS) to long protrusions, we determine the transverse amplitude thermal fluctuation spectra that allow direct and simultaneous access to three key mechanics parameters: axial tension, bending flexural rigidity and plasma membrane tension. To test our model, we use PC12 cell protrusions—a well-know biophysical model of axons—in order to simplify the biological system under scope. For instance, axial and plasma membrane tension are found in the range of nano Newton and tens of pico Newtons per micron respectively. Furthermore, our results shows that the TFS technique is capable to distinguish quasi-identical protrusions. Another advantage of our approach is the time resolved nature of the measurements. Indeed, in the case of long term experiments on PC12 protrusions, TFS has revealed large temporal, correlated variations of the protrusion mechanics, displaying extraordinary feedback control over the axial tension in order to maintain a constant tension value.

  8. Super-resolved parallel MRI by spatiotemporal encoding.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Rita; Baishya, Bikash; Ben-Eliezer, Noam; Seginer, Amir; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies described an "ultrafast" scanning method based on spatiotemporal (SPEN) principles. SPEN demonstrates numerous potential advantages over EPI-based alternatives, at no additional expense in experimental complexity. An important aspect that SPEN still needs to achieve for providing a competitive ultrafast MRI acquisition alternative, entails exploiting parallel imaging algorithms without compromising its proven capabilities. The present work introduces a combination of multi-band frequency-swept pulses simultaneously encoding multiple, partial fields-of-view, together with a new algorithm merging a Super-Resolved SPEN image reconstruction and SENSE multiple-receiving methods. This approach enables one to reduce both the excitation and acquisition times of sub-second SPEN acquisitions by the customary acceleration factor R, without compromises in either the method's spatial resolution, SAR deposition, or capability to operate in multi-slice mode. The performance of these new single-shot imaging sequences and their ancillary algorithms were explored and corroborated on phantoms and human volunteers at 3 T. The gains of the parallelized approach were particularly evident when dealing with heterogeneous systems subject to major T2/T2* effects, as is the case upon single-scan imaging near tissue/air interfaces. PMID:24120293

  9. Bayesian Super-Resolved Surface Reconstruction From Multiple Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Cheesman, P.; Maluf, D. A.; Morris, R. D.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Bayesian inference has been wed successfully for many problems where the aim is to infer the parameters of a model of interest. In this paper we formulate the three dimensional reconstruction problem as the problem of inferring the parameters of a surface model from image data, and show how Bayesian methods can be used to estimate the parameters of this model given the image data. Thus we recover the three dimensional description of the scene. This approach also gives great flexibility. We can specify the geometrical properties of the model to suit our purpose, and can also use different models for how the surface reflects the light incident upon it. In common with other Bayesian inference problems, the estimation methodology requires that we can simulate the data that would have been recoded for any values of the model parameters. In this application this means that if we have image data we must be able to render the surface model. However it also means that we can infer the parameters of a model whose resolution can be chosen irrespective of the resolution of the images, and may be super-resolved. We present results of the inference of surface models from simulated aerial photographs for the case of super-resolution, where many surface elements project into a single pixel in the low-resolution images.

  10. Resolving the Formation of Protogalaxies. II.Central Gravitational Collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Abel, Tom

    2007-10-15

    Numerous cosmological hydrodynamic studies have addressed the formation of galaxies. Here we choose to study the first stages of galaxy formation, including non-equilibrium atomic primordial gas cooling, gravity and hydrodynamics. Using initial conditions appropriate for the concordance cosmological model of structure formation, we perform two adaptive mesh refinement simulations of {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub {circle_dot}} galaxies at high redshift. The calculations resolve the Jeans length at all times with more than 16 cells and capture over 14 orders of magnitude in length scales. In both cases, the dense, 10{sup 5} solar mass, one parsec central regions are found to contract rapidly and have turbulent Mach numbers up to 4. Despite the ever decreasing Jeans length of the isothermal gas, we only find one site of fragmentation during the collapse. However, rotational secular bar instabilities transport angular momentum outwards in the central parsec as the gas continues to collapse and lead to multiple nested unstable fragments with decreasing masses down to sub-Jupiter mass scales. Although these numerical experiments neglect star formation and feedback, they clearly highlight the physics of turbulence in gravitationally collapsing gas. The angular momentum segregation seen in our calculations plays an important role in theories that form supermassive black holes from gaseous collapse.

  11. Confronting and resolving competing values behind conservation objectives.

    PubMed

    Karp, Daniel S; Mendenhall, Chase D; Callaway, Elizabeth; Frishkoff, Luke O; Kareiva, Peter M; Ehrlich, Paul R; Daily, Gretchen C

    2015-09-01

    Diverse motivations for preserving nature both inspire and hinder its conservation. Optimal conservation strategies may differ radically depending on the objective. For example, creating nature reserves may prevent extinctions through protecting severely threatened species, whereas incentivizing farmland hedgerows may benefit people through bolstering pest-eating or pollinating species. Win-win interventions that satisfy multiple objectives are alluring, but can also be elusive. To achieve better outcomes, we developed and implemented a practical typology of nature conservation framed around seven common conservation objectives. Using an intensively studied bird assemblage in southern Costa Rica as a case study, we applied the typology in the context of biodiversity's most pervasive threat: habitat conversion. We found that rural habitats in a varied tropical landscape, comprising small farms, villages, forest fragments, and forest reserves, provided biodiversity-driven processes that benefit people, such as pollination, seed dispersal, and pest consumption. However, species valued for their rarity, endemism, and evolutionary distinctness declined in farmland. Conserving tropical forest on farmland increased species that international tourists value, but not species discussed in Costa Rican newspapers. Despite these observed trade-offs, our analyses also revealed promising synergies. For example, we found that maintaining forest cover surrounding farms in our study region would likely enhance most conservation objectives at minimal expense to others. Overall, our typology provides a framework for resolving the competing objectives of modern conservation. PMID:26283400

  12. Time-resolved local strain tracking microscopy for cell mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, O.; Aksoy, B.; Akalin, O. B.; Bayraktar, H.; Alaca, B. E.

    2016-02-01

    A uniaxial cell stretching technique to measure time-resolved local substrate strain while simultaneously imaging adherent cells is presented. The experimental setup comprises a uniaxial stretcher platform compatible with inverted microscopy and transparent elastomer samples with embedded fluorescent beads. This integration enables the acquisition of real-time spatiotemporal data, which is then processed using a single-particle tracking algorithm to track the positions of fluorescent beads for the subsequent computation of local strain. The present local strain tracking method is demonstrated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) samples of rectangular and dogbone geometries. The comparison of experimental results and finite element simulations for the two sample geometries illustrates the capability of the present system to accurately quantify local deformation even when the strain distribution is non-uniform over the sample. For a regular dogbone sample, the experimentally obtained value of local strain at the center of the sample is 77%, while the average strain calculated using the applied cross-head displacement is 48%. This observation indicates that considerable errors may arise when cross-head measurement is utilized to estimate strain in the case of non-uniform sample geometry. Finally, the compatibility of the proposed platform with biological samples is tested using a unibody PDMS sample with a well to contain cells and culture media. HeLa S3 cells are plated on collagen-coated samples and cell adhesion and proliferation are observed. Samples with adherent cells are then stretched to demonstrate simultaneous cell imaging and tracking of embedded fluorescent beads.

  13. Structurally Resolved Abundances and Depletions in the Rho OPH Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seab, C.

    1995-07-01

    The mechanism that determines the pattern of depletion ofelements in the interstellar medium has been a problem for along time. It is clear that some of the most refractoryelements such as Si, Fe, and Mg, are heavily depleted onto theinterstellar grains. On the other hand, some elements such asS and Zn are normally either undepleted or very lightlydepleted. The difference between the two cases is notunderstood. We propose to address this question with adetailed study of the depletion patterns in the Rho Ophiuchicloud. This study is strongly based on a combination of thecapabilities of two modern instruments: the GHRS for high-resolution UV data, and the Ultra High Resolution Facility(UHRF) of the AAT. This instrument has been used to obtain NaI line profiles in the Rho Oph cloud with a resolution ofR=1,000,000. The combination of these two types of data willbe used to resolve the velocity structure of the elementdepletions in the cloud.

  14. Confronting and resolving competing values behind conservation objectives

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Daniel S.; Mendenhall, Chase D.; Callaway, Elizabeth; Frishkoff, Luke O.; Kareiva, Peter M.; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Daily, Gretchen C.

    2015-01-01

    Diverse motivations for preserving nature both inspire and hinder its conservation. Optimal conservation strategies may differ radically depending on the objective. For example, creating nature reserves may prevent extinctions through protecting severely threatened species, whereas incentivizing farmland hedgerows may benefit people through bolstering pest-eating or pollinating species. Win-win interventions that satisfy multiple objectives are alluring, but can also be elusive. To achieve better outcomes, we developed and implemented a practical typology of nature conservation framed around seven common conservation objectives. Using an intensively studied bird assemblage in southern Costa Rica as a case study, we applied the typology in the context of biodiversity’s most pervasive threat: habitat conversion. We found that rural habitats in a varied tropical landscape, comprising small farms, villages, forest fragments, and forest reserves, provided biodiversity-driven processes that benefit people, such as pollination, seed dispersal, and pest consumption. However, species valued for their rarity, endemism, and evolutionary distinctness declined in farmland. Conserving tropical forest on farmland increased species that international tourists value, but not species discussed in Costa Rican newspapers. Despite these observed trade-offs, our analyses also revealed promising synergies. For example, we found that maintaining forest cover surrounding farms in our study region would likely enhance most conservation objectives at minimal expense to others. Overall, our typology provides a framework for resolving the competing objectives of modern conservation. PMID:26283400

  15. Magnetoelectroluminescence of organic heterostructures: Analytical theory and spectrally resolved measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Feilong; Kelley, Megan R.; Crooker, Scott A.; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.; Ruden, P. Paul; Los Alamos National Lab.; Smith, Darryl L.; Los Alamos National Lab.

    2014-12-22

    The effect of a magnetic field on the electroluminescence of organic light emitting devices originates from the hyperfine interaction between the electron/hole polarons and the hydrogen nuclei of the host molecules. In this paper, we present an analytical theory of magnetoelectroluminescence for organic semiconductors. To be specific, we focus on bilayer heterostructure devices. In the case we are considering, light generation at the interface of the donor and acceptor layers results from the formation and recombination of exciplexes. The spin physics is described by a stochastic Liouville equation for the electron/hole spin density matrix. By finding the steady-state analytical solutionmore » using Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory, we explore how the singlet/triplet exciplex ratio is affected by the hyperfine interaction strength and by the external magnetic field. In order to validate the theory, spectrally resolved electroluminescence experiments on BPhen/m-MTDATA devices are analyzed. With increasing emission wavelength, the width of the magnetic field modulation curve of the electroluminescence increases while its depth decreases. Furthermore, these observations are consistent with the model.« less

  16. Magnetoelectroluminescence of organic heterostructures: Analytical theory and spectrally resolved measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Feilong; Kelley, Megan R.; Crooker, Scott A.; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.; Ruden, P. Paul; Smith, Darryl L.

    2014-12-22

    The effect of a magnetic field on the electroluminescence of organic light emitting devices originates from the hyperfine interaction between the electron/hole polarons and the hydrogen nuclei of the host molecules. In this paper, we present an analytical theory of magnetoelectroluminescence for organic semiconductors. To be specific, we focus on bilayer heterostructure devices. In the case we are considering, light generation at the interface of the donor and acceptor layers results from the formation and recombination of exciplexes. The spin physics is described by a stochastic Liouville equation for the electron/hole spin density matrix. By finding the steady-state analytical solution using Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory, we explore how the singlet/triplet exciplex ratio is affected by the hyperfine interaction strength and by the external magnetic field. In order to validate the theory, spectrally resolved electroluminescence experiments on BPhen/m-MTDATA devices are analyzed. With increasing emission wavelength, the width of the magnetic field modulation curve of the electroluminescence increases while its depth decreases. Furthermore, these observations are consistent with the model.

  17. ARPES view of orbitally resolved quasiparticle lifetimes in iron pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouet, Véronique; LeBoeuf, David; Lin, Ping-Hui; Mansart, Joseph; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Bertran, François; Forget, Anne; Colson, Dorothée

    2016-02-01

    We study with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) the renormalization and quasiparticle lifetimes of the dx y and dx z/dy z orbitals in two iron pnictides, LiFeAs and Ba (Fe0.92Co0.08 )2As2 (Co8). We find that both quantities depend on orbital character rather than on the position on the Fermi surface (for example, hole or electron pocket). In LiFeAs, the renormalizations are larger for dx y, while they are similar for both types of orbitals in Co8. The most salient feature, which proved robust against all the ARPES caveats we could think of, is that the lifetimes for dx y exhibit a markedly different behavior than those for dx z/dy z. They have smaller values near EF and exhibit larger ω and temperature dependences. While the behavior of dx y is compatible with a Fermi-liquid description, that is not the case for dx z/dy z. This situation should have important consequences for the physics of iron pnictides, which have not been considered up to now. More generally, it raises interesting questions about how a Fermi-liquid regime can be established in a multiband system with small effective bandwidths.

  18. THE RESOLVED STELLAR HALO OF NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Bailin, Jeremy; Bell, Eric F.; Chappell, Samantha N.; Radburn-Smith, David J.; De Jong, Roelof S.

    2011-07-20

    We have obtained Magellan/IMACS and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging data that resolve red giant branch stars in the stellar halo of the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The HST data cover a small area, and allow us to accurately interpret the ground-based data, which cover 30% of the halo to a distance of 30 kpc, allowing us to make detailed quantitative measurements of the global properties and structure of a stellar halo outside of the Local Group. The geometry of the halo is significantly flattened in the same sense as the disk, with a projected axis ratio of b/a {approx} 0.35 {+-} 0.1. The total stellar mass of the halo is estimated to be M{sub halo} {approx} (2.5 {+-} 1.5) x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}, or 6% of the total stellar mass of the galaxy, and has a projected radial dependence that follows a power law of index -2.8 {+-} 0.6, corresponding to a three-dimensional power-law index of {approx} - 4. The total luminosity and profile shape that we measure for NGC 253 are somewhat larger and steeper than the equivalent values for the Milky Way and M31, but are well within the scatter of model predictions for the properties of stellar halos built up in a cosmological context. Structure within the halo is seen at a variety of scales: there is small kpc-scale density variation and a large shelf-like feature near the middle of the field. The techniques that have been developed will be essential for quantitatively comparing our upcoming larger sample of observed stellar halos to models of halo formation.

  19. Position-resolved Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A.; Butterling, M.; Fiedler, F.; Fritz, F.; Kempe, M.; Cowan, T. E.

    2013-06-01

    A new method which allows for position-resolved positron lifetime spectroscopy studies in extended volume samples is presented. In addition to the existing technique of in-situ production of positrons inside large (cm3) bulk samples using high-energy photons up to 16 MeV from bremsstrahlung production, granular position-sensitive photon detectors have been employed. A beam of intense bremsstrahlung is provided by the superconducting electron linear accelerator ELBE (Electron Linear Accelerator with high Brilliance and low Emittance) which delivers electron bunches of less than 10 ps temporal width and an adjustable bunch separation of multiples of 38 ns, average beam currents of 1 mA, and energies up to 40 MeV. Since the generation of bremsstrahlung and the transport to the sample preserves the sharp timing of the electron beam, positrons generated inside the entire sample volume by pair production feature a sharp start time stamp for positron annihilation lifetime studies with high timing resolutions and high signal to background ratios due to the coincident detection of two annihilation photons. Two commercially available detectors from a high-resolution medial positron-emission tomography system are being employed with 169 individual Lu2SiO5:Ce scintillation crystals, each. In first experiments, a positron-lifetime gated image of a planar Si/SiO2 (pieces of 12.5 mm × 25 mm size) sample and a 3-D structured metal in Teflon target could be obtained proving the feasibility of a three dimensional lifetime-gated tomographic system.

  20. /sup 238/U issues resolved and unresolved

    SciTech Connect

    de Saussure, G.; Smith, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of 1 eV to 20 MeV neutrons with /sup 238/U is discussed with emphasis on recently resolved and remaining issues relevant to both application need and physical understanding. The apparent inability of older /sup 238/U evaluations to predict the measured /sup 238/U capture rate in thermal critical lattices has stimulated several recent precise measurements of the /sup 238/U cross sections, reanalysis of older data, and improved evaluations. The recent evaluations predict satisfactorily the /sup 238/U capture rate in thermal critical lattices. In the region from 1.5 to 4 keV there are differences of the order of 15%, sometimes larger, between the values of the neutron widths of the main resonances reported by several experimenters or obtained by different evaluators. Above 4 keV there are only sparse results of resonance analysis and most evaluations adopt a statistical treatment of the resonance structure. Some factors affecting the determination of the average properties of the resonance parameters are discussed. Above the inelastic-scattering threshold, energy-averaged neutron total, scattering, capture and fission cross sections are reviewed in a unified manner integrating measurement, calculation and evaluation. (n;n') and (n;2n') energy-transfer mechanisms are addressed. Particular attention is given to neutron capture, stressing precisions consistent with applied need. Fission properties are discussed including: prompt and delayed fission-neutron spectra and nubar, and fission-product yields. Physical understanding is assayed, with attention to compound-nucleus and direct-reaction mechanisms, and applications impact is illustrated in the context of fast-breeder-reactor performance. 95 references.

  1. Resolved multifrequency radio observations of GG Tau

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Sean M.; Birnstiel, T.; Rosenfeld, K. A.; Wilner, D. J.; Chandler, Claire J.; Pérez, L. M.; Isella, Andrea; Ricci, L.; Carpenter, J. M.; Calvet, N.; Corder, S. A.; Deller, A. T.; Dullemond, C. P.; Greaves, J. S.; Harris, R. J.; Henning, Th.; Linz, H.; Kwon, W.; Lazio, J.; Mundy, L. G.; and others

    2014-06-01

    We present subarcsecond resolution observations of continuum emission associated with the GG Tau quadruple star system at wavelengths of 1.3, 2.8, 7.3, and 50 mm. These data confirm that the GG Tau A binary is encircled by a circumbinary ring at a radius of 235 AU with a FWHM width of ∼60 AU. We find no clear evidence for a radial gradient in the spectral shape of the ring, suggesting that the particle size distribution is spatially homogeneous on angular scales ≳0.''1. A central point source, likely associated with the primary component (GG Tau Aa), exhibits a composite spectrum from dust and free-free emission. Faint emission at 7.3 mm is observed toward the low-mass star GG Tau Ba, although its origin remains uncertain. Using these measurements of the resolved, multifrequency emission structure of the GG Tau A system, models of the far-infrared to radio spectrum are developed to place constraints on the grain size distribution and dust mass in the circumbinary ring. The non-negligible curvature present in the ring spectrum implies a maximum particle size of 1-10 mm, although we are unable to place strong constraints on the distribution shape. The corresponding dust mass is 30-300 M {sub ⊕}, at a temperature of 20-30 K. We discuss how this significant concentration of relatively large particles in a narrow ring at a large radius might be produced in a local region of higher gas pressures (i.e., a particle 'trap') located near the inner edge of the circumbinary disk.

  2. 13 CFR 120.314 - Resolving doubts about creditworthiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resolving doubts about creditworthiness. 120.314 Section 120.314 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans Disabled Assistance Loan Program (dal) § 120.314 Resolving doubts...

  3. 48 CFR 2052.242-70 - Resolving differing professional views.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... professional views. 2052.242-70 Section 2052.242-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY....242-70 Resolving differing professional views. As prescribed in 2042.570-1, the contracting officer... professional services, as appropriate. This clause may not be altered by the contracting officer. Resolving...

  4. 48 CFR 2429.101 - Resolving tax problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Resolving tax problems... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES General 2429.101 Resolving tax problems. In order to have... within HUD for handling all those tax problems. Therefore, the contracting activity will not engage...

  5. 48 CFR 1329.101 - Resolving tax problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resolving tax problems. 1329.101 Section 1329.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES General 1329.101 Resolving tax problems. Legal questions relating to tax...

  6. 48 CFR 2929.101 - Resolving tax problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resolving tax problems. 2929.101 Section 2929.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES General 2929.101 Resolving tax problems. Contract tax problems or...

  7. 48 CFR 229.101 - Resolving tax problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resolving tax problems..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES General 229.101 Resolving tax problems. (a... information on fuel excise taxes, see PGI 229.101(b). (c) For guidance on directing a contractor to...

  8. 48 CFR 629.101 - Resolving tax problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resolving tax problems... REQUIREMENTS TAXES General 629.101 Resolving tax problems. In certain instances, acquisitions by posts are exempt from various taxes in foreign countries. Contracting officers shall ascertain such exemptions...

  9. 48 CFR 629.101 - Resolving tax problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resolving tax problems. 629.101 Section 629.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES General 629.101 Resolving tax problems. In certain instances, acquisitions by posts...

  10. 48 CFR 2429.101 - Resolving tax problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resolving tax problems... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES General 2429.101 Resolving tax problems. In order to have... within HUD for handling all those tax problems. Therefore, the contracting activity will not engage...

  11. 48 CFR 229.101 - Resolving tax problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resolving tax problems. 229.101 Section 229.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES General 229.101 Resolving tax problems....

  12. 48 CFR 29.101 - Resolving tax problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resolving tax problems. 29.101 Section 29.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES General 29.101 Resolving tax problems. (a) Contract tax problems...

  13. 48 CFR 1329.101 - Resolving tax problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resolving tax problems. 1329.101 Section 1329.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES General 1329.101 Resolving tax problems. Legal questions relating to tax...

  14. 48 CFR 2929.101 - Resolving tax problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resolving tax problems. 2929.101 Section 2929.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES General 2929.101 Resolving tax problems. Contract tax problems or...

  15. Building the Peace: The Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    The Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP) is one of a growing number of grade K-12 violence prevention programs that teaches young people how to resolve conflict peacefully. It is a school-based program taught by regular classroom teachers. This report was designed to introduce criminal justice professionals to the basic concepts and…

  16. 14 CFR 16.105 - Failure to resolve informally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Failure to resolve informally. 16.105 Section 16.105 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Applicable to Proceedings Initiated by the FAA § 16.105 Failure to resolve informally. If the...

  17. 14 CFR 16.105 - Failure to resolve informally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Failure to resolve informally. 16.105 Section 16.105 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Applicable to Proceedings Initiated by the FAA § 16.105 Failure to resolve informally. If the...

  18. 14 CFR 16.105 - Failure to resolve informally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Failure to resolve informally. 16.105 Section 16.105 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Applicable to Proceedings Initiated by the FAA § 16.105 Failure to resolve informally. If the...

  19. 48 CFR 2052.242-70 - Resolving differing professional views.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resolving differing professional views. 2052.242-70 Section 2052.242-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2052.242-70 Resolving...

  20. 48 CFR 29.101 - Resolving tax problems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resolving tax problems. 29.101 Section 29.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES General 29.101 Resolving tax problems. (a) Contract tax problems are essentially legal in nature and vary...

  1. 40 CFR 310.21 - How does EPA resolve disputes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How does EPA resolve disputes? 310.21 Section 310.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES Provisions How to Get Reimbursed § 310.21 How does EPA resolve disputes?...

  2. 40 CFR 310.21 - How does EPA resolve disputes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does EPA resolve disputes? 310.21 Section 310.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES Provisions How to Get Reimbursed § 310.21 How does EPA resolve disputes?...

  3. 14 CFR 16.105 - Failure to resolve informally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Failure to resolve informally. 16.105 Section 16.105 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Applicable to Proceedings Initiated by the FAA § 16.105 Failure to resolve informally. If the...

  4. Pro-resolving lipid mediators are leads for resolution physiology.

    PubMed

    Serhan, Charles N

    2014-06-01

    Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that bring about the resolution of acute inflammation have uncovered a new genus of pro-resolving lipid mediators that include the lipoxin, resolvin, protectin and maresin families, collectively called specialized pro-resolving mediators. Synthetic versions of these mediators have potent bioactions when administered in vivo. In animal experiments, the mediators evoke anti-inflammatory and novel pro-resolving mechanisms, and enhance microbial clearance. Although they have been identified in inflammation resolution, specialized pro-resolving mediators are conserved structures that also function in host defence, pain, organ protection and tissue remodelling. This Review covers the mechanisms of specialized pro-resolving mediators and omega-3 essential fatty acid pathways that could help us to understand their physiological functions. PMID:24899309

  5. Time-resolved neutron imaging at ANTARES cold neutron beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, A. S.; Dangendorf, V.; Tittelmeier, K.; Schillinger, B.; Schulz, M.; Lerche, M.; Feller, W. B.

    2015-07-01

    In non-destructive evaluation with X-rays light elements embedded in dense, heavy (or high-Z) matrices show little contrast and their structural details can hardly be revealed. Neutron radiography, on the other hand, provides a solution for those cases, in particular for hydrogenous materials, owing to the large neutron scattering cross section of hydrogen and uncorrelated dependency of neutron cross section on the atomic number. The majority of neutron imaging experiments at the present time is conducted with static objects mainly due to the limited flux intensity of neutron beamline facilities and sometimes due to the limitations of the detectors. However, some applications require the studies of dynamic phenomena and can now be conducted at several high intensity beamlines such as the recently rebuilt ANTARES beam line at the FRM-II reactor. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of time resolved imaging for repetitive processes, where different phases of the process can be imaged simultaneously and integrated over multiple cycles. A fast MCP/Timepix neutron counting detector was used to image the water distribution within a model steam engine operating at 10 Hz frequency. Within <10 minutes integration the amount of water was measured as a function of cycle time with a sub-mm spatial resolution, thereby demonstrating the capabilities of time-resolved neutron radiography for the future applications. The neutron spectrum of the ANTARES beamline as well as transmission spectra of a Fe sample were also measured with the Time Of Flight (TOF) technique in combination with a high resolution beam chopper. The energy resolution of our setup was found to be ~ 0.8% at 5 meV and ~ 1.7% at 25 meV. The background level (most likely gammas and epithermal/fast neutrons) of the ANTARES beamline was also measured in our experiments and found to be on the scale of 3% when no filters are installed in the beam. Online supplementary data available from stacks.iop.org/jinst/10

  6. What We've Learned From Doing Usability Testing on OpenURL Resolvers and Federated Search Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervone, Frank

    2005-01-01

    OpenURL resolvers and federated search engines are important new services in the library field. For some librarians, these services may seem "old hat" by now, but for the majority these services are still in the early stages of implementation or planning. In many cases, these two services are offered as a seamlessly integrated whole. That is, it…

  7. Cloud-Resolving Model and GPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Adler, R.; Hou, A.; Li, X.; Shie, C.-L.; Olson, W.; Kummerow, C.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, rainfall retrieval algorithms have been developed to retrieve rainfall and vertical hydrometeor structures from passive microwave observations by making use of the fact that weighting functions for various frequencies peak at different levels within a rainy atmosphere. GPROF is one of two TMI rainfall algorithms. It is physically based retrieval that finds the vertical hydrometeor profile that best fits the brightness temperatures in the available passive radiometer channels. Matching is achieved using a library of hydrometeor profiles generated by cloud-resolving models (CRMs). The hydrometeor profiles have a corresponding surface precipitation rate. The algorithm retrieves the hydrometeor profiles and associated surface rainfall using a Bayesian approach that gives the estimated expected values. The ability of CRMs to produce cloud structures that are reliable and representative of observed storms is crucial for the success of GPROF. The cloud mycrophysics are one of the keys to achieving this. In addition, CRMs have been a very useful tool for GPM-algorithm developers through Cloud-Radiation Simulations (CRS), one of the nine GPM disciplinary research themes. This paper will discuss how to generate consistent and comprehensive 4D cloud datasets from an improved (i.e., in regard to bulk and multi-moment microphysics) CRM for TRMM and GPM rainfall retrieval algorithm developers. These cloud datasets include CRM-simulated clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations in the tropics and midlatitudes. By linking the CRM with a passive microwave radiative-transfer model and using satellite and airborne data, the performance of the "cloud physics" can be assessed and in turn modified and improved. This paper will also address how to assess and improve the performance of various latent and diabatic heating algorithms and develop an algorithm to retrieve the vertical structure of apparent moistening (Q2). Considering that the

  8. Spatially resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybiec, Maciej

    applications was in the scope of this research. Bio-conjugation and functionalization are the fundamental issues for bio-marker tagging application of semiconductor quantum dots. It was discovered that spatially resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy and PL photo-degradation kinetics can confirm the bio-conjugation. Development of a methodology that will allow the spectroscopic confirmation of bio-conjugation of quantum dot fluorescent tags and optimization of their performance was the final goal for this research project.

  9. Resolving the forbidden band of SF6.

    PubMed

    Boudon, V; Manceron, L; Kwabia Tchana, F; Loëte, M; Lago, L; Roy, P

    2014-01-28

    Sulfur hexafluoride is an important molecule for modeling thermophysical and polarizability properties. It is also a potent greenhouse gas of anthropogenic origin, whose concentration in the atmosphere, although very low is increasing rapidly; its global warming power is mostly conferred by its strong infrared absorption in the ν3 S-F stretching region near 948 cm(-1). This heavy species, however, features many hot bands at room temperature (at which only 31% of the molecules lie in the ground vibrational state), especially those originating from the lowest, v6 = 1 vibrational state. Unfortunately, the ν6 band itself (near 347 cm(-1)), in the first approximation, is both infrared- and Raman-inactive, and no reliable spectroscopic information could be obtained up to now and this has precluded a correct modeling of the hot bands. It has been suggested theoretically and experimentally that this band might be slightly activated through Coriolis interaction with infrared-active fundamentals and appears in high pressure measurements as a very faint, unresolved band. Using a new cryogenic multipass cell with 93 m optical path length and regulated at 163 ± 2 K temperature, coupled to synchrotron radiation and a high resolution interferometer, the spectrum of the ν6 far-infrared region has been recorded. Low temperature was used to avoid the presence of hot bands. We are thus able to confirm that the small feature in this region, previously viewed at low-resolution, is indeed ν6. The fully resolved spectrum has been analyzed, thanks to the XTDS software package. The band appears to be activated by faint Coriolis interactions with the strong ν3 and ν4 fundamental bands, resulting in the appearance of a small first-order dipole moment term, inducing unusual selection rules. The band center (ν6 = 347.736707(35) cm(-1)) and rovibrational parameters are now accurately determined for the v6 = 1 level. The ν6 perturbation-induced dipole moment is estimated to be 33 ± 3

  10. Direct chemical characterization of natural wood resins by temperature-resolved and space-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-bo; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin

    2016-07-01

    Wood resins are valuable natural products with wide utilizations. Either in the form of resin exudates or in the form of resin-containing woods, natural wood resins are usually complex mixtures consisting of various compounds. Therefore, effective chemical characterization methods are necessary for the research and quality control of natural wood resins. No need for separation or labeling, wood resin samples can be measured directly by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, which reduces the testing costs and avoids the possible distortions caused by the pretreatments. However, the absorption bands of various compositions in the resin sample are assembled in a single spectrum by the separation-free measurement, which makes it difficult to identify the compounds of interest and decreases the limits of detection. In this research, the temperature-resolved and space-resolved FT-IR techniques are proposed to resolve the overlapped signals for the direct, selective, and sensitive characterization of natural wood resins. For resin exudates, the temperature-resolved FT-IR spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation analysis can resolve the absorption bands of different compounds according to their responses to the thermal perturbations. For resin-containing woods, the FT-IR microspectroscopic imaging and principal component analysis can resolve the absorption bands of different compounds according to their positions. The study of six kinds of wood resins proves the feasibility of temperature-resolved and space-resolved FT-IR techniques for the direct, selective, and sensitive chemical characterization of natural wood resins.

  11. Estimation of multiple-aerosol concentration and backscatter using multi-wavelength range-resolved lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Russell E.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.

    2007-09-01

    Previous work by the authors has produced statistically based methods for detecting, estimating and classifying aerosol materials in the atmosphere using multiple-wavelength range-resolved CO2 lidar. This work has thus far been limited to the presence of a single aerosol material at a given time within the lidar line-of-sight. Practical implementation requires the ability to detect and discriminate multiple aerosol materials present simultaneously such as smoke and dust in addition to hazardous materials. Treating mixtures of materials necessitates fundamentally different approaches from the single-material case since neither the aerosol backscatter wavelength-dependence nor the concentrations as a function of range are known. Because of this, linear processing cannot resolve the mixture data into its components unambiguously, and non-linear methods must be considered. In this paper we describe an empirical Bayes (EB) approach for resolving mixtures of aerosol into their components. The basic idea of EB is to use the same data to estimate the prior distribution of a set of parameters as that used to estimate the parameters themselves. In our case the concentration and backscatter are the parameters that are estimated with the help of a prior distribution of the backscatter. We implement the EB estimator through the EM (Expectation Maximization) algorithm. The resulting processor is applied to injections of interferent dust into data sets collected by ECBC during JBSDS testing at Dugway Proving Ground, UT in 2006.

  12. Diagnostic confusion resolved by being upbeat

    PubMed Central

    Kakar, Puneet; Kamdar, Ami; Prabhudev, Hemanth; Buddha, Sandeep; Kaski, Diego; Bentley, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The classical stroke presentation – captured by the public health campaign mnemonic FAST (face, arm, speech, time) – does not apply in a large number of stroke cases; yet establishing a prompt diagnosis is imperative for optimal management. Here, we describe a patient with acute bulbar weakness, numbness in all extremities and an apparently normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain upon admission for whom even the fundamental question of whether this reflected a central or peripheral nervous system process was unclear. The critical localizing sign was upbeat nystagmus that denotes a brainstem cause. MRI of the brain in the second week confirmed a diagnosis of medial medullary infarction. PMID:24175063

  13. Traumatic Lateral Plantar Artery Pseudoaneurysm and the Use of Time-Resolved MR Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anthony; Foo, Li Foong

    2010-01-01

    Vascular injury resulting in pseudoaneurysm formation in the plantar aspect of the foot is an uncommon injury after trauma. Such injuries are more often reported in the lateral plantar artery rather than the medial plantar artery, most likely because of its more superficial location. Traditional modalities in diagnosis have included ultrasound and digital subtraction angiography. We present a case of traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the lateral plantar artery following a foot laceration. Diagnosis was made by the use of high-resolution, time-resolved contrast-enhanced 3D magnetic resonance angiography, also referred to as “TRICKS” (time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics). This technique provided high spatial resolution for the arterial anatomy as well as temporal resolution which allowed better delineation of the hemodynamic characteristics of the pseudoaneurysm. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11420-010-9170-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21886538

  14. Time-resolved investigation of ionization processes in the Dresden Electron Beam Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Zschornack, G.; Heller, R.; Kreller, M.; Landgraf, S.; Grossmann, F.; Kentsch, U.; Ovsyannikov, V.P.; Schmidt, M.; Ullmann, F.

    2006-03-15

    The emission of characteristic x-ray lines of iron and krypton ions was measured in dependence on the confinement time in an Electron Beam Ion Source, the DRESDEN EBIS. Primarily the measurement was focused on x-ray lines from dielectronic recombination (DR) processes. Due to the sharp resonant character of DR processes the formation of individual ion charge states can be observed at different electron energies (resonance energies) with time-resolved energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. In the case of iron ions, experimentally observed resonance energies are compared to resonance energies calculated with the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC). Further, on outer-shell K{sub {alpha}} x-ray satellites of krypton ions are time-resolve analyzed to construct the evolution of the ionization of krypton ions in the electron beam.

  15. On a Finite Range Decomposition of the Resolvent of a Fractional Power of the Laplacian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitter, P. K.

    2016-06-01

    We prove the existence as well as regularity of a finite range decomposition for the resolvent G_{α } (x-y,m^2) = ((-Δ )^{α over 2} + m2)^{-1} (x-y) , for 0<α <2 and all real m, in the lattice Zd as well as in the continuum Rd for dimension d≥ 2. This resolvent occurs as the covariance of the Gaussian measure underlying weakly self- avoiding walks with long range jumps (stable Lévy walks) as well as continuous spin ferromagnets with long range interactions in the long wavelength or field theoretic approximation. The finite range decomposition should be useful for the rigorous analysis of both critical and off-critical renormalisation group trajectories. The decomposition for the special case m=0 was known and used earlier in the renormalisation group analysis of critical trajectories for the above models below the critical dimension d_c =2α.

  16. Characteristic of gravity waves resolved in ECMWF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusse, Peter; Eckermann, Stephen; Ern, Manfred; Riese, Martin

    Gravity waves (GWs) influence the circulation of the atmosphere on global scale. Because of insufficient measurements and the difficulty to involve all relevant scales in a single model run, they are one of the chief uncertainties in climate and weather prediction. More information, in particular on global scale, is required. Can we employ global models such as the ECMWF high-resolution GCM to infer quantities of resolved GWs? Does this give us insight for the characteristics and relative importance of real GW sources? And can we use such data safely for, e.g., planning measurement campaigns on GWs? Also trajectory studies of cloud formation (cirrus in the UTLS, PSCs) and related dehydration and denitrification rely heavily on realistic temperature structures due to GWs. We here apply techniques developed for an ESA study proving the scientifc break-through which could be reached by a novel infrared limb imager. The 3D temperature structure of mesoscale GWs is exploited to determine amplitudes and 3D wave vectors of GWs at different levels (25km, 35km and 45km altitude) in the stratosphere. Similar to real observations, GW momentum flux is largest in the winter polar vortex and exhibits a second maximum in the summer subtropics. Based on the 3D wavevectors backward ray-tracing is employed to characterize specific sources. For instance, we find for the northern winter strong GW momentum flux (GWMF) associated with mountain waves from Norway and Greenland as well as waves emitted in the lower troposphere from a storm approaching Norway. Waves from these sources spread up to several thousand km in the stratosphere. Together these three events form a burst in the total hemispheric GWMF of a factor of 3. Strong mountain wave events are also found e.g. at Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctic Peninsula, regions which are in the focus of observational and modeling studies for a decade. Gravity waves in the tropical region are associated with deep convection in the upper

  17. Wavelength resolved specific optical rotations and homochiral equilibria.

    PubMed

    Polavarapu, P L; Covington, C L

    2015-09-01

    The fundamental expressions governing specific optical rotations (SORs) of homochiral systems exhibiting monomer-dimer equilibria are presented. These equations are then utilized with the experimental measurements of wavelength resolved circular birefringence for (R)-(-)-α-hydroxy-β,β-dimethyl-γ-butyrolactone, to determine the wavelength resolved SORs of monomer and dimer components for the first time. Density functional theory predictions on the corresponding dispersion properties of monomer and dimer are found to match with experimentally determined quantities within a factor of ∼2. The wavelength resolved circular birefringence in the liquid solution phase thus provides a powerful means to investigate the molecular properties involved in homochiral equilibria. PMID:26227210

  18. Resolver to 360.degree. linear analog converter and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The converter produces a linear analog signal that is linearly proportional to a shaft angle of a resolver over 360.degree.. An excitation cosine signal supplied to the resolver and a response cosine signal received from the output windings of the resolver are converted to logic level signals. Digital logic is performed on the logic level signals in a programmable digital logic device to produce a logic level pulse-width modulated signal. The logic level pulse-width modulated signal is used to control a switch to switch between two reference voltage levels to produce a pulse-width modulated signal, which is filtered and buffered to produce the linear analog signal.

  19. Resolution-Tunable Angle-Resolved X-ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Keiichi

    2004-05-12

    A resolution-tunable double-crystal device was successfully applied to angle-resolved x-ray imaging. The angular resolution of a Si (220) double-crystal analyzer was tuned between 0.5'' and 2.3'' through the offset angle at {lambda} = 0.0733nm. The throughput of the analyzer was higher than 90%. The angle-resolved images of a spider were recorded on nuclear emulsion plates at various angular resolutions. It was clearly observed that the quality of the angle-resolved image varies with the angular resolution of the analyzer.

  20. Complete momentum and energy resolved TOF electron spectrometerfor time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Zahid; Lebedev, G.; Tremsin, A.; Siegmund, O.; Chen, Y.; Shen, Z.X.; Hussain, Z.

    2007-08-12

    Over the last decade, high-resolution Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) has emerged as a tool of choice for studying the electronic structure of solids, in particular, strongly correlated complex materials such as cuprate superconductors. In this paper we present the design of a novel time-of-flight based electron analyzer with capability of 2D in momentum space (kx and ky) and all energies (calculated from time of flight) in the third dimension. This analyzer will utilize an improved version of a 2D delay linedetector capable of imaging with<35 mm (700x700 pixels) spatial resolution and better than 120 ps FWHM timing resolution. Electron optics concepts and optimization procedure are considered for achieving an energy resolution less than 1 meV and an angular resolution better than 0.11.

  1. Material separation in x-ray CT with energy resolved photon-counting detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaolan; Meier, Dirk; Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Patt, Bradley E.; Frey, Eric C.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to demonstrate that, in x-ray computed tomography (CT), more than two types of materials can be effectively separated with the use of an energy resolved photon-counting detector and classification methodology. Specifically, this applies to the case when contrast agents that contain K-absorption edges in the energy range of interest are present in the object. This separation is enabled via the use of recently developed energy resolved photon-counting detectors with multiple thresholds, which allow simultaneous measurements of the x-ray attenuation at multiple energies. Methods: To demonstrate this capability, we performed simulations and physical experiments using a six-threshold energy resolved photon-counting detector. We imaged mouse-sized cylindrical phantoms filled with several soft-tissue-like and bone-like materials and with iodine-based and gadolinium-based contrast agents. The linear attenuation coefficients were reconstructed for each material in each energy window and were visualized as scatter plots between pairs of energy windows. For comparison, a dual-kVp CT was also simulated using the same phantom materials. In this case, the linear attenuation coefficients at the lower kVp were plotted against those at the higher kVp. Results: In both the simulations and the physical experiments, the contrast agents were easily separable from other soft-tissue-like and bone-like materials, thanks to the availability of the attenuation coefficient measurements at more than two energies provided by the energy resolved photon-counting detector. In the simulations, the amount of separation was observed to be proportional to the concentration of the contrast agents; however, this was not observed in the physical experiments due to limitations of the real detector system. We used the angle between pairs of attenuation coefficient vectors in either the 5-D space (for non-contrast-agent materials using energy resolved photon

  2. Level 5 leadership. The triumph of humility and fierce resolve.

    PubMed

    Collins, J

    2001-01-01

    Boards of directors typically believe that transforming a company from merely good to truly great requires a larger-than-life personality--an egocentric chief to lead the corporate charge. Think "Chainsaw" Al Dunlap or Lee Iacocca. In fact, that's not the case, says author and leadership expert Jim Collins. The essential ingredient for taking a company to greatness is having a "Level 5" leader at the helm--an executive in whom extreme personal humility blends paradoxically with intense professional will. Collins paints a compelling and counter-intuitive portrait of the skills and personality traits necessary for effective leadership. He identifies the characteristics common to Level 5 leaders: humility, will, ferocious resolve, and the tendency to give credit to others while assigning blame to themselves. Collins fleshes out his Level 5 theory by telling colorful tales about 11 such leaders from recent business history. He contrasts the turnaround successes of outwardly humble, even shy, executives like Gillette's Colman M. Mockler and Kimberly-Clark's Darwin E. Smith with those of larger-than-life business leaders like Dunlap and Iacocca, who courted personal celebrity. The jury is still out on how to cultivate Level 5 leaders and whether it's even possible to do so, Collins admits. Some leaders have the Level 5 seed within; some don't. But Collins suggests using the findings from his research to strive for Level 5--for instance, getting the right people on board and creating a culture of discipline. "Our own lives and all that we touch will be better for the effort," he concludes. PMID:11189464

  3. Time-resolved local strain tracking microscopy for cell mechanics.

    PubMed

    Aydin, O; Aksoy, B; Akalin, O B; Bayraktar, H; Alaca, B E

    2016-02-01

    A uniaxial cell stretching technique to measure time-resolved local substrate strain while simultaneously imaging adherent cells is presented. The experimental setup comprises a uniaxial stretcher platform compatible with inverted microscopy and transparent elastomer samples with embedded fluorescent beads. This integration enables the acquisition of real-time spatiotemporal data, which is then processed using a single-particle tracking algorithm to track the positions of fluorescent beads for the subsequent computation of local strain. The present local strain tracking method is demonstrated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) samples of rectangular and dogbone geometries. The comparison of experimental results and finite element simulations for the two sample geometries illustrates the capability of the present system to accurately quantify local deformation even when the strain distribution is non-uniform over the sample. For a regular dogbone sample, the experimentally obtained value of local strain at the center of the sample is 77%, while the average strain calculated using the applied cross-head displacement is 48%. This observation indicates that considerable errors may arise when cross-head measurement is utilized to estimate strain in the case of non-uniform sample geometry. Finally, the compatibility of the proposed platform with biological samples is tested using a unibody PDMS sample with a well to contain cells and culture media. HeLa S3 cells are plated on collagen-coated samples and cell adhesion and proliferation are observed. Samples with adherent cells are then stretched to demonstrate simultaneous cell imaging and tracking of embedded fluorescent beads. PMID:26931864

  4. Time resolved studies of bond activation by organometallic complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkens, M J

    1998-05-01

    In 1971, Jetz and Graham discovered that the silicon-hydrogen bond in silanes could be broken under mild photochemical conditions in the presence of certain transition metal carbonyls. Such reactions fall within the class of oxidative addition. A decade later, similar reactivity was discovered in alkanes. In these cases a C-H bond in non-functionalized alkanes was broken through the oxidative addition of Cp*Ir(H){sub 2}L (Cp* = (CH{sub 3}){sub 5}C{sub 5}, L = PPh{sub 3}, Ph = C{sub 6}H{sub 5}) to form Cp*ML(R)(H) or of Cp*Ir(CO){sub 2} to form Cp*Ir(CO)(R)(H). These discoveries opened an entirely new field of research, one which naturally included mechanistic studies aimed at elucidating the various paths involved in these and related reactions. Much was learned from these experiments but they shared the disadvantage of studying under highly non-standard conditions a system which is of interest largely because of its characteristics under standard conditions. Ultrafast time-resolved IR spectroscopy provides an ideal solution to this problem; because it allows the resolution of chemical events taking place on the femto-through picosecond time scale, it is possible to study this important class of reactions under the ambient conditions which are most of interest to the practicing synthetic chemist. Certain of the molecules in question are particularly well-suited to study using the ultrafast IR spectrophotometer described in the experimental section because they contain one or more carbonyl ligands.

  5. Thymine Dimer Formation probed by Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Wolfgang J.; Schrader, Tobias E.; Roller, Florian O.; Gilch, Peter; Zinth, Wolfgang; Kohler, Bern

    Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers are the major photoproducts formed when DNA is exposed to UV light. Femtosecond time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy reveals that thymine dimers are formed in thymidine oligonucleotides in an ultrafast photoreaction.

  6. Two-color ghost imaging with enhanced angular resolving power

    SciTech Connect

    Karmakar, Sanjit; Shih, Yanhua

    2010-03-15

    This article reports an experimental demonstration on nondegenerate, two-color, biphoton ghost imaging which reproduced a ghost image with enhanced angular resolving power by means of a greater field of view compared with that of classical imaging. With the same imaging magnification, the enhanced angular resolving power and field of view compared with those of classical imaging are 1.25:1 and 1.16:1, respectively. The enhancement of angular resolving power depends on the ratio between the idler and the signal photon frequencies, and the enhancement of the field of view depends mainly on the same ratio and also on the distances of the object plane and the imaging lens from the two-photon source. This article also reports the possibility of reproducing a ghost image with the enhancement of the angular resolving power by means of a greater imaging amplification compared with that of classical imaging.

  7. Frequency-resolved optical grating using third-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, T.; Krumbuegel, M.A.; Delong, K.W.

    1995-12-01

    We demonstrate the first frequency-resolved optical gating measurement of an laser oscillator without the time ambiguity using third-harmonic generation. The experiment agrees well with the phase-retrieved spectrograms.

  8. Sensing cell metabolism by time-resolved autofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yicong; Zheng, Wei; Qu, Jianan Y

    2006-11-01

    We built a time-resolved confocal fluorescence spectroscopy system equipped with the multichannel time-correlated single-photon-counting technique. The instrument provides a unique approach to study the fluorescence sensing of cell metabolism via analysis of the wavelength- and time-resolved intracellular autofluorescence. The experiments on monolayered cell cultures show that with UV excitation at 365 nm the time-resolved autofluorescence decays, dominated by free-bound reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide signals, are sensitive indicators for cell metabolism. However, the sensitivity decreases with the increase of excitation wavelength possibly due to the interference from free-bound flavin adenine dinucleotide fluorescence. The results demonstrate that time-resolved autofluorescence can be potentially used as an important contrast mechanism to detect epithelial precancer. PMID:17041655

  9. Sensing cell metabolism by time-resolved autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yicong; Zheng, Wei; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2006-11-01

    We built a time-resolved confocal fluorescence spectroscopy system equipped with the multichannel time-correlated single-photon-counting technique. The instrument provides a unique approach to study the fluorescence sensing of cell metabolism via analysis of the wavelength- and time-resolved intracellular autofluorescence. The experiments on monolayered cell cultures show that with UV excitation at 365 nm the time-resolved autofluorescence decays, dominated by free-bound reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide signals, are sensitive indicators for cell metabolism. However, the sensitivity decreases with the increase of excitation wavelength possibly due to the interference from free-bound flavin adenine dinucleotide fluorescence. The results demonstrate that time-resolved autofluorescence can be potentially used as an important contrast mechanism to detect epithelial precancer.

  10. Passive background correction method for spatially resolved detection

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Randal L.; Hargis, Jr., Philip J.

    2011-05-10

    A method for passive background correction during spatially or angularly resolved detection of emission that is based on the simultaneous acquisition of both the passive background spectrum and the spectrum of the target of interest.

  11. Mechanisms for Resolving Collective Bargaining Impasses in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Harry A.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews various ways of resolving collective bargaining impasses in education. Discusses mediation, fact finding, and arbitration and concludes that none has prevented teacher strikes. Binding arbitration is called for as a legislative remedy. (Author/JG)

  12. Millifluidics for Chemical Synthesis and Time-resolved Mechanistic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Katla Sai; Biswas, Sanchita; Navin, Chelliah V.; Yamane, Dawit G.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Kumar, Challa S.S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Procedures utilizing millifluidic devices for chemical synthesis and time-resolved mechanistic studies are described by taking three examples. In the first, synthesis of ultra-small copper nanoclusters is described. The second example provides their utility for investigating time resolved kinetics of chemical reactions by analyzing gold nanoparticle formation using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The final example demonstrates continuous flow catalysis of reactions inside millifluidic channel coated with nanostructured catalyst. PMID:24327099

  13. Millifluidics for chemical synthesis and time-resolved mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Katla Sai; Biswas, Sanchita; Navin, Chelliah V; Yamane, Dawit G; Miller, Jeffrey T; Kumar, Challa S S R

    2013-01-01

    Procedures utilizing millifluidic devices for chemical synthesis and time-resolved mechanistic studies are described by taking three examples. In the first, synthesis of ultra-small copper nanoclusters is described. The second example provides their utility for investigating time resolved kinetics of chemical reactions by analyzing gold nanoparticle formation using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The final example demonstrates continuous flow catalysis of reactions inside millifluidic channel coated with nanostructured catalyst. PMID:24327099

  14. Extended resolvent and inverse scattering with an application to KPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiti, M.; Pempinelli, F.; Pogrebkov, A. K.; Prinari, B.

    2003-08-01

    We present in detail an extended resolvent approach for investigating linear problems associated to 2+1 dimensional integrable equations. Our presentation is based as an example on the nonstationary Schrödinger equation with potential being a perturbation of the one-soliton potential by means of a decaying two-dimensional function. Modification of the inverse scattering theory as well as properties of the Jost solutions and spectral data as follows from the resolvent approach are given.

  15. Seventh international conference on time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.B.; Martinez, M.A.D.; Shreve, A.; Woodruff, W.H.

    1997-04-01

    The International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy (TRVS) is widely recognized as the major international forum for the discussion of advances in this rapidly growing field. The 1995 conference was the seventh in a series that began at Lake Placid, New York, 1982. Santa Fe, New Mexico, was the site of the Seventh International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, held from June 11 to 16, 1995. TRVS-7 was attended by 157 participants from 16 countries and 85 institutions, and research ranging across the full breadth of the field of time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy was presented. Advances in both experimental capabilities for time-resolved vibrational measurements and in theoretical descriptions of time-resolved vibrational methods continue to occur, and several sessions of the conference were devoted to discussion of these advances and the associated new directions in TRVS. Continuing the interdisciplinary tradition of the TRVS meetings, applications of time-resolved vibrational methods to problems in physics, biology, materials science, and chemistry comprised a large portion of the papers presented at the conference.

  16. Modeling mechanisms of persisting and resolving delay in language development.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael S C; Knowland, V C P

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE In this study, the authors used neural network modeling to investigate the possible mechanistic basis of developmental language delay and to test the viability of the hypothesis that persisting delay and resolving delay lie on a mechanistic continuum with normal development. METHOD The authors used a population modeling approach to study individual rates of development in 1,000 simulated individuals acquiring a notional language domain (in this study, represented by English past tense). Variation was caused by differences in internal neurocomputational learning parameters as well as the richness of the language environment. An early language delay group was diagnosed, and individual trajectories were then traced. RESULTS Quantitative variations in learning mechanisms were sufficient to produce persisting delay and resolving delay subgroups in similar proportions to empirical observations. In the model, persisting language delay was caused by limitations in processing capacity, whereas resolving delay was caused by low plasticity. Richness of the language environment did not predict the emergence of persisting delay but did predict the final ability levels of individuals with resolving delay. CONCLUSION Mechanistically, it is viable that persisting delay and resolving delay are only quantitatively different. There may be an interaction between environmental factors and outcome groups, with individuals who have resolving delay being influenced more by the richness of the language environment. PMID:24129016

  17. Forecasting Lightning Threat using Cloud-resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, E. W., Jr.; Goodman, S. J.; LaCasse, K. M.; Cecil, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    As numerical forecasts capable of resolving individual convective clouds become more common, it is of interest to see if quantitative forecasts of lightning flash rate density are possible, based on fields computed by the numerical model. Previous observational research has shown robust relationships between observed lightning flash rates and inferred updraft and large precipitation ice fields in the mixed phase regions of storms, and that these relationships might allow simulated fields to serve as proxies for lightning flash rate density. It is shown in this paper that two simple proxy fields do indeed provide reasonable and cost-effective bases for creating time-evolving maps of predicted lightning flash rate density, judging from a series of diverse simulation case study events in North Alabama for which Lightning Mapping Array data provide ground truth. One method is based on the product of upward velocity and the mixing ratio of precipitating ice hydrometeors, modeled as graupel only, in the mixed phase region of storms at the -15\\dgc\\ level, while the second method is based on the vertically integrated amounts of ice hydrometeors in each model grid column. Each method can be calibrated by comparing domainwide statistics of the peak values of simulated flash rate proxy fields against domainwide peak total lightning flash rate density data from observations. Tests show that the first method is able to capture much of the temporal variability of the lightning threat, while the second method does a better job of depicting the areal coverage of the threat. A blended solution is designed to retain most of the temporal sensitivity of the first method, while adding the improved spatial coverage of the second. Weather Research and Forecast Model simulations of selected North Alabama cases show that this model can distinguish the general character and intensity of most convective events, and that the proposed methods show promise as a means of generating

  18. Probing the limitations of Sigmund's model of spatially resolved sputtering using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobler, Gerhard; Bradley, R. Mark; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2016-05-01

    Sigmund's model of spatially resolved sputtering is the underpinning of many models of nanoscale pattern formation induced by ion bombardment. It is based on three assumptions: (i) the number of sputtered atoms is proportional to the nuclear energy deposition (NED) near the surface, (ii) the NED distribution is independent of the orientation and shape of the solid surface and is identical to the one in an infinite medium, and (iii) the NED distribution in an infinite medium can be approximated by a Gaussian. We test the validity of these assumptions using Monte Carlo simulations of He, Ar, and Xe impacts on Si at energies of 2, 20, and 200 keV with incidence angles from perpendicular to grazing. We find that for the more commonly-employed beam parameters (Ar and Xe ions at 2 and 20 keV and nongrazing incidence), the Sigmund model's predictions are within a factor of 2 of the Monte Carlo results for the total sputter yield and the first two moments of the spatially resolved sputter yield. This is partly due to a compensation of errors introduced by assumptions (i) and (ii). The Sigmund model, however, does not describe the skewness of the spatially resolved sputter yield, which is almost always significant. The approximation is much poorer for He ions and/or high energies (200 keV). All three of Sigmund's assumptions break down at grazing incidence angles. In all cases, we discuss the origin of the deviations from Sigmund's model.

  19. Towards Realtime Assimilation of Doppler Radar Observations for Cloud-Resolving Hurricane Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Y.; Zhang, F.; Gamache, J. F.; Marks, F. D.

    2008-12-01

    This study explores the feasibility and impacts of on-demand, real-time assimilation of Doppler radar observations straight from the planes with an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to initialize a cloud-resolving hurricane prediction model. The NOAA P3 aircrafts have being flying into tropical cyclones to gather radar observations since 1994. These observations are significant in investigating and anglicizing hurricane's intensity, eye-wall structure and intensity changes, but the radar data has never been ingested into hurricane prediction models in real-time. Likely reasons are (1) insufficient model resolution due to inadequate computing resources for ingesting convective-scale details observed by the radar, (2) inadequacy of existing data assimilation method for operational models, and (3) lack of sufficient bandwidth in transmitting huge volume radar data to the ground in realtime. This work is built on our recent case studies of predicting the rapid formation and intensification of past hurricanes in assimilating both ground-base and/or airborne radial velocity into a cloud-resolving mesoscale model with EnKF. Under the auspices of NOAA Hurricane Forecasting Improvement Project (HFIP), we have access to the NSF-sponsored high-performance computing facility TACC at University of Texas at Austin that makes realtime cloud-resolving hurricane data assimilation and forecasting possible. We alleviate the requirement of large volume data transfer from the aircraft through developing a radar radial velocity data quality and thinning procedure (namely to produce superobervations or SOs) to significantly reduce the data size before being transferred. We have first conducted near realtime testing of the cloud-resolving data assimilation and forecasting with Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model using 40.5, 13.5, 4.5 and 1.5 km grid spacings and movable nested grids for Hurricanes Dolly and Fay (2008). As of today, we have successfully demonstrated the feasibility, data

  20. Concept of proton radiography using energy resolved dose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentefour, El H.; Schnuerer, Roland; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Energy resolved dosimetry offers a potential path to single detector based proton imaging using scanned proton beams. This is because energy resolved dose functions encrypt the radiological depth at which the measurements are made. When a set of predetermined proton beams ‘proton imaging field’ are used to deliver a well determined dose distribution in a specific volume, then, at any given depth x of this volume, the behavior of the dose against the energies of the proton imaging field is unique and characterizes the depth x. This concept applies directly to proton therapy scanning delivery methods (pencil beam scanning and uniform scanning) and it can be extended to the proton therapy passive delivery methods (single and double scattering) if the delivery of the irradiation is time-controlled with a known time-energy relationship. To derive the water equivalent path length (WEPL) from the energy resolved dose measurement, one may proceed in two different ways. A first method is by matching the measured energy resolved dose function to a pre-established calibration database of the behavior of the energy resolved dose in water, measured over the entire range of radiological depths with at least 1 mm spatial resolution. This calibration database can also be made specific to the patient if computed using the patient x-CT data. A second method to determine the WEPL is by using the empirical relationships between the WEPL and the integral dose or the depth at 80% of the proximal fall off of the energy resolved dose functions in water. In this note, we establish the evidence of the fundamental relationship between the energy resolved dose and the WEPL at the depth of the measurement. Then, we illustrate this relationship with experimental data and discuss its imaging dynamic range for 230 MeV protons.

  1. Concept of proton radiography using energy resolved dose measurement.

    PubMed

    Bentefour, El H; Schnuerer, Roland; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2016-08-21

    Energy resolved dosimetry offers a potential path to single detector based proton imaging using scanned proton beams. This is because energy resolved dose functions encrypt the radiological depth at which the measurements are made. When a set of predetermined proton beams 'proton imaging field' are used to deliver a well determined dose distribution in a specific volume, then, at any given depth x of this volume, the behavior of the dose against the energies of the proton imaging field is unique and characterizes the depth x. This concept applies directly to proton therapy scanning delivery methods (pencil beam scanning and uniform scanning) and it can be extended to the proton therapy passive delivery methods (single and double scattering) if the delivery of the irradiation is time-controlled with a known time-energy relationship. To derive the water equivalent path length (WEPL) from the energy resolved dose measurement, one may proceed in two different ways. A first method is by matching the measured energy resolved dose function to a pre-established calibration database of the behavior of the energy resolved dose in water, measured over the entire range of radiological depths with at least 1 mm spatial resolution. This calibration database can also be made specific to the patient if computed using the patient x-CT data. A second method to determine the WEPL is by using the empirical relationships between the WEPL and the integral dose or the depth at 80% of the proximal fall off of the energy resolved dose functions in water. In this note, we establish the evidence of the fundamental relationship between the energy resolved dose and the WEPL at the depth of the measurement. Then, we illustrate this relationship with experimental data and discuss its imaging dynamic range for 230 MeV protons. PMID:27435446

  2. Electron self-energy of high temperature superconductors as revealed by angle-resolved photoemission.

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, H.; Norman, M. R.; Randeria, M.

    1997-12-05

    In this paper, we review some of the work our group has done in the past few years to obtain the electron self-energy of high temperature superconductors by analysis of angle-resolved photoemission data. We focus on three examples which have revealed: (1) a d-wave superconducting gap, (2) a collective mode in the superconducting state, and (3) pairing correlations in the pseudogap phase. In each case, although a novel result is obtained which captures the essence of the data, the conventional physics used leads to an incomplete picture. This indicates that new physics needs to be developed to obtain a proper understanding of these materials.

  3. Ultrashort-pulse measurement using noninstantaneous nonlinearities: Raman effects in frequency-resolved optical gating

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, K.W.; Ladera, C.L.; Trebino, R.; Kohler, B.; Wilson, K.R.

    1995-03-01

    Ultrashort-pulse-characterization techniques generally require instantaneously responding media. We show that this is not the case for frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG). We include, as an example, the noninstantaneous Raman response of fused silica, which can cause errors in the retrieved pulse width of as much as 8% for a 25-fs pulse in polarization-gate FROG. We present a modified pulse-retrieval algorithm that deconvolves such slow effects and use it to retrieve pulses of any width. In experiments with 45-fs pulses this algorithm achieved better convergence and yielded a shorter pulse than previous FROG algorithms.

  4. Spatially resolved charge transport study in discotic liquid crystalline organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sanjoy; Semyonov, Alexander; Dawson, Nathan J.; Singer, Kenneth D.; Twieg, Robert J.; Ellman, Brett

    Spatially resolved time-of-flight photogeneration and mobility have been measured on a discotic liquid crystalline organic semiconductor using scanning time-of-flight microscopy (STOFm). STOFm simultaneously obtains time-of-flight transients and polarized transmittance across the sample. Various shapes in time-of-flight transients were observed and extracted charge transport parameters such as photogeneration efficiency, mobility, and trapping show significant spatial variation. In some cases these can be linked to electrode surface inhomogeneities. Detailed measurement methodology, experimental results and challenges in their analysis will be discussed.

  5. Time-resolved and spectral-resolved optical imaging to study brain hemodynamics in songbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottin, Stéphane; Montcel, Bruno; Guillet de Chatellus, Hugues; Ramstein, Stéphane; Vignal, Clémentine; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2011-07-01

    Contrary to the intense debate about brain oxygen dynamics and its uncoupling in mammals, very little is known in birds. In zebra finches, picosecond optical tomography (POT) with a white laser and a streak camera can measure in vivo oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) concentration changes following physiological stimulation (familiar calls and songs). POT demonstrated sufficient sub-micromolar sensitivity to resolve the fast changes in hippocampus and auditory forebrain areas with 250 μm resolution. The time-course is composed of (i) an early 2s-long event with a significant decrease in Hb and HbO2, respectively -0.7 μMoles/L and -0.9 μMoles/L (ii) a subsequent increase in blood oxygen availability with a plateau of HbO2 (+0.3μMoles/L) and (iii) pronounced vasodilatation events immediately following the end of the stimulus. One of the findings of our work is the direct link between the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals previously published in birds and our results. Furthermore, the early vasoconstriction event and post-stimulus ringing seem to be more pronounced in birds than in mammals. These results in bird, a tachymetabolic vertebrate with a long lifespan, can potentially yield new insights for example in brain aging.

  6. Resolvent mode identification in a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Kevin; McKeon, Beverley

    2014-11-01

    The resolvent analysis developed by McKeon and Sharma (J. Fluid Mechanics, 2010) has demonstrated a connection between the most amplified disturbances in wavenumber/frequency space and observed structures in wall turbulence. Three simultaneous hotwire measurements are made across a zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer to identify the resolvent modes associated with these structures. A resolvent mode is designated by a streamwise wavenumber, a spanwise number, and a temporal frequency (k, n, ω respectively) and physically represents a travelling wave. The three wires are aligned in the wall normal direction and spaced in the streamwise and spanwise directions. The signals are filtered at the frequency corresponding to the resolvent mode of interest and ensemble averaged over a single period; the resulting phase differences between wires and their respective separation distances allows for the calculation of the spatial wavenumbers. The eventual goal is to sense these modes in real time as this will provide an important first step towards the development of closed-loop control schemes, specifically within the context of the resolvent framework. The support of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant # FA 9550-12-1-0469 (P.M. Doug Smith) is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. THE DEBRIS DISK AROUND {gamma} DORADUS RESOLVED WITH HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Booth, Mark; Kavelaars, J. J.; Koning, Alice; Kennedy, Grant M.; Wyatt, Mark C.; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Lawler, Samantha M.; Qi, Chenruo; Su, Kate Y. L.; Rieke, George H.; Wilner, David J.; Greaves, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of the debris disk around {gamma} Doradus, an F1V star, from the Herschel Key Programme DEBRIS (Disc Emission via Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre). The disk is well resolved at 70, 100, and 160 {mu}m, resolved along its major axis at 250 {mu}m, detected but not resolved at 350 {mu}m, and confused with a background source at 500 {mu}m. It is one of our best resolved targets and we find it to have a radially broad dust distribution. The modeling of the resolved images cannot distinguish between two configurations: an arrangement of a warm inner ring at several AU (best fit 4 AU) and a cool outer belt extending from {approx}55 to 400 AU or an arrangement of two cool, narrow rings at {approx}70 AU and {approx}190 AU. This suggests that any configuration between these two is also possible. Both models have a total fractional luminosity of {approx}10{sup -5} and are consistent with the disk being aligned with the stellar equator. The inner edge of either possible configuration suggests that the most likely region to find planets in this system would be within {approx}55 AU of the star. A transient event is not needed to explain the warm dust's fractional luminosity.

  8. Understanding healthcare professionals' self-efficacy to resolve interprofessional conflict.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Martha; Orchard, Carole

    2016-05-01

    Conflict within interprofessional healthcare teams, when not effectively resolved, has been linked to detrimental consequences; however, effective conflict resolution has been shown to enhance team performance, increase patient safety, and improve patient outcomes. Alarmingly, knowledge of healthcare professionals' ability to resolve conflict has been limited, largely due to the challenges that arise when researchers attempt to observe a conflict occurring in real time. Research literature has identified three central components that seem to influence healthcare professional's perceived ability to resolve conflict: communication competence, problem-solving ability, and conflict resolution education and training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of communication competence, problem-solving ability, and conflict resolution education and training on healthcare professionals' perceived ability to resolve conflicts. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that two of the three central components-conflict resolution education and training and communication competence-were found to be statistically significant predictors of healthcare professionals' perceived ability to resolve conflict. Implications include a call to action for clinicians and academicians to recognize the importance of communication competence and conflict resolution education and training as a vital area in interprofessional pre- and post-licensure education and collaborative practice. PMID:27152535

  9. ALMA resolves SN 1987A's dust factory and particle accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indebetouw, Remy; SN1987A ALMA Cycle 0 Team

    2014-01-01

    SN1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud is the closest supernova to earth to be observed since 1604, making it a unique laboratory to study supernova physics in real time. Among SN87A's remarkable properties are a very large mass of new dust forming in the supernova ejecta. This dust was inferred from Herschel data, but its location not proven since Herschel could not resolve the 1.8" diameter remnant. Another mystery is whether the explosion left behind a neutron star - neither pulsar nor pulsar wind nebula has been detected so far. Excess emission from a PWN should be easiest to detect at millimeter wavelengths, if it can be spatially resolved from the synchrotron-emitting supernova shock. We present the first spatially resolved images of SN1987A at 450um, 870um, and 1.4mm, observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). ALMA resolves emission from the newly formed dust, unambiguously locating it within the ejecta, interior to the reverse shock. The shocked ring is also well-resolved, and separated spatially from the ejecta. The ring shows no spectral break compared to centimeter wavelengths, and no free-free or PWN emission is required to explain the data. We discuss physical properties of the components of the remnant determined from these high resolution ALMA images.

  10. Effect of recondensation of sublimed species on nanoparticle temperature evolution in time-resolved laser-induced incandescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memarian, F.; Liu, F.; Thomson, K. A.; Daun, K. J.; Snelling, D. R.; Smallwood, G. J.

    2015-03-01

    In high-fluence laser-induced incandescence (LII), current LII models significantly overpredict the soot nanoparticle temperature decay rate compared to that inferred from two-color pyrometry at the first 100 ns after the peak laser pulse in atmospheric pressure flames. One possible cause is the back flow of sublimed species, which to date has been neglected in LII modeling. In this study, the transient direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method has been used, for the first time, to calculate the temperature evolution of soot particles, taking into account recondensation of sublimed species. In this algorithm, the physical time is discretized into a number of time steps called ensemble time steps, and the heat flux is calculated by performing several DSMC runs in each ensemble time step before proceeding to the next ensemble time step until the variance reaches an acceptable value. This heat flux is then used to update the nanoparticle temperature over the ensemble time step. Using the new algorithm, the temperature evolution of the particle can be predicted by the DSMC code, which is an improvement to previous DSMC simulations in which predetermined temperature decay curves must be prescribed. The results show that recondensation of sublimed species on the originating nanoparticle is not significant. Although accounting for condensation of sublimed species originating from neighboring soot particles enhances the role of recondensation of sublimed species in slowing down the soot particle temperature decay, it is still not sufficient to be considered as a plausible cause for the discrepancy between modeled soot temperature and the two-color pyrometry measured one in high-fluence LII.

  11. A time-resolved image sensor for tubeless streak cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasutomi, Keita; Han, SangMan; Seo, Min-Woong; Takasawa, Taishi; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Kawahito, Shoji

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a time-resolved CMOS image sensor with draining-only modulation (DOM) pixels for tube-less streak cameras. Although the conventional streak camera has high time resolution, the device requires high voltage and bulky system due to the structure with a vacuum tube. The proposed time-resolved imager with a simple optics realize a streak camera without any vacuum tubes. The proposed image sensor has DOM pixels, a delay-based pulse generator, and a readout circuitry. The delay-based pulse generator in combination with an in-pixel logic allows us to create and to provide a short gating clock to the pixel array. A prototype time-resolved CMOS image sensor with the proposed pixel is designed and implemented using 0.11um CMOS image sensor technology. The image array has 30(Vertical) x 128(Memory length) pixels with the pixel pitch of 22.4um. .

  12. Protein-ligand interactions probed by time-resolved crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, M.; Ihee, H.; Pahl, R.; Srajer, V.

    2005-03-09

    Time-resolved (TR) crystallography is a unique method for determining the structures of intermediates in biomolecular reactions. The technique reached its mature stage with the development of the powerful third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources, and the advances in data processing and analysis of time-resolved Laue crystallographic data. A time resolution of 100 ps has been achieved and relatively small structural changes can be detected even from only partial reaction initiation. The remaining challenge facing the application of this technique to a broad range of biological systems is to find an efficient and rapid, system-specific method for the reaction initiation in the crystal. Other frontiers for the technique involve the continued improvement in time resolution and further advances in methods for determining intermediate structures and reaction mechanisms. The time-resolved technique, combined with trapping methods and computational approaches, holds the promise for a complete structure-based description of biomolecular reactions.

  13. THE ALGOL TRIPLE SYSTEM SPATIALLY RESOLVED AT OPTICAL WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Zavala, R. T.; Hutter, D. J.; Hummel, C. A.; Boboltz, D. A.; Ojha, R.; Shaffer, D. B.; Tycner, C.; Richards, M. T. E-mail: djh@nofs.navy.mi E-mail: dboboltz@usno.navy.mi E-mail: shaffer@alumni.caltech.ed E-mail: mrichards@astro.psu.ed

    2010-05-20

    Interacting binaries typically have separations in the milliarcsecond regime, and hence it has been challenging to resolve them at any wavelength. However, recent advances in optical interferometry have improved our ability to discern the components in these systems and have now enabled the direct determination of physical parameters. We used the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer to produce for the first time images resolving all three components in the well-known Algol triple system. Specifically, we have separated the tertiary component from the binary and simultaneously resolved the eclipsing binary pair, which represents the nearest and brightest eclipsing binary in the sky. We present revised orbital elements for the triple system, and we have rectified the 180{sup 0} ambiguity in the position angle of Algol C. Our directly determined magnitude differences and masses for this triple star system are consistent with earlier light curve modeling results.

  14. Molecular mechanism of resolving trinucleotide repeat hairpin by helicases.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yupeng; Niu, Hengyao; Vukovic, Lela; Sung, Patrick; Myong, Sua

    2015-06-01

    Trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion is the root cause for many known congenital neurological and muscular disorders in human including Huntington's disease, fragile X syndrome, and Friedreich's ataxia. The stable secondary hairpin structures formed by TNR may trigger fork stalling during replication, causing DNA polymerase slippage and TNR expansion. Srs2 and Sgs1 are two helicases in yeast that resolve TNR hairpins during DNA replication and prevent genome expansion. Using single-molecule fluorescence, we investigated the unwinding mechanism by which Srs2 and Sgs1 resolves TNR hairpin and compared it with unwinding of duplex DNA. While Sgs1 unwinds both structures indiscriminately, Srs2 displays repetitive unfolding of TNR hairpin without fully unwinding it. Such activity of Srs2 shows dependence on the folding strength and the total length of TNR hairpin. Our results reveal a disparate molecular mechanism of Srs2 and Sgs1 that may contribute differently to efficient resolving of the TNR hairpin. PMID:26004439

  15. Forecasting Lightning Threat using Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Goodman, Steven J.; LaCasse, Katherine M.; Cecil, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Two new approaches are proposed and developed for making time and space dependent, quantitative short-term forecasts of lightning threat, and a blend of these approaches is devised that capitalizes on the strengths of each. The new methods are distinctive in that they are based entirely on the ice-phase hydrometeor fields generated by regional cloud-resolving numerical simulations, such as those produced by the WRF model. These methods are justified by established observational evidence linking aspects of the precipitating ice hydrometeor fields to total flash rates. The methods are straightforward and easy to implement, and offer an effective near-term alternative to the incorporation of complex and costly cloud electrification schemes into numerical models. One method is based on upward fluxes of precipitating ice hydrometeors in the mixed phase region at the-15 C level, while the second method is based on the vertically integrated amounts of ice hydrometeors in each model grid column. Each method can be calibrated by comparing domain-wide statistics of the peak values of simulated flash rate proxy fields against domain-wide peak total lightning flash rate density data from observations. Tests show that the first method is able to capture much of the temporal variability of the lightning threat, while the second method does a better job of depicting the areal coverage of the threat. Our blended solution is designed to retain most of the temporal sensitivity of the first method, while adding the improved spatial coverage of the second. Exploratory tests for selected North Alabama cases show that, because WRF can distinguish the general character of most convective events, our methods show promise as a means of generating quantitatively realistic fields of lightning threat. However, because the models tend to have more difficulty in predicting the instantaneous placement of storms, forecasts of the detailed location of the lightning threat based on single

  16. RESOLVE's Field Demonstration on Mauna Kea, Hawaii 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, Janine; Quinn, Jacqueline; Moss, Thomas; Weis, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, and the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). This project is an Earth-based lunar precursor demonstration of a system that could be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, where it would drill into regolith, quantify the volatiles that are present, and extract oxygen by hydrogen reduction of iron oxides. The resulting water could be electrolyzed into oxygen to support exploration and hydrogen, which would be recycled through the process. The RESOLVE chemical processing system was mounted on a Canadian Space Agency mobility chasis and successfully demonstrated on Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano in February 2010. The RESOLVE unit is the initial prototype of a robotic prospecting mission to the Moon. RESOLVE is designed to go to the poles of the Moon to "ground truth" the form and concentration of the hydrogen/water/hydroxyl that has been seen from orbit (M3, Lunar Prospector and LRO) and to test technologies to extract oxygen from the lunar regolith. RESOLVE has the ability to capture a one-meter core sample of lunar regolith and heat it to determine the volatiles that may be released and then demonstrate the production of oxygen from minerals found in the regolith. The RESOLVE project, which is led by KSC, is a multi-center and multi-organizational effort that includes representatives from KSC, JSC, GRC, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Northern Center for Advanced Technology (NORCAT). This paper details the results obtained from four days of lunar analog testing that included gas chromatograph analysis for volatile components, remote control of chemistry and drilling operations via satalite communications, and real-time water quantification using a novel capacitance measurement technique.

  17. Frequency- and time-resolved coherence transfer spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rickard, Mark A; Pakoulev, Andrei V; Mathew, Nathan A; Kornau, Kathryn M; Wright, John C

    2007-02-22

    Frequency-domain two-color triply vibrational enhanced four-wave mixing using a new phase-matching geometry discriminates against coherent multidimensional spectral features created solely by radiative transitions, spectrally resolves pathways with different numbers of coherence transfer steps, and temporally resolves modulations created by interference between coherence transfer pathways. Coherence transfer is a nonradiative transition where a superposition of quantum states evolves to a different superposition. The asymmetric and symmetric C[triple bond]O stretching modes of rhodium(I) dicarbonyl acetylacetonate are used as a model system for coherence transfer. A simplified theoretical model based on Redfield theory is used to describe the experimental results. PMID:17300169

  18. Resolved Atomic Interaction Sidebands in an Optical Clock Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Bishof, M.; Lin, Y.; Swallows, M. D.; Ye, J.; Rey, A. M.; Gorshkov, A. V.

    2011-06-24

    We report the observation of resolved atomic interaction sidebands (ISB) in the {sup 87}Sr optical clock transition when atoms at microkelvin temperatures are confined in a two-dimensional optical lattice. The ISB are a manifestation of the strong interactions that occur between atoms confined in a quasi-one-dimensional geometry and disappear when the confinement is relaxed along one dimension. The emergence of ISB is linked to the recently observed suppression of collisional frequency shifts. At the current temperatures, the ISB can be resolved but are broad. At lower temperatures, ISB are predicted to be substantially narrower and useful spectroscopic tools in strongly interacting alkaline-earth gases.

  19. Time-Resolved X-Ray Crystallography of Heme Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Srajer, Vukica; Royer, Jr., William E.

    2008-04-29

    Heme proteins, with their natural photosensitivity, are excellent systems for the application of time-resolved crystallographic methods. Ligand dissociation can be readily initiated by a short laser pulse with global structural changes probed at the atomic level by X-rays in real time. Third-generation synchrotrons provide 100-ps X-ray pulses of sufficient intensity for monitoring very fast processes. Successful application of such time-resolved crystallographic experiments requires that the structural changes being monitored are compatible with the crystal lattice. These techniques have recently permitted observing for the first time allosteric transitions in real time for a cooperative dimeric hemoglobin.

  20. Time-resolved x-ray crystallography of heme proteins

    PubMed Central

    Royer, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Heme proteins, with their natural photosensitivity, are excellent systems for the application of time-resolved crystallographic methods. Ligand dissociation can be readily initiated by a short laser pulse with global structural changes probed at the atomic level by X-rays in real time. Third generation synchrotrons provide 100ps X-ray pulses of sufficient intensity for monitoring very fast processes. Successful application of such time-resolved crystallographic experiments requires that the structural changes being monitored are compatible with the crystal lattice. These techniques have permitted observing allosteric transitions in real time for a cooperative dimeric hemoglobin. PMID:18433638

  1. RESOLVE OVEN Field Demonstration Unit for Lunar Resource Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paz, Aaron; Oryshchyn, Lara; Jensen, Scott; Sanders, Gerald B.; Lee, Kris; Reddington, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) is a subsystem within the Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project. The purpose of the OVEN subsystem is to release volatiles from lunar regolith and extract oxygen by means of a hydrogen reduction reaction. The complete process includes receiving, weighing, sealing, heating, and disposing of core sample segments while transferring all gaseous contents to the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. This document will discuss the design and performance of the OVEN Field Demonstration Unit (FDU), which participated in the 2012 RESOLVE field demonstration.

  2. The role of mediation in resolving workplace relationship conflict.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Donna Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Stress triggered by workplace-based interpersonal conflict can result in damaged relationships, loss of productivity, diminished job satisfaction and increasingly, workers' compensation claims for psychological injury. This paper examined the literature on the role and effectiveness of mediation, as the most common method of Alternative Dispute Resolution, in resolving workplace relationship conflict. Available evidence suggests that mediation is most effective when supported by organisational commitment to ADR strategies, policies and processes, and conducted by independent, experienced and qualified mediators. The United States Postal Service program REDRESS™ is described as an illustration of the successful use of mediation to resolve conflict in the workplace. PMID:25660062

  3. Channel-resolved above-threshold double ionization of acetylene.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaochun; Song, Qiying; Ji, Qinying; Lin, Kang; Pan, Haifeng; Ding, Jingxin; Zeng, Heping; Wu, Jian

    2015-04-24

    We experimentally investigate the channel-resolved above-threshold double ionization (ATDI) of acetylene in the multiphoton regime using an ultraviolet femtosecond laser pulse centered at 395 nm by measuring all the ejected electrons and ions in coincidence. As compared to the sequential process, diagonal lines in the electron-electron joint energy spectrum are observed for the nonsequential ATDI owing to the correlative sharing of the absorbed multiphoton energies. We demonstrate that the distinct channel-resolved sequential and nonsequential ATDI spectra can clearly reveal the photon-induced acetylene-vinylidene isomerization via proton migration on the cation or dication states. PMID:25955049

  4. Validating under-resolved turbulence intensities for PIV experiments in canonical wall-bounded turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Kevin; Monty, J. P.; Hutchins, N.

    2016-08-01

    The discrepancy between measured turbulence intensity obtained from experiments in wall-bounded turbulence and the fully resolved reference results (usually from DNS datasets) are often attributed to spatial resolution issues, especially in PIV measurements due to the presence of spatial averaging within the interrogation region/volume. In many cases, in particular at high Reynolds numbers (where there is a lack of DNS data), there is no attempt to verify that this is the case. There is a risk that attributing unexpected PIV statistics to spatial resolution, without careful checks, could mask wider problems with the experimental setup or test facility. Here, we propose a robust technique to validate the under-resolved PIV obtained turbulence intensity profiles for canonical wall-bounded turbulence. This validation scheme is independent of Reynolds number and does not rely on empirical functions. It is based on arguments that (1) the viscous-scaled small-scale turbulence energy is invariant with Reynolds number and that (2) the spatially under-resolved measurement is sufficient to capture the large-scale energy. This then suggests that we can estimate the missing energy from volume-filtered DNS data at much lower Reynolds numbers. Good agreement is found between the experimental results and estimation profiles for all three velocity components, demonstrating that the estimation tool successfully computes the missing energy for given spatial resolutions over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. A database for a canonical turbulent boundary layer and associated MATLAB function are provided that enable this missing energy to be calculated across a range of interrogation volume sizes, so that users do not require access to raw DNS data. This methodology and tool will provide PIV practitioners, investigating canonical wall-bounded turbulent flow with a convenient check of the effects of spatial resolution on a given experiment.

  5. Modeling and optimization of a time-resolved proton radiographic imaging system for proton cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bin

    This dissertation describes a research project to test the clinical utility of a time-resolved proton radiographic (TRPR) imaging system by performing comprehensive Monte Carlo simulations of a physical device coupled with realistic lung cancer patient anatomy defined by 4DCT for proton therapy. A time-resolved proton radiographic imaging system was modeled through Monte Carlo simulations. A particle-tracking feature was employed to evaluate the performance of the proton imaging system, especially in its ability to visualize and quantify proton range variations during respiration. The Most Likely Path (MLP) algorithm was developed to approximate the multiple Coulomb scattering paths of protons for the purpose of image reconstruction. Spatial resolution of ˜ 1 mm and range resolution of 1.3% of the total range were achieved using the MLP algorithm. Time-resolved proton radiographs of five patient cases were reconstructed to track tumor motion and to calculate water equivalent length variations. By comparing with direct 4DCT measurement, the accuracy of tumor tracking was found to be better than 2 mm in five patient cases. Utilizing tumor tracking information to reduce margins to the planning target volume, a gated treatment plan was compared with un-gated treatment plan. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were used to quantify the gain in the quality of treatments. The EUD of the OARs was found to be reduced up to 11% and the corresponding NTCP of organs at risk (OARs) was found to be reduced up to 16.5%. These results suggest that, with image guidance by proton radiography, dose to OARs can be reduced and the corresponding NTCPs can be significantly reduced. The study concludes that the proton imaging system can accurately track the motion of the tumor and detect the WEL variations, leading to potential gains in using image-guided proton radiography for lung cancer treatments.

  6. Simulating the Evolution of Soot Mixing State with a Particle-Resolved Aerosol Model

    SciTech Connect

    Riemer, Nicole; West, Matt; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.

    2009-05-05

    The mixing state of soot particles in the atmosphere is of crucial importance for assessing their climatic impact, since it governs their chemical reactivity, cloud condensation nuclei activity and radiative properties. To improve the mixing state representation in models, we present a new approach, the stochastic particle-resolved model PartMC-MOSAIC, which explicitly resolves the composition of individual particles in a given population of different types of aerosol particles. This approach accurately tracks the evolution of the mixing state of particles due to emission, dilution, condensation and coagulation. To make this direct stochastic particle-based method practical, we implemented a new multiscale stochastic coagulation method. With this method we achieved optimal efficiency for applications when the coagulation kernel is highly non-uniform, as is the case for many realistic applications. PartMC-MOSAIC was applied to an idealized urban plume case representative of a large urban area to simulate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types due to coagulation and condensation. For this urban plume scenario we quantified the individual processes that contribute to the aging of the aerosol distribution, illustrating the capabilities of our modeling approach. The results showed for the first time the multidimensional structure of particle composition, which is usually lost in internally-mixed sectional or modal aerosol models.

  7. Spin-resolved Andreev transport through double-quantum-dot Cooper pair splitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocha, Piotr; Weymann, Ireneusz

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the Andreev transport through double-quantum-dot Cooper pair splitters with ferromagnetic leads. The analysis is performed with the aid of the real-time diagrammatic technique in the sequential tunneling regime. We study the dependence of the Andreev current, the differential conductance, and the tunnel magnetoresistance on various parameters of the model in both the linear and nonlinear response regimes. In particular, we analyze the spin-resolved transport in the crossed Andreev reflection regime, where a blockade of the current occurs due to enhanced occupation of the triplet state. We show that in the triplet blockade, finite intradot correlations can lead to considerable leakage current due to direct Andreev reflection processes. Furthermore, we find additional regimes of current suppression resulting from enhanced occupation of singlet states, which decreases the rate of crossed Andreev reflection. We also study how the splitting of Andreev bound states, triggered by either dot level detuning, finite hopping between the dots, or finite magnetic field, affects the Andreev current. While in the first two cases the number of Andreev bound states is doubled, whereas transport properties are qualitatively similar, in the case of finite magnetic field further level splitting occurs, leading to a nontrivial behavior of spin-resolved transport characteristics, and especially that of tunneling magnetoresistance. Finally, we discuss the entanglement fidelity between split Cooper pair electrons and show that by tuning the device parameters, fidelity can reach unity.

  8. Drug/protein interactions studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Thomas; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Vayá, Ignacio; Bonancía, Paula; Jiménez, M. C.; Miranda, Miguel A.

    2014-09-01

    We report here on a recent time-resolved fluorescence study [1] of the interaction between flurbiprofen (FBP), a chiral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and human serum albumin (HSA), the main transport protein in the human body. We compare the results obtained for the drug-protein complex with those of various covalently linked flurbiprofentryptophan dyads having well-defined geometries. In all cases stereoselective dynamic fluorescence quenching is observed, varying greatly from one system to another. In addition, the fluorescence anisotropy decays also display a clear stereoselectivity. For the drug-protein complexes, this can be interpreted in terms of the protein microenvironment playing a significant role in the conformational relaxation of FBP, which is more restricted in the case of the (R)- enantiomer.

  9. Chemical state of Ag in Conducting Bridge Random Access Memory cells: a depth resolved X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy investigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Acapito, F.; Souchier, E.; Noe, P.; Blaise, P.; Bernard, M.; Jousseaume, V.

    2016-05-01

    Conducting Bridge Random Access Memories (CBRAM) are a promising substitute for FLASH technology but problems with limited retention of the low resistance ON state still hamper their massive deployment. Depth resolved X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy has been used to describe the chemical state of the atoms of the active electrode (in this case Ag) and to reveal the role of Sb as stabilizer of the metallic state.

  10. Novel force resolver designs for a haptic surgery simulator.

    PubMed

    Zivanovic, Aleksandar; Dibble, Edward; Davies, Brian

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the design of low cost, four degree of freedom force/torque resolvers for use in compact haptic devices for surgical training. Two designs using piezo-resistive sensors are described and one using strain gauges. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are stated and conclusions presented. PMID:15544320

  11. 36 CFR 800.7 - Failure to resolve adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) If a THPO terminates consultation regarding an undertaking occurring on or affecting historic... terminating consultation to seek to resolve issues concerning the undertaking and its effects on historic... additional advisory comments upon an undertaking for which a memorandum of agreement will be executed....

  12. 28 CFR 907.4 - Methodology for resolving noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... noncriminal justice purposes from the offending agency and, if the offending agency is a criminal justice... by the offending agency. If the offending agency is a criminal justice agency, the Compact Council... INDEX (III) SYSTEM FOR NONCRIMINAL JUSTICE PURPOSES § 907.4 Methodology for resolving noncompliance....

  13. 28 CFR 907.4 - Methodology for resolving noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... noncriminal justice purposes from the offending agency and, if the offending agency is a criminal justice... by the offending agency. If the offending agency is a criminal justice agency, the Compact Council... INDEX (III) SYSTEM FOR NONCRIMINAL JUSTICE PURPOSES § 907.4 Methodology for resolving noncompliance....

  14. 28 CFR 907.4 - Methodology for resolving noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... noncriminal justice purposes from the offending agency and, if the offending agency is a criminal justice... by the offending agency. If the offending agency is a criminal justice agency, the Compact Council... INDEX (III) SYSTEM FOR NONCRIMINAL JUSTICE PURPOSES § 907.4 Methodology for resolving noncompliance....

  15. Time-resolved spectroscopic techniques in laser medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Martínez, Roberto; Román-Moreno, Carlos J.; Rodríguez-Rosales, Antonio A.

    2000-10-01

    Spectroscopic lasers techniques are very useful for the detection and treatment of cancer and removing atherosclerotic plaque. Photobiology and photochemical studies, with the new generation of lasers high resolution time-resolved optical tomography is mentioned. A brief review of some of these applications is discussed and a partial list of recent references is given.

  16. Development of an Integrated RVC-LWRD System for RESOLVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, Janine; Lueck, Dale; Kolody, Mark; Whitten, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) incorporates 5 modules: (1) EBRC (Excavation and Bulk Regolith Characterization) (2) ERPC (Environment and Regolith Physical Characterization) ROE (Regolith Oxygen Extraction) (3) RVC (Regolith Volatile Characterization) (5) LWRD (Lunar Water Resource Demonstration). The goal of this work is to identify and quantify volatiles, demonstrate ISRU, engage the public interest in 'living off the land' technology

  17. Resolving distance ambiguities towards 6.7 GHz methanol masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandian, J. D.; Momjian, E.; Goldsmith, P. F.

    2008-07-01

    Context: Distances to most star forming regions are determined using kinematics, through the assumption that the observed radial velocity arises from the motion of the source with respect to the Sun resulting from the differential rotation of Galaxy. The primary challenge associated with the application of this technique in the inner Galaxy is the kinematic distance ambiguity. Aims: In this work, we aim to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity towards a sample of 6.7 GHz methanol masers, which are signposts of the early stages of massive star formation. Methods: We measured 21 cm H I absorption spectra using the Very Large Array in C and CnB configurations. A comparison of the maximum velocity of H I absorption with the source velocity and tangent point velocity was used to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity. Results: We resolved the distance ambiguity towards 41 sources. Distance determinations that are in conflict with previous measurements are discussed. The NE2001 spiral arm model is broadly consistent with the locations of the star forming complexes. We find that the use of vertical scale height arguments to resolve the distance ambiguity can lead to erroneous classifications for a significant fraction of sources.

  18. 48 CFR 2052.242-70 - Resolving differing professional views.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Resolving differing professional views. 2052.242-70 Section 2052.242-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY... to support the contractor's expression of professional health and safety related concerns...

  19. 48 CFR 2052.242-70 - Resolving differing professional views.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Resolving differing professional views. 2052.242-70 Section 2052.242-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY... to support the contractor's expression of professional health and safety related concerns...

  20. 48 CFR 2052.242-70 - Resolving differing professional views.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Resolving differing professional views. 2052.242-70 Section 2052.242-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY... to support the contractor's expression of professional health and safety related concerns...

  1. Tired of Yelling: Teaching Our Children To Resolve Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Lyndon D.

    One of the most important components of child rearing is to help children develop attitudes and skills that allow them to manage anger well and find solutions to conflict. This book presents a 15-step model showing parents how to teach their children they can resolve conflicts successfully by assessing their emotion and gauging its intensity,…

  2. OVEN & LAVA Subsystems in the RESOLVE Payload for Resource Prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, Janine E.

    2015-01-01

    A short briefing in Power Point of the status of the OVEN subsystem and the LAVA subsystems of the RESOLVE payload being developed under the Resource Prospector mission. The purpose of the mission is to sample and analyze volatile ices embedded in the lunar soil at the poles of the Moon and is expected to be conducted in the 2020 time frame.

  3. Modeling Mechanisms of Persisting and Resolving Delay in Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Knowland, V. C. P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors used neural network modeling to investigate the possible mechanistic basis of developmental language delay and to test the viability of the hypothesis that persisting delay and resolving delay lie on a mechanistic continuum with normal development. Method: The authors used a population modeling approach to study…

  4. Children's Use of Gesture to Resolve Lexical Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Holler, Judith

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study investigating 3-5-year-old children's use of gesture to resolve lexical ambiguity. Children were told three short stories that contained two homonym senses; for example, "bat" (flying mammal) and "bat" (sports equipment). They were then asked to re-tell these stories to a second experimenter. The data were coded for the means…

  5. THE SCHOOL BOARD AS AN AGENCY FOR RESOLVING CONFLICT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIPHAM, JAMES M.; AND OTHERS

    VIEWING ADMINISTRATION AS A SOCIAL PROCESS, A THREE-YEAR STUDY WAS MADE OF THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL BOARD AS AN AGENCY FOR RESOLVING CONFLICT BETWEEN THE SCHOOL AND THE COMMUNITY. ROLE EXPECTATIONS FOR THE SCHOOL BOARD WERE ASSESSED BY INTERVIEWING 1,794 CITIZENS, 240 TEACHERS, 183 PUBLIC OFFICIALS, AND 90 SCHOOL BOARD MEMBERS IN 12 WISCONSIN SCHOOL…

  6. Music Education Preservice Teachers' Confidence in Resolving Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedden, Debra G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there would be a change in preservice teachers' (a) confidence concerning the resolution of behavior problems, (b) tactics for resolving them, (c) anticipation of problems, (d) fears about management issues, and (e) confidence in methodology and pedagogy over the time period of a one-semester…

  7. Resolving Semantic Interference during Word Production Requires Central Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The semantic picture-word interference task has been used to diagnose how speakers resolve competition while selecting words for production. The attentional demands of this resolution process were assessed in 2 dual-task experiments (tone classification followed by picture naming). In Experiment 1, when pictures and distractor words were presented…

  8. A hybrid genetic algorithm for resolving closely spaced objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, R. J.; Lillo, W. E.; Schulenburg, N.

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid genetic algorithm is described for performing the difficult optimization task of resolving closely spaced objects appearing in space based and ground based surveillance data. This application of genetic algorithms is unusual in that it uses a powerful domain-specific operation as a genetic operator. Results of applying the algorithm to real data from telescopic observations of a star field are presented.

  9. Legal Options for Resolving Disputes in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2007-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, with the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act ("Sec. 504"), special education became highly legalized. Although it is universally agreed that the best way to avoid and resolve disputes is through informal communication and cooperation between parents and…

  10. Resolving Ambiguity from Competing Spatial Frames of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codd, Judith; Bialystok, Ellen

    A 2-part investigation was conducted to examine the ways children resolve the inherent ambiguity of spatial descriptions in terms of cues indicated by the three constituents of spatial propositions: predicate, referent, and relatum. In the first study, it was hypothesized that certain objects, structural markers, and definite articles accompanying…

  11. A BASIC program to resolve obliquely crossed spherocylinders.

    PubMed

    Calossi, A

    1993-12-01

    It is often necessary to know the solution of two spherocylinders having oblique axes. Resolving obliquely crossed cylinders involves tedious trigonometric calculation; for this reason we are presenting a simple BASIC program for the rapid and accurate calculation with the help of a personal computer or a programmable calculator. PMID:8115130

  12. Spectrally resolved femtosecond photon echo spectroscopy of astaxanthin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajitesh; Karthick Kumar, S. K.; Gupta, Aditya; Goswami, Debabrata

    2010-12-01

    We have studied the coherence and population dynamics of Astaxanthin solution in methanol and acetonitrile by spectrally resolving their photon echo signals. Our experiments indicate that methanol has a much stronger interaction with the ultrafast dynamics of Astaxanthin in comparison to that of acetonitrile.

  13. Spectrally resolved femtosecond photon echo spectroscopy of astaxanthin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajitesh; Karthick Kumar, S. K.; Gupta, Aditya; Goswami, Debabrata

    2011-08-01

    We have studied the coherence and population dynamics of Astaxanthin solution in methanol and acetonitrile by spectrally resolving their photon echo signals. Our experiments indicate that methanol has a much stronger interaction with the ultrafast dynamics of Astaxanthin in comparison to that of acetonitrile.

  14. 30 CFR 706.19 - Resolving prohibited interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... effect resolution. If an employee has a prohibited financial interest, the head of the organizational entity (Department, bureau, office, etc.) where the employee works shall promptly advise the employee that remedial action which will resolve the prohibited interest is required within 90 days....

  15. 30 CFR 705.19 - Resolving prohibited interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... effect resolution. If an employee has a prohibited financial interest, the Head of the State Regulatory Authority shall promptly advise the employee that remedial action which will resolve the prohibited interest is required within 90 days. (2) Remedial action may include: (i) Reassignment of the employee to...

  16. An Initial Investigation of Active Galaxies in RESOLVE and ECO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Dara J.; Kannappan, Sheila; Bittner, Ashley; Yarber, Aara'L.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Stark, David; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    The volume-limited REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey and its complementary Environmental COntext (ECO) catalog are dominated by low mass, gas-rich galaxies, as is typical of the bulk of large-scale structure in the local universe. These surveys, therefore, provide an excellent opportunity to investigate the complete large-scale environments of low-redshift AGN and nuclear starbursts in such galaxies, in order to search for external triggering, examine activity in relation to gas supply, and investigate the role of feedback. By data-mining multi-wavelength catalogs that use varied techniques, we identify known AGN in RESOLVE and ECO, including a population of gas-dominated low-mass galaxies. We take advantage of these surveys' multi-wavelength supporting data to investigate triggering, feedback, and the roles of environment and gas supply in this initial sample of active galaxies. Because biases in standard AGN candidate selection techniques (e.g. BPT, X-ray luminosity) make them individually poor selectors of AGN activity in star-forming and low mass (<10^10 Msun) host galaxies, we also seek to improve the identification of nuclear activity in such galaxies via combined analysis of star formation and AGN signatures. RESOLVE is supported by NSF grant AST-0955368

  17. 47 CFR 301.200 - Requests to resolve disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requests to resolve disputes. 301.200 Section 301.200 Telecommunication NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RELOCATION OF AND SPECTRUM SHARING BY FEDERAL GOVERNMENT STATIONS Dispute Resolution Boards §...

  18. 47 CFR 301.200 - Requests to resolve disputes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requests to resolve disputes. 301.200 Section 301.200 Telecommunication NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RELOCATION OF AND SPECTRUM SHARING BY FEDERAL GOVERNMENT STATIONS Dispute Resolution Boards. §...

  19. Mechanisms for Resolving Collective Bargaining Impasses in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Harry A.

    In the field of education, the impasses that have occurred in collective bargaining for a contract have been resolved sooner or later--in one way or another. If a due process for settling the impasse has not been provided, both legal and illegal actions will take place in the attempt to force a more favorable settlement. Mediation, fact finding,…

  20. RESOLVE and ECO: Galaxy Refueling Transitions in Environmental Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannappan, Sheila; Moffett, A. J.; Eckert, K. D.; Stark, D.; Norris, M. A.; Berlind, A. A.; the RESOLVE Team

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that galaxies undergo two key transitions in refueling. Below the threshold mass (baryonic mass Mbar 10^10 Msun or 125 km/s), gas-dominated late-type galaxies and blue, disk-building E/S0 galaxies become abundant, reflecting an increase in accretion-dominated states. Between the threshold mass and the bimodality mass (Mbar 10^10.6 Msun or 200 km/s), "normal" intermediate gas content bulged spiral galaxies like our Milky Way become most common, reflecting reduced accretion, while at higher masses quenched E/S0s start to dominate. Notwithstanding these results, the high scatter in gas and long-term star formation trends as a function of galaxy mass implies that mass is a secondary driver of refueling, motivating an inquiry into the role of environment. We present two surveys designed to meet this need: the REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey and the Environmental COntext (ECO) catalog encompassing it. Initially selected from the SDSS, both surveys offer enhanced redshift completeness and custom reprocessed NUV+ugriz+JHK photometry. RESOLVE comprises >1500 galaxies down to baryonic mass ~10^9 Msun, for which we are building a comprehensive census of stellar, gas, and dynamical mass as well as star formation and environment data. The RESOLVE database includes spatially resolved optical spectroscopy from SOAR, SALT, and Gemini in both high-resolution kinematic mode and low-resolution stellar population mode, as well as deep 21cm observations from the GBT and Arecibo aimed at detecting HI down to 5%-10% of each galaxy's stellar mass. ECO has nearly ten times larger volume than RESOLVE, with matched environment and stellar mass metrics as well as shallower HI data inherited from the 21cm ALFALFA survey, but only SDSS spectroscopy. Here we use the first wave of gas, star formation, and environment data for RESOLVE and ECO to explore the halo mass dependence of refueling, finding that both gas-dominated galaxies and blue

  1. Numerical simulations of time-resolved quantum electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaury, Benoit; Weston, Joseph; Santin, Matthieu; Houzet, Manuel; Groth, Christoph; Waintal, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulation has become a major tool in quantum electronics both for fundamental and applied purposes. While for a long time those simulations focused on stationary properties (e.g. DC currents), the recent experimental trend toward GHz frequencies and beyond has triggered a new interest for handling time-dependent perturbations. As the experimental frequencies get higher, it becomes possible to conceive experiments which are both time-resolved and fast enough to probe the internal quantum dynamics of the system. This paper discusses the technical aspects-mathematical and numerical-associated with the numerical simulations of such a setup in the time domain (i.e. beyond the single-frequency AC limit). After a short review of the state of the art, we develop a theoretical framework for the calculation of time-resolved observables in a general multiterminal system subject to an arbitrary time-dependent perturbation (oscillating electrostatic gates, voltage pulses, time-varying magnetic fields, etc.) The approach is mathematically equivalent to (i) the time-dependent scattering formalism, (ii) the time-resolved non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism and (iii) the partition-free approach. The central object of our theory is a wave function that obeys a simple Schrödinger equation with an additional source term that accounts for the electrons injected from the electrodes. The time-resolved observables (current, density, etc.) and the (inelastic) scattering matrix are simply expressed in terms of this wave function. We use our approach to develop a numerical technique for simulating time-resolved quantum transport. We find that the use of this wave function is advantageous for numerical simulations resulting in a speed up of many orders of magnitude with respect to the direct integration of NEGF equations. Our technique allows one to simulate realistic situations beyond simple models, a subject that was until now beyond the simulation capabilities

  2. [Intermittent hematuria. Vesical schistosomosis. Concerning one case].

    PubMed

    Morales Senosiáin, D; Molina, J; Martínez Oríz, A; Martínez Artola, V; Beristáin, X

    2009-01-01

    We present a clinical case of vesical schistosomiasis that we consider unusual in our environment. The clinical features of this parasitosis include an intermittent hematuria of several weeks evolution which is not resolved with the usual treatment. Due to the increase in the immigrant population arriving from endemic areas, we must pay greater attention to this emergent pathology. The process is resolved satisfactorily with treatment and complications are avoided. PMID:19738650

  3. Trichotillomania in a Case of Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Avinash; Mehta, Janki

    2013-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a complex psychiatric disorder and occurs along with a large number of comorbidity. We report a case of trichotillomania associated with vascular dementia. Trichotillomania in our case did not resolve using mirtazapine or conventional medications. Trichotillomania in dementia seems to have a neurobiological origin that needs to be elucidated. PMID:23960397

  4. Rapid On-Site Sensing Aflatoxin B1 in Food and Feed via a Chromatographic Time-Resolved Fluoroimmunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Du; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 poses grave threats to food and feed safety due to its strong carcinogenesis and toxicity, thus requiring ultrasensitive rapid on-site determination. Herein, a portable immunosensor based on chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed for sensitive and on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples. Chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay offered a magnified positive signal and low signal-to-noise ratio in time-resolved mode due to the absence of noise interference caused by excitation light sources. Compared with the immunosensing performance in previous studies, this platform demonstrated a wider dynamic range of 0.2-60 μg/kg, lower limit of detection from 0.06 to 0.12 µg/kg, and considerable recovery from 80.5% to 116.7% for different food and feed sample matrices. It was found to be little cross-reactivity with other aflatoxins (B2, G1, G2, and M1). In the case of determination of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts, corn, soy sauce, vegetable oil, and mouse feed, excellent agreement was found when compared with aflatoxin B1 determination via the conversational high-performance liquid chromatography method. The chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay affords a powerful alternative for rapid on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 and holds a promise for food safety in consideration of practical food safety and environmental monitoring. PMID:25874803

  5. Rapid on-site sensing aflatoxin B1 in food and feed via a chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Tang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Du; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 poses grave threats to food and feed safety due to its strong carcinogenesis and toxicity, thus requiring ultrasensitive rapid on-site determination. Herein, a portable immunosensor based on chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed for sensitive and on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples. Chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay offered a magnified positive signal and low signal-to-noise ratio in time-resolved mode due to the absence of noise interference caused by excitation light sources. Compared with the immunosensing performance in previous studies, this platform demonstrated a wider dynamic range of 0.2-60 μg/kg, lower limit of detection from 0.06 to 0.12 µg/kg, and considerable recovery from 80.5% to 116.7% for different food and feed sample matrices. It was found to be little cross-reactivity with other aflatoxins (B2, G1, G2, and M1). In the case of determination of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts, corn, soy sauce, vegetable oil, and mouse feed, excellent agreement was found when compared with aflatoxin B1 determination via the conversational high-performance liquid chromatography method. The chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay affords a powerful alternative for rapid on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 and holds a promise for food safety in consideration of practical food safety and environmental monitoring. PMID:25874803

  6. Depth-resolved photothermal optical coherence tomography by local optical path length change measurement (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makita, Shuichi; Hong, Young-Joo; Li, En; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2016-03-01

    Photothermal OCT has been emerged to contrast absorbers in biological tissues. The tissues response to photothermal excitation as change of thermal strain and refractive index. To resolve the depth of absorption agents, the measurements of the local thermal strain change and local refractive index change due to photothermal effect is required. In this study, we developed photothermal OCT for depth-resolved absorption contrast imaging. The phase-resolved OCT can measure the axial strain change and local refractive index change as local optical path length change. A swept-source OCT system is used with a wavelength swept laser at 1310 nm with a scanning rate of 50 kHz. The sensitivity of 110 dB is achieved. At the sample arm, the excitation beam from a fiber-coupled laser diode of 406 nm wavelength is combined with the OCT probe beam co-linearly. The slowly modulated excitation beam around 300 Hz illuminate biological tissues. M-mode scan is applied during one-period modulation duration. The local optical path length change is measured by temporal and axial phase difference. The theoretical prediction of the photothermal response is derived and in good agreement with experimental results. In the case of slow modulation, the delay of photothermal response can be neglected. The local path length changes are averaged over the half period of the excitation modulation, and then demodulated. This method exhibits 3-dB gain in the sensitivity of the local optical path length change measurement over the direct Fourier transform method. In vivo human skin imaging of endogenous absorption agent will be demonstrated.

  7. Spatially Resolved Spectra of the "Teacup" Active Galactic Nucleus: Tracing the History of a Dying Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, J. P.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.; Keel, W. C.; Rafter, S.; Fischer, T. C.; Bennert, V. N.; Schawinski, K.

    2014-09-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Galaxy Zoo project has revealed a number of spectacular galaxies possessing extended emission-line regions (EELRs), the most famous being Hanny's Voorwerp galaxy. We present another EELR object discovered in the SDSS endeavor: the Teacup active galactic nucleus (AGN). Nicknamed for its EELR, which has a "handle"-like structure protruding 15 kpc into the northeast quadrant of the galaxy. We analyze the physical conditions of this galaxy with long-slit, ground-based spectroscopy from the Lowell, Lick, and KPNO observatories. With the Lowell 1.8 m Perkin's telescope we took multiple observations at different offset positions, allowing us to recover spatially resolved spectra across the galaxy. Line diagnostics indicate the ionized gas is photoionized primarily by the AGN. Additionally we are able to derive the hydrogen density from the [S II] λ6716/λ6731 ratio. We generated two-component photoionization models for each spatially resolved Lowell spectrum. These models allow us to calculate the AGN bolometric luminosity seen by the gas at different radii from the nuclear center of the Teacup. Our results show a drop in bolometric luminosity by more than two orders of magnitude from the EELR to the nucleus, suggesting that the AGN has decreased in luminosity by this amount in a continuous fashion over 46,000 yr, supporting the case for a dying AGN in this galaxy independent of any IR based evidence. We demonstrate that spatially resolved photoionization modeling could be applied to EELRs to investigate long timescale variability.

  8. Size-resolved emission rates of airborne bacteria and fungi in an occupied classroom

    PubMed Central

    Qian, J; Hospodsky, D; Yamamoto, N; Nazaroff, W W; Peccia, J

    2012-01-01

    The role of human occupancy as a source of indoor biological aerosols is poorly understood. Size-resolved concentrations of total and biological particles in indoor air were quantified in a classroom under occupied and vacant conditions. Per-occupant emission rates were estimated through a mass-balance modeling approach, and the microbial diversity of indoor and outdoor air during occupancy was determined via rDNA gene sequence analysis. Significant increases of total particle mass and bacterial genome concentrations were observed during the occupied period compared to the vacant case. These increases varied in magnitude with the particle size and ranged from 3 to 68 times for total mass, 12–2700 times for bacterial genomes, and 1.5–5.2 times for fungal genomes. Emission rates per person-hour because of occupancy were 31 mg, 37 × 106 genome copies, and 7.3 × 106 genome copies for total particle mass, bacteria, and fungi, respectively. Of the bacterial emissions, ∼18% are from taxa that are closely associated with the human skin microbiome. This analysis provides size-resolved, per person-hour emission rates for these biological particles and illustrates the extent to which being in an occupied room results in exposure to bacteria that are associated with previous or current human occupants. Practical Implications Presented here are the first size-resolved, per person emission rate estimates of bacterial and fungal genomes for a common occupied indoor space. The marked differences observed between total particle and bacterial size distributions suggest that size-dependent aerosol models that use total particles as a surrogate for microbial particles incorrectly assess the fate of and human exposure to airborne bacteria. The strong signal of human microbiota in airborne particulate matter in an occupied setting demonstrates that the aerosol route can be a source of exposure to microorganisms emitted from the skin, hair, nostrils, and mouths of other occupants

  9. Spatially Resolved Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Distributions in Supersonic Combustion Facilities by TDLAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busa, K. M.; McDaniel J. C.; Diskin, G. S.; DePiro, M. J.; Capriotti, D. P.; Gaffney, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the internal structure of high-enthalpy flows can provide valuable insight to the performance of scramjet combustors. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is often employed to measure temperature and species concentration. However, TDLAS is a path-integrated line-of-sight (LOS) measurement, and thus does not produce spatially resolved distributions. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography (TDLAT) is a non-intrusive measurement technique for determining two-dimensional spatially resolved distributions of temperature and species concentration in high enthalpy flows. TDLAT combines TDLAS with tomographic image reconstruction. More than 2500 separate line-of-sight TDLAS measurements are analyzed in order to produce highly resolved temperature and species concentration distributions. Measurements have been collected at the University of Virginia's Supersonic Combustion Facility (UVaSCF) as well as at the NASA Langley Direct-Connect Supersonic Combustion Test Facility (DCSCTF). Due to the UVaSCF s unique electrical heating and ability for vitiate addition, measurements collected at the UVaSCF are presented as a calibration of the technique. Measurements collected at the DCSCTF required significant modifications to system hardware and software designs due to its larger measurement area and shorter test duration. Tomographic temperature and water vapor concentration distributions are presented from experimentation on the UVaSCF operating at a high temperature non-reacting case for water vitiation level of 12%. Initial LOS measurements from the NASA Langley DCSCTF operating at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 are also presented. Results show the capability of TDLAT to adapt to several experimental setups and test parameters.

  10. Spatially resolved spectra of the 'teacup' active galactic nucleus: tracing the history of a dying quasar

    SciTech Connect

    Gagne, J. P.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Fischer, T. C.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.; Keel, W. C.; Rafter, S.; Bennert, V. N.; Schawinski, K.

    2014-09-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Galaxy Zoo project has revealed a number of spectacular galaxies possessing extended emission-line regions (EELRs), the most famous being Hanny's Voorwerp galaxy. We present another EELR object discovered in the SDSS endeavor: the Teacup active galactic nucleus (AGN). Nicknamed for its EELR, which has a 'handle'-like structure protruding 15 kpc into the northeast quadrant of the galaxy. We analyze the physical conditions of this galaxy with long-slit, ground-based spectroscopy from the Lowell, Lick, and KPNO observatories. With the Lowell 1.8 m Perkin's telescope we took multiple observations at different offset positions, allowing us to recover spatially resolved spectra across the galaxy. Line diagnostics indicate the ionized gas is photoionized primarily by the AGN. Additionally we are able to derive the hydrogen density from the [S II] λ6716/λ6731 ratio. We generated two-component photoionization models for each spatially resolved Lowell spectrum. These models allow us to calculate the AGN bolometric luminosity seen by the gas at different radii from the nuclear center of the Teacup. Our results show a drop in bolometric luminosity by more than two orders of magnitude from the EELR to the nucleus, suggesting that the AGN has decreased in luminosity by this amount in a continuous fashion over 46,000 yr, supporting the case for a dying AGN in this galaxy independent of any IR based evidence. We demonstrate that spatially resolved photoionization modeling could be applied to EELRs to investigate long timescale variability.

  11. In situ, spatially resolved biosignature detection at the microbial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williford, K. H.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Hallmann, C.; Kitajima, K.; Kozdon, R.; Summons, R. E.; Kudryavstev, A.; Lepot, K.; Schopf, J.; Spicuzza, M.; Sugitani, K.; Ushikubo, T.; van Kranendonk, M.; Valley, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Whether life has ever existed beyond Earth is one of the great human questions. The Science Definition Team (SDT) for the proposed NASA Mars 2020 rover mission recently announced a suggested approach for NASA to 'demonstrate significant technical progress towards the future return of scientifically selected, well-documented samples to Earth' in part 'to investigate whether Mars was ever inhabited by microbial life.' The SDT further recommended a per-sample volume of 8 cm3 [1] (e.g., a core with a diameter of 1 cm and length of 10 cm). Such samples would be the first available for scientific inquiry with the potential to definitively answer the fundamental question of astrobiology, and their small volume would necessitate analysis with non- or minimally destructive techniques. Potential biosignatures include 'chemical, isotopic, mineralogical, and morphological features that can be created by life and also appear to be inconsistent with nonbiological processes'[1]. Guidelines for biosignature detection in extraterrestrial samples derive in part from the search for evidence of life in the most ancient sedimentary rocks on Earth, wherein the most compelling case for biogenicity is made when these 'chemical, isotopic, mineralogical, and morphological features' occur in association. Sedimentary rocks deposited on Earth prior to ~3.5 billion years ago (i.e., when persistent surface water [e.g., 2] likely supported habitable environments on Mars) have only very rarely escaped severe alteration by metamorphism and metasomatism. Understanding how these processes have operated on Earth through strategic interrogation of biosignature alteration records in (meta)sedimentary rocks is thus a critical task in the search for extraterrestrial life. Here we present techniques for and results of in situ, spatially resolved, non- or minimally destructive detection of morphological, elemental, molecular, and light stable isotopic biosignatures, as well as records of alteration, in

  12. Spatially resolved scatter measurement of diffractive micromirror arrays.

    PubMed

    Sicker, Cornelius; Heber, Jörg; Berndt, Dirk

    2016-06-01

    Spatial light modulators (SLMs) support flexible system concepts in modern optics and especially phase-only SLMs such as micromirror arrays (MMAs) appear attractive for many applications. In order to achieve a precise phase modulation, which is crucial for optical performance, careful characterization and calibration of SLM devices is required. We examine an intensity-based measurement concept, which promises distinct advantages by means of a spatially resolved scatter measurement that is combined with the MMA's diffractive principle. Measurements yield quantitative results, which are consistent with measurements of micromirror roughness components, by white-light interferometry. They reveal relative scatter as low as 10-4, which corresponds to contrast ratios up to 10,000. The potential of the technique to resolve phase changes in the subnanometer range is experimentally demonstrated. PMID:27411205

  13. Modeling and image reconstruction in spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Hamid; Pogue, Brian W.; Davis, Scott C.; Patterson, Michael S.

    2007-02-01

    Recent interest in modeling and reconstruction algorithms for Bioluminescence Tomography (BLT) has increased and led to the general consensus that non-spectrally resolved intensity-based BLT results in a non-unique problem. However, the light emitted from, for example firefly Luciferase, is widely distributed over the band of wavelengths from 500 nm to 650 nm and above, with the dominant fraction emitted from tissue being above 550 nm. This paper demonstrates the development of an algorithm used for multi-wavelength 3D spectrally resolved BLT image reconstruction in a mouse model. It is shown that using a single view data, bioluminescence sources of up to 15 mm deep can be successfully recovered given correct information about the underlying tissue absorption and scatter.

  14. Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Hebden, Jeremy C.; Schweiger, Martin; Dehghani, Hamid; Schmidt, Florian E. W.; Delpy, David T.; Arridge, Simon R.

    2001-04-01

    A 32-channel time-resolved optical imaging instrument has been developed principally to study functional parameters of the new-born infant brain. As a prelude to studies on infants, the device and image reconstruction methodology have been evaluated on the adult human forearm. Cross-sectional images were generated using time-resolved measurements of transmitted light at two wavelengths. All data were acquired using a fully automated computer-controlled protocol. Images representing the internal scattering and absorbing properties of the arm are presented, as well as images that reveal physiological changes during a simple finger flexion exercise. The results presented in this paper represent the first simultaneous tomographic reconstruction of the internal scattering and absorbing properties of a clinical subject using purely temporal data, with additional co-registered difference images showing repeatable absorption changes at two wavelengths in response to exercise.

  15. Benchtop time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Barman, Anjan; Kimura, T; Otani, Y; Fukuma, Y; Akahane, K; Meguro, S

    2008-12-01

    We present here the construction and application of a compact benchtop time-resolved Kerr magnetometer to measure the magnetization precession in magnetic thin films and lithographically patterned elements. As opposed to very expensive femtosecond lasers this system is built upon a picosecond pulsed injection diode laser and electronic pulse and delay generators. The precession is triggered by the electronic pulses of controlled duration and shape, which is launched onto the sample by a microstrip line. We used polarized optical pulses synchronous to the electronic pulses to measure the magneto-optical Kerr rotation. The system is integrated in a conventional upright microscope configuration with separate illumination, imaging, and magneto-optical probe paths. The system offers high stability, relative ease of alignment, sample changing, and a long range of time delay. We demonstrate the measurements of time-resolved dynamics of a Permalloy microwire and microdot using this system, which showed dynamics at two different time scales. PMID:19123577

  16. X-ray characterization by energy-resolved powder diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, G.; Hooker, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    A method for single-shot, nondestructive characterization of broadband x-ray beams, based on energy-resolved powder diffraction, is described. Monte-Carlo simulations are used to simulate data for x-ray beams in the keV range with parameters similar to those generated by betatron oscillations in a laser-driven plasma accelerator. The retrieved x-ray spectra are found to be in excellent agreement with those of the input beams for realistic numbers of incident photons. It is demonstrated that the angular divergence of the x rays can be deduced from the deviation of the detected photons from the Debye-Scherrer rings which would be produced by a parallel beam. It is shown that the angular divergence can be measured as a function of the photon energy, yielding the angularly resolved spectrum of the input x-ray beam.

  17. Depth-resolved fluorescence of human ectocervical tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yicong; Xi, Peng; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Yim, So Fan; Yu, Mei-Yung; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2005-04-01

    The depth-resolved autofluorescence of normal and dysplastic human ectocervical tissue within 120um depth were investigated utilizing a portable confocal fluorescence spectroscopy with the excitations at 355nm and 457nm. From the topmost keratinizing layer of all ectocervical tissue samples, strong keratin fluorescence with the spectral characteristics similar to collagen was observed, which created serious interference in seeking the correlation between tissue fluorescence and tissue pathology. While from the underlying non-keratinizing epithelial layer, the measured NADH fluorescence induced by 355nm excitation and FAD fluorescence induced by 457nm excitation were strongly correlated to the tissue pathology. The ratios between NADH over FAD fluorescence increased statistically in the CIN epithelial relative to the normal and HPV epithelia, which indicated increased metabolic activity in precancerous tissue. This study demonstrates that the depth-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy can reveal fine structural information on epithelial tissue and potentially provide more accurate diagnostic information for determining tissue pathology.

  18. TIMESCALE-RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF Cyg X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y. X.; Li, T. P.; Belloni, T. M.; Wang, T. S.; Liu, H.

    2009-04-20

    We propose the timescale-resolved spectroscopy (TRS) as a new method to combine the timing and spectral study. The TRS is based on the time domain power spectrum and reflects the variable amplitudes of spectral components on different timescales. We produce the TRS with the RXTE PCA data for Cyg X-1 and study the spectral parameters (the power-law photon index and the equivalent width of the iron fluorescent line) as a function of timescale. The results of TRS and frequency-resolved spectra have been compared, and similarities have been found for the two methods with the identical motivations. We also discover the correspondences between the evolution of photon index with timescale and the evolution of the equivalent width with timescale. The observations can be divided into three types according to the correspondences and different type is connected with different spectral state.

  19. Resolving high energy emission of jets using strong gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnacka, Anna

    2014-11-01

    Chandra observations of M87 in 2004 uncovered an outburst originating in distant knot along the jet hundreds of parsecs from the core. This discovery challenges our understanding of the origin of high energy flares. Current technology is inadequate to resolve jets at distances greater than M87, or observed at higher energies. We propose to use gravitationally lensed jets to investigate the structure of more distant sources. Photons emitted at different sites cross the lens plane at different distances, thus magnification ratios and time delays differ between the mirage images. Monitoring of flares from lensed jets reveals the origin of the emission. With detectors like Chandra, lensed systems are a tool for resolving the structure of the jets and for investigating their cosmic evolution.

  20. The spatial resolving power of earth resources satellites: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.

    1980-01-01

    The significance of spatial resolving power on the utility of current and future Earth resources satellites is critically discussed and the relative merits of different approaches in defining and estimating spatial resolution are outlined. It is shown that choice of a particular measure of spatial resolution depends strongly on the particular needs of the user. Several experiments have simulated the capabilities of future satellite systems by degradation of aircraft images. Surprisingly, many of these indicated that improvements in resolution may lead to a reduction in the classification accuracy of land cover types using computer assisted methods. However, where the frequency of boundary pixels is high, the converse relationship is found. Use of imagery dependent upon visual interpretation is likely to benefit more consistently from higher resolutions. Extraction of information from images will depend upon several other factors apart from spatial resolving power: these include characteristics of the terrain being sensed, the image processing methods that are applied as well as certain sensor characteristics.

  1. The Wind Acceleration Region of Betelgeuse: Resolved at Centimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Gorman, E.; Harper, G. M.; Brown, A.

    2015-08-01

    We present multi-epoch spatially resolved radio continuum observations of Betelgeuse (α Ori) at various combinations of wavelengths between 0.7 and 6.1 cm. We used the Very Large Array in the A configuration with the Pie Town antenna to spatially resolve its atmosphere at 0.7, 1.3, 2.0, and 6.1 cm at all epochs. Our findings are similar to those of Lim et al. (1998) in that Betelgeuse's opaque atmosphere extends from 2 to 6 R* between 0.7 and 6.1 cm with temperatures decreasing from ˜3000 to 1800 K, respectively. We find no evidence of radio hotspots at any epochs even though we have sufficient spatial resolution and sensitivity at 0.7 and 1.3 cm to detect the hotspots recently reported with e-MERLIN at 5.2 cm.

  2. Resolving conflict realistically in today's health care environment.

    PubMed

    Smith, S B; Tutor, R S; Phillips, M L

    2001-11-01

    Conflict is a natural part of human interaction, and when properly addressed, results in improved interpersonal relationships and positive organizational culture. Unchecked conflict may escalate to verbal and physical violence. Conflict that is unresolved creates barriers for people, teams, organizational growth, and productivity, leading to cultural disintegration within the establishment. By relying on interdependence and professional collaboration, all parties involved grow and, in turn, benefit the organization and population served. When used in a constructive manner, conflict resolution can help all parties involved see the whole picture, thus allowing freedom for growth and change. Conflict resolution is accomplished best when emotions are controlled before entering into negotiation. Positive confrontation, problem solving, and negotiation are processes used to realistically resolve conflict. Everyone walks away a winner when conflict is resolved in a positive, professional manner (Stone, 1999). PMID:11725427

  3. Energy resolving CT systems using Medipix2 and MHSP detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carramate, L. F. N. D.; Nachtrab, F.; Firsching, M.; Silva, A. L. M.; da Silva, A. M.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Uhlmann, N.

    2013-03-01

    Energy resolved imaging has been possible with a newest generation of radiation detectors with photon counting and spectroscopic capabilities. This innovation gives the possibility to enhance the image quality by applying techniques using the energy information. In this work two X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) Systems were assembled with two different energy resolving detectors: Medipix2 and MicroHole & Strip Plate (MHSP). These detectors have the aforesaid characteristics and showed a good performance for X-ray imaging. The Energy Weighting Technique (EWT) and Basis Material Decomposition (BMD) techniques were applied with good results. An improvement of 31% in the CNR was achieved by applying the EWT in the MHSP data and, using Medipix2, two basis materials (Carbon based and Aluminium) were decomposed successfully with densities close to the real values.

  4. Resolving fundamental limits of adhesive bonding in microfabrication.

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Jessica S.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Emerson, John Allen; Adkins, Douglas Ray; Kent, Michael Stuart; Read, Douglas H.; Giunta, Rachel Knudsen; Lamppa, Kerry P.; Kawaguchi, Stacie; Holmes, Melissa A.

    2004-04-01

    As electronic and optical components reach the micro- and nanoscales, efficient assembly and packaging require the use of adhesive bonds. This work focuses on resolving several fundamental issues in the transition from macro- to micro- to nanobonding. A primary issue is that, as bondline thicknesses decrease, knowledge of the stability and dewetting dynamics of thin adhesive films is important to obtain robust, void-free adhesive bonds. While researchers have studied dewetting dynamics of thin films of model, non-polar polymers, little experimental work has been done regarding dewetting dynamics of thin adhesive films, which exhibit much more complex behaviors. In this work, the areas of dispensing small volumes of viscous materials, capillary fluid flow, surface energetics, and wetting have all been investigated. By resolving these adhesive-bonding issues, we are allowing significantly smaller devices to be designed and fabricated. Simultaneously, we are increasing the manufacturability and reliability of these devices.

  5. Digital resolver for helicopter model blade motion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, T. S.; Berry, J. D.; Park, S.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports the development and initial testing of a digital resolver to replace existing analog signal processing instrumentation. Radiometers, mounted directly on one of the fully articulated blades, are electrically connected through a slip ring to analog signal processing circuitry. The measured signals are periodic with azimuth angle and are resolved into harmonic components, with 0 deg over the tail. The periodic nature of the helicopter blade motion restricts the frequency content of each flapping and yaw signal to the fundamental and harmonics of the rotor rotational frequency. A minicomputer is employed to collect these data and then plot them graphically in real time. With this and other information generated by the instrumentation, a helicopter test pilot can then adjust the helicopter model's controls to achieve the desired aerodynamic test conditions.

  6. Phase Resolved X-ray Spectral Analysis of Soft IPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekon, Yakup

    2016-07-01

    As a subclass of Cataclysmic Variables, Intermediate Polars (IPs) are magnetic systems which mainly show hard X-ray emission. However, there have been an increasing number of systems that also show a soft emission component arising from reprocessed X-rays from the white dwarf limbs. Due to their relatively short periods, they pose as good canditates to perform phase resolved analysis. In this work, X-ray phase resolved spectral analysis of selected IPs with soft X-ray emission components (such as PQ Gem, V2069 Cyg etc.) over the orbital and/or spin periods will be presented. The analyses will help a better understanding of the complex absorption mechanisms and the nature of the soft X-ray emissions in soft IPs.

  7. Time-Resolved Rayleigh Scattering Measurements in Hot Gas Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.; Sung, Chih-Jen

    2008-01-01

    A molecular Rayleigh scattering technique is developed to measure time-resolved gas velocity, temperature, and density in unseeded gas flows at sampling rates up to 32 kHz. A high power continuous-wave laser beam is focused at a point in an air flow field and Rayleigh scattered light is collected and fiber-optically transmitted to the spectral analysis and detection equipment. The spectrum of the light, which contains information about the temperature and velocity of the flow, is analyzed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Photomultipler tubes operated in the photon counting mode allow high frequency sampling of the circular interference pattern to provide time-resolved flow property measurements. Mean and rms velocity and temperature fluctuation measurements in both an electrically-heated jet facility with a 10-mm diameter nozzle and also in a hydrogen-combustor heated jet facility with a 50.8-mm diameter nozzle at NASA Glenn Research Center are presented.

  8. De novo assembly of a haplotype-resolved human genome.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongzhi; Wu, Honglong; Luo, Ruibang; Huang, Shujia; Sun, Yuhui; Tong, Xin; Xie, Yinlong; Liu, Binghang; Yang, Hailong; Zheng, Hancheng; Li, Jian; Li, Bo; Wang, Yu; Yang, Fang; Sun, Peng; Liu, Siyang; Gao, Peng; Huang, Haodong; Sun, Jing; Chen, Dan; He, Guangzhu; Huang, Weihua; Huang, Zheng; Li, Yue; Tellier, Laurent C A M; Liu, Xiao; Feng, Qiang; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xiuqing; Bolund, Lars; Krogh, Anders; Kristiansen, Karsten; Drmanac, Radoje; Drmanac, Snezana; Nielsen, Rasmus; Li, Songgang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Li, Yingrui; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun

    2015-06-01

    The human genome is diploid, and knowledge of the variants on each chromosome is important for the interpretation of genomic information. Here we report the assembly of a haplotype-resolved diploid genome without using a reference genome. Our pipeline relies on fosmid pooling together with whole-genome shotgun strategies, based solely on next-generation sequencing and hierarchical assembly methods. We applied our sequencing method to the genome of an Asian individual and generated a 5.15-Gb assembled genome with a haplotype N50 of 484 kb. Our analysis identified previously undetected indels and 7.49 Mb of novel coding sequences that could not be aligned to the human reference genome, which include at least six predicted genes. This haplotype-resolved genome represents the most complete de novo human genome assembly to date. Application of our approach to identify individual haplotype differences should aid in translating genotypes to phenotypes for the development of personalized medicine. PMID:26006006

  9. Resolving conflicts in water sharing: A systemic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandalal, K. D. W.; Simonovic, S. P.

    2003-12-01

    With industrial development and economic growth, conflicts over use and allocation of water have been increasing. Though diverse efforts have been made toward resolving conflicts through computer-based models, its clear understanding is prerequisite for models to be effective. A systems view illuminates how people think and consequences of their thoughts and actions on results and thus helps to achieve sustainable solutions. This paper presents a systemic approach to assist stakeholders in two different jurisdictions in a hypothetical water resource system to resolve a potential water-sharing conflict. A causal loop diagram developed provides an understanding of the conflict dynamics and feedback nature. A system dynamics simulation model developed fitting the causal diagram offers a significant opportunity to explore conflict's behavior and resolution with respect to final water allocations and time necessary to reach an agreement. The impact of initial aspiration, influence on system and struggle of stakeholders is discussed in detail.

  10. Depth-resolved image mapping spectrometer (IMS) with structured illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Bedard, Noah; Hagen, Nathan; Kester, Robert T.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2011-08-01

    We present a depth-resolved Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) which is capable of acquiring 4D (x, y, z, λ) datacubes. Optical sectioning is implemented by structured illumination. The device's spectral imaging performance is demonstrated in a multispectral microsphere and mouse kidney tissue fluorescence imaging experiment. We also compare quantitatively the depth-resolved IMS with a hyperspectral confocal microscope (HCM) in a standard fluorescent bead imaging experiment. The comparison results show that despite the use of a light source with four orders of magnitude lower intensity in the IMS than that in the HCM, the image signal-to-noise ratio acquired by the IMS is 2.6 times higher than that achieved by the equivalent confocal approach.

  11. The Role of Atmospheric Aerosol Concentration on Deep Convective Precipitation: Cloud-resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Li, X.; Khain, A.; Mastsui, T.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 20011. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest uncertainty about the aerosol climate forcing - indeed, the largest of all the uncertainties about global climate forcing - is probably the indirect effect of aerosols on clouds NRC [2001]." The aerosol effect on clouds is often categorized into the traditional "first indirect (i.e., Twomey)" effect on the cloud droplet sizes for a constant liquid water path and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage. The aerosol effect on precipitation processes, also known as the second type of aerosol indirect effect, is even more complex, especially for mixed-phase convective clouds. ln this paper, a cloud-resolving model (CRM) with detailed spectral-bin microphysics was used to examine the effect of aerosols on three different deep convective cloud systems that developed in different geographic locations: South Florida, Oklahoma and the Central Pacific. In all three cases, rain reaches the ground earlier for the low CCN (clean) case. Rain suppression is also evident in all three cases with high CCN (dirty) case. However, this suppression only occurs during the first hour of the simulations. During the mature stages of the simulations, the effects of increasing aerosol concentration range from rain suppression in the Oklahoma case, to almost no effect in the Florida case, to rain enhancement in the Pacific case. These results show the complexity of aerosol interactions with convection.

  12. Dysphagia due to anterior cervical osteophytes--a case report.

    PubMed

    Kareem, B A; Sofiyan, M; Subramanian, S

    2000-09-01

    Dysphagia due to osteophytes in a young person is uncommon. We present a rare case of Forestier's disease causing dysphagia in a young lady without other bony involvement. The osteophytes were surgically removed and her symptoms resolved completely. PMID:11200721

  13. Time-resolved crystallography using the Hadamard Transform

    PubMed Central

    Yorke, Briony A.; Beddard, Godfrey S.; Owen, Robin L.; Pearson, Arwen R.

    2014-01-01

    A new method for performing time-resolved X-ray crystallographic experiments based on the Hadamard Transform is proposed and demonstrated. The time-resolution is defined by the underlying periodicity of the probe pulse sequence and the signal to noise is greatly improved compared to the fastest experiments depending on a single pulse. This approach is general and equally applicable to any spectroscopic or imaging measurement where the probe can be encoded. PMID:25282611

  14. Resolving Conflicts between Agriculture and the Natural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tanentzap, Andrew J.; Lamb, Anthony; Walker, Susan; Farmer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture dominates the planet. Yet it has many environmental costs that are unsustainable, especially as global food demand rises. Here, we evaluate ways in which different parts of the world are succeeding in their attempts to resolve conflict between agriculture and wild nature. We envision that coordinated global action in conserving land most sensitive to agricultural activities and policies that internalise the environmental costs of agriculture are needed to deliver a more sustainable future. PMID:26351851

  15. Photon-number-resolving detector with 10 bits of resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Leaf A.; Dauler, Eric A.; Chang, Joshua T

    2007-06-15

    A photon-number-resolving detector with single-photon resolution is described and demonstrated. It has 10 bits of resolution, does not require cryogenic cooling, and is sensitive to near ir wavelengths. This performance is achieved by flood illuminating a 32x32 element In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}AsP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode array that has an integrated counter and digital readout circuit behind each pixel.

  16. Ultrafast Time-Resolved Electron Diffraction with Megavolt Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, J.B.; Rudakov, F.M.; Dowell, D.H.; Schmerge, J.F.; Cardoza, J.D.; Castro, J.M.; Gierman, S.M.; Loos, H.; Weber, P.M.; /Brown U.

    2006-10-24

    An rf photocathode electron gun is used as an electron source for ultrafast time-resolved pump-probe electron diffraction. We observed single-shot diffraction patterns from a 160 nm Al foil using the 5.4 MeV electron beam from the Gun Test Facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Excellent agreement with simulations suggests that single-shot diffraction experiments with a time resolution approaching 100 fs are possible.

  17. Spatially resolved spectrometer system for the ZT-40 device

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, R.G.

    1981-05-01

    A spatially resolved emission spectroscopy system designed for use on the ZT-40 device at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is described. The three-chord system consists of independent dispersive elements and detectors for each chord, on a common wavelength drive. The system has been installed and is currently in use on ZT-40. Preliminary results of CV (227.1 nm) line radiation measurements are presented.

  18. Klein paradox with spin-resolved electrons and positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Krekora, P.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.

    2005-12-15

    Using numerical solutions to relativistic quantum field theory with space-time resolution, we illustrate how an incoming electron wave packet with a definite spin scatters off a supercritical potential step. We show that the production rate is reduced of only those electrons that have the same spin as the incoming electron is reduced. This spin-resolved result further clarifies the importance of the Pauli-exclusion principle for the Klein paradox.

  19. Depth-resolved measurements with elliptically polarized reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Maria J.; Sokolov, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    The ability of elliptical polarized reflectance spectroscopy (EPRS) to detect spectroscopic alterations in tissue mimicking phantoms and in biological tissue in situ is demonstrated. It is shown that there is a linear relationship between light penetration depth and ellipticity. This dependence is used to demonstrate the feasibility of a depth-resolved spectroscopic imaging using EPRS. The advantages and drawbacks of EPRS in evaluation of biological tissue are analyzed and discussed. PMID:27446712

  20. Momentum Resolved Radio Frequency Spectroscopy in Trapped Fermi Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Qijin; Levin, K.

    2009-05-15

    We address recent momentum-resolved radio frequency (rf) spectroscopy experiments, showing how they yield more stringent tests than other comparisons with theory, associated with the ultracold Fermi gases. We demonstrate that, by providing a clear dispersion signature of pairing, they remove the ambiguity plaguing the interpretation of previous rf experiments. Our calculated spectral intensities are in semiquantitative agreement with the data. Even in the presence of a trap, the spectra are predicted to exhibit two BCS-like branches.

  1. Orbital-resolved strong-field single ionization of acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Qinying; Cui, Sen; You, Xinyuan; Gong, Xiaochun; Song, Qiying; Lin, Kang; Pan, Haifeng; Ding, Jingxin; Zeng, Heping; He, Feng; Wu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    We resolve the strong-field single ionization of acetylene into different channels by differentially normalizing the lateral momenta of the directly escaped electrons from the aligned and antialigned molecules. Distinct electron momentum distributions for different channels are observed using both near-infrared and ultraviolet femtosecond laser pulses with Keldysh parameters close to 1. The results are interpreted as a signature of multiple ionization orbitals.

  2. Photon-number-resolving detector with 10bits of resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Leaf A.; Dauler, Eric A.; Chang, Joshua T.

    2007-06-01

    A photon-number-resolving detector with single-photon resolution is described and demonstrated. It has 10bits of resolution, does not require cryogenic cooling, and is sensitive to near ir wavelengths. This performance is achieved by flood illuminating a 32×32 element InxGa1-xAsP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode array that has an integrated counter and digital readout circuit behind each pixel.

  3. Quantitatively Resolving Multivalent Interactions on Macroscopic Scale Using Force Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qiongzheng; Yang, Haopeng; Wang, Yuhong; Xu, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    Multivalent interactions remain difficult to be characterized and consequently controlled, particularly on a macroscopic scale. Using force-induced remnant magnetization spectroscopy (FIRMS), we have resolved the single-, double-, and triple- biotin—streptavidin interactions, multivalent DNA interactions and CXCL12-CXCR4 interactions, on millimetre-scale surfaces. Our results establish FIRMS as a viable method for systematic resolution and controlled formation of multivalent interactions. PMID:26864087

  4. Resolvent estimates for perturbations by large magnetic potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoso, Fernando Cuevas, Claudio; Vodev, Georgi

    2014-02-15

    We prove optimal high-frequency resolvent estimates for self-adjoint operators of the form G = −Δ + ib(x) · ∇ + i∇ · b(x) + V(x) on L{sup 2}(R{sup n}), n ⩾ 3, where b(x) and V(x) are large magnetic and electric potentials, respectively. No continuity of the magnetic potential is assumed.

  5. Refinement of thermal imager minimum resolvable temperature difference calculating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobrodov, V. G.; Mykytenko, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Calculating methods, which accurately predict minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD), are of significant interest for many years. The article deals with improvement the accuracy of determining the thermal imaging system MRTD by elaboration the visual perception model. We suggest MRTD calculating algorithm, which is based on a reliable approximation of the human visual system modulation transfer function (MTF) proposed by N. Nill. There was obtained a new expression for the bandwidth evaluation, which is independent of angular size of the Foucault bar target.

  6. The RATIO method for time-resolved Laue crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Coppens, Philip; Pitak, Mateusz; Gembicky, Milan; Messerschmidt, Marc; Scheins, Stephan; Benedict, Jason; Adachi, Shin-ichi; Sato, Tokushi; Nozawa, Shunsuke; Ichiyanagi, Kohei; Chollet, Matthieu; Koshihara, Shin-ya

    2009-01-01

    A RATIO method for analysis of intensity changes in time-resolved pump–probe Laue diffraction experiments is described. The method eliminates the need for scaling the data with a wavelength curve representing the spectral distribution of the source and removes the effect of possible anisotropic absorption. It does not require relative scaling of series of frames and removes errors due to all but very short term fluctuations in the synchrotron beam. PMID:19240334

  7. Generalized annular granuloma associated with crowned dens syndrome, which resolved with colchicine treatment.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, E; Basso, D; Cimmino, M A; Larosa, M; Burlando, M; Rongioletti, F; Drago, F; Parodi, A

    2016-08-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a chronic, benign, and usually self-limiting cutaneous inflammatory disease, typically characterized by small, localized, skin-coloured papules that are usually asymptomatic or mildly pruriginous. Its aetiopathogenesis is still unknown and treatments are rarely effective. Generally, 50-70% of localized GA cases are self-limiting and show spontaneous resolution after 1-2 years, whereas disseminated GA is less likely to disappear without treatment. Treatment of generalized GA is usually based on single case reports, and only a few studies involving large case series have been published. We present the case of a patient affected by generalized GA, which resolved after colchicine treatment used for concomitant crowned dens syndrome due to calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD). Colchicine may have worked by a direct action on GA or, alternatively, by controlling CPPD, as a possible trigger. As the low-dosage colchicine treatment was well tolerated by our patient, this could be easily used in the management of GA. However, further studies are needed to confirm the action of colchicine on GA. PMID:27335228

  8. Catalysts at work: From integral to spatially resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Kimmerle, Bertram; Baiker, Alfons; Boye, Pit; Schroer, Christian G.; Glatzel, Pieter; Borca, Camelia N.; Beckmann, Felix

    2009-09-25

    Spectroscopic studies on heterogeneous catalysts have mostly been done in an integral mode. However, in many cases spatial variations in catalyst structure can occur, e.g. during impregnation of pre-shaped particles, during reaction in a catalytic reactor, or in microstructured reactors as the present overview shows. Therefore, spatially resolved molecular information on a microscale is required for a comprehensive understanding of theses systems, partly in ex situ studies, partly under stationary reaction conditions and in some cases even under dynamic reaction conditions. Among the different available techniques, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a well-suited tool for this purpose as the different selected examples highlight. Two different techniques, scanning and full-field X-ray microscopy/tomography, are described and compared. At first, the tomographic structure of impregnated alumina pellets is presented using full-field transmission microtomography and compared to the results obtained with a scanning X-ray microbeam technique to analyse the catalyst bed inside a catalytic quartz glass reactor. On the other hand, by using XAS in scanning microtomography, the structure and the distribution of Cu(0), Cu(I), Cu(II) species in a Cu/ZnO catalyst loaded in a quartz capillary microreactor could be reconstructed quantitatively on a virtual section through the reactor. An illustrating example for spatially resolved XAS under reaction conditions is the partial oxidation of methane over noble metal-based catalysts. In order to obtain spectroscopic information on the spatial variation of the oxidation state of the catalyst inside the reactor XAS spectra were recorded by scanning with a micro-focussed beam along the catalyst bed. Alternatively, full-field transmission imaging was used to efficiently determine the distribution of the oxidation state of a catalyst inside a reactor under reaction conditions. The new technical approaches together with quantitative data

  9. Calibrating Stellar Models with the Pleiades: Resolving the Distance Discrepancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, David

    1999-07-01

    This is the first phase of a multi-year effort to measure true masses for low-mass dwarfs in the Pleiades and to determine an accurate distance to this fundamental cluster. The goals are: 1} To determine the true distance to the Pleiades to resolve the problem raised by the Hipparcos results for this cluster; The Hipparcos distance for the Pleiades, taken at face value, indicates that solar-composition ZAMS stars are 30% fainter than previously believed. 2} To test ZAMS models of evolution for young solar-type stars by measuring masses of individual stars. 3} To construct a mass-luminosity relation for young low-mass stars with solar composition. The resolution to the Hipparcos distance problem is vital for understanding all the parallaxes that have come from that mission and hence this issue is fundamental to the cosmic distance scale. In this first phase we get several observations of three systems which are already resolved spectroscopically and which have 2 to 3 year orb ital periods, and we examine other Pleiades binaries to ascertain which objects are resolvable pairs with separations suitable for orbit determinations with the FGS. Please note: Most of our targets are bright and near each other, and can therefore be surveyed in TRANS mode in 1/2 an orbit each. Our total orbit request reflects this.

  10. Maximizing the biochemical resolving power of fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Alessandro; Popleteeva, Marina; Venkitaraman, Ashok R

    2013-01-01

    Most recent advances in fluorescence microscopy have focused on achieving spatial resolutions below the diffraction limit. However, the inherent capability of fluorescence microscopy to non-invasively resolve different biochemical or physical environments in biological samples has not yet been formally described, because an adequate and general theoretical framework is lacking. Here, we develop a mathematical characterization of the biochemical resolution in fluorescence detection with Fisher information analysis. To improve the precision and the resolution of quantitative imaging methods, we demonstrate strategies for the optimization of fluorescence lifetime, fluorescence anisotropy and hyperspectral detection, as well as different multi-dimensional techniques. We describe optimized imaging protocols, provide optimization algorithms and describe precision and resolving power in biochemical imaging thanks to the analysis of the general properties of Fisher information in fluorescence detection. These strategies enable the optimal use of the information content available within the limited photon-budget typically available in fluorescence microscopy. This theoretical foundation leads to a generalized strategy for the optimization of multi-dimensional optical detection, and demonstrates how the parallel detection of all properties of fluorescence can maximize the biochemical resolving power of fluorescence microscopy, an approach we term Hyper Dimensional Imaging Microscopy (HDIM). Our work provides a theoretical framework for the description of the biochemical resolution in fluorescence microscopy, irrespective of spatial resolution, and for the development of a new class of microscopes that exploit multi-parametric detection systems. PMID:24204821

  11. Spectral-resolved multifocal multiphoton microscopy with multianode photomultiplier tubes

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Won; Tzeranis, Dimitrios; Subramanian, Jaichandar; Yannas, Ioannis V.; Nedivi, Elly; So, Peter T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy is the preferred method for in vivo deep tissue imaging. Many biological applications demand both high imaging speed and the ability to resolve multiple fluorophores. One of the successful methods to improve imaging speed in a highly turbid specimen is multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM) based on use of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMT). This approach improves imaging speed by using multiple foci for parallelized excitation without sacrificing signal to noise ratio (SNR) due to the scattering of emission photons. In this work, we demonstrate that the MAPMT based MMM can be extended with spectral resolved imaging capability. Instead of generating multiple excitation foci in a 2D grid pattern, a linear array of foci is generated. This leaves one axis of the 2D MAPMT available for spectral dispersion and detection. The spectral-resolved MMM can detect several emission signals simultaneously with high imaging speed optimized for high-throughput, high-contents applications. The new procedure is illustrated using imaging data from the kidney, peripheral nerve regeneration and dendritic morphological data from the brain. PMID:25321515

  12. Angle-resolved effective potentials for disk-shaped molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, Thomas Klapp, Sabine H. L.; Palczynski, Karol Dzubiella, Joachim

    2014-12-07

    We present an approach for calculating coarse-grained angle-resolved effective pair potentials for uniaxial molecules. For integrating out the intramolecular degrees of freedom we apply umbrella sampling and steered dynamics techniques in atomistically-resolved molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Throughout this study we focus on disk-like molecules such as coronene. To develop the methods we focus on integrating out the van der Waals and intramolecular interactions, while electrostatic charge contributions are neglected. The resulting coarse-grained pair potential reveals a strong temperature and angle dependence. In the next step we fit the numerical data with various Gay-Berne-like potentials to be used in more efficient simulations on larger scales. The quality of the resulting coarse-grained results is evaluated by comparing their pair and many-body structure as well as some thermodynamic quantities self-consistently to the outcome of atomistic MD simulations of many-particle systems. We find that angle-resolved potentials are essential not only to accurately describe crystal structures but also for fluid systems where simple isotropic potentials start to fail already for low to moderate packing fractions. Further, in describing these states it is crucial to take into account the pronounced temperature dependence arising in selected pair configurations due to bending fluctuations.

  13. Angle-resolved effective potentials for disk-shaped molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Thomas; Palczynski, Karol; Dzubiella, Joachim; Klapp, Sabine H. L.

    2014-12-01

    We present an approach for calculating coarse-grained angle-resolved effective pair potentials for uniaxial molecules. For integrating out the intramolecular degrees of freedom we apply umbrella sampling and steered dynamics techniques in atomistically-resolved molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Throughout this study we focus on disk-like molecules such as coronene. To develop the methods we focus on integrating out the van der Waals and intramolecular interactions, while electrostatic charge contributions are neglected. The resulting coarse-grained pair potential reveals a strong temperature and angle dependence. In the next step we fit the numerical data with various Gay-Berne-like potentials to be used in more efficient simulations on larger scales. The quality of the resulting coarse-grained results is evaluated by comparing their pair and many-body structure as well as some thermodynamic quantities self-consistently to the outcome of atomistic MD simulations of many-particle systems. We find that angle-resolved potentials are essential not only to accurately describe crystal structures but also for fluid systems where simple isotropic potentials start to fail already for low to moderate packing fractions. Further, in describing these states it is crucial to take into account the pronounced temperature dependence arising in selected pair configurations due to bending fluctuations.

  14. Eddy-resolving simulation of lofting turbidity currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, S.; Lenk, E.; Meiburg, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    Turbidity currents originate due to horizontal pressure gradient created by differences in sediment concentration. Often turbidity currents propagate as a ground hugging underflow because its bulk density is higher than the density of the ambient fluid. If the density of the interstitial fluid in turbidity current is smaller than the density of the ambient fluid, then turbidity current can become positively buoyant after sufficient sand grains have settled. The current then lifts off from the bottom surface and travels as a surface gravity current over the heavier ambient fluid. These types of lofting currents, where the buoyancy reverses its direction, have been observed when sediment laden fresh water enters the sea or during volcanic eruption that creates a pyroclastic flow. We use a lock-exchange configuration with mono-disperse and bi-disperse grains to study the lofting characteristics of turbidity currents. Most of the Reynolds-stress carrying eddies are resolved in Large-eddy simulation (LES) and their predictions are more accurate than Reynolds-averaged models where none of the eddies are resolved. We use LES to study lofting turbidity currents at high Reynolds numbers that are comparable to laboratory and field scale flows. Dynamic Smagorinsky model is used to parameterize the sub-grid scale stresses that are not resolved by the grid. Results show that the deposit profiles has a sharp decay at the lift-off point unlike a ground hugging turbidity current whose deposit profile has a slow monotonic decay from the lock region.

  15. Angle-resolved effective potentials for disk-shaped molecules.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Thomas; Palczynski, Karol; Dzubiella, Joachim; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2014-12-01

    We present an approach for calculating coarse-grained angle-resolved effective pair potentials for uniaxial molecules. For integrating out the intramolecular degrees of freedom we apply umbrella sampling and steered dynamics techniques in atomistically-resolved molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Throughout this study we focus on disk-like molecules such as coronene. To develop the methods we focus on integrating out the van der Waals and intramolecular interactions, while electrostatic charge contributions are neglected. The resulting coarse-grained pair potential reveals a strong temperature and angle dependence. In the next step we fit the numerical data with various Gay-Berne-like potentials to be used in more efficient simulations on larger scales. The quality of the resulting coarse-grained results is evaluated by comparing their pair and many-body structure as well as some thermodynamic quantities self-consistently to the outcome of atomistic MD simulations of many-particle systems. We find that angle-resolved potentials are essential not only to accurately describe crystal structures but also for fluid systems where simple isotropic potentials start to fail already for low to moderate packing fractions. Further, in describing these states it is crucial to take into account the pronounced temperature dependence arising in selected pair configurations due to bending fluctuations. PMID:25481132

  16. Angle-resolved diffraction grating biosensor based on porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Changwu; Jia, Zhenhong; Liu, Yajun; Mo, Jiaqing; Li, Peng; Lv, Xiaoyi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an optical biosensor based on a porous silicon composite structure was fabricated using a simple method. This structure consists of a thin, porous silicon surface diffraction grating and a one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystal. An angle-resolved diffraction efficiency spectrum was obtained by measuring the diffraction efficiency at a range of incident angles. The angle-resolved diffraction efficiency of the 2nd and 3rd orders was studied experimentally and theoretically. The device was sensitive to the change of refractive index in the presence of a biomolecule indicated by the shift of the diffraction efficiency spectrum. The sensitivity of this sensor was investigated through use of an 8 base pair antifreeze protein DNA hybridization. The shifts of the angle-resolved diffraction efficiency spectrum showed a relationship with the change of the refractive index, and the detection limit of the biosensor reached 41.7 nM. This optical device is highly sensitive, inexpensive, and simple to fabricate. Using shifts in diffraction efficiency spectrum to detect biological molecules has not yet been explored, so this study establishes a foundation for future work.

  17. Polarization resolved angular optical scattering of aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redding, B.; Pan, Y.; Wang, C.; Videen, G.; Cao, Hui

    2014-05-01

    Real-time detection and identification of bio-aerosol particles are crucial for the protection against chemical and biological agents. The strong elastic light scattering properties of airborne particles provides a natural means for rapid, non-invasive aerosol characterization. Recent theoretical predictions suggested that variations in the polarization dependent angular scattering cross section could provide an efficient means of classifying different airborne particles. In particular, the polarization dependent scattering cross section of aggregate particles is expected to depend on the shape of the primary particles. In order to experimentally validate this prediction, we built a high throughput, sampling system, capable of measuring the polarization resolved angular scattering cross section of individual aerosol particles flowing through an interrogating volume with a single shot of laser pulse. We calibrated the system by comparing the polarization dependent scattering cross section of individual polystyrene spheres with that predicted by Mie theory. We then used the system to study different particles types: Polystyrene aggregates composed 500 nm spheres and Bacillus subtilis (BG, Anthrax simulant) spores composed of elongated 500 nm × 1000 nm cylinder-line particles. We found that the polarization resolved scattering cross section depends on the shape of the constituent elements of the aggregates. This work indicates that the polarization resolved scattering cross section could be used for rapid discrimination between different bio-aerosol particles.

  18. Maximizing the Biochemical Resolving Power of Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Alessandro; Popleteeva, Marina; Venkitaraman, Ashok R.

    2013-01-01

    Most recent advances in fluorescence microscopy have focused on achieving spatial resolutions below the diffraction limit. However, the inherent capability of fluorescence microscopy to non-invasively resolve different biochemical or physical environments in biological samples has not yet been formally described, because an adequate and general theoretical framework is lacking. Here, we develop a mathematical characterization of the biochemical resolution in fluorescence detection with Fisher information analysis. To improve the precision and the resolution of quantitative imaging methods, we demonstrate strategies for the optimization of fluorescence lifetime, fluorescence anisotropy and hyperspectral detection, as well as different multi-dimensional techniques. We describe optimized imaging protocols, provide optimization algorithms and describe precision and resolving power in biochemical imaging thanks to the analysis of the general properties of Fisher information in fluorescence detection. These strategies enable the optimal use of the information content available within the limited photon-budget typically available in fluorescence microscopy. This theoretical foundation leads to a generalized strategy for the optimization of multi-dimensional optical detection, and demonstrates how the parallel detection of all properties of fluorescence can maximize the biochemical resolving power of fluorescence microscopy, an approach we term Hyper Dimensional Imaging Microscopy (HDIM). Our work provides a theoretical framework for the description of the biochemical resolution in fluorescence microscopy, irrespective of spatial resolution, and for the development of a new class of microscopes that exploit multi-parametric detection systems. PMID:24204821

  19. Resolving Isomeric Glycopeptide Glycoforms with Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yining; Nie, Yongxin; Boyes, Barry; Orlando, Ron

    2016-09-01

    The ability to resolve glycans while attached to tryptic peptides would greatly facilitate glycoproteomics, as this would enable site-specific glycan characterization. Peptide/glycopeptide separations are typically performed using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), where retention is driven by hydrophobic interaction. As the hydrophilic glycans do not interact significantly with the RPLC stationary phase, it is difficult to resolve glycopeptides that differ only in their glycan structure, even when these differences are large. Alternatively, glycans interact extensively with the stationary phases used in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC), and consequently, differences in glycan structure have profound chromatographic shifts in this chromatographic mode. Here, we evaluate HILIC for the separation of isomeric glycopeptide mixtures that have the same peptide backbone but isomeric glycans. Hydrophilic functional groups on both the peptide and the glycan interact with the HILIC stationary phase, and thus, changes to either of these moieties can alter the chromatographic behavior of a glycopeptide. The interactive processes permit glycopeptides to be resolved from each other based on differences in their amino acid sequences and/or their attached glycans. The separations of glycans in HILIC are sufficient to permit resolution of isomeric N-glycan structures, such as sialylated N-glycan isomers differing in α2-3 and α2-6 linkages, while these glycans remain attached to peptides. PMID:27582638

  20. Resolving bundled microtubules using anti-tubulin nanobodies.

    PubMed

    Mikhaylova, Marina; Cloin, Bas M C; Finan, Kieran; van den Berg, Robert; Teeuw, Jalmar; Kijanka, Marta M; Sokolowski, Mikolaj; Katrukha, Eugene A; Maidorn, Manuel; Opazo, Felipe; Moutel, Sandrine; Vantard, Marylin; Perez, Frank; van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M P; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Ewers, Helge; Kapitein, Lukas C

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules are hollow biopolymers of 25-nm diameter and are key constituents of the cytoskeleton. In neurons, microtubules are organized differently between axons and dendrites, but their precise organization in different compartments is not completely understood. Super-resolution microscopy techniques can detect specific structures at an increased resolution, but the narrow spacing between neuronal microtubules poses challenges because most existing labelling strategies increase the effective microtubule diameter by 20-40 nm and will thereby blend neighbouring microtubules into one structure. Here we develop single-chain antibody fragments (nanobodies) against tubulin to achieve super-resolution imaging of microtubules with a decreased apparent diameter. To test the resolving power of these novel probes, we generate microtubule bundles with a known spacing of 50-70 nm and successfully resolve individual microtubules. Individual bundled microtubules can also be resolved in different mammalian cells, including hippocampal neurons, allowing novel insights into fundamental mechanisms of microtubule organization in cell- and neurobiology. PMID:26260773

  1. Resolving and measuring diffusion in complex interfaces: Exploring new capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd M.

    2015-09-01

    This exploratory LDRD targeted the use of a new high resolution spectroscopic diffusion capabilities developed at Sandia to resolve transport processes at interfaces in heterogeneous polymer materials. In particular, the combination of high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion experiments were used to directly explore interface diffusion within heterogeneous polymer composites, including measuring diffusion for individual chemical species in multi-component mixtures. Several different types of heterogeneous polymer systems were studied using these HRMAS NMR diffusion capabilities to probe the resolution limitations, determine the spatial length scales involved, and explore the general applicability to specific heterogeneous systems. The investigations pursued included a) the direct measurement of the diffusion for poly(dimethyl siloxane) polymer (PDMS) on nano-porous materials, b) measurement of penetrant diffusion in additive manufactures (3D printed) processed PDMS composites, and c) the measurement of diffusion in swollen polymers/penetrant mixtures within nano-confined aluminum oxide membranes. The NMR diffusion results obtained were encouraging and allowed for an improved understanding of diffusion and transport processes at the molecular level, while at the same time demonstrating that the spatial heterogeneity that can be resolved using HRMAS NMR PFG diffusion experiment must be larger than ~μm length scales, expect for polymer transport within nanoporous carbons where additional chemical resolution improves the resolvable heterogeneous length scale to hundreds of nm.

  2. [System of ns time-resolved spectroscopy diagnosis and radioprotection].

    PubMed

    Yao, Wei-Bo; Guo, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Yong-min; Tang, Jun-Ping; Cheng, Liang; Xu, Qi-fuo

    2014-06-01

    Cathode plasma of high current electron beam diode is an important research on high power microwave and strong pulsed radio accelerator. It is a reliable method to study cathode plasma by diagnosing the cathode plasma parameters with non-contact spectroscopy measurement system. The present paper introduced the work principle, system composition and performance of the nanosecond (ns) time-resolved spectroscopy diagnosis system. Furthermore, it introduced the implementing method and the temporal relation of lower jitter synchronous trigger system. Simultaneously, the authors designed electromagnetic and radio shield room to protect the diagnosis system due to the high electromagnetic and high X-ray and γ-ray radiation, which seriously interferes with the system. Time-resolved spectroscopy experiment on brass (H62) cathode shows that, the element and matter composition of cathode plasma is clearly increase with the increase in the diode pulsed voltage and current magnitude. The spectroscopy diagnosis system could be of up to 10 ns time resolve capability. It's least is 2 ns. Synchronous trigger system's jitter is less than 4 ns. The spectroscopy diagnosis system will open a new way to study the cathode emission mechanism in depth. PMID:25358142

  3. Time resolved imaging microscopy. Phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, G; Clegg, R M; Arndt-Jovin, D J; Jovin, T M

    1991-01-01

    An optical microscope capable of measuring time resolved luminescence (phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence) images has been developed. The technique employs two phase-locked mechanical choppers and a slow-scan scientific CCD camera attached to a normal fluorescence microscope. The sample is illuminated by a periodic train of light pulses and the image is recorded within a defined time interval after the end of each excitation period. The time resolution discriminates completely against light scattering, reflection, autofluorescence, and extraneous prompt fluorescence, which ordinarily decrease contrast in normal fluorescence microscopy measurements. Time resolved image microscopy produces a high contrast image and particular structures can be emphasized by displaying a new parameter, the ratio of the phosphorescence to fluorescence. Objects differing in luminescence decay rates are easily resolved. The lifetime of the long lived luminescence can be measured at each pixel of the microscope image by analyzing a series of images that differ by a variable time delay. The distribution of luminescence decay rates is displayed directly as an image. Several examples demonstrate the utility of the instrument and the complementarity it offers to conventional fluorescence microscopy. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:1723311

  4. Lensless single-exposure super-resolved interferometric microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granero, Luis; Ferreira, Carlos; García, Javier; Micó, Vicente

    2013-04-01

    Single Exposure Super Resolved Interferometric Microscopy (SESRIM) has been recently proposed as a way to achieve one dimensional super resolved imaging in digital holographic microscopy. SESRIM uses Red-Green-Blue (RGB) multiplexing for illuminating the sample having different propagation angles for each one of the three illumination wavelengths and it has been experimentally validated considering color (A. Calabuig, V. Mico, J. Garcia, Z. Zalevsky, and C. Ferreira, "Single-exposure super-resolved interferometric microscopy by red-green-blue multiplexing," Opt. Lett. 36, 885-887, 2011) and monochrome (A. Calabuig, J. Garcia, C. Ferreira, Z. Zalevsky, and V. Mico, "Resolution improvement by single-exposure superresolved interferometric microscopy with a monochrome sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 2346-2358, 2011) digital sensors for holographic recording. In this contribution, we will first review some of the characteristics of the previously reported SESRIM approaches and second, we will present preliminary results for the extension of SESRIM to the field of lensless holographic microscopy. Experimental results are reported validating this new kind of superresolution imaging method named as lensless SESRIM (L-SESRIM).

  5. Resolving Isomeric Glycopeptide Glycoforms with Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yining; Nie, Yongxin; Boyes, Barry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to resolve glycans while attached to tryptic peptides would greatly facilitate glycoproteomics, as this would enable site-specific glycan characterization. Peptide/glycopeptide separations are typically performed using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), where retention is driven by hydrophobic interaction. As the hydrophilic glycans do not interact significantly with the RPLC stationary phase, it is difficult to resolve glycopeptides that differ only in their glycan structure, even when these differences are large. Alternatively, glycans interact extensively with the stationary phases used in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC), and consequently, differences in glycan structure have profound chromatographic shifts in this chromatographic mode. Here, we evaluate HILIC for the separation of isomeric glycopeptide mixtures that have the same peptide backbone but isomeric glycans. Hydrophilic functional groups on both the peptide and the glycan interact with the HILIC stationary phase, and thus, changes to either of these moieties can alter the chromatographic behavior of a glycopeptide. The interactive processes permit glycopeptides to be resolved from each other based on differences in their amino acid sequences and/or their attached glycans. The separations of glycans in HILIC are sufficient to permit resolution of isomeric N-glycan structures, such as sialylated N-glycan isomers differing in α2-3 and α2-6 linkages, while these glycans remain attached to peptides. PMID:27582638

  6. Evaluating Clouds in Long-Term Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations with Observational Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Xiping; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Zhang, Minghua; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Lang, Stephen; Simpson, Joanne; Kumar, Sujay; Xie, Shaocheng; Eastman, Joseph L.; Shie, Chung-Lin; Geiger, James V.

    2006-01-01

    Two 20-day, continental midlatitude cases are simulated with a three-dimensional (3D) cloud-resolving model (CRM) and compared to Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data. This evaluation of long-term cloud-resolving model simulations focuses on the evaluation of clouds and surface fluxes. All numerical experiments, as compared to observations, simulate surface precipitation well but over-predict clouds, especially in the upper troposphere. The sensitivity of cloud properties to dimensionality and other factors is studied to isolate the origins of the over prediction of clouds. Due to the difference in buoyancy damping between 2D and 3D models, surface precipitation fluctuates rapidly with time, and spurious dehumidification occurs near the tropopause in the 2D CRM. Surface fluxes from a land data assimilation system are compared with ARM observations. They are used in place of the ARM surface fluxes to test the sensitivity of simulated clouds to surface fluxes. Summertime simulations show that surface fluxes from the assimilation system bring about a better simulation of diurnal cloud variation in the lower troposphere.

  7. A minimally-resolved immersed boundary model for reaction-diffusion problems.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Griffith, Boyce E; Patankar, Neelesh A; Donev, Aleksandar

    2013-12-01

    We develop an immersed boundary approach to modeling reaction-diffusion processes in dispersions of reactive spherical particles, from the diffusion-limited to the reaction-limited setting. We represent each reactive particle with a minimally-resolved "blob" using many fewer degrees of freedom per particle than standard discretization approaches. More complicated or more highly resolved particle shapes can be built out of a collection of reactive blobs. We demonstrate numerically that the blob model can provide an accurate representation at low to moderate packing densities of the reactive particles, at a cost not much larger than solving a Poisson equation in the same domain. Unlike multipole expansion methods, our method does not require analytically computed Green's functions, but rather, computes regularized discrete Green's functions on the fly by using a standard grid-based discretization of the Poisson equation. This allows for great flexibility in implementing different boundary conditions, coupling to fluid flow or thermal transport, and the inclusion of other effects such as temporal evolution and even nonlinearities. We develop multigrid-based preconditioners for solving the linear systems that arise when using implicit temporal discretizations or studying steady states. In the diffusion-limited case the resulting linear system is a saddle-point problem, the efficient solution of which remains a challenge for suspensions of many particles. We validate our method by comparing to published results on reaction-diffusion in ordered and disordered suspensions of reactive spheres. PMID:24320369

  8. Influence of line edge roughness (LER) on angular resolved and on spectroscopic scatterometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Thomas; Rafler, Stephan; Frenner, Karsten; Osten, Wolfgang

    2008-09-01

    Scatterometry or optical CD metrology (OCD) has become one of the most common techniques in quantitative wafer metrology within the recent years. Different tool configurations are either available in commercial inspection tools or subject of recent and present research activities. Among these are normal incidence reflectometry, 2-θ scatterometry, spectroscopic ellipsometry and angle resolved Fourier scatterometry. The two latter techniques appear to be promising for future use in semiconductor fabs. Spectroscopic ellipsometry is well established, and Fourier scatterometry has become of increasing interest within the recent time. Line edge roughness, i.e. an edge position variation of printed lines in lithography, has been of less importance up to now, as its amplitude could largely be neglected with respect to the feature dimensions. This will, however, not be the case for future nodes, as on the one hand CDs are getting smaller and smaller, and on the other hand, even the absolute amplitude is expected to increase due to the higher complexity of lithography and etch processes. In this paper a comparison of scatterometric reconstructions in both spectroscopic and angle resolved techniques considering LER afflicted samples is presented. The validity and benefit of a simple effective medium model is investigated.

  9. Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy study on the non-saturate magnetoresistance material WTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Juan; Niu, Xiaohai; Xie, Binping; Zhang, Tong; Feng, Donglai

    2015-03-01

    By performing high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we obtain the detailed electronic structure of WTe2, which has an extremely large non-saturated magnetoresistance. Unlike the simple one electron and one hole pocket as expected, we resolved a rather complicated Fermi surface in WTe2. There is a hole pocket around the Brillouin zone center Γ, two hole pockets and two electron pockets along the tungsten chain direction. Thus the large magnetoresistance cannot be simply attributed to the electron-hole compensation, since this is based on a two carrier assumption model, the real case in WTe2 should be more complicated. Surprisingly, the circular dichroism ARPES result shows a strong intensity inversion between the data under the right-circular polarized light and the left-circular polarized light. This, indicates a proper different orbital angular momentum along the tungsten chain direction, which might also related to the different spin angular momentum since there're coupled with each other. Therefore, we propose that to fully understand the large magnetoresistance in WTe2, spin channel should also be involved where backscattering are forbidden under zero field.

  10. Resolving three-dimensional surface displacements from InSAR measurements: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J.; Li, Z. W.; Ding, X. L.; Zhu, J. J.; Zhang, L.; Sun, Q.

    2014-06-01

    One-dimensional measurement along the Line-Of-Sight (LOS) direction has greatly limited the capability of InSAR technique in the investigation of surface displacements and their dynamics. In recent years, great efforts have been made to resolve complete three-dimensional (3-D) displacements from InSAR measurements. This contribution is intended to provide a systematic review of the progress achieved in this field. Based on an analysis of the InSAR LOS measurements, we first cover two commonly used techniques, i.e., Offset-Tracking and multi-aperture InSAR (MAI), with which the surface displacement in the azimuth direction can be measured together with the LOS displacement. Several methods for mapping 3-D displacements using InSAR measurements are subsequently presented and categorized into three groups: (i) combination of multi-pass LOS and azimuth measurements; (ii) integration of InSAR and GPS data; and (iii) prior information assisted approaches. The strengths and weaknesses of each method are analyzed to show the applicability of each method to specific 3-D displacement mapping cases, in hope to provide a useful guidance in choosing a suitable approach accordingly. Finally, suggestions for resolving the challenging issues and outlook of future research are given.

  11. Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging to investigate cell metabolism in malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rück, Angelika; Hauser, Carmen; Mosch, Simone; Kalinina, Sviatlana

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence-guided diagnosis of tumor tissue is in many cases insufficient, because false positive results interfere with the outcome. Improvement through observation of cell metabolism might offer the solution, but needs a detailed understanding of the origin of autofluorescence. With respect to this, spectrally resolved multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging was investigated to analyze cell metabolism in metabolic phenotypes of malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells. The time-resolved fluorescence characteristics of NADH were measured in cells of different origins. The fluorescence lifetime of bound and free NADH was calculated from biexponential fitting of the fluorescence intensity decay within different spectral regions. The mean lifetime was increased from nonmalignant oral mucosa cells to different squamous carcinoma cells, where the most aggressive cells showed the longest lifetime. In correlation with reports in the literature, the total amount of NADH seemed to be less for the carcinoma cells and the ratio of free/bound NADH was decreased from nonmalignant to squamous carcinoma cells. Moreover for squamous carcinoma cells a high concentration of bound NADH was found in cytoplasmic organelles (mainly mitochondria). This all together indicates that oxidative phosphorylation and a high redox potential play an important role in the energy metabolism of these cells.

  12. Feasibility analysis of an epidermal glucose sensor based on time-resolved fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katika, Kamal M.; Pilon, Laurent

    2007-06-01

    The goal of this study is to test the feasibility of using an embedded time-resolved fluorescence sensor for monitoring glucose concentration. Skin is modeled as a multilayer medium with each layer having its own optical properties and fluorophore absorption coefficients, lifetimes, and quantum yields obtained from the literature. It is assumed that the two main fluorophores contributing to the fluorescence at these excitation and emission wavelengths are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)H and collagen. The intensity distributions of excitation and fluorescent light in skin are determined by solving the transient radiative transfer equation by using the modified method of characteristics. The fluorophore lifetimes are then recovered from the simulated fluorescence decays and compared with the actual lifetimes used in the simulations. Furthermore, the effect of adding Poissonian noise to the simulated decays on recovering the lifetimes was studied. For all cases, it was found that the fluorescence lifetime of NADH could not be recovered because of its negligible contribution to the overall fluorescence signal. The other lifetimes could be recovered to within 1.3% of input values. Finally, the glucose concentrations within the skin were recovered to within 13.5% of their actual values, indicating a possibility of measuring glucose concentrations by using a time-resolved fluorescence sensor.

  13. Deep Imaging: How Much of the Proteome Does Current Top-Down Technology Already Resolve?

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Elise P.; Prasad, Kali A. G.; Padula, Matthew P.; Coorssen, Jens R.

    2014-01-01

    Effective proteome analyses are based on interplay between resolution and detection. It had been claimed that resolution was the main factor limiting the use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Improved protein detection now indicates that this is unlikely to be the case. Using a highly refined protocol, the rat brain proteome was extracted, resolved, and detected. In order to overcome the stain saturation threshold, high abundance protein species were excised from the gel following standard imaging. Gels were then imaged again using longer exposure times, enabling detection of lower abundance, less intensely stained protein species. This resulted in a significant enhancement in the detection of resolved proteins, and a slightly modified digestion protocol enabled effective identification by standard mass spectrometric methods. The data indicate that the resolution required for comprehensive proteome analyses is already available, can assess multiple samples in parallel, and preserve critical information concerning post-translational modifications. Further optimization of staining and detection methods promises additional improvements to this economical, widely accessible and effective top-down approach to proteome analysis. PMID:24489691

  14. Yukawas, G-flux, and spectral covers from resolved Calabi-Yau's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsano, Joseph; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura

    2011-11-01

    We use the resolution procedure of Esole and Yau [1] to study Yukawa couplings, G-flux, and the emergence of spectral covers from elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau's with a surface of A 4 singularities. We provide a global description of the Esole-Yau resolution and use it to explicitly compute Chern classes of the resolved 4-fold, proving the conjecture of [2] for the Euler character in the process. We comment on the physical implications of the surprising singular fibers in codimension 2 and 3 in [1] and emphasize a group theoretic interpretation based on the A 4 weight lattice. We then construct explicit G-fluxes by brute force in one of the 6 birationally equivalent Esole-Yau resolutions, quantize them explicitly using our result for the second Chern class, and compute the spectrum and flux-induced 3-brane charges, finding agreement with results and conjectures of local models in all cases. Finally, we provide a precise description of the spectral divisor formalism in this setting and sharpen the procedure described in [3] in order to explicitly demonstrate how the Higgs bundle spectral cover of the local model emerges from the resolved Calabi-Yau geometry. Along the way, we demonstrate explicitly how the quantization rules for fluxes in the local and global models are related.

  15. Simple photomultiplier tube internal-gating method for use in subnanosecond time-resolved spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Tetsuo; Takasu, Tsuyoshi; Araki, Tsutomu

    2003-09-01

    We propose a simple photomultiplier tube (PMT) internal-gating method for use in the field of subnanosecond time-resolved spectroscopy. In the proposed method, we control two dynodes in the PMT by applying a gate signal whose pulse width is Tg. When controlling the mth and the n(> m)th dynodes, a resolution time delta t is approximately given by delta t = Tg-(n-m) tau, where tau is a transit time of a lump of secondary electrons traveling between the two dynodes in the PMT. In principle, the resolution time delta t shorter than the pulse width Tg of the gate signal can be easily obtained. From a fundamental performance test, we found that a subnanosecond resolution time delta t = 0.31 ns was obtained for the case of m = 2 and n = 5. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we carried out a time-resolved spectroscopic measurement of emission obtained from a white-light-emitting diode (LED) driven by a nanosecond current pulse. PMID:14611045

  16. Resolving two beams in beam splitters with a beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, S.

    2002-01-01

    The beam transport system for the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF) anticipates multiple beam splitters. Monitoring two separated beams in a common beam pipe in the splitter sections imposes certain requirements on diagnostics for these sections. In this note we explore a two-beam system in a generic beam monitor and study the feasibility of resolving the positions of the two beams with a single diagnostic device. In the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF), 20-ns beam pulses (bunches) are extracted from the 50-GeV main proton synchrotron and then are transported to the target by an elaborated transport system. The beam transport system splits the beam bunches into equal parts in its splitting sections so that up to 12 synchronous beam pulses can be delivered to the target for the multi-axis proton radiography. Information about the transverse positions of the beams in the splitters, and possibly the bunch longitudinal profile, should be delivered by some diagnostic devices. Possible candidates are the circular wall current monitors in the circular pipes connecting the splitter elements, or the conventional stripline BPMs. In any case, we need some estimates on how well the transverse positions of the two beams can be resolved by these monitors.

  17. On the Incorporation of Metallicity Data into Measurements of Star Formation History from Resolved Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2016-07-01

    The combination of spectroscopic stellar metallicities and resolved star color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs) has the potential to constrain the entire star formation history (SFH) of a galaxy better than fitting CMDs alone (as is most common in SFH studies using resolved stellar populations). In this paper, two approaches to incorporating external metallicity information into CMD-fitting techniques are presented. Overall, the joint fitting of metallicity and CMD information can increase the precision of measured age–metallicity relationships (AMRs) and star formation rates by 10% over CMD fitting alone. However, systematics in stellar isochrones and mismatches between spectroscopic and photometric determinations of metallicity can reduce the accuracy of the recovered SFHs. I present a simple mitigation of these systematics that can reduce their amplitude to the level obtained from CMD fitting alone, while ensuring that the AMR is consistent with spectroscopic metallicities. As is the case in CMD-fitting analysis, improved stellar models and calibrations between spectroscopic and photometric metallicities are currently the primary impediment to gains in SFH precision from jointly fitting stellar metallicities and CMDs.

  18. Gauge invariance in the theoretical description of time-resolved angle-resolved pump/probe photoemission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Freericks, J. K.; Krishnamurthy, H. R.; Sentef, M. A.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2015-10-01

    Nonequilibrium calculations in the presence of an electric field are usually performed in a gauge, and need to be transformed to reveal the gauge-invariant observables. In this work, we discuss the issue of gauge invariance in the context of time-resolved angle-resolved pump/probe photoemission. If the probe is applied while the pump is still on, one must ensure that the calculations of the observed photocurrent are gauge invariant. We also discuss the requirement of the photoemission signal to be positive and the relationship of this constraint to gauge invariance. We end by discussing some technical details related to the perturbative derivation of the photoemission spectra, which involve processes where the pump pulse photoexcites electrons due to nonequilibrium effects.

  19. An efficient and accurate approach to MTE-MART for time-resolved tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K. P.; Scarano, F.

    2015-03-01

    The motion-tracking-enhanced MART (MTE-MART; Novara et al. in Meas Sci Technol 21:035401, 2010) has demonstrated the potential to increase the accuracy of tomographic PIV by the combined use of a short sequence of non-simultaneous recordings. A clear bottleneck of the MTE-MART technique has been its computational cost. For large datasets comprising time-resolved sequences, MTE-MART becomes unaffordable and has been barely applied even for the analysis of densely seeded tomographic PIV datasets. A novel implementation is proposed for tomographic PIV image sequences, which strongly reduces the computational burden of MTE-MART, possibly below that of regular MART. The method is a sequential algorithm that produces a time-marching estimation of the object intensity field based on an enhanced guess, which is built upon the object reconstructed at the previous time instant. As the method becomes effective after a number of snapshots (typically 5-10), the sequential MTE-MART (SMTE) is most suited for time-resolved sequences. The computational cost reduction due to SMTE simply stems from the fewer MART iterations required for each time instant. Moreover, the method yields superior reconstruction quality and higher velocity field measurement precision when compared with both MART and MTE-MART. The working principle is assessed in terms of computational effort, reconstruction quality and velocity field accuracy with both synthetic time-resolved tomographic images of a turbulent boundary layer and two experimental databases documented in the literature. The first is the time-resolved data of flow past an airfoil trailing edge used in the study of Novara and Scarano (Exp Fluids 52:1027-1041, 2012); the second is a swirling jet in a water flow. In both cases, the effective elimination of ghost particles is demonstrated in number and intensity within a short temporal transient of 5-10 frames, depending on the seeding density. The increased value of the velocity space

  20. Bias-free procedure for the measurement of the minimum resolvable temperature difference and minimum resolvable contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Piet; Valeton, J. Mathieu

    1999-10-01

    The characterization of electro-optical system performance by means of the standard minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) or the minimum resolvable contrast (MRC) has a number of serious disadvantages. One of the problems is that they depend on the subjective decision criterion of the observer. We present an improved measurement procedure in which the results are free from observer bias. In an adaptive two-alternative forced-choice procedure, both the standard four-bar pattern and a five-bar reference pattern of the same size and contrast are presented consecutively in random order. The observer decides which of the two presentations contains the four-bar pattern. Misjudgments are made if the bars cannot be resolved or are distorted by sampling. The procedure converges to the contrast at which 75% of the observer responses are correct. The reliability of the responses is tested statistically. Curves cut off near the Nyquist frequency, so that it is not necessary to artificially set a frequency limit for sampling array cameras. The procedure enables better and easier measurement, yields more stable results than the standard procedure, and avoids disputes between different measuring teams. The presented procedure is a `quick fix' solution for some of the problems with the MRTD and MRC, and is recommended as long as bar patterns are used as the stimulus. A new and fundamentally better method to characterize electro-optical system performance, called the triangle orientation discrimination threshold was recently proposed by Bijl and Valeton (1998).

  1. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in Suicide Prevention: The Case of Telephone Helpline Rescue Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishara, Brian L.; Weisstub, David N.

    2010-01-01

    The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to…

  2. A Genomic Approach to Resolving Relapse versus Reinfection among Four Cases of Buruli Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Eddyani, Miriam; Vandelannoote, Koen; Meehan, Conor J.; Bhuju, Sabin; Porter, Jessica L.; Aguiar, Julia; Seemann, Torsten; Jarek, Michael; Singh, Mahavir; Portaels, Françoise; Stinear, Timothy P.; de Jong, Bouke C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased availability of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques allows, for the first time, to distinguish relapses from reinfections in patients with multiple Buruli ulcer (BU) episodes. Methodology We compared the number and location of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by genomic screening between four pairs of Mycobacterium ulcerans isolates collected at the time of first diagnosis and at recurrence, derived from a collection of almost 5000 well characterized clinical samples from one BU treatment center in Benin. Principal Findings The findings suggest that after surgical treatment—without antibiotics—the second episodes were due to relapse rather than reinfection. Since specific antibiotics were introduced for the treatment of BU, the one patient with a culture available from both disease episodes had M. ulcerans isolates with a genomic distance of 20 SNPs, suggesting the patient was most likely reinfected rather than having a relapse. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study is the first to study recurrences in M. ulcerans using NGS, and to identify exogenous reinfection as causing a recurrence of BU. The occurrence of reinfection highlights the contribution of ongoing exposure to M. ulcerans to disease recurrence, and has implications for vaccine development. PMID:26618509

  3. Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zschocke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize controlled…

  4. Resolving the CaP-bone interface: a review of discoveries with light and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Grandfield, Kathryn; Palmquist, Anders; Engqvist, Håkan; Thomsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that the interfacial relationship between synthetic materials and tissue is influential in the success of implant materials. Instability at the implant interface has been shown, in some cases, to lead to complete implant failure. Bioceramics, and in particular calcium phosphates, form a large fraction of the implantable devices on the market today due to the biocompatibility they exhibit in contact with bone and tooth-like tissues. The characterization of such bioceramic-tissue interfaces has played a crucial role in understanding the behavior of bioceramics in vivo. In this review, we shed light on the preparation methods, technological approaches and key advances in resolving the interface between calcium phosphate bioceramics and bone, and share a future outlook on this field. PMID:23507782

  5. Orbital Rashba effect and its detection by circular dichroism angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Hong; Kim, Choong H.; Rhim, Jun-Won; Han, Jung Hoon

    2012-05-01

    We show, by way of tight-binding and first-principles calculations, that a one-to-one correspondence between an electron's crystal momentum k and nonzero orbital angular momentum (OAM) is a generic feature of surface bands. The OAM forms a chiral structure in momentum space much as its spin counterpart in Rashba model does, as a consequence of the inherent inversion symmetry breaking at the surface but not of spin-orbit interaction. This is the orbital counterpart of conventional Rashba effect and may be called the “orbital Rashba effect.” The circular dichroism (CD) angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) method is an efficient way to detect this new order, and we derive formulas explicitly relating the CD-ARPES signal to the existence of OAM in the band structure. The cases of degenerate p- and d-orbital bands are considered.

  6. ExSPAnder: a universal repeat resolver for DNA fragment assembly

    PubMed Central

    Prjibelski, Andrey D.; Vasilinetc, Irina; Bankevich, Anton; Gurevich, Alexey; Krivosheeva, Tatiana; Nurk, Sergey; Pham, Son; Korobeynikov, Anton; Lapidus, Alla; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have raised a challenging de novo genome assembly problem that is further amplified in recently emerged single-cell sequencing projects. While various NGS assemblers can use information from several libraries of read-pairs, most of them were originally developed for a single library and do not fully benefit from multiple libraries. Moreover, most assemblers assume uniform read coverage, condition that does not hold for single-cell projects where utilization of read-pairs is even more challenging. We have developed an exSPAnder algorithm that accurately resolves repeats in the case of both single and multiple libraries of read-pairs in both standard and single-cell assembly projects. Availability and implementation: http://bioinf.spbau.ru/en/spades Contact: ap@bioinf.spbau.ru PMID:24931996

  7. High-intensity power-resolved radiation imaging of an operational nuclear reactor.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Jonathan S; Mellor, Matthew P; Villa, Mario; Joyce, Malcolm J

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the neutron distribution in a nuclear reactor is necessary to ensure the safe and efficient burnup of reactor fuel. Currently these measurements are performed by in-core systems in what are extremely hostile environments and in most reactor accident scenarios it is likely that these systems would be damaged. Here we present a compact and portable radiation imaging system with the ability to image high-intensity fast-neutron and gamma-ray fields simultaneously. This system has been deployed to image radiation fields emitted during the operation of a TRIGA test reactor allowing a spatial visualization of the internal reactor conditions to be obtained. The imaged flux in each case is found to scale linearly with reactor power indicating that this method may be used for power-resolved reactor monitoring and for the assay of ongoing nuclear criticalities in damaged nuclear reactors. PMID:26450669

  8. Fictitious domain method for fully resolved reacting gas-solid flow simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Longhui; Liu, Kai; You, Changfu

    2015-10-01

    Fully resolved simulation (FRS) for gas-solid multiphase flow considers solid objects as finite sized regions in flow fields and their behaviours are predicted by solving equations in both fluid and solid regions directly. Fixed mesh numerical methods, such as fictitious domain method, are preferred in solving FRS problems and have been widely researched. However, for reacting gas-solid flows no suitable fictitious domain numerical method has been developed. This work presents a new fictitious domain finite element method for FRS of reacting particulate flows. Low Mach number reacting flow governing equations are solved sequentially on a regular background mesh. Particles are immersed in the mesh and driven by their surface forces and torques integrated on immersed interfaces. Additional treatments on energy and surface reactions are developed. Several numerical test cases validated the method and a burning carbon particles array falling simulation proved the capability for solving moving reacting particle cluster problems.

  9. Magnetopause reconnection diffusion regions resolved by the NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li-Jen

    2016-07-01

    Our understanding of how magnetic reconnection occurs in collisionless plasmas depends highly on our ability to resolve structures of the diffusion region. Unraveling the physical processes in the diffusion region is the primary goal of the NASA mission Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS). With its first science phase began in September, 2015, the four MMS satellites have encountered both ion and electron diffusion regions during magnetopause reconnection. We will discuss a few diffusion region events including cases with negligible and finite guide fields, and compare the results with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. In particular, a close comparison between particle distribution functions observed by MMS and those predicted by PIC will be made to highlight how the unprecedented high-resolution MMS measurements advance the current state-of-knowledge on collisionless reconnection.

  10. Observations of Resolved Stellar Populations with the JWST Near Infrared Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Karoline; Beck, Tracy L.; Karakla, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) will provide a multi-object spectroscopy mode through the four Micro-Shutter Arrays (MSAs). Each MSA is a grid of contiguous shutters that can be configured to form slits on more than 100 astronomical targets simultaneously. The combination of JWST's sensitivity and superb resolution in the infrared and NIRSpec's full wavelength coverage over 1 to 5 micrometers will open new parameter space for studies of galaxies and resolved stellar populations alike. We present a NIRSpec MSA observing scenario for obtaining spectroscopy of individual stars in external galaxies. We examine the multiplexing capability of the MSA as a function of the possible MSA configuration design choices, and investigate the primary sources of error in velocity measurements and the prospects for minimizing them. We discuss how this and other use cases are being used to guide development of the NIRSpec user interfaces, including proposal planning and pipeline calibrations.

  11. High-intensity power-resolved radiation imaging of an operational nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Jonathan S.; Mellor, Matthew P.; Villa, Mario; Joyce, Malcolm J.

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of the neutron distribution in a nuclear reactor is necessary to ensure the safe and efficient burnup of reactor fuel. Currently these measurements are performed by in-core systems in what are extremely hostile environments and in most reactor accident scenarios it is likely that these systems would be damaged. Here we present a compact and portable radiation imaging system with the ability to image high-intensity fast-neutron and gamma-ray fields simultaneously. This system has been deployed to image radiation fields emitted during the operation of a TRIGA test reactor allowing a spatial visualization of the internal reactor conditions to be obtained. The imaged flux in each case is found to scale linearly with reactor power indicating that this method may be used for power-resolved reactor monitoring and for the assay of ongoing nuclear criticalities in damaged nuclear reactors.

  12. Melting of geomaterials under high-pressure using in-situ time-resolved XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezouar, M.; Dewaele, A.; Loubeyre, P.; Nicolas, G.; Garbarino, G.; Salamat, A.; Petitgirard, S.; Fiquet, G.

    2011-12-01

    Detailed knowledge of the high pressure melting relations is essential for constructing and validating models of materials behavior under extreme conditions for fields ranging from geophysics and planetary sciences to fundamental and applied physics. In the present work, melting and solid-solid phase transitions of several materials have been precisely followed using an original in-situ synchrotron time-resolved x-ray diffraction method. The real-time detection of the x-ray signal scattered by the liquid is used as an objective criterion for melting. The principle and potential of this method will be illustrated in three important cases, i.e. lead, and tantalum melting curves (physics) and the melting of peridotite (geophysics).

  13. Phase-resolved optical emission of dusty rf discharges: Experiment and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Melzer, Andre; Huebner, Simon; Lewerentz, Lars; Schneider, Ralf; Matyash, Konstantin; Ikkurthi, Ramana

    2011-03-15

    The spectral emission of atoms in a dusty radio frequence (rf) discharge plasma in argon and helium has been measured with a gated ICCD camera. The spatially and temporally resolved emission/excitation of the argon and helium atoms during the rf cycle in the dusty discharge was compared to the dust-free case. In the bulk plasma above the dust cloud, the emission is clearly enhanced in the dusty discharge with respect to the pure discharge, whereas in the sheath the emission is reduced. In addition, the emission of a dusty argon plasma is studied via particle-particle particle-mesh (P{sup 3}M) simulations. The rf dynamics with a single dust particle trapped in the sheath was calculated. Like in the experiment the dust modifies the atomic emission. The spatiotemporal excitation pattern of the experiment is reproduced and a detailed understanding of the difference in excitation of the discharge with and without dust is presented.

  14. Low-buoyancy thermochemical plumes resolve controversy of classical mantle plume concept.

    PubMed

    Dannberg, Juliane; Sobolev, Stephan V

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's biggest magmatic events are believed to originate from massive melting when hot mantle plumes rising from the lowermost mantle reach the base of the lithosphere. Classical models predict large plume heads that cause kilometre-scale surface uplift, and narrow (100 km radius) plume tails that remain in the mantle after the plume head spreads below the lithosphere. However, in many cases, such uplifts and narrow plume tails are not observed. Here using numerical models, we show that the issue can be resolved if major mantle plumes contain up to 15-20% of recycled oceanic crust in a form of dense eclogite, which drastically decreases their buoyancy and makes it depth dependent. We demonstrate that, despite their low buoyancy, large enough thermochemical plumes can rise through the whole mantle causing only negligible surface uplift. Their tails are bulky (>200 km radius) and remain in the upper mantle for 100 millions of years. PMID:25907970

  15. Resolving the agriculture-petroleum conflict: the experience of cacao smallholders in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Scherr, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    In 1972, PEMEX, the Mexican national oil company, discovered huge reserves of oil and natural gas along the Gulf Coast, and began intensive exploitation in Tabasco and northern Chiapas states. Severe conflict between PEMEX and the agricultural economy of Tabasco seemed certain. But despite problems of labor scarcity, inflation, migration, pollution, agricultural production 1974 to 1979 increased for the state's major products - cacao, coconut, beef, and bananas. This study analyzes how agriculture-petroleum conflicts have been resolved in Tabasco, and how relevant its experience is to other agricultural areas undergoing rapid large-scale industrial development. Cacao farming was chosen as a case study. Detailed farm budget, family employment, and technical production data were used to document farm production strategies. Research results suggest that resolution of agriculture-petroleum conflicts depends on: demographic conditions, employment conditions, agricultural prices, petroleum company flexibility, government development policy, and farmer political strength. Support for the campesino sector is critical.

  16. High-Definition Differential Ion Mobility Spectrometry with Resolving Power up to 500

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Seim, Thomas A.; Danielson, William F.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Moore, Ronald J.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2013-01-20

    As the resolution of analytical methods improve, further progress tends to be increasingly limited by instrumental parameter instabilities that could be ignored before. This is now the case with differential ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), where fluctuations of the voltages and gas pressure have become critical. A new high-definition generator for FAIMS compensation voltage reported here provides a stable and accurate output than can be scanned with negligible steps. This reduces the spectral drift and peak width, thus improving the resolving power (R) and resolution. The gain for multiply-charged peptides that have narrowest peaks is up to ~40%, and R ~ 400 - 500 is achievable using He/N2 or H2/N2 gas mixtures.

  17. Rotationally-resolved excitation spectroscopy of the alkoxy and alkylthio radicals in a supersonic jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Prabhakar; Zhu, Xinming; Bryant, Hosie L.; Kamal, Mohammed M.

    1993-01-01

    Rotationally-resolved laser excitation spectra have been obtained for the alkoxy radicals (CH3O, C2H5O, i-C3H7O) and the alkylthio radicals (CH3S, C2H5S, i-C3H7S) in a supersonic jet expansion. Low resolution (0.2/cm) excitation spectra have helped identify several vibronic bands belonging to the A-X electronic system for these jet-cooled free radicals. High resolution (0.07/cm) laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectra have aided the unraveling of the associated rotational structure and in certain cases (CH3O and CH3S, for example) enabled explicit rotational (J,K) assignments of the transitions.

  18. Low-buoyancy thermochemical plumes resolve controversy of classical mantle plume concept

    PubMed Central

    Dannberg, Juliane; Sobolev, Stephan V.

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's biggest magmatic events are believed to originate from massive melting when hot mantle plumes rising from the lowermost mantle reach the base of the lithosphere. Classical models predict large plume heads that cause kilometre-scale surface uplift, and narrow (100 km radius) plume tails that remain in the mantle after the plume head spreads below the lithosphere. However, in many cases, such uplifts and narrow plume tails are not observed. Here using numerical models, we show that the issue can be resolved if major mantle plumes contain up to 15–20% of recycled oceanic crust in a form of dense eclogite, which drastically decreases their buoyancy and makes it depth dependent. We demonstrate that, despite their low buoyancy, large enough thermochemical plumes can rise through the whole mantle causing only negligible surface uplift. Their tails are bulky (>200 km radius) and remain in the upper mantle for 100 millions of years. PMID:25907970

  19. High-intensity power-resolved radiation imaging of an operational nuclear reactor

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Jonathan S.; Mellor, Matthew P.; Villa, Mario; Joyce, Malcolm J.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the neutron distribution in a nuclear reactor is necessary to ensure the safe and efficient burnup of reactor fuel. Currently these measurements are performed by in-core systems in what are extremely hostile environments and in most reactor accident scenarios it is likely that these systems would be damaged. Here we present a compact and portable radiation imaging system with the ability to image high-intensity fast-neutron and gamma-ray fields simultaneously. This system has been deployed to image radiation fields emitted during the operation of a TRIGA test reactor allowing a spatial visualization of the internal reactor conditions to be obtained. The imaged flux in each case is found to scale linearly with reactor power indicating that this method may be used for power-resolved reactor monitoring and for the assay of ongoing nuclear criticalities in damaged nuclear reactors. PMID:26450669

  20. Preparation and Testing of Ice-Enriched Lunar Regolith Simulant for RESOLVE OVEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Bonnie; Paz, Aaron; Smith, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction) project seeks to deploy a robotic ISRU lander at the lunar south pole to determine the accessibility of frozen ice and the resource potential at various locations. The OVEN (Oxygen and Volatiles Extraction Node) component will be used to heat samples to 150 C or higher in order to drive off ice and other volatiles, which will then be identified and measured. An ice volatilization system has been developed to specifically collect data on the extraction of water vapor from a sample. Testing of the system was begun in April of this year. This report addresses our current work to test the system in a relevant environment in this case, using simulants with up to 10wt% water ice at 76K, in reduced atmosphere.

  1. RESOLVE: Bridge between early lunar ISRU and science objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G.; Sanders, G.; Larson, W.; Johnson, K.

    2007-08-01

    and make direct measurements. With this in mind, NASA initiated development of a payload named RESOLVE (Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction) that could be flown to the lunar poles and answer the questions surrounding the hydrogen: what's its form? how much is there? how deep or distributed is it? To do this, RESOLVE will use a drill to take a 1-2 meter core sample, crush and heat sample segments of the core in an oven and monitor the amount and type of volatile gases that evolve with a gas chromatograph (GC). RESOLVE will also selectively capture both hydrogen gas and water as a secondary method of quantification. A specialized camera that is coupled with a Raman spectrometer will allow core samples to be microscopically examined while also determining its mineral composition and possible water content before heating. Because RESOLVE is aimed at demonstrating capabilities and techniques that might be later used for ISRU, a multi-use oven is utilized with the ability to produce oxygen using the hydrogen reduction method. SCIENCE BENEFITS: In the process of answering the hydrogen question, the RESOLVE instrument suite will provide data that can address a number of other scientific questions and debate issues, especially the sources of volatiles and reactions that might take place in cold traps. It should be noted that the original instrument suite for RESOLVE was selected to accomplish the largest number of ISRU and science objectives as possible within the limited funding available. Complementary instruments are noted when additional science objectives can be accomplished. Incorporation of these new instruments into RESOLVE and potential partnerships is an area of near-term interest. Sources of Volatiles: The main proposed sources are episodic comet impacts, moreor- less continuous micrometeorite (both comet and asteroidal) impacts, solar wind bombardment, occasional volcanic emissions from the interior, and episodic delivery of

  2. Imaging the cellular response to transient shear stress using time-resolved digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arita, Yoshihiko; Antkowiak, Maciej; Gunn-Moore, Frank; Dholakia, Kishan

    2014-02-01

    Shear stress has been recognized as one of the biophysical methods by which to permeabilize plasma membranes of cells. In particular, high pressure transient hydrodynamic flows created by laser-induced cavitation have been shown to lead to the uptake of fluorophores and plasmid DNA. While the mechanism and dynamics of cavitation have been extensively studied using a variety of time-resolved imaging techniques, the cellular response to the cavitation bubble and cavitation induced transient hydrodynamic flows has never been shown in detail. We use time-resolved quantitative phase microscopy to study cellular response to laser-induced cavitation bubbles. Laser-induced breakdown of an optically trapped polystyrene nanoparticle (500nm in diameter) irradiated with a single nanosecond laser pulse at 532nm creates transient shear stress to surrounding cells without causing cell lysis. A bi-directional transient displacement of cytoplasm is observed during expansion and collapse of the cavitation bubble. In some cases, cell deformation is only observable at the microsecond time scale without any permanent change in cell shape or optical thickness. On a time scale of seconds, the cellular response to shear stress and cytoplasm deformation typically leads to retraction of the cellular edge most exposed to the flow, rounding of the cell body and, in some cases, loss of cellular dry mass. These results give a new insight into the cellular response to laser-induced shear stress and related plasma membrane permeabilization. This study also demonstrates that laser-induced breakdown of an optically trapped nanoparticle offers localized cavitation (70 μm in diameter), which interacts with a single cell.

  3. Spatially resolved heat release rate measurements in turbulent premixed flames

    SciTech Connect

    Ayoola, B.O.; Kaminski, C.F.; Balachandran, R.; Mastorakos, E.; Frank, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Heat release rate is a fundamental property of great importance for the theoretical and experimental elucidation of unsteady flame behaviors such as combustion noise, combustion instabilities, and pulsed combustion. Investigations of such thermoacoustic interactions require a reliable indicator of heat release rate capable of resolving spatial structures in turbulent flames. Traditionally, heat release rate has been estimated via OH or CH radical chemiluminescence; however, chemiluminescence suffers from being a line-of-sight technique with limited capability for resolving small-scale structures. In this paper, we report spatially resolved two-dimensional measurements of a quantity closely related to heat release rate. The diagnostic technique uses simultaneous OH and CH{sub 2}O planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), and the pixel-by-pixel product of the OH and CH{sub 2}O PLIF signals has previously been shown to correlate well with local heat release rates. Results from this diagnostic technique, which we refer to as heat release rate imaging (HR imaging), are compared with traditional OH chemiluminescence measurements in several flames. Studies were performed in lean premixed ethylene flames stabilized between opposed jets and with a bluff body. Correlations between bulk strain rates and local heat release rates were obtained and the effects of curvature on heat release rate were investigated. The results show that the heat release rate tends to increase with increasing negative curvature for the flames investigated for which Lewis numbers are greater than unity. This correlation becomes more pronounced as the flame gets closer to global extinction.

  4. Effect of Under-Resolved Grids on High Order Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, B.; Mansour, Nagi (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There has been much discussion on verification and validation processes for establishing the credibility of CFD simulations. Since the early 1990s, many of the aeronautical and mechanical engineering related reference journals mandated that any accepted articles in numerical simulations (without known solutions to compared with) need to perform a minimum of one level of grid refinement and time step reduction. Due to the difficulty in analysis, the effect of under-resolved grids and the nonlinear behavior of available spatial discretizations, are scarcely discussed in the literature. Here, an under-resolved numerical simulation is one where the grid spacing being used is too coarse to resolve the smallest physically relevant scales of the chosen continuum governing equations that are of interest to the numerical modeler. With the advent of new developments in fourth-order or higher spatial schemes, it has become common to regard high order schemes as more accurate, reliable and require less grid points. The danger comes when one tries to perform computations with the coarsest grid possible while still hoping to maintain numerical results sufficiently accurate for complex flows, and especially, data-limited problems. On one hand, high order methods when applies to highly coupled multidimensional complex nonlinear problems might have different stability, convergence and reliability behavior than their well studied low order counterparts, especially for nonlinear schemes such as TVD, MUSCL with limiters, ENO, WENO and discrete Galerkin. On the other hand, high order methods involve more operation counts and systematic grid convergence study can be time consuming and prohibitively expansive. At the same time it is difficult to fully understand or categorize the different nonlinear behavior of finite discretizations, especially at the limits of under-resolution when different types of bifurcation phenomena might occur, depending on the combination of grid spacings, time

  5. Noncontact depth-resolved micro-scale corneal elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shang; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    Noninvasive high-resolution depth-resolved measurement of corneal biomechanics is of great clinical significance for improving the diagnosis and optimizing the treatment of various degenerated ocular diseases. Here, we report a micro-scale optical coherence elastography (OCE) method that enables noncontact assessment of the depthwise elasticity distribution in the cornea. The OCE system combines a focused air-puff device with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT). Low-pressure short-duration air stream is used to load the cornea with the localized displacement at micron level. The phase-resolved OCT detection with nano-scale sensitivity probes the induced corneal deformation at various locations within a scanning line, providing the ultra-fast imaging of the corneal lamb wave propagation. With spectral analysis, the amplitude spectra and the phase spectra are available for the estimation of the frequency range of the lamb wave and the quantification of the wave propagation, respectively. Curved propagation paths following the top and bottom corneal boundaries are selected inside the cornea for measuring the phase velocity of the lamb wave at the major frequency components over the whole depths. Our pilot experiments on ex vivo rabbit eyes indicate the distinct stiffness of different layers in the cornea, including the epithelium, the anterior stroma, the posterior stroma, and the innermost region, which demonstrates the feasibility of this micro-scale OCE method for noncontact depth-resolved corneal elastography. Also, the quantification of the lamb wave dispersion in the cornea could lead to the measurement of the elastic modulus, suggesting the potential of this method for quantitative monitoring of the corneal biomechanics.

  6. THE CASE FOR CASE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FILLMORE, CHARLES J.

    IN THIS PAPER, PREPARED FOR THE APRIL 1967 TEXAS SYMPOSIUM ON LINGUISTIC UNIVERSALS, IT IS PROPOSED THAT THE GRAMMATICAL NOTION "CASE" DESERVES A PLACE IN THE BASE COMPONENT OF THE GRAMMAR OF EVERY LANGUAGE. IT IS ARGUED THAT PAST RESEARCH HAS NOT LED TO VALID INSIGHTS ON CASE RELATIONSHIPS AND THAT WHAT IS NEEDED IS A CONCEPTION OF BASE STRUCTURE…

  7. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for resolved stellar populations

    SciTech Connect

    Rossetto, Bruno M.; Santiago, Basílio X.; Girardi, Léo; Camargo, Julio I. B.; Balbinot, Eduardo; da Costa, Luiz N.; Yanny, Brian; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Makler, Martin; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Pellegrini, Paulo S.; Ramos, Beatriz; de Simoni, Fernando; Armstrong, R.; Bertin, E.; Desai, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lin, H.; Mohr, J. J.; Tucker, D. L.

    2011-05-06

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  8. Nonequilibrium Green's Function approach to time-resolved photoabsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanucci, Gianluca; Perfetto, Enrico; Uimonen, Anna-Maija; van Leeuwen, Robert

    We propose a nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) approach to calculate the time-resolved absorption spectrum of nanoscale systems. We can deal with arbitrary shape, intensity, duration and relative delay of the pump and probe fields and include ionization processes as well as hybridization effects due to surfaces. We present numerical simulations of atomic systems using different approximate self-energies and show that electron correlations are pivotal to reproduce important qualitative features. E.P. and G.S. acknowledge funding by MIUR FIRB Grant No. RBFR12SW0J. R.v.L. thanks the Academy of Finland for support.

  9. Ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy of lead halide perovskite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idowu, Mopelola A.; Yau, Sung H.; Varnavski, Oleg; Goodson, Theodore

    2015-09-01

    Recently, lead halide perovskites which are organic-inorganic hybrid structures, have been discovered to be highly efficient as light absorbers. Herein, we show the investigation of the excited state dynamics and emission properties of non-stoichiometric precursor formed lead halide perovskites grown by interdiffusion method using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements. The influence of the different ratios of the non-stoichiometric precursor solution was examined. The observed photoluminescence properties were correlated with the femtosecond transient absorption measurements.

  10. Becoming homeless, being homeless, and resolving homelessness among women.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to more comprehensively articulate the experiences of homeless women and make evidence-based inferences regarding optimal social services. This study was conducted using qualitative meta-synthesis methods. As youth, homeless women experience challenging circumstances that leave them ill-prepared to prevent and resolve homelessness in adulthood. Resolution of homelessness occurs in iterative stages: crisis, assessment, and sustained action. To enhance forward progression through these stages, nurses are encouraged to promote empowerment in concordance with the Transtheoretical and Harm Reduction Models. Services that are highly valued include physical and mental health care and child care assistance. PMID:20521916

  11. Sensitive, time-resolved, broadband spectroscopy of single transient processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fjodorow, Peter; Baev, Ivan; Hellmig, Ortwin; Sengstock, Klaus; Baev, Valery M.

    2015-09-01

    Intracavity absorption spectroscopy with a broadband Er3+-doped fiber laser is applied to time-resolved measurements of transient gain and absorption in electrically excited Xe and Kr plasmas. The achieved time resolution for broadband spectral recording of a single process is 25 µs. For pulsed-periodic processes, the time resolution is limited by the laser pulse duration, which is set here to 3 µs. This pulse duration also predefines the effective absorption path length, which amounts to 900 m. The presented technique can be applied to multicomponent analysis of single transient processes such as shock tube experiments, pulse detonation engines, or explosives.

  12. Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements for flowing particles

    DOEpatents

    Deka, C.; Steinkamp, J.A.

    1999-06-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements are disclosed for flowing particles. An apparatus and method for the measurement and analysis of fluorescence for individual cells and particles in flow are described, wherein the rapid measurement capabilities of flow cytometry and the robust measurement and analysis procedures of time-domain fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy are combined. A pulse-modulated CW laser is employed for excitation of the particles. The characteristics and the repetition rate of the excitation pulses can be readily adjusted to accommodate for fluorescence decays having a wide range of lifetimes. 12 figs.

  13. Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements for flowing particles

    DOEpatents

    Deka, Chiranjit; Steinkamp, John A.

    1999-01-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements for flowing particles. An apparatus and method for the measurement and analysis of fluorescence for individual cells and particles in flow are described, wherein the rapid measurement capabilities of flow cytometry and the robust measurement and analysis procedures of time-domain fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy are combined. A pulse-modulated cw laser is employed for excitation of the particles. The characteristics and the repetition rate of the excitation pulses can be readily adjusted to accommodate for fluorescence decays having a wide range of lifetimes.

  14. Time-resolved Hyperspectral Fluorescence Spectroscopy using Frequency Modulated Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    ,; Neill, M

    2012-07-01

    An intensity-modulated excitation light source is used together with a micro channel plate intensified CCD (ICCD) detector gated at a slightly different frequency to generate a beat frequency from a fluorescent sample. The addition of a spectrograph produces a hyperspectral time-resolved data product where the resulting beat frequency is detected with a low frame rate camera. Measuring the beat frequency of the spectrum as a function of time allows separation of the excited fluorescence from ambient constant light sources. The excitation and detector repetition rates are varied over a range of discrete frequencies, and the phase shift of the beat wave maps out the emission decay rate(s).

  15. Time resolved structural dynamics of butadiyne-linked porphyrin dimers

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Franco V. A.; Hall, Christopher R.; Anderson, Harry L.; Meech, Stephen R.; Heisler, Ismael A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the timescales and mechanisms associated with the structural dynamics of butadiyne-linked porphyrin dimers are investigated through time resolved narrowband pump/broadband probe transient absorption spectroscopy. Our results confirm previous findings that the broadening is partly due to a distribution of structures with different (dihedral) angular conformations. Comparison of measurements with excitations on the red and blue sides of the Q-band unravel the ground and excited state conformational re-equilibration timescales. Further comparison to a planarized dimer, through the addition of a ligand, provides conclusive evidence for the twisting motion performed by the porphyrin dimer in solution. PMID:26798839

  16. Spectrally resolved photon-echo spectroscopy of Rhodamine-6G

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajitesh; Karthick, S. K.; Goswami, D.

    2013-01-01

    Wavelength dependent study of a laser dye: Rhodamine-6G (Rh6G) by using spectrally resolved photon-echo spectroscopy is presented. The coherence and population dynamics of Rh6G solution in methanol changes as the excitation wavelength is tuned near its absorption maxima of 528 nm. Specifically, the central wavelength of the femtosecond laser pulse was set to 535 nm and to 560 nm while the respective spectra of the photon-echo signals were collected. This gives information on how the ultrafast dynamics of the Rh6G molecule changes with a change in the excitation wavelength. PMID:24098869

  17. The Spin- and Angel-Resolved Photelectron Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Mankey, G J; Morton, S A; Tobin, J G; Yu, S W; Waddill, G D

    2007-05-08

    A spin- and angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectrometer for the study of magnetic materials will be discussed. It consists of a turntable with electron lenses connected to a large hemispherical analyzer. A mini-Mott spin detector is fitted to the output of the hemispherical analyzer. This system, when coupled to a synchrotron radiation source will allow determination of a complete set of quantum numbers of a photoelectron. This instrument will be used to study ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic and nonmagnetic materials. Some prototypical materials systems to be studied with this instrument system will be proposed.

  18. CCD time-resolved photometry of faint cataclysmic variables. III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Szkody, Paula; Kreidl, Tobias J.; Mason, Keith O.; Puchnarewicz, E. M.

    1990-01-01

    CCD time-resolved photometry in V, B, and near-IR for 17 faint cataclysmic variables (CVs) is presented and analyzed. The data are obtained at Kitt Peak National Observatory, the Perkins reflector, Lowell Observatory, and the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos from April-June 1989. The degree of variability and periodicities for the CVs are examined. It is observed that the variability of most of the stars is consistent with CV class behavior. Orbital periods for five CVs are determined, and three potential eclipsing systems are detected.

  19. Energy-Resolved Positron Annihilation in Flight in Solid Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. H.; Hunt, A. W.; Golovchenko, J. A.; Lynn, K. G.

    1999-11-01

    Energy-resolved two-quantum annihilation in flight of positrons with energies ranging from 10 to 71.6 keV was observed. An energy-dispersive two-detector coincidence system was used to observe the sum and difference energies of the γ rays from annihilating positron-electron pairs. For positrons penetrating carbon foils the c/v dependence of the annihilation cross section is confirmed. Spectra obtained from gold-coated carbon foils show evidence of in-flight annihilation with gold M-shell electrons.

  20. Layer-Resolved Magnetic Moments in Ni/Pt Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, F.; Poulopoulos, P.; Ceballos, G.; Wende, H.; Baberschke, K.; Srivastava, P.; Benea, D.; Ebert, H.; Angelakeris, M.; Flevaris, N. K.; Niarchos, D.; Rogalev, A.; Brookes, N. B.

    2000-07-01

    The magnetic moments in Ni/Pt multilayers are thoroughly studied by combining experimental and ab initio theoretical techniques. SQUID magnetometry probes the samples' magnetizations. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism separates the contribution of Ni and Pt and provides a layer-resolved magnetic moment profile for the whole system. The results are compared to band-structure calculations. Induced Pt magnetic moments localized mostly at the interface are revealed. No magnetically ``dead'' Ni layers are found. The magnetization per Ni volume is slightly enhanced compared to bulk NiPt alloys.