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Sample records for resonance imaging dmri

  1. Investigation of sagittal image acquisition for 4D-MRI with body area as respiratory surrogate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yilin; Yin, Fang-Fang; Chang, Zheng; Czito, Brian G.; Palta, Manisha; Bashir, Mustafa R.; Qin, Yujiao; Cai, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors have recently developed a novel 4D-MRI technique for imaging organ respiratory motion employing cine acquisition in the axial plane and using body area (BA) as a respiratory surrogate. A potential disadvantage associated with axial image acquisition is the space-dependent phase shift in the superior–inferior (SI) direction, i.e., different axial slice positions reach the respiratory peak at different respiratory phases. Since respiratory motion occurs mostly in the SI and anterior–posterior (AP) directions, sagittal image acquisition, which embeds motion information in these two directions, is expected to be more robust and less affected by phase-shift than axial image acquisition. This study aims to develop and evaluate a 4D-MRI technique using sagittal image acquisition. Methods: The authors evaluated axial BA and sagittal BA using both 4D-CT images (11 cancer patients) and cine MR images (6 healthy volunteers and 1 cancer patient) by comparing their corresponding space-dependent phase-shift in the SI direction (δSPSSI) and in the lateral direction (δSPSLAT), respectively. To evaluate sagittal BA 4D-MRI method, a motion phantom study and a digital phantom study were performed. Additionally, six patients who had cancer(s) in the liver were prospectively enrolled in this study. For each patient, multislice sagittal MR images were acquired for 4D-MRI reconstruction. 4D retrospective sorting was performed based on respiratory phases. Single-slice cine MRI was also acquired in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes across the tumor center from which tumor motion trajectories in the SI, AP, and medial–lateral (ML) directions were extracted and used as references from comparison. All MR images were acquired in a 1.5 T scanner using a steady-state precession sequence (frame rate ∼ 3 frames/s). Results: 4D-CT scans showed that δSPSSI was significantly greater than δSPSLAT (p-value: 0.012); the median phase-shift was 16.9% and 7.7%, respectively. Body surface motion measurement from axial and sagittal MR cines also showed δSPSSI was significantly greater than δSPSLAT. The median δSPSSI and δSPSLAT was 11.0% and 9.2% (p-value = 0.008), respectively. Tumor motion trajectories from 4D-MRI matched with those from single-slice cine MRI: the mean (±SD) absolute differences in tumor motion amplitude between the two were 1.5 ± 1.6 mm, 2.1 ± 1.9 mm, and 1.1 ± 1.0 mm in the SI, ML, and AP directions from this patient study. Conclusions: Space-dependent phase shift is less problematic for sagittal acquisition than for axial acquisition. 4D-MRI using sagittal acquisition was successfully carried out in patients with hepatic tumors. PMID:25281954

  2. MO-C-17A-02: A Novel Method for Evaluating Hepatic Stiffness Based On 4D-MRI and Deformable Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, T; Liang, X; Czito, B; Palta, M; Bashir, M; Yin, F; Cai, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitative imaging of hepatic stiffness has significant potential in radiation therapy, ranging from treatment planning to response assessment. This study aims to develop a novel, noninvasive method to quantify liver stiffness with 3D strains liver maps using 4D-MRI and deformable image registration (DIR). Methods: Five patients with liver cancer were imaged with an institutionally developed 4D-MRI technique under an IRB-approved protocol. Displacement vector fields (DVFs) across the liver were generated via DIR of different phases of 4D-MRI. Strain tensor at each voxel of interest (VOI) was computed from the relative displacements between the VOI and each of the six adjacent voxels. Three principal strains (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2} and E{sub 3}) of the VOI were derived as the eigenvalue of the strain tensor, which represent the magnitudes of the maximum and minimum stretches. Strain tensors for two regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated and compared for each patient, one within the tumor (ROI{sub 1}) and the other in normal liver distant from the heart (ROI{sub 2}). Results: 3D strain maps were successfully generated fort each respiratory phase of 4D-MRI for all patients. Liver deformations induced by both respiration and cardiac motion were observed. Differences in strain values adjacent to the distant from the heart indicate significant deformation caused by cardiac expansion during diastole. The large E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} (∼2) and E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} (∼10) ratios reflect the predominance of liver deformation in the superior-inferior direction. The mean E{sub 1} in ROI{sub 1} (0.12±0.10) was smaller than in ROI{sub 2} (0.15±0.12), reflecting a higher degree of stiffness of the cirrhotic tumor. Conclusion: We have successfully developed a novel method for quantitatively evaluating regional hepatic stiffness based on DIR of 4D-MRI. Our initial findings indicate that liver strain is heterogeneous, and liver tumors may have lower principal strain values than normal liver. Thorough validation of our method is warranted in future studies. NIH (1R21CA165384-01A1)

  3. Diffusion Microscopist Simulator: A General Monte Carlo Simulation System for Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chun-Hung; Schmitt, Benot; Le Bihan, Denis; Li-Schlittgen, Jing-Rebecca; Lin, Ching-Po; Poupon, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development and application of an integrated, generalized, and efficient Monte Carlo simulation system for diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI), named Diffusion Microscopist Simulator (DMS). DMS comprises a random walk Monte Carlo simulator and an MR image synthesizer. The former has the capacity to perform large-scale simulations of Brownian dynamics in the virtual environments of neural tissues at various levels of complexity, and the latter is flexible enough to synthesize dMRI datasets from a variety of simulated MRI pulse sequences. The aims of DMS are to give insights into the link between the fundamental diffusion process in biological tissues and the features observed in dMRI, as well as to provide appropriate ground-truth information for the development, optimization, and validation of dMRI acquisition schemes for different applications. The validity, efficiency, and potential applications of DMS are evaluated through four benchmark experiments, including the simulated dMRI of white matter fibers, the multiple scattering diffusion imaging, the biophysical modeling of polar cell membranes, and the high angular resolution diffusion imaging and fiber tractography of complex fiber configurations. We expect that this novel software tool would be substantially advantageous to clarify the interrelationship between dMRI and the microscopic characteristics of brain tissues, and to advance the biophysical modeling and the dMRI methodologies. PMID:24130783

  4. A new method for joint susceptibility artefact correction and super-resolution for dMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruthotto, Lars; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2014-03-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has become increasingly relevant in clinical research and neuroscience. It is commonly carried out using the ultra-fast MRI acquisition technique Echo-Planar Imaging (EPI). While offering crucial reduction of acquisition times, two limitations of EPI are distortions due to varying magnetic susceptibilities of the object being imaged and its limited spatial resolution. In the recent years progress has been made both for susceptibility artefact correction and increasing of spatial resolution using image processing and reconstruction methods. However, so far, the interplay between both problems has not been studied and super-resolution techniques could only be applied along one axis, the slice-select direction, limiting the potential gain in spatial resolution. In this work we describe a new method for joint susceptibility artefact correction and super-resolution in EPI-MRI that can be used to increase resolution in all three spatial dimensions and in particular increase in-plane resolutions. The key idea is to reconstruct a distortion-free, high-resolution image from a number of low-resolution EPI data that are deformed in different directions. Numerical results on dMRI data of a human brain indicate that this technique has the potential to provide for the first time in-vivo dMRI at mesoscopic spatial resolution (i.e. 500?m) a spatial resolution that could bridge the gap between white-matter information from ex-vivo histology (?1?m) and in-vivo dMRI (?2000?m).

  5. High-Quality T2-Weighted 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Radiation Therapy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Dongsu; Caruthers, Shelton D.; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold; Mutic, Sasa; Hu, Yanle

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to improve triggering efficiency of the prospective respiratory amplitude-triggered 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4DMRI) method and to develop a 4DMRI imaging protocol that could offer T2 weighting for better tumor visualization, good spatial coverage and spatial resolution, and respiratory motion sampling within a reasonable amount of time for radiation therapy applications. Methods and Materials: The respiratory state splitting (RSS) and multi-shot acquisition (MSA) methods were analytically compared and validated in a simulation study by using the respiratory signals from 10 healthy human subjects. The RSS method was more effective in improving triggering efficiency. It was implemented in prospective respiratory amplitude-triggered 4DMRI. 4DMRI image datasets were acquired from 5 healthy human subjects. Liver motion was estimated using the acquired 4DMRI image datasets. Results: The simulation study showed the RSS method was more effective for improving triggering efficiency than the MSA method. The average reductions in 4DMRI acquisition times were 36% and 10% for the RSS and MSA methods, respectively. The human subject study showed that T2-weighted 4DMRI with 10 respiratory states, 60 slices at a spatial resolution of 1.5 × 1.5 × 3.0 mm{sup 3} could be acquired in 9 to 18 minutes, depending on the individual's breath pattern. Based on the acquired 4DMRI image datasets, the ranges of peak-to-peak liver displacements among 5 human subjects were 9.0 to 12.9 mm, 2.5 to 3.9 mm, and 0.5 to 2.3 mm in superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and left-right directions, respectively. Conclusions: We demonstrated that with the RSS method, it was feasible to acquire high-quality T2-weighted 4DMRI within a reasonable amount of time for radiation therapy applications.

  6. Four-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Axial Body Area as Respiratory Surrogate: Initial Patient Results

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Juan; Cai, Jing; Wang, Hongjun; Chang, Zheng; Czito, Brian G.; Bashir, Mustafa R.; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a retrospective binning technique for 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) using body area (BA) as a respiratory surrogate. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (4 of 7) or liver metastases (3 of 7) were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective study. All patients were simulated with both computed tomography (CT) and MRI to acquire 3-dimensinal and 4D images for treatment planning. Multiple-slice multiple-phase cine-MR images were acquired in the axial plane for 4D-MRI reconstruction. Image acquisition time per slice was set to 10-15 seconds. Single-slice 2-dimensinal cine-MR images were also acquired across the center of the tumor in orthogonal planes. Tumor motion trajectories from 4D-MRI, cine-MRI, and 4D-CT were analyzed in the superiorinferior (SI), anteriorposterior (AP), and mediallateral (ML) directions, respectively. Their correlation coefficients (CC) and differences in tumor motion amplitude were determined. Tumor-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured and compared between 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, and conventional T2-weighted fast spin echo MRI. Results: The means (standard deviations) of CC comparing 4D-MRI with cine-MRI were 0.97 0.03, 0.97 0.02, and 0.99 0.04 in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean differences were 0.61 0.17 mm, 0.32 0.17 mm, and 0.14 0.06 mm in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The means of CC comparing 4D-MRI and 4D-CT were 0.95 0.02, 0.94 0.02, and 0.96 0.02 in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean differenceswere 0.74 0.02 mm, 0.33 0.13 mm, and 0.18 0.07 mm in SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean tumor-to-tissue CNRs were 2.94 1.51, 19.44 14.63, and 39.47 20.81 in 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, and T2-weighted MRI, respectively. Conclusions: The preliminary evaluation of our 4D-MRI technique results in oncologic patients demonstrates its potential usefulness to accurately measure tumor respiratory motion with improved tumor CNR compared with 4D-CT.

  7. Four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging with retrospective k-space reordering: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yilin; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cai, Jing; Chen, Nan-kuei; Chu, Mei-Lan

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Current four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) techniques lack sufficient temporal/spatial resolution and consistent tumor contrast. To overcome these limitations, this study presents the development and initial evaluation of a new strategy for 4D-MRI which is based on retrospective k-space reordering. Methods: We simulated a k-space reordered 4D-MRI on a 4D digital extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) human phantom. A 2D echo planar imaging MRI sequence [frame rate (F) = 0.448 Hz; image resolution (R) = 256 256; number of k-space segments (N{sub KS}) = 4] with sequential image acquisition mode was assumed for the simulation. Image quality of the simulated 4D-MRI acquired from the XCAT phantom was qualitatively evaluated, and tumor motion trajectories were compared to input signals. In particular, mean absolute amplitude differences (D) and cross correlation coefficients (CC) were calculated. Furthermore, to evaluate the data sufficient condition for the new 4D-MRI technique, a comprehensive simulation study was performed using 30 cancer patients respiratory profiles to study the relationships between data completeness (C{sub p}) and a number of impacting factors: the number of repeated scans (N{sub R}), number of slices (N{sub S}), number of respiratory phase bins (N{sub P}), N{sub KS}, F, R, and initial respiratory phase at image acquisition (P{sub 0}). As a proof-of-concept, we implemented the proposed k-space reordering 4D-MRI technique on a T2-weighted fast spin echo MR sequence and tested it on a healthy volunteer. Results: The simulated 4D-MRI acquired from the XCAT phantom matched closely to the original XCAT images. Tumor motion trajectories measured from the simulated 4D-MRI matched well with input signals (D = 0.83 and 0.83 mm, and CC = 0.998 and 0.992 in superiorinferior and anteriorposterior directions, respectively). The relationship between C{sub p} and N{sub R} was found best represented by an exponential function (C{sub P}=100(1?e{sup ?0.18N{sub R}}), when N{sub S} = 30, N{sub P} = 6). At a C{sub P} value of 95%, the relative error in tumor volume was 0.66%, indicating that N{sub R} at a C{sub P} value of 95% (N{sub R,95%}) is sufficient. It was found that N{sub R,95%} is approximately linearly proportional to N{sub P} (r = 0.99), and nearly independent of all other factors. The 4D-MRI images of the healthy volunteer clearly demonstrated respiratory motion in the diaphragm region with minimal motion induced noise or aliasing. Conclusions: It is feasible to generate respiratory correlated 4D-MRI by retrospectively reordering k-space based on respiratory phase. This new technology may lead to the next generation 4D-MRI with high spatiotemporal resolution and optimal tumor contrast, holding great promises to improve the motion management in radiotherapy of mobile cancers.

  8. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    MedlinePLUS

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  9. SU-E-J-157: Improving the Quality of T2-Weighted 4D Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Clinical Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Du, D; Mutic, S; Hu, Y; Caruthers, S; Glide-Hurst, C; Low, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop an imaging technique that enables us to acquire T2- weighted 4D Magnetic Resonance Imaging (4DMRI) with sufficient spatial coverage, temporal resolution and spatial resolution for clinical evaluation. Methods: T2-weighed 4DMRI images were acquired from a healthy volunteer using a respiratory amplitude triggered T2-weighted Turbo Spin Echo sequence. 10 respiratory states were used to equally sample the respiratory range based on amplitude (0%, 20%i, 40%i, 60%i, 80%i, 100%, 80%e, 60%e, 40%e and 20%e). To avoid frequent scanning halts, a methodology was devised that split 10 respiratory states into two packages in an interleaved manner and packages were acquired separately. Sixty 3mm sagittal slices at 1.5mm in-plane spatial resolution were acquired to offer good spatial coverage and reasonable spatial resolution. The in-plane field of view was 375mm × 260mm with nominal scan time of 3 minutes 42 seconds. Acquired 2D images at the same respiratory state were combined to form the 3D image set corresponding to that respiratory state and reconstructed in the coronal view to evaluate whether all slices were at the same respiratory state. 3D image sets of 10 respiratory states represented a complete 4D MRI image set. Results: T2-weighted 4DMRI image were acquired in 10 minutes which was within clinical acceptable range. Qualitatively, the acquired MRI images had good image quality for delineation purposes. There were no abrupt position changes in reconstructed coronal images which confirmed that all sagittal slices were in the same respiratory state. Conclusion: We demonstrated it was feasible to acquire T2-weighted 4DMRI image set within a practical amount of time (10 minutes) that had good temporal resolution (10 respiratory states), spatial resolution (1.5mm × 1.5mm × 3.0mm) and spatial coverage (60 slices) for future clinical evaluation.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    MedlinePLUS

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  11. SU-D-18C-01: A Novel 4D-MRI Technology Based On K-Space Retrospective Sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y; Yin, F; Cai, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Current 4D-MRI techniques lack sufficient temporal/spatial resolution and consistent tumor contrast. To overcome these limitations, this study presents the development and initial evaluation of an entirely new framework of 4D-MRI based on k-space retrospective sorting. Methods: An important challenge of the proposed technique is to determine the number of repeated scans(NR) required to obtain sufficient k-space data for 4D-MRI. To do that, simulations using 29 cancer patients' respiratory profiles were performed to derive the relationship between data acquisition completeness(Cp) and NR, also relationship between NR(Cp=95%) and the following factors: total slice(NS), respiratory phase bin length(Lb), frame rate(fr), resolution(R) and image acquisition starting-phase(P0). To evaluate our technique, a computer simulation study on a 4D digital human phantom (XCAT) were conducted with regular breathing (fr=0.5Hz; R=256256). A 2D echo planer imaging(EPI) MRI sequence were assumed to acquire raw k-space data, with respiratory signal and acquisition time for each k-space data line recorded simultaneously. K-space data was re-sorted based on respiratory phases. To evaluate 4D-MRI image quality, tumor trajectories were measured and compared with the input signal. Mean relative amplitude difference(D) and cross-correlation coefficient(CC) are calculated. Finally, phase-sharing sliding window technique was applied to investigate the feasibility of generating ultra-fast 4D-MRI. Result: Cp increased with NR(Cp=100*[1-exp(-0.19*NR)], when NS=30, Lb=100%/6). NR(Cp=95%) was inversely-proportional to Lb (r=0.97), but independent of other factors. 4D-MRI on XCAT demonstrated highly accurate motion information (D=0.67%, CC=0.996) with much less artifacts than those on image-based sorting 4D-MRI. Ultra-fast 4D-MRI with an apparent temporal resolution of 10 frames/second was reconstructed using the phase-sharing sliding window technique. Conclusions: A novel 4D-MRI technology based on k-space sorting has been successfully developed and evaluated on the digital phantom. Framework established can be applied to a variety of MR sequences, showing great promises to develop the optimal 4D-MRI technique for many radiation therapy applications. NIH (1R21CA165384-01A1)

  12. [Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Teraoka, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Yamashina, Akira

    2014-07-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) evolves and is occupying an important status in cardiovascular diagnostic imaging. In particular, in the estimation of the cause of heart failure, or evaluation of severity-of-illness and prognostic presumption, utility is high clinically. In this chapter, about a selection sequence for taking image according to the purpose, description of findings, and its clinical utility are introduced. And the role which this imaging plays will be discussed in the near future. PMID:25138928

  13. Nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Degen, C. L.; Poggio, M.; Mamin, H. J.; Rettner, C. T.; Rugar, D.

    2009-01-01

    We have combined ultrasensitive magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) with 3D image reconstruction to achieve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with resolution <10 nm. The image reconstruction converts measured magnetic force data into a 3D map of nuclear spin density, taking advantage of the unique characteristics of the resonant slice that is projected outward from a nanoscale magnetic tip. The basic principles are demonstrated by imaging the 1H spin density within individual tobacco mosaic virus particles sitting on a nanometer-thick layer of adsorbed hydrocarbons. This result, which represents a 100 million-fold improvement in volume resolution over conventional MRI, demonstrates the potential of MRFM as a tool for 3D, elementally selective imaging on the nanometer scale. PMID:19139397

  14. Nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Degen, C L; Poggio, M; Mamin, H J; Rettner, C T; Rugar, D

    2009-02-01

    We have combined ultrasensitive magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) with 3D image reconstruction to achieve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with resolution <10 nm. The image reconstruction converts measured magnetic force data into a 3D map of nuclear spin density, taking advantage of the unique characteristics of the "resonant slice" that is projected outward from a nanoscale magnetic tip. The basic principles are demonstrated by imaging the (1)H spin density within individual tobacco mosaic virus particles sitting on a nanometer-thick layer of adsorbed hydrocarbons. This result, which represents a 100 million-fold improvement in volume resolution over conventional MRI, demonstrates the potential of MRFM as a tool for 3D, elementally selective imaging on the nanometer scale. PMID:19139397

  15. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  16. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a review of magnetic resonance imaging. Many topics are explored from instrumentation, spectroscopy, blood flow and sodium imaging to detailed clinical applications such as the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or adrenal adenoma. The emphasis throughout is on descriptions of normal multiplanar anatomy and pathology as displayed by MRI.

  18. Nanoscale Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugar, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), based on the sensitive detection of nuclear spins, enables three dimensional imaging without radiation damage. Conventional MRI techniques achieve spatial resolution that is at best a few micrometers due to sensitivity limitations of conventional inductive detection. The advent of ultrasensitive nanoscale magnetic sensing opens the possibility of extending MRI to the nanometer scale. If this can be pushed far enough, one can envision taking 3D images of individual biomolecules and, perhaps, even solving molecular structures of proteins. In this talk we will discuss issues related to nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging, especially its implementation using magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). We will also consider the future possibility of using NV centers in diamond for detection of nanoMRI. This work was performed in collaboration with John Mamin, Mark Sherwood, Christian Degen, Martino Poggio and Ginel Hill.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain

    MedlinePLUS

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  20. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelc, Norbert

    2000-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

  1. SU-E-J-192: Verification of 4D-MRI Internal Target Volume Using Cine MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Lafata, K; Czito, B; Palta, M; Bashir, M; Yin, F; Cai, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of 4D-MRI in determining the Internal Target Volume (ITV) used in radiation oncology treatment planning of liver cancers. Cine MRI is used as the standard baseline in establishing the feasibility and accuracy of 4D-MRI tumor motion within the liver. Methods: IRB approval was obtained for this retrospective study. Analysis was performed on MR images from four patients receiving external beam radiation therapy for liver cancer at our institution. Eligible patients received both Cine and 4D-MRI scans before treatment. Cine images were acquired sagittally in real time at a slice bisecting the tumor, while 4D images were acquired volumetrically. Cine MR DICOM headers were manipulated such that each respiratory frame was assigned a unique slice location. This approach permitted the treatment planning system (Eclipse, Varian Medical Systems) to recognize a complete respiratory cycle as a “volume”, where the gross tumor was contoured temporally. Software was developed to calculate the union of all frame contours in the structure set, resulting in the corresponding plane of the ITV projecting through the middle of the tumor, defined as the Internal Target Area (ITA). This was repeated for 4D-MRI, at the corresponding slice location, allowing a direct comparison of ITAs obtained from each modality. Results: Four patients have been analyzed. ITAs contoured from 4D-MRI correlate with contours from Cine MRI. The mean error of 4D values relative to Cine values is 7.67 +/− 2.55 %. No single ITA contoured from 4D-MRI demonstrated more than 10.5 % error compared to its Cine MRI counterpart. Conclusion: Motion management is a significant aspect of treatment planning within dynamic environments such as the liver, where diaphragmatic and cardiac activity influence plan accuracy. This small pilot study suggests that 4D-MRI based ITA measurements agree with Cine MRI based measurements, an important step towards clinical implementation. NIH 1R21CA165384-01A1.

  2. Orthopaedic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Kjellin, Ingrid; Stadnick, Michael E.; Awh, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Apophyseal avulsion injuries of the hip and pelvis are frequent athletic injuries in children and adolescents, most commonly associated with explosive movement or sprinting. This article details typically encountered apophyseal injuries and their appearance on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:23015945

  3. A connectivity-based test-retest dataset of multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging in young healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qixiang; Dai, Zhengjia; Xia, Mingrui; Han, Zaizhu; Huang, Ruiwang; Gong, Gaolang; Liu, Chao; Bi, Yanchao; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used to investigate the structures and functions of the human brain in health and disease in vivo. However, there are growing concerns about the test-retest reliability of structural and functional measurements derived from MRI data. Here, we present a test-retest dataset of multi-modal MRI including structural MRI (S-MRI), diffusion MRI (D-MRI) and resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI). Fifty-seven healthy young adults (age range: 19–30 years) were recruited and completed two multi-modal MRI scan sessions at an interval of approximately 6 weeks. Each scan session included R-fMRI, S-MRI and D-MRI data. Additionally, there were two separated R-fMRI scans at the beginning and at the end of the first session (approximately 20 min apart). This multi-modal MRI dataset not only provides excellent opportunities to investigate the short- and long-term test-retest reliability of the brain’s structural and functional measurements at the regional, connectional and network levels, but also allows probing the test-retest reliability of structural-functional couplings in the human brain. PMID:26528395

  4. Optically detected magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, Aharon; Shapiro, Guy; Fischer, Ran; London, Paz; Gershoni, David

    2015-01-19

    Optically detected magnetic resonance provides ultrasensitive means to detect and image a small number of electron and nuclear spins, down to the single spin level with nanoscale resolution. Despite the significant recent progress in this field, it has never been combined with the power of pulsed magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Here, we demonstrate how these two methodologies can be integrated using short pulsed magnetic field gradients to spatially encode the sample. This result in what we denote as an 'optically detected magnetic resonance imaging' technique. It offers the advantage that the image is acquired in parallel from all parts of the sample, with well-defined three-dimensional point-spread function, and without any loss of spectroscopic information. In addition, this approach may be used in the future for parallel but yet spatially selective efficient addressing and manipulation of the spins in the sample. Such capabilities are of fundamental importance in the field of quantum spin-based devices and sensors.

  5. Optically detected magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Aharon; Shapiro, Guy; Fischer, Ran; London, Paz; Gershoni, David

    2015-01-01

    Optically detected magnetic resonance provides ultrasensitive means to detect and image a small number of electron and nuclear spins, down to the single spin level with nanoscale resolution. Despite the significant recent progress in this field, it has never been combined with the power of pulsed magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Here, we demonstrate how these two methodologies can be integrated using short pulsed magnetic field gradients to spatially encode the sample. This result in what we denote as an "optically detected magnetic resonance imaging" technique. It offers the advantage that the image is acquired in parallel from all parts of the sample, with well-defined three-dimensional point-spread function, and without any loss of spectroscopic information. In addition, this approach may be used in the future for parallel but yet spatially selective efficient addressing and manipulation of the spins in the sample. Such capabilities are of fundamental importance in the field of quantum spin-based devices and sensors.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Reporter Gene Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sheen-Woo; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Biswal, Sandip

    2012-01-01

    Molecular imaging has undergone an explosive advancement in recent years, due to the tremendous research efforts made to understand and visualize biological processes. Molecular imaging by definition assesses cellular and molecular processes in living subjects, with the targets of following metabolic, genomic, and proteomic events. Furthermore, reporter gene imaging plays a central role in this field. Many different approaches have been used to visualize genetic events in living subjects, such as, optical, radionuclide, and magnetic resonance imaging. Compared with the other techniques, magnetic resonance (MR)-based reporter gene imaging has not occupied center stage, despite its superior three-dimensional depictions of anatomical details. In this article, the authors review the principles and applications of various types of MR reporter gene imaging technologies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:22539936

  7. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. R.

    1996-05-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Imaging, now more commonly referred to as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), developed into an important clinical modality between the years of 1978 and 1985. In 1945 it was demonstrated independently by Bloch(F. Bloch, The Principle of Nuclear Induction, Nobel Lectures in Physics: 1946-1962 New York, Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1964.) and Purcell(E.M. Purcell, Research in Nuclear Magnetism, Nobel Lectures in Physics: 1946-1962, New York. Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1964.) that magnetic nuclei in a sample when placed in a static magnetic field exhibit a characteristic resonance frequency which is proportional to the field strength and unique to nuclei of the same type and same environment. The net magnetization of the sample when irradiated by an RF wave at the resonance frequency could thus be manipulated to produce an induced "NMR signal" in a conducting loop placed near the sample. In the early 1970's, methods were developed whereby the NMR signal could be spatially encoded in both frequency and phase by means of superimposed linear magnetic field gradients to produce NMR images. NMR image contrast is a function of nuclear concentration and magnetic relaxation times (T1 and T2). MRI became the first medical imaging modality to provide both high resolution and high contrast images of soft tissue. Current clinical MRI systems produce images of the distribution of ^1H nuclei (primarily water) within the body. Other biologically important nuclei (^13C, ^23N, ^31P), as well as the imaging of hyperpolarized inert gases (^3He, ^129Xe) are under investigation. Recent developments in ^1H-MRI have included chemical shift imaging (hydrogen containing metabolites), blood flow imaging (MR angiography), ultra high-speed imaging (Echo Planar), and imaging of brain function based upon magnetic susceptibility differences resulting from blood oxygenation changes during brain activity.

  8. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Sakellariou, Dimitrios (Billancourt, FR); Meriles, Carlos A. (Fort Lee, NJ); Trabesinger, Andreas H. (London, GB)

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  9. Cavity- and waveguide-resonators in electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Webb, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Cavity resonators are widely used in electron paramagnetic resonance, very high field magnetic resonance microimaging and also in high field human imaging. The basic principles and designs of different forms of cavity resonators including rectangular, cylindrical, re-entrant, cavity magnetrons, toroidal cavities and dielectric resonators are reviewed. Applications in EPR and MRI are summarized, and finally the topic of traveling wave MRI using the magnet bore as a waveguide is discussed. PMID:25456314

  10. NOTE: Four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging for the determination of tumour movement and its evaluation using a dynamic porcine lung phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmert, G.; Biederer, J.; Lohberger, F.; Fabel, M.; Hartmann, G. H.

    2007-09-01

    A method of four-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been implemented and evaluated. It consists of retrospective sorting and slice stacking of two-dimensional (2D) images using an external signal for motion monitoring of the object to be imaged. The presented method aims to determine the tumour trajectories based on a signal that is appropriate for monitoring the movement of the target volume during radiotherapy such that the radiation delivery can be adapted to the movement. For evaluation of the 4D-MRI method, it has been applied to a dynamic lung phantom, which exhibits periodic respiratory movement of a porcine heart-lung explant with artificial pulmonary nodules. Anatomic changes of the lung phantom caused by respiratory motion have been quantified, revealing hysteresis. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the presented method of 4D-MRI. In particular, it enables the determination of trajectories of periodically moving objects with an uncertainty in the order of 1 mm.

  11. Interventional Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Saikus, Christina E.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) combines excellent soft-tissue contrast, multiplanar views, and dynamic imaging of cardiac function without ionizing radiation exposure. Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) leverages these features to enhance conventional interventional procedures or to enable novel ones. Although still awaiting clinical deployment, this young field has tremendous potential. We survey promising clinical applications for iCMR. Next, we discuss the technologies that allow CMR-guided interventions and, finally, what still needs to be done to bring them to the clinic. PMID:19909937

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research. PMID:25659942

  14. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging study of schizophrenia in the context of abnormal neurodevelopment using multiple site data in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Xie, S; Liu, B; Song, M; Chen, Y; Li, P; Lu, L; Lv, L; Wang, H; Yan, H; Yan, J; Zhang, H; Zhang, D; Jiang, T

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia has increasingly been considered a neurodevelopmental disorder, and the advancement of neuroimaging techniques and associated computational methods has enabled quantitative re-examination of this important theory on the pathogenesis of the disease. Inspired by previous findings from neonatal brains, we proposed that an increase in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) mean diffusivity (MD) should be observed in the cerebral cortex of schizophrenia patients compared with healthy controls, corresponding to lower tissue complexity and potentially a failure to reach cortical maturation. We tested this hypothesis using dMRI data from a Chinese Han population comprising patients from four different hospital sites. Utilizing data-driven methods based on the state-of-the-art tensor-based registration algorithm, significantly increased MD measurements were consistently observed in the cortex of schizophrenia patients across all four sites, despite differences in psychopathology, exposure to antipsychotic medication and scanners used for image acquisition. Specifically, we found increased MD in the limbic system of the schizophrenic brain, mainly involving the bilateral insular and prefrontal cortices. In light of the existing literature, we speculate that this may represent a neuroanatomical signature of the disorder, reflecting microstructural deficits due to developmental abnormalities. Our findings not only provide strong support to the abnormal neurodevelopment theory of schizophrenia, but also highlight an important neuroimaging endophenotype for monitoring the developmental trajectory of high-risk subjects of the disease, thereby facilitating early detection and prevention. PMID:26784969

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Balci, Numan Cem; Bieneman, B Kirke; Bilgin, Mehmet; Akduman, Isin E; Fattahi, Rana; Burton, Frank R

    2009-02-01

    Pancreatitis can occur in acute and chronic forms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the early diagnosis of both conditions and complications that may arise from acute or chronic inflammation of the gland. Standard MRI techniques including T1-weighted and T2-weighted fat-suppressed imaging sequences together with contrast-enhanced imaging can both aid in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and demonstrate complications as pseudocysts, hemorrhage, and necrosis. Combined use of MRI and MR cholangiopancreatography can show both parenchymal findings that are associated with chronic pancreatitis including pancreatic size and signal and arterial enhancements, all of which are diminished in chronic pancreatitis. The degree of main pancreatic duct dilatation and/or the number of side branch ectasia determines the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and its severity. In this paper, we report the spectrum of imaging findings of acute and chronic pancreatitis on MRI and MR cholangiopancreatography. PMID:19687723

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of acquired cardiac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Carrol, C L; Higgins, C B; Caputo, G R

    1996-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, advances in magnetic resonance imaging techniques have increased the accuracy and applicability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. These advances have improved the utility of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating cardiac morphology, blood flow, and myocardial contractility, all significant diagnostic features in the evaluation of the patient with acquired heart disease. Utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging has been limited, primarily due to clinical reliance upon nuclear scintigraphy and echocardiography. Recent developments in fast and ultrafast imaging should continue to enhance the significance of magnetic resonance imaging in this field. Widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the cardiovascular system will ultimately depend upon its maturation into a comprehensive, noninvasive imaging technique for the varying manifestations of acquired heart disease, including cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, and acquired valvular disease. Images PMID:8792545

  17. Artifacts in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Krupa, Katarzyna; Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Summary Artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging and foreign bodies within the patient’s body may be confused with a pathology or may reduce the quality of examinations. Radiologists are frequently not informed about the medical history of patients and face postoperative/other images they are not familiar with. A gallery of such images was presented in this manuscript. A truncation artifact in the spinal cord could be misinterpreted as a syrinx. Motion artifacts caused by breathing, cardiac movement, CSF pulsation/blood flow create a ghost artifact which can be reduced by patient immobilization, or cardiac/respiratory gating. Aliasing artifacts can be eliminated by increasing the field of view. An artificially hyperintense signal on FLAIR images can result from magnetic susceptibility artifacts, CSF/vascular pulsation, motion, but can also be found in patients undergoing MRI examinations while receiving supplemental oxygen. Metallic and other foreign bodies which may be found on and in patients’ bodies are the main group of artifacts and these are the focus of this study: e.g. make-up, tattoos, hairbands, clothes, endovascular embolization, prostheses, surgical clips, intraorbital and other medical implants, etc. Knowledge of different types of artifacts and their origin, and of possible foreign bodies is necessary to eliminate them or to reduce their negative influence on MR images by adjusting acquisition parameters. It is also necessary to take them into consideration when interpreting the images. Some proposals of reducing artifacts have been mentioned. Describing in detail the procedures to avoid or limit the artifacts would go beyond the scope of this paper but technical ways to reduce them can be found in the cited literature. PMID:25745524

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kean, D.; Smith, M.

    1986-01-01

    This text covers the physics underlying magnetic resonance (MR) imaging; pulse sequences; image production; equipment; aspects of clinical imaging; and the imaging of the head and neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, and musculoskeletal system; and MR imaging. The book provides about 150 examples of MR images that give an overview of the pathologic conditions imaged. There is a discussion of the physics of MR imaging and also on the spin echo.

  19. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingyuan E; Glover, Gary H

    2015-09-01

    Since its inception in 1992, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has become an indispensible tool for studying cognition in both the healthy and dysfunctional brain. FMRI monitors changes in the oxygenation of brain tissue resulting from altered metabolism consequent to a task-based evoked neural response or from spontaneous fluctuations in neural activity in the absence of conscious mentation (the "resting state"). Task-based studies have revealed neural correlates of a large number of important cognitive processes, while fMRI studies performed in the resting state have demonstrated brain-wide networks that result from brain regions with synchronized, apparently spontaneous activity. In this article, we review the methods used to acquire and analyze fMRI signals. PMID:26248581

  20. Pocket atlas of cranial magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Haughton, V.M.; Daniels, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    This atlas illustrates normal cerebral anatomy in magnetic resonance images. From their studies in cerebral anatomy utilizing cryomicrotome and other techniques, the authors selected more than 100 high-resolution images that represent the most clinically useful scans.

  1. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of radiation optic neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, C.F.; Schatz, N.J.; Glaser, J.S. )

    1990-10-15

    Three patients with delayed radiation optic neuropathy after radiation therapy for parasellar neoplasms underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The affected optic nerves and chiasms showed enlargement and focal gadopentetate dimeglumine enhancement. The magnetic resonance imaging technique effectively detected and defined anterior visual pathway changes of radionecrosis and excluded the clinical possibility of visual loss because of tumor recurrence.

  3. Localized diffusion magnetic resonance micro-imaging of the live mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dan; Reisinger, Dominik; Xu, Jiadi; Fatemi, S. Ali; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Mori, Susumu; Zhang, Jiangyang

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution diffusion MRI (dMRI) is useful for resolving complex microstructures in the mouse brain, but technically challenging for in vivo studies due to the long scan time. In this study, selective excitation and a three-dimensional fast imaging sequence were used to achieve in vivo high-resolution dMRI of the mouse brain at 11.7 Tesla. By reducing the field of view using spatially selective radio frequency pulses, we were able to focus on targeted brain structures and acquire high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) data at an isotropic resolution of 0.1 mm and 30 diffusion encoding directions in approximately one hour. We investigated the complex tissue microstructures of the mouse hippocampus, cerebellum, and several cortical areas using this localized dMRI approach, and compared the results with histological sections stained with several axonal and dendritic markers. In the mouse visual cortex, the results showed predominately radially arranged structures in an outer layer and tangentially arranged structures in an inner layer, similar to observations from postmortem human brain specimens. PMID:24440780

  4. Imaging agents for in vivo magnetic resonance and scintigraphic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Engelstad, Barry L. (Orinda, CA); Raymond, Kenneth N. (Berkeley, CA); Huberty, John P. (Corte Madera, CA); White, David L. (Oakland, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Methods are provided for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and/or scintigraphic imaging of a subject using chelated transition metal and lanthanide metal complexes. Novel ligands for these complexes are provided.

  5. Imaging agents for in vivo magnetic resonance and scintigraphic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Engelstad, B.L.; Raymond, K.N.; Huberty, J.P.; White, D.L.

    1991-04-23

    Methods are provided for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and/or scintigraphic imaging of a subject using chelated transition metal and lanthanide metal complexes. Novel ligands for these complexes are provided. No Drawings

  6. Evaluation of COPD's diaphragm motion extracted from 4D-MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swastika, Windra; Masuda, Yoshitada; Kawata, Naoko; Matsumoto, Koji; Suzuki, Toshio; Iesato, Ken; Tada, Yuji; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Ohnishi, Takashi; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a method called intersection profile method to construct a 4D-MRI (3D+time) from time-series of 2D-MRI. The basic idea is to find the best matching of the intersection profile from the time series of 2D-MRI in sagittal plane (navigator slice) and time series of 2D-MRI in coronal plane (data slice). In this study, we use 4D-MRI to semiautomatically extract the right diaphragm motion of 16 subjects (8 healthy subjects and 8 COPD patients). The diaphragm motion is then evaluated quantitatively by calculating the displacement of each subjects and normalized it. We also generate phase-length map to view and locate paradoxical motion of the COPD patients. The quantitative results of the normalized displacement shows that COPD patients tend to have smaller displacement compared to healthy subjects. The average normalized displacement of total 8 COPD patients is 9.4mm and the average of normalized displacement of 8 healthy volunteers is 15.3mm. The generated phase-length maps show that not all of the COPD patients have paradoxical motion, however if it has paradoxical motion, the phase-length map is able to locate where does it occur.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of diabetic foot complications

    PubMed Central

    Low, Keynes TA; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the various manifestations of the diabetic foot on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The utility of MR imaging and its imaging features in the diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis are illustrated. There is often difficulty encountered in distinguishing osteomyelitis from neuroarthropathy, both clinically and on imaging. By providing an accurate diagnosis based on imaging, the radiologist plays a significant role in the management of patients with complications of diabetic foot. PMID:25640096

  8. Stepped Impedance Resonators for High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Akgun, Can E.; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J.; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) multi-element transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections referred to as stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) is investigated. Single element simulation results in free space and in a phantom at 7 tesla (298 MHz) demonstrate the rationale and feasibility of the SIR design strategy. Simulation and image results at 7 tesla in a phantom and human head illustrate the improvements in transmit magnetic field, as well as, RF efficiency (transmit magnetic field versus SAR) when two different SIR designs are incorporated in 8-element volume coil configurations and compared to a volume coil consisting of microstrip elements. PMID:23508243

  9. Investigating the Capability to Resolve Complex White Matter Structures with High b-Value Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging on the MGH-USC Connectom Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Nummenmaa, Aapo; Witzel, Thomas; Zanzonico, Roberta; Keil, Boris; Cauley, Stephen; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Tisdall, Dylan; Van Dijk, Koene R.A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Wedeen, Van J.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract One of the major goals of the NIH Blueprint Human Connectome Project was to map and quantify the white matter connections in the brain using diffusion tractography. Given the prevalence of complex white matter structures, the capability of resolving local white matter geometries with multiple crossings in the diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data is critical. Increasing b-value has been suggested for delineation of the finer details of the orientation distribution function (ODF). Although increased gradient strength and duration increase sensitivity to highly restricted intra-axonal water, gradient strength limitations require longer echo times (TE) to accommodate the increased diffusion encoding times needed to achieve a higher b-value, exponentially lowering the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquisition. To mitigate this effect, the MGH-USC Connectom scanner was built with 300 mT/m gradients, which can significantly reduce the TE of high b-value diffusion imaging. Here we report comparisons performed across b-values based on q-ball ODF metrics to investigate whether high b-value diffusion imaging on the Connectom scanner can improve resolving complex white matter structures. The q-ball ODF features became sharper as the b-value increased, with increased power fraction in higher order spherical harmonic series of the ODF and increased peak heights relative to the overall size of the ODF. Crossing structures were detected in an increasingly larger fraction of white matter voxels and the spatial distribution of two-way and three-way crossing structures was largely consistent with known anatomy. Results indicate that dMRI with high diffusion encoding on the Connectom system is a promising tool to better characterize, and ultimately understand, the underlying structural organization and motifs in the human brain. PMID:25287963

  10. Coronary Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Birgit; Nagel, Eike; Schoenhagen, Paul; Barkhausen, Jrg; Gerber, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography and magnetic resonance are relatively new imaging modalities that can exceed the ability of established imaging modalities to detect present pathology or predict patient outcomes. Coronary calcium scoring may be useful in asymptomatic patients at intermediate risk. Computed tomographic coronary angiography is a first-line indication to evaluate congenitally abnormal coronary arteries and, along with stress magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging, is useful in symptomatic patients with nondiagnostic conventional stress tests. Cardiac magnetic resonance is indicated for visualizing cardiac structure and function, and delayed enhancement magnetic resonance is a first-line indication for assessing myocardial viability. Imaging plaque and molecular mechanisms related to plaque rupture holds great promise for the presymptomatic detection of patients at risk for coronary events but is not yet suitable for routine clinical use. PMID:19269527

  11. Resolubility of image-potential resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hfer, Ulrich; Echenique, Pedro M.

    2016-01-01

    A theory of image-potential states is presented for the general case where these surface electronic states are resonant with a bulk continuum. The theory extends the multiple scattering approach of Echenique and Pendry into the strong coupling regime while retaining independence from specific forms of surface and bulk potentials. The theory predicts the existence of a well-resolved series of resonances for arbitrary coupling strengths. Surprisingly, distinct image-potential resonances are thus expected to exist on almost any metal surface, even in the limiting case of jellium.

  12. Apparatus for investigating resonance with application to magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Sytil; Jones, Dyan L.; Gross, Josh; Zollman, Dean

    2015-11-01

    Resonance is typically studied in the context of either a pendulum or a mass on a spring. We have developed an apparatus that enables beginning students to investigate resonant behavior of changing magnetic fields, in addition to the properties of the magnetic field due to a wire and the superposition of magnetic fields. In this resonant system, a compass oscillates at a frequency determined by the compass's physical properties and an external magnetic field. While the analysis is mathematically similar to that of the pendulum, this apparatus has an advantage that the magnetic field is easily controlled, while it is difficult to control the strength of gravity. This apparatus has been incorporated into a teaching module on magnetic resonance imaging.

  13. Basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Joseph C

    2008-11-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become the dominant clinical imaging modality with widespread, primarily noninvasive, applicability throughout the body and across many disease processes. The flexibility of MR imaging enables the development of purpose-built optimized applications. Concurrent developments in digital image processing, microprocessor power, storage, and computer-aided design have spurred and enabled further growth in capability. Although MR imaging may be viewed as "mature" in some respects, the field is rich with new proposals and applications that hold great promise for future research health care uses. This article delineates the basic principles of MR imaging and illuminates specific applications. PMID:19068405

  14. [Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the kidneys].

    PubMed

    Lanzman, R S; Notohamiprodjo, M; Wittsack, H J

    2015-12-01

    Interest in functional renal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has significantly increased in recent years. This review article provides an overview of the most important functional imaging techniques and their potential clinical applications for assessment of native and transplanted kidneys, with special emphasis on the clarification of renal tumors. PMID:26628260

  15. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to

  16. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  17. Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Landis, Clark R.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a set of simple, inexpensive, classical demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles that illustrate the resonance condition associated with magnetic dipoles and the dependence of the resonance frequency on environment. (WRM)

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the body

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.B.; Hricak, H.

    1987-01-01

    This text provides reference to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the body. Beginning with explanatory chapters on the physics, instrumentation, and interpretation of MRI, it proceeds to the normal anatomy of the neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Other chapters cover magnetic resonance imaging of blood flow, the larynx, the lymph nodes, and the spine, as well as MRI in obstetrics. The text features detailed coverage of magnetic resonance imaging of numerous disorders and disease states, including neck disease, thoracic disease; breast disease; congenital and acquired heart disease; vascular disease; diseases of the liver, pancreas, and spleen; diseases of the kidney, adrenals, and retroperitoneum; diseases of the male and female pelvis; and musculoskeletal diseases. Chapters on the biological and environmental hazards of MRI, the current clinical status of MRI in comparison to other imaging modalities, and economic considerations are also included.

  19. Tutte polynomial in functional magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Castillón, Marlly V.

    2015-09-01

    Methods of graph theory are applied to the processing of functional magnetic resonance images. Specifically the Tutte polynomial is used to analyze such kind of images. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging provide us connectivity networks in the brain which are represented by graphs and the Tutte polynomial will be applied. The problem of computing the Tutte polynomial for a given graph is #P-hard even for planar graphs. For a practical application the maple packages "GraphTheory" and "SpecialGraphs" will be used. We will consider certain diagram which is depicting functional connectivity, specifically between frontal and posterior areas, in autism during an inferential text comprehension task. The Tutte polynomial for the resulting neural networks will be computed and some numerical invariants for such network will be obtained. Our results show that the Tutte polynomial is a powerful tool to analyze and characterize the networks obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  20. TH-E-17A-04: Geometric Validation of K-Space Self-Gated 4D-MRI Vs. 4D-CT Using A Respiratory Motion Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Y; Fan, Z; Yang, W; Pang, J; McKenzie, E; Deng, Z; Tuli, R; Sandler, H; Li, D; Fraass, B

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: 4D-CT is often limited by motion artifacts, low temporal resolution, and poor phase-based target definition. We recently developed a novel k-space self-gated 4D-MRI technique with high spatial and temporal resolution. The goal here is to geometrically validate 4D-MRI using a MRI-CT compatible respiratory motion phantom and comparison to 4D-CT. Methods: 4D-MRI was acquired using 3T spoiled gradient echo-based 3D projection sequences. Respiratory phases were resolved using self-gated k-space lines as the motion surrogate. Images were reconstructed into 10 temporal bins with 1.56×1.56×1.56mm3. A MRI-CT compatible phantom was designed with a 23mm diameter ball target filled with highconcentration gadolinium(Gd) gel embedded in a 35×40×63mm3 plastic box stabilized with low-concentration Gd gel. The whole phantom was driven by an air pump. Human respiratory motion was mimicked using the controller from a commercial dynamic phantom (RSD). Four breathing settings (rates/depths: 10s/20mm, 6s/15mm, 4s/10mm, 3s/7mm) were scanned with 4D-MRI and 4D-CT (slice thickness 1.25mm). Motion ground-truth was obtained from input signals and real-time video recordings. Reconstructed images were imported into Eclipse(Varian) for target contouring. Volumes and target positions were compared with ground-truth. Initial human study was investigated on a liver patient. Results: 4D-MRI and 4D-CT scans for the different breathing cycles were reconstructed with 10 phases. Target volume in each phase was measured for both 4D-CT and 4D-MRI. Volume percentage difference for the 6.37ml target ranged from 6.67±5.33 to 11.63±5.57 for 4D-CT and from 1.47±0.52 to 2.12±1.60 for 4D-MRI. The Mann-Whitney U-test shows the 4D-MRI is significantly superior to 4D-CT (p=0.021) for phase-based target definition. Centroid motion error ranges were 1.35–1.25mm (4D-CT), and 0.31–0.12mm (4D-MRI). Conclusion: The k-space self-gated 4D-MRI we recently developed can accurately determine phase-based target volume while avoiding typical motion artifacts found in 4D-CT, and is being further studied for use in GI targeting and motion management. This work supported in part by grant 1R03CA173273-01.

  1. Nanoscale ferromagnetic resonance imaging using magnetic resonance force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Inhee

    Nanoscale patterned magnetic structures and multi-component magnetic devices have been studied actively for applications of highly efficient data storage and non-volatile magnetic memory devices. Those studies demand high resolution magnetic imaging tools which can characterize complex, often buried nanoscale structures. Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) is a powerful spectroscopic tool which provides the magnetic characterizing parameters of spectroscopically identified magnetic materials with high precision. However, FMR studies of nanoscale samples are limited due to insufficient sensitivity and lack of imaging capabilities. Scanned probe FMR using Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM) is an excellent tool for understanding nanoscale ferromagnetic structures based on its high sensitivity and high resolution. Non-interacting electron and nuclear spins in MRFM can be excited selectively in the thin sensitive slice defined by the high magnetic field gradient of the magnetic probe tip. The sensitive slice as a probe enables high resolution three-dimensional imaging. However, for ferromagnets, the mechanism for magnetic resonance imaging is quite different due to the strong spin-spin interactions which lead to collective spin wave excitation. Our recent studies of Ferromagnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (FMRFM) have shown that the magnetic probe tip not only detects the FMRFM force, but also perturbs FMR modes, and even distorts or spatially localizes FMR modes using the strongly inhomogeneous probe field. This strong perturbation of probe field enables us to achieve and image quantitative magnetic information in the local region of ferromagnetic structures. In this thesis I will present various FMRFM imaging techniques using the strong inhomogeneous magnetic field of the micromagnetic probe tip. First, FMRFM imaging in a weak probe field will be discussed. In this case, the shapes of magnetostatic modes in FMR are determined by a confined sample structure while the effect of probe field is ignorable. However, FMR peak positions are shifted by the probe field, which allows encoding of the spatial mode profile of magnetostatic modes into FMR resonance field. On the other hand, in a strong probe field, the shapes of FMR modes can be distorted or spatially localized. In particular, localized modes are suitable for FMRFM imaging which provides a map of intrinsic magnetic properties existing within the local area of the sample. Concerning these localized modes, I will present our recent observations, quantitative analysis and their application for FMR imaging with high field sensitivity of the internal field in a ferromagnetic film. Furthermore, I will discuss other quantitative local magnetic characterization methods such as magnetic force microscopy (MFM) induced by a strong inhomogeneous probe tip field and suppressed or distorted FMR modes FMRFM.

  2. Spin echo magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bernd Andr; Weigel, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    The spin echo sequence is a fundamental pulse sequence in MRI. Many of today's applications in routine clinical use are based on this elementary sequence. In this review article, the principles of the spin echo formation are demonstrated on which the generation of the fundamental image contrasts T1, T2, and proton density is based. The basic imaging parameters repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE) and their influence on the image contrast are explained. Important properties such as the behavior in multi-slice imaging or in the presence of flow are depicted and the basic differences with gradient echo imaging are illustrated. The characteristics of the spin echo sequence for different magnetic field strengths with respect to clinical applications are discussed. PMID:23526758

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of breast implants.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mala; Tanna, Neil; Margolies, Laurie

    2014-12-01

    Silicone breast implants have significantly evolved since their introduction half a century ago, yet implant rupture remains a common and expected complication, especially in patients with earlier-generation implants. Magnetic resonance imaging is the primary modality for assessing the integrity of silicone implants and has excellent sensitivity and specificity, and the Food and Drug Administration currently recommends periodic magnetic resonance imaging screening for silent silicone breast implant rupture. Familiarity with the types of silicone implants and potential complications is essential for the radiologist. Signs of intracapsular rupture include the noose, droplet, subcapsular line, and linguine signs. Signs of extracapsular rupture include herniation of silicone with a capsular defect and extruded silicone material. Specific sequences including water and silicone suppression are essential for distinguishing rupture from other pathologies and artifacts. Magnetic resonance imaging provides valuable information about the integrity of silicone implants and associated complications. PMID:25463409

  4. Granular convection observed by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrichs, E.E.; Jaeger, H.M.; Knight, J.B.; Nagel, S.R.; Karczmar, G.S.; Kuperman, V.Yu.

    1995-03-17

    Vibrations in a granular material can spontaneously produce convection rolls reminiscent of those seen in fluids. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a sensitive and noninvasive probe for the detection of these convection currents, which have otherwise been difficult to observe. A magnetic resonance imaging study of convection in a column of poppy seeds yielded data about the detailed shape of the convection rolls and the depth dependence of the convection velocity. The velocity was found to decrease exponentially with depth; a simple model for this behavior is presented here. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Granular convection observed by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrichs, E. E.; Jaeger, H. M.; Karczmar, Greg S.; Knight, James B.; Kuperman, Vadim Yu.; Nagel, Sidney R.

    1995-03-01

    Vibrations in a granular material can spontaneously produce convection rolls reminiscent of those seen in fluids. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a sensitive and noninvasive probe for the detection of these convection currents, which have otherwise been difficult to observe. A magnetic resonance imaging study of convection in a column of poppy seeds yielded data about the detailed shape of the convection rolls and the depth dependence of the convection velocity. The velocity was found to decrease exponentially with depth; a simple model for this behavior is presented here.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging in traumatic hip subluxation

    PubMed Central

    Flanigan, David C; De Smet, Arthur A; Graf, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Athletic traumatic hip subluxations are rare. Classic radiographic features have been well described. This case highlights the potential pitfalls of immediate magnetic resonance imaging. Femoral head contusions and acetabular rim fractures are common associated findings usually apparent with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, in this case an MRI done 3 hours post injury failed to show any edema in either location, making the appearance of these findings on subsequent MRIs difficult to interpret. An acute MRI more than 48 hours post injury may have been more helpful. PMID:21559109

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, A. O.; Rojas, R.; Barrios, F. A.

    2001-10-01

    MR imaging has experienced an important growth worldwide and in particular in the USA and Japan. This imaging technique has also shown an important rise in the number of MR imagers in Mexico. However, the development of MRI has followed a typical way of Latin American countries, which is very different from the path shown in the industrialised countries. Despite the fact that Mexico was one the very first countries to install and operate MR imagers in the world, it still lacks of qualified clinical and technical personnel. Since the first MR scanner started to operate, the number of units has grown at a moderate space that now sums up approximately 60 system installed nationwide. Nevertheless, there are no official records of the number of MR units operating, physicians and technicians involved in this imaging modality. The MRI market is dominated by two important companies: General Electric (approximately 51%) and Siemens (approximately 17.5%), the rest is shared by other five companies. According to the field intensity, medium-field systems (0.5 Tesla) represent 60% while a further 35% are 1.0 T or higher. Almost all of these units are in private hospitals and clinics: there is no high-field MR imagers in any public hospital. Because the political changes in the country, a new public plan for health care is still in the process and will be published soon this year. This plan will be determined by the new Congress. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and president Fox. Experience acquired in the past shows that the demand for qualified professionals will grow in the new future. Therefore, systematic training of clinical and technical professionals will be in high demand to meet the needs of this technique. The National University (UNAM) and the Metropolitan University (UAM-Iztapalapa) are collaborating with diverse clinical groups in private facilities to create a systematic training program and carry out research and development in MRI

  8. Clinical Applications of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Alka; Montanera, Walter; Terbrugge, Karel G.; Willinsky, Robert; Fenton, Paul V.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a relatively new diagnostic imaging technique that has substantially affected the diagnosis of a multitude of diseases. It has become the imaging modality of choice for a number of pathologic processes, especially in the central nervous system. The authors discuss the clinical applications of MRI, its current status in radiologic investigations, and radiographic features of some of the common diseases of the central nervous system. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figure 4Figures 5-6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figures 12-13 PMID:21229123

  9. Review: Magnetic resonance imaging techniques in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Imaging the eye with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved difficult due to the eyes propensity to move involuntarily over typical imaging timescales, obscuring the fine structure in the eye due to the resulting motion artifacts. However, advances in MRI technology help to mitigate such drawbacks, enabling the acquisition of high spatiotemporal resolution images with a variety of contrast mechanisms. This review aims to classify the MRI techniques used to date in clinical and preclinical ophthalmologic studies, describing the qualitative and quantitative information that may be extracted and how this may inform on ocular pathophysiology. PMID:23112569

  10. Fetal Cerebral Magnetic Resonance Imaging Beyond Morphology.

    PubMed

    Jakab, András; Pogledic, Ivana; Schwartz, Ernst; Gruber, Gerlinde; Mitter, Christian; Brugger, Peter C; Langs, Georg; Schöpf, Veronika; Kasprian, Gregor; Prayer, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    The recent technological advancement of fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences allowed the inclusion of diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, and proton MR spectroscopy in prenatal imaging protocols. These methods provide information beyond morphology and hold the key to improving several fields of human neuroscience and clinical diagnostics. Our review introduces the fundamental works that enabled these imaging techniques, and also highlights the most recent contributions to this emerging field of prenatal diagnostics, such as the structural and functional connectomic approach. We introduce the advanced image processing approaches that are extensively used to tackle fetal or maternal movement-related image artifacts, and which are necessary for the optimal interpretation of such imaging data. PMID:26614130

  11. Posterior fossa lesions: magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.C.P.; Kneeland, J.B.; Deck, M.D.F.; Cahill, P.T.

    1984-10-01

    Studies of 40 patients with abnormalities of the posterior fossa shown on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were reviewed and compared with CT scans. Thirteen lesions were demonstrated on MR only. Twenty-four lesions were shown on CT but MR provided more data. Three lesions were better shown on CT than on MR. MR is superior to CT because of the lack of streak artifacts and better contrast discrimination. At least two imaging sequences are required for evaluation of the lesions.

  12. Focal renal masses: magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Choyke, P.L.; Kressel, H.Y.; Pollack, H.M.; Arger, P.M.; Axel, L.; Mamourian, A.C.

    1984-08-01

    Thirty patients with focal renal masses were evaluated on a .12-Tesla resistive magnetic resonance unit using partial saturation and spin echo pulse sequence. Fifteen patients had cystic lesions, nine patients had renal cell carcinoma, two had metastatic lesions, one had an angiomyolipoma, and three had focal bacterial infection. Renal cell carcinomas demonstrated areas of increased signal using a partial saturation sequence. Magnetic resonance imaging accurately detected perinephric extension and vascular invasion in all patients. Metastatic disease to the kidney was uniformly low in signal, in contrast to primary renal cell carcinoma; an angiomyolipoma demonstrated very high signal intensity. Two masses resulting from acute focal bacterial nephritis were uniformly low in signal. Magnetic resonance imaging appears to be an accurate way of detecting, identifying, and staging focal renal masses.

  13. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  14. Sports health magnetic resonance imaging challenge.

    PubMed

    Howell, Gary A; Stadnick, Michael E; Awh, Mark H

    2010-11-01

    Injuries to the Lisfranc ligament complex are often suspected, particularly in the setting of midfoot pain without radiographic abnormality. Knowledge of the anatomy and magnetic resonance imaging findings of injuries to this region is helpful for the diagnosing and treating physicians. PMID:23015984

  15. Sports Health Magnetic Resonance Imaging Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Gary A.; Stadnick, Michael E.; Awh, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Injuries to the Lisfranc ligament complex are often suspected, particularly in the setting of midfoot pain without radiographic abnormality. Knowledge of the anatomy and magnetic resonance imaging findings of injuries to this region is helpful for the diagnosing and treating physicians. PMID:23015984

  16. Portable nuclear magnetic resonance imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokitta, Markus; Rommel, Eberhard; Zimmermann, Ulrich; Haase, Axel

    2000-11-01

    A portable nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging system has been designed for noninvasive investigations of immobile objects, e.g., living plants in their natural environment, a human finger or similar objects not exceeding a diameter of 12 mm. The NMR spectrometer is equipped with a permanent magnet, flat biplanar gradient coils, and a battery powered amplifier network with a phase-encoding unit, capable of imaging experiments on volumes of (1 cm)3 with a spatial resolution of 63 ?m. The total weight of the instrument is approximately 90 kg. First applications of this system include spin-echo images of phantoms and living plants in a greenhouse.

  17. [Magnetic resonance imaging of brain neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Tiutin, L A; Ze?dlits, V N; Pozdniakova, O F; Rokhlin, G D

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) study of the brain using a low-field imager (0.04 T) was carried out in 1035 patients with suspected brain tumors which were detected and confirmed in 593 cases. The most frequent findings were neuroepithelial tumors, meningiomas, hypophyseal adenomas, and various metastatis lesions. MR features of various types were analyzed. Low-field MR imaging helps detect tumors even of smaller size, localize them, determine their dissemination and the status of the adjacent tissues, thus providing (similarly as high- and middle-field MR imaging) valuable diagnostic information. PMID:7801575

  18. [Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Laval-Jeantet, M; Crooks, L E; Davis, P L; Kaufman, L; Margulis, A R

    1982-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging is based on selective excitation of proton magnetic properties by means of a dual magnetic field. In the human body, NMR gives sectional images which represent hydrogen atom densities in the different tissues. The first results obtained in tomography of the brain, spinal cord, intrathoracic and abdominal organs and some vessels have been remarkable. The magnetic fields ans radiofrequency waves involved appear to be harmless. NMR imaging favourably compares with X-ray computerized tomography or with ultrasonography and will no doubt be increasingly used for its special qualities. PMID:6982457

  19. Terahertz imaging system with resonant tunneling diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Mukai, Toshikazu

    2016-03-01

    We report a feasibility study of a terahertz imaging system with resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) that oscillate at 0.30 THz. A pair of RTDs acted as an emitter and a detector in the system. Terahertz reflection images of opaque samples were acquired with our RTD imaging system. A spatial resolution of 1 mm, which is equal to the wavelength of the RTD emitter, was achieved. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reflection image was improved by 6 dB by using polarization optics that reduced interference effects. Additionally, the coherence of the RTD enabled a depth resolution of less than 3 µm to be achieved by an interferometric technique. Thus, RTDs are an attractive candidate for use in small THz imaging systems.

  20. Cardiovascular applications of magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pflugfelder, Peter W.; Wisenberg, Gerald; Prato, Frank S.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a unique imaging modality that is gaining rapid acceptance for a variety of medical indications. Diagnostic information is obtained noninvasively, without the potential hazards of ionizing radiation. The spatial resolution and anatomic detail of MR imaging rival those of other currently available imaging methods. By gating to an electrocardiographic signal cardiac imaging is possible. Since March 1983 the authors have had experience with cardiac MR imaging in both animals and humans. Cardiac anatomy is well shown by this technique, which allows detection and characterization of intracardiac masses, congenital heart disease and anomalies of the great vessels. Myocardial infarction has been detected in both animals and humans without the use of contrast agents, and acute cardiac transplant rejection has been visualized in an animal model. Limitations of MR imaging primarily have been lengthy imaging times and the sensitivity of the images to motion. With further investigation and experience this technique may become useful for studying a wide variety of cardiovascular disorders. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:3904969

  1. Volume coil based on hybridized resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouvaud, C.; Abdeddaim, R.; Larrat, B.; de Rosny, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present an electromagnetic device based on hybridization of four half-wavelength dipoles which increases the uniformity and the strength of the radio-frequency (RF) field of a Magnetic Resonant Imaging (MRI) apparatus. Numerical results show that this Hybridized Coil (HC) excited with a classical loop coil takes advantage of the magnetic hybrid modes. The distribution of the RF magnetic field is experimentally confirmed on a 7-T MRI with a gelatin phantom. Finally, the HC is validated in vivo by imaging the head of an anesthetized rat. We measure an overall increase of the signal to noise ratio with up to 2.4 fold increase in regions of interest far from the active loop coil.

  2. [Magnetic resonance imaging in thoracic diseases].

    PubMed

    Nors, J M; Monsegu, M H; Bergal, S; Ameille, J; Rmy, J M; Lacrosnire, L

    1994-10-01

    Most all the thoracic structures are visible with magnetic resonance imaging: the mediastin, the myocardium including the endocardium and the pericardium, the pulmonary parenchyma and hile and the pleural walls. In cases of mediastrinal masses, T1 images clearly delimit their relations with neighbouring organs and vessels. The intensity of the signal is compared with that of the muscles on T1 weighted images of the preceding sections and T2 weighted images of fat. Images of aneurysms and chronic dissections can be synchronized with the ECG allowing three-dimensional measurement of the size and thickness of the vessel walls. Thrombi or extension to other vessels can also be recognized. Small hilar tumours can be differentiated from vessels but the scanner is better for analyzing systematization and bronchial lesions. For lung tissue itself, magnetic resonance imaging can detect nodules greater than one centimeter in diameter, but the low proton density and respiratory movements hinder spatial resolution. MRI is indicated for localizing tumours situated anteriorly or posteriorly or at the apex and to identify parietal extension of peripheral cancers. Spinal, vascular, pericardial, diaphragmatic and lymph node metastases can be recognized. MRI is the noninvasive method of choice for evaluating left ventricular masse, intra and paracardiac mass studies and for investigating congenital and acquired cardiomyopathies. Technical advances have made it possible to evaluate myocardial perfusion and heart function. PMID:7984543

  3. Statistical normalization techniques for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Russell T; Sweeney, Elizabeth M; Goldsmith, Jeff; Shiee, Navid; Mateen, Farrah J; Calabresi, Peter A; Jarso, Samson; Pham, Dzung L; Reich, Daniel S; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M

    2014-01-01

    While computed tomography and other imaging techniques are measured in absolute units with physical meaning, magnetic resonance images are expressed in arbitrary units that are difficult to interpret and differ between study visits and subjects. Much work in the image processing literature on intensity normalization has focused on histogram matching and other histogram mapping techniques, with little emphasis on normalizing images to have biologically interpretable units. Furthermore, there are no formalized principles or goals for the crucial comparability of image intensities within and across subjects. To address this, we propose a set of criteria necessary for the normalization of images. We further propose simple and robust biologically motivated normalization techniques for multisequence brain imaging that have the same interpretation across acquisitions and satisfy the proposed criteria. We compare the performance of different normalization methods in thousands of images of patients with Alzheimer's disease, hundreds of patients with multiple sclerosis, and hundreds of healthy subjects obtained in several different studies at dozens of imaging centers. PMID:25379412

  4. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    PubMed Central

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  5. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion.

    PubMed

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza, Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira E

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  6. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.

    1986-01-01

    During the past year the Woodlands Baylor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facility became fully operational. A detailed description of this facility is given. One significant instrument addition this year was the 100 MHz, 40cm bore superconducting imaging spectrometer. This instrument gives researchers the capability to acquire high energy phosphate spectra. This will be used to investigate ATP, phosphocreatinine and inorganic phosphate changes in normal and atrophied muscle before, during and after exercise. An exercise device for use within the bore of the imaging magnet is under design/construction. The results of a study of T sub 1 and T sub 2 changes in atrophied muscle in animals and human subjects are given. The imaging and analysis of the lower leg of 15 research subjects before and after 5 weeks of complete bedrest was completed. A compilation of these results are attached.

  7. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, A.

    1986-05-01

    During the past year the Woodlands Baylor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facility became fully operational. A detailed description of this facility is given. One significant instrument addition this year was the 100 MHz, 40cm bore superconducting imaging spectrometer. This instrument gives researchers the capability to acquire high energy phosphate spectra. This will be used to investigate ATP, phosphocreatinine and inorganic phosphate changes in normal and atrophied muscle before, during and after exercise. An exercise device for use within the bore of the imaging magnet is under design/construction. The results of a study of T sub 1 and T sub 2 changes in atrophied muscle in animals and human subjects are given. The imaging and analysis of the lower leg of 15 research subjects before and after 5 weeks of complete bedrest was completed. A compilation of these results are attached.

  8. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging in cancer.

    PubMed

    Haris, Mohammad; Yadav, Santosh K; Rizwan, Arshi; Singh, Anup; Wang, Ena; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder; Marincola, Francesco M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to identify key biomolecules and molecular changes associated with cancer malignancy and the capacity to monitor the therapeutic outcome against these targets is critically important for cancer treatment. Recent developments in molecular imaging based on magnetic resonance (MR) techniques have provided researchers and clinicians with new tools to improve most facets of cancer care. Molecular imaging is broadly described as imaging techniques used to detect molecular signature at the cellular and gene expression levels. This article reviews both established and emerging molecular MR techniques in oncology and discusses the potential of these techniques in improving the clinical cancer care. It also discusses how molecular MR, in conjunction with other structural and functional MR imaging techniques, paves the way for developing tailored treatment strategies to enhance cancer care. PMID:26394751

  9. Imaging by electromagnetic induction with resonant circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilizzoni, Roberta; Watson, Joseph C.; Bartlett, Paul; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2015-05-01

    A new electromagnetic induction imaging system is presented which is capable of imaging metallic samples of different conductivities. The system is based on a parallel LCR circuit made up of a cylindrical ferrite-cored coil and a capacitor bank. An AC current is applied to the coil, thus generating an AC magnetic field. This field is modified when a conductive sample is placed within the magnetic field, as a consequence of eddy current induction inside the sample. The electrical properties of the LCR circuit, including the coil inductance, are modified due to the presence of this metallic sample. Position-resolved measurements of these modifications should then allow imaging of conductive objects as well as enable their characterization. A proof-of-principle system is presented in this paper. Two imaging techniques based on Q-factor and resonant frequency measurements are presented. Both techniques produced conductivity maps of 14 metallic objects with different geometries and values of conductivity ranging from 0.54х106 to 59.77х106 S/m. Experimental results highlighted a higher sensitivity for the Q-factor technique compared to the resonant frequency one; the respective measurements were found to vary within the following ranges: ΔQ=[-11,-2]%, Δf=[-0.3,0.7]%. The analysis of the images, conducted using a Canny edge detection algorithm, demonstrated the suitability of the Q-factor technique for accurate edge detection of both magnetic and non-magnetic metallic samples.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging in cirrhosis: what's new?

    PubMed

    Barr, Daniel C; Hussain, Hero K

    2014-04-01

    Cirrhosis is the main risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The major causative factors of cirrhosis in the United States and Europe are chronic hepatitis C infection and excessive alcohol consumption with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis emerging as another important risk factor. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive imaging technique for the diagnosis of HCC, and the sensitivity can be further improved with the use of diffusion-weighted imaging and hepatocyte-specific contrast agents. The combination of arterial phase hyperenhancement, venous or delayed phase hypointensity "washout feature," and capsular enhancement are features highly specific for HCC with reported specificities of 96% and higher. When these features are present in a mass in the cirrhotic liver, confirmatory biopsy to establish the diagnosis of HCC is not necessary. Other tumors, such as cholangiocarcinoma, sometimes occur in the cirrhotic at a much lower rate than HCC and can mimic HCC, as do other benign lesions such as perfusion abnormalities. In this article, we discuss the imaging features of cirrhosis and HCC, the role of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of HCC and other benign and malignant lesions that occur in the cirrhotic liver, and the issue of nonspecific arterially hyperenhancing nodules often seen in cirrhosis. PMID:24690617

  11. Metabolic Tumor Imaging Using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Glunde, Kristine; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2011-01-01

    The adaptability and the genomic plasticity of cancer cells, and the interaction between the tumor microenvironment and co-opted stromal cells, coupled with the ability of cancer cells to colonize distant organs, contribute to the frequent intractability of cancer. It is becoming increasingly evident that personalized molecular targeting is necessary for the successful treatment of this multifaceted and complex disease. Noninvasive imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance (MR), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are filling several important niches in this era of targeted molecular medicine, in applications that span from bench to bedside. In this review we focus on noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and their roles in future personalized medicine in cancer. Diagnosis, the identification of the most effective treatment, monitoring treatment delivery, and response to treatment are some of the broad areas into which MRS techniques can be integrated to improve treatment outcomes. The development of novel probes for molecular imagingin combination with a slew of functional imaging capabilitiesmakes MRS techniques, especially in combination with other imaging modalities, valuable in cancer drug discovery and basic cancer research. PMID:21362514

  12. Smart Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Clia S; Tth, va

    2016-01-01

    By visualizing bioactive molecules or biological parameters in vivo, molecular imaging is searching for information at the molecular level in living organisms. In addition to contributing to earlier and more personalized diagnosis in medicine, it also helps understand and rationalize the molecular factors underlying physiological and pathological processes. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), complexes of paramagnetic metal ions, mostly lanthanides, are commonly used to enhance the intrinsic image contrast. They rely either on the relaxation effect of these metal chelates (T1 agents), or on the phenomenon of paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (PARACEST agents). In both cases, responsive molecular magnetic resonance imaging probes can be designed to report on various biomarkers of biological interest. In this context, we review recent work in the literature and from our group on responsive T1 and PARACEST MRI agents for the detection of biogenic metal ions (such as calcium or zinc), enzymatic activities, or neurotransmitter release. These examples illustrate the general strategies that can be applied to create molecular imaging agents with an MRI detectable response to biologically relevant parameters. PMID:26931225

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of mechanical deformations.

    PubMed

    Koder, Gregor; Serša, Igor

    2016-02-01

    A method for magnetic resonance imaging of mechanical deformations is presented. The method utilizes an MRI compatible device for inducing elastic deformations of a sample and a modified spin-echo imaging sequence with two position-encoding gradients added to the sequence symmetrically to the RF refocusing pulse. At the end of the first position-encoding gradient pulse, a sample deformation was induced by the deformational device, which applied a force to a plastic rod embedded in a gelatin cylindrical sample. The sample had to withstand repeated elastic deformations. Sample displacements up to 400μm were encoded in the image signal phase by the use of position-encoding gradients. Images of different displacement components were acquired first by the use of position-encoding gradients in different directions and then processed by the 2D phase unwrap algorithm. Finally, images of normal and shear strain distribution were calculated from the displacement images. The obtained displacement and strain images enabled clear visualization of deformations and their extent in the sample with the displacement detection threshold in the range 0.3-0.6μm, depending on the image echo time. The results of displacements were verified also by a DANTE tagging method and by an optical method. The presented method enables studying of various types of deformations in different soft materials as well as dynamic response of deformations to different stress functions (static, oscillatory, pulsed…). PMID:26523647

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging: present and future applications

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Donald L.; Liu, Peter; Wismer, Gary L.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Stark, David D.; New, Paul F.J.; Okada, Robert D.; Brady, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has created considerable excitement in the medical community, largely because of its great potential to diagnose and characterize many different disease processes. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that, because MR imaging is similar to computed tomography (CT) scanning in identifying structural disorders and because it is more costly and difficult to use, this highly useful technique must be judged against CT before it can become an accepted investigative tool. At present MR imaging has demonstrated diagnostic superiority over CT in a limited number of important, mostly neurologic, disorders and is complementary to CT in the diagnosis of certain other disorders. For most of the remaining organ systems its usefulness is not clear, but the lack of ionizing radiation and MR's ability to produce images in any tomographic plane may eventually prove to be advantageous. The potential of MR imaging to display in-vivo spectra, multinuclear images and blood-flow data makes it an exciting investigative technique. At present, however, MR imaging units should be installed only in medical centres equipped with the clinical and basic research facilities that are essential to evaluate the ultimate role of this technique in the care of patients. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:3884120

  15. Pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging for airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Nishio, Mizuho; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Iwasawa, Tae; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2011-11-01

    Pulmonary magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been put forward as a new research and diagnostic tool mainly to overcome the limitations of computed tomography and nuclear medicine studies. However, pulmonary MR imaging has been difficult to use because of inherently low proton density, a multitude of air-tissue interfaces, which create significant magnetic field distortions and are commonly referred to as susceptibility artifacts; diminishing signal in the lung; and respiratory and/or cardiac motion artifacts. To overcome these drawbacks of pulmonary MR imaging, technical advances made during the last decade in sequencing, scanner and coil, adaptation of parallel imaging techniques, and utilization of contrast media have been reported as being useful for functional and morphologic assessment of various pulmonary diseases including airway diseases. This review article covers (1) pulmonary MR techniques for morphologic and functional assessment of airway diseases, and (2) pulmonary MR imaging for cystic fibrosis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pulmonary MR imaging provides not only morphology-related but also pulmonary function-related information. It has the potential to replace nuclear medicine studies for the identification of regional pulmonary function and may perform a complementary role in airway disease assessment instead of nuclear medicine study. We believe that the findings of further basic studies as well as clinical applications of this new technique will validate the real significance of pulmonary MR imaging for the future of airway disease assessment and its usefulness for diagnostic radiology and pulmonary medicine. PMID:22009083

  16. Towards Single Biomolecule Imaging via Optical Nanoscale Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Boretti, Alberto; Rosa, Lorenzo; Castelletto, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a physical marvel in which electromagnetic radiation is charged and discharged by nuclei in a magnetic field. In conventional NMR, the specific nuclei resonance frequency depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms. NMR is routinely utilized in clinical tests by converting nuclear spectroscopy in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and providing 3D, noninvasive biological imaging. While this technique has revolutionized biomedical science, measuring the magnetic resonance spectrum of single biomolecules is still an intangible aspiration, due to MRI resolution being limited to tens of micrometers. MRI and NMR have, however, recently greatly advanced, with many breakthroughs in nano-NMR and nano-MRI spurred by using spin sensors based on an atomic impurities in diamond. These techniques rely on magnetic dipole-dipole interactions rather than inductive detection. Here, novel nano-MRI methods based on nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond are highlighted, that provide a solution to the imaging of single biomolecules with nanoscale resolution in-vivo and in ambient conditions. PMID:26113221

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve.

    PubMed

    Gala, Foram

    2015-01-01

    Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies. PMID:26752822

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in medicine

    PubMed Central

    McKinstry, C S

    1986-01-01

    Using the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, MR, MRI), the first images displaying pathology in humans were published in 1980.1 Since then, there has been a rapid extension in the use of the technique, with an estimated 225 machines in use in the USA at the end of 1985.2 Considerable enthusiasm has been expressed for this new imaging technique,3 although awareness of its high cost in the present economic climate has led to reservations being expressed in other quarters.2 The aim of this article is to give an outline of the present state of NMR, and indicate some possible future developments. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3(a)Fig 3 (b)Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7 (a)Fig 7 (b)Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10 PMID:3811023

  19. Stem cell labeling for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Himmelreich, Uwe; Hoehn, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    In vivo applications of cells for the monitoring of their cell dynamics increasingly use non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging. This imaging modality allows in particular to follow the migrational activity of stem cells intended for cell therapy strategies. All these approaches require the prior labeling of the cells under investigation for excellent contrast against the host tissue background in the imaging modality. The present review discusses the various routes of cell labeling and describes the potential to observe both cell localization and their cell-specific function in vivo. Possibilities for labeling strategies, pros and cons of various contrast agents are pointed out while potential ambiguities or problems of labeling strategies are emphasized. PMID:18465447

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Gala, Foram

    2015-01-01

    Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies. PMID:26752822

  1. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in Alstrm syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Loudon, Margaret A; Bellenger, Nicholas G; Carey, Catherine M; Paisey, Richard B

    2009-01-01

    Background A case series of the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings in seven adult Alstrm patients. Methods Seven patients from the National Specialist Commissioning Group Centre for Alstrm Disease, Torbay, England, UK, completed the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging protocol to assess cardiac structure and function in Alstrm cardiomyopathy. Results All patients had some degree of left and right ventricular dysfunction. Patchy mid wall gadolinium delayed enhancement was demonstrated, suggesting an underlying fibrotic process. Some degree of cardiomyopathy was universal. No evidence of myocardial infarction or fatty infiltration was demonstrated, but coronary artery disease cannot be completely excluded. Repeat scanning after 18 months in one subject showed progression of fibrosis and decreased left ventricular function. Conclusion Adult Alstrm cardiomyopathy appears to be a fibrotic process causing impairment of both ventricles. Serial cardiac magnetic resonance scanning has helped clarify the underlying disease progression and responses to treatment. Confirmation of significant mutations in the ALMS1 gene should lead to advice to screen the subject for cardiomyopathy, and metabolic disorders. PMID:19515241

  2. Iterative data refinement of magnetic resonance images

    SciTech Connect

    Ro Dukwoo.

    1990-01-01

    All magnetic resonance (MR) images are blurred as a result of an inherent decaying of nuclear MR signals during data acquisition (DA) due to spatially-varying and object-dependent transverse relaxation (T2). The extent of the blur depends on the distribution of transverse relaxation time of the object and the DA time used in the pulse sequence protocol. Compared to the strength of proton MR signal from a biological organism, sodium signal is inherently weak. A method of improving signal-to-noise ratio in sodium MR imaging is to perform asymmetric sampling of gradient-echo signal so that images with short echo time (2-3 ms) and narrow bandwidth may be acquired. However, a rapid biexponential decay of sodium signal during long DA period, especially due to the presence of fast transverse relaxation (0.7-3 ms) in natural endogenous sodium in tissues, results in fast T2-dependent blurring of reconstructed images. In this dissertation the author considers the problem of correcting for such object-dependent blurs arising from such decay and Fourier transform reconstruction of proton and sodium MR images. Two similar algorithms that correct for such anisotropic blurs in proton and sodium images were developed, implemented, and tested. The first algorithm corrects for mono-exponential T2 distribution and the second algorithm, a natural extension of the first, takes into account the biexponential T2 distribution.. From these algorithms a correction is applied to the raw MR signal. Images reconstructed from such corrected signals yield an improved estimate of T2-weighted spin density distribution. The second algorithm not only corrects for anisotropic blurs in sodium images, but reconstructs decomposed images representing T2-weighted spin density distributions associated with fast and slow T2 of sodium in tissues. Both algorithms tested on mathematical and experimental phantoms show that T2-dependent blurs are reduced.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Cardiac Masses

    PubMed Central

    Braggion-Santos, Maria Fernanda; Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Volpe, Gustavo Jardim; Trad, Henrique Simão; Schmidt, André

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac tumors are extremely rare; however, when there is clinical suspicion, proper diagnostic evaluation is necessary to plan the most appropriate treatment. In this context, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) plays an important role, allowing a comprehensive characterization of such lesions. Objective To review cases referred to a CMRI Department for investigation of cardiac and paracardiac masses. To describe the positive case series with a brief review of the literature for each type of lesion and the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation. Methods Between August 2008 and December 2011, all cases referred for CMRI with suspicion of tumor involving the heart were reviewed. Cases with positive histopathological diagnosis, clinical evolution or therapeutic response compatible with the clinical suspicion and imaging findings were selected. Results Among the 13 cases included in our study, eight (62%) had histopathological confirmation. We describe five benign tumors (myxomas, rhabdomyoma and fibromas), five malignancies (sarcoma, lymphoma, Richter syndrome involving the heart and metastatic disease) and three non-neoplastic lesions (pericardial cyst, intracardiac thrombus and infectious vegetation). Conclusion CMRI plays an important role in the evaluation of cardiac masses of non-neoplastic and neoplastic origin, contributing to a more accurate diagnosis in a noninvasive manner and assisting in treatment planning, allowing safe clinical follow-up with good reproducibility. PMID:23887734

  4. ASA monitoring standards and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, N H; Messick, J M; Gray, J; Nugent, M; Berquist, T H

    1994-12-01

    Some patients, often because of age or altered mental state, require general anesthesia or monitored anesthesia care and sedation if adequate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to be accomplished. This study evaluated whether patients can be monitored during MRI with 1.5-tesla scanners in a manner which complies with ASA monitoring standards without causing degradation of image quality. Ten volunteers were scanned in the MRI without sedation. Monitors meeting ASA standards were placed and electronic artifact produced by the magnetic resonance (MR) scanner was evaluated, after which two scans of the head and two of the chest were performed. One of each pair of scans was obtained with the monitors functioning and one with them turned off. Four radiologists, blinded as to whether the monitors were turned on or off, independently evaluated the 20 pairs of scans. Differences in diagnostic quality and image degradation between the scans were evaluated and scores assigned. All monitors functioned appropriately during the scans, with the exception of the electrocardiogram (ECG) which was grossly distorted to the extent that only ventricular rate could be evaluated. None of the head or body scans was nondiagnostic; however, images with the monitors off were of better quality overall than with them on. Two types of noise were generated and are described. During the head scans, three of seven monitoring combinations caused degradation of the images, while four were judged clinically adequate. During the body scans, two of six monitoring combinations created noticeable noise, while four introduced no significant noise. Ungated cardiac scans were nondiagnostic.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7978439

  5. In Vivo Microtesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mle, Michael

    2005-03-01

    We have developed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system which operates at magnetic fields of 132 microtesla, corresponding to proton Larmor frequencies of 5.6 kHz. The main advantages of performing MRI at low magnetic fields (< 10 mT) are the reduced costs compared to conventional high- field MRI, and the reduction of nuclear magnetic resonance line broadening caused by inhomogeneous magnetic fields and susceptibility variations in the sample. Our technique combines prepolarization of the nuclear spins in a magnetic field up to 300 mT and signal detection at 132 microtesla using an untuned superconducting input circuit coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to achieve a signal amplitude independent of the measurement field. We employ a standard spin-echo pulse sequence to acquire three-dimensional images in less than 6 minutes. Using encoding gradients of about 100 ?T/m we obtain images of bell peppers and water phantoms with a resolution of 2 mm x 2 mm x 8 mm. Three- dimensional images of a human forearm were acquired at 132 microtesla with an average prepolarization field of 50 mT showing a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 10 and an in-plane resolution of 3 mm x 3 mm. We have shown that for certain materials the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) contrast is greatly enhanced at low magnetic fields. This enhancement is expected to lead to novel applications in specialized clinical imaging of human subjects, for example, low-cost tumor screening. To make such applications feasible further improvements of the SNR and resolution of the system are necessary. By employing a SQUID detector with a lower magnetic field noise and by raising the maximum polarizing field, an improvement of the SNR by an order of magnitude should be possible.

  6. Tools for cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Cheong, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In less than fifteen years, as a non-invasive imaging option, cardiovascular MR has grown from a being a mere curiosity to becoming a widely used clinical tool for evaluating cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is now routinely used to study myocardial structure, cardiac function, macro vascular blood flow, myocardial perfusion, and myocardial viability. For someone entering the field of cardiac MR, this rapid pace of development in the field of CMRI might make it difficult to identify a cohesive starting point. In this brief review, we have attempted to summarize the key cardiovascular imaging techniques that have found widespread clinical acceptance. In particular, we describe the essential cardiac and respiratory gating techniques that form the backbone of all cardiovascular imaging methods. It is followed by four sections that discuss: (I) the gradient echo techniques that are used to assess ventricular function; (II) black-blood turbo spin echo (SE) methods used for morphologic assessment of the heart; (III) phase-contrast based techniques for the assessment of blood flow; and (IV) CMR methods for the assessment of myocardial ischemia and viability. In each section, we briefly summarize technical considerations relevant to the clinical use of these techniques, followed by practical information for its clinical implementation. In each of those four areas, CMRI is considered either as the benchmark imaging modality against which the diagnostic performance of other imaging modalities are compared against, or provides a complementary capability to existing imaging techniques. We have deliberately avoided including cutting-edge CMR imaging techniques practiced at few academic centers, and restricted our discussion to methods that are widely used and are likely to be available in a clinical setting. Our hope is that this review would propel an interested reader toward more comprehensive reviews in the literature. PMID:24834409

  7. Developments in boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year on maturing Boron-11 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology for noninvasive determination of BNCT agents (BSH) spatially in time. Three major areas are excerpted: (1) Boron-11 MRI of BSH distributions in a canine intracranial tumor model and the first human glioblastoma patient, (2) whole body Boron-11 MRI of BSH pharmacokinetics in a rat flank tumor model, and (3) penetration of gadolinium salts through the BBB as a function of tumor growth in the canine brain.

  8. Foundations of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bammer, Roland; Skare, Stefan; Newbould, Rexford; Liu, Chunlei; Thijs, Vincent; Ropele, Stefan; Clayton, David B.; Krueger, Gunnar; Moseley, Michael E.; Glover, Gary H.

    2005-01-01

    Summary: During the past decade, major breakthroughs in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quality were made by means of quantum leaps in scanner hardware and pulse sequences. Some advanced MRI techniques have truly revolutionized the detection of disease states and MRI can nowwithin a few minutesacquire important quantitative information noninvasively from an individual in any plane or volume at comparatively high resolution. This article provides an overview of the most common advanced MRI methods including diffusion MRI, perfusion MRI, functional MRI, and the strengths and weaknesses of MRI at high magnetic field strengths. PMID:15897944

  9. Cardiac imaging using gated magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzer, P.; Botvinick, E.H.; Schiller, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    To overcome the limitations of magnetic resonance (MR) cardiac imaging using nongated data acquisition, three methods for acquiring a gating signal, which could be applied in the presence of a magnetic field, were tested; an air-filled plethysmograph, a laser-Doppler capillary perfusion flowmeter, and an electrocardiographic gating device. The gating signal was used for timing of MR imaging sequences (IS). Application of each gating method yielded significant improvements in structural MR image resolution of the beating heart, although with both plethysmography and laser-Doppler velocimetry it was difficult to obtain cardiac images from the early portion of the cardiac cycle due to an intrinsic delay between the ECG R wave and peripheral detection of the gating signal. Variations in the temporal relationship between the R wave and plethysmographic and laser-Doppler signals produced inconsistencies in the timing of IS. Since the ECG signal is virtually free of these problems, the preferable gating technique is IS synchronization with an electrocardiogram. The gated images acquired with this method provide sharp definition of internal cardiac morphology and can be temporarily referenced to end diastole and end systole or intermediate points.

  10. Artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging from metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, L. H.; Wang, P. S.; Donahue, M. J.

    1996-04-01

    Metallic biomedical implants, such as aneurysm clips, endoprostheses, and internal orthopedic devices give rise to artifacts in the magnetic resonance image (MRI) of patients. Such artifacts impair the information contained in the image in precisely the region of most interest, namely near the metallic device. Ferromagnetic materials are contraindicated because of the hazards associated with their movement during the MRI procedure. In less-magnetic metals, it has been suggested that the extent of the artifact is related to the magnetic susceptibility of the metal, but no systematic data appear to be available. When the susceptibility is sufficiently small, an additional artifact due to electrical conductivity is observed. We present an initial systematic study of MRI artifacts produced by two low susceptibility metals, titanium (relative permeability ?r?1.0002) and copper (?r?0.99998), including experimental, theoretical, and computer simulation results.

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the spine

    SciTech Connect

    Modic, M.T.; Weinstein, M.A.; Pavlicek, W.; Starnes, D.L.; Duchesneau, P.M.; Boumphrey, F.; Hardy, R.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Forty subjects were examined to determine the accuracy and clinical usefulness of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) examination of the spine. The NMR images were compared with plain radiographs, high-resolution computed tomograms, and myelograms. The study included 15 patients with normal spinal cord anatomy and 25 patients whose pathological conditions included canal stenosis, herniated discs, metastatic tumors, primary cord tumor, trauma, Chiari malformations, syringomyelia, and developmental disorders. Saturation recovery images were best in differentiating between soft tissue and cerebrospinal fluid. NMR was excellent for the evaluation of the foramen magnum region and is presently the modality of choice for the diagnosis of syringomyelia and Chiari malformation. NMR was accurate in diagnosing spinal cord trauma and spinal canal block.

  12. [Modern magnetic resonance imaging of the liver].

    PubMed

    Hedderich, D M; Weiss, K; Maintz, D; Persigehl, T

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver has become an essential tool in the radiological diagnostics of both focal and diffuse diseases of the liver and is subject to constant change due to technological progress. Recently, important improvements could be achieved by innovations regarding MR hardware, sequences and postprocessing methods. The diagnostic spectrum of MRI could be broadened particularly due to new examination sequences, while at the same time scanning time could be shortened and image quality has been improved. The aim of this article is to explain both the technological background and the clinical application of recent MR sequence developments and to present the scope of a modern MRI protocol for the liver. PMID:26628259

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Binoj; Singh, Navdeep; George, Regi A N; Gilvaz, Sareena

    2013-10-01

    Placenta accreta (PA) is a severe pregnancy complication which occurs when the chorionic villi (CV) invade the myometrium abnormally. Optimal management requires accurate prenatal diagnosis. Ultrasonography (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the modalities for prenatal diagnosis of PA, although USG remains the primary investigation of choice. MRI is a complementary technique and reserved for further characterization when USG is inconclusive or incomplete. Breath-hold T2-weighted half-Fourier rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) and balanced steady-state free precession imaging in the three orthogonal planes is the key MRI technique. Markedly heterogeneous placenta, thick intraplacental dark bands on half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE), and disorganized abnormal intraplacental vascularity are the cardinal MRI features of PA. MRI is less reliable in differentiating between different degrees of placental invasion, especially between accreta vera and increta. PMID:24604945

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of placenta accreta

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Binoj; Singh, Navdeep; George, Regi A.N; Gilvaz, Sareena

    2013-01-01

    Placenta accreta (PA) is a severe pregnancy complication which occurs when the chorionic villi (CV) invade the myometrium abnormally. Optimal management requires accurate prenatal diagnosis. Ultrasonography (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the modalities for prenatal diagnosis of PA, although USG remains the primary investigation of choice. MRI is a complementary technique and reserved for further characterization when USG is inconclusive or incomplete. Breath-hold T2-weighted half-Fourier rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) and balanced steady-state free precession imaging in the three orthogonal planes is the key MRI technique. Markedly heterogeneous placenta, thick intraplacental dark bands on half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE), and disorganized abnormal intraplacental vascularity are the cardinal MRI features of PA. MRI is less reliable in differentiating between different degrees of placental invasion, especially between accreta vera and increta. PMID:24604945

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging after exposure to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Adrian

    1993-01-01

    A number of physiological changes were demonstrated in bone, muscle, and blood from exposure of humans and animals to microgravity. Determining mechanisms and the development of effective countermeasures for long-duration space missions is an important NASA goal. Historically, NASA has had to rely on tape measures, x-ray, and metabolic balance studies with collection of excreta and blood specimens to obtain this information. The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the possibility of greatly extending these early studies in ways not previously possible; MRI is also non-invasive and safe; i.e., no radiation exposure. MRI provides both superb anatomical images for volume measurements of individual structures and quantification of chemical/physical changes induced in the examined tissues. This investigation will apply MRI technology to measure muscle, intervertebral disc, and bone marrow changes resulting from exposure to microgravity.

  16. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.; Evans, H.; Bryan, R. N.; Johnson, P.; Schonfeld, E.; Jhingran, S. G.

    1984-01-01

    A number of physiological changes have been demonstrated in bone, muscle and blood after exposure of humans and animals to microgravity. Determining mechanisms and the development of effective countermeasures for long duration space missions is an important NASA goal. The advent of tomographic nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR or MRI) gives NASA a way to greatly extend early studies of this phenomena in ways not previously possible; NMR is also noninvasive and safe. NMR provides both superb anatomical images for volume assessments of individual organs and quantification of chemical/physical changes induced in the examined tissues. The feasibility of NMR as a tool for human physiological research as it is affected by microgravity is demonstrated. The animal studies employed the rear limb suspended rat as a model of mucle atrophy that results from microgravity. And bedrest of normal male subjects was used to simulate the effects of microgravity on bone and muscle.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods in Soil Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlmeier, A.; van Dusschoten, D.; Blmler, P.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique to study water content, dynamics and transport in natural porous media. However, MRI systems and protocols have been developed mainly for medical purposes, i.e. for media with comparably high water contents and long relaxation times. In contrast, natural porous media like soils and rocks are characterized by much lower water contents, typically 0 < theta < 0.4, and much faster T1 and T2 relaxation times. So, the usage of standard medical scanners and protocols is of limited benefit. Three strategies can be applied for the monitoring of water contents and dynamics in natural porous media: i) Dedicated high-field scanners (with vertical bore) allowing stronger gradients and faster switching so that shorter echo times can be realized. ii) Special measurement sequences using ultrashort rf- and gradient-pulses like single point imaging derivates (SPI, SPRITE)(1) and multi-echo methods, which monitor series of echoes and allow for extrapolation to zero time(2). Hence, the loss of signal during the first echo period may be compensated to determine the initial magnetization (= water content) as well as relaxation time maps simultaneously. iii) Finally low field( < 1T) scanners also provide longer echo times and hence detect larger fractions of water, since the T2 relaxation time of water in most porous media increases with decreasing magnetic field strength(3). In the presentation examples for all three strategies will be given. References 1) Pohlmeier et al. Vadose Zone J. 7, 1010-1017 (2008) 2) Edzes et al., Magn. Res. Imag. 16, 185-196 (1998) 3) Raich H, and Blmler P, Concepts in Magn. Reson. B 23B, 16-25 (2004) 4) Pohlmeier et al. Magn. Res. Imag. doi:10.1016/j.mri.2008.06.007 (2008)

  18. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L Clark; Richards, Todd L; Archbold, Kristen H; Landis, Carol A

    2006-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a powerful noninvasive neuroimaging technique nurse scientists can use to investigate the structure and cognitive capacities of the brain. A strong magnetic field and intermittent high-frequency pulses cause protons in body tissues to release energy, which can be recorded and processed into images that are sensitive to specific tissue characteristics. Although temporal and spatial resolution constraints define an upper limit to the precision of magnetic resonance (MR) scanners, the primary index of neuronal activity, hemodynamic response, can be efficiently estimated. Characteristics of the experimental environment, the hypothesis of interest, and the physiology of the cognitive process under investigation provide guidance for the design and limit available options. The processing of functional data to remove unwanted variability is briefly described as are the techniques used to estimate statistical effects and control for the rate of false positives in the results. A detailed applied example of nursing research is included to demonstrate the practical application of the theory, methods, and techniques being discussed. A glossary of key terms is also provided. PMID:16766628

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Olgunturk, Rana; Cevik, Ayhan; Terlemez, Semiha; Kacar, Emre; Oner, Yusuf Ali

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the efficacy and reliability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in establishing the diagnosis and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension in children. This is a retrospective comparison of 25 children with pulmonary hypertension and a control group comprising 19 healthy children. The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension was made when the mean pulmonary artery pressure was ?25 mmHg by catheter angiography. The children with pulmonary hypertension had significantly lower body mass indices than did the healthy children (P=0.048). In addition, the children with pulmonary hypertension had significantly larger main pulmonary artery diameters and ascending aortic diameters (both P=0.001) but statistically similar ratios of main pulmonary artery diameter-to-ascending aortic diameter. If the main pulmonary artery diameter was ?25 mm, pediatric pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed with 72% sensitivity and 84% specificity. In the event that the ratio of main pulmonary artery diameter-to-ascending aorta diameter was ?1, pediatric pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed with 60% sensitivity and 53% specificity. When compared with children who had New York Heart Association functional class II pulmonary hypertension, the children with functional class III pulmonary hypertension had significantly larger main (P=0.046), right (P=0.036), and left (P=0.003) pulmonary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is useful in the diagnosis of children with pulmonary hypertension. Pediatric pulmonary hypertension can be diagnosed with high sensitivity and specificity when the main pulmonary artery diameter measures ?25 mm. PMID:26175631

  20. Imaging the cochlea by magnetic resonance microscopy.

    PubMed

    Henson, M M; Henson, O W; Gewalt, S L; Wilson, J L; Johnson, G A

    1994-05-01

    The isolated, fixed cochlea of the mustached bat was studied with three dimensional magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy. The cochlea of this animal is about 4 mm in diameter and its entire volume was imaged. With the field of view and matrix size used, the volume elements (voxels) making up the volume data set were isotropic 25 x 25 x 25 micron cubes. Three dimensional (3D) MR microscopy based on isotropic voxels has many advantages over commonly used light microscopy: 1) it is non destructive; 2) it is much less time consuming; 3) no dehydration is required and shrinkage is minimized; 4) the data set can be used to create sections in any desired plane; 5) the proper alignment of sections is inherent in the 3D acquisition so that no reference points are required; 6) the entire data set can be viewed from any point of view in a volume rendered image; 7) the data is digital and features can be enhanced by computer image processing; and 8) the isotropic dimensions of the voxels make the data well-suited for structural reconstructions and measurements. Good images of the osseous spiral lamina, spiral ligament, scala tympani, scala vestibuli, and nerve bundles were obtained. The vestibular (Reissner's) membrane was easily identified in the mustached bat and it appears to bulge into the scala vestibuli. The visibility of this structure suggests that MR microscopy would be well-suited for studies of endolymphatic hydrops. PMID:8071156

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Intercranial Plasmocytic Granuloma

    PubMed Central

    Wilner, Harvey I.; Vinas, Federico C.; Duffy, Colleen; Kupsky, William J.; Guthikonda, Murali

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of intracranial plasmocytic granulomas. Pathological confirmation of three patients with intracranial pathologically confirmed plasmocytic granuloma are presented. Clinical records as well pre- and postgadolinium-enhanced images from each patient are reviewed. The location of the abnormalities is compared with previous reported cases of plasmocytic granulomas, to determine if there is a characteristic finding in this disense. The predominance of this abnormality in the pediatric and young adult patient was striking. On T1-weighted MRI, plasmocytic granulomas appear as hypointense lesions, with isointense appearance on T2 images, and significant, variable patterns of enhancement after the infusion of gadolinium. Typically, the lesion is infiltrating, and causes little mass effect. A dural based lesion, as well as a sellar region abnormality and an infiltrating cortical lesion with little mass effect in the pediatric or young adult age group may lead the observer to suspect the diagnosis of plasmocytic granuloma. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:17171115

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in glenohumeral instability

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Manisha; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

    2011-01-01

    The glenohumeral joint is the most commonly dislocated joint of the body and anterior instability is the most common type of shoulder instability. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and more recently, MR arthrography, have become the essential investigation modalities of glenohumeral instability, especially for pre-procedure evaluation before arthroscopic surgery. Injuries associated with glenohumeral instability are variable, and can involve the bones, the labor-ligamentous components, or the rotator cuff. Anterior instability is associated with injuries of the anterior labrum and the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament, in the form of Bankart lesion and its variants; whereas posterior instability is associated with reverse Bankart and reverse Hill-Sachs lesion. Multidirectional instability often has no labral pathology on imaging but shows specific osseous changes such as increased chondrolabral retroversion. This article reviews the relevant anatomy in brief, the MR imaging technique and the arthrographic technique, and describes the MR findings in each type of instability as well as common imaging pitfalls. PMID:22007285

  3. Functional magnetic resonance imaging using RASER

    PubMed Central

    Goerke, Ute; Garwood, Michael; Ugurbil, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Although functional imaging of neuronal activity by magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become the primary methodology employed in studying the brain, significant portions of the brain are inaccessible by this methodology due to its sensitivity to macroscopic magnetic field inhomogeneities induced near air filled cavities in the head. In this paper, we demonstrate that this sensitivity is eliminated by a novel pulse sequence, RASER (rapid acquisition by sequential excitation and refocusing) (Chamberlain et al., 2007), that can generate functional maps. This is accomplished because RASER acquired signals are purely and perfectly T2 weighted, without any T2*-effects that are inherent in the other image acquisition schemes employed to date. T2-weighted fMRI sequences are also more specific to the site of neuronal activity at ultrahigh magnetic fields than T2*-variations since they are dominated by signal components originating from the tissue in the capillary bed. The RASER based fMRI response is quantified; it is shown to have inherently less noisy time series and to provide fMRI in brain regions, such as the orbitofrontal cortex, which are challenging to image with conventional techniques. PMID:20699123

  4. Elbow magnetic resonance imaging: imaging anatomy and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hauptfleisch, Jennifer; English, Collette; Murphy, Darra

    2015-04-01

    The elbow is a complex joint. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often the imaging modality of choice in the workup of elbow pain, especially in sports injuries and younger patients who often have either a history of a chronic repetitive strain such as the throwing athlete or a distinct traumatic injury. Traumatic injuries and alternative musculoskeletal pathologies can affect the ligaments, musculotendinous, cartilaginous, and osseous structures of the elbow as well as the 3 main nerves to the upper limb, and these structures are best assessed with MRI.Knowledge of the complex anatomy of the elbow joint as well as patterns of injury and disease is important for the radiologist to make an accurate diagnosis in the setting of elbow pain. This chapter will outline elbow anatomy, basic imaging parameters, compartmental pathology, and finally applications of some novel MRI techniques. PMID:25835585

  5. Towards Human Oxygen Images with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Epel, Boris; Redler, Gage; Tormyshev, Victor; Halpern, Howard J

    2016-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) has been used to noninvasively provide 3D images of absolute oxygen concentration (pO2) in small animals. These oxygen images are well resolved both spatially (~1 mm) and in pO2 (1-3 mmHg). EPRI preclinical images of pO2 have demonstrated extremely promising results for various applications investigating oxygen related physiologic and biologic processes as well as the dependence of various disease states on pO2, such as the role of hypoxia in cancer.Recent developments have been made that help to progress EPRI towards the eventual goal of human application. For example, a bimodal crossed-wire surface coil has been developed. Very preliminary tests demonstrated a 20 dB isolation between transmit and receive for this coil, with an anticipated additional 20 dB achievable. This could potentially be used to image local pO2 in human subjects with superficial tumors with EPRI. Local excitation and detection will reduce the specific absorption rate limitations on images and eliminate any possible power deposition concerns. Additionally, a large 9 mT EPRI magnet has been constructed which can fit and provide static main and gradient fields for imaging local anatomy in an entire human. One potential obstacle that must be overcome in order to use EPRI to image humans is the approved use of the requisite EPRI spin probe imaging agent (trityl). While nontoxic, EPRI trityl spin probes have been injected intravenously when imaging small animals, and require relatively high total body injection doses that would not be suitable for human imaging applications. Work has been done demonstrating the alternative use of intratumoral (IT) injections, which can reduce the amount of trityl required for imaging by a factor of 2000- relative to a whole body intravenous injection.The development of a large magnet that can accommodate human subjects, the design of a surface coil for imaging of superficial pO2, and the reduction of required spin probe using IT injections all are crucial steps towards the eventual use of EPRI to image pO2 in human subjects. In the future this can help investigate the oxygenation status of superficial tumors (e.g., breast tumors). The ability to image pO2 in humans has many other potential applications to diseases such as peripheral vascular disease, heart disease, and stroke. PMID:26782233

  6. [Value of magnetic resonance imaging in myeloma].

    PubMed

    Bellache, L; Laredo, J D

    1994-02-19

    Magnetic resonance imagery (MRI) of the spinal cord has become a standard method and its diagnostic and prognostic power in multiple myeloma has been widely demonstrated. Before treatment, MRI reveals two basic types of abnormalities yielding focal and diffuse signals. Focal lesions are seen as localized hyposignals on spin echo T1 sequences (SET1) and are enhanced by injection of gadolinium and changed to hypersignals in T2 weighted sequences. These images identify nodular tumoural masses. Diffuse lesions are seen most often as homogeneous SET1 images with an intensity similar to the vertebral body. This type of image is not specific of tumoural infiltration and can be benign in nature. The second type of diffuse signal is often called a "salt and pepper" image due to the juxtaposition of multiple hyposignals (suspected tumoural tissue) and hypersignals (fat tissue). We have observed this type of image in 27% of our series of multiple myelomas. The capacity of MRI to detect myelomas located in bone tissue is much greater than conventional radiography of the spine and is particularly sensitive to expansive tumoural lesions threatening the cord. MRI should always be performed as part of the initial work-up even in the absence of clinical signs. There is a good correlation between MRI of focal tumours and the biological response to treatment, although other biological markers may be more precise and easier to obtain. MRI can also be used to differentiate between benign monoclonal gammapathy and multiple myeloma, particularly in cases where there is a disagreement between the clinical and laboratory data. We have also studied MRI in solitary plasmacytomas of the spine. PMID:8208689

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Endovascular interventional magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, L. W.; Bakker, C. J. G.

    2003-07-01

    Minimally invasive interventional radiological procedures, such as balloon angioplasty, stent placement or coiling of aneurysms, play an increasingly important role in the treatment of patients suffering from vascular disease. The non-destructive nature of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), its ability to combine the acquisition of high quality anatomical images and functional information, such as blood flow velocities, perfusion and diffusion, together with its inherent three dimensionality and tomographic imaging capacities, have been advocated as advantages of using the MRI technique for guidance of endovascular radiological interventions. Within this light, endovascular interventional MRI has emerged as an interesting and promising new branch of interventional radiology. In this review article, the authors will give an overview of the most important issues related to this field. In this context, we will focus on the prerequisites for endovascular interventional MRI to come to maturity. In particular, the various approaches for device tracking that were proposed will be discussed and categorized. Furthermore, dedicated MRI systems, safety and compatibility issues and promising applications that could become clinical practice in the future will be discussed.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Sampath, Srinath C.; Sampath, Srihari C.; Bredella, Miriam A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The elbow is a complex joint and commonly injured in athletes. Evaluation of the elbow by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important adjunct to the physical examination. To facilitate accurate diagnosis, a concise structured approach to evaluation of the elbow by MRI is presented. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search was performed using the terms elbow and MR imaging. No limits were set on the range of years searched. Articles were reviewed for relevance with an emphasis of the MRI appearance of normal anatomy and common pathology of the elbow. Results: The spectrum of common elbow disorders varies from obvious acute fractures to chronic overuse injuries whose imaging manifestations can be subtle. MRI evaluation should include bones; lateral, medial, anterior, and posterior muscle groups; the ulnar and radial collateral ligaments; as well as nerves, synovium, and bursae. Special attention should be paid to the valgus extension overload syndrome and the MRI appearance of associated injuries when evaluating throwing athletes. Conclusion: MRI evaluation of the elbow should follow a structured approach to facilitate thoroughness, accuracy, and speed. Such an approach should cover bone, cartilage, muscle, tendons, ligaments, synovium, bursae, and nerves. PMID:24381699

  9. Segmentation of neuroanatomy in magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Andrew; Arridge, Simon R.; Barker, G. J.; Tofts, Paul S.

    1992-06-01

    Segmentation in neurological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is necessary for feature extraction, volume measurement and for the three-dimensional display of neuroanatomy. Automated and semi-automated methods offer considerable advantages over manual methods because of their lack of subjectivity, their data reduction capabilities, and the time savings they give. We have used dual echo multi-slice spin-echo data sets which take advantage of the intrinsically multispectral nature of MRI. As a pre-processing step, a rf non-uniformity correction is applied and if the data is noisy the images are smoothed using a non-isotropic blurring method. Edge-based processing is used to identify the skin (the major outer contour) and the eyes. Edge-focusing has been used to significantly simplify edge images and thus allow simple postprocessing to pick out the brain contour in each slice of the data set. Edge- focusing is a technique which locates significant edges using a high degree of smoothing at a coarse level and tracks these edges to a fine level where the edges can be determined with high positional accuracy. Both 2-D and 3-D edge-detection methods have been compared. Once isolated, the brain is further processed to identify CSF, and, depending upon the MR pulse sequence used, the brain itself may be sub-divided into gray matter and white matter using semi-automatic contrast enhancement and clustering methods.

  10. Stereotactic localization using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Walton, L; Hampshire, A; Forster, D M; Kemeny, A A

    1995-01-01

    A phantom study has been carried out to assess the accuracy of stereotactic localisation, using magnetic resonance imaging. The stereotactic coordinates of an array of Perspex rods within the phantom were determined and compared with measured values, in a series of transverse, coronal and sagittal images. In the transverse plane, the maximum errors experienced were X = 2.3 mm and Y = 10.7 mm. If the third fiducial plate, at the front of the frame, were not used in the scaling of the images, there was considerable improvement in the Y direction (maximum error Y = 2.1 mm). However, some deterioration in the accuracy in the X direction resulted, particularly at the extremes of Z (maximum error X = 3.5 mm). In the coronal plane, the maximum errors were X = 1.8 mm and Z = 8.0 mm. With the third plate off, the errors decreased to X = 1.9 mm and Z = 3.3 mm. In the sagittal plane, the maximum errors recorded were Y = 1.1 mm and Z = 7.5 mm. It is not possible to calibrate in this plane without the third plate. PMID:8584823

  11. Myocardial tissue characterization with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishal; Binukrishnan, Sukumaran; Schoepf, U Joseph; Ruzsics, Balazs

    2014-11-01

    The availability of an accurate, noninvasive method using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to distinguish microscopic myocardial tissue changes at a macroscopic scale is well established. High-resolution in vivo monitoring of different pathologic tissue changes in the heart is a useful clinical tool for assessing the nature and extent of cardiac pathology. Cardiac MRI utilizes myocardial signal characteristics based on relaxation parameters such as T1, T2, and T2 star values. Identifying changes in relaxation time enables the detection of distinctive myocardial diseases such as cardiomyopathies and ischemic myocardial injury. The presented state-of-the-art review paper serves the purpose of introducing and summarizing MRI capability of tissue characterization in present clinical practice. PMID:24394716

  12. Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Filippi, M

    2000-10-01

    Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is very sensitive in the detection of active lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS) and has become a valuable tool to monitor the evolution of the disease either natural or modified by treatment. In the past few years, several studies, on the one hand, have assessed several ways to increase the sensitivity of enhanced MRI to disease activity and, on the other, have investigated in vivo the nature and evolution of enhancing lesions using different non-conventional MR techniques to better define the relationship between enhancement and tissue loss in MS. The present review is a summary of these studies whose results are discussed in the context of MS clinical trial planning and monitoring. Multiple Sclerosis (2000) 6 320 - 326 PMID:11064441

  13. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2010-01-01

    The integration of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with cognitive and affective neuroscience paradigms enables examination of the brain systems underlying the behavioral deficits manifested in schizophrenia; there have been a remarkable increase in the number of studies that apply fMRI in neurobiological studies of this disease. This article summarizes features of fMRI methodology and highlights its application in neurobehavioral studies in schizophrenia. Such work has helped elucidate potential neural substrates of deficits in cognition and affect by providing measures of activation to neurobehavioral probes and connectivity among brain regions. Studies have demonstrated abnormalities at early stages of sensory processing that may influence downstream abnormalities in more complex evaluative processing. The methodology can help bridge integration with neuropharmacologic and genomic investigations. PMID:20954429

  14. Evaluation of mandibular tumor invasion with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ator, G A; Abemayor, E; Lufkin, R B; Hanafee, W N; Ward, P H

    1990-04-01

    Evaluating the extent of tumor invasion of the mandible is clinically important in the management of mandibular tumors. Conventional imaging studies including panoramic radiography, bone scans, and computed tomography, as well as clinical evaluation can be unreliable in defining the extent of neoplastic marrow invasion. This study presents the initial UCLA, Los Angeles, Calif, experience with magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating mandibular invasion by benign and malignant neoplasms. Magnetic resonance imaging, using T1 and T2 images, was compared with conventional imaging methods in 11 patients with malignant lesions and nine patients with benign lesions. In all cases, magnetic resonance imaging most accurately determined the full extent of tumor invasion in the mandibular marrow spaces. Magnetic resonance imaging appears to be superior to offer clear benefits over conventional imaging methods, including computed tomography, for the evaluation of tumor invasion of the mandible. PMID:2317328

  15. Small Animal Imaging with Magnetic Resonance Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Driehuys, Bastiaan; Nouls, John; Badea, Alexandra; Bucholz, Elizabeth; Ghaghada, Ketan; Petiet, Alexandra; Hedlund, Laurence W.

    2009-01-01

    Small animal magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved significantly from testing the boundaries of imaging physics to its expanding use today as a tool in non-invasive biomedical investigations. This review is intended to capture the state-of-the-art in MRM for scientists who may be unfamiliar with this modality, but who want to apply its capabilities to their research. We therefore include a brief review of MR concepts and methods of animal handling and support before covering a range of MRM applications including the heart, lung, brain, and the emerging field of MR histology. High-resolution anatomical imaging reveals increasingly exquisite detail in healthy animals and subtle architectural aberrations that occur in genetically altered models. Resolution of 100 m in all dimensions is now routinely attained in living animals, and 10 m3 is feasible in fixed specimens. Such images almost rival conventional histology while allowing the object to be viewed interactively in any plane. MRM is now increasingly used to provide functional information in living animals. Images of the beating heart, breathing lung, and functioning brain can be recorded. While clinical MRI focuses on diagnosis, MRM is used to reveal fundamental biology or to non-invasively measure subtle changes in the structure or function of organs during disease progression or in response to experimental therapies. The ability of MRM to provide a detailed functional and anatomical picture in rats and mice, and to track this picture over time, makes it a promising platform with broad applications in biomedical research. PMID:18172332

  16. Imaging inflammation in stroke using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, F; Cho, T H; Berthezne, Y; Nighoghossian, N; Wiart, M

    2010-11-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death, after myocardial infarction and cancer, and the leading cause of permanent disability in Western countries. Although anti-inflammatory drugs have shown very promising results in preclinical rodent studies, they appeared to be ineffective against stroke in clinical trials. In this context, non-invasive detection of inflammatory cells after brain ischemia could be helpful (i) to select patients who may benefit from anti-inflammatory treatment, and/or (ii) to target an adequate individualized therapeutic time window. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coupled with injection of iron oxide nanoparticles, a contrast agent taken up by macrophages ex vivo and in vivo, appears to be a promising tool for this purpose. This review focuses on the use of this technique to image inflammation in pre-clinical and clinical studies of stroke. Despite current limitations, MRI of inflammation may become an important tool for the investigation of novel ischemic stroke therapeutics targeting inflammation. PMID:20979930

  17. Fractionated Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Nicholas A.; Paiva, Fernando F.; Silva, Afonso C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the use of manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) with fractionated doses as a way to retain the unique properties of manganese as a neuronal contrast agent while lessening its toxic effects in animals. First, we followed the signal enhancement on T1-weighted images of the brains of rats receiving 30 mg/kg fractions of MnCl24H2O every 48 hours and found that the signal increased in regions with consecutive fractionated doses up to about six injections, then saturated. Second, we used T1 mapping to test whether the amount of MRI-visible manganese that accumulated depended on the driving concentration of manganese in the fractions. For a fixed cumulative dose of 180 mg/kg MnCl24H2O, increasing fraction doses of 6 30 mg/kg, 3 60 mg/kg, 2 90 mg/kg and 1 180 mg/kg produced progressively shorter T1 values. The adverse health effects, however, also rose with the fraction dose. Thus, fractionated MEMRI can be used to balance the properties of manganese as a contrast agent in animals against its toxic effects. PMID:17944008

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the skin.

    PubMed

    Stefanowska, J; Zakowiecki, D; Cal, K

    2010-08-01

    A thorough examination of the skin is essential to screen various diseases accurately, evaluate the effectiveness of topically applied drugs and assess the results of dermatological surgeries such as skin grafts. The assessment of skin properties is also crucial in the cosmetics industry, where it is important to evaluate the effects skin care products have on these properties. The simplest and most widely used method of skin evaluation, the 'naked eye' assessment, enables researchers to assess only the skin surface and involves a large amount of inter-observer variability. Thanks to a great progress that has been made in physics, electronics and computer engineering in recent years, sophisticated imaging methods are increasingly available in day-to-day studies. The aim of this review was to present one of these techniques, namely the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to discuss its possible use in skin examination and analysis. We present basic principles of MRI, as well as several interesting applications in the field of dermatology, and discuss the advantages and limitations of this method. PMID:20180890

  19. 76 FR 58281 - Magnetic Resonance Imaging Safety; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Public Workshop.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to discuss factors affecting the safe use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and approaches to mitigate risks. The overall goal is to discuss strategies to minimize patient and staff risk in the MRI...

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in cardiac amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, J.K.; Go, R.T.; Bott-Silverman, C.; Feiglin, D.H.; Salcedo, E.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Primary amyloidosis (AL) involves the myocardium in 90% of cases and may present as apparent ischemia, vascular disease, or congestive heart failure. Two-dimensional echocardiography (echo) has proven useful in the diagnosis, particularly in differentiating AL from constrictive pericarditis. The findings of thickened RV and LV myocardium, normal LV cavity dimension, and a diffuse hyperrefractile ''granular sparkling'' appearance are virtually diagnostic. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may improve the resolution of anatomic changes seen in cardiac AL and has the potential to provide more specific information based on biochemical tissue alterations. In this preliminary study, the authors obtained both MR and echo images in six patients with AL and biopsy-proven myocardial involvement. 5/6 patients also had Tc-99 PYP myocardial studies including emission tomography (SPECT). MR studies utilized a 0.6 Tesla superconductive magnet. End diastolic gated images were obtained with TE=30msec and TR=R-R interval on the ECG. 6/6 pts. showed LV wall thickening which was concentric and included the septum. Papillary muscles were identified in all and were enlarged in 3/6. 4/6 pts. showed RV wall thickening but to a lesser degree than LV. Pericardial effusions were present in 4 cases. These findings correlated well with the results of echo although MR gave better RV free wall resolution. PYP scans were positive in 3 pts. but there was no correlation with degree of LV thickening. The authors conclude that there are no identifiable MR findings in patients with cardiac AL which encourage further attempts to characterize myocardial involvement by measurement of MR relaxation times in vivo.

  1. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Timothy Q.; Ngan, Shing-Chung; Ugurbil, Kamil; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study explored the feasibility of mapping the retinas responses to visual stimuli noninvasively, by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods fMRI was performed on a 9.4-Tesla scanner to map activity-evoked signal changes of the retinachoroid complex associated with visual stimulation in anesthetized cats (n = 6). Three to 12 1-mm slices were acquired in a single shot using inversion-recovery, echo-planar imaging with a nominal in-plane resolution of 468 468 ?m2. Visual stimuli were presented to the full visual field and to the upper and lower visual fields. The stimuli were drifting or stationary gratings, which were compared with the dark condition. Activation maps were computed using cross-correlation analysis and overlaid on anatomic images. Multislice activation maps were reconstructed and flattened onto a two-dimensional surface. Results fMRI activation maps showed robust increased activity in the retinachoroid complex after visual stimulation. The average stimulus-evoked fMRI signal increase associated with drifting-grating stimulus was 1.7% 0.5% (P < 10?4, n = 6) compared with dark. Multislice functional images of the retina flattened onto a two-dimensional surface showed relatively uniform activation. No statistically significant activation was observed in and around the optic nerve head. Hemifield stimulation studies demonstrated that stimuli presented to the upper half of the visual field activated the lower part of the retina, and stimuli presented to the lower half of the visual field activated the upper part of the retina, as expected. Signal changes evoked by the stationary gratings compared with the dark basal condition were positive but were approximately half that evoked by the drifting gratings (1.0% 0.1% versus 2.1% 0.3%, P < 10?4). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fMRI study of the retina, demonstrating its feasibility in imaging retinal function dynamically in a noninvasive manner and at relatively high spatial resolution. PMID:11923263

  2. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging investigation of resonance tuning in soprano singing

    PubMed Central

    Bresch, Erik; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates using real-time magnetic resonance imaging the vocal tract shaping of 5 soprano singers during the production of two-octave scales of sung vowels. A systematic shift of the first vocal tract resonance frequency with respect to the fundamental is shown to exist for high vowels across all subjects. No consistent systematic effect on the vocal tract resonance could be shown across all of the subjects for other vowels or for the second vocal tract resonance. PMID:21110548

  3. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging investigation of resonance tuning in soprano singing.

    PubMed

    Bresch, Erik; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2010-11-01

    This article investigates using real-time magnetic resonance imaging the vocal tract shaping of 5 soprano singers during the production of two-octave scales of sung vowels. A systematic shift of the first vocal tract resonance frequency with respect to the fundamental is shown to exist for high vowels across all subjects. No consistent systematic effect on the vocal tract resonance could be shown across all of the subjects for other vowels or for the second vocal tract resonance. PMID:21110548

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Norman, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of disorders of the central nervous system, spine, neck, and nasopharynx. The book provides guidance in performing and interpreting MRI studies for specific clinical problems. Images showing pathologic findings for various disorders and demonstrating how abnormalities detected in MRI scans can aid both in differential diagnosis and clinical staging are shown. The book summarizes the basic principles of MRI and describes equipment components and contrast agents. Explanations of common artifacts and pitfalls in image interpretation and of pathophysiologic correlates of signal alterations in magnetic resonance imaging are given. A review of the principles and potential applications of magnetic resonance spectroscopy is also included.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of oscillating electrical currents

    PubMed Central

    Halpern-Manners, Nicholas W.; Bajaj, Vikram S.; Teisseyre, Thomas Z.; Pines, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI has become an important tool of researchers and clinicians who seek to understand patterns of neuronal activation that accompany sensory and cognitive processes. However, the interpretation of fMRI images rests on assumptions about the relationship between neuronal firing and hemodynamic response that are not firmly grounded in rigorous theory or experimental evidence. Further, the blood-oxygen-level-dependent effect, which correlates an MRI observable to neuronal firing, evolves over a period that is 2orders of magnitude longer than the underlying processes that are thought to cause it. Here, we instead demonstrate experiments to directly image oscillating currents by MRI. The approach rests on a resonant interaction between an applied rf field and an oscillating magnetic field in the sample and, as such, permits quantitative, frequency-selective measurements of current density without spatial or temporal cancellation. We apply this method in a current loop phantom, mapping its magnetic field and achieving a detection sensitivity near the threshold required for the detection of neuronal currents. Because the contrast mechanism is under spectroscopic control, we are able to demonstrate how ramped and phase-modulated spin-lock radiation can enhance the sensitivity and robustness of the experiment. We further demonstrate the combination of these methods with remote detection, a technique in which the encoding and detection of an MRI experiment are separated by sample flow or translation. We illustrate that remotely detected MRI permits the measurement of currents in small volumes of flowing water with high sensitivity and spatial resolution. PMID:20421504

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of oscillating electrical currents.

    PubMed

    Halpern-Manners, Nicholas W; Bajaj, Vikram S; Teisseyre, Thomas Z; Pines, Alexander

    2010-05-11

    Functional MRI has become an important tool of researchers and clinicians who seek to understand patterns of neuronal activation that accompany sensory and cognitive processes. However, the interpretation of fMRI images rests on assumptions about the relationship between neuronal firing and hemodynamic response that are not firmly grounded in rigorous theory or experimental evidence. Further, the blood-oxygen-level-dependent effect, which correlates an MRI observable to neuronal firing, evolves over a period that is 2 orders of magnitude longer than the underlying processes that are thought to cause it. Here, we instead demonstrate experiments to directly image oscillating currents by MRI. The approach rests on a resonant interaction between an applied rf field and an oscillating magnetic field in the sample and, as such, permits quantitative, frequency-selective measurements of current density without spatial or temporal cancellation. We apply this method in a current loop phantom, mapping its magnetic field and achieving a detection sensitivity near the threshold required for the detection of neuronal currents. Because the contrast mechanism is under spectroscopic control, we are able to demonstrate how ramped and phase-modulated spin-lock radiation can enhance the sensitivity and robustness of the experiment. We further demonstrate the combination of these methods with remote detection, a technique in which the encoding and detection of an MRI experiment are separated by sample flow or translation. We illustrate that remotely detected MRI permits the measurement of currents in small volumes of flowing water with high sensitivity and spatial resolution. PMID:20421504

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging in isolated sagittal synostosis.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael; Hoffmann, Juergen; Mhling, Joachim; Castrilln-Oberndorfer, Gregor; Seeberger, Robin; Freudlsperger, Christian

    2012-07-01

    Isolated fusion of the sagittal suture is the most prevalent form of craniosynostosis. Although the typical clinical appearance usually points the way to the right diagnosis, computed tomographic (CT) scans are still recommended as necessary tools for both the diagnosis of scaphocephaly and the preoperative planning. Because CT scans are accompanied by the biological effects of ionizing radiation, some authors have already postulated the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) especially because MRI seems to be valuable for detecting intracranial anomalies compared with CT scans. Hence, we investigated the preoperative MRIs of 42 children with isolated sagittal synostosis to evaluate the frequency of brain anomalies and their therapeutic consequences.In our study, 10 patients (23.8%) showed pathologic MRI findings such as ventricular dilatation and hypoplastic corpus callosum, whereas 32 patients (76.2%) had an unremarkable MRI except a pathognomonic secondary deformation of the brain caused by the abnormally shaped skull, which was present in all patients. Seven patients showed clinically significant symptoms including papilledema or psychomotoric developmental delay; however, the clinical appearance was not predictive for pathologic MRI findings and vice versa.As the detection of brain anomalies had no influence on the surgical procedure or led to any additive therapy in our patients, we conclude that evaluation of possible pathologic brain findings does not legitimate the general use of MRI in clinically normal children with isolated sagittal synostosis. PMID:22801186

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the kidneys

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, A.W.L.; Bydder, G.M.; Steinter, R.E.; Bryant, D.J.; Young, I.R.

    1984-12-01

    A study of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the kidneys in six normal volunteers and 52 patients is reported. Corticomedullary differentiation was seen with the inversion-recovery (IR 1400/400) sequence in the normal volunteers and in patients with functioning transplanted kidneys and acute tubular necrosis. Partial or total loss of corticomedullary differentiation was seen in glomerulonephritis, acute and chronic renal failure, renal artery stenosis, and transplant rejection. The T1 of the kidneys was increased in glomerulonephritis with neuphrotic syndrome, but the T1 was within the normal range for renal medulla in glomerulonephritis without nephrotic syndrome, renal artery stenosis, and chronic renal failure. A large staghorn calculus was demonstrated with MRI, but small calculi were not seen. Fluid within the hydonephrosis, simple renal cysts, and polycystic kidneys displayed very low signal intensity and long T1 values. Tumors displayed varied appearances. Hypernephromas were shown to be hypo- or hyperintense with the renal medulla on the IR 1400/400 sequence. After intravenous injection of gadolinium-DTPA, there was marked decrease in the tumor T1.

  9. Progesterone-Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Probes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Determination of progesterone receptor (PR) status in hormone-dependent diseases is essential in ascertaining disease prognosis and monitoring treatment response. The development of a noninvasive means of monitoring these processes would have significant impact on early detection, cost, repeated measurements, and personalized treatment options. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely recognized as a technique that can produce longitudinal studies, and PR-targeted MR probes may address a clinical problem by providing contrast enhancement that reports on PR status without biopsy. Commercially available MR contrast agents are typically delivered via intravenous injection, whereas steroids are administered subcutaneously. Whether the route of delivery is important for tissue accumulation of steroid-modified MRI contrast agents to PR-rich tissues is not known. To address this question, modification of the chemistry linking progesterone with the gadolinium chelate led to MR probes with increased water solubility and lower cellular toxicity and enabled administration through the blood. This attribute came at a cost through lower affinity for PR and decreased ability to cross the cell membrane, and ultimately it did not improve delivery of the PR-targeted MR probe to PR-rich tissues or tumors in vivo. Overall, these studies are important, as they demonstrate that targeted contrast agents require optimization of delivery and receptor binding of the steroid and the gadolinium chelate for optimal translation in vivo. PMID:25019183

  10. Single image signal-to-noise ratio estimation for magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Sim, K S; Lai, M A; Tso, C P; Teo, C C

    2011-02-01

    A novel technique to quantify the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of magnetic resonance images is developed. The image SNR is quantified by estimating the amplitude of the signal spectrum using the autocorrelation function of just one single magnetic resonance image. To test the performance of the quantification, SNR measurement data are fitted to theoretically expected curves. It is shown that the technique can be implemented in a highly efficient way for the magnetic resonance imaging system. PMID:20703587

  11. Quantifying Mixing using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tozzi, Emilio J.; McCarthy, Kathryn L.; Bacca, Lori A.; Hartt, William H.; McCarthy, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Mixing is a unit operation that combines two or more components into a homogeneous mixture. This work involves mixing two viscous liquid streams using an in-line static mixer. The mixer is a split-and-recombine design that employs shear and extensional flow to increase the interfacial contact between the components. A prototype split-and-recombine (SAR) mixer was constructed by aligning a series of thin laser-cut Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates held in place in a PVC pipe. Mixing in this device is illustrated in the photograph in Fig. 1. Red dye was added to a portion of the test fluid and used as the minor component being mixed into the major (undyed) component. At the inlet of the mixer, the injected layer of tracer fluid is split into two layers as it flows through the mixing section. On each subsequent mixing section, the number of horizontal layers is duplicated. Ultimately, the single stream of dye is uniformly dispersed throughout the cross section of the device. Using a non-Newtonian test fluid of 0.2% Carbopol and a doped tracer fluid of similar composition, mixing in the unit is visualized using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is a very powerful experimental probe of molecular chemical and physical environment as well as sample structure on the length scales from microns to centimeters. This sensitivity has resulted in broad application of these techniques to characterize physical, chemical and/or biological properties of materials ranging from humans to foods to porous media 1, 2. The equipment and conditions used here are suitable for imaging liquids containing substantial amounts of NMR mobile 1H such as ordinary water and organic liquids including oils. Traditionally MRI has utilized super conducting magnets which are not suitable for industrial environments and not portable within a laboratory (Fig. 2). Recent advances in magnet technology have permitted the construction of large volume industrially compatible magnets suitable for imaging process flows. Here, MRI provides spatially resolved component concentrations at different axial locations during the mixing process. This work documents real-time mixing of highly viscous fluids via distributive mixing with an application to personal care products. PMID:22314707

  12. Quantifying mixing using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Emilio J; McCarthy, Kathryn L; Bacca, Lori A; Hartt, William H; McCarthy, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Mixing is a unit operation that combines two or more components into a homogeneous mixture. This work involves mixing two viscous liquid streams using an in-line static mixer. The mixer is a split-and-recombine design that employs shear and extensional flow to increase the interfacial contact between the components. A prototype split-and-recombine (SAR) mixer was constructed by aligning a series of thin laser-cut Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates held in place in a PVC pipe. Mixing in this device is illustrated in the photograph in Fig. 1. Red dye was added to a portion of the test fluid and used as the minor component being mixed into the major (undyed) component. At the inlet of the mixer, the injected layer of tracer fluid is split into two layers as it flows through the mixing section. On each subsequent mixing section, the number of horizontal layers is duplicated. Ultimately, the single stream of dye is uniformly dispersed throughout the cross section of the device. Using a non-Newtonian test fluid of 0.2% Carbopol and a doped tracer fluid of similar composition, mixing in the unit is visualized using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is a very powerful experimental probe of molecular chemical and physical environment as well as sample structure on the length scales from microns to centimeters. This sensitivity has resulted in broad application of these techniques to characterize physical, chemical and/or biological properties of materials ranging from humans to foods to porous media (1, 2). The equipment and conditions used here are suitable for imaging liquids containing substantial amounts of NMR mobile (1)H such as ordinary water and organic liquids including oils. Traditionally MRI has utilized super conducting magnets which are not suitable for industrial environments and not portable within a laboratory (Fig. 2). Recent advances in magnet technology have permitted the construction of large volume industrially compatible magnets suitable for imaging process flows. Here, MRI provides spatially resolved component concentrations at different axial locations during the mixing process. This work documents real-time mixing of highly viscous fluids via distributive mixing with an application to personal care products. PMID:22314707

  13. Multipolar laminated electromagnet for low-field magnetic resonance imaging and electron paramagnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chiricozzi, E; Masciovecchio, C; Villani, M; Sotgiu, A; Testa, L

    1998-07-01

    A cylindrical 16-pole electromagnet (EM) for electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been designed by means of two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis (FEA). The use of an automatic procedure that combines FEA with a minimization routine allowed the optimization of the design, in order to improve the homogeneity along the axis of the EM. A prototype has been built by using electrical steel sheets that were cut by laser; this solution reduced significantly the manufacturing cost. The EM operates with a maximum flux density, in the bore, of 0.08 T and has a homogeneity along the axis of about 40 parts per million (ppm) in a spherical region 10 cm in diameter. It generates the main field and two of the three field gradients required in the 3-D image reconstruction. Good agreement was found between the results of simulation and the measured values. PMID:9644902

  14. Rectal Cancer Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Imaging Beyond Morphology.

    PubMed

    Prezzi, D; Goh, V

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has in recent years progressively established itself as one of the most valuable modalities for the diagnosis, staging and response assessment of rectal cancer and its use has largely focused on accurate morphological assessment. The potential of MRI, however, extends beyond detailed anatomical depiction: aspects of tissue physiology, such as perfusion, oxygenation and water molecule diffusivity, can be assessed indirectly. Functional MRI is rapidly evolving as a promising non-invasive assessment tool for tumour phenotyping and assessment of response to new therapeutic agents. In spite of promising experimental data, the evidence base for the application of functional MRI techniques in rectal cancer remains modest, reflecting the relatively poor agreement on technical protocols, image processing techniques and quantitative methodology to date, hampering routine integration into clinical management. This overview outlines the established strengths and the critical limitations of anatomical MRI in rectal cancer; it then introduces some of the functional MRI techniques and quantitative analysis methods that are currently available, describing their applicability in rectal cancer and reviewing the relevant literature; finally, it introduces the concept of a multi-parametric quantitative approach to rectal cancer. PMID:26586163

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in entomology: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Hart, A.G.; Bowtell, R.W.; Köckenberger, W.; Wenseleers, T.; Ratnieks, F.L.W.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables in vivo imaging of organisms. The recent development of the magnetic resonance microscope (MRM) has enabled organisms within the size range of many insects to be imaged. Here, we introduce the principles of MRI and MRM and review their use in entomology. We show that MRM has been successfully applied in studies of parasitology, development, metabolism, biomagnetism and morphology, and the advantages and disadvantages relative to other imaging techniques are discussed. In addition, we illustrate the images that can be obtained using MRM. We conclude that although MRM has significant potential, further improvements to the technique are still desirable if it is to become a mainstream imaging technology in entomology. Abbreviation: CSI chemical shift imaging. The dependence of the resonance frequency of a nucleus on the chemical binding of the atom or molecule in which it is contained. (N)MRI (nuclear) magnetic resonance imaging MRM magnetic resonance microscopy Voxel A contraction for volume element, which is the basic unit of MR reconstruction; represented as a pixel in the display of the MR image. PMID:15841222

  16. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded in December 2003 to chemist Paul C. Lauterbur and physicist Peter Mansfield for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a long overdue recognition of the huge impact MRI has had in medical diagnostics and research is mentioned. MRI was derived, and remains an extension of nuclear magnetic resonance

  17. Orthopaedic magnetic resonance imaging challenge: apophyseal avulsions at the pelvis.

    PubMed

    Kjellin, Ingrid; Stadnick, Michael E; Awh, Mark H

    2010-05-01

    Apophyseal avulsion injuries of the hip and pelvis are frequent athletic injuries in children and adolescents, most commonly associated with explosive movement or sprinting. This article details typically encountered apophyseal injuries and their appearance on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:23015945

  18. FY08 Annual Report for Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Caggiano, Joseph A.

    2009-01-06

    FY08 annual report for project the "Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Imaging" project. Reviews accomplishments of last 3 years, including U-235 signature search, comparison of different photon sources, and examination of NRF measurements using monochromatic photon source.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Benign and Malignant Uterine Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Leursen, Gustavo; Gardner, Carly Susan; Sagebiel, Tara; Patnana, Madhavi; de CastroFaria, Silvana; Devine, Catherine E; Bhosale, Priya R

    2015-08-01

    Benign and malignant uterine masses can be seen in the women. Some of these are asymptomatic and incidentally discovered, whereas others can be symptomatic. With the soft tissue contrast resolution magnetic resonance imaging can render a definitive diagnosis, which can further help streamline patient management. In this article we show magnetic resonance imaging examples of benign and malignant masses of the uterus and their treatment strategies. PMID:26296485

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of tibial classic adamantinoma at 2 tesla.

    PubMed

    Torriani, Martin; Dertkigil, Sergio Sanjuan; Etchebehere, Maurcio; Amstalden, Eliane Maria Ingrid

    2002-01-01

    Adamantinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm arising most often in the tibia and is locally aggressive. Conservative surgical treatment frequently is followed by recurrence and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in preoperative planning. Magnetic resonance features of this tumor have not been described in detail. We report three cases of classic tibial adamantinoma examined at 2 Tesla. High-resolution images with findings that may influence management are discussed. PMID:12439328

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Atlas, S.W.; Grossman, R.I.; Packer, R.J.; Goldberg, H.I.; Hackney, D.B.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1987-01-01

    Disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy is a rare syndrome of progressive neurologic deterioration seen most often in patients who have received central nervous system irradiation combined with intrathecal or systemic chemotherapy in the treatment or prophylaxis of various malignancies. Magnetic resonance imaging was more sensitive than computed tomography in detecting white matter abnormalities in the case of disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy reported here. Magnetic resonance imaging may be useful in diagnosing incipient white matter changes in disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy, thus permitting early, appropriate therapeutic modifications.

  2. An electrochemical surface plasmon resonance imaging system targeting cell analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. L.; Chen, X.; Wei, H. T.; Li, H.; Sun, J. H.; Cai, H. Y.; Chen, J. L.; Cui, D. F.

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents an electrochemical-surface plasmon resonance imaging (EC-SPRI) system, enabling the characterization of optical and electrical properties of cells, simultaneously. The developed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging system was capable of imaging micro cavities with a dimension of 10 ?m 10 ?m and differentiated glycerol solutions with a group of refractive indices (RIs). Furthermore, the EC-SPRI system was used to image A549 cells, suggesting corresponding RI and morphology changes during the cell death process. In the end, electrochemical and SPR methods were used in combination, recording oxidation peaks of A549 cells in the cyclic voltage curves and SPR response unit increase, simultaneously.

  3. Cranial and spinal magnetic resonance imaging: A guide and atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, D.L.; Haughton, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    This atlas provides a clinical guide to interpreting cranial and spinal magnetic resonance images. The book includes coverage of the cerebrum, temporal bone, and cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, with more than 400 scan images depicting both normal anatomy and pathologic findings. Introductory chapters review the practical physics of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, offer guidelines for interpreting cranial MR scans, and provide coverage of each anatomic region of the cranium and spine. For each region, scans accompanied by captions, show normal anatomic sections matched with MR images. These are followed by MR scans depicting various disease states.

  4. Magnetic-resonance pore imaging of nonsymmetric microscopic pore shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Stefan Andreas; Wang, Xindi; Hosking, Peter; Simpson, M. Cather; Hunter, Mark; Galvosas, Petrik

    2015-07-01

    Imaging of the microstructure of porous media such as biological tissue or porous solids is of high interest in health science and technology, engineering and material science. Magnetic resonance pore imaging (MRPI) is a recent technique based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) which allows us to acquire images of the average pore shape in a given sample. Here we provide details on the experimental design, challenges, and requirements of MRPI, including its calibration procedures. Utilizing a laser-machined phantom sample, we present images of microscopic pores with a hemiequilateral triangular shape even in the presence of NMR relaxation effects at the pore walls. We therefore show that MRPI is applicable to porous samples without a priori knowledge about their pore shape and symmetry. Furthermore, we introduce "MRPI mapping," which combines MRPI with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This enables one to resolve microscopic pore sizes and shapes spatially, thus expanding the application of MRPI to samples with heterogeneous distributions of pores.

  5. Imaging of the hip joint. Computed tomography versus magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, P.; Genant, H. K.; Jergesen, H. E.; Murray, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    The authors reviewed the applications and limitations of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the assessment of the most common hip disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive technique in detecting osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Magnetic resonance reflects the histologic changes associated with osteonecrosis very well, which may ultimately help to improve staging. Computed tomography can more accurately identify subchondral fractures than MR imaging and thus remains important for staging. In congenital dysplasia of the hip, the position of the nonossified femoral head in children less than six months of age can only be inferred by indirect signs on CT. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates the cartilaginous femoral head directly without ionizing radiation. Computed tomography remains the imaging modality of choice for evaluating fractures of the hip joint. In some patients, MR imaging demonstrates the fracture even when it is not apparent on radiography. In neoplasm, CT provides better assessment of calcification, ossification, and periosteal reaction than MR imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging, however, represents the most accurate imaging modality for evaluating intramedullary and soft-tissue extent of the tumor and identifying involvement of neurovascular bundles. Magnetic resonance imaging can also be used to monitor response to chemotherapy. In osteoarthrosis and rheumatoid arthritis of the hip, both CT and MR provide more detailed assessment of the severity of disease than conventional radiography because of their tomographic nature. Magnetic resonance imaging is unique in evaluating cartilage degeneration and loss, and in demonstrating soft-tissue alterations such as inflammatory synovial proliferation.

  6. 170 nm nuclear magnetic resonance imaging using magnetic resonance force microscopy.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Thurber KR; Harrell LE; Smith DD

    2003-06-01

    We demonstrate one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the semiconductor GaAs with 170 nm slice separation and resolve two regions of reduced nuclear spin polarization density separated by only 500 nm. This was achieved by force detection of the magnetic resonance, magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM), in combination with optical pumping to increase the nuclear spin polarization. Optical pumping of the GaAs created spin polarization up to 12 times larger than the thermal nuclear spin polarization at 5K and 4T. The experiment was sensitive to sample volumes of 50 microm(3) containing approximately 4 x 10(11)71 Ga/Hz. These results demonstrate the ability of force-detected magnetic resonance to apply magnetic resonance imaging to semiconductor devices and other nanostructures.

  7. 170 nm nuclear magnetic resonance imaging using magnetic resonance force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Kent R; Harrell, Lee E; Smith, Doran D

    2003-06-01

    We demonstrate one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the semiconductor GaAs with 170 nm slice separation and resolve two regions of reduced nuclear spin polarization density separated by only 500 nm. This was achieved by force detection of the magnetic resonance, magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM), in combination with optical pumping to increase the nuclear spin polarization. Optical pumping of the GaAs created spin polarization up to 12 times larger than the thermal nuclear spin polarization at 5K and 4T. The experiment was sensitive to sample volumes of 50 microm(3) containing approximately 4 x 10(11)71 Ga/Hz. These results demonstrate the ability of force-detected magnetic resonance to apply magnetic resonance imaging to semiconductor devices and other nanostructures. PMID:12810017

  8. Slotted cage resonator for high-field magnetic resonance imaging of rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrufo, O.; Vasquez, F.; Solis, S. E.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2011-04-01

    A variation of the high-frequency cavity resonator coil was experimentally developed according to the theoretical frame proposed by Mansfield in 1990. Circular slots were used instead of cavities to form the coil endplates and it was called the slotted cage resonator coil. The theoretical principles were validated via a coil equivalent circuit and also experimentally with a coil prototype. The radio frequency magnetic field, B1, produced by several coil configurations was numerically simulated using the finite-element approach to investigate their performances. A transceiver coil, 8 cm long and 7.6 cm in diameter, and composed of 4 circular slots with a 15 mm diameter on both endplates, was built to operate at 300 MHz and quadrature driven. Experimental results obtained with the slotted cage resonator coil were presented and showed very good agreement with the theoretical expectations for the resonant frequency as a function of the coil dimensions and slots. A standard birdcage coil was also built for performance comparison purposes. Phantom images were then acquired to compute the signal-to-noise ratio of both coils showing an important improvement of the slotted cage coil over the birdcage coil. The whole-body images of the mouse were also obtained showing high-quality images. Volume resonator coils can be reliably built following the physical principles of the cavity resonator design for high-field magnetic resonance imaging applications of rodents.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bowel: today and tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Kinner, S; Hahnemann, M L; Forsting, M; Lauenstein, T C

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel has been feasible for more than 15 years. This review is meant to give an overview of typical techniques, sequences and indications. Furthermore, newly evaluated promising techniques are presented, which have an impact on the advance of MR imaging of the small and large bowel. PMID:25703124

  10. Fabrication of vascular replicas from magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M H; Kuban, B D; Schmalbrock, P; Smith, K; Altan, T

    1995-08-01

    Image processing and Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining techniques have been used to prepare a large-than-life investment cast of an aortic bifurcation from magnetic resonance images of a replica of the vessel. The technique will facilitate experimental studies of vascular fluid dynamics and permit the in vitro reproduction of flows in living subjects. PMID:8618391

  11. Voriconazole-related periostitis presenting on magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Derik L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Painful periostitis is a complication of long-term antifungal therapy with voriconazole. A high clinical suspicion coupled with imaging and laboratory assessment is useful to establish the diagnosis. Prompt discontinuance of voriconazole typically results in the resolution of symptoms and signs. This report describes the presentation of voriconazole-related periostitis on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26136804

  12. Magnetic Resonance Perfusion Imaging in the Study of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a brief review of various uses of magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in the investigation of brain/language relationships. The reviewed studies illustrate how perfusion imaging can reveal areas of brain where dysfunction due to low blood flow is associated with specific language deficits, and where restoration of blood flow

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for extravehicular activity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, R.; Lorenz, C.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a means of conducting kinematic studies of the hand for the purpose of EVA capability enhancement. After imaging the subject hand using a magnetic resonance scanner, the resulting 2D slices were reconstructed into a 3D model of the proximal phalanx of the left hand. Using the coordinates of several landmark positions, one is then able to decompose the motion of the rigid body. MRI offers highly accurate measurements due to its tomographic nature without the problems associated with other imaging modalities for in vivo studies.

  14. Artifacts and pitfalls in shoulder magnetic resonance imaging*

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Gustavo Felix; Macedo, Tulio Augusto Alves

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has revolutionized the diagnosis of shoulder lesions, in many cases becoming the method of choice. However, anatomical variations, artifacts and the particularity of the method may be a source of pitfalls, especially for less experienced radiologists. In order to avoid false-positive and false-negative results, the authors carried out a compilation of imaging findings that may simulate injury. It is the authors intention to provide a useful, consistent and comprehensive reference for both beginner residents and skilled radiologists who work with musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging, allowing for them to develop more precise reports and helping them to avoid making mistakes. PMID:26379323

  15. Three-dimensional Imaging using Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I. H.; Fong, K. C.; Obukhov, Yu.; Pelekhov, D. V.; Hammel, P. C.

    2006-03-01

    We describe techniques for obtaining 3D spin density images using Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy. The apparatus, specifically designed to test imaging techniques, operates in vacuum at room temperature. We record the spatial dependence of the force generated by the Electron Spin Resonance signal from a DPPH particle mounted on the cantilever as it is scanned over a spherical NdFeB particle used as a high gradient probe magnet. Details of apparatus design, experimental data, challenges and approaches to 3D MRFM image deconvolution will be presented.

  16. Double outlet left ventricle: diagnosis with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Rebergen, S A; Guit, G L; de Roos, A

    1991-01-01

    A complex congenital cardiac malformation in a female patient was evaluated several times by angiocardiography and echocardiography in childhood but a definite diagnosis was not established. Segmental analysis of the heart and the great vessels by magnetic resonance imaging when the patient was 34, however, showed a double outlet left ventricle in which the aorta was situated anterior to and to the left of the pulmonary trunk and an associated subaortic ventricular septal defect with pulmonary valve stenosis. This is the first time that this extremely rare cardiac malformation has been diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. Images PMID:1747301

  17. Imaging Intelligence with Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Rex E.; Gasparovic, Charles; Chavez, Robert S.; Caprihan, Arvind; Barrow, Ranee; Yeo, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([to the first power]H-MRS) is a technique for the assay of brain neurochemistry "in vivo." N-acetylaspartate (NAA), the most prominent metabolite visible within the [to the first power]H-MRS spectrum, is found primarily within neurons. The current study was designed to further elucidate NAA-cognition

  18. Reconstruction of pulse noisy images via stochastic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; Liu, Hongjun; Sun, Qibing; Huang, Nan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a practical technology for reconstructing nanosecond pulse noisy images via stochastic resonance, which is based on the modulation instability. A theoretical model of this method for optical pulse signal is built to effectively recover the pulse image. The nanosecond noise-hidden images grow at the expense of noise during the stochastic resonance process in a photorefractive medium. The properties of output images are mainly determined by the input signal-to-noise intensity ratio, the applied voltage across the medium, and the correlation length of noise background. A high cross-correlation gain is obtained by optimizing these parameters. This provides a potential method for detecting low-level or hidden pulse images in various imaging applications. PMID:26067911

  19. Multi-contrast magnetic resonance image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meng; Chen, Yunmei; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Feng

    2015-03-01

    In clinical exams, multi-contrast images from conventional MRI are scanned with the same field of view (FOV) for complementary diagnostic information, such as proton density- (PD-), T1- and T2-weighted images. Their sharable information can be utilized for more robust and accurate image reconstruction. In this work, we propose a novel model and an efficient algorithm for joint image reconstruction and coil sensitivity estimation in multi-contrast partially parallel imaging (PPI) in MRI. Our algorithm restores the multi-contrast images by minimizing an energy function consisting of an L2-norm fidelity term to reduce construction errors caused by motion, a regularization term of underlying images to preserve common anatomical features by using vectorial total variation (VTV) regularizer, and updating sensitivity maps by Tikhonov smoothness based on their physical property. We present the numerical results including T1- and T2-weighted MR images recovered from partially scanned k-space data and provide the comparisons between our results and those obtained from the related existing works. Our numerical results indicate that the proposed method using vectorial TV and penalties on sensitivities can be made promising and widely used for multi-contrast multi-channel MR image reconstruction.

  20. Mapping motion from 4D-MRI to 3D-CT for use in 4D dose calculations: A technical feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Boye, Dirk; Lomax, Tony; Knopf, Antje

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Target sites affected by organ motion require a time resolved (4D) dose calculation. Typical 4D dose calculations use 4D-CT as a basis. Unfortunately, 4D-CT images have the disadvantage of being a 'snap-shot' of the motion during acquisition and of assuming regularity of breathing. In addition, 4D-CT acquisitions involve a substantial additional dose burden to the patient making many, repeated 4D-CT acquisitions undesirable. Here the authors test the feasibility of an alternative approach to generate patient specific 4D-CT data sets. Methods: In this approach motion information is extracted from 4D-MRI. Simulated 4D-CT data sets [which the authors call 4D-CT(MRI)] are created by warping extracted deformation fields to a static 3D-CT data set. The employment of 4D-MRI sequences for this has the advantage that no assumptions on breathing regularity are made, irregularities in breathing can be studied and, if necessary, many repeat imaging studies (and consequently simulated 4D-CT data sets) can be performed on patients and/or volunteers. The accuracy of 4D-CT(MRI)s has been validated by 4D proton dose calculations. Our 4D dose algorithm takes into account displacements as well as deformations on the originating 4D-CT/4D-CT(MRI) by calculating the dose of each pencil beam based on an individual time stamp of when that pencil beam is applied. According to corresponding displacement and density-variation-maps the position and the water equivalent range of the dose grid points is adjusted at each time instance. Results: 4D dose distributions, using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets as input were compared to results based on a reference conventional 4D-CT data set capturing similar motion characteristics. Almost identical 4D dose distributions could be achieved, even though scanned proton beams are very sensitive to small differences in the patient geometry. In addition, 4D dose calculations have been performed on the same patient, but using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets based on variable breathing patterns to show the effect of possible irregular breathing on active scanned proton therapy. Using a 4D-CT(MRI), including motion irregularities, resulted in significantly different proton dose distributions. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated that motion information from 4D-MRI can be used to generate realistic 4D-CT data sets on the basis of a single static 3D-CT data set. 4D-CT(MRI) presents a novel approach to test the robustness of treatment plans in the circumstance of patient motion.

  1. [Magnetic resonance imaging in neuro-ophthalmological diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Batra, Marion

    2011-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has become the most important tomographic imaging technique in neuro-ophthalmological diagnostics. A short introduction to the basic physical principles of MRI followed by a glossary summarising the relevant sequences used in neuro-ophthalmologic diagnostics provides an insight into this complex method. Differences and specific diagnostic values of every sequence are demonstrated with the help of sample images. PMID:22072488

  2. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers of cerebral metastases

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, G.; Jackson, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There are a number of magnetic resonance imaging techniques available for use in the diagnosis and management of patients with cerebral metastases. This article reviews these techniques, in particular, the advanced imaging methodologies from which quantitative parameters can be derived, the role of these imaging biomarkers have in distinguishing metastases from primary central nervous system tumours and tumour mimics, and metrics that may be of value in predicting the origin of the primary tumour. PMID:22935843

  3. Method for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Kehayias, J.J.; Joel, D.D.; Adams, W.H.; Stein, H.L.

    1988-05-26

    A method for in vivo NMR imaging of the blood vessels and organs of a patient characterized by using a dark dye-like imaging substance consisting essentially of a stable, high-purity concentration of D/sub 2/O in a solution with water.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging simulator: a teaching tool for radiology.

    PubMed

    Rundle, D; Kishore, S; Seshadri, S; Wehrli, F

    1990-11-01

    The increasing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a clinical modality has put an enormous burden on medical institutions to cost effectively teach MRI scanning techniques to technologists and physicians. Since MRI scanner time is a scarce resource, it would be ideal if the teaching could be effectively performed off-line. In order to meet this goal, the radiology Department at the University of Pennsylvania has designed and developed a Magnetic Resonance Imaging Simulator. The simulator in its current implementation mimics the General Electric Signa (General Electric Magnetic Resonance Imaging System, Milwaukee, WI) scanner's user interface for image acquisition. The design is general enough to be applied to other MRI scanners. One unique feature of the simulator is its incorporation of an image-synthesis module that permits the user to derive images for any arbitrary combination of pulsing parameters for spin-echo, gradient-echo, and inversion recovery pulse sequences. These images are computed in 5 seconds. The development platform chosen is a standard Apple Macintosh II (Apple Computer, Inc, Cupertino, CA) computer with no specialized hardware peripherals. The user interface is implemented in HyperCard (Apple Computer Inc, Cupertino, CA). All other software development including synthesis and display functions are implemented under the Macintosh Programmer's Workshop 'C' environment. The scan parameters, demographics, and images are tracked using an Oracle (Oracle Corp, Redwood Shores, CA) data base. Images are currently stored on magnetic disk but could be stored on optical media with minimal effort. PMID:2085559

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging protocols for paediatric neuroradiology

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Clare; Gunny, Roxanne; Jones, Rod; Cox, Tim; Chong, Wui Khean

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, radiologists are encouraged to have protocols for all imaging studies and to include imaging guidelines in care pathways set up by the referring clinicians. This is particularly advantageous in MRI where magnet time is limited and a radiologists review of each patients images often results in additional sequences and longer scanning times without the advantage of improvement in diagnostic ability. The difficulties of imaging small children and the challenges presented to the radiologist as the brain develops are discussed. We present our protocols for imaging the brain and spine of children based on 20years experience of paediatric neurological MRI. The protocols are adapted to suit children under the age of 2years, small body parts and paediatric clinical scenarios. PMID:17487479

  6. Functional imaging of the central nervous system using magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Neil, J J

    1993-12-01

    There have been striking advances recently in magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the central nervous system, particularly in the area of "functional" imaging. We discuss these advances with emphasis on the similarities and differences between the PET and magnetic resonance imaging methods. In addition, we examine recent progress and controversies in the use of volume-localized nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Finally, we review the use of three-dimensional acquisition for PET studies, with an evaluation of the relative advantages and disadvantages of this modification of the PET technique. PMID:8293168

  7. Breast magnetic resonance imaging: current clinical indications.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Eren D

    2011-03-01

    Breast magnetic resonance (MR) is highly sensitive in the detection of invasive breast malignancies. As technology improves, as interpretations and reporting by radiologists become standardized through the development of guidelines by expert consortiums, and as scientific investigation continues, the indications and uses of breast MR as an adjunct to mammography continue to evolve. This article discusses the current clinical indications for breast MR including screening for breast cancer, diagnostic indications for breast MR, and MR guidance for interventional procedures. PMID:21419332

  8. Resonant acoustic nonlinearity for defect-selective imaging and NDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodov, Igor

    2015-10-01

    The bottleneck problem of nonlinear NDT is a low efficiency of conversion from fundamental frequency to nonlinear frequency components. In this paper, it is proposed to use a combination of mechanical resonance and nonlinearity of defects to enhance the input-output conversion. The concept of the defect as a nonlinear oscillator brings about new dynamic and frequency scenarios characteristic of parametric oscillations. The modes observed in experiment include sub- and superharmonic resonances with anomalously efficient generation of the higher harmonics and subharmonics. A modified version of the superharmonic resonance (combination frequency resonance) is used to enhance the efficiency of frequency mixing mode of nonlinear NDT. All the resonant nonlinear modes are strongly localized in the defect area that provides a background for high-contrast highly-sensitive defect- and frequency-selective imaging.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, A.V.; Okada, R.D.; Brady, T.J.

    1983-10-01

    Diagnostic imaging of the heart has, with the exception of echocardiography, employed techniques utilizing ionizing radiation. NMR imaging, a new technique, not only can generate images with spatial resolution closely approaching that of x-ray computed tomography without ionizing radiation, but can potentially detect the presence of intrinsic tissue damage. Although the exact role that NMR techniques will play in the assessment of cardiac disease is not currently defined, there are many instances where NMR may provide both unique and complementary information when compared with existing modalities.

  10. Magnetic resonance image denoising using multiple filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Danni; Wang, Jinjuan; Miwa, Yuichi

    2013-07-01

    We introduced and compared ten denoisingfilters which are all proposed during last fifteen years. Especially, the state-of-art denoisingalgorithms, NLM and BM3D, have attracted much attention. Several expansions are proposed to improve the noise reduction based on these two algorithms. On the other hand, optimal dictionaries, sparse representations and appropriate shapes of the transform's support are also considered for the image denoising. The comparison among variousfiltersis implemented by measuring the SNR of a phantom image and denoising effectiveness of a clinical image. The computational time is finally evaluated.

  11. Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance ImagingAn Update

    PubMed Central

    Scherzinger, Ann L.; Hendee, William R.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technology has undergone many technologic advances over the past few years. Many of these advances were stimulated by the wealth of information emerging from nuclear magnetic resonance research in the areas of new and optimal scanning methods and radio-frequency coil design. Other changes arose from the desire to improve image quality, ease siting restrictions and generally facilitate the clinical use of MR equipment. Many questions, however, remain unanswered. Perhaps the most controversial technologic question involves the optimal field strength required for imaging or spectroscopic applications or both. Other issues include safety and clinical efficacy. Technologic issues affect all aspects of MR use including the choice of equipment, examination procedure and image interpretation. Thus, an understanding of recent changes and their theoretic basis is necessary. ImagesFigure 9. PMID:3911591

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging at microscopic resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. Allan; Thompson, Morrow B.; Gewalt, Sally L.; Hayes, Cecil E.

    Resolution limits in NMR imaging are imposed by bandwidth considerations, available magnetic gradients for spatial encoding, and signal to noise. This work reports modification of a clinical NMR imaging device with picture elements of 500 × 500 × 5000 μm to yield picture elements of 50 × 50 × 1000 μm. Resolution has been increased by using smaller gradient coils permitting gradient fields >0.4 mT/cm. Significant improvements in signal to noise are achieved with smaller rf coils, close attention to choice of bandwidth, and signal averaging. These improvements permit visualization of anatomical structures in the rat brain with an effective diameter of 1 cm with the same definition as is seen in human imaging. The techniques and instrumentation should open a number of basic sciences such as embryology, plant sciences, and teratology to the potentials of NMR imaging.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of transplanted stem cell fate in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aghayan, Hamid Reza; Soleimani, Masoud; Goodarzi, Parisa; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hasan; Larijani, Bagher; Arjmand, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, scientific findings in the field of regeneration of nervous system have revealed the possibility of stem cell based therapies for damaged brain tissue related disorders like stroke. Furthermore, to achieve desirable outcomes from cellular therapies, one needs to monitor the migration, engraftment, viability, and also functional fate of transplanted stem cells. Magnetic resonance imaging is an extremely versatile technique for this purpose, which has been broadly used to study stroke and assessment of therapeutic role of stem cells. In this review we searched in PubMed search engine by using following keywords; Stem Cells, Cell Tracking, Stroke, Stem Cell Transplantation, Nanoparticles, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging as entry terms and based on the mentioned key words, the search period was set from 1976 to 2012. The main purpose of this article is describing various advantages of molecular and magnetic resonance imaging of stem cells, with focus on translation of stem cell research to clinical research. PMID:25097631

  14. Correlating Hemodynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging with high-field Intracranial Vessel Wall Imaging in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Weston; Donahue, Manus J.; van der Kolk, Anja G.; Rane, Swati; Strother, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field (7 Tesla) can be used to visualize vascular lesions noninvasively and holds potential for improving stroke-risk assessment in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. We present the first multi-modal comparison of such high-field vessel wall imaging with more conventional (i) 3 Tesla hemodynamic magnetic resonance imaging and (ii) digital subtraction angiography in a 69-year-old male with a left temporal ischemic infarct. PMID:25426229

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Epidemic Adenoviral Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Jonathan C.; Miller, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Most clinicians would agree that there is no reason to obtain a magnetic resonance (MR) scan to evaluate a patient with viral conjunctivitis. We scheduled a patient for an annual MR scan to monitor his optic nerve meningiomas. By coincidence, he had florid viral conjunctivitis the day the scan was performed. It showed severe eyelid edema, contrast enhancement of the anterior orbit, enlargement of the lacrimal gland, and obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct. Adenovirus produces deep orbital inflammation, in addition to infection of the conjunctival surface. PMID:26022084

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Norman, D.

    1987-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of disorders of the central nervous system, spine, neck, and nasopharynx. The book offers guidance in performing and interpreting MRI studies for specific clinical problems. Included are more than 800 images showing pathologic findings for various disorders and demonstrating how abnormalities detected in MRI scans can aid both in differential diagnosis and in clinical staging. The book summarizes the basic principles of MRI and describes the major equipment components and contrast agents. A review of the principles and potential applications of magnetic resonance spectroscopy is also included.

  17. Field Map Reconstruction in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Bayesian Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Shabou, Aymen

    2010-01-01

    Field inhomogeneities in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can cause blur or image distortion as they produce off-resonance frequency at each voxel. These effects can be corrected if an accurate field map is available. Field maps can be estimated starting from the phase of multiple complex MRI data sets. In this paper we present a technique based on statistical estimation in order to reconstruct a field map exploiting two or more scans. The proposed approach implements a Bayesian estimator in conjunction with the Graph Cuts optimization method. The effectiveness of the method has been proven on simulated and real data. PMID:22315539

  18. Malformations of cortical development: 3T magnetic resonance imaging features

    PubMed Central

    Battal, Bilal; Ince, Selami; Akgun, Veysel; Kocaoglu, Murat; Ozcan, Emrah; Tasar, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Malformation of cortical development (MCD) is a term representing an inhomogeneous group of central nervous system abnormalities, referring particularly to embriyological aspect as a consequence of any of the three developmental stages, i.e., cell proliferation, cell migration and cortical organization. These include cotical dysgenesis, microcephaly, polymicrogyria, schizencephaly, lissencephaly, hemimegalencephaly, heterotopia and focal cortical dysplasia. Since magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice that best identifies the structural anomalies of the brain cortex, we aimed to provide a mini review of MCD by using 3T magnetic resonance scanner images. PMID:26516429

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in AxenfeldRieger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Matthew T; Choudhri, Asim F; Salim, Sarwat

    2013-01-01

    AxenfeldRieger syndrome (ARS) is a genetic disorder representing a disease spectrum resulting from neural crest cell maldevelopment. Glaucoma is a common complication from the incomplete formation of the iridocorneal angle structures. Neural crest cells also form structures of the forebrain and pituitary gland, dental papillae, aortic arch walls, genitalia, and long bones; therefore, patients with ARS manifest a wide range of systemic findings. To our knowledge, detailed magnetic resonance imaging findings have not been previously reported. We report a case of a 19-month-old Indian male diagnosed with ARS with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging findings of the globes, brain, teeth, and skull base. PMID:23723681

  20. Accelerated nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging through phase multiplexing

    SciTech Connect

    Moores, B. A.; Eichler, A. Takahashi, H.; Navaretti, P.; Degen, C. L.; Tao, Y.

    2015-05-25

    We report a method for accelerated nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance imaging by detecting several signals in parallel. Our technique relies on phase multiplexing, where the signals from different nuclear spin ensembles are encoded in the phase of an ultrasensitive magnetic detector. We demonstrate this technique by simultaneously acquiring statistically polarized spin signals from two different nuclear species ({sup 1}H, {sup 19}F) and from up to six spatial locations in a nanowire test sample using a magnetic resonance force microscope. We obtain one-dimensional imaging resolution better than 5 nm, and subnanometer positional accuracy.

  1. Compact, high performance surface plasmon resonance imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Chinowsky, Timothy M; Grow, Michael S; Johnston, Kyle S; Nelson, Kjell; Edwards, Thayne; Fu, Elain; Yager, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We report the construction and characterization of a new compact surface plasmon resonance imaging instrument. Surface plasmon resonance imaging is a versatile technique for detection, quantification, and visualization of bio-molecular binding events which have spatial structure. The imager uses a folded light path, wide-field optics and a tilted detector to implement a high performance optical system in a volume 7″×4″×2″. A bright diode light source and an image detector with fast frame rate and integrated digital signal processor enable real-time averaging of multiple images for improved signal-to-noise ratio. Operating angle of the imager is adjusted by linear translation of the light source. Imager performance is illustrated using resolution test targets, refractive index test solutions, and competition assays for the anti-epileptic drug phenytoin. Microfluidic flowcells are used to enable simultaneous assay of three sample streams. Noise level of refractive index measurements was found to decrease proportional to the square root of the number of pixels averaged, reaching approximately 5 × 10−7 refractive index units root-mean-square for 160×120 pixel image regions imaged for one second. The simple, compact construction and high performance of the imager will allow the device to be readily applied to a wide range of applications. PMID:17150350

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Cardiac Interventions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ehud J

    2015-11-01

    Performing intraoperative cardiovascular procedures inside an MR imaging scanner can potentially provide substantial advantage in clinical outcomes by reducing the risk and increasing the success rate relative to the way such procedures are performed today, in which the primary surgical guidance is provided by X-ray fluoroscopy, by electromagnetically tracked intraoperative devices, and by ultrasound. Both noninvasive and invasive cardiologists are becoming increasingly familiar with the capabilities of MR imaging for providing anatomic and physiologic information that is unequaled by other modalities. As a result, researchers began performing animal (preclinical) interventions in the cardiovascular system in the early 1990s. PMID:26499275

  3. [Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain].

    PubMed

    Koob, Mriam; Dietemann, Jean-Louis

    2007-03-01

    MRI uses the magnetic properties of the hydrogen atoms present in the human body. It presents no risks as long as the contraindications (pacemaker, metal fragment in the eye, pregnancy less than 3 months) are complied with. MRI is the reference imaging method for exploration of the brain. The contrast of these images depends on the type of sequence used. More specific sequences (diffusio-weighted, gradient echo) and gadolinium injection can be added to the basic sequences (T1, T2, Flair). PMID:17336858

  4. High resolution resonance ionization imaging detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Winefordner, James D. (Gainesville, FL); Matveev, Oleg I. (Gainesville, FL); Smith, Benjamin W. (Gainesville, FL)

    1999-01-01

    A resonance ionization imaging device (RIID) and method for imaging objects using the RIID are provided, the RIID system including a RIID cell containing an ionizable vapor including monoisotopic atoms or molecules, the cell being positioned to intercept scattered radiation of a resonance wavelength .lambda..sub.1 from the object which is to be detected or imaged, a laser source disposed to illuminate the RIID cell with laser radiation having a wavelength .lambda..sub.2 or wavelengths .lambda..sub.2, .lambda..sub.3 selected to ionize atoms in the cell that are in an excited state by virtue of having absorbed the scattered resonance laser radiation, and a luminescent screen at the back surface of the RIID cell which presents an image of the number and position of charged particles present in the RIID cell as a result of the ionization of the excited state atoms. The method of the invention further includes the step of initially illuminating the object to be detected or imaged with a laser having a wavelength selected such that the object will scatter laser radiation having the resonance wavelength .lambda..sub.1.

  5. Silicone-induced Penile Sclerosing Lipogranuloma: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Tsili, Athina C; Xiropotamou, Olga N; Nomikos, Michael; Argyropoulou, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing lipogranuloma is a rare benign disease, representing a peculiar granulomatous reaction of fatty tissue. The majority of cases are secondary to injection of exogenous foreign bodies, such as silicone, paraffin, mineral, or vegetable oils. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case of a silicone-induced penile lipogranuloma in a 52-year-old man evaluated with a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, including diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. MRI of the penis by combining both conventional and functional information represents an important imaging tool in the preoperative workup of silicone-induced penile lipogranuloma. PMID:26958433

  6. Silicone-induced Penile Sclerosing Lipogranuloma: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Tsili, Athina C; Xiropotamou, Olga N; Nomikos, Michael; Argyropoulou, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing lipogranuloma is a rare benign disease, representing a peculiar granulomatous reaction of fatty tissue. The majority of cases are secondary to injection of exogenous foreign bodies, such as silicone, paraffin, mineral, or vegetable oils. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case of a silicone-induced penile lipogranuloma in a 52-year-old man evaluated with a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, including diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. MRI of the penis by combining both conventional and functional information represents an important imaging tool in the preoperative workup of silicone-induced penile lipogranuloma. PMID:26958433

  7. Portal biliopathy, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography findings: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Baskan, Ozdil; Erol, Cengiz; Sahingoz, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Portal biliopathy (PB) is a rare disorder, characterized by biliary ductal and gallbladder wall abnormalities seen in patients with portal hypertension. It most commonly occurs due to idiopathic extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO). The abnormalities consist mainly of bile duct compression, stenoses, fibrotic strictures and dilation of both extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts, as well as gallbladder varices. PB may mimic cholangiocarcinoma, sclerosing cholangitis, or choledocholithiasis. Misdiagnosis can be avoided using appropriate imaging modalities to prevent complications. We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRCP) features of three patients with PB. PMID:25216728

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of unusual intracranial infections.

    PubMed

    Falcone, S; Quencer, R M; Post, M J

    1994-01-01

    We review the etiologic agents, epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathology, clinical manifestations, and imaging features of several unusual intracranial infections that have not been discussed elsewhere in this issue. The central nervous system (CNS) infections discussed are Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CrJaD), neurosyphilis, primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), cerebral amebiasis, and cerebral hydatid disease. PMID:8311957

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problems of the brain, spinal cord, skeleton, chest, lungs, abdomen, pelvis, wrists, hands, ankles, and feet. In some cases, it can provide clear images of body parts that can't be seen as well with an X-ray, CAT scan, or ultrasound. MRI is particularly valuable for diagnosing problems with ...

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cirrhotic liver: An update

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Agnes; Ramalho, Miguel; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Kim, Hye Jin; Velloni, Fernanda G; Semelka, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging has become the standard for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis in cirrhotic livers. In this review paper, we go over the basics of MR imaging in cirrhotic livers and describe the imaging appearance of a spectrum of hepatic nodules marking the progression from regenerative nodules to low- and high-grade dysplastic nodules, and ultimately to HCCs. We detail and illustrate the typical imaging appearances of different types of HCC including focal, multi-focal, massive, diffuse/infiltrative, and intra-hepatic metastases; with emphasis on the diagnostic value of MR in imaging these lesions. We also shed some light on liver imaging reporting and data system, and the role of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents and future MRI techniques including the use of advanced MR pulse sequences and utilization of hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agents, and how they might contribute to improving the diagnostic performance of MRI in early stage HCC diagnosis. PMID:25848471

  11. Brain magnetic resonance imaging with contrast dependent on blood oxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, S.; Lee, T.M.; Kay, A.R.; Tank, D.W. )

    1990-12-01

    Paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin in venous blood is a naturally occurring contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By accentuating the effects of this agent through the use of gradient-echo techniques in high yields, the authors demonstrate in vivo images of brain microvasculature with image contrast reflecting the blood oxygen level. This blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast follows blood oxygen changes induced by anesthetics, by insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and by inhaled gas mixtures that alter metabolic demand or blood flow. The results suggest that BOLD contrast can be used to provide in vivo real-time maps of blood oxygenation in the brain under normal physiological conditions. BOLD contrast adds an additional feature to magnetic resonance imaging and complement other techniques that are attempting to provide position emission tomography-like measurements related to regional neural activity.

  12. Clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging - current status

    SciTech Connect

    Cammoun, D.; Hendee, W.R.; Davis, K.A.

    1985-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has far-reaching real and possible clinical applications. Its usefulness has been best explored and realized in the central nervous system, especially the posterior fossa and brain stem, where most abnormalities are better identified than with computed tomography. Its lack of ionizing radiation and extreme sensitivity to normal and abnormal patterns of myelination make magnetic resonance imaging advantageous for diagnosing many neonatal and pediatric abnormalities. New, reliable cardiac gating techniques open the way for promising studies of cardiac anatomy and function. The ability to image directly in three orthogonal planes gives us new insight into staging and follow-up of pelvic tumors and other pelvic abnormalities. Exquisite soft tissue contrast, far above that attainable by other imaging modalities, has made possible the early diagnosis of traumatic ligamentous knee injury, avascular necrosis of the hip and diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of musculoskeletal neoplasms. 59 references, 9 figures.

  13. Surface plasmon resonance imaging by holographic enhanced mapping.

    PubMed

    Mandracchia, B; Pagliarulo, V; Paturzo, M; Ferraro, P

    2015-04-21

    We designed, constructed and tested a holographic surface plasmon resonance (HoloSPR) objective-based microscope for simultaneous amplitude-contrast and phase-contrast surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). SPRi is a widely spread tool for label-free detection of changes in refractive index and concentration, as well as mapping of thin films. Currently, most of the SPR sensors rely on the detection of amplitude or phase changes of light. Despite the high sensitivities achieved so far, each technique alone has a limited detection range with optimal sensitivity. Here we use a high numerical aperture objective that avoids all the limitations due to the use of a prism-based configuration, yielding highly magnified and distortion-free images. Holographic reconstructions of SPR images and real-time kinetic measurements are presented to show the capability of HoloSPR to provide a versatile imaging method for high-throughput SPR detection complementary to conventional SPR techniques. PMID:25816225

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Du, Yong; Huang, Yayong; Meng, Jun; Xiao, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    As prostate cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease for which a variety of treatment options are available, the major objective of prostate cancer imaging is to achieve more precise disease characterization. In clinical practice, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the imaging tools for the evaluation of prostate cancer, the fusion of MRI or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is improving the evaluation of cancer location, size, and extent, while providing an indication of tumor aggressiveness. This review summarizes the role of MRI in the application of prostate cancer and describes molecular MRI techniques (including MRSI and DCE-MRI) for aiding prostate cancer management. PMID:23592906

  15. [Functional magnetic resonance imaging in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Krainik, A; Rubin, C; Grand, S; David, O; Baciu, M; Jaillard, A; Troprs, I; Lamalle, L; Duffau, H; Le Bas, J F; Segebarth, C; Lehricy, S

    2006-06-01

    In the last decade, functional MRI (fMRI) has become one of the most widely used functional imaging technique in neurosciences. However, its clinical applications remain limited. Despite methodological and practical issues, fMRI data has been validated by different techniques (magnetoencephalography, Wada test, electrical and magnetic stimulations, and surgical resections). In neurosurgical practice, fMRI can identify eloquent areas involved in motor and language functions, and may evaluate characteristics of postoperative neurological deficit including its occurrence, clinical presentation and duration. This may help to inform patients and to prepare postoperative care. fMRI may also identify epileptic foci. In neurological practice, fMRI may help to determine prognosis of recovery after stroke, appropriate medication, and rehabilitation. fMRI may help to identify patients at risk of developing Alzheimer disease. Finally, cerebrovascular reactivity imaging is an interesting approach that might provide new radiological insights of vascular function. PMID:16788535

  16. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in children.

    PubMed

    Helbing, Willem A; Ouhlous, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    MRI is an important additional tool in the diagnostic work-up of children with congenital heart disease. This review aims to summarise the role MRI has in this patient population. Echocardiography remains the main diagnostic tool in congenital heart disease. In specific situations, MRI is used for anatomical imaging of congenital heart disease. This includes detailed assessment of intracardiac anatomy with 2-D and 3-D sequences. MRI is particularly useful for assessment of retrosternal structures in the heart and for imaging large vessel anatomy. Functional assessment includes assessment of ventricular function using 2-D cine techniques. Of particular interest in congenital heart disease is assessment of right and single ventricular function. Two-dimensional and newer 3-D techniques to quantify flow in these patients are or will soon become an integral part of quantification of shunt size, valve function and complex flow patterns in large vessels. More advanced uses of MRI include imaging of cardiovascular function during stress and tissue characterisation of the myocardium. Techniques used for this purpose need further validation before they can become part of the daily routine of MRI assessment of congenital heart disease. PMID:25552387

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging in degenerative ataxic disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Ormerod, I E; Harding, A E; Miller, D H; Johnson, G; MacManus, D; du Boulay, E P; Kendall, B E; Moseley, I F; McDonald, W I

    1994-01-01

    MRI of the brain was performed in 53 patients with a variety of degenerative ataxias and related disorders and 96 control subjects. Atrophy of intracranial structures was not seen in patients with the pure type of hereditary spastic paraplegia, or in early cases of Friedreich's ataxia. In advanced Friedreich's ataxia there was atrophy of the vermis and medulla. The MRI features of early onset cerebellar ataxia with retained reflexes were variable, and suggest heterogeneity. In autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias, most patients had cerebellar and brainstem atrophy, probably reflecting the pathological process of olivopontocerebellar atrophy; there was no clearly defined group with both clinical and imaging features of isolated cerebellar involvement. The MRI abnormalities in idiopathic late onset cerebellar ataxia were predominantly those of cerebellar and brainstem atrophy or pure cerebellar atrophy. The clinical and imaging features of brainstem abnormalities were discordant in several patients. Pure cerebellar atrophy was associated with slower progression of disability. Cerebral atrophy was common in the late onset ataxias. Cerebral white matter lesions, although usually few in number, were observed in significantly more patients than controls, particularly those aged over 50 years. Images PMID:8301305

  18. Functional Connectivity Magnetic Resonance Imaging Classification of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; DuBray, Molly B.; Druzgal, T. Jason; Cariello, Annahir N.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Zielinski, Brandon A.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2011-01-01

    Group differences in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity between individuals with autism and typically developing controls have been widely replicated for a small number of discrete brain regions, yet the whole-brain distribution of connectivity abnormalities in autism is not well characterized. It is also unclear…

  19. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Velopharyngeal Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Youkyung; Kuehn, David P.; Sutton, Bradley P.; Conway, Charles A.; Perry, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report the feasibility of using a 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for examining velopharyngeal structures. Using collected 3D MRI data, the authors investigated the effect of sex on the midsagittal velopharyngeal structures and the levator veli palatini (levator) muscle configurations. Method: Ten Caucasian…

  20. A Scalable Framework For Segmenting Magnetic Resonance Images

    PubMed Central

    Hore, Prodip; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Gu, Yuhua; Maudsley, Andrew A.; Darkazanli, Ammar

    2009-01-01

    A fast, accurate and fully automatic method of segmenting magnetic resonance images of the human brain is introduced. The approach scales well allowing fast segmentations of fine resolution images. The approach is based on modifications of the soft clustering algorithm, fuzzy c-means, that enable it to scale to large data sets. Two types of modifications to create incremental versions of fuzzy c-means are discussed. They are much faster when compared to fuzzy c-means for medium to extremely large data sets because they work on successive subsets of the data. They are comparable in quality to application of fuzzy c-means to all of the data. The clustering algorithms coupled with inhomogeneity correction and smoothing are used to create a framework for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the human brain. The framework is applied to a set of normal human brain volumes acquired from different magnetic resonance scanners using different head coils, acquisition parameters and field strengths. Results are compared to those from two widely used magnetic resonance image segmentation programs, Statistical Parametric Mapping and the FMRIB Software Library (FSL). The results are comparable to FSL while providing significant speed-up and better scalability to larger volumes of data. PMID:20046893

  1. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Velopharyngeal Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Youkyung; Kuehn, David P.; Sutton, Bradley P.; Conway, Charles A.; Perry, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report the feasibility of using a 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for examining velopharyngeal structures. Using collected 3D MRI data, the authors investigated the effect of sex on the midsagittal velopharyngeal structures and the levator veli palatini (levator) muscle configurations. Method: Ten Caucasian

  2. Sonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of neurocutaneous melanosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingming Amy; Woodley-Cook, Joel; Sgro, Michael; Bharatha, Aditya

    2016-03-01

    Neurocutaneous melanosis is a rare nonfamilial phakomatosis characterized by large or multiple congenital melanocytic nevi plus the presence of central nervous system melanosis or melanoma. We report a case of a male infant with a giant posteroaxial nevus and evidence of intracranial melanosis on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26973729

  3. Manganese encephalopathy: utility of early magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Nelson, K; Golnick, J; Korn, T; Angle, C

    1993-06-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides visual evidence of cerebral deposits of paramagnetic metals. The usefulness of MRI is described in connection with the manganese poisoning of a 44 year old arc welder who had been engaged in the repair and recycling of railroad track made of manganese steel alloy. PMID:8329316

  4. RECONSTRUCTION OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY MODELS FROM MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Reconstruction of Human Lung Morphology Models from Magnetic Resonance Images
    T. B. Martonen (Experimental Toxicology Division, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) and K. K. Isaacs (School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514)

  5. Functional Connectivity Magnetic Resonance Imaging Classification of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; DuBray, Molly B.; Druzgal, T. Jason; Cariello, Annahir N.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Zielinski, Brandon A.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2011-01-01

    Group differences in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity between individuals with autism and typically developing controls have been widely replicated for a small number of discrete brain regions, yet the whole-brain distribution of connectivity abnormalities in autism is not well characterized. It is also unclear

  6. Sonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of neurocutaneous melanosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingming Amy; Woodley-Cook, Joel; Sgro, Michael; Bharatha, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Neurocutaneous melanosis is a rare nonfamilial phakomatosis characterized by large or multiple congenital melanocytic nevi plus the presence of central nervous system melanosis or melanoma. We report a case of a male infant with a giant posteroaxial nevus and evidence of intracranial melanosis on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26973729

  7. Metabolic imaging of multiple x-nucleus resonances.

    PubMed

    Steinseifer, Isabell K; Wijnen, Jannie P; Hamans, Bob C; Heerschap, Arend; Scheenen, Tom W J

    2013-07-01

    This study describes a technique for fast imaging of x-nuclei metabolites. Due to increased sensitivity and larger chemical shift dispersion at high magnetic fields, images of multiple metabolites can be obtained simultaneously by selective excitation of their resonances with a multifrequency selective radiofrequency pulse at any desired flip angle. This aim is achieved by combining a three-dimensional gradient echo imaging sequence with a Shinnar-LeRoux optimized excitation pulse. A proper choice of bandwidth, imaging matrix size, and field of view allows using the chemical shift dispersion of the different resonances to completely separate their images within one large field of view. The method of fast metabolic imaging is illustrated with (13)C measurements of a phantom containing a solution of (13)C labeled glucose, lactate, and sodium octanoate and by dynamic measurements of the (31)P metabolites phosphocreatine and ?-adenosine triphosphate in human femoral muscle in vivo, both at 7T. With dynamic selective (31)P imaging of the larger part of the upper leg, phosphocreatine signal intensity changes of specific muscles can be studied simultaneously by analyzing the sum of phosphocreatine signals within arbitrarily shaped regions of interest following the muscles' contours. This concept of dynamic metabolic imaging can be applied to other organs and further expanded to other MR-detectable nuclei and metabolites. PMID:22886743

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Biomarker for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Kwon, Young Suk; Labib, Mina; Foran, David J.; Singer, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    As the most common neoplasm arising from the kidney, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) continues to have a significant impact on global health. Conventional cross-sectional imaging has always served an important role in the staging of RCC. However, with recent advances in imaging techniques and postprocessing analysis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now has the capability to function as a diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic biomarker for RCC. For this narrative literature review, a PubMed search was conducted to collect the most relevant and impactful studies from our perspectives as urologic oncologists, radiologists, and computational imaging specialists. We seek to cover advanced MR imaging and image analysis techniques that may improve the management of patients with small renal mass or metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26609190

  9. Wavelet smoothing of functional magnetic resonance images: a preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucier, Bradley J.

    2003-11-01

    Functional (time-dependent) Magnetic Resonance Imaging can be used to determine which parts of the brain are active during various limited activities; these parts of the brain are called activation regions. In this preliminary study we describe some experiments that are suggested from the following questions: Does one get improved results by analyzing the complex image data rather than just the real magnitude image data? Does wavelet shrinkage smoothing improve images? Should one smooth in time as well as within and between slices? If so, how should one model the relationship between time smoothness (or correlations) and spatial smoothness (or correlations). The measured data is really the Fourier coefficients of the complex image---should we remove noise in the Fourier domain before computing the complex images? In this preliminary study we describe some experiments related to these questions.

  10. SEVEN TOPICS IN FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    BANDETTINI, PETER A.

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging methodology that started in 1991 and allows human brain activation to be imaged at high resolution within only a few minutes. Because it has extremely high sensitivity, is relatively easy to implement, and can be performed on most standard clinical MRI scanners. It continues to grow at an explosive rate throughout the world. Over the years, at any given time, fMRI has been defined by only a handful of major topics that have been the focus of researchers using and developing the methodology. In this review, I attempt to take a snapshot of the field of fMRI as it is in mid-2009 by discussing the seven topics that I feel are most on the minds of fMRI researchers. The topics are, in no particular order or grouping: (1) Clinical impact, (2) Utilization of individual functional maps, (3) fMRI signal interpretation, (4) Pattern effect mapping and decoding, (5) Endogenous oscillations, (6) MRI technology, and (7) Alternative functional contrast mechanisms. Most of these topics are highly interdependent, each advancing as the others advance. While most fMRI involves applications towards clinical or neuroscience questions, all applications are fundamentally dependent on advances in basic methodology as well as advances in our understanding of the relationship between neuronal activity and fMRI signal changes. This review neglects almost completely an in-depth discussion of applications. Rather the discussions are on the methods and interpretation. PMID:19938211

  11. High-resolution breath-hold cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yu.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation work is composed of investigations of three methods for fast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These methods include (1) 2D breath-hold magnetization prepared gradient echo and fast spin-echo (FSE) cardiac imaging, (2) 3D breath-hold magnetization prepared gradient echo cardiac imaging, and (3) real-time monitoring, feedback, and triggering for breath-hold MRI. The hypothesis of this work is that high resolution 2D and 3D magnetic resonance data sets for the heart can be acquired with the combination of magnetization prepared blood suppression for gradient echo techniques and accurate breath-holding methods. The 2D method included development of magnetic resonance data acquisition for cardiac imaging. The acquisition time is within a single breath-hold of 16 seconds (assuming heart 60/min). The data acquisition is synchronized with the electrocardiogram signal. Based on consistent observations of specific small cardiac structures like the papillary muscle, trabeculae, moderator band, and coronary vessels in studies of normal volunteers, the image quality represents a significant improvement over that obtained with fast imaging methods previously. To further improve the image quality provided by the 2D method, the first 3D cardiac MRI technique was developed. This method provides even better spatial resolution for cardiac images, with a voxel size of 1.09 [times] 2.19 [times] 4 mm[sup 3]. A 3D acquisition is completed in 8 breath-holds. The data acquisition for 3D cardiac imaging requires a consistent breath-hold position to avoid respiratory artifacts. To improve the reliability of the 3DFT acquisition, a new technique called MR breath-hold feedback was developed to provide reproducible breathholding. The diaphragm location is used as the index for breath-hold reproducibility measurement. The range of the diaphragm displacement in different breath-hold is reduced from 8.3 mm without the technique, to 1.3 mm with the technique.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Part IPhysical Principles

    PubMed Central

    Hendee, William R.; Morgan, Christopher J.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most complex imaging technology available to clinicians. Whereas most imaging technologies depict differences in one, or occasionally two, tissue characteristics, MR imaging has five tissue variablesspin density, T1 and T2 relaxation times and flow and spectral shiftsfrom which to construct its images. These variables can be combined in various ways by selecting pulse sequences and pulse times to emphasize any desired combination of tissue characteristics in the image. This selection is determined by the user of the MR system before imaging data are collected. If the selection is not optimal, the imaging process must be repeated at a cost of time and resources. The optimal selection of MR imaging procedures and the proper interpretation of the resultant images require a thorough understanding of the basic principles of MR imaging. Included in this understanding should be at least the rudiments of how an MR imaging signal is produced and why it decays with time; the significance of relaxation constants; the principles of scanning methods such as saturation recovery, inversion recovery and spin echo; how data obtained by these methods are used to form an image, and how the imaging data are complied by multi-slice and volumetric processes. In selecting an MR imaging unit, information about different magnet designs (resistive, superconductive and permanent) is useful. Although no bioeffects are thought to be associated with an MR imaging examination, some knowledge of the attempts to identify bioeffects is helpful in alleviating concern in patients. Images PMID:6506686

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging for image-guided implantology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggers, Georg; Kress, Bodo; Fiebach, Jochen; Rieker, Marcus; Spitzenberg, Doreen; Marmulla, Rdiger; Dickhaus, Hartmut; Mhling, Joachim

    2006-03-01

    Image guided implantology using navigation systems is more accurate than manual dental implant insertion. The underlying image data are usually derived from computer tomography. The suitability of MR imaging for dental implant planning is a marginal issue so far. MRI data from cadaver heads were acquired using various MRI sequences. The data were assessed for the quality of anatomical imaging, geometric accuracy and susceptibility to dental metal artefacts. For dental implant planning, 3D models of the jaws were created. A software system for segmentation of the mandible and maxilla MRI data was implemented using c++, mitk, and qt. With the VIBE_15 sequence, image data with high geometric accuracy were acquired. Dental metal artefacts were lower than in CT data of the same heads. The segmentation of the jaws was feasible, in contrast to the segmentation of the dentition, since there is a lack of contrast to the intraoral soft tissue structures. MRI is a suitable method for imaging of the region of mouth and jaws. The geometric accuracy is excellent and the susceptibility to artefacts is low. However, there are yet two limitations: Firstly, the imaging of the dentition needs further improvement to allow accurate segmentation of these regions. Secondly, the sequence used in this study takes several minutes and hence is susceptible to motion artefacts.

  14. Interactions between magnetic resonance imaging and dental material

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Chalakuzhiyl Abraham; Maller, Sudhakara; Maheshwaran

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a common and important life-saving diagnostic tool in recent times, for diseases of the head and neck region. Dentists should be aware of the interactions of various restorative dental materials and different technical factors put to use by an MRI scanning machine. Specific knowledge about these impacts, at the dentist level and at the level of the personnel at the MRI centers can save valuable time for the patient and prevent errors in MRI images. Artifacts from metal restorations are a major hindrance at such times, as they result in disappearance or distortion of the image and loss of important information. PMID:23946562

  15. Demonstration of coarctation of the aorta by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Amparo, E.; Higgins, C.B.; Shafton, E.P.

    1984-12-01

    The physical findings in coarctation of the aorta are sufficiently characteristic to allow a reasonably accurate clinical diagnosis. The preoperative evaluation has been accomplished by catheterization, aortography, intravenous digital subtraction angiography, computed tomography (CT), and two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography. The authors report a case of coarctation of the aorta clinically suspected in a 29-year-old man. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was the initial preoperative imaging technique. In retrospect, it provided sufficient information for preoperative evaluation so that other imaging techniques would not have been required.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of pancreatic metastases from renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sikka, Amrita; Adam, Sharon Z; Wood, Cecil; Hoff, Frederick; Harmath, Carla B; Miller, Frank H

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic metastases are rare but are thought to be most commonly from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These metastases can present many years after the initial tumor is resected, and accordingly, these patients require prolonged imaging follow-up. Although the computed tomographic findings of these metastases have been extensively reviewed in the literature, little has been written about the magnetic resonance imaging appearance of these metastases. Pancreatic metastases from RCC are typically T1 hypointense and T2 hyperintense. After intravenous administration of gadolinium, they are typically hypervascular and less commonly hypovascular. Chemical shift and diffusion-weighted imaging can aid in the diagnosis of these metastases. PMID:26324216

  17. Comparative evolution of carotidynia on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Behar, T; Menjot, N; Laroche, J-P; Bge, B; Qur, I; Galanaud, J-P

    2015-12-01

    Carotidynia is rare and associates neck pain with tenderness to palpation usually over the carotid bifurcation, the diagnosis of which is based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasounds (US) are also frequently used but their accuracy in predicting the course of the disease is unknown. We are reporting the case of a 52-year-old man who presented a typical carotidynia. Clinical symptoms, ultrasound and MRI imaging evolution were closely correlated. Our case suggest that after a first MRI to set a positive diagnosis of carotidynia and exclude differential diagnoses, US which is more widely available and less expensive could constitute the imaging of reference for the follow-up. PMID:26163344

  18. Fractal dimension of cerebral surfaces using magnetic resonance images

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Prasad, R.R.

    1988-11-01

    The calculation of the fractal dimension of the surface bounded by the grey matter in the normal human brain using axial, sagittal, and coronal cross-sectional magnetic resonance (MR) images is presented. The fractal dimension in this case is a measure of the convolutedness of this cerebral surface. It is proposed that the fractal dimension, a feature that may be extracted from MR images, may potentially be used for image analysis, quantitative tissue characterization, and as a feature to monitor and identify cerebral abnormalities and developmental changes.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of convection in laser-polarized xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, R. W.; Tseng, C. H.; Wong, G. P.; Cory, D. G.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of the flow and diffusion of laser-polarized xenon (129Xe) gas undergoing convection above evaporating laser-polarized liquid xenon. The large xenon NMR signal provided by the laser-polarization technique allows more rapid imaging than one can achieve with thermally polarized gas-liquid systems, permitting shorter time-scale events such as rapid gas flow and gas-liquid dynamics to be observed. Two-dimensional velocity-encoded imaging shows convective gas flow above the evaporating liquid xenon, and also permits the measurement of enhanced gas diffusion near regions of large velocity variation.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of an endometrial stromal nodule.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Kumi; Gabata, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial stromal nodules are rare benign tumors that appear as well-circumscribed globular masses in the myometrium. In this report, a myometrial mass exhibited heterogeneous hyperintensity without hypointense bands on T2-weighted images and homogeneous isointensity on T1-weighted images. A dynamic contrast study revealed the same degree of uterine myometrial enhancement only in the marginal area. The structures were pathologically confirmed to correspond with proliferating endometrial stromal cells. Herein, we report this rare tumor and the correlation between magnetic resonance imaging and pathological findings. PMID:26461974

  1. Surface plasmon resonance imaging for parallelized detection of protein biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliarik, Marek; Prov, Lucie; Vaisocherov, Hana; Homola, Ji?

    2009-05-01

    We report a novel high-throughput surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor for rapid and parallelized detection of protein biomarkers. The biosensor is based on a high-performance SPR imaging sensor with polarization contrast and internal referencing which yields a considerably higher sensitivity and resolution than conventional SPR imaging systems (refractive index resolution 2 10-7 RIU). We combined the SPR imaging biosensor with microspotting to create an array of antibodies. DNA-directed protein immobilization was utilized for the spatially resolved attachment of antibodies. Using Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) as model protein biomarker, we demonstrated the potential for simultaneous detection of proteins in up to 100 channels.

  2. Role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging as an imaging biomarker of urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Koga, Fumitaka; Masuda, Hitoshi; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a type of functional imaging that is increasingly being applied in the management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma and bladder cancer. The image contrast is derived from differences in the Brownian motion of water molecules in tissues. The homogenous high signal intensity of upper tract urothelial carcinoma and bladder cancer on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging provides helpful diagnostic information for the presence of cancerous lesions in a non-invasive manner. Recently, growing evidence has emerged showing that diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging can serve as an imaging biomarker for characterizing cancer pathophysiology, because the signal reflects biophysical information about the tissues. Quantitative analysis by evaluating the apparent diffusion coefficient values potentially reflects the histological grade and the biological aggressiveness of urothelial carcinoma. The apparent diffusion coefficient value could be a biomarker predicting the clinical course of upper tract urothelial carcinoma and bladder cancer. In addition, in chemoradiotherapy-based bladder-sparing approaches against muscle-invasive bladder cancer, the role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for predicting the chemoradiosensitivity and for monitoring therapeutic response has been shown. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is expected to improve the diagnostic accuracy, and this qualitative information might allow individualized treatment strategies for patients with urothelial carcinoma. PMID:25074594

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-26

    This report reviews the current applications of magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system. Since its introduction into the clinical environment in the early 1980's, this technology has had a major impact on the practice of neurology. It has proved to be superior to computed tomography for imaging many diseases of the brain and spine. In some instances it has clearly replaced computed tomography. It is likely that it will replace myelography for the assessment of cervicomedullary junction and spinal regions. The magnetic field strengths currently used appear to be entirely safe for clinical application in neurology except in patients with cardiac pacemakers or vascular metallic clips. Some shortcomings of magnetic resonance imaging include its expense, the time required for scanning, and poor visualization of cortical bone.

  4. Sparse based optical flow estimation in cardiac magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Emiro; Medina, Rubén.

    2013-11-01

    The optical ow enables the accurate estimation of cardiac motion. In this research, a sparse based algorithm is used to estimate the optical ow in cardiac magnetic resonance images. The dense optical ow eld is represented using a discrete cosine basis dictionary aiming at a sparse representation. The optical ow is estimated in this transformed space by solving a L1 problem inspired on compressive sensing techniques. The algorithm is validated using four synthetic image sequences whose velocity eld is known. A comparison is performed with respect to the Horn and Schunck and the Lucas and Kanade algorithm. Then, the technique is applied to a magnetic resonance image sequence. The results show average magnitude errors as low as 0.35 % for the synthetic sequences, however results on real data are not consistent with respect to the obtained by other algorithms suggesting the need for additional constrains for coping with the dense noise.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging using linear magneto-inductive waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syms, R. R. A.; Young, I. R.; Ahmad, M. M.; Rea, M.

    2012-12-01

    Magneto-inductive waveguides are arrays of magnetically coupled, lumped element resonators, which support slow waves at radio frequency. Their use in internal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), where they may provide an intrinsically safe method of signal detection and transmission, is described. A catheter-based receiver formed from a thin-film printed circuit mounted on a tubular scaffold using heat-shrink tubing is demonstrated, and its electrical response and imaging sensitivity are explained in terms of the excitation and propagation of magneto-inductive waves. The theoretical predictions are confirmed using the results of electrical measurement and 1H MRI at 1.5 T, and imaging is achieved over a total length greater than 1.5 m using a single receiver.

  6. Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Gas-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Louis-S.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar,M. Sabieh; Koptyug, Igor V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Pines, Alexander

    2007-02-23

    Herein, we demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inthe gas phase using para-hydrogen (p-H2)-induced polarization. A reactantmixture of H2 enriched in the paraspin state and propylene gas is flowedthrough a reactor cell containing a heterogenized catalyst, Wilkinson'scatalyst immobilized on modified silica gel. The hydrogenation product,propane gas, is transferred to the NMR magnet and is spin-polarized as aresult of the ALTADENA (adiabatic longitudinal transport and dissociationengenders net alignment) effect. A polarization enhancement factor of 300relative to thermally polarized gas was observed in 1D1H NMR spectra.Enhancement was also evident in the magnetic resonance images. This isthe first demonstration of imaging a hyperpolarized gaseous productformed in a hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by a supported catalyst.This result may lead to several important applications, includingflow-through porous materials, gas-phase reaction kinetics and adsorptionstudies, and MRI in low fields, all using catalyst-free polarizedfluids.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging: Atlas of the head, neck and spine

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, C.M.; De Groot, J.; Posin, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this atlas is to provide the reader with a means to complement existing sources of information and to correlate the superb soft tissue contrast realized in magnetic resonance images with the appropriate anatomic and functional structures. Where appropriate, pathologic examples have been included to complement normal images. In addition, since MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) clearly separates gray from white matter, and thus accurately visualizes the position of functional tracts as they extend from cortex to spinal cord, a separate section on functional neuroanatomy has been provided. Likewise, the improved visualization of vascular structures and associated pathologic processes has led to the inclusion of vascular anatomy and associated perfusion territories. These additions will be of particular use in clinical practice, as precise lesion identification and localization can now be correlated to specific clinical symptomatology.

  8. Optically trapped atomic resonant devices for narrow linewidth spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Lipeng

    This thesis focuses on the development of atomic resonant devices for spectroscopic applications. The primary emphasis is on the imaging properties of optically thick atomic resonant fluorescent filters and their applications. In addition, this thesis presents a new concept for producing very narrow linewidth light as from an atomic vapor lamp pumped by a nanosecond pulse system. This research was motivated by application for missile warning system, and presents an innovative approach to a wide angle, ultra narrow linewidth imaging filter using a potassium vapor cell. The approach is to image onto and collect the fluorescent photons emitted from the surface of an optically thick potassium vapor cell, generating a 2 GHz pass-band imaging filter. This linewidth is narrow enough to fall within a Fraunhefer dark zone in the solar spectrum, thus make the detection solar blind. Experiments are conducted to measure the absorption line shape of the potassium resonant filter, the quantum efficiency of the fluorescent behavior, and the resolution of the fluorescent image. Fluorescent images with different spatial frequency components are analyzed by using a discrete Fourier transform, and the imaging capability of the fluorescent filter is described by its Modulation Transfer Function. For the detection of radiation that is spectrally broader than the linewidth of the potassium imaging filter, the fluorescent image is seen to be blurred by diffuse fluorescence from the slightly off resonant photons. To correct this, an ultra-thin potassium imaging filter is developed and characterized. The imaging property of the ultra-thin potassium imaging cell is tested with a potassium seeded flame, yielding a resolution image of ˜ 20 lines per mm. The physics behind the atomic resonant fluorescent filter is radiation trapping. The diffusion process of the resonant photons trapped in the atomic vapor is theoretically described in this thesis. A Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the absorption and fluorescence. The optimum resolution of the fluorescent image is predicted by simulation. Radiation trapping is also shown to be useful for the generation of ultra-narrow linewidth light from an atomic vapor flash lamp. A 2 nanosecond, high voltage pulse is used to excite low pressure mercury vapor mixed with noble gases, producing high intensity emission at the mercury resonant line at 253.7 nm. With a nanosecond pumping time and high electrical current, the radiation intensity of the mercury discharge is increased significantly compared to a normal glow discharge lamp, while simultaneously suppressing the formation of an arc discharge. By avoiding the arc discharge, discrete spectral lines of mercury were kept at narrow bandwidth. Due to radiation trapping, the emission linewidth from the nanosecond mercury lamp decreases with time and produces ultra-narrow linewidth emission 100 ns after of the excitation, this linewidth is verified by absorption measurements through low pressure mercury absorption filter. The lamp is used along with mercury absorption filters for spectroscopic applications, including Filtered Rayleigh Scattering with different CO2 pressures and Raman scattering from methanol.

  9. Noninvasive Imaging of Head-Brain Conductivity Profiles Using Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Yan, Dandan; Zhu, Shanan; He, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a recently introduced non-invasive conductivity imaging modality, which combines the magnetic resonance current density imaging (CDI) and the traditional electrical impedance tomography (EIT) techniques. MREIT is aimed at providing high spatial resolution images of electrical conductivity, by avoiding solving the well-known ill-posed problem in the traditional EIT. In this paper, we review our research activities in MREIT imaging of head-brain tissue conductivity profiles. We have developed several imaging algorithms and conducted a series of computer simulations for MREIT imaging of the head and brain tissues. Our work suggests MREIT brain imaging may become a useful tool in imaging conductivity distributions of the brain and head. PMID:18799394

  10. Optimizing 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Sampling for Respiratory Motion Analysis of Pancreatic Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, Rob H.N.; Senneville, Baudouin D. de

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the optimum sampling strategy for retrospective reconstruction of 4-dimensional (4D) MR data for nonrigid motion characterization of tumor and organs at risk for radiation therapy purposes. Methods and Materials: For optimization, we compared 2 surrogate signals (external respiratory bellows and internal MRI navigators) and 2 MR sampling strategies (Cartesian and radial) in terms of image quality and robustness. Using the optimized protocol, 6 pancreatic cancer patients were scanned to calculate the 4D motion. Region of interest analysis was performed to characterize the respiratory-induced motion of the tumor and organs at risk simultaneously. Results: The MRI navigator was found to be a more reliable surrogate for pancreatic motion than the respiratory bellows signal. Radial sampling is most benign for undersampling artifacts and intraview motion. Motion characterization revealed interorgan and interpatient variation, as well as heterogeneity within the tumor. Conclusions: A robust 4D-MRI method, based on clinically available protocols, is presented and successfully applied to characterize the abdominal motion in a small number of pancreatic cancer patients.

  11. Pulsatile flow artifacts in 3D magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Frank, L R; Buxton, R B; Kerber, C W

    1993-09-01

    Some of the important features of how pulsatile flow generates artifacts in three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are analyzed and demonstrated. Time variations in the magnetic resonance signal during the heart cycle lead to more complex patterns of artifacts in 3D imaging than in 2D imaging. The appearance and location of these artifacts within the image volume are shown to be describable as displacements along a line in a plane parallel to that defined by the phase and volume encode directions. The angle of the line in the plane depends solely upon the imaging parameters while the ghost displacement along the line is proportional to the signal modulation frequency. Aliasing of these ghosts leads to a variety of artifact patterns which are sensitive to the pulsation period and repetition time of the pulse sequence. Numerical simulations of these effects were found to be in good agreement with experimental images of an elastic model of a human carotid artery under simulated physiological conditions and with images of two human subjects. PMID:8412600

  12. Superconducting magnets for whole body magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.F.

    1989-03-01

    Superconducting magnets have achieved preeminence in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) industry. Further growth in this market will depend on reducing system costs, extending medical applications, and easing the present siting problem. New magnet designs from Oxford address these issues. Compact magnets are economical to build and operate. Two 4 Tesla whole body magnets for research in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) are now in operation. Active-Shield magnets, by drastically reducing the magnetic fringe fields, will allow MRI systems with superconducting magnets to be located in previously inaccessible sites.

  13. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in medicine and physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Moonen, C.T.W.; van Zijl, P.C.M.; Frank, J.A.; Bihan, D.L.; Becker, E.D. )

    1990-10-05

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-established diagnostic tool that provides detailed information about macroscopic structure and anatomy. Recent advances in MRI allow the noninvasive spatial evaluation of various biophysical and biochemical processes in living systems. Specifically, the motion of water can be measured in processes such as vascular flow, capillary flow, diffusion, and exchange. In addition, the concentrations of various metabolites can be determined for the assessment of regional regulation of metabolism. Examples are given that demonstrate the use of functional MRI for clinical and research purposes. This development adds a new dimension to the application of magnetic resonance to medicine and physiology.

  14. Effect of peripheral nerve action currents on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, Ranjith; Roth, Bradley J

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers have attempted to detect neural currents directly using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The action currents of a peripheral nerve create their own magnetic field that can cause the phase of the spins to change. Our goal in this paper is to use the measured magnetic field of a nerve to estimate the resulting phase shift in the magnetic resonance signal. We examine three cases: the squid giant axon, the frog sciatic nerve, and the human median nerve. In each case, the phase shift is much less than one degree, and will be very difficult to measure with current technology. PMID:19963781

  15. Elastomeric actuator devices for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubowsky, Steven (Inventor); Hafez, Moustapha (Inventor); Jolesz, Ferenc A. (Inventor); Kacher, Daniel F. (Inventor); Lichter, Matthew (Inventor); Weiss, Peter (Inventor); Wingert, Andreas (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention is directed to devices and systems used in magnetic imaging environments that include an actuator device having an elastomeric dielectric film with at least two electrodes, and a frame attached to the actuator device. The frame can have a plurality of configurations including, such as, for example, at least two members that can be, but not limited to, curved beams, rods, plates, or parallel beams. These rigid members can be coupled to flexible members such as, for example, links wherein the frame provides an elastic restoring force. The frame preferably provides a linear actuation force characteristic over a displacement range. The linear actuation force characteristic is defined as .+-.20% and preferably 10% over a displacement range. The actuator further includes a passive element disposed between the flexible members to tune a stiffness characteristic of the actuator. The passive element can be a bi-stable element. The preferred embodiment actuator includes one or more layers of the elastomeric film integrated into the frame. The elastomeric film can be made of many elastomeric materials such as, for example, but not limited to, acrylic, silicone and latex.

  16. Magnetic Field Gradient Calibration as an Experiment to Illustrate Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seedhouse, Steven J.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2008-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory is described that encompasses both qualitative and quantitative pedagogical goals. Qualitatively, the experiment illustrates how images are obtained in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Quantitatively, students experience the…

  17. Magnetic Field Gradient Calibration as an Experiment to Illustrate Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seedhouse, Steven J.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2008-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory is described that encompasses both qualitative and quantitative pedagogical goals. Qualitatively, the experiment illustrates how images are obtained in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Quantitatively, students experience the

  18. Correlative neuroanatomy of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Groot, J.

    1984-01-01

    Since the development of computed tomography (CT) more than a decade ago, still another form of imaging has become available that provides displays of normal and abnormal human structures. Magnetic resonance imaging is given complete coverage in this book. It describes both CT and MR anatomy that explains basic principles and the current status of imaging the brain and spine. The author uses three-dimensional concepts to provide the reader with a simple means to compare the main structures of the brain, skull and spine. Combining normal, gross neuroanatomic illustrations with CT and MR images of normal and abnormal conditions, the book provides diagnostic guidance. Drawings, photographs and radiologic images are used to help.

  19. Evaluation of sub-microsecond recovery resonators for in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, F.; Subramanian, S.; Devasahayam, N.; Murugesan, R.; Matsumoto, K.; Mitchell, J. B.; Krishna, M. C.

    2008-02-01

    Time-domain (TD) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging at 300 MHz for in vivo applications requires resonators with recovery times less than 1 ?s after pulsed excitation to reliably capture the rapidly decaying free induction decay (FID). In this study, we tested the suitability of the Litz foil coil resonator (LCR), commonly used in MRI, for in vivo EPR/EPRI applications in the TD mode and compared with parallel coil resonator (PCR). In TD mode, the sensitivity of LCR was lower than that of the PCR. However, in continuous wave (CW) mode, the LCR showed better sensitivity. The RF homogeneity was similar in both the resonators. The axis of the RF magnetic field is transverse to the cylindrical axis of the LCR, making the resonator and the magnet co-axial. Therefore, the loading of animals, and placing of the anesthesia nose cone and temperature monitors was more convenient in the LCR compared to the PCR whose axis is perpendicular to the magnet axis.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging with 90-nm resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamin, H. J.; Poggio, M.; Degen, C. L.; Rugar, D.

    2007-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful imaging technique that typically operates on the scale of millimetres to micrometres. Conventional MRI is based on the manipulation of nuclear spins with radio-frequency fields, and the subsequent detection of spins with induction-based techniques. An alternative approach, magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM), uses force detection to overcome the sensitivity limitations of conventional MRI. Here, we show that the two-dimensional imaging of nuclear spins can be extended to a spatial resolution better than 100 nm using MRFM. The imaging of 19F nuclei in a patterned CaF2 test object was enabled by a detection sensitivity of roughly 1,200 nuclear spins at a temperature of 600 mK. To achieve this sensitivity, we developed high-moment magnetic tips that produced field gradients up to 1.4 106 T m-1, and implemented a measurement protocol based on force-gradient detection of naturally occurring spin fluctuations. The resulting detection volume was less than 650 zeptolitres. This is 60,000 times smaller than the previous smallest volume for nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy, and demonstrates the feasibility of pushing MRI into the nanoscale regime.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging with 90-nm resolution.

    PubMed

    Mamin, H J; Poggio, M; Degen, C L; Rugar, D

    2007-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful imaging technique that typically operates on the scale of millimetres to micrometres. Conventional MRI is based on the manipulation of nuclear spins with radio-frequency fields, and the subsequent detection of spins with induction-based techniques. An alternative approach, magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM), uses force detection to overcome the sensitivity limitations of conventional MRI. Here, we show that the two-dimensional imaging of nuclear spins can be extended to a spatial resolution better than 100 nm using MRFM. The imaging of 19F nuclei in a patterned CaF(2) test object was enabled by a detection sensitivity of roughly 1,200 nuclear spins at a temperature of 600 mK. To achieve this sensitivity, we developed high-moment magnetic tips that produced field gradients up to 1.4 x 10(6) T m(-1), and implemented a measurement protocol based on force-gradient detection of naturally occurring spin fluctuations. The resulting detection volume was less than 650 zeptolitres. This is 60,000 times smaller than the previous smallest volume for nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy, and demonstrates the feasibility of pushing MRI into the nanoscale regime. PMID:18654288

  2. TH-A-BRF-12: Assessment of 4D-MRI for Robust Motion and Volume Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Glide-Hurst, C; Kim, J; Wen, N; Chetty, I; Hu, Y; Mutic, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Precise radiation therapy for abdominal lesions is complicated by respiratory motion and poor soft tissue contrast from 4DCT whereas 4DMRI provides superior tissue discrimination. We evaluated a novel 4D-MRI algorithm for MR-SIM motion management. Methods: Respiratory-triggered, T2-weighted single-shot Turbo Spin Echo 4D-MRI was evaluated for open high-field 1.0T MR-SIM. A programmable platform pulled objects on a trolley ∼2 cm superior-inferior (S-I) for “regular” (sinusoidal, (1-cos{sup 2}), 3-5 second periods) and “irregular” breathing patterns (exaggerated (1-cos{sup 2}) and patient curves), while a respiratory waveform was generated via a pressure sensor device. Coronal 4D-MRIs (2–12;10 phases, TE/TR/α = 35−61/6100 ms/90°, voxel=1×1×4 mm{sup 3}) were acquired for 54 unique phantom cases. Abdominal 4D−MRIs were evaluated for 5 healthy volunteers and 1 liver cancer patient (6–10 phases, TE/TR/α = 30−96/4500−6100 ms/90°, voxel=1×1×5–10 mm{sup 3}) on an IRB-approved protocol. Duty cycle, scan time, and excursion were evaluated between phase acquisitions and compared to coronal cine-MRI (∼1 frame/sec). Maximum intensity projections (MIPs) were analyzed. Results: In phantom, average duty cycle was 42.6 ± 11.4% (range: 23.6–69.1%). Regular, periodic breathing (sinusoidal, (1-cos{sup 2})) yielded higher duty cycles than irregular (48.5% and 35.9%, respectively, p<0.001) and fast periods had higher duty cycles than slow (50.4% for 3s and 39.4% for 5s, p<0.001). ∼4-fold acquisition time increase was measured for 10-phase versus 2-phase. MIP renderings revealed that SI object extent was underestimated a maximum of 4% (3mm) and 8% (6mm) for cine and 2-phase 4D-MRI, respectively, with respect to 10-phases. However, this was waveform dependent. A highly irregular breathing volunteer yielded lowest duty cycle (23%) and longest 10-phase scan time (∼14 minutes), although 6-phase acquisition for a liver cancer patient was reasonable (50% and 7.4 minutes, respectively). Conclusion: 4D-MRI offers potential for excursion characterization, although results suggest the use of adequate phases is important. Further application and clinical validation are warranted. Research supported in part by a grant from Philips HealthCare (Best, Netherlands) and an Internal Mentored Grant from Henry Ford Health System.

  3. Nanoscale Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based on Ultrasensitive Force Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamin, H. J.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM) seeks to dramatically improve the sensitivity and resolution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), perhaps ultimately down to the molecular scale. It uses force detection to circumvent the sensitivity limits inherent in conventional inductively-detected MRI. By using an ultrasensitive, single crystal silicon cantilever cooled to 300 mK, we can detect forces smaller than 1 aN, allowing us to sense the magnetism from small ensembles of nuclear spins. We have used tobacco mosaic virus as a test object, detecting the hydrogen signal. Using three-dimensional scans and mathematical deconvolution algorithms, we have made 3D reconstructions of the viruses with resolution down to roughly 4 nm. This represents a 10^8x improvement in minimum detectable volume compared to the best conventional MRI. Advancing the technique further will require reducing the force noise, increasing the achieved magnetic field gradients, and making use of the inherent chemical sensitivity of magnetic resonance.

  4. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging-conditional robotic devices for therapy and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Taylor; Hamed, Abbi; Vartholomeos, Panagiotis; Masamune, Ken; Tang, Guoyi; Ren, Hongliang; Tse, Zion T H

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging presents high-resolution preoperative scans of target tissue and allows for the availability of intraoperative real-time images without the exposure of patients to ionizing radiation. This has motivated scientists and engineers to integrate medical robotics with the magnetic resonance imaging modality to allow robot-assisted, image-guided diagnosis and therapy. This article provides a review of the state-of-the-art medical robotic systems available for use in conjunction with intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging. The robot functionalities and mechanical designs for a wide range of magnetic resonance imaging interventions are presented, including their magnetic resonance imaging compatibility, actuation, kinematics and the mechanical and electrical designs of the robots. Classification and comparative study of various intraoperative magnetic resonance image guided robotic systems are provided. The robotic systems reviewed are summarized in a table in detail. Current technologies for magnetic resonance imaging-conditional robotics are reviewed and their potential future directions are sketched. PMID:24534419

  5. Medical Imaging Field of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Identification of Specialties within the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if specialty areas are emerging in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profession due to advancements made in the medical sciences, imaging technology, and clinical applications used in MRI that would require new developments in education/training programs and national registry examinations. In this

  6. Various diffusion magnetic resonance imaging techniques for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Meng-Yue; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Chen, Tian-Wu; Huang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors and remains a treatment-refractory cancer with a poor prognosis. Currently, the diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasm depends mainly on imaging and which methods are conducive to detecting small lesions. Compared to the other techniques, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has irreplaceable advantages and can provide valuable information unattainable with other noninvasive or minimally invasive imaging techniques. Advances in MR hardware and pulse sequence design have particularly improved the quality and robustness of MRI of the pancreas. Diffusion MR imaging serves as one of the common functional MRI techniques and is the only technique that can be used to reflect the diffusion movement of water molecules in vivo. It is generally known that diffusion properties depend on the characterization of intrinsic features of tissue microdynamics and microstructure. With the improvement of the diffusion models, diffusion MR imaging techniques are increasingly varied, from the simplest and most commonly used technique to the more complex. In this review, the various diffusion MRI techniques for pancreatic cancer are discussed, including conventional diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), multi-b DWI based on intra-voxel incoherent motion theory, diffusion tensor imaging and diffusion kurtosis imaging. The principles, main parameters, advantages and limitations of these techniques, as well as future directions for pancreatic diffusion imaging are also discussed. PMID:26753059

  7. Robust Intensity Standardization in Brain Magnetic Resonance Images.

    PubMed

    De Nunzio, Giorgio; Cataldo, Rosella; Carl, Alessandra

    2015-12-01

    The paper is focused on a tiSsue-Based Standardization Technique (SBST) of magnetic resonance (MR) brain images. Magnetic Resonance Imaging intensities have no fixed tissue-specific numeric meaning, even within the same MRI protocol, for the same body region, or even for images of the same patient obtained on the same scanner in different moments. This affects postprocessing tasks such as automatic segmentation or unsupervised/supervised classification methods, which strictly depend on the observed image intensities, compromising the accuracy and efficiency of many image analysesalgorithms. A large number of MR images from public databases, belonging to healthy people and to patients with different degrees of neurodegenerative pathology, were employed together with synthetic MRIs. Combining both histogram and tissue-specific intensity information, a correspondence is obtained for each tissue across images. The novelty consists of computing three standardizing transformations for the three main brain tissues, for each tissue class separately. In order to create a continuous intensity mapping, spline smoothing of the overall slightly discontinuous piecewise-linear intensity transformation is performed. The robustness of the technique is assessed in a post hoc manner, by verifying that automatic segmentation of images before and after standardization gives a high overlapping (Dice index >0.9) for each tissue class, even across images coming from different sources. Furthermore, SBST efficacy is tested by evaluating if and how much it increases intertissue discrimination and by assessing gaussianity of tissue gray-level distributions before and after standardization. Some quantitative comparisons to already existing different approaches available in the literature are performed. PMID:25708893

  8. Resonant plasmonic nanoparticles for multicolor second harmonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accanto, Nicolò; Piatkowski, Lukasz; Hancu, Ion M.; Renger, Jan; van Hulst, Niek F.

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles capable of efficiently generating nonlinear optical signals, like second harmonic generation, are attracting a lot of attention as potential background-free and stable nano-probes for biological imaging. However, second harmonic nanoparticles of different species do not produce readily distinguishable optical signals, as the excitation laser mainly defines their second harmonic spectrum. This is in marked contrast to other fluorescent nano-probes like quantum dots that emit light at different colors depending on their sizes and materials. Here, we present the use of resonant plasmonic nanoparticles, combined with broadband phase-controlled laser pulses, as tunable sources of multicolor second harmonic generation. The resonant plasmonic nanoparticles strongly interact with the electromagnetic field of the incident light, enhancing the efficiency of nonlinear optical processes. Because the plasmon resonance in these structures is spectrally narrower than the laser bandwidth, the plasmonic nanoparticles imprint their fingerprints on the second harmonic spectrum. We show how nanoparticles of different sizes produce different colors in the second harmonic spectra even when excited with the same laser pulse. Using these resonant plasmonic nanoparticles as nano-probes is promising for multicolor second harmonic imaging while keeping all the advantages of nonlinear optical microscopy.

  9. Incidental multifocal white matter lesions in pediatric magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Fisch, Naama; Konen, Osnat; Halevy, Ayelet; Cohen, Roni; Shuper, Avinoam

    2012-07-01

    This study sought to describe the occurrence and potential significance of white matter abnormalities of unknown cause on pediatric cranial magnetic resonance scans, and to review the literature. We included 16 children in whom white matter abnormalities were incidentally revealed on magnetic resonance scans performed during a 7-year period at a tertiary pediatric medical center. Background data were retrospectively collected from medical files. White matter lesions were classified by size, location, and extent. Indications for imaging included convulsive disorder (n = 5), headache (n = 5), endocrine disorder (n = 4), and others. Patients' abnormalities did not correlate with the locations and patterns of white matter lesions. No changes in lesions were evident over time. Given the absence of evident benefits from repeated imaging studies, we suggest they are not warranted in every patient, and should be tailored according to clinical course. Further investigations of incidental intracranial findings are required in this age group. PMID:22704009

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging with 90-nm resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, M.; Degen, C. L.; Mamin, H. J.; Rugar, D.

    2007-03-01

    Using magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM), we demonstrate two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with 90-nm lateral resolution for ^19F nuclei in calcium fluoride. In terms of detectable volume, this represents a 60,000 fold improvement over the highest resolution conventional MRI. The high sensitivity of our measurement is achieved using a custom-made silicon cantilever with a 60-?N/m spring constant and a nanometer-scale FeCo magnetic tip that produces magnetic field gradients up to 14 G/nm. The spin manipulation protocol, called cyclic CERMIT, uses low duty cycle cantilever-driven adiabatic reversals to manipulate statistical spin polarization and generate a detectable cantilever frequency modulation. Work is underway to further improve measurement sensitivity, including the development of an efficient RF source aimed at reducing cantilever temperatures during imaging into the low millikelvin range. This and other improvements may allow MRFM to push deeper into the nanometer range.

  11. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging comparisons in boxers

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, B.D. ); Zimmerman, R.D. )

    1990-03-23

    The efficacy of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying traumatic injuries of the brain was compared in a referred population of 21 amateur and professional boxers. Three boxers displayed CT scans with equivocal findings that were verified as artifacts by MRI. Eleven boxers had both CT and MRI scans with normal findings, and 7 boxers had both CT and MRI scans with abnormal findings. There were no instances where abnormalities demonstrated on CT scanning were not detected by MRI. However, some abnormalities detected on MRI were not detected on CT scans. These included a subdural hematoma, white-matter changes, and a focal contusion. Magnetic resonance imaging appears to be the neuroradiodiagnostic test of choice compared with CT.

  12. Image Guided Focal Therapy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Visible Prostate Cancer: Defining a 3-Dimensional Treatment Margin Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Histology Co-Registration Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Le Nobin, Julien; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Villers, Arnauld; Orczyk, Clment; Deng, Fang-Ming; Melamed, Jonathan; Mikheev, Artem; Rusinek, Henry; Taneja, Samir S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compared prostate tumor boundaries on magnetic resonance imaging and radical prostatectomy histological assessment using detailed software assisted co-registration to define an optimal treatment margin for achieving complete tumor destruction during image guided focal ablation. Materials and Methods Included in study were 33 patients who underwent 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging before radical prostatectomy. A radiologist traced lesion borders on magnetic resonance imaging and assigned a suspicion score of 2 to 5. Three-dimensional reconstructions were created from high resolution digitalized slides of radical prostatectomy specimens and co-registered to imaging using advanced software. Tumors were compared between histology and imaging by the Hausdorff distance and stratified by the magnetic resonance imaging suspicion score, Gleason score and lesion diameter. Cylindrical volume estimates of treatment effects were used to define the optimal treatment margin. Results Three-dimensional software based registration with magnetic resonance imaging was done in 46 histologically confirmed cancers. Imaging underestimated tumor size with a maximal discrepancy between imaging and histological boundaries for a given tumor of an average SD of 1.99 3.1 mm, representing 18.5% of the diameter on imaging. Boundary underestimation was larger for lesions with an imaging suspicion score 4 or greater (mean 3.49 2.1 mm, p <0.001) and a Gleason score of 7 or greater (mean 2.48 2.8 mm, p = 0.035). A simulated cylindrical treatment volume based on the imaging boundary missed an average 14.8% of tumor volume compared to that based on the histological boundary. A simulated treatment volume based on a 9 mm treatment margin achieved complete histological tumor destruction in 100% of patients. Conclusions Magnetic resonance imaging underestimates histologically determined tumor boundaries, especially for lesions with a high imaging suspicion score and a high Gleason score. A 9 mm treatment margin around a lesion visible on magnetic resonance imaging would consistently ensure treatment of the entire histological tumor volume during focal ablative therapy. PMID:25711199

  13. The utility of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in Kounis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Okur, Aylin; Karaca, Leyla; Ogul, Hayri; Akz, Ayhan; K?zrak, Yesim; Aslan, Sahin; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Aksakal, Enbiya; Emet, Mucahit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current diagnostic measurements used to assess myocardial involvement in Kounis syndrome, such as electrocardiography (ECG), cardiac enzymes, and troponin levels, are relatively insensitive to small but potentially significant functional change. According to our review of the literature, there has been no study using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on Kounis syndrome except for one case report. Aim To identify the findings of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) in patients with Kounis syndrome (KS) type 1. Material and methods We studied 26 patients (35 11.5 years, 53.8% male) with known or suspected KS type 1. The patients underwent precontrast, first-pass, and delayed enhancement cardiac MRI (DE-MRI). Contrast enhancement patterns, edema, hypokinesia, and localization for myocardial lesions were evaluated in all KS type 1 patients. Results Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an early-phase subendocardial contrast defect, and T2-weighted images showed high-signal intensity consistent with edema in lesion areas. None of the lesion areas was found upon contrast enhancement on DE-MRI. The area of early-phase subendocardial contrast defect was reported as follows: the interventricular septum in 14 (53.8%) patients, the left ventricular lateral wall in 8 (30.7%), and the left ventricular apex in 4 (15.4%). Conclusions Dynamic cardiac MR imaging is a reliable tool for assessing cardiac involvement in Kounis syndrome. Delayed contrast-enhanced images show normal washout in the subendocardial lesion area in patients with Kounis syndrome type 1. PMID:26677363

  14. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Diagnostic Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Singh, Navjeeven; Sharma, Sonal; Rohatgi, Jolly; Oberai, Rakesh; Chatterjee, Kingshuk

    2015-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a well-known clinical entity, characterized by facial angio-fibroma, shagreen patch, and hypo-melanotic, and confetti-like skin lesions. An exquisite fresh case is being narrated, emphasizing its microscopic pathology. The role of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, in particular, is highlighted to define the large variety of neurological abrasions for determining its future progression. PMID:26288435

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the internal auditory canal

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, D.L.; Herfkins, R.; Koehler, P.R.; Millen, S.J.; Shaffer, K.A.; Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-04-01

    Three patients with exclusively or predominantly intracanalicular neuromas and 5 with presumably normal internal auditory canals were examined with prototype 1.4- or 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. MR images showed the 7th and 8th cranial nerves in the internal auditory canal. The intracanalicular neuromas had larger diameter and slightly greater signal strength than the nerves. Early results suggest that minimal enlargement of the nerves can be detected even in the internal auditory canal.

  16. Catheter steering using a Magnetic Resonance Imaging system.

    PubMed

    Lalande, Viviane; Gosselin, Frederick P; Martel, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    A catheter is successfully bent and steered by applying magnetic gradients inside a Magnetic Resonance Imaging system (MRI). One to three soft ferromagnetic spheres are attached at the distal tip of the catheter with different spacing between the spheres. Depending on the interactions between the spheres, progressive or discontinuous/jumping displacement was observed for increasing magnetic load. This phenomenon is accurately predicted by a simple theoretical dipole interaction model. PMID:21096567

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Stroke in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    CHOPP, Michael; LI, Lian; ZHANG, Li; ZHANG, Zheng-gang; LI, Qing-jiang; JIANG, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now a routine neuroimaging tool in the clinic. Throughout all phases of stroke from acute to chronic, MRI plays an important role to diagnose, evaluate and monitor the cerebral tissue undergoing stroke. This review provides a description of various MRI methods and an overview of selected MRI studies, with an embolic stroke model of rat, performed in the MRI laboratory of Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, US. PMID:24920874

  18. Advanced and Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Sarbu, Nicolae; Bargalló, Núria; Cervera, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric lupus is a major diagnostic challenge, and a main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is, by far, the main tool for assessing the brain in this disease. Conventional and advanced MRI techniques are used to help establishing the diagnosis, to rule out alternative diagnoses, and recently, to monitor the evolution of the disease. This review explores the neuroimaging findings in SLE, including the recent advances in new MRI methods. PMID:26236469

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Benign Cardiac Masses: A Pictorial Essay

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Thomas J.; Kadoch, Michael A.; Jacobi, Adam H.; Lopez, Pablo P.; Salvo, Javier Sanz; Cham, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    The differential diagnosis for a cardiac mass includes primary and metastatic neoplasms. While primary cardiac tumors are rare, metastatic disease to the heart is a common finding in cancer patients. Several tumor-like processes can mimic a true cardiac neoplasm with accurate diagnosis critical at guiding appropriate management. We present a pictorial essay of the most common benign cardiac masses and mass-like lesions with an emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging features. PMID:24083071

  20. Transcranial magnetic stimulation assisted by neuronavigation of magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viesca, N. Angeline; Alcauter, S. Sarael; Barrios, A. Fernando; Gonzlez, O. Jorge J.; Mrquez, F. Jorge A.

    2012-10-01

    Technological advance has improved the way scientists and doctors can learn about the brain and treat different disorders. A non-invasive method used for this is Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) based on neuron excitation by electromagnetic induction. Combining this method with functional Magnetic Resonance Images (fMRI), it is intended to improve the localization technique of cortical brain structures by designing an extracranial localization system, based on Alcauter et al. work.

  1. [Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging and its Application in Ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Lindner, T; Langner, S; Paul, K; Pohlmann, A; Hadlich, S; Niendorf, T; Jnemann, A; Guthoff, R F; Stachs, O

    2015-12-01

    The value of diffusion-weighted magnet resonance imaging (DWI-MRI) has been demonstrated for an ever growing range of clinical indications. DWI is sensitive to the diffusion of water molecules and probes their random displacement within tissue. DWI provides both qualitative and quantitative information on tissue characteristics, e.g. tissue cellularity. This review provides an overview of diffusion-weighted imaging and its emerging applications in ophthalmology. The basic physics and technical foundations of DWI are introduced. The emerging applications of DWI are surveyed, particularly in diseases of the eye, orbit and optical nerve. PMID:26678901

  2. Overview of left ventricular outpouchings on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular outpouchings commonly include aneurysm, pseudoaneurysm, and diverticulum and are now being increasingly detected on imaging. Distinction between these entities is of prime importance to guide proper management as outcomes for these entities differ substantially. Chest radiograph is usually nonspecific in their diagnosis. Echocardiography, multi-detector computed tomography evaluation and angiography are helpful in the diagnosis with their inherit limitations. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as a very useful tool that allows simultaneous anatomical and functional evaluation along with tissue characterization, which has diagnostic, theraputic and prognostic implications. This article gives an overview of left ventricular outpouchings with special emphasis on their differentiation using cardiac MRI. PMID:26675616

  3. Current Role of Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neurologic Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Karen; Cassady, Christopher; Jones, Jeremy; Paldino, Michael; Mehollin-Ray, Amy; Guimaraes, Carolina; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used increasingly to image the fetus when important questions remain unanswered after ultrasonography, which might occur particularly with abnormal amniotic fluid volumes, difficult fetal lie or position, and maternal obesity. Ultrasonography also has limitations due to sound attenuation by bone, such as within the cranium and spine, and therefore MRI has a real advantage in delineating potentially complex neuroanatomical relationships. This article outlines current MRI protocols for evaluation of the fetal neural axis, describes indications for the use of MRI in the fetal brain and spine, and provides examples to illustrate the uses of available fetal sequences. PMID:26296481

  4. Pituitary gland: development, normal appearances, and magnetic resonance imaging protocols.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Mauricio

    2005-07-01

    In this article, I will review the normal anatomy of the pituitary gland starting with a brief review of aspects of its origin and development that are pertinent to radiologists. The anatomy of the anterior and posterior lobes will be addressed as will be that of the surrounding structures and of the vascular structures of the gland. Radiologists need to be familiar with the normal magnetic resonance imaging appearance of the gland and the changes that it undergoes throughout life. The normal patterns of contrast enhancement by the gland are described. Normal pituitary variations and incidental conditions are discussed, and the article finishes by describing appropriate imaging protocols. PMID:16785841

  5. Bulk and surface sensitivity of a resonant waveguide grating imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgovan, Norbert; Kovacs, Boglarka; Farkas, Eniko; Szabó, Bálint; Zaytseva, Natalya; Fang, Ye; Horvath, Robert

    2014-02-01

    We report the assessment of the sensitivity of a microplate-compatible resonant waveguide grating imager. The sensitivity to bulk refractive index changes was determined using a serial dilution of glycerol solution with the help of a refractometer. The surface sensitivity was examined using layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte films in conjunction with optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy and characterized by the binding of acetazolamide to immobilized carbonic anhydrase under microfluidics. The results suggest that the imager has a limit of detection down to 2.2 × 10-6 for refractive index change and 0.078 ng/cm2 for the adsorbed mass.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Gel-cast Ceramic Composites

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dieckman, S. L.; Balss, K. M.; Waterfield, L. G.; Jendrzejczyk, J. A.; Raptis, A. C.

    1997-01-16

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are being employed to aid in the development of advanced near-net-shape gel-cast ceramic composites. MRI is a unique nondestructive evaluation tool that provides information on both the chemical and physical properties of materials. In this effort, MRI imaging was performed to monitor the drying of porous green-state alumina - methacrylamide-N.N`-methylene bisacrylamide (MAM-MBAM) polymerized composite specimens. Studies were performed on several specimens as a function of humidity and time. The mass and shrinkage of the specimens were also monitored and correlated with the water content.

  7. Resonant imaging of carotenoid pigments in the human retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellermann, Werner; Emakov, Igor V.; McClane, Robert W.

    2002-06-01

    We have generated high spatial resolution images showing the distribution of carotenoid macular pigments in the human retina using Raman spectroscopy. A low level of macular pigments is associated with an increased risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Using excised human eyecups and resonant excitation of the pigment molecules with narrow bandwidth blue light from a mercury arc lamp, we record Raman images originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of lutein and zeaxanthin, the carotenoids comprising human macular pigments. Our Raman images reveal significant differences among subjects, both in regard to absolute levels as well as spatial distribution within the macula. Since the light levels used to obtain these images are well below established safety limits, this technique holds promise for developing a rapid screening diagnostic in large populations at risk for vision loss from age-related macular degeneration.

  8. High-field magnetic resonance imaging using solenoid radiofrequency coils.

    PubMed

    Vegh, Viktor; Glser, Philipp; Maillet, Donald; Cowin, Gary J; Reutens, David C

    2012-10-01

    High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging using dedicated high-field radiofrequency micro-coils at 16.4 T (700 MHz) was investigated. Specific solenoid coils primarily using silver and copper as conductors with enamel and polyurethane coatings were built to establish which coil configuration produces the best image. Image quality was quantified using signal-to-noise ratio and signal variation over regions of interest. Benchmarking was conducted using 5-mm diameter coils, as this size is comparable to an established coil of the same size. Our 1.4-mm-diameter coils were compared directly to each other, from which we deduce performance as a function of conductor material and coating. A variety of materials and conductor coatings allowed us to choose an optimal design, which we used to image a kidney section at 10-micron resolution. We applied zero-fill extrapolation to achieve 5-micron resolution. PMID:22819180

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques: fMRI, DWI, and PWI

    PubMed Central

    Holdsworth, Samantha J.; Bammer, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive technique which can acquire important quantitative and anatomical information from an individual in any plane or volume at comparatively high resolution. Over the past several years, developments in scanner hardware and software have enabled the acquisition of fast MRI imaging, proving extremely useful in various clinical and research applications such as in brain mapping or functional MRI (fMRI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). These techniques have revolutionized the use of MRI in the clinics, providing great insight into physiologic mechanisms and pathologic conditions. Since these relatively new areas of MRI have relied on fast scanning techniques, they have only recently been widely introduced to clinical sites. As such, this review article is devoted to the technological aspects of these techniques, as well as their roles and limitations in neuroimaging applications. PMID:18843569

  10. Generation Of Tissue Volume Imaging From Magnetic Resonance Scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourino, Manuel; Moore, Andrew; Rusinek, Henry; Kowalski, Henryk

    1988-06-01

    Volume reconstruction algorithms that provide a three-dimensional (3D) rendering of a tomographic study are now available but not directly applicable to magnetic resonance (MR) studies. The problem with images in such studies is that the gray ranges of tissues overlap. To overcome it, we have developed an interactive graphics editor (IGE) that allows its user to define subregions within the volume of MR images which comprises such a study. The editor performs a statistical analysis of the volume contained in each subregion. With this information the user can enhance individual subregions with such techniques as user-defined remapping of gray levels, the addition of color, the addition of transparency, and spatial filtering. The editor is implemented on a Pixar Image Computer which uses as a host a Sun 3/180 computer. It has been used by us to create from MR studies three-dimensional images of the brain and knee.

  11. Calibration of a resonance energy transfer imaging system.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, M; Hensel, N F; Hartzman, R J

    1992-01-01

    A quantitative technique for the nondestructive visualization of nanometer scale intermolecular separations in a living system is described. A calibration procedure for the acquisition and analysis of resonance energy transfer (RET) image data is outlined. The factors limiting RET imaging of biological samples are discussed. Measurements required for the calibration include: (a) the spectral sensitivity of the image intensifier (or camera); (b) the transmission spectra of the emission filters; and (c) the quantum distribution functions of the energy transfer pair measured in situ. Resonance energy transfer imaging is demonstrated for two DNA specific dyes. The Frster critical distance for energy transfer between Hoechst 33342 (HO) and acridine orange (AO) is 4.5 +/- 0.7 nm. This distance is slightly greater than the distance of a single turn of the DNA helix (3.5 nm or approximately 10 base pairs), and is well below the optical diffraction limit. Timed sequences of intracellular energy transfer reveal nuclear structure, strikingly similar to that observed with confocal and electron microscopy, and may show the spatial distribution of eu- and hetero- chromatin in the interphase nuclei. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:1581499

  12. Long-range surface plasmon resonance imaging for bioaffinity sensors.

    PubMed

    Wark, Alastair W; Lee, Hye Jin; Corn, Robert M

    2005-07-01

    A novel bioaffinity sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging measurements of a multiple-layered structure that supports the generation of long-range surface plasmons (LRSPs) at the water-metal interface is reported. LRSPs possess longer surface propagation lengths, higher electric field strengths, and sharper angular resonance curves than conventional surface plasmons. LRSPR imaging is a version of SPR imaging that requires a symmetric dielectric arrangement around the gold thin film. This arrangement is created using an SF10 prism/Cytop/gold/water multilayer film structure where Cytop is an amorphous fluoropolymer with a refractive index very close to that of water. LRSPR imaging experiments are performed at a fixed incident angle and lead to an enhanced response for the detection of surface binding interactions. As an example, the hybridization adsorption of a 16-mer single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) onto a two-component ssDNA array was monitored with LRSPR imaging. The ssDNA array was created using a new fabrication technology appropriate for the LRSPR multilayers. PMID:15987090

  13. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-07-01

    A review is given of the crucial work performed by Paul C. Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield that lead to their being awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2003. Lauterbur first expounded the idea of mapping spatial information from spectral data in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) through the application of magnetic field gradients (P. C. Lauterbur, Nature 1973 , 242, 190-191). One year later Mansfield and co-workers introduced the idea of selective excitation to NMR imaging (A. N. Garroway, P. K. Grannell, and P. Mansfield. J. Phys. C: Solid State Physics 1974 , 7, L457-L462). A major step in making the technique useful for clinical imaging came with Mansfield's publication of the method known as echo planar imaging (P. Mansfield, J. Phys. C: Solid State Physics 1977, 10 (3) , L55-L58). Lauterbur's and Mansfield's work captured the essence of scientific discovery, collaboration, and concerted effort to overcome significant technical issues, and were key to the development of the technique of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Examples of how MRI technology can be extended to chemical research are given, and limitations of the technique in this regard are discussed. Discussion of how to use commonly available NMR spectrometers for chemical imaging is also provided.

  14. Clinical Applications of Magnetic Resonance ImagingCurrent Status

    PubMed Central

    Cammoun, Driss; Davis, Kathleen A.; Hendee, William R.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has far-reaching real and possible clinical applications. Its usefulness has been best explored and realized in the central nervous system, especially the posterior fossa and brain stem, where most abnormalities are better identified than with computed tomography. Its lack of ionizing radiation and extreme sensitivity to normal and abnormal patterns of myelination make magnetic resonance imaging advantageous for diagnosing many neonatal and pediatric abnormalities. New, reliable cardiac gating techniques open the way for promising studies of cardiac anatomy and function. The ability to image directly in three orthogonal planes gives us new insight into staging and follow-up of pelvic tumors and other pelvic abnormalities. Exquisite soft tissue contrast, far above that attainable by other imaging modalities, has made possible the early diagnosis of traumatic ligamentous knee injury, avascular necrosis of the hip and diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of musculoskeletal neoplasms. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:3911592

  15. Clinical examination or whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: the Holy Grail of spondyloarthritis imaging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging allows acquisition of diagnostic images in the shortest scan time, leading to better patient compliance and artifact-free images. Methods of clinical examination of the anterior chest wall joints vary between physician groups and consideration of the rules of rib motion is suggested. The type of joint and its synovial lining may also aid imaging/clinical correlation. This well-written study by experts in the field with a standardized design and methodology allows good scientific analysis and suggests the advantages of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in anterior chest wall imaging. Selection of clinical examination criteria and specific joints may have had an influence on the study results and the lack of association reported. PMID:22380535

  16. Spectrally Resolved Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the XenonBiosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hilty, Christian; Lowery, Thomas; Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander

    2005-07-15

    Due to its ability to non-invasively record images, as well as elucidate molecular structure, nuclear magnetic resonance is the method of choice for applications as widespread as chemical analysis and medical diagnostics. Its detection threshold is, however, limited by the small polarization of nuclear spins in even the highest available magnetic fields. This limitation can, under certain circumstances, be alleviated by using hyper-polarized substances. Xenon biosensors make use of the sensitivity gain of hyperpolarized xenon to provide magnetic resonance detection capability for a specific low-concentration target. They consist of a cryptophane cage, which binds one xenon atom, and which has been connected via a linker to a targeting moiety such as a ligand or antibody. Recent work has shown the possibility of using the xenon biosensor to detect small amounts of a substance in a heterogeneous environment by NMR. Here, we demonstrate that magnetic resonance (MR) provides the capability to obtain spectrally and spatially resolved images of the distribution of immobilized biosensor, opening the possibility for using the xenon biosensor for targeted imaging.

  17. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in patients with cerebellar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, G; Bertolino, A; Massaquoi, S G; Campbell, G; Patronas, N J; Bonavita, S; Barnett, A S; Alger, J R; Hallett, M

    1996-01-01

    Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, we studied the cerebellum of 9 patients with cerebellar degeneration and of 9 age-matched normal control subjects. This technique permits the simultaneous measurement of N-acetylaspartate, choline-containing compounds, creatine/phosphocreatine, and lactate signal intensities from four 15-mm slices divided into 0.84-ml single-volume elements. Because patients with cerebellar degeneration often show substantial atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we specifically chose to analyze the spectroscopic signals only from tissue that did not have an atrophic appearance on the MRI. The spectroscopic findings showed a significant reduction of N-acetylaspartate in all parts of the cerebellum, a significant correlation with MRI scores of cerebellar atrophy, and a significant correlation with clinical rating scores of cerebellar disturbance. Our method of analysis suggests the presence of a neurodegenerative process in cerebellar areas that do not appear to be atrophic on the MRI. Some limitations of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the present study were related to the partial field inhomogeneity characteristics of the posterior fossa, the anatomical location of the cerebellum, and the particularly severe cerebellar atrophy in some of the patients. PMID:8572670

  18. Microtesla magnetic resonance imaging with a superconducting quantum interference device

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Robert; Lee, SeungKyun; ten Haken, Bennie; Trabesinger, Andreas H.; Pines, Alexander; Clarke, John

    2004-03-15

    We have constructed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner based on a dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) configured as a second-derivative gradiometer. The magnetic field sensitivity of the detector is independent of frequency; it is therefore possible to obtain high-resolution images by prepolarizing the nuclear spins in a field of 300 mT and detecting the signal at 132 fYT, corresponding to a proton Larmor frequency of 5.6 kHz. The reduction in the measurement field by a factor of 10,000 compared with conventional scanners eliminates inhomogeneous broadening of the nuclear magnetic resonance lines, even in fields with relatively poor homogeneity. The narrow linewidths result in enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution for a fixed strength of the magnetic field gradients used to encode the image. We present two-dimensional images of phantoms and pepper slices, obtained in typical magnetic field gradients of 100 fYT/m, with a spatial resolution of about 1mm. We further demonstrate a slice-selected image of an intact pepper. By varying the time delay between removal of the polarizing field and initiation of the spin echo sequence we acquire T1-weighted contrast images of water phantoms, some of which are doped with a paramagnetic salt; here, T1 is the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time. The techniques presented here could readily be adapted to existing multichannel SQUID systems used for magnetic source imaging of brain signals. Further potential applications include low-cost systems for tumor screening and imaging peripheral regions of the body.

  19. Sparse magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction using the bregman iteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Hong, Cheol-Pyo; Lee, Man-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reconstruction needs many samples that are sequentially sampled by using phase encoding gradients in a MRI system. It is directly connected to the scan time for the MRI system and takes a long time. Therefore, many researchers have studied ways to reduce the scan time, especially, compressed sensing (CS), which is used for sparse images and reconstruction for fewer sampling datasets when the k-space is not fully sampled. Recently, an iterative technique based on the bregman method was developed for denoising. The bregman iteration method improves on total variation (TV) regularization by gradually recovering the fine-scale structures that are usually lost in TV regularization. In this study, we studied sparse sampling image reconstruction using the bregman iteration for a low-field MRI system to improve its temporal resolution and to validate its usefulness. The image was obtained with a 0.32 T MRI scanner (Magfinder II, SCIMEDIX, Korea) with a phantom and an in-vivo human brain in a head coil. We applied random k-space sampling, and we determined the sampling ratios by using half the fully sampled k-space. The bregman iteration was used to generate the final images based on the reduced data. We also calculated the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) values from error images that were obtained using various numbers of bregman iterations. Our reconstructed images using the bregman iteration for sparse sampling images showed good results compared with the original images. Moreover, the RMSE values showed that the sparse reconstructed phantom and the human images converged to the original images. We confirmed the feasibility of sparse sampling image reconstruction methods using the bregman iteration with a low-field MRI system and obtained good results. Although our results used half the sampling ratio, this method will be helpful in increasing the temporal resolution at low-field MRI systems.

  20. Improved Guided Image Fusion for Magnetic Resonance and Computed Tomography Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jameel, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Improved guided image fusion for magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging is proposed. Existing guided filtering scheme uses Gaussian filter and two-level weight maps due to which the scheme has limited performance for images having noise. Different modifications in filter (based on linear minimum mean square error estimator) and weight maps (with different levels) are proposed to overcome these limitations. Simulation results based on visual and quantitative analysis show the significance of proposed scheme. PMID:24695586

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of isolated single liposome by magnetic resonance force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, S; Masumizu, T; Yoshinari, Y

    2004-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is very useful spectroscopy to visualize a three-dimensional (3D) real structure inside the sample without physical destruction. The spatial resolution of the readily available MRI spectrometer is, however, limited by a few ten to hundreds of microns due to a technological boundary of generating larger magnetic field gradient and to the insensitivity inherent to the inductive signal detection. Magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) is new alternative MRI spectroscopy which is anticipated to significantly surpass the conventional MRI in both resolution and sensitivity. We report two imaging experiments on our MRFM spectrometer operated at room temperature and in vacuum approximately 10(-3)Pa. One is for approximately 20 microm liposome membrane labeled entirely by a nitroxide imaging agent and the other for approximately 15 microm DPPH particles, both are nearly the same size as that of human cell. The reconstructed images at spatial resolution approximately 1 microm were in satisfactory agreement with the scanning electron microscope images. The potential capability of visualizing intrinsic radicals in the cell is suggested to investigate redox process from a microscopic point of view. PMID:15040976

  2. Respiratory Amplitude Guided 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yanle; Caruthers, Shelton D.; Low, Daniel A.; Parikh, Parag J.; Mutic, Sasa

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of prospectively guiding 4-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image acquisition using triggers at preselected respiratory amplitudes to achieve T{sub 2} weighting for abdominal motion tracking. Methods and Materials: A respiratory amplitude-based triggering system was developed and integrated into a commercial turbo spin echo MRI sequence. Initial feasibility tests were performed on healthy human study participants. Four respiratory states, the middle and the end of inhalation and exhalation, were used to trigger 4D MRI image acquisition of the liver. To achieve T{sub 2} weighting, the echo time and repetition time were set to 75 milliseconds and 4108 milliseconds, respectively. Single-shot acquisition, together with parallel imaging and partial k-space imaging techniques, was used to improve image acquisition efficiency. 4D MRI image sets composed of axial or sagittal slices were acquired. Results: Respiratory data measured and logged by the MRI scanner showed that the triggers occurred at the appropriate respiratory levels. Liver motion could be easily observed on both 4D MRI image datasets by sensing either the change of liver in size and shape (axial) or diaphragm motion (sagittal). Both 4D MRI image datasets were T{sub 2}-weighted as expected. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the feasibility of achieving T{sub 2}-weighted 4D MRI images using amplitude-based respiratory triggers. With the aid of the respiratory amplitude-based triggering system, the proposed method is compatible with most MRI sequences and therefore has the potential to improve tumor-tissue contrast in abdominal tumor motion imaging.

  3. Anomalous diffusion process applied to magnetic resonance image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senra Filho, A. C. da S.; Garrido Salmon, C. E.; Murta Junior, L. O.

    2015-03-01

    Diffusion process is widely applied to digital image enhancement both directly introducing diffusion equation as in anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter, and indirectly by convolution as in Gaussian filter. Anomalous diffusion process (ADP), given by a nonlinear relationship in diffusion equation and characterized by an anomalous parameters q, is supposed to be consistent with inhomogeneous media. Although classic diffusion process is widely studied and effective in various image settings, the effectiveness of ADP as an image enhancement is still unknown. In this paper we proposed the anomalous diffusion filters in both isotropic (IAD) and anisotropic (AAD) forms for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement. Filters based on discrete implementation of anomalous diffusion were applied to noisy MRI T2w images (brain, chest and abdominal) in order to quantify SNR gains estimating the performance for the proposed anomalous filter when realistic noise is added to those images. Results show that for images containing complex structures, e.g. brain structures, anomalous diffusion presents the highest enhancements when compared to classical diffusion approach. Furthermore, ADP presented a more effective enhancement for images containing Rayleigh and Gaussian noise. Anomalous filters showed an ability to preserve anatomic edges and a SNR improvement of 26% for brain images, compared to classical filter. In addition, AAD and IAD filters showed optimum results for noise distributions that appear on extreme situations on MRI, i.e. in low SNR images with approximate Rayleigh noise distribution, and for high SNR images with Gaussian or non central χ noise distributions. AAD and IAD filter showed the best results for the parametric range 1.2 < q < 1.6, suggesting that the anomalous diffusion regime is more suitable for MRI. This study indicates the proposed anomalous filters as promising approaches in qualitative and quantitative MRI enhancement.

  4. Navigation concepts for magnetic resonance imaging-guided musculoskeletal interventions.

    PubMed

    Busse, Harald; Kahn, Thomas; Moche, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Image-guided musculoskeletal (MSK) interventions are a widely used alternative to open surgical procedures for various pathological findings in different body regions. They traditionally involve one of the established x-ray imaging techniques (radiography, fluoroscopy, computed tomography) or ultrasound scanning. Over the last decades, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved into one of the most powerful diagnostic tools for nearly the whole body and has therefore been increasingly considered for interventional guidance as well.The strength of MRI for MSK applications is a combination of well-known general advantages, such as multiplanar and functional imaging capabilities, wide choice of tissue contrasts, and absence of ionizing radiation, as well as a number of MSK-specific factors, for example, the excellent depiction of soft-tissue tumors, nonosteolytic bone changes, and bone marrow lesions. On the downside, the magnetic resonance-compatible equipment needed, restricted space in the magnet, longer imaging times, and the more complex workflow have so far limited the number of MSK procedures under MRI guidance.Navigation solutions are generally a natural extension of any interventional imaging system, in particular, because powerful hardware and software for image processing have become routinely available. They help to identify proper access paths, provide accurate feedback on the instrument positions, facilitate the workflow in an MRI environment, and ultimately contribute to procedural safety and success.The purposes of this work were to describe some basic concepts and devices for MRI guidance of MSK procedures and to discuss technical and clinical achievements and challenges for some selected implementations. PMID:23514925

  5. Current role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chevallier, Olivier; Moulin, Morgan; Favelier, Sylvain; Genson, Pierre-Yves; Pottecher, Pierre; Crehange, Gilles; Cochet, Alexandre; Cormier, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) has shown promising results in diagnosis, localization, risk stratification and staging of clinically significant prostate cancer, and targeting or guiding prostate biopsy. mp-MRI consists of T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) combined with several functional sequences including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion or dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCEI) and spectroscopic imaging. Recently, mp-MRI has been used to assess prostate cancer aggressiveness and to identify anteriorly located tumors before and during active surveillance. Moreover, recent studies have reported that mp-MRI is a reliable imaging modality for detecting local recurrence after radical prostatectomy or external beam radiation therapy. Because assessment on mp-MRI can be subjective, use of the newly developed standardized reporting Prostate Imaging and Reporting Archiving Data System (PI-RADS) scoring system and education of specialist radiologists are essential for accurate interpretation. This review focuses on the current place of mp-MRI in prostate cancer and its evolving role in the management of prostate cancer. PMID:26682144

  6. Evaluation of magnetic resonance sequences in imaging mediastinal tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, W.R.; Gamsu, G.; Stark, D.D.; Moon, K.L. Jr.; Moore, E.H.

    1984-10-01

    Ten patients having a mediastinal tumor were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using from two to four imaging sequences. Seven had bronchial carcinoma and three had benign lesions. The sequences included the spin-echo technique with repetition time (TR) values of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 sec and echo time (TE) values of 28 and 56 msec, and the inversion-recovery technique. The signal-intensity ratios of the mediastinal mass and mediastinal fat, which are a measure of image contrast, were compared for the different imaging sequences. Also signal-to-noise ratios were measured relative to both mediastinal fat and mediastinal mass. With spin-echo imaging, decreasing the TR value resulted in an increase in mass/fat contrast in all patients, making the masses easier to detect, but this also resulted in decreased signal-to-noise ratios. Inversion-recovery imaging with the sequence used resulted in a greatly increased mass/fat contrast, because of a relative decrease in signal from the mass. Spin-echo imaging with both short and long TR values provides good tissue contrast and good signal-to-noise ratios.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Ischemic Stroke and Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Daniel A; Dehkharghani, Seena

    2015-12-01

    Imaging is indispensable in the evaluation of patients presenting with central nervous system emergencies. Although computed tomography (CT) is the mainstay of initial assessment and triage, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become vital in expanding diagnostic capabilities, refining management strategies, and developing our understanding of disease processes. Ischemic stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis are 2 areas wherein MRI is actively revolutionizing patient care. Familiarity with the imaging manifestations of these 2 disease processes is crucial for any radiologist reading brain MR studies. In this review, the fundamentals of image interpretation will be addressed in-depth. Furthermore, advanced imaging techniques which are redefining the role of emergency MRI will be outlined, with a focus on the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie image interpretation. In particular, emerging data surrounding the use of MR perfusion imaging in acute stroke management portend dramatic shifts in neurointerventional management. To this end, a review of the recent stroke literature will hopefully enhance the radiologist's role in both meaningful reporting and multidisciplinary teamwork. PMID:26636639

  8. Retrorectal tumors in adults: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo-Lin; Gu, Yun-Fei; Shao, Wan-Jin; Chen, Hong-Jin; Sun, Gui-Dong; Jin, Hei-Ying; Zhu, Xin

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of adult retrorectal tumors and compare with histopathologic findings. METHODS: MRI features of 21 patients with preoperative suspicion of retrorectal tumors were analyzed based on the histopathological and clinical data. RESULTS: Fourteen benign cystic lesions appeared hypointense on T1-weighted images, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images with regular peripheral rim. Epidermoid or dermoid cysts were unilocular, and tailgut cysts were multilocular. Presence of intracystic intermediate signal intensity was observed in one case of tailgut cyst with a component of adenocarcinoma. Six solid tumors were malignant lesions and showed heterogeneous intensity on MRI. Mucinous adenocarcinomas showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted and mesh-like enhancing areas on fat-suppressed T2-weighted images. There was a fistula between the mass and anus with an internal opening in mucinous adenocarcinomas arising from anal fistula. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors displayed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and intermediate to high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Central necrosis could be seen as a high signal on T2-weighted images. CONCLUSION: MRI is a helpful technique to define the extent of the retrorectal tumor and its relationship to the surrounding structures, and also to demonstrate possible complications so as to choose the best surgical approach. PMID:21155003

  9. Development of a Hybrid Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Victoria; Rivens, Ian; Collins, David J.; Leach, Martin O.; ter Haar, Gail R.

    2014-01-01

    A system which allows magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound (US) image data to be acquired simultaneously has been developed. B-mode and Doppler US were performed inside the bore of a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner using a clinical 1–4 MHz US transducer with an 8-metre cable. Susceptibility artefacts and RF noise were introduced into MR images by the US imaging system. RF noise was minimised by using aluminium foil to shield the transducer. A study of MR and B-mode US image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a function of transducer-phantom separation was performed using a gel phantom. This revealed that a 4 cm separation between the phantom surface and the transducer was sufficient to minimise the effect of the susceptibility artefact in MR images. MR-US imaging was demonstrated in vivo with the aid of a 2 mm VeroWhite 3D-printed spherical target placed over the thigh muscle of a rat. The target allowed single-point registration of MR and US images in the axial plane to be performed. The system was subsequently demonstrated as a tool for the targeting and visualisation of high intensity focused ultrasound exposure in the rat thigh muscle. PMID:25177702

  10. Compressed Sensing of Spatial Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David H; Ahmad, Rizwan; He, Guanglong; Samouilov, Alexandre; Zweier, Jay L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To improve image quality and reduce data requirements for spatial electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) by developing a novel reconstruction approach using compressed sensing (CS). Methods EPRI is posed as an optimization problem, which is solved using regularized least-squares with sparsity promoting penalty terms, consisting of the ?1 norms of the image itself and the Total Variation of the image. Pseudo-random sampling was employed to facilitate recovery of the sparse signal. The reconstruction was compared to the traditional Filtered Back-Projection reconstruction for simulations, phantoms, isolated rat hearts, and mouse GI tracts labeled with paramagnetic probes. Results A combination of pseudo-random sampling and CS was able to generate high-fidelity EPR images at high acceleration rates. For 3D phantom imaging, CS-based EPRI showed little visual degradation at 9-fold acceleration. In rat heart datasets, CS-based EPRI produced high quality images with 8-fold acceleration. A high resolution mouse GI tract reconstruction demonstrated a visual improvement in spatial resolution and a doubling in SNR. Conclusion A novel 3D EPRI reconstruction utilizing compressed sensing was developed and offers superior SNR and reduced artifacts from highly undersampled data. PMID:24123102

  11. Ferritin reporter used for gene expression imaging by magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Kenji; Fuma, Kazuya; Tabata, Kaori; Sawada, Makoto

    2009-10-23

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a minimally invasive way to provide high spatial resolution tomograms. However, MRI has been considered to be useless for gene expression imaging compared to optical imaging. In this study, we used a ferritin reporter, binding with biogenic iron, to make it a powerful tool for gene expression imaging in MRI studies. GL261 mouse glioma cells were over-expressed with dual-reporter ferritin-DsRed under {beta}-actin promoter, then gene expression was observed by optical imaging and MRI in a brain tumor model. GL261 cells expressing ferritin-DsRed fusion protein showed enhanced visualizing effect by reducing T2-weighted signal intensity for in vitro and in vivo MRI studies, as well as DsRed fluorescence for optical imaging. Furthermore, a higher contrast was achieved on T2-weighted images when permeating the plasma membrane of ferritin-DsRed-expressing GL261. Thus, a ferritin expression vector can be used as an MRI reporter to monitor in vivo gene expression.

  12. Evaluation of muscle injury using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A. D.; Jaweed, M.; Evans, H.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate spin echo T2 relaxation time changes in thigh muscles after intense eccentric exercise in healthy men. Spin echo and calculated T2 relaxation time images of the thighs were obtained on several occasions after exercise of one limb; the contralateral limb served as control. Muscle damage was verified by elevated levels of serum creatine kinase (CK). Thirty percent of the time no exercise effect was discernible on the magnetic resonance (MR) images. In all positive MR images (70%) the semitendinosus muscle was positive, while the biceps femoris, short head, and gracilis muscles were also positive in 50% and 25% of the total cases, respectively. The peak T2 relaxation time and serum CK were correlated (r = 0.94, p<0.01); temporal changes in muscle T2 relaxation time and serum CK were similar, although T2 relaxation time remained positive after serum CK returned to background levels. We conclude that magnetic resonance imaging can serve as a useful tool in the evaluation of eccentric exercise muscle damage by providing a quantitative indicator of damage and its resolution as well as the specific areas and muscles.

  13. Physiological basis and image processing in functional magnetic resonance imaging: Neuronal and motor activity in brain

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rakesh; Sharma, Avdhesh

    2004-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is recently developing as imaging modality used for mapping hemodynamics of neuronal and motor event related tissue blood oxygen level dependence (BOLD) in terms of brain activation. Image processing is performed by segmentation and registration methods. Segmentation algorithms provide brain surface-based analysis, automated anatomical labeling of cortical fields in magnetic resonance data sets based on oxygen metabolic state. Registration algorithms provide geometric features using two or more imaging modalities to assure clinically useful neuronal and motor information of brain activation. This review article summarizes the physiological basis of fMRI signal, its origin, contrast enhancement, physical factors, anatomical labeling by segmentation, registration approaches with examples of visual and motor activity in brain. Latest developments are reviewed for clinical applications of fMRI along with other different neurophysiological and imaging modalities. PMID:15125779

  14. Neuroenteric cysts of the brain-comprehensive magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hingwala, Divyata R; Radhakrishnan, Neelima; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Bejoy; Kapilamoorthy, Tirur Raman; Radhakrishnan, Vishnupuri V

    2013-01-01

    Neuroenteric cysts are developmental cysts that should be differentiated from other, more common non-neoplastic cysts as well as cystic neoplasms. While these lesions may have varied imaging findings, T1 hyperintense prepontine lesion due to mucinous/proteinaceous content is characteristic. Location and imaging characteristics aid in formulating the correct diagnosis of neuroepithelial/neuroenteric cysts. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has the specific finding of N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA)-like peak at 2.02 ppm which is not seen in other cystic lesions. In this study, we aim to discuss the imaging findings of these lesions on conventional and advanced MRI findings and provide radiologic-pathologic correlation. We also briefly describe the pathogenesis, embryology and radiological differential diagnoses of these cysts. PMID:24082482

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Atherosclerotic Mouse Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Jess; Benito, Marina; Espaa, Samuel; Sanz, Javier; Jimnez-Borreguero, Jess; Fuster, Valentn; Ruiz-Cabello, Jess

    2015-01-01

    Plaque development has been extensively studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in animal models of rapidly progressing atherosclerosis, such as apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE-KO) mice. Preclinical MRI plays a significant role in the study of experimental atherosclerosis. Currently, MRI is capable of detecting luminal narrowing, plaque size, and morphology with high accuracy and reproducibility, providing reliable measurements of plaque burden. Therefore, MRI offers a noninvasive approach to serially monitor the progression of the disease. Compared with other imaging modalities, MRI appears to have the greatest potential for plaque characterization, through the use of multiple contrast weightings (e.g., T1, T2, and proton density). Here, we illustrate a standard procedure to image the aorta of atherosclerotic mice using noninvasive MRI. PMID:26445806

  16. The Spleen Revisited: An Overview on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Palas, Joo; Matos, Antnio P.; Ramalho, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Despite being well visualized by different cross-sectional imaging techniques, the spleen is many times overlooked during the abdominal examination. The major reason is the low frequency of splenic abnormalities, the majority consisting of incidental findings. There has been a steady increase in the number of performed abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies; therefore, it is important to be familiar to the major MRI characteristics of disease processes involving the spleen, in order to interpret the findings correctly, reaching whenever possible the appropriate diagnosis. The spleen may be involved in several pathologic conditions like congenital diseases, trauma, inflammation, vascular disorders and hematologic disorders, benign and malignant tumors, and other disease processes that focally or diffusely affect the spleen. This paper presents a description and representative MRI images for many of these disorders. PMID:24377046

  17. Tracking immune cells in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Eric T.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing complexity of in vivo imaging technologies, coupled with the development of cell therapies, has fuelled a revolution in immune cell tracking in vivo. Powerful magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods are now being developed that use iron oxide- and 19F-based probes. These MRI technologies can be used for image-guided immune cell delivery and for the visualization of immune cell homing and engraftment, inflammation, cell physiology and gene expression. MRI-based cell tracking is now also being applied to evaluate therapeutics that modulate endogenous immune cell recruitment and to monitor emerging cellular immunotherapies. These recent uses show that MRI has the potential to be developed in many applications to follow the fate of immune cells in vivo. PMID:24013185

  18. Short Review: Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Ancient Mummies.

    PubMed

    Rhli, Frank J

    2015-06-01

    Noninvasive imaging of ancient tissues is of increasing interest in palaeopathological studies, with conventional X-ray and computed tomography currently considered the diagnostic gold standard. Convenitional X-ray has a long tradition, yet imaging of ancient mummies using conventional X-ray technique has its drawbacks too. Until recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of soft tissues was successful with ancient dry tissues only after morphology-altering rehydration. This process was deemed necessary due to the previous reported lack of unbound protons. Hitherto, any approach without rehydration of the historic samples failed. Yet, the successful application of novel MRI techniques allows broadening of the methodological spectrum of methods for noninvasive studies on ancient corpses, whether they have wet or dry soft tissue, or bone. Spatial discrimination of chemical elements can now be carried out with high sensitivity in any historic specimen, leading to an increased level of diagnostic evidence. PMID:25998645

  19. Biological effects of exposure to magnetic resonance imaging: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Formica, Domenico; Silvestri, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The literature on biological effects of magnetic and electromagnetic fields commonly utilized in magnetic resonance imaging systems is surveyed here. After an introduction on the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging and the electric and magnetic properties of biological tissues, the basic phenomena to understand the bio-effects are described in classical terms. Values of field strengths and frequencies commonly utilized in these diagnostic systems are reported in order to allow the integration of the specific literature on the bio-effects produced by magnetic resonance systems with the vast literature concerning the bio-effects produced by electromagnetic fields. This work gives an overview of the findings about the safety concerns of exposure to static magnetic fields, radio-frequency fields, and time varying magnetic field gradients, focusing primarily on the physics of the interactions between these electromagnetic fields and biological matter. The scientific literature is summarized, integrated, and critically analyzed with the help of authoritative reviews by recognized experts, international safety guidelines are also cited. PMID:15104797

  20. Towards Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Semiconducting and Biological Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, D. P.; Xue, Fei; Peddibhotla, P.; Poggio, M.

    2012-02-01

    In recent years a technique combining nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and sensitive force microscopy has emerged as a viable method for doing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the nanometer scale [1]. This method, known as magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM), has the potential to create three-dimensional (3D), non-destructive, sub-surface images of the density of particular nuclear magnetic moments with isotopic contrast. Resolution better than 10,m has been achieved with ^1H in a single virus particle [2]. Here we discuss the application of this technique to nanobiological samples, such as viruses, small bacteria, or cell membranes, and to various semiconductor nanostructures including quantum wells (QWs) and nanowires (NWs). In particular, we focus on the sample preparation challenges presented by these samples. Transfer and attachment of these sub-micrometer samples to our micrometer-sized force sensor includes the use of a focused ion beam (FIB) technique and manual micromanipulators used together with optical microscopy.[4pt] [1] Nanotechnology 21, 342001 (2010). [2] Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 1313 (2009).

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the heart: positioning and gradient angle selection for optimal imaging planes

    SciTech Connect

    Dinsmore, R.E.; Wismer, G.L.; Levine, R.A.; Okada, R.D.; Brady, T.J.

    1984-12-01

    Electrocardiographically gated magnetic resonance images were acquired in 20 subjects using a spin-echo pulse sequence. For optimizing the display of cardiac anatomy, a technique was developed which uses patients positioning in addition to alteration of gradient angle to select image planes. High-quality images were acquired in three basic cardiac projections: (1) the long axis of the left ventricle, through the aortic valve and apex, parallel to the interventricular septum, (2) the long axis of the left ventricle, perpendicular to the septum, and (3) the short axis of the left ventricle at multiple levels including outflow, papillary muscle, and apex. Images of the aorta included axial images at multiple levels and long-axis images oriented to display the plane of the aortic arch. Images of these planes are easily achieved and, in contrast to standard images orthogonal to the chest wall, provide a reproductible and logical display of cardiac anatomy.

  2. Resonant marker design and fabrication techniques for device visualization during interventional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Mandy; Detert, Markus; Rube, Martin A; El-Tahir, Abubakr; Elle, Ole Jakob; Melzer, Andreas; Schmidt, Bertram; Rose, Georg H

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has great potential as an imaging modality for guiding minimally invasive interventions because of its superior soft tissue contrast and the possibility of arbitrary slice positioning while avoiding ionizing radiation and nephrotoxic iodine contrast agents. The major constraints are: limited patient access, the insufficient assortment of compatible instruments and the difficult device visualization compared to X-ray based techniques. For the latter, resonant MRI markers, fabricated by using the wire-winding technique, have been developed. This fabrication technique serves as a functional model but has no clinical use. Thus, the aim of this study is to illustrate a four-phase design process of resonant markers involving microsystems technologies. The planning phase comprises the definition of requirements and the simulation of electromagnetic performance of the MRI markers. The following technologies were considered for the realization phase: aerosol-deposition process, hot embossing technology and thin film technology. The subsequent evaluation phase involves several test methods regarding electrical and mechanical characterization as well as MRI visibility aspects. The degree of fulfillment of the predefined requirements is determined within the analysis phase. Furthermore, an exemplary evaluation of four realized MRI markers was conducted, focusing on the performance within the MRI environment. PMID:25460277

  3. Noise reduction from magnetic resonance images using nonseperable transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezhadarya, Ehsan; Shamsollahi, Mohammad Bagher

    2006-03-01

    Multi-scale transforms have got a lot of applications in image processing, in recent years. Wavelet transform is a powerful multiscale transform for denoising noisy signals and images, but the usual two-dimensional separable wavelets are sub-optimal. These separable wavelet transforms can successfully identify zero dimensional singularities in images, but can weakly identify one dimensional singularities such as edges, curves and lines. In this sense, non-separable transforms such as Ridgelet and Curvelet transforms are proposed by Candes and Donoho. The coefficients produced by these non-separable transforms have shown to be sparser than wavelet coefficients. This fact results in better denoising capabilities than wavelet transform. These new non-separable transforms can identify direction in lines and curves, because of special structure of their basis elements. Basically, Magnetic Resonance images are probable to have Rician noise. In some special cases, this kind of noise can be supposed to be white Gaussian noise. In this paper, a new method for denoising MR images is proposed. This method is based on Monoscale Ridgelet transform. It is shown that this two transform can successfully denoise MR images embedded in white Gaussian noise. The results are better in comparison with usual wavelet denoising methods, based on both visual perception and signal-to-noise ratio.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    PubMed

    Wielptz, Mark O; Eichinger, Monika; Puderbach, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Lung involvement in cystic fibrosis (CF) disease continues to be a major life-limiting factor of this autosomal recessive genetic disorder. Efforts made toward early diagnosis and advances in therapy have led to sustained survival of affected patients, and many are now of adult age. Because imaging provides detailed information on regional distribution of CF lung disease, repetitive imaging is required for severity assessment and therapy monitoring not only in clinical routine but also for interventional trials. Computed tomography has long succeeded chest radiograph because it provides the highest morphologic detail of airway and parenchymal changes. This is inseparably accompanied by an increase in radiation exposure to CF individuals, who are critically susceptible to, and may accumulate, relevant doses during their lifetime. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an ionizing radiation-free cross-sectional imaging modality is capable of depicting anatomic hallmarks of CF lung disease at lower spatial resolution but with enhanced tissue characterization. Comprehensive functional lung imaging (imaging of respiratory mechanics, ventilation, and lung perfusion) provides valuable additional information that cannot or can hardly be obtained by any other single diagnostic procedure. The present review article strives to present the current state of lung MRI in CF, as well as its future perspectives. Functional MRI of the CF lung is at the threshold of being considered a routine application, which, supporting early diagnosis, may help to further improve the survival of CF patients. PMID:23545948

  5. Maximally spaced projection sequencing in electron paramagnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Redler, Gage; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) provides 3D images of absolute oxygen concentration (pO2) in vivo with excellent spatial and pO2 resolution. When investigating such physiologic parameters in living animals, the situation is inherently dynamic. Improvements in temporal resolution and experimental versatility are necessary to properly study such a system. Uniformly distributed projections result in efficient use of data for image reconstruction. This has dictated current methods such as equal-solid-angle (ESA) spacing of projections. However, acquisition sequencing must still be optimized to achieve uniformity throughout imaging. An object-independent method for uniform acquisition of projections, using the ESA uniform distribution for the final set of projections, is presented. Each successive projection maximizes the distance in the gradient space between itself and prior projections. This maximally spaced projection sequencing (MSPS) method improves image quality for intermediate images reconstructed from incomplete projection sets, enabling useful real-time reconstruction. This method also provides improved experimental versatility, reduced artifacts, and the ability to adjust temporal resolution post factum to best fit the data and its application. The MSPS method in EPRI provides the improvements necessary to more appropriately study a dynamic system. PMID:26185490

  6. Multisensor integration and image recognition using Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Steven M.

    1997-04-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the use of 'sensor based real time decision and control technology' applied to actively control the arrestment of aircraft (manned or unmanned). The proposed method is to develop an adaptively controlled system that would locate the aircraft's extended tailhook, predict its position and speed at the time of arrestment, adjust an arresting end effector to actively mate with the arresting hook and remove the aircraft's kinetic energy, thus minimizing the arresting distance and impact stresses. The focus of the work presented in this paper was to explore the use of fuzzy adaptive resonance theorem (fuzzy art) neural network to form a MSI scheme which reduces image data to recognize incoming aircraft and extended tailhook. Using inputs from several image sources a single fused image was generated to give details about range and tailhook characteristics for an F18 naval aircraft. The idea is to partition an image into cells and evaluate each using fuzzy art. Once the incoming aircraft is located in a cell that subimage is again divided into smaller cells. This image is evaluated to locate various parts of the aircraft (i.e., wings, tail, tailhook, etc.). the cell that contains the tailhook provides resolved position information. Multiple images from separate sensors provides opportunity to generate range details overtime.

  7. Focal liver lesions: Practical magnetic resonance imaging approach

    PubMed Central

    Matos, António P; Velloni, Fernanda; Ramalho, Miguel; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Rajapaksha, Aruna; Semelka, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread of cross-sectional imaging, a growth of incidentally detected focal liver lesions (FLL) has been observed. A reliable detection and characterization of FLL is critical for optimal patient management. Maximizing accuracy of imaging in the context of FLL is paramount in avoiding unnecessary biopsies, which may result in post-procedural complications. A tremendous development of new imaging techniques has taken place during these last years. Nowadays, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in management of liver lesions, using a radiation-free technique and a safe contrast agent profile. MRI plays a key role in the non-invasive correct characterization of FLL. MRI is capable of providing comprehensive and highly accurate diagnostic information, with the additional advantage of lack of harmful ionizing radiation. These properties make MRI the mainstay for the noninvasive evaluation of focal liver lesions. In this paper we review the state-of-the-art MRI liver protocol, briefly discussing different sequence types, the unique characteristics of imaging non-cooperative patients and discuss the role of hepatocyte-specific contrast agents. A review of the imaging features of the most common benign and malignant FLL is presented, supplemented by a schematic representation of a simplistic practical approach on MRI. PMID:26261689

  8. ADVANCED MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF CEREBRAL CAVERNOUS MALFORMATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Shenkar, Robert; Venkatasubramanian, Palamadai N.; Wyrwicz, Alice M.; Zhao, Jin-cheng; Shi, Changbin; Akers, Amy; Marchuk, Douglas A.; Awad, Issam A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective We sought to assess the appearance of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in murine Ccm1 and Ccm2 gene knockout models, and to develop a technique of lesion localization for correlative pathobiologic studies Methods Brains from eighteen CCM mutant mice (Ccm1+/-Trp53-/- and Ccm2+/-Trp53-/-) and 28 controls were imaged by gradient recalled echo (T2*)-weighted MR at 4.7 T and 14.1 T in vivo and/or ex vivo. After MR imaging, the brains were removed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and cells were laser microdissected for molecular biologic studies. Results T2*-weighted MR imaging of brains in vivo and ex vivo revealed lesions similar to human CCMs in mutant mice, but not in control animals. Stereotactic localization and hematoxylin and eosin-staining of correlative tissue sections confirmed lesion histology, and revealed other areas of dilated capillaries in the same brains. Some lesions were identified by MR imaging at 14.1 T, but not at 4.7 T. PCR amplification from Ccm1 and ?-actin genes was demonstrated from nucleic acids extracted from laser microdissected lesional and perilesional cells. Conclusions The high field MR imaging techniques offer new opportunities for further investigation of disease pathogenesis in vivo, and the localization, staging and histobiologic dissection of lesions, including the presumed earliest stages of CCM lesion development. PMID:18981891

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging and contrast enhancement. Scientific report

    SciTech Connect

    Swenberg, C.E.; Movius, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    Chapters II through VI of this report discuss: Relaxation of Nuclear Spins; Echo Techniques; Basic Imaging Pulse Sequences; Partial Saturation Recovery; Inversion Recovery; Spin Echo; Effects of Pulse Sequence on Image Contrast; Contrast Agents; Theoretical Aspects; Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity; and Physiological Rationale for Agent Selection. One of the major goals in all medical imaging techniques is to maximize one's ability to visualize and differentiate adjacent tissue regions in the body on the basis of differences in anatomy, physiology, or various pathological processes. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers distinct advantages over conventional x-ray imaging because of the possibility of selecting specific pulse sequences that can differentiate adjacent structures on the basis of differences in proton density, T/sub 1/ or T/sub 2/ relaxation rates, or flow. As a result of applying these various pulse sequences, numerous images have been obtained of the brain and other organs that demonstrate considerably more-detailed anatomical structure than had previously been available with computerized tomography, ultrasound, or nuclear medicine techniques. In some situations it is clearly superior, such as in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

  10. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Kidney Injury: Present Status

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai Ying; Chen, Tian Wu; Zhang, Xiao Ming

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of hospitalization that is characterized by a sudden loss of renal excretory function and associated with the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease, poor prognosis, and increased mortality. Although the pathophysiology of renal functional impairment in the setting of AKI remains poorly understood, previous studies have identified changes in renal hemodynamics, perfusion, and oxygenation as key factors in the development and progression of AKI. The early assessment of these changes remains a challenge. Many established approaches are not applicable to humans because of their invasiveness. Functional renal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers an alternative assessment tool that could be used to evaluate renal morphology and function noninvasively and simultaneously. Thus, the purpose of this review is to illustrate the principle, application, and role of the techniques of functional renal MR imaging, including blood oxygen level-dependent imaging, arterial spin labeling, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging, in the management of AKI. The use of gadolinium in MR imaging may exacerbate renal impairment and cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Therefore, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging will not be discussed in this paper. PMID:26925411

  11. Imaging atoms from resonance fluorescence spectrum beyond the diffraction limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zeyang; Al-Amri, Mohammad; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2014-03-01

    We calculate the resonance fluorescence spectrum of a linear chain of two-level atoms driven by a gradient coherent laser field. The result shows that we can determine the positions of atoms from the spectrum even when the atoms locate within subwavelength range and the dipole-dipole interaction is significant. This far-field resonance fluorescence localization microscopy method does not require point-by-point scanning and it may be more time-efficient. We also give a possible scheme to extract the position information in an extended region without requiring more peak power of laser. We also briefly discuss how to do a 2D imaging based on our scheme. This work is supported by grants from the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and the Qatar National Research Fund (QNRF) under the NPRP project.

  12. [Fetal magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of congenital diaphragmatic hernia].

    PubMed

    Sebasti, C; Garcia, R; Gomez, O; Pao, B; Nicolau, C

    2014-01-01

    A diaphragmatic hernia is defined as the protrusion of abdominal viscera into the thoracic cavity through a normal or pathological orifice. The herniated viscera compress the lungs, resulting in pulmonary hypoplasia and secondary pulmonary hypertension, which are the leading causes of neonatal death in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is diagnosed by sonography in routine prenatal screening. Although magnetic resonance imaging is fundamentally used to determine whether the liver is located within the abdomen or has herniated into the thorax, it also can provide useful information about other herniated structures and the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia. The aim of this article is to review the fetal magnetic resonance findings for congenital diaphragmatic hernia and the signs that enable us to establish the neonatal prognosis when evaluating pulmonary hypoplasia. PMID:23523414

  13. Innovative computing for diagnoses from medical, magnetic-resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Diegert, C.

    1997-01-01

    The author presents a final report on a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project, Innovative Computing for Diagnoses from Medical, Magnetic-Resonance Imaging, performed during fiscal years 1992 and 1993. The project defined a role for high-performance computing in surgery: the supercomputer can automatically summarize the three-dimensional extents of lesions and other clinically-relevant structures, and can deliver these summaries to workstation-based, augmented-reality environments at the clinical site. The author developed methods and software to make these summaries from the digital data already acquired using clinical, magnetic-resonance machines. In joint work with Albuquerque`s Department of Veterans Affairs Hospital, the author applied this work, and obtained a basis for planning, for rehearsal, and for guidance during surgery.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography as indexes of muscle function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Duvoisin, Marc R.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    A hypothesis is tested that exercise-induced magnetic resonance (MR) contrast shifts would relate to electromyography (EMG) amplitude if both measures reflect muscle use during exercise. Both magnetic resonance images (MRI) and EMG data were obtained for separate eccentric (ECC) and cocentric (CON) exercise of increasing intensity for seven subjects 30-32 yr old. CON and ECC actions caused increased integrated EMG (IEMG) and T2 values which were strongly related with relative resistance. The rate of increase and absolute value of both T2 and IEMG were found to be greater for CON than for ECC actions. For both actions IEMG and T2 were correlated. Data obtained suggest that surface IEMG accurately reflects the contractile behavior of muscle and exercise-induced increases in MRI T2 values reflect certain processes that scale with muscle use.

  15. Magnetic resonance microscopy of prostate tissue: How basic science can inform clinical imaging development

    SciTech Connect

    Bourne, Roger

    2013-03-15

    This commentary outlines how magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy studies of prostate tissue samples and whole organs have shed light on a number of clinical imaging mysteries and may enable more effective development of new clinical imaging methods.

  16. Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Functional Lung Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dregely, Isabel

    Hyperpolarized 129Xe (HXe) is a non-invasive contrast agent for lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which upon inhalation follows the functional pathway of oxygen in the lung by dissolving into lung tissue structures and entering the blood stream. HXe MRI therefore provides unique opportunities for functional lung imaging of gas exchange which occurs from alveolar air spaces across the air-blood boundary into parenchymal tissue. However challenges in acquisition speed and signal-to-noise ratio have limited the development of a HXe imaging biomarker to diagnose lung disease. This thesis addresses these challenges by introducing parallel imaging to HXe MRI. Parallel imaging requires dedicated hardware. This work describes design, implementation, and characterization of a 32-channel phased-array chest receive coil with an integrated asymmetric birdcage transmit coil tuned to the HXe resonance on a 3 Tesla MRI system. Using the newly developed human chest coil, a functional HXe imaging method, multiple exchange time xenon magnetization transfer contrast (MXTC) is implemented. MXTC dynamically encodes HXe gas exchange into the image contrast. This permits two parameters to be derived regionally which are related to gas-exchange functionality by characterizing tissue-to-alveolar-volume ratio and alveolar wall thickness in the lung parenchyma. Initial results in healthy subjects demonstrate the sensitivity of MXTC by quantifying the subtle changes in lung microstructure in response to orientation and lung inflation. Our results in subjects with lung disease show that the MXTC-derived functional tissue density parameter exhibits excellent agreement with established imaging techniques. The newly developed dynamic parameter, which characterizes the alveolar wall, was elevated in subjects with lung disease, most likely indicating parenchymal inflammation. In light of these observations we believe that MXTC has potential as a biomarker for the regional quantification of 1) emphysematous tissue destruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (using the tissue density parameter) and 2) parenchymal inflammation or thickening (using the wall thickness parameter). By simultaneously quantifying two lung function parameters, MXTC provides a more comprehensive picture of lung microstructure than existing lung imaging techniques and could become an important non-invasive and quantitative tool to characterize pulmonary disease.

  17. Magnetic resonance properties of hydrogen: imaging the posterior fossa

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.R.; Burl, M.; Clarke, G.J.

    1981-11-01

    Posterior fossa scans were performed on five healthy volunteers using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) machine constructed by Thorn-EMI Ltd. Three different NMR scanning sequences were used. In the first, a type of saturation-recovery technique was used to produce images strongly dependent on the density of hydrogen nuclei, but with some dependence on the spin-lattice relaxation time (T/sub 1/). In the second, an inversion-recovery technique was used to produce images with a stronger dependence on the spin-lattice relaxation time. In the third, a spin-echo technique was used to obtain images with a dependence on the spin-spin relaxation time (T/sub 2/). All three types of NMR image were unaffected by bone artifact. Visualization of brain adjacent to the skull base was obtained without loss of detail due to partial-volume effect from bone. The saturation-recovery images highlighted arteries and veins that were clearly visible without the use of contrast agents. The inversion-recovery images showed remarkable gray-white matter differentiation enabling internal structure to be seen within the brainstem and cerebellum. The trigeminal nerve and ganglion were also seen outside the brain. Experience with the spin-echo technique is limited, but the images at the base of the brain show considerable soft-tissue detail. The NMR images of the posterior fossa in this study were comparable in quality to those obtained from a new rotate-rotate x-ray computed tomography machine and were superior in several respects.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of a Juxtaglomerular Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suhai; Guo, Aitao; Wang, Haiyi; Ma, Lu; Xie, Zongyu; Li, Jinglong; Tonge, Xinyuan; Ye, Huiyi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings can help differentiate a juxtaglomerular cell tumor (JCT) from clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Materials and Methods: Eight patients with JCTs and 24 patients with pathologically proven ccRCC were included for image analysis. All patients underwent unenhanced MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), in- and opposed-phase imaging, and fat-suppressed preliver acquisitions with volume acceleration sequences were performed before enhancement. After the administration of contrast, dynamic imaging was performed in the corticomedullary, nephrographic, and excretory phases. Student's t-test, t′-test, Chi-square test, and nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis H-test were used to determine the significance of the difference between the two groups. The sensitivity and specificity of the MRI findings were calculated. Results: In patients with a JCT, a cystic part of the lesion of <10%, isointensity or mild hyperintensity on T2WI, heterogeneous hyperintensity on DWI, less signal drop (<10%) in in- and opposed-phase imaging, and a degree of enhancement <200% in the corticomedullary phase showed statistically significant differences compared with those of ccRCC (P < 0.05). After combining a lower apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value (heterogeneous hyperintensity) on DWI and a degree of enhancement <200% in the corticomedullary phase using a parallel test, the sensitivity and specificity were 90.9% and 91.7%, respectively. Conclusions: Isointensity or mild hyperintensity on T2WI, a lower ADC value (heterogeneous hyperintensity) on DWI, and a degree of enhancement <200% in the corticomedullary phase are the major MRI findings for JCTs, combined with relative clinical manifestations and excluding other renal masses. A main solid tumor, less signal drop (<10%) in in- and opposed-phase imaging, and a less-washout pattern of <10% in the delayed phase are secondary MRI findings for JCTs. PMID:26900492

  19. Pattern recognition of magnetic resonance images with application to atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Carman, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging provides excellent soft tissue contrast enabling the non-invasive visualization of soft tissue diseases. The quantification of tissues visible in MR images would significantly increase the diagnostic information available. While tissue selection methods exist for CT images, those same methods do not work with MR images. This dissertation focuses on the application of image processing and pattern recognition techniques to MR images for the identification and quantification of soft tissues, atherosclerosis in particular. Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease of human arteries responsible for significant mortality and medical expense. Current diagnostic methods are invasive and carry significant risk. Supervised pattern recognition methods were investigated for tissue identification in MR images. The classifiers were trained A Fisher linear classifier successfully identified the tissues of interest from MR images of excised arteries, performing better than a minimum distance to the means classifier. Quantitative measures of the disease state were computed from the results and 3-D displays were generated of the diseased anatomy. For tissue in vivo, adequate histology can be difficult to collect, increasing the difficulty of training the classifiers and making the results less accurate. Cluster analysis was used in this dissertation to generate the training information. A new cluster analysis method was developed. ISODATA was modified to use hierarchical stopping rules. The new method was tested in a Monte Carlo study and with real world data sets. Comparisons were made with published methods using the same data. An information theoretic criterion, the CAIC, was found to be an excellent criteria for hierarchical stopping rules.

  20. Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans: Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Liu, Qing-yu; Cao, Yun; Zhong, Jin-shuang; Zhang, Wei-dong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP), with a view to improving the diagnosis of this kind of tumor. A total of 27 cases of histopathologically confirmed DFSP were analyzed retrospectively. Of these, 18 patients underwent a CT scan and 9 patients underwent an MRI. All patients underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced examinations; 1 patient underwent multiphrase CT enhancement examination. Imaging characteristics, including location, shape, size, number, edge, and attenuation or intensity of each lesion, both unenhanced and contrast enhanced, were analyzed. Of the 27 cases, 24 were solitary, 2 had 2 nodules, and 1 had multiple confluent tumors. The lesion with multiple confluent tumors was ill defined and irregular; the other lesions were oval or round, well-defined nodules or masses. The unenhanced CT images showed 19 homogenous isodense lesions. There was no calcification in any of the patients. The contrast-enhanced CT images showed intermediate and marked nonhomogeneous enhancement in 13 lesions, intermediate homogeneous enhancement in 4 lesions, and a mild heterogeneous enhancement in 2 lesions. MR T1-weighted images revealed 1 ill-defined and 9 well-defined homogeneous isointense lesions. T2-weighted images showed homogeneous hyperintensity to the muscles in 6 lesions, 3 mild hyperintense lesions with hypointense lesions, and 1 mixed, mild hyperintense and isointense lesion. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images demonstrated intermediate and marked nonhomogeneous enhancement in 9 lesions and intermediate homogeneous enhancement in 1 lesion. DFSP is characterized by a subcutaneous well-defined soft tissue nodule or mass on plain CT/MR scans, and shows intermediate-to-marked enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT/MR scans. The imaging findings for DFSP are nonspecific, but may help to define the diagnosis in an appropriate clinical setting. PMID:26091446

  1. Application of neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to a tau pathology model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, N.; Siow, B.; O'Callaghan, J.M.; Harrison, I.F.; Wells, J.A.; Holmes, H.E.; Ismail, O.; Richardson, S.; Alexander, D.C.; Collins, E.C.; Fisher, E.M.; Johnson, R.; Schwarz, A.J.; Ahmed, Z.; O'Neill, M.J.; Murray, T.K.; Zhang, H.; Lythgoe, M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Increased hyperphosphorylated tau and the formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles are associated with the loss of neurons and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease, and related neurodegenerative conditions. We applied two diffusion models, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), to in vivo diffusion magnetic resonance images (dMRI) of a mouse model of human tauopathy (rTg4510) at 8.5 months of age. In grey matter regions with the highest degree of tau burden, microstructural indices provided by both NODDI and DTI discriminated the rTg4510 (TG) animals from wild type (WT) controls; however only the neurite density index (NDI) (the volume fraction that comprises axons or dendrites) from the NODDI model correlated with the histological measurements of the levels of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Reductions in diffusion directionality were observed when implementing both models in the white matter region of the corpus callosum, with lower fractional anisotropy (DTI) and higher orientation dispersion (NODDI) observed in the TG animals. In comparison to DTI, histological measures of tau pathology were more closely correlated with NODDI parameters in this region. This in vivo dMRI study demonstrates that NODDI identifies potential tissue sources contributing to DTI indices and NODDI may provide greater specificity to pathology in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26505297

  2. Application of neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to a tau pathology model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Colgan, N; Siow, B; O'Callaghan, J M; Harrison, I F; Wells, J A; Holmes, H E; Ismail, O; Richardson, S; Alexander, D C; Collins, E C; Fisher, E M; Johnson, R; Schwarz, A J; Ahmed, Z; O'Neill, M J; Murray, T K; Zhang, H; Lythgoe, M F

    2016-01-15

    Increased hyperphosphorylated tau and the formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles are associated with the loss of neurons and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease, and related neurodegenerative conditions. We applied two diffusion models, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), to in vivo diffusion magnetic resonance images (dMRI) of a mouse model of human tauopathy (rTg4510) at 8.5months of age. In grey matter regions with the highest degree of tau burden, microstructural indices provided by both NODDI and DTI discriminated the rTg4510 (TG) animals from wild type (WT) controls; however only the neurite density index (NDI) (the volume fraction that comprises axons or dendrites) from the NODDI model correlated with the histological measurements of the levels of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Reductions in diffusion directionality were observed when implementing both models in the white matter region of the corpus callosum, with lower fractional anisotropy (DTI) and higher orientation dispersion (NODDI) observed in the TG animals. In comparison to DTI, histological measures of tau pathology were more closely correlated with NODDI parameters in this region. This in vivo dMRI study demonstrates that NODDI identifies potential tissue sources contributing to DTI indices and NODDI may provide greater specificity to pathology in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26505297

  3. Biological Effects and Safety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Valentina; Giovannetti, Giulio; Vanello, Nicola; Lombardi, Massimo; Landini, Luigi; Simi, Silvana

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a diagnostic technique, the number of people exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has increased dramatically. In this review, based on the results of a pioneer study showing in vitro and in vivo genotoxic effects of MRI scans, we report an updated survey about the effects of non-ionizing EMF employed in MRI, relevant for patients’ and workers’ safety. While the whole data does not confirm a risk hypothesis, it suggests a need for further studies and prudent use in order to avoid unnecessary examinations, according to the precautionary principle. PMID:19578460

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of non ovarian adnexal lesions.

    PubMed

    Thawait, Shrey K; Batra, Kiran; Johnson, Stephen I; Torigian, Drew A; Chhabra, Avneesh; Zaheer, Atif

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of nonovarian from ovarian lesions is a diagnostic challenge. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) of the pelvis provides excellent tissue characterization and high contrast resolution, allowing for detailed evaluation of adnexal lesions. Salient MRI characteristics of predominantly cystic lesions and predominantly solid adnexal lesions are presented along with epidemiology and clinical presentation. Due to its excellent soft tissue resolution, MRI may be able to characterize indeterminate adnexal masses and aid the radiologist to arrive at the correct diagnosis, thus positively affect patient management. PMID:26463742

  5. Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Monitor Iron Overload

    PubMed Central

    Wood, John C.

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Treatment of iron overload requires robust estimates of total body iron burden and its response to iron chelation therapy. Compliance with chelation therapy varies considerably among patients and individual reporting is notoriously unreliable. Even with perfect compliance, intersubject variability in chelator effectiveness is extremely high, necessitating reliable iron estimates to guide dose titration. In addition, each chelator has a unique profile with respect to clearing iron stores from different organs. This chapter will present the tools available to clinicians monitoring their patients, focusing on non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging methods because they have become the de-facto standard of care. PMID:25064711

  6. The fundamentals of fetal magnetic resonance imaging: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Plunk, Matthew R; Chapman, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Careful assessment of fetal anatomy by a combination of ultrasound and fetal magnetic resonance imaging offers the clinical teams and counselors caring for the patient information that can be critical for the management of both the mother and the fetus. In the second half of this 2-part review, we focus on space-occupying lesions in the fetal body. Because developing fetal tissues are programmed to grow rapidly, mass lesions can have a substantial effect on the formation of normal adjacent organs. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia and lung masses, fetal teratoma, and intra-abdominal masses are discussed, with an emphasis on differential etiologies and on fundamental management considerations. PMID:24974309

  7. Segmental inertial properties in dogs determined by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Amit, T; Gomberg, B R; Milgram, J; Shahar, R

    2009-10-01

    Data regarding the segmental inertial properties of the dog are currently unavailable, although such parameters are needed for dynamic analyses of canine motion. The purpose of this study was to measure the segmental inertial properties in three medium sized dogs of average build using magnetic resonance imaging. The parameters included the mass, location of centre of mass and moments of inertia for each body segment. The normalised results will serve as a preliminary foundation for various biomechanical studies in dogs, although further study is required to characterise them for specific dog breeds and to determine how they may be affected by age and gender. PMID:18691919

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging by using nano-magnetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokrollahi, H.; Khorramdin, A.; Isapour, Gh.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetism and magnetic materials play a major role in various biological applications, such as magnetic bioseparation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia treatment of cancer and drug delivery. Among these techniques, MRI is a powerful method not only for diagnostic radiology but also for therapeutic medicine that utilizes a magnetic field and radio waves. Recently, this technique has contributed greatly to the promotion of the human quality life. Thus, this paper presents a short review of the physical principles and recent advances of MRI, as well as providing a summary of the synthesis methods and properties of contrast agents, like different core materials and surfactants.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Complications of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Etan; Maderazo, Alex; Fitzpatrick, Darren

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) has increased in recent years. ACL-R plays an important role in the prevention of secondary osteoarthritis from resultant joint instability. Magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred modality in the evaluation of ACL-R complications. Complications after ACL-R may be broadly characterized as those resulting in decreased range of motion (arthrofibrosis, impingement) and resulting in increased laxity (graft disruption). Other miscellaneous complications that do not fall into these categories will also be discussed in this article. PMID:26665245

  10. Relaxation time based classification of magnetic resonance brain images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Pascazio, Vito

    2015-03-01

    Brain tissue classification in Magnetic Resonance Imaging is useful for a wide range of applications. Within this manuscript a novel approach for brain tissue joint segmentation and classification is presented. Starting from the relaxation time estimation, we propose a novel method for identifying the optimal decision regions. The approach exploits the statistical distribution of the involved signals in the complex domain. The technique, compared to classical threshold based ones, is able to improve the correct classification rate. The effectiveness of the approach is evaluated on a simulated case study.

  11. Diffusional kurtosis and diffusion tensor imaging reveal different time-sensitive stroke-induced microstructural changes

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Rachel A.; Hui, Edward S.; Jensen, Jens H.; Nie, Xingju; Falangola, Maria F.; Helpern, Joseph A.; Adkins, DeAnna L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is a promising, clinically feasible imaging technique commonly used to describe white matter changes following stroke. We investigated the sensitivity of dMRI to detect microstructural alterations in grey matter following sensorimotor cortex (SMC) stroke in adult male rats. Methods The mean diffusivity (MD) and mean kurtosis (MK) of peri-lesion motor cortex (MC) was compared to measures in the contra-lesional forelimb area of SMC at 2h, 24h, 72h or 25d post-surgery. MD and MK were correlated to the surface densities of glia, dendrites and axons. Results Peri-lesional MK was increased at 72h and 25d post-stroke, while MD was no longer different from contra-lesion SMC at 24h post-stroke. There was a significant increase in the density of glial processes at 72h post-stroke in peri-lesional MC, which correlated with perilesional MD. Conclusions These data support that MK and MD provide different but complimentary information regarding acute and chronic changes in peri-lesional cortex. Glia infiltration is associated with pseudonormalization of MD in the peri-lesion MC at 72h post-lesion; however, this association is absent 25d post-lesion. These data suggest that there are likely several different, time-specific microstructural changes underlying these two complimentary diffusion measures. PMID:25563646

  12. Off-center magnetic resonance imaging with permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abele, Manlio G.; Rusinek, Henry

    2008-04-01

    Magnets for magnetic resonance imaging are currently designed as structures that are symmetric with respect to the geometric center O of the magnet cavity. This symmetry results in a symmetric field configuration, where point O coincides with the imaging center S defined as the point where the field gradient is zero. However, in many clinical applications such as breast or spine imaging, the region of interest is displaced from the geometric center. We present a design method for yokeless permanent magnets, where the position of point S is dictated by the imaging requirements. The magnet is composed of uniformly magnetized triangular prisms and it does not require a ferromagnetic yoke to channel the magnetic flux. Given an arbitrary polygonal cavity, the design depends on the position of point F, where the magnetostatic potential is assumed to be equal to the magnetostatic potential of the external medium. For a long magnet, the position of the imaging center S coincides with point F. As an example of the off-center design, we analyze a three-dimensional yokeless magnet with cavity of width=length=80cm and height=45cm. The magnet generates a field above 0.5T when constructed using the NdFeB alloy of remanence larger than 1.3T. The off-center configuration offers flexibility in magnet design that makes it possible to focus on a particular region of the human body, without increasing magnet cavity, magnet size, or its weight

  13. ROUTINE THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF JOINTS

    PubMed Central

    Kijowki, Richard; Gold, Garry E.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its high spatial resolution and excellent tissue contrast, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become the most commonly used imaging method to evaluate joints. Most musculoskeletal MR imaging is performed using two-dimensional fast spin-echo sequences. However, three-dimensional sequences have also been used for joint imaging and have the advantage of acquiring thin continuous slices through joints which reduces the effects of partial volume averaging. With recent advances in MR technology, three-dimensional sequences with isotropic resolution have been developed. These sequences allow high quality multi-planar reformat images to be obtained following a single acquisition, thereby eliminating the need to repeat sequences with identical tissue contrast in different planes. Preliminary results on the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional isotropic resolution sequences are encouraging. However, additional studies are needed to determine whether these sequences can replace currently used two-dimensional fast spin-echo sequences for providing comprehensive joint assessment in clinical practice. PMID:21448939

  14. Prostate cancer magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): multidisciplinary standpoint

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Feng, Zhaoyan; Hu, Zhiquan; Wang, Guoping; Yuan, Xianglin; Wang, He; Hu, Daoyu

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men and a leading cause of death. Accurate assessment is a prerequisite for optimal clinical management and therapy selection of prostate cancer. There are several parameters and nomograms to differentiate between patients with clinically insignificant disease and patients in need of treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique which provides more detailed anatomical images due to high spatial resolution, superior contrast resolution, and multiplanar capability. State-of-the-art MRI techniques, such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), improve interpretation of prostate cancer imaging. In this article, we review the major role of MRI in the advanced management of prostate cancer to noninvasively improve tumor staging, biologic potential, treatment planning, therapy response, local recurrence, and to guide target biopsy for clinical suspected cancer with previous negative biopsy. Finally, future challenges and opportunities in prostate cancer management in the area of functional MRI are discussed as well. PMID:23630657

  15. Reconstruction of electron paramagnetic resonance images using iterative methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarry, Delia P.; Cook, John; Subramanian, Sankaran; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Cherukuri, Murali K.; Johnson, Calvin A.

    2001-07-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) allows for the non-invasive imaging of free radicals in biological systems. Although a number of physical factors have hindered the development of EPR as an imaging modality, EPR offers the potential for tissue oxymetry. EPR images are typically reconstructed using a traditional filtered back-projection technique. We are attempting to improve the quality of EPR images by using maximum-entropy based iterative image reconstruction algorithms. Our investigation has so far focused on two methods, the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART), and an algorithm that is motivated by interior-point reconstruction. MART is a row-action method that maintains strict equality in the constraints while minimizing the entropy functional. The latter method, which we have named Least-Squares Barrier Entropy (LSBEnt), transforms the constrained problem into an unconstrained problem and maximizes entropy at a prescribed distance from the measured data. EPR studies are frequently characterized by low signal-to-noise ratios and wide line widths. The effect of the backprojection streaking artifact can be quite severe and can seriously compromise a study. We have compared the iterative results with filtered backprojection on two-dimensional (2-D) EPR acquisitions of various phantoms. Encouraging preliminary results have demonstrated that one of the clear advantages of the iterative methods is their lack of streaking artifacts that plague filtered backprojection.

  16. Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Tumor Response to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shuhendler, Adam J.; Ye, Deju; Brewer, Kimberly D.; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Kempen, Paul; Dane Wittrup, K.; Graves, Edward E.; Rutt, Brian; Rao, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    Personalized cancer medicine requires measurement of therapeutic efficacy as early as possible, which is optimally achieved by three-dimensional imaging given the heterogeneity of cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can obtain images of both anatomy and cellular responses, if acquired with a molecular imaging contrast agent. The poor sensitivity of MRI has limited the development of activatable molecular MR contrast agents. To overcome this limitation of molecular MRI, a novel implementation of our caspase-3-sensitive nanoaggregation MRI (C-SNAM) contrast agent is reported. C-SNAM is triggered to self-assemble into nanoparticles in apoptotic tumor cells, and effectively amplifies molecular level changes through nanoaggregation, enhancing tissue retention and spin-lattice relaxivity. At one-tenth the current clinical dose of contrast agent, and following a single imaging session, C-SNAM MRI accurately measured the response of tumors to either metronomic chemotherapy or radiation therapy, where the degree of signal enhancement is prognostic of long-term therapeutic efficacy. Importantly, C-SNAM is inert to immune activation, permitting radiation therapy monitoring. PMID:26440059

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of pancreatic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Liang

    2007-08-01

    Recently, with the rapid scanning time and improved image quality, outstanding advances in magnetic resonance (MR) methods have resulted in an increase in the use of MRI for patients with a variety of pancreatic neoplasms. MR multi-imaging protocol, which includes MR cross-sectional imaging, MR cholangiopancreatography and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR angiography, integrates the advantages of various special imaging techniques. The non-invasive all-in-one MR multi-imaging techniques may provide the comprehensive information needed for the preoperative diagnosis and evaluation of pancreatic neoplasms. Pancreatic neoplasms include primary tumors and pancreatic metastases. Primary tumors of the pancreas may be mainly classified as ductal adenocarcinomas, cystic tumors and islet cell tumors (ICT). Pancreatic adenocarcinomas can be diagnosed in a MRI study depending on direct evidence or both direct and indirect evidence. The combined MRI features of a focal pancreatic mass, pancreatic duct dilatation and parenchymal atrophy are highly suggestive of a ductal adenocarcinoma. Most cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are either microcystic adenomas or mucinous cystic neoplasms. Intraductal papillary mucinous tumors are the uncommon low-grade malignancy of the pancreatic duct. ICT are rare neoplasms arising from neuroendocrine cells in the pancreas or the periampullary region. ICT are classified as functioning and non-functioning. The most frequent tumors to metastasize to the pancreas are cancers of the breast, lung, kidney and melanoma. The majority of metastases present as large solitary masses with well-defined margins. PMID:17650223

  18. Middle cerebellar peduncles: Magnetic resonance imaging and pathophysiologic correlate

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Humberto; Tomsick, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We describe common and less common diseases that can cause magnetic resonance signal abnormalities of middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP), offering a systematic approach correlating imaging findings with clinical clues and pathologic mechanisms. Myelin abnormalities, different types of edema or neurodegenerative processes, can cause areas of abnormal T2 signal, variable enhancement, and patterns of diffusivity of MCP. Pathologies such as demyelinating disorders or certain neurodegenerative entities (e.g., multiple system atrophy or fragile X-associated tremor-ataxia syndrome) appear to have predilection for MCP. Careful evaluation of concomitant imaging findings in the brain or brainstem; and focused correlation with key clinical findings such as immunosuppression for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopahty; hypertension, post-transplant status or high dose chemotherapy for posterior reversible encephalopathy; electrolyte disorders for myelinolysis or suspected toxic-drug related encephalopathy; would yield an appropriate and accurate differential diagnosis in the majority of cases. PMID:26751508

  19. Utility of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging for human epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kuzniecky, Ruben I.

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses the potential utility of broad based use of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging for human epilepsy and seizure localization. The clinical challenges are well known to the epilepsy community, intrinsic in the variability of location, volumetric size and network extent of epileptogenic tissue in individual patients. The technical challenges are also evident, with high performance requirements in multiple steps, including magnet homogeneity, detector performance, sequence design, speed of acquisition in addition to large territory spectral processing. We consider how MR spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging has been informative for epilepsy thus far, with specific attention to what is measured, the interpretation of such measurements and technical performance challenges. Examples are shown from medial temporal lobe and neocortical epilepsies are considered from 4T, 7T and most recently 3T. PMID:25853088

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of juxtapapillary plaques in cadaver eyes.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D F; Mieler, W F; Jaffe, G J; Robertson, D M; Hendrix, L

    1990-01-01

    Adequate treatment of juxtapapillary melanomas with episcleral plaque brachytherapy using lower energy radiation sources may be difficult because of uncertainties regarding the relationship of the plaque to the optic nerve and tumour base. We obtained magnetic resonance images of a dummy plaque placed in a juxtapapillary location in cadaver specimens. Although it is possible to place a plaque in close association with the optic nerve sheath, a tissue barrier exists which may prevent actual contact between the plaque and nerve. Posterior tilting of the plaque may also occur. Because of these uncertainties regarding plaque placement, juxtapapillary melanomas should be considered a distinct subgroup when evaluating the efficacy of radioactive plaque brachytherapy in the treatment of choroidal melanoma. Images PMID:2306444

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of chemical waves in porous media.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Annette F; Britton, Melanie M

    2006-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a powerful tool for the investigation of chemical structures in optically opaque porous media, in which chemical concentration gradients can be visualized, and diffusion and flow properties are simultaneously determined. In this paper we give an overview of the MRI technique and review theory and experiments on the formation of chemical waves in a tubular packed bed reactor upon the addition of a nonlinear chemical reaction. MR images are presented of reaction-diffusion waves propagating in the three-dimensional (3D) network of channels in the reactor, and the 3D structure of stationary concentration patterns formed via the flow-distributed oscillation mechanism is demonstrated to reflect the local hydrodynamics in the packed bed. Possible future directions regarding the influence of heterogeneities on transport and reaction are discussed. PMID:17014237

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of abscesses

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, S.D.; Fisher, M.R.; Amparo, E.G.; Hricak, H.; Higgins, C.B.

    1985-06-01

    Ten patients with percutaneous biopsy or surgically proven abscesses were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to describe the appearance of abscesses, define the capability of MRI to localize abscesses, and compare the capabilities of MRI and CT for the diagnosis and determination of the extend of an abscess. Comparative CT scans were available in six cases. MRI demonstrated a more clear delineation of the extent of inflammatory changes than did CT, and MRI demonstrated the abscess as a collection distinct from surrounding structures on at least one repetition rate. Surgical clips in the postoperative patient with an abscess did not degrade the MR images as often occurred with CT. This study describes the MRI appearance of abscess and indicates a potential value of the use of MRI to evaluate abscess outside the central nervous system and spine.

  3. Simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging and consolidation measurement of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Wellard, Robert Mark; Ravasio, Jean-Philippe; Guesne, Samuel; Bell, Christopher; Oloyede, Adekunle; Tevelen, Greg; Pope, James M; Momot, Konstantin I

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the opportunity to study biological tissues and processes in a non-disruptive manner. The technique shows promise for the study of the load-bearing performance (consolidation) of articular cartilage and changes in articular cartilage accompanying osteoarthritis. Consolidation of articular cartilage involves the recording of two transient characteristics: the change over time of strain and the hydrostatic excess pore pressure (HEPP). MRI study of cartilage consolidation under mechanical load is limited by difficulties in measuring the HEPP in the presence of the strong magnetic fields associated with the MRI technique. Here we describe the use of MRI to image and characterize bovine articular cartilage deforming under load in an MRI compatible consolidometer while monitoring pressure with a Fabry-Perot interferometer-based fiber-optic pressure transducer. PMID:24803188

  4. Hyperpolarized Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Potential and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Laustsen, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (d-DNP) technology has enabled a new paradigm for renal imaging investigations. It allows standard magnetic resonance imaging complementary renal metabolic and functional fingerprints within seconds without the use of ionizing radiation. Increasing evidence supports its utility in preclinical research in which the real-time interrogation of metabolic turnover can aid the physiological and pathophysiological metabolic and functional effects in ex vivo and in vivo models. The method has already been translated to humans, although the clinical value of this technology is unknown. In this paper, I review the potential benefits and pitfalls associated with dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization in preclinical research and its translation to renal patients. PMID:26973539

  5. The clinical potential of functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Jezzard, Peter; Buxton, Richard B

    2006-06-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has had a huge impact on understanding the healthy human brain. To date it has had much less impact in clinical neuroscience or clinical practice. The reasons for this are in part that the image acquisition, paradigm design, and data analysis strategies used presently are not sufficiently standardized. This makes the comparison of results across individuals, scanning sessions, and centers difficult. Nevertheless, there are emerging applications for clinical fMRI, and as the field matures the number of applications is likely to grow. It seems certain that fMRI has an important role to play in helping us understand the mechanisms of neuropsychiatric diseases and in helping to identify effective therapeutic strategies. PMID:16649209

  6. 3-D Display Of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of The Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Alan C.; Kim, Yongmin; Haralick, Robert M.; Anderson, Paul A.; Johnson, Roger H.; DeSoto, Larry A.

    1988-06-01

    The original data is produced through standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures with a surface coil applied to the lower back of a normal human subject. The 3-D spine image data consists of twenty-six contiguous slices with 256 x 256 pixels per slice. Two methods for visualization of the 3-D spine are explored. One method utilizes a verifocal mirror system which creates a true 3-D virtual picture of the object. Another method uses a standard high resolution monitor to simultaneously show the three orthogonal sections which intersect at any user-selected point within the object volume. We discuss the application of these systems in assessment of low back pain.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Fetal Neural Tube Defects.

    PubMed

    Egloff, Alexia; Bulas, Dorothy

    2015-12-01

    Spinal dysraphism occurs early in gestation because of an abnormality in the closure of the neural tube. Defects can be classified as open or closed lesions based on clinical and imaging features. Biochemical evaluation and ultrasound studies are used as screening tools for neural tube defects. Ultrasound alone can accurately diagnose most neural tube lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging has increasingly been used as an adjuvant study and is useful in the assessment of the degree of hindbrain herniation and evaluation of the fetal brain and spinal cord anatomy when ultrasound is limited. This additional information can be useful in counseling, helping to determine if fetal surgery is an option as well as helping to plan delivery and postnatal management. PMID:26614132

  8. Early magnetic resonance imaging control after temporomandibular joint arthrocentesis

    PubMed Central

    Ângelo, David Faustino; Sousa, Rita; Pinto, Isabel; Sanz, David; Gil, F. Monje; Salvado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) lysis and lavage arthrocentesis with viscosupplementation are an effective treatment for acute disc displacement (DD) without reduction. Clinical success seems to be related to multiple factors despite the lack of understanding of its mechanisms. The authors present a case report of 17-year-old women with acute open mouth limitation (12 mm), right TMJ pain-8/10 visual analog scale, right deviation when opening her mouth. The clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis was acute DD without reduction of right TMJ. Right TMJ arthrocentesis was purposed to the patient with lysis, lavage, and viscosupplementation of the upper joint space. After 5 days, a new MRI was performed to confirm upper joint space distension and disc position. Clinical improvement was obtained 5 days and 1 month after arthrocentesis. Upper joint space increased 6 mm and the disc remained displaced. We report the first early TMJ MRI image postoperative, with measurable upper joint space.

  9. Neonatal auditory activation detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A W; Marois, R; Colson, E R; Peterson, B S; Duncan, C C; Ehrenkranz, R A; Schneider, K C; Gore, J C; Ment, L R

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect auditory cortical activation in non-sedated neonates employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using echo-planar functional brain imaging, subjects were presented with a frequency-modulated pure tone; the BOLD signal response was mapped in 5 mm-thick slices running parallel to the superior temporal gyrus. Twenty healthy neonates (13 term, 7 preterm) at term and 4 adult control subjects. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in response to auditory stimulus was detected in all 4 adults and in 14 of the 20 neonates. FMRI studies of adult subjects demonstrated increased signal in the superior temporal regions during auditory stimulation. In contrast, signal decreases were detected during auditory stimulation in 9 of 14 newborns with BOLD response. fMRI can be used to detect brain activation with auditory stimulation in human infants. PMID:11295339

  10. Simultaneous Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Consolidation Measurement of Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Wellard, Robert Mark; Ravasio, Jean-Philippe; Guesne, Samuel; Bell, Christopher; Oloyede, Adekunle; Tevelen, Greg; Pope, James M.; Momot, Konstantin I.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the opportunity to study biological tissues and processes in a non-disruptive manner. The technique shows promise for the study of the load-bearing performance (consolidation) of articular cartilage and changes in articular cartilage accompanying osteoarthritis. Consolidation of articular cartilage involves the recording of two transient characteristics: the change over time of strain and the hydrostatic excess pore pressure (HEPP). MRI study of cartilage consolidation under mechanical load is limited by difficulties in measuring the HEPP in the presence of the strong magnetic fields associated with the MRI technique. Here we describe the use of MRI to image and characterize bovine articular cartilage deforming under load in an MRI compatible consolidometer while monitoring pressure with a Fabry-Perot interferometer-based fiber-optic pressure transducer. PMID:24803188

  11. Statistical reconstruction algorithms for continuous wave electron spin resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissos, Imry; Levit, Michael; Feuer, Arie; Blank, Aharon

    2013-06-01

    Electron spin resonance imaging (ESRI) is an important branch of ESR that deals with heterogeneous samples ranging from semiconductor materials to small live animals and even humans. ESRI can produce either spatial images (providing information about the spatially dependent radical concentration) or spectral-spatial images, where an extra dimension is added to describe the absorption spectrum of the sample (which can also be spatially dependent). The mapping of oxygen in biological samples, often referred to as oximetry, is a prime example of an ESRI application. ESRI suffers frequently from a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which results in long acquisition times and poor image quality. A broader use of ESRI is hampered by this slow acquisition, which can also be an obstacle for many biological applications where conditions may change relatively quickly over time. The objective of this work is to develop an image reconstruction scheme for continuous wave (CW) ESRI that would make it possible to reduce the data acquisition time without degrading the reconstruction quality. This is achieved by adapting the so-called "statistical reconstruction" method, recently developed for other medical imaging modalities, to the specific case of CW ESRI. Our new algorithm accounts for unique ESRI aspects such as field modulation, spectral-spatial imaging, and possible limitation on the gradient magnitude (the so-called "limited angle" problem). The reconstruction method shows improved SNR and contrast recovery vs. commonly used back-projection-based methods, for a variety of simulated synthetic samples as well as in actual CW ESRI experiments.

  12. Normal Canine Brain Maturation at Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Bill; Garcia-Tapia, David; Riedesel, Elizabeth; Ellinwood, Norman Matthew; Jens, Jackie K.

    2010-01-01

    The normal neonatal canine brain exhibits marked differences from that of the mature brain. With development into adulthood there is a decrease in relative water content and progressive myelination; these changes are observable with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and are characterized by a repeatable and predictable time course. We characterized these developmental changes on common MR imaging sequences and identified clinically useful milestones of transition. To accomplish this, 17 normal dogs underwent MR imaging of the brain at various times after birth from 1 to 36 weeks. Sequences acquired were T1-weighted, T2-weighted, Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery, Short Tau Inversion Recovery and Diffusion Weighted Imaging sequences. The images were assessed subjectively for gray and white matter relative signal intensity and results correlated with histologic findings. The development of the neonatal canine brain follows a pattern that qualitatively matches that observed in humans, and which can be characterized adequately on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. At birth, the relative gray matter to white matter signal intensity of the cortex is reversed from that of the adult with an isointense transition at 34 weeks on T1-weighted and 48 weeks on T2-weighted images. This is followed by the expected mature gray matter to white matter relative intensity that undergoes continued development to a mostly adult appearance by 16 weeks. On the Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery sequence the cortical gray and white matter exhibit an additional signal intensity reversal during the juvenile period that is due to the initial high relative water content at the subcortical white matter, with its marked T1 relaxation effect. PMID:20806866

  13. Measurement of flow through porous media by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Oezdemirel, B.

    1992-01-01

    Quantitative imaging of flow through porous media is possible utilizing pulsed gradient phase encoding techniques in MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). The random directional motion of the fluid in a porous medium causes signal attenuation due to the dispersion of the phase information when velocity phase encoding gradient pulses are applied. Isolation of the effect of molecular diffusion process which is random not only in space but also in time in achieved by acquiring images with velocity compensated gradient pulses for measurement of the diffusion constant. PFOB (perfluorooctyl bromide) was used as an intravascular contrast agent in the experiments on the rabbit kidney models for extraction of all available information about the parameters governing the microvascular flow process in one MRI setup. A pulse sequence program was developed on a 1.5 T whole body MRI system to incorporate the multislice data collection, chemical-shift artifact correction, and cardiac gating algorithms. The complete imaging setup also included several radio frequency coils for F-19 imaging and an image reconstruction program with a motion artifact suppression algorithm required for collection of flow sensitive images in in-vivo studies. The results obtained from the experiments on the rabbit kidneys verified the proposed formulation for the quantitative analysis of microvascular flow. These studies on the animal models indicated that the measurement of microvascular flow on an absolute scale can be realized using the phase sensitive pulsed gradient velocity encoding methods. Utilization of the measurement and analysis techniques can be possible in the controlled experiments such as monitoring tumor responses to a certain kind of therapy through the evaluation of the microvascular flow.

  14. Decoupled coil detector array in magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiat, Doron; Einav, Shmuel

    1991-07-01

    A method for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was investigated, whereby an object is put under a homogeneous magnetic field, and the image is obtained by applying inverse source procedures to the data collected in an array of coil detectors surrounding the object. The induced current in each coil due to the precession of the magnetic dipole in each voxel depends on the characteristics of both the magnetic dipole frequency and strength, together with its distance from the coil, the coil direction in space and the electrical properties of the coils. By calculating the induced current signals over an array of coil detectors, a relationship is established between the set of signals and the structure of the body under investigation. Based on the proposed method, a computer simulation demonstrates the feasibility of this new modality. An improved method of multicoil recording is also suggested, whereby it is combined with the conventional zeugmatographic method with read and phase gradients, to result in a novel method of magnetic resonance imaging. In the combined method an equivalent number of coils is used instead of encoding gradients. The number of coils is thus reduced many times in comparison with the method where only a multicoil array is used. An experimental setup with a 9 coils detector array was built to give a coarse resolution of 3X3 pixels. By measuring the induced current signals over this array of coil detectors, a relationship is established between the set of signals and the structure of the body under investigation. The linear relation can then be represented in matrix notation, and inversion of this matrix will produce an image of the body.

  15. Echo-planar imaging: Magnetic resonance imaging in a fraction of a second

    SciTech Connect

    Stehling, M.K. Siemens AG, Erlangen ); Turner, R. ); Mansfield, P. )

    1991-10-04

    Progress has recently been made in implementing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that can be used to obtain images in a fraction of a second rather than in minutes. Echo-planar imaging (EPI) uses only one nuclear spin excitation per image and lends itself to a variety of critical medical and scientific applications. Among these are evaluation of cardiac function in real time, mapping of water diffusion and temperature in tissue, mapping of organ blood pool and perfusion, functional imaging of the central nervous system, depiction of blood and cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics, and movie imaging of the mobile fetus in utero. Through shortened patient examination times, higher patient throughput, and lower cost per MRI examination, EPI may become a powerful tool for early diagnosis of some common and potentially treatable diseases such as ischemic heart disease, stroke, and cancer.

  16. Echo-Planar Imaging: Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Fraction of a Second

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehling, Michael K.; Turner, Robert; Mansfield, Peter

    1991-10-01

    Progress has recently been made in implementing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that can be used to obtain images in a fraction of a second rather than in minutes. Echo-planar imaging (EPI) uses only one nuclear spin excitation per image and lends itself to a variety of critical medical and scientific applications. Among these are evaluation of cardiac function in real time, mapping of water diffusion and temperature in tissue, mapping of organ blood pool and perfusion, functional imaging of the central nervous system, depiction of blood and cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics, and movie imaging of the mobile fetus in utero. Through shortened patient examination times, higher patient throughput, and lower cost per MRI examination, EPI may become a powerful tool for early diagnosis of some common and potentially treatable diseases such as ischemic heart disease, stroke, and cancer.

  17. Imaging of Anal Fistulas: Comparison of Computed Tomographic Fistulography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Changhu; Zhao, Bin; Du, Yinglin; Wang, Cuiyan; Jiang, Wanli

    2014-01-01

    The primary importance of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in evaluating anal fistulas lies in its ability to demonstrate hidden areas of sepsis and secondary extensions in patients with fistula in ano. MR imaging is relatively expensive, so there are many healthcare systems worldwide where access to MR imaging remains restricted. Until recently, computed tomography (CT) has played a limited role in imaging fistula in ano, largely owing to its poor resolution of soft tissue. In this article, the different imaging features of the CT and MRI are compared to demonstrate the relative accuracy of CT fistulography for the preoperative assessment of fistula in ano. CT fistulography and MR imaging have their own advantages for preoperative evaluation of perianal fistula, and can be applied to complement one another when necessary. PMID:25469082

  18. The physics of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a methodology for detecting dynamic patterns of activity in the working human brain. Although the initial discoveries that led to fMRI are only about 20 years old, this new field has revolutionized the study of brain function. The ability to detect changes in brain activity has a biophysical basis in the magnetic properties of deoxyhemoglobin, and a physiological basis in the way blood flow increases more than oxygen metabolism when local neural activity increases. These effects translate to a subtle increase in the local magnetic resonance signal, the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, when neural activity increases. With current techniques, this pattern of activation can be measured with resolution approaching 1 mm3 spatially and 1 s temporally. This review focuses on the physical basis of the BOLD effect, the imaging methods used to measure it, the possible origins of the physiological effects that produce a mismatch of blood flow and oxygen metabolism during neural activation, and the mathematical models that have been developed to understand the measured signals. An overarching theme is the growing field of quantitative fMRI, in which other MRI methods are combined with BOLD methods and analyzed within a theoretical modeling framework to derive quantitative estimates of oxygen metabolism and other physiological variables. That goal is the current challenge for fMRI: to move fMRI from a mapping tool to a quantitative probe of brain physiology. PMID:24006360

  19. The physics of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, Richard B.

    2013-09-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a methodology for detecting dynamic patterns of activity in the working human brain. Although the initial discoveries that led to fMRI are only about 20 years old, this new field has revolutionized the study of brain function. The ability to detect changes in brain activity has a biophysical basis in the magnetic properties of deoxyhemoglobin, and a physiological basis in the way blood flow increases more than oxygen metabolism when local neural activity increases. These effects translate to a subtle increase in the local magnetic resonance signal, the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, when neural activity increases. With current techniques, this pattern of activation can be measured with resolution approaching 1 mm3 spatially and 1 s temporally. This review focuses on the physical basis of the BOLD effect, the imaging methods used to measure it, the possible origins of the physiological effects that produce a mismatch of blood flow and oxygen metabolism during neural activation, and the mathematical models that have been developed to understand the measured signals. An overarching theme is the growing field of quantitative fMRI, in which other MRI methods are combined with BOLD methods and analyzed within a theoretical modeling framework to derive quantitative estimates of oxygen metabolism and other physiological variables. That goal is the current challenge for fMRI: to move fMRI from a mapping tool to a quantitative probe of brain physiology.

  20. Ultrasensitive magnetometry and magnetic resonance imaging using cantilever detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugar, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Micromachined cantilevers make remarkable magnetometers for nanoscale measurements of magnetic materials and for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We present various applications of cantilever magnetometry at low temperature using cantilevers capable of attonewton force sensitivity. Small, unexpected magnetic effects can be seen, such as anomalous damping in magnetic field. A key application is magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) of both electron and nuclear spins. In recent experiments with MRFM-based NMR imaging, 3D spatial resolution better than 10 nm was achieved for protons in individual virus particles. The achieved volumetric resolution represents an improvement of 100 million compared to the best conventional MRI. The microscope is sensitive enough to detect NMR signals from adsorbed layers of hydrocarbon contamination, hydrogen in multiwall carbon nanotubes and the phosphorus in DNA. Operating with a force noise on the order of 6 aN per root hertz with a magnetic tip that produces a field gradient in excess of 30 gauss per nanometer, the magnetic moment sensitivity is 0.2 Bohr magnetons. The corresponding field sensitivity is 3 nT per root hertz. To our knowledge, this combination of high field sensitivity and nanometer spatial resolution is unsurpassed by any other form of nanometer-scale magnetometry.

  1. Realistic analytical phantoms for parallel magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Guerquin-Kern, M; Lejeune, L; Pruessmann, K P; Unser, M

    2012-03-01

    The quantitative validation of reconstruction algorithms requires reliable data. Rasterized simulations are popular but they are tainted by an aliasing component that impacts the assessment of the performance of reconstruction. We introduce analytical simulation tools that are suited to parallel magnetic resonance imaging and allow one to build realistic phantoms. The proposed phantoms are composed of ellipses and regions with piecewise-polynomial boundaries, including spline contours, Bzier contours, and polygons. In addition, they take the channel sensitivity into account, for which we investigate two possible models. Our analytical formulations provide well-defined data in both the spatial and k-space domains. Our main contribution is the closed-form determination of the Fourier transforms that are involved. Experiments validate the proposed implementation. In a typical parallel magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction experiment, we quantify the bias in the overly optimistic results obtained with rasterized simulations-the inverse-crime situation. We provide a package that implements the different simulations and provide tools to guide the design of realistic phantoms. PMID:22049364

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lung as an Alternative for a Pregnant Woman with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Schlo, Manuel; Heckrodt, Jan; Schneider, Christian; Discher, Thomas; Krombach, Gabriele Anja

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a pregnant 21-year-old woman with pulmonary tuberculosis in which magnetic resonance imaging of the lung was used to assess the extent and characteristics of the pathological changes. Although the lung has been mostly ignored in magnetic resonance imaging for many decades, today technical development enables detailed examinations of the lung. The technique is now entering the clinical arena and its indications are increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lung is not only an alternative method without radiation exposure, it can provide additional information in pulmonary imaging compared to other modalities including computed tomography. We describe a successful application of magnetic resonance imaging of the lung and the imaging appearance of post-primary tuberculosis. This case report indicates that magnetic resonance imaging of the lung can potentially be the first choice imaging technique in pregnant women with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:26622928

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of clays: swelling, sedimentation, dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvinskikh, Sergey; Furo, Istvan

    2010-05-01

    While most magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications concern medical research, there is a rapidly increasing number of MRI studies in the field of environmental science and technology. In this presentation, MRI will be introduced from the latter perspective. While many processes in these areas are similar to those addressed in medical applications of MRI, parameters and experimental implementations are often quite different and, in many respects, far more demanding. This hinders direct transfer of existing methods developed for biomedical research, especially when facing the challenging task of obtaining spatially resolved quantitative information. In MRI investigation of soils, clays, and rocks, mainly water signal is detected, similarly to MRI of biological and medical samples. However, a strong variation of water mobility and a wide spread of water spin relaxation properties in these materials make it difficult to use standard MRI approaches. Other significant limitations can be identified as following: T2 relaxation and probe dead time effects; molecular diffusion artifacts; varying dielectric losses and induced currents in conductive samples; limited dynamic range; blurring artifacts accompanying drive for increasing sensitivity and/or imaging speed. Despite these limitations, by combining MRI techniques developed for solid and liquid states and using independent information on relaxation properties of water, interacting with the material of interest, true images of distributions of both water, material and molecular properties in a wide range of concentrations can be obtained. Examples of MRI application will be given in the areas of soil and mineral research where understanding water transport and erosion processes is one of the key challenges. Efforts in developing and adapting MRI approaches to study these kinds of systems will be outlined as well. Extensive studies of clay/water interaction have been carried out in order to provide a quantitative measure of clay distribution in extended samples during different physical processes such as swelling, dissolution, and sedimentation on the time scale from minutes to years [1-3]. To characterize the state of colloids that form after/during clay swelling the water self-diffusion coefficient was measured on a spatially resolved manner. Both natural clays and purified and ion-exchanged montmorillonite clays were investigated. The primary variables were clay composition and water ionic strength. These results have a significant impact for engineering barriers for storage of spent nuclear fuel where clay erosion by low salinity water must be addressed. Presented methods were developed under the motivation of using bentonite clays as a buffer medium to build in-ground barriers for the encapsulation of radioactive waste. Nevertheless, the same approaches can be found suitable in other applications in soil and environmental science to study other types of materials as they swell, dissolve, erode, or sediment. Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) and the Swedish Research Council VR. [1] N. Nestle, T. Baumann, R. Niessner, Magnetic resonance imaging in environmental science. Environ. Sci. Techn. 36 154A (2002). [2] S. V. Dvinskikh, K. Szutkowski, I. Fur. MRI profiles over a very wide concentration ranges: application to swelling of a bentonite clay. J. Magn. Reson. 198 146 (2009). [3] S. V. Dvinskikh, I. Fur. Magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of bentonite systems. Technical Report, TR-09-27, SKB (2009), www.skb.se.

  4. Active resonant subwavelength grating for scannerless range imaging sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Nellums, Robert O.; Boye, Robert R.; Peters, David William

    2006-11-01

    In this late-start LDRD, we will present a design for a wavelength-agile, high-speed modulator that enables a long-term vision for the THz Scannerless Range Imaging (SRI) sensor. It takes the place of the currently-utilized SRI micro-channel plate which is limited to photocathode sensitive wavelengths (primarily in the visible and near-IR regimes). Two of Sandia's successful technologies--subwavelength diffractive optics and THz sources and detectors--are poised to extend the capabilities of the SRI sensor. The goal is to drastically broaden the SRI's sensing waveband--all the way to the THz regime--so the sensor can see through image-obscuring, scattering environments like smoke and dust. Surface properties, such as reflectivity, emissivity, and scattering roughness, vary greatly with the illuminating wavelength. Thus, objects that are difficult to image at the SRI sensor's present near-IR wavelengths may be imaged more easily at the considerably longer THz wavelengths (0.1 to 1mm). The proposed component is an active Resonant Subwavelength Grating (RSG). Sandia invested considerable effort on a passive RSG two years ago, which resulted in a highly-efficient (reflectivity greater than gold), wavelength-specific reflector. For this late-start LDRD proposal, we will transform the passive RSG design into an active laser-line reflector.

  5. Bilateral filtering of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Hamarneh, Ghassan; Hradsky, Judith

    2007-10-01

    We extend the well-known scalar image bilateral filtering technique to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images (DTMRI). The scalar version of bilateral image filtering is extended to perform edge-preserving smoothing of DT field data. The bilateral DT filtering is performed in the Log-Euclidean framework which guarantees valid output tensors. Smoothing is achieved by weighted averaging of neighboring tensors. Analogous to bilateral filtering of scalar images, the weights are chosen to be inversely proportional to two distance measures: The geometrical Euclidean distance between the spatial locations of tensors and the dissimilarity of tensors. We describe the noniterative DT smoothing equation in closed form and show how interpolation of DT data is treated as a special case of bilateral filtering where only spatial distance is used. We evaluate different recent DT tensor dissimilarity metrics including the Log-Euclidean, the similarity-invariant Log-Euclidean, the square root of the J-divergence, and the distance scaled mutual diffusion coefficient. We present qualitative and quantitative smoothing and interpolation results and show their effect on segmentation, for both synthetic DT field data, as well as real cardiac and brain DTMRI data. PMID:17926929

  6. Radiation-induced optic neuropathy: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, J.; Mancuso, A.; Beck, R.; Moster, M.L.; Sedwick, L.A.; Quisling, R.G.; Rhoton, A.L. Jr.; Protzko, E.E.; Schiffman, J. )

    1991-03-01

    Optic neuropathy induced by radiation is an infrequent cause of delayed visual loss that may at times be difficult to differentiate from compression of the visual pathways by recurrent neoplasm. The authors describe six patients with this disorder who experienced loss of vision 6 to 36 months after neurological surgery and radiation therapy. Of the six patients in the series, two had a pituitary adenoma and one each had a metastatic melanoma, multiple myeloma, craniopharyngioma, and lymphoepithelioma. Visual acuity in the affected eyes ranged from 20/25 to no light perception. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed sellar and parasellar recurrence of both pituitary adenomas, but the intrinsic lesions of the optic nerves and optic chiasm induced by radiation were enhanced after gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) administration and were clearly distinguishable from the suprasellar compression of tumor. Repeated MR imaging showed spontaneous resolution of gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of the optic nerve in a patient who was initially suspected of harboring recurrence of a metastatic malignant melanoma as the cause of visual loss. The authors found the presumptive diagnosis of radiation-induced optic neuropathy facilitated by MR imaging with gadolinium-DTPA. This neuro-imaging procedure may help avert exploratory surgery in some patients with recurrent neoplasm in whom the etiology of visual loss is uncertain.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in bilateral basal ganglia lesions.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Lim CC

    2009-09-01

    INTRODUCTION: Radiologists may encounter bilaterally symmetrical abnormalities of the basal ganglia on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), typically in the context of diffuse systemic, toxic or metabolic diseases. A systematic approach and broad knowledge of pathology causing this uncommon group of conditions would be useful.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review uses illustrative images to highlight metabolic conditions, such as Leigh's syndrome, citrullinaemia, hypoglycaemia or carbon monoxide poisoning, as well as other causes of bilateral basal ganglia lesions such as osmotic myelinolysis, deep cerebral venous thrombosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.RESULTS: Careful assessment of radiological findings outside the basal ganglia, such as involvement of the cortex, white matter, thalamus and pons, together with clinical correlation, may be helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis, and directing further radiological, biochemical or genetic investigations. Recent advances in MR technology have resulted in newer techniques including diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging and MR spectroscopy (MRS); these may be helpful if appropriately used.CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal MRI findings in the basal ganglia should not be interpreted in isolation. A systematic approach including DW MR imaging, MRS, and a broad knowledge of diffuse systemic, toxic or metabolic diseases is helpful.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging volumetric and phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements in schizophrenia.

    PubMed Central

    Hinsberger, A D; Williamson, P C; Carr, T J; Stanley, J A; Drost, D J; Densmore, M; MacFabe, G C; Montemurro, D G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) parameters and left prefrontal volumes in both patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects. 31P MRS parameters and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric data were collected in the left prefrontal region in 10 patients with schizophrenia and 10 healthy subjects of comparable age, handedness, sex, educational level, and parental educational level. No correlations were found between any MRS parameter and grey matter volumes in the combined subjects. Phosphomonoester (PME) and grey matter volumes, however, were both correlated negatively with age. PMEs were found to be decreased, and calculated intracellular magnesium ([Mg2+]intra) was found to be increased in the patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy subjects after adjusting for left prefrontal grey and white matter, total brain volume, and age. These findings suggest that cortical grey and white manner volumes are not directly related to PME and [Mg2+]intra abnormalities in schizophrenia patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9074305

  9. Advanced Theory of Driven Birdcage Resonator with Losses for Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Novikov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    A complete time-dependent physics theory of symmetric unperturbed driven Hybrid Birdcage resonator was developed for general application. In particular, the theory can be applied for RF coil engineering, computer simulations of coil-sample interaction, etc. Explicit time dependence is evaluated for different forms of driving voltage. The major steps of the solution development are shown and appropriate explanations are given. Greens functions and spectral density formula were developed for any form of periodic driving voltage. The concept of distributed power losses based on transmission line theory is developed for evaluation of local losses of a coil. Three major types of power losses are estimated as equivalent series resistances in the circuit of the Birdcage resonator. Values of generated resistances in Legs and End-Rings are estimated. An application of the theory is shown for many practical cases. Experimental curve of B1 field polarization dependence is measured for eight-sections Birdcage coil. It was shown, that the steady-state driven resonance frequencies do not depend on damping factor unlike the free oscillation (transient) frequencies. An equivalent active resistance is generated due to interaction of RF electromagnetic field with a sample. Resistance of the conductor (enhanced by skin effect), Eddy currents and dielectric losses are the major types of losses which contribute to the values of generated resistances. A biomedical sample for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy is the source of the both Eddy current and dielectric losses of a coil. As demonstrated by the theory, Eddy currents losses is the major effect of coil shielding. PMID:20869184

  10. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography image enhancement for automatic disease detection

    PubMed Central

    Logeswaran, Rajasvaran

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To sufficiently improve magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) quality to enable reliable computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). METHODS: A set of image enhancement strategies that included filters (i.e. Gaussian, median, Wiener and Perona-Malik), wavelets (i.e. contourlet, ridgelet and a non-orthogonal noise compensation implementation), graph-cut approaches using lazy-snapping and Phase Unwrapping MAxflow, and binary thresholding using a fixed threshold and dynamic thresholding via histogram analysis were implemented to overcome the adverse characteristics of MRCP images such as acquisition noise, artifacts, partial volume effect and large inter- and intra-patient image intensity variations, all of which pose problems in application development. Subjective evaluation of several popular pre-processing techniques was undertaken to improve the quality of the 2D MRCP images and enhance the detection of the significant biliary structures within them, with the purpose of biliary disease detection. RESULTS: The results varied as expected since each algorithm capitalized on different characteristics of the images. For denoising, the Perona-Malik and contourlet approaches were found to be the most suitable. In terms of extraction of the significant biliary structures and removal of background, the thresholding approaches performed well. The interactive scheme performed the best, especially by using the strengths of the graph-cut algorithm enhanced by user-friendly lazy-snapping for foreground and background marker selection. CONCLUSION: Tests show promising results for some techniques, but not others, as viable image enhancement modules for automatic CAD systems for biliary and liver diseases. PMID:21160667

  11. Grid Computing Application for Brain Magnetic Resonance Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia, F.; Crpeault, B.; Duchesne, S.

    2012-02-01

    This work emphasizes the use of grid computing and web technology for automatic post-processing of brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) in the context of neuropsychiatric (Alzheimer's disease) research. Post-acquisition image processing is achieved through the interconnection of several individual processes into pipelines. Each process has input and output data ports, options and execution parameters, and performs single tasks such as: a) extracting individual image attributes (e.g. dimensions, orientation, center of mass), b) performing image transformations (e.g. scaling, rotation, skewing, intensity standardization, linear and non-linear registration), c) performing image statistical analyses, and d) producing the necessary quality control images and/or files for user review. The pipelines are built to perform specific sequences of tasks on the alphanumeric data and MRIs contained in our database. The web application is coded in PHP and allows the creation of scripts to create, store and execute pipelines and their instances either on our local cluster or on high-performance computing platforms. To run an instance on an external cluster, the web application opens a communication tunnel through which it copies the necessary files, submits the execution commands and collects the results. We present result on system tests for the processing of a set of 821 brain MRIs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study via a nonlinear registration pipeline composed of 10 processes. Our results show successful execution on both local and external clusters, and a 4-fold increase in performance if using the external cluster. However, the latter's performance does not scale linearly as queue waiting times and execution overhead increase with the number of tasks to be executed.

  12. Dedicated Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Radiotherapy Clinic

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, Mikael Karlsson, Magnus G.; Nyholm, Tufve; Amies, Christopher; Zackrisson, Bjoern

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce a novel technology arrangement in an integrated environment and outline the logistics model needed to incorporate dedicated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the radiotherapy workflow. An initial attempt was made to analyze the value and feasibility of MR-only imaging compared to computed tomography (CT) imaging, testing the assumption that MR is a better choice for target and healthy tissue delineation in radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A 1.5-T MR unit with a 70-cm-bore size was installed close to a linear accelerator, and a special trolley was developed for transporting patients who were fixated in advance between the MR unit and the accelerator. New MR-based workflow procedures were developed and evaluated. Results: MR-only treatment planning has been facilitated, thus avoiding all registration errors between CT and MR scans, but several new aspects of MR imaging must be considered. Electron density information must be obtained by other methods. Generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) for x-ray setup verification is not straight forward, and reliable corrections of geometrical distortions must be applied. The feasibility of MR imaging virtual simulation has been demonstrated, but a key challenge to overcome is correct determination of the skeleton, which is often needed for the traditional approach of beam modeling. The trolley solution allows for a highly precise setup for soft tissue tumors without the invasive handling of radiopaque markers. Conclusions: The new logistics model with an integrated MR unit is efficient and will allow for improved tumor definition and geometrical precision without a significant loss of dosimetric accuracy. The most significant development needed is improved bone imaging.

  13. Methodological challenges and solutions in auditory functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Peelle, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies involve substantial acoustic noise. This review covers the difficulties posed by such noise for auditory neuroscience, as well as a number of possible solutions that have emerged. Acoustic noise can affect the processing of auditory stimuli by making them inaudible or unintelligible, and can result in reduced sensitivity to auditory activation in auditory cortex. Equally importantly, acoustic noise may also lead to increased listening effort, meaning that even when auditory stimuli are perceived, neural processing may differ from when the same stimuli are presented in quiet. These and other challenges have motivated a number of approaches for collecting auditory fMRI data. Although using a continuous echoplanar imaging (EPI) sequence provides high quality imaging data, these data may also be contaminated by background acoustic noise. Traditional sparse imaging has the advantage of avoiding acoustic noise during stimulus presentation, but at a cost of reduced temporal resolution. Recently, three classes of techniques have been developed to circumvent these limitations. The first is Interleaved Silent Steady State (ISSS) imaging, a variation of sparse imaging that involves collecting multiple volumes following a silent period while maintaining steady-state longitudinal magnetization. The second involves active noise control to limit the impact of acoustic scanner noise. Finally, novel MRI sequences that reduce the amount of acoustic noise produced during fMRI make the use of continuous scanning a more practical option. Together these advances provide unprecedented opportunities for researchers to collect high-quality data of hemodynamic responses to auditory stimuli using fMRI. PMID:25191218

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Spinal Cord and Cauda Equina Motion in Supine Patients With Spinal Metastases Planned for Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Chia-Lin; Sussman, Marshall S.; Atenafu, Eshetu G.; Letourneau, Daniel; Ma, Lijun; Soliman, Hany; Thibault, Isabelle; Cho, B. C. John; Simeonov, Anna; Yu, Eugene; Fehlings, Michael G.; Sahgal, Arjun

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To assess motion of the spinal cord and cauda equina, which are critical neural tissues (CNT), which is important when evaluating the planning organ-at-risk margin required for stereotactic body radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed CNT motion in 65 patients with spinal metastases (11 cervical, 39 thoracic, and 24 lumbar spinal segments) in the supine position using dynamic axial and sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI, 3T Verio, Siemens) over a 137-second interval. Motion was segregated according to physiologic cardiorespiratory oscillatory motion (characterized by the average root mean square deviation) and random bulk shifts associated with gross patient motion (characterized by the range). Displacement was evaluated in the anteroposterior (AP), lateral (LR), and superior-inferior (SI) directions by use of a correlation coefficient template matching algorithm, with quantification of random motion measure error over 3 separate trials. Statistical significance was defined according to P<.05. Results: In the AP, LR, and SI directions, significant oscillatory motion was observed in 39.2%, 35.1%, and 10.8% of spinal segments, respectively, and significant bulk motions in all cases. The median oscillatory CNT motions in the AP, LR, and SI directions were 0.16 mm, 0.17 mm, and 0.44 mm, respectively, and the maximal statistically significant oscillatory motions were 0.39 mm, 0.41 mm, and 0.77 mm, respectively. The median bulk displacements in the AP, LR, and SI directions were 0.51 mm, 0.59 mm, and 0.66 mm, and the maximal statistically significant displacements were 2.21 mm, 2.87 mm, and 3.90 mm, respectively. In the AP, LR, and SI directions, bulk displacements were greater than 1.5 mm in 5.4%, 9.0%, and 14.9% of spinal segments, respectively. No significant differences in axial motion were observed according to cord level or cauda equina. Conclusions: Oscillatory CNT motion was observed to be relatively minor. Our results support the importance of controlling bulk patient motion and the practice of applying a planning organ-at-risk margin.

  15. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging and its recent trend—a survey

    PubMed Central

    Chilla, Geetha Soujanya; Tan, Cher Heng

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in 1985, diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging has been evolving and is becoming instrumental in diagnosis and investigation of tissue functions in various organs including brain, cartilage, and liver. Even though brain related pathology and/or investigation remains as the main application, diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is becoming a standard in oncology and in several other applications. This review article provides a brief introduction of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, challenges involved and recent advancements. PMID:26029644

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study on Blebs Morphology of Ahmed Valves

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Joana; Fernandes, Fernando; Patricio, Madalena; Brás, Ana; Rios, Cristina; Stalmans, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the morphometric parameters of filtration blebs of a valved aqueous humor drainage device. Materials and methods: Orbital magnetic resonances imaging (MRI) was taken after implantation of an Ahmed valve (FP7 model). Outcomes of the analysis were intraocular pressure (IOP) and the bleb’s morphometric analysis (volume, height, major and minor axis). Associations between IOP and the imaging-related study variables were explored by Spearman’s correlation test. Results: Eleven patients underwent orbital MRI examination. Recordings were taken after a mean of 2.7 months (1-6 months) after surgery. IOP was significantly lower than its preoperative values (17.6 ± 6.4 mm Hg vs 36.1 ± 6.4 mm Hg, p < 0.01). Mean bleb volume was 856.9 ± 261 mm3 and its height, major and minor axis were 5.77 ± 1.9, 14.8 ± 2.9 and 8.14 ± 3.6 mm, respectively. A positive correlation was detected between IOP and mean height (r = 0.77, p = 0.048) and major axis (r = 0.83, p = 0.03). Interestingly, the overall bleb volume was related to IOP levels immediately prior to surgery (r = 0.75, p < 0.01). Additionally, the posterior part of the plate was found to be displaced from the scleral surface in five cases (45%). Conclusion: Ahmed valve’s bleb morphology seems to correlate with both the pre- and postoperative IOP, which might suggest a clinical benefit of administering aqueous suppressants pre- as well as postoperatively. The plate of the device may show a significant dislocation from its initial surgical implantation site. How to cite this article: Ferreira J, Fernandes F, Patricio M, Brás A, Rios C, Stalmans I, Pinto LA. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study on Blebs Morphology of Ahmed Valves. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):1-5.

  17. Magnetic resonance velocimetry: applications of magnetic resonance imaging in the measurement of fluid motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, Christopher J.; Alley, Marcus T.

    2007-12-01

    Magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) is a non-invasive technique capable of measuring the three-component mean velocity field in complex three-dimensional geometries with either steady or periodic boundary conditions. The technique is based on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and works in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets used for clinical imaging. Velocities can be measured along single lines, in planes, or in full 3D volumes with sub-millimeter resolution. No optical access or flow markers are required so measurements can be obtained in clear or opaque MR compatible flow models and fluids. Because of its versatility and the widespread availability of MRI scanners, MRV is seeing increasing application in both biological and engineering flows. MRV measurements typically image the hydrogen protons in liquid flows due to the relatively high intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Nonetheless, lower SNR applications such as fluorine gas flows are beginning to appear in the literature. MRV can be used in laminar and turbulent flows, single and multiphase flows, and even non-isothermal flows. In addition to measuring mean velocity, MRI techniques can measure turbulent velocities, diffusion coefficients and tensors, and temperature. This review surveys recent developments in MRI measurement techniques primarily in turbulent liquid and gas flows. A general description of MRV provides background for a discussion of its accuracy and limitations. Techniques for decreasing scan time such as parallel imaging and partial k-space sampling are discussed. MRV applications are reviewed in the areas of physiology, biology, and engineering. Included are measurements of arterial blood flow and gas flow in human lungs. Featured engineering applications include the scanning of turbulent flows in complex geometries for CFD validation, the rapid iterative design of complex internal flow passages, velocity and phase composition measurements in multiphase flows, and the scanning of flows through porous media. Temperature measurements using MR thermometry are discussed. Finally, post-processing methods are covered to demonstrate the utility of MRV data for calculating relative pressure fields and wall shear stresses.

  18. Towards simultaneous single emission microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liang

    In recent years, the combined nuclear imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has drawn extensive research effort. They can provide simultaneously acquired anatomical and functional information inside the human/small animal body in vivo. In this dissertation, the development of an ultrahigh resolution MR-compatible SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) system that can be operated inside a pre-existing clinical MR scanner for simultaneous dual-modality imaging of small animals will be discussed. This system is constructed with 40 small pixel CdTe detector modules assembled in a fully stationary ring SPECT geometry. Series of experiments have demonstrated that this system is capable of providing an imaging resolution of <500?m, when operated inside MR scanners. The ultrahigh resolution MR-compatible SPECT system is built around a small pixel CdTe detector module that we recently developed. Each module consists of CdTe detectors having an overall size of 2.2 cm x 1.1 cm, divided into 64 x 32 pixels of 350 mum in size. A novel hybrid pixel-waveform (HPWF) readout system is also designed to alleviate several challenges for using small-pixel CdTe detectors in ultrahigh-resolution SPECT imaging applications. The HPWF system utilizes a modified version of a 2048-channel 2-D CMOS ASIC to readout the anode pixel, and a digitizing circuitry to sample the signal waveform induced on the cathode. The cathode waveform acquired with the HPWF circuitry offers excellent spatial resolution, energy resolution and depth of interaction (DOI) information, even with the presence of excessive charge-sharing/charge-loss between the small anode pixels. The HPWF CdTe detector is designed and constructed with a minimum amount of ferromagnetic materials, to ensure the MR-compatibility. To achieve sub-500?m imaging resolution, two special designed SPECT apertures have been constructed with different pinhole sizes of 300?m and 500?m respectively. It has 40 pinhole inserts that are made of cast platinum (90%)-iridium (10%) alloy, which provides the maximum stopping power and are compatible with MR scanners. The SPECT system is installed on a non-metal gantry constructed with 3-D printing using nylon powder material. This compact system can work as a "low-cost" desktop ultrahigh resolution SPECT system. It can also be directly operated inside an MR scanner. Accurate system geometrical calibration and corresponding image reconstruction methods for the MRC-SPECT system is developed. In order to account for the magnetic field induced distortion in the SPECT image, a comprehensive charge collection model inside strong magnetic field is adopted to produce high resolution SPECT image inside MR scanner.

  19. The basics of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging: terminology, imaging sequences, image planes, and descriptions of basic pathologic change.

    PubMed

    Winter, Matthew D

    2012-12-01

    The usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnosis of equine lameness is unquestionable. As with most imaging modalities, advances in technology happen quickly, and the information that can be obtained can seem limitless. An understanding of MR sequences, expected signal intensity of normal tissues, and the role of multiplanar imaging is the foundation for interpreting MR images. The rapid development of new techniques and sequences and the potential for biochemical changes to be indirectly assessed using MR spectroscopy offer possibilities for the continued development of this modality and ensure its continued application in the diagnosis of equine lameness. PMID:23177134

  20. Direct imaging of radio-frequency modes via traveling wave magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonyushkin, A.; Deelchand, D. K.; Van de Moortele, P.-F.; Adriany, G.; Kiruluta, A.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an experimental method for direct 2D and 3D imaging of magnetic radio-frequency (rf) field distribution in metal-dielectric structures based on traveling wave (TW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at ultra-high field (>7 T). The typical apparatus would include an ultra-high field whole body or small bore MRI scanner, waveguide elements filled with MRI active dielectrics with predefined electric and magnetic properties, and TW rf transmit-receive probes. We validated the technique by obtaining TW MR images of the magnetic field distribution of the rf modes of circular waveguide filled with deionized water in a 16.4 T small-bore MRI scanner and compared the MR images with numerical simulations. Our MRI technique opens up a practical non-perturbed way of imaging of previously inaccessible rf field distribution of modes inside various shapes metal waveguides with inserted dielectric objects, including waveguide mode converters and transformers.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in laboratory petrophysical core analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, J.; Chandrasekera, T. C.; Holland, D. J.; Gladden, L. F.; Fordham, E. J.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-known technique in medical diagnosis and materials science. In the more specialized arena of laboratory-scale petrophysical rock core analysis, the role of MRI has undergone a substantial change in focus over the last three decades. Initially, alongside the continual drive to exploit higher magnetic field strengths in MRI applications for medicine and chemistry, the same trend was followed in core analysis. However, the spatial resolution achievable in heterogeneous porous media is inherently limited due to the magnetic susceptibility contrast between solid and fluid. As a result, imaging resolution at the length-scale of typical pore diameters is not practical and so MRI of core-plugs has often been viewed as an inappropriate use of expensive magnetic resonance facilities. Recently, there has been a paradigm shift in the use of MRI in laboratory-scale core analysis. The focus is now on acquiring data in the laboratory that are directly comparable to data obtained from magnetic resonance well-logging tools (i.e., a common physics of measurement). To maintain consistency with well-logging instrumentation, it is desirable to measure distributions of transverse (T2) relaxation time-the industry-standard metric in well-logging-at the laboratory-scale. These T2 distributions can be spatially resolved over the length of a core-plug. The use of low-field magnets in the laboratory environment is optimal for core analysis not only because the magnetic field strength is closer to that of well-logging tools, but also because the magnetic susceptibility contrast is minimized, allowing the acquisition of quantitative image voxel (or pixel) intensities that are directly scalable to liquid volume. Beyond simple determination of macroscopic rock heterogeneity, it is possible to utilize the spatial resolution for monitoring forced displacement of oil by water or chemical agents, determining capillary pressure curves, and estimating wettability. The history of MRI in petrophysics is reviewed and future directions considered, including advanced data processing techniques such as compressed sensing reconstruction and Bayesian inference analysis of under-sampled data. Although this review focuses on rock core analysis, the techniques described are applicable in a wider context to porous media in general, such as cements, soils, ceramics, and catalytic materials.

  2. Bacteria tracking by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Different non-invasive real-time imaging techniques have been developed over the last decades to study bacterial pathogenic mechanisms in mouse models by following infections over a time course. In vivo investigations of bacterial infections previously relied mostly on bioluminescence imaging (BLI), which is able to localize metabolically active bacteria, but provides no data on the status of the involved organs in the infected host organism. In this study we established an in vivo imaging platform by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for tracking bacteria in mouse models of infection to study infection biology of clinically relevant bacteria. Results We have developed a method to label Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with iron oxide nano particles and detected and pursued these with MRI. The key step for successful labeling was to manipulate the bacterial surface charge by producing electro-competent cells enabling charge interactions between the iron particles and the cell wall. Different particle sizes and coatings were tested for their ability to attach to the cell wall and possible labeling mechanisms were elaborated by comparing Gram-positive and -negative bacterial characteristics. With 5-nm citrate-coated particles an iron load of 0.015 0.002 pg Fe/bacterial cell was achieved for Staphylococcus aureus. In both a subcutaneous and a systemic infection model induced by iron-labeled S. aureus bacteria, high resolution MR images allowed for bacterial tracking and provided information on the morphology of organs and the inflammatory response. Conclusion Labeled with iron oxide particles, in vivo detection of small S. aureus colonies in infection models is feasible by MRI and provides a versatile tool to follow bacterial infections in vivo. The established cell labeling strategy can easily be transferred to other bacterial species and thus provides a conceptual advance in the field of molecular MRI. PMID:23714179

  3. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for enhanced magnetic resonance and multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikma, Elise Ann Schultz

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for noninvasive tomographic imaging of biological systems with high spatial and temporal resolution. Superparamagnetic (SPM) nanoparticles have emerged as highly effective MR contrast agents due to their biocompatibility, ease of surface modification and magnetic properties. Conventional nanoparticle contrast agents suffer from difficult synthetic reproducibility, polydisperse sizes and weak magnetism. Numerous synthetic techniques and nanoparticle formulations have been developed to overcome these barriers. However, there are still major limitations in the development of new nanoparticle-based probes for MR and multimodal imaging including low signal amplification and absence of biochemical reporters. To address these issues, a set of multimodal (T2/optical) and dual contrast (T1/T2) nanoparticle probes has been developed. Their unique magnetic properties and imaging capabilities were thoroughly explored. An enzyme-activatable contrast agent is currently being developed as an innovative means for early in vivo detection of cancer at the cellular level. Multimodal probes function by combining the strengths of multiple imaging techniques into a single agent. Co-registration of data obtained by multiple imaging modalities validates the data, enhancing its quality and reliability. A series of T2/optical probes were successfully synthesized by attachment of a fluorescent dye to the surface of different types of nanoparticles. The multimodal nanoparticles generated sufficient MR and fluorescence signal to image transplanted islets in vivo. Dual contrast T1/T2 imaging probes were designed to overcome disadvantages inherent in the individual T1 and T2 components. A class of T1/T2 agents was developed consisting of a gadolinium (III) complex (DTPA chelate or DO3A macrocycle) conjugated to a biocompatible silica-coated metal oxide nanoparticle through a disulfide linker. The disulfide linker has the ability to be reduced in vivo by glutathione, releasing large payloads of signal-enhancing T1 probes into the surrounding environment. Optimization of the agent occurred over three sequential generations, with each generation addressing a new challenge. The result was a T2 nanoparticle containing high levels of conjugated T1 complex demonstrating enhanced MR relaxation properties. The probes created here have the potential to play a key role in the advancement of nanoparticle-based agents in biomedical MRI applications.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and relaxation time mapping of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyea, Steven Donald

    2001-07-01

    The use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of water in concrete is presented. This thesis will approach the problem of MR imaging of concrete by attempting to design new methods, suited to concrete materials, rather than attempting to force the material to suit the method. A number of techniques were developed, which allow the spatial observation of water in concrete in up to three dimensions, and permits the determination of space resolved moisture content, as well as local NMR relaxation times. These methods are all based on the Single-Point Imaging (SPI) method. The development of these new methods will be described, and the techniques validated using phantom studies. The study of one-dimensional moisture transport in drying concrete was performed using SPI. This work examined the effect of initial mixture proportions and hydration time on the drying behaviour of concrete, over a period of three months. Studies of drying concrete were also performed using spatial mapping of the spin-lattice (T1) and effective spin-spin (T2*) relaxation times, thereby permitting the observation of changes in the water occupied pore surface-to-volume ratio (S/V) as a function of drying. Results of this work demonstrated changes in the S/V due to drying, hydration and drying induced microcracking. Three-dimensional MRI of concrete was performed using SPRITE (Single-Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement) and turboSPI (turbo Single Point Imaging). While SPRITE allows for weighting of MR images using T 1 and T2*, turboSPI allows T2 weighting of the resulting images. Using relaxation weighting it was shown to be possible to discriminate between water contained within a hydrated cement matrix, and water in highly porous aggregates, used to produce low-density concrete. Three dimensional experiments performed using SPRITE and turboSPI examined the role of self-dessication, drying, initial aggregate saturation and initial mixture conditions on the transport of moisture between porous aggregates and the hydrated matrix. The results demonstrate that water is both added and removed from the aggregates, depending upon the physical conditions. The images also appear to show an influx of cement products into cracks in the solid aggregate. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  5. Wavelet Domain Radiofrequency Pulse Design Applied to Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huettner, Andrew M.; Mickevicius, Nikolai J.; Ersoz, Ali; Koch, Kevin M.; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Nencka, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    A new method for designing radiofrequency (RF) pulses with numerical optimization in the wavelet domain is presented. Numerical optimization may yield solutions that might otherwise have not been discovered with analytic techniques alone. Further, processing in the wavelet domain reduces the number of unknowns through compression properties inherent in wavelet transforms, providing a more tractable optimization problem. This algorithm is demonstrated with simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) spin echo refocusing pulses because reduced peak RF power is necessary for SMS diffusion imaging with high acceleration factors. An iterative, nonlinear, constrained numerical minimization algorithm was developed to generate an optimized RF pulse waveform. Wavelet domain coefficients were modulated while iteratively running a Bloch equation simulator to generate the intermediate slice profile of the net magnetization. The algorithm minimizes the L2-norm of the slice profile with additional terms to penalize rejection band ripple and maximize the net transverse magnetization across each slice. Simulations and human brain imaging were used to demonstrate a new RF pulse design that yields an optimized slice profile and reduced peak energy deposition when applied to a multiband single-shot echo planar diffusion acquisition. This method may be used to optimize factors such as magnitude and phase spectral profiles and peak RF pulse power for multiband simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) acquisitions. Wavelet-based RF pulse optimization provides a useful design method to achieve a pulse waveform with beneficial amplitude reduction while preserving appropriate magnetization response for magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26517262

  6. Bioengineered iron-oxide nanocrystals: Applications in magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Brian A.

    Superparamagnetic Iron-Oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) are used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in clinical and research applications, effectively increasing the imaging sensitivity of MRI. Current clinical MRI applications utilizing SPIO are limited to liver and gastrointestinal imaging, but further bioengineering will expand the capabilities of SPIO enhanced MRI. This thesis presents different methods of bioengineering SPIO contrast agents for MRI applications. In particular, chemical methods are developed to manipulate contrast agent size via aggregation, modify contrast agent surface encapsulation, and biofunctionalize contrast agents for new applications. Contrast agent sizes from 15 nm to 100 nm are synthesized by nanoparticle aggregation, yielding a new method to incrementally size contrast agent sizing for specific applications. Mono- and Diethoxy silane surface chemistries are applied to SPIO to develop quasi-monolayer biocompatible contrast agent surface encapsulations. Finally, biofunctionalization enables two new applications of SPIO contrast agents, as a new MRI-based method to detect inflammation in vivo, and as a bifunctional MRI contrast agent and nanoparticle antigen delivery system.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging differential diagnosis of brainstem lesions in children.

    PubMed

    Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Errante, Yuri; Rossi Espagnet, Maria Camilla; Galassi, Stefania; Della Sala, Sabino Walter; Bernardi, Bruno; Fariello, Giuseppe; Longo, Daniela

    2016-01-28

    Differential diagnosis of brainstem lesions, either isolated or in association with cerebellar and supra-tentorial lesions, can be challenging. Knowledge of the structural organization is crucial for the differential diagnosis and establishment of prognosis of pathologies with involvement of the brainstem. Familiarity with the location of the lesions in the brainstem is essential, especially in the pediatric population. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive and specific imaging technique for diagnosing disorders of the posterior fossa and, particularly, the brainstem. High magnetic static field MRI allows detailed visualization of the morphology, signal intensity and metabolic content of the brainstem nuclei, together with visualization of the normal development and myelination. In this pictorial essay we review the brainstem pathology in pediatric patients and consider the MR imaging patterns that may help the radiologist to differentiate among vascular, toxico-metabolic, infective-inflammatory, degenerative and neoplastic processes. Helpful MR tips can guide the differential diagnosis: These include the location and morphology of lesions, the brainstem vascularization territories, gray and white matter distribution and tissue selective vulnerability. PMID:26834941

  8. Nanoparticle Pharmacokinetic Profiling in vivo using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Anne M.; Sim, Hoon; Winter, Patrick M.; Caruthers, Shelton D.; Williams, Todd A.; Robertson, J. David; Sept, David; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2008-01-01

    Contrast agents targeted to molecular markers of disease are currently being developed with the goal of identifying disease early and evaluating treatment effectiveness using non-invasive imaging modalities such as MRI. Pharmacokinetic profiling of the binding of targeted contrast agents, while theoretically possible with MRI, has thus far only been demonstrated with more sensitive imaging techniques. Paramagnetic liquid perfluorocarbon nanoparticles were formulated to target ?v?3-integrins associated with early atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits in order to produce a measurable signal increase on magnetic resonance images after binding. In this work, we combine quantitative information of the in vivo binding of this agent over time obtained via MRI with blood sampling to derive pharmacokinetic parameters using simultaneous and individual fitting of the data to a three compartment model. A doubling of tissue exposure (or area under the curve) is obtained with targeted as compared to control nanoparticles, and key parameter differences are discovered that may aid in development of models for targeted drug delivery. PMID:19025903

  9. Tumor growth and its effect on Magnetic Resonance Imaging signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cersosimo, Homero; Colon, Jorge; Ramos, Elio; Zypman, Fredy

    2000-03-01

    The goal of this project is twofold. On one hand, we have developed computer code based on simple probabilistic rules to model the growth (or shrinking) of cancerigenous tissue. We assume that initially there exists a differentiated cell, which has a time- dependent probability of reproducing. If it did reproduce, then we assume that it has a finite probability of dying before reproducing again. This simple model falls into the Eden-type kind, and presents appropriate bulk growth characteristics, as it follows Gompert observational law. We propose new methods of geometrical characterization of the tumor. Besides its total mass, we also consider higher multipolar order of mass distribution and surface fractal dimension. In addition, we study how the geometrical properties of the tumor affect the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) signal. To this end, we consider a human brain in the presence of radiofrequency fields. We calculate the MRI image of this object. Then, we introduce a tumor in the white-gray matter region and reobtain the MRI image. We associate the signal changes with the geometrical properties of the tumor.

  10. Sequential magnetic resonance imaging findings in hypereosinophilia-induced encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Kwon, S U; Kim, J C; Kim, J S

    2001-04-01

    Hypereosiophilia-induced encephalopathy (HE) is a rare but well-described clinical syndrome. However, serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of HE have rarely been reported. We describe serial MRI findings of three patients with HE. The patients presented with acute confusion, focal neurological deficits and/or seizures. Eosinophils in repeated blood tests were more than 3000/mm3 in all the patients. Echocardiography in two patients showed findings consistent with eosinophilic endomyocardial fibrosis or global hypokinesia. The initial MRI revealed multiple high-signal lesions on T2-weighted images with gadolinium-DTPA enhancement on T1-weighted images, which were predominantly distributed in the border zone of the middle-anterior cerebral arteries and the middle-posterior cerebral arteries. The second MRIs taken prior to the initiation of steroid therapy showed that the lesions increased in size and number in the same area. The third MRIs performed long after the therapy showed that the lesions were shrunken. A brain biopsy specimen in one patient showed reactive gliosis following infarction with abundant intravascular eosinophils. The MRI-identified lesions in the patients with HE thus develop mainly in the border zone. The lesions occasionally increase in size and number and shrink if the eosinophilia is adequately treated. Although the nature of the MRI-identified lesions remains unclear, their pathogenesis may be related to multiple embolisms associated with concomitant cardiac abnormality and hypercoagulable state. PMID:11374091

  11. Phase estimation for magnetic resonance imaging near metal prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bones, Philip J.; King, Laura J.; Millane, Rick P.

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to be the best technique for assessing complications in patients with metal orthopedic implants. The presence of fat can obscure definition of the other soft tissues in MRI images, so fat suppression is often required. However, the performance of existing fat suppression techniques is inadequate near implants, due to very significant magnetic field perturbations induced by the metal. The three-point Dixon technique is potentially a method of choice as it is able to suppress fat in the presence of inhomogeneities, but the success of this technique depends on being able to accurately calculate the phase shift. This is generally done using phase unwrapping and/or iterative reconstruction algorithms. Most current phase unwrapping techniques assume that the phase function is slowly varying and phase differences between adjacent points are limited to less than π radians in magnitude. Much greater phase differences can be present near metal implants. We present our experience with two phase unwrapping techniques which have been adapted to use prior knowledge of the implant. The first method identifies phase discontinuities before recovering the phase along paths through the image. The second method employs a transform to find the least squares solution to the unwrapped phase. Simulation results indicate that the methods show promise.

  12. [Prostatic pathology imaged by magnetic resonance. 58 cases].

    PubMed

    Gevenois, P A; Van Regemorter, G; Van Gansbeke, D; Delcour, C; Corbusier, A; Struyven, J

    1987-03-01

    Forty-eight patients with prostatic disease (benign prostatic hyperplasia (B.P.H.), carcinoma, cysts, myoma and prostatitis) and 10 normal volunteers underwent magnetic resonance imaging (M.R.I.) of the prostate. The prostatic parenchyma was best evaluated by a T2-weighted spin-echo pulse sequence. The prostate in patients with B.P.H. often had a homogeneous or more rarely a nodular appearance on T2-weighted images. In most cases, a peripheral dark rim is observed. All prostate in patients with carcinoma had an heterogeneous appearance on T2-weighted images. While most of the prostatic carcinomas appeared hypo-intense relative to adjacent prostatic parenchyma, some of the neoplasms had a high or mixed-high and low signal. The myoma showed a low-signal nodule like carcinoma. The cyst appears as a liquid tumor. The prostatitis had an homogeneous bright signal. With the used methodology, MRI can differentiate prostatic diseases in many cases. Nevertheless the technique has to be optimized to improve its accuracy. PMID:2439686

  13. Does Magnetic Resonance Imaging belong to physicians or physicists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy-Willig, Anne; Morvan, Daniel; Guillot, Geneviève

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging, proposed in 1973, has been developed very rapidly, mostly as a medical diagnosis technique, during the ten last years. It now allows applications such as fast imaging in less than one second, visualization of blood vessels, localized measurement of physical and chemical parameters on living systems. Now these applications spread out of the biological field and physicists use it to the study of hydrodynamics, materials, and more generally systems where a solid phase interacts with water. L'imagerie par Résonance Magnétique a connu depuis 1973 un développement très rapide, orienté essentiellement vers des applications médicales. Il est possible maintenant de réaliser des images en une fraction de seconde, de visualiser des vaisseaux sanguins sans injection de produit de contraste, de mesurer les valeurs locales de paramètres physiques et chimiques dans des systèmes vivants. L'évolution récente de cette technique est son utilisation pour l'exploration de systèmes physiques: études hydrodynamiques, caractérisation de matériaux et plus généralement de systèmes dans lesquels l'eau interagit avec une phase solide.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging differential diagnosis of brainstem lesions in children

    PubMed Central

    Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Errante, Yuri; Rossi Espagnet, Maria Camilla; Galassi, Stefania; Della Sala, Sabino Walter; Bernardi, Bruno; Fariello, Giuseppe; Longo, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of brainstem lesions, either isolated or in association with cerebellar and supra-tentorial lesions, can be challenging. Knowledge of the structural organization is crucial for the differential diagnosis and establishment of prognosis of pathologies with involvement of the brainstem. Familiarity with the location of the lesions in the brainstem is essential, especially in the pediatric population. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive and specific imaging technique for diagnosing disorders of the posterior fossa and, particularly, the brainstem. High magnetic static field MRI allows detailed visualization of the morphology, signal intensity and metabolic content of the brainstem nuclei, together with visualization of the normal development and myelination. In this pictorial essay we review the brainstem pathology in pediatric patients and consider the MR imaging patterns that may help the radiologist to differentiate among vascular, toxico-metabolic, infective-inflammatory, degenerative and neoplastic processes. Helpful MR tips can guide the differential diagnosis: These include the location and morphology of lesions, the brainstem vascularization territories, gray and white matter distribution and tissue selective vulnerability. PMID:26834941

  15. Towards magnetic resonance imaging guided radiation therapy (MRIgRT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanescu, Teodor Marius

    The goal of this work is to address key aspects of the magnetic resonance imaging guided radiation therapy (MRIgRT) process of cancer sites. MRIgRT is implemented by using a system comprised of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner coupled with a radiation source, in our case a radiotherapy accelerator (Linac). The potential benefits of MRIgRT are the real-time tracking of the tumor and neighbouring healthy anatomy during treatment irradiation leading to on-line treatment plan optimization. Ultimately, this results in an increased accuracy and efficiency of the overall treatment process. A large research effort is conducted at Cross Cancer Institute to develop a hybrid MRI-Linac system consisting of a bi-planar 0.2 T permanent magnet coupled with a 6 MV Linac. The present work is part of this project and aims to address the following key components: (a) magnetic shielding and dosimetric effects of the MRI-Linac system, (b) measure and correction of scanner-related MR image distortions, and (c) MRI-based treatment planning procedure for intracranial lesions. The first two components are essential for the optimal construction and operation of the MRI-Linac system while the third one represents a direct application of the system. The linac passive shielding was achieved by (a) adding two 10 cm thick steel (1020) plates placed at a distance of 10 cm from the structure on opposite sides of the magnet; and (b) a box lined with a 1 mm MuMetal(TM) wall surrounding the Linac. For our proposed MRI-Linac configuration (i.e. 0.2 T field and rotating bi-planar geometry) the maximum dose difference from zero magnetic field case was found to be within 6% and 12% in a water and water-lung-water phantom, respectively. We developed an image system distortion correction method for MRI that relies on adaptive thresholding and an iterative algorithm to determine the 3D distortion field. Applying this technique the residual image distortions were reduced to within the voxel resolution of the raw imaging data. We investigated a procedure for the MRI Simulation of brain lesions which consists of (a) correction of MR images for 3D distortions, (b) automatic segmentation of head sub-structures (i.e. scalp, bone, and brain) relevant for dosimetric calculations, (c) conversion of MRI datasets into CT-like images by assigning bulk CT values to head sub-structures and MRI-based dose calculations, and (d) RT plan evaluation based on isodose distributions, dosimetric parameters, dose volume histograms, and an RT ranking tool. The proposed MRI-based treatment planning procedure performed similarly to the standard clinical technique, which relies on both CT and MR imaging modalities, and is suitable for the radiotherapy of brain cancer.

  16. Electron beam imaging and spectroscopy of plasmonic nanoantenna resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesseur, E. J. R.

    2011-07-01

    Nanoantennas are metal structures that provide strong optical coupling between a nanoscale volume and the far field. This coupling is mediated by surface plasmons, oscillations of the free electrons in the metal. Increasing the control over the resonant plasmonic field distribution opens up a wide range of applications of nanoantennas operating both in receiving and transmitting mode. This thesis presents how the dispersion and confinement of surface plasmons in nanoantennas are resolved and further engineered. Fabrication of nanostructures is done using focused ion beam milling (FIB) in metallic surfaces. We demonstrate that patterning in single-crystal substrates allows us to precisely control the geometry in which plasmons are confined. The nanoscale properties of the resonant plasmonic fields are resolved using a new technique developed in this thesis: angle- and polarization controlled cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging spectroscopy. The use of a tightly focused electron beam allows us to probe the optical antenna properties with deep subwavelength resolution. We show using this technique that nanoantennas consisting of 500-1200 nm long polycrystalline Au nanowires support standing plasmon waves. We directly observe the plasmon wavelengths which we use to derive the dispersion relation of guided nanowire plasmons. A 590-nm-long ridge-shaped nanoantenna was fabricated using FIB milling on a single-crystal Au substrate, demonstrating a level of control over the fabrication impossible with polycrystalline metals. CL experiments show that the ridge supports multiple-order resonances. The confinement of surface plasmons to the ridge is confirmed by boundary-element-method (BEM) calculations. The resonant modes in plasmonic whispering gallery cavities consisting of a FIB-fabricated circular groove are resolved. We find an excellent agreement between boundary element method calculations and the measured CL emission from the ring-shaped cavities. The calculations show that the ring supports resonances with increasing azimuthal or radial order. The smallest cavity fits only one wavelength in its circumference. We theoretically show that in these cavities, spontaneous emission can be enhanced over a broad spectral band due to the small modal volume of the plasmon resonances. A Purcell factor >2000 was found. We further study the mode symmetries and coupling of the ring resonances using far-field excitation, fluorescence, angle-resolved cathodoluminescence and photoelectron emission microscopy. We demonstrate spectral reshaping of emitters, mode-specific angular emission patterns, and a mode-selective excitation by incoming light, and we directly resolve the modal fields at high resolution. In the next chapter, we present metal-insulator-metal plasmon waveguides in which we engineer the dispersion to reach a refractive index of zero. Using spatially- and angle-resolved CL we directly observe the spatial mode profiles and determine the dispersion relation of plasmon modes. At the cutoff frequency, the emission pattern corresponds to that of a line dipole antenna demonstrating the entire waveguide is in phase (n=0). A strongly enhanced density of optical states is directly observed at cutoff from the enhanced CL intensity. Finally, we present 5 possible applications: a localized surface plasmon sensor, a plasmon ring laser, template stripping technique, an in-situ monitor of ionoluminescence and cathodoluminescence in a FIB system and a single-photon source.

  17. A magnetic resonance imaging study of centric maxillomandibular relation.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, W E; Brady, A P; Stack, J P; Hobdell, M H

    1995-01-01

    The authors conducted research to determine the structural relationships of the craniomandibular articulation that resulted when a mandibular reference position was established. A noninvasive clinical method was used to identify and record centric maxillomandibular relation in normal subjects and a suitable reference position in subjects with derangements of the craniomandibular articulation. The reference positions were checked for repeatability. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the intraarticular relationships resulting from application of the clinical techniques. The normal subjects conformed well to the 1987 "Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms" definition, with the mandible close to first-tooth contact. In subjects with deranged articulations, the condyle was always in an abnormal relationship on the affected side in the reference position, and there were many intersubject variations. PMID:7575980

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of living systems by remote detection

    DOEpatents

    Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander; Bouchard, Louis; Xu, Shoujun; Harel, Elad; Budker, Dmitry; Lowery, Thomas; Ledbetter, Micah

    2013-10-29

    A novel approach to magnetic resonance imaging is disclosed. Blood flowing through a living system is prepolarized, and then encoded. The polarization can be achieved using permanent or superconducting magnets. The polarization may be carried out upstream of the region to be encoded or at the place of encoding. In the case of an MRI of a brain, polarization of flowing blood can be effected by placing a magnet over a section of the body such as the heart upstream of the head. Alternatively, polarization and encoding can be effected at the same location. Detection occurs at a remote location, using a separate detection device such as an optical atomic magnetometer, or an inductive Faraday coil. The detector may be placed on the surface of the skin next to a blood vessel such as a jugular vein carrying blood away from the encoded region.

  19. Recycling of 3He from lung magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Salhi, Z; Grossmann, T; Gueldner, M; Heil, W; Karpuk, S; Otten, E W; Rudersdorf, D; Surkau, R; Wolf, U

    2012-06-01

    We have developed the means to recycle (3) He exhaled by patients after imaging the lungs using magnetic resonance of hyperpolarized (3) He. The exhaled gas is collected in a helium leak proof bag and further compressed into a steel bottle. The collected gas contains about 1-2% of (3) He, depending on the amount administered and the number of breaths collected to wash out the (3) He gas from the lungs. (3) He is separated from the exhaled air using zeolite molecular sieve adsorbent at 77 K followed by a cold head at 8 K. Residual gaseous impurities are finally absorbed by a commercial nonevaporative getter. The recycled (3) He gas features high purity, which is required for repolarization by metastability exchange optical pumping. At present, we achieve a collection efficiency of 80-84% for exhaled gas from healthy volunteers and cryogenic separation efficiency of 95%. PMID:22135249

  20. Nonlinear split-ring metamaterial slabs for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Marcos A.; Freire, Manuel J.; Algarin, Jose M.; Behr, Volker C.; Jakob, Peter M.; Marqus, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    This work analyzes the ability of split-ring metamaterial slabs with zero/high permeability to reject/confine the radiofrequency magnetic field in magnetic resonance imaging systems. Split-ring slabs are designed and fabricated to work in a 1.5 T system. Nonlinear elements consisting of pairs of crossed diodes are inserted in the split-rings, so that the slab permeability can be switched between a value close to unity when interacting with the strong field of the transmitting coil, and zero or high values when interacting with the weak field produced by protons in tissue. Experiments are shown where these slabs locally increase the signal-to-noise-ratio.

  1. Synovial Hemangioma of the Knee Joint: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Guler, Ibrahim; Nayman, Alaaddin; Koplay, Mustafa; Paksoy, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Synovial hemangioma is benign tumor of the joints and is seen relatively rare. The most affected joint is knee but should also be seen in other joints. The disease is usually symptomatic. They are classified as juxta-articular haemangioma, intra-articular haemangioma or an intermediate type of hemangioma with intra- and extraarticular components. Case Report A 19-years-old male patient presented with swollen and painful knee. The laboratory findings and physical examination were normal. MRI demonstrated a large lesion that was filling the suprapatellar bursa. Conclusions All radiologic examinations should be used in diagnosis but magnetic resonance imaging is the non-invasive method and excellent modality in the evaluation of soft tissues. In this paper, a 19-year-old male patient with the diagnosis of synovial hemangioma is reported and its radiologic findings are mentioned. PMID:26491492

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the neck. Part II. Pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Moss, A.A.; Gamsu, G.; Clark, O.H.; Gooding, G.A.W.; Webb, W.R.

    1984-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the neck were obtained in 14 patients with thyroid, parathyroid, lymph node, or laryngeal lesions. Tumors and lymph nodes were more easily differentiated from muscle and blood vessels with MR than with CT because of the superior soft tissue contrast of MR. Tissue characterization allowed MR differentiation of thyroid nodules, thyroid cysts, and parathyroid tumors from normal thyroid tissue; however, nonspecifically increased T1 and T2 relaxation times overlapped for a variety of neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Thyroid cyst fluid had the greatest water content and longest T1 and T2 times of all tissues studied. Parathyroid hyperplasia could not be differentiated from parathyroid adenoma; however, parathyroid tumors had slightly longer T1 and T2 times than thyroid nodules or lymph nodes. With further experience, MR tissue characterization may become a useful technique for evaluating neck masses.

  3. Building structural descriptions from coronal magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Subha V.; Boyer, Kim L.

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents several components of a system designed for the automated segmentation of coronal magnetic resonance images. Structural descriptions of several anatomical features are built in a hierarchial fashion. We begin with low-level edge detection and a constant curvature decomposition. This is followed by a graph-theoretic approach to generate structure hypotheses. After defining an object-centered coordinate system, we develop unary attributes and binary relations to make hypothesis evaluations and classifications. We handle the problem of describing three-dimensional structures from two-dimensional information using a novel slice-to-slice matching approach. These 3-D descriptions can later be used to build a topologically-structured modelbased which has broad applications. We also define a general structure matching framework which greatly simplifies the problem of incorporation new information into the system.

  4. Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Cardiac Venous Anatomic Variants

    SciTech Connect

    Eckart, Robert E. Leitch, W. Shad; Shry, Eric A.; Krasuski, Richard A.; Lane, Michael J.; Leclerc, Kenneth M.

    2003-06-15

    The incidence of persistent left superior venacava (PLSVC) is approximately 0.5% in the general population; however,the coexistent absence of the right SVC has a reported incidence in tertiary centers of 0.1%. The vast majority of reports are limited to pediatric cardiology. Likewise, sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is a rare congenital anomaly, with a reported incidence of 0.1-3.5% of all congenital heart defects. We present a 71-year-old patient undergoing preoperative evaluation for incidental finding of aortic root aneurysm,and found to have all three in coexistence. Suggestive findings were demonstrated on cardiac catheterization and definitive diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging. The use of MRI for the diagnosis of asymptomatic adult congenital heart disease will be reviewed.

  5. Hybrid microparticles for drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Ruiz, David; Laurenti, Marco; Ruiz-Cabello, Jess; Lpez-Cabarcos, Enrique; Rubio-Retama, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis, characterization, and possible application as drug-delivery system magnetically triggered, of hybrid microparticles formed by magnetic nanoparticles embedded within poly(?-caprolactone). The magnetism of the microparticles permits their localization within the body using magnetic resonance imaging, and the biodegradable polymer layer allows entrapping drugs that can be released when temperature increases. The synthesis of the hybrid material was performed using "grafting from" technique of conveniently modified magnetic nanoparticles. Subsequently, the resulting hybrid nanoparticles were assembled into spherical particles of 138 49 nm via precipitation technique. The produced hybrid material was evaluated as stimuli-responsive drug delivery system in which the release of the drug was triggered by magnetic induction. Furthermore, the microparticles were injected in rats and their localization within the animal was monitored using the local field inhomogeneities generated by the particles. PMID:22915497

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Small Patella Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung-Soo; Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Park, Noh-Hyuck; Chang, Jun-Hee; Ban, Yun-Seong

    2016-01-01

    Small patella syndrome (SPS) is characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the patella and pelvic girdle abnormalities, including bilateral absence or delayed ossification of the ischiopubic junction and infra-acetabular axe-cut notches. Here, we report a case of SPS in a 26-year-old female. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed a small patella with thick eccentric non-ossified patellar cartilage and femoral trochlear dysplasia with hypoplastic patellar undersurface. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MRI findings in SPS. MRI findings could be clinically relevant because elongation of the medial patellofemoral ligament and trochlear dysplasia with eccentric non-ossified patellar cartilage might lead to patellofemoral maltracking with an osteochondral lesion or acute dislocation or an extensor mechanism injury. Though the patient presented in this case report only had a gastrocnemius injury at the origin site, physicians should carefully examine abnormalities with MRI when an SPS patient has a trauma to the knee. PMID:26955616

  7. [Pitfalls in magnetic resonance imaging. What should the anaesthesiologist know?].

    PubMed

    v Paczynski, S; Braun, K P; Müller-Forell, W; Werner, C

    2007-08-01

    The constantly extending indication spectrum of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a challenge for the anaesthesiologist, who is being increasingly more consulted for assistance during the examination. Due to the special technology of MRI the anaesthetic technique differs substantially from that in the operating theatre. In addition to the permanent strong magnetic field the intermittently used high frequency impulses are also a potential danger for the patient. Patients with metal implants (e.g. cardiac pacemaker) are particularly at risk. For the safe treatment of patients during MRI a special MRI compatible anaesthesia equipment is necessary. Unsuitable devices can lead to malfunctioning or to projectile effects (attracting ferromagnetic objects into the magnet) causing injury to the patients. This paper describes the MRI technology and the associated dangers for the patient as well as the characteristics of the anaesthetic techniques. PMID:17505810

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging for patients with cardiac implantable electrical devices

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Grant V.; Nazarian, Saman

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an invaluable tool in the evaluation of both soft tissue and bony abnormalities, with an increasing number of studies ordered per year. The presence of a cardiac implantable electrical device (CIED) may complicate matters, however, as these devices are currently considered a relative contraindication to MRI scanning. When performed in patients with a CIED, risks of MRI include reed switch activation in older devices, lead heating, system malfunction, and significant radiofrequency noise resulting in inappropriate inhibition of demand pacing, tachycardia therapies, or programming changes. This report reviews the common indications and risk-benefit evaluation of MRI in patients with CIED, and provides a clinical algorithm which has been successfully implemented at our institution for performing MRI in patients with implanted devices. PMID:24793805

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of aortic disease: preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Amparo, E.G.; Higgins, C.B.; Hoddick, W.; Hricak, H.; Kerlan, R.K.; Ring, E.J.; Kaufman, L.; Hedgecock, M.W.

    1984-12-01

    Fourteen patients with a variety of aortic diseases were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These included abdominal aortic aneurysms (eight cases), aortoiliac aneurysm (one), thoracoabdominal aneurysm (one), aortic dissections (four), and Takayasu arteritis (one). The size and extent of aneurysms, the presence of thrombus or atherosclerotic debris, the relation to renal and iliac arteries, and the effect of aneurysms on adjacent structures were readily demonstrated by MRI. The size of the residual lumen in a variety of vascular diseases and abnormal blood flow patterns could be assessed. These early results indicated that MRI achieved precise and complete assessment of a number of aortic abnormalities without the administration of any type of contrast material. Thus, early experience suggests that an important application of MRI will be as a totally noninvasive and reliable method for evaluating aortic disease.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal aortic aneurysms. [Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.K.T.; Ling, D.; Heiken, J.P.; Glazer, H.S.; Sicard, G.A.; Totty, W.G.; Levitt, R.G.; Murphy, W.A.

    1984-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 20 patients with radiologically or surgically proven abdominal aortic aneurysms using a Siemens Magnetom scanner with a 0.35-T superconductive magnet. Of nine patients who underwent surgical repair, MRI correctly demonstrated the origin of the aortic aneurysm in nine and accurately determined the status of the iliac arteries in eight. Of 11 patients who did not have surgical repair, MRI findings correlated well with other radiologic studies. MRI was found to be more reliable than sonography in determining the relation between the aneurysm and the renal arteries as well as the status of the iliac arteries. Despite these advantages, the authors still advocate sonography as the screening procedure of choice in patients with suspected abdominal aortic aneurysms because of its lower cost and ease of performance. MRI should be reserved for patients who have had unsuccessful or equivocal sonographic examinations.

  11. Primate comparative neuroscience using magnetic resonance imaging: promises and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Rogier B.; Neubert, Franz-Xaver; Verhagen, Lennart; Sallet, Jérôme; Miller, Karla L.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Barton, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Primate comparative anatomy is an established field that has made rich and substantial contributions to neuroscience. However, the labor-intensive techniques employed mean that most comparisons are often based on a small number of species, which limits the conclusions that can be drawn. In this review we explore how new developments in magnetic resonance imaging have the potential to apply comparative neuroscience to a much wider range of species, allowing it to realize an even greater potential. We discuss (1) new advances in the types of data that can be acquired, (2) novel methods for extracting meaningful measures from such data that can be compared between species, and (3) methods to analyse these measures within a phylogenetic framework. Together these developments will allow researchers to characterize the relationship between different brains, the ecological niche they occupy, and the behavior they produce in more detail than ever before. PMID:25339857

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of transfusional hemosiderosis complicating thalassemia major

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Wesbey, G.E.; Gooding, C.A.; Koerper, M.A.

    1984-03-01

    Tissue deposits of hemosiderin, a paramagnetic iron-protein complex, resulted in marked abnormalities of magnetic resonance (MR) spin-echo signal intensity within the viscera of three children with transfusional hemosiderosis and thalassemia major. In all patients the liver and bone marrow demonstrated abnormally low spin-echo intensities and the kidneys and muscles had abnormally high intensities. These observations correlate with in vitro MR observation of ferric (Fe/sup +3/) solutions, in which concentrations of ferric salts greater than 20 mmol yielded higher intensities than did water alone. MR imaging is sensitive to the tissue deposition of hemosiderin, and MR intensity appears to provide a rough measure of the amount of iron deposited.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Melanoma Exosomes in Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lingzhi; Wickline, Samuel A.; Hood, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Exosomes are cell derived extracellular nanovesicles that relay molecular signals pertinent to both normal physiologic and disease processes. The ability to modify and track exosomes in vivo is essential to understanding exosome pathogenesis, and for utilizing exosomes as effective diagnostic and therapeutic nanocarriers to treat diseases. Methods We recently reported a new electroporation method that allow exosomes to be loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance tracking. Results Building on this approach, we now demonstrate for the first time using a C57BL/6 mouse model that melanoma exosomes can be imaged in vitro, and within lymph nodes in vivo with the use of standard MRI approaches. Conclusion These findings demonstrate proof of principle that exosome biology can be followed in vivo and pave the way for the development of future diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:25052384

  14. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Galanaud, D; Nicoli, F; Le Fur, Y; Guye, M; Ranjeva, J-P; Confort-Gouny, S; Viout, P; Soulier, E; Cozzone, P J

    2003-09-01

    The physiological and biochemical properties of the diseased brain that can be explored with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are increasing. Progress in MR-based technology affords a large panel of MRI sequences that explore different phenomena and, thus, provide complementary informations. The diagnostic accuracy of MRI is improved by the combination of all MR modalities. However, this abundance of data requires an efficient multiparametric analysis to fully achieve the goal of the multimodal strategy. We will discuss the potential impact of this advanced MRI analysis in the clinical management and the therapeutical strategies of the most common brain pathologies (intracranial tumors, multiple sclerosis, stroke, epilepsy and dementia). This non-invasive approach is of utmost importance since it already improves the diagnosis and the therapeutic choice in the management of several central nervous system diseases. PMID:14652179

  15. Assessment of gray matter heterotopia by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Donkol, Ragab H; Moghazy, Khaled M; Abolenin, Alaeddin

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of different types of gray matter heterotopia. METHODS: Between June 2005 and December 2009, the medical records and MRI studies of patients with gray matter heterotopia were reviewed. The MRI morphologic findings of heterotopia were recorded along with the presence and type of associated cranial malformations. Available clinical and electrophysiological data were also recorded. RESULTS: 20 patients were included in the study. Their ages ranged from 9 mo to 39 years with a mean age of 15 years. All patients suffered from epileptic seizures. According to the location of heterotopia, patients were classified into three groups: subependymal (12), subcortical (5) and band (3) heterotopia. CONCLUSION: MRI was useful in diagnosing and differentiating between various types of gray matter heterotopia. The severity of clinical manifestations of heterotopia was related to the location and pattern of heterotopia. Determination of heterotopia type and its extent is useful for management planning and predicting prognosis. PMID:22468189

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of lipomyelomeningocele and tethered cord.

    PubMed

    Brophy, J D; Sutton, L N; Zimmerman, R A; Bury, E; Schut, L

    1989-09-01

    The operative and magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings of 25 patients with the diagnosis of lipomyelomeningocele and/or tethered cord were compared. Postoperative MRI scans of eight patients, five of whom were in stable condition, were also compared with the preoperative studies. In this review there was one false negative MRI scan and four MRI scans in which the relationship of the lipoma to the conus or filum was not demonstrated accurately. In six patients, incidental intramedullary cystic lesions at the conus were identified by MRI scan. All eight postoperative (1 month to 2 years) scans demonstrated no change in the level of the conus from the preoperative study. MRI is an accurate screening modality in the initial diagnosis of occult spinal dysraphism. MRI was not useful in the postoperative evaluation of lipomyelomeningocele and the tethered cord, since the caudal, posterior displacement of the conus was unchanged in all studies. PMID:2771003

  17. Functional imaging of the human placenta with magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Siauve, Nathalie; Chalouhi, Gihad E; Deloison, Benjamin; Alison, Marianne; Clement, Olivier; Ville, Yves; Salomon, Laurent J

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal placentation is responsible for most failures in pregnancy; however, an understanding of placental functions remains largely concealed from noninvasive, in vivo investigations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is safe in pregnancy for magnetic fields of up to 3 Tesla and is being used increasingly to improve the accuracy of prenatal imaging. Functional MRI (fMRI) of the placenta has not yet been validated in a clinical setting, and most data are derived from animal studies. FMRI could be used to further explore placental functions that are related to vascularization, oxygenation, and metabolism in human pregnancies by the use of various enhancement processes. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is best able to quantify placental perfusion, permeability, and blood volume fractions. However, the transplacental passage of Gadolinium-based contrast agents represents a significant safety concern for this procedure in humans. There are alternative contrast agents that may be safer in pregnancy or that do not cross the placenta. Arterial spin labeling MRI relies on magnetically labeled water to quantify the blood flows within the placenta. A disadvantage of this technique is a poorer signal-to-noise ratio. Based on arterial spin labeling, placental perfusion in normal pregnancy is 176 91 mL min(-1) 100 g(-1) and decreases in cases with intrauterine growth restriction. Blood oxygen level-dependent and oxygen-enhanced MRIs do not assess perfusion but measure the response of the placenta to changes in oxygen levels with the use of hemoglobin as an endogenous contrast agent. Diffusion-weighted imaging and intravoxel incoherent motion MRI do not require exogenous contrast agents, instead they use the movement of water molecules within tissues. The apparent diffusion coefficient and perfusion fraction are significantly lower in placentas of growth-restricted fetuses when compared with normal pregnancies. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has the ability to extract information regarding metabolites from the placenta noninvasively and in vivo. There are marked differences in all 3 metabolites N-acetyl aspartate/choline levels, inositol/choline ratio between small, and adequately grown fetuses. Current research is focused on the ability of each fMRI technique to make a timely diagnosis of abnormal placentation that would allow for appropriate planning of follow-up examinations and optimal scheduling of delivery. These research programs will benefit from the use of well-defined sequences, standardized imaging protocols, and robust computational methods. PMID:26428488

  18. Enhanced dynamic electron paramagnetic resonance imaging of in vivo physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redler, Gage

    It is well established that low oxygen concentration (hypoxia) in tumors strongly affects their malignant state and resistance to therapy. The importance of tumor oxygenation status has led to increased interest in the development of robust oxygen imaging modalities. One such method is electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI). EPRI has provided a non-invasive, quantitative imaging modality with sensitivity deep in tissues, capable of investigating static oxygen concentration (pO2) in vivo and has helped to corroborate the correlation between chronic states of hypoxia and tumor malignancy. However, when studying the complicated physiology of a living animal, the situation tends to be inherently dynamic. It has been found that in certain tumor regions there may exist steady states of hypoxia, or chronic hypoxia, whereas in other regions there may exist transient states of hypoxia, or acute hypoxia. It has been postulated that the negative prognostic implications associated with hypoxic tumors may be amplified for acutely hypoxic tumors. However, controversial data and a current lack in methods with the capability to noninvasively image tumor pO2 in vivo with sufficient spatial, temporal, and pO 2 resolution preclude definitive conclusions on the relationships between the different forms of hypoxia and the differences in their clinical implications. A particularly promising oxygen imaging modality that can help to study both chronic and acute hypoxia and elucidate important physiological and clinical differences is rapid Dynamic EPRI. The focus of this work is the development of methods enabling Dynamic EPRI of in vivo physiology as well as its potential applications. This work describes methods which enhance various aspects of EPRI in order to establish a more robust Dynamic EPRI capable of noninvasively studying and quantifying acute hypoxia in vivo. These enhancements are achieved through improvements that span from methods for the acquisition of individual projections to techniques for the reconstruction of complete 3D images of pO2. A hybrid T1/T2 imaging methodology is developed for acquiring individual projections using a specific series of pulse sequences, which enhances the accuracy of measured spin probe concentration and pO2. A maximally spaced projection sequencing algorithm is devised for more optimized acquisition of a full set of projections. Principal component analysis filtration is applied for post processing of acquired projection data in order to enhance signal to noise ratio (SNR) and isolate temporal features in Dynamic EPRI data. Image reconstruction techniques are improved by accelerating 3D image reconstruction using a GPU implementation as well as a rapid lookup table fitting method for determination of the spectral dimension and generation of pO2 images. Additionally, novel nitroxide EPRI imaging agents are presented which can differentially target the intracellular tumor environment and thus potentially provide higher SNR tumor imaging. Dynamic EPRI, as enabled using the above methods, is shown to provide a methodology with great potential for furthering our understanding of acute hypoxia and its role in the progression of cancer to a malignant state as well as how it affects therapeutic efficacy. Dynamic EPRI will help to disentangle the relationship between chronic and acute hypoxia in tumors and will aid in the determination of how to integrate tumor oxygenation status into clinical practice and the treatment of cancer.

  19. Combining magnetic resonance imaging and ultrawideband radar: a new concept for multimodal biomedical imaging.

    PubMed

    Thiel, F; Hein, M; Schwarz, U; Sachs, J; Seifert, F

    2009-01-01

    Due to the recent advances in ultrawideband (UWB) radar technologies, there has been widespread interest in the medical applications of this technology. We propose the multimodal combination of magnetic resonance (MR) and UWB radar for improved functional diagnosis and imaging. A demonstrator was established to prove the feasibility of the simultaneous acquisition of physiological events by magnetic resonance imaging and UWB radar. Furthermore, first in vivo experiments have been carried out, utilizing this new approach. Correlating the reconstructed UWB signals with physiological signatures acquired by simultaneous MR measurements, representing respiratory and myocardial displacements, gave encouraging results which can be improved by optimization of the MR data acquisition technique or the use of UWB antenna arrays to localize the motion in a focused area. PMID:19191450

  20. PTFOS: Flexible and Absorbable Intracranial Electrodes for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonmassar, Giorgio; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Golby, Alexandra J.

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial electrocortical recording and stimulation can provide unique knowledge about functional brain anatomy in patients undergoing brain surgery. This approach is commonly used in the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. However, it can be very difficult to integrate the results of cortical recordings with other brain mapping modalities, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The ability to integrate imaging and electrophysiological information with simultaneous subdural electrocortical recording/stimulation and fMRI could offer significant insight for cognitive and systems neuroscience as well as for clinical neurology, particularly for patients with epilepsy or functional disorders. However, standard subdural electrodes cause significant artifact in MRI images, and concerns about risks such as cortical heating have generally precluded obtaining MRI in patients with implanted electrodes. We propose an electrode set based on polymer thick film organic substrate (PTFOS), an organic absorbable, flexible and stretchable electrode grid for intracranial use. These new types of MRI transparent intracranial electrodes are based on nano-particle ink technology that builds on our earlier development of an EEG/fMRI electrode set for scalp recording. The development of MRI-compatible recording/stimulation electrodes with a very thin profile could allow functional mapping at the individual subject level of the underlying feedback and feed forward networks. The thin flexible substrate would allow the electrodes to optimally contact the convoluted brain surface. Performance properties of the PTFOS were assessed by MRI measurements, finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations, micro-volt recording, and injecting currents using standard electrocortical stimulation in phantoms. In contrast to the large artifacts exhibited with standard electrode sets, the PTFOS exhibited no artifact due to the reduced amount of metal and conductivity of the electrode/trace ink and had similar electrical properties to a standard subdural electrode set. The enhanced image quality could enable routine MRI exams of patients with intracranial electrode implantation and could also lead to chronic implantation solutions. PMID:22984396

  1. Three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of fossils across taxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mietchen, D.; Aberhan, M.; Manz, B.; Hampe, O.; Mohr, B.; Neumann, C.; Volke, F.

    2007-08-01

    The visibility of life forms in the fossil record is largely determined by the extent to which they were mineralised at the time of their death. In addition to mineral structures, many fossils nonetheless contain detectable amounts of residual water or organic molecules, the analysis of which has become an integral part of current palaeontological research. The methods available for this sort of investigations, though, typically require dissolution or ionisation of the fossil sample or parts thereof, which is an issue with rare taxa and outstanding materials like pathological or type specimens. In such cases, non-destructive techniques could provide an interesting methodological alternative. While Computed Tomography has long been used to study palaeontological specimens, a number of complementary approaches have recently gained ground. These include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which had previously been employed to obtain three-dimensional images of pathological belemnites non-invasively on the basis of intrinsic contrast. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether 1H MRI can likewise provide anatomical information about non-pathological belemnites and specimens of other fossil taxa. To this end, three-dimensional MR image series were acquired from intact non-pathological invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossils. At routine voxel resolutions in the range of several dozens to some hundreds of micrometers, these images reveal a host of anatomical details and thus highlight the potential of MR techniques to effectively complement existing methodological approaches for palaeontological investigations in a wide range of taxa. As for the origin of the MR signal, relaxation and diffusion measurements as well as 1H and 13C MR spectra acquired from a belemnite suggest intracrystalline water or hydroxyl groups, rather than organic residues.

  2. Three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of fossils across taxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mietchen, D.; Aberhan, M.; Manz, B.; Hampe, O.; Mohr, B.; Neumann, C.; Volke, F.

    2008-01-01

    The frequency of life forms in the fossil record is largely determined by the extent to which they were mineralised at the time of their death. In addition to mineral structures, many fossils nonetheless contain detectable amounts of residual water or organic molecules, the analysis of which has become an integral part of current palaeontological research. The methods available for this sort of investigations, though, typically require dissolution or ionisation of the fossil sample or parts thereof, which is an issue with rare taxa and outstanding materials like pathological or type specimens. In such cases, non-destructive techniques could provide a valuable methodological alternative. While Computed Tomography has long been used to study palaeontological specimens, a number of complementary approaches have recently gained ground. These include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which had previously been employed to obtain three-dimensional images of pathological belemnites non-invasively on the basis of intrinsic contrast. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether 1H MRI can likewise provide anatomical information about non-pathological belemnites and specimens of other fossil taxa. To this end, three-dimensional MR image series were acquired from intact non-pathological invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossils. At routine voxel resolutions in the range of several dozens to some hundreds of micrometers, these images reveal a host of anatomical details and thus highlight the potential of MR techniques to effectively complement existing methodological approaches for palaeontological investigations in a wide range of taxa. As for the origin of the MR signal, relaxation and diffusion measurements as well as 1H and 13C MR spectra acquired from a belemnite suggest intracrystalline water or hydroxyl groups, rather than organic residues.

  3. PTFOS: flexible and absorbable intracranial electrodes for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bonmassar, Giorgio; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Golby, Alexandra J

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial electrocortical recording and stimulation can provide unique knowledge about functional brain anatomy in patients undergoing brain surgery. This approach is commonly used in the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. However, it can be very difficult to integrate the results of cortical recordings with other brain mapping modalities, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The ability to integrate imaging and electrophysiological information with simultaneous subdural electrocortical recording/stimulation and fMRI could offer significant insight for cognitive and systems neuroscience as well as for clinical neurology, particularly for patients with epilepsy or functional disorders. However, standard subdural electrodes cause significant artifact in MRI images, and concerns about risks such as cortical heating have generally precluded obtaining MRI in patients with implanted electrodes. We propose an electrode set based on polymer thick film organic substrate (PTFOS), an organic absorbable, flexible and stretchable electrode grid for intracranial use. These new types of MRI transparent intracranial electrodes are based on nano-particle ink technology that builds on our earlier development of an EEG/fMRI electrode set for scalp recording. The development of MRI-compatible recording/stimulation electrodes with a very thin profile could allow functional mapping at the individual subject level of the underlying feedback and feed forward networks. The thin flexible substrate would allow the electrodes to optimally contact the convoluted brain surface. Performance properties of the PTFOS were assessed by MRI measurements, finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations, micro-volt recording, and injecting currents using standard electrocortical stimulation in phantoms. In contrast to the large artifacts exhibited with standard electrode sets, the PTFOS exhibited no artifact due to the reduced amount of metal and conductivity of the electrode/trace ink and had similar electrical properties to a standard subdural electrode set. The enhanced image quality could enable routine MRI exams of patients with intracranial electrode implantation and could also lead to chronic implantation solutions. PMID:22984396

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Characterize a Rodent Model of Covert Stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Sheryl Lyn

    Covert stroke (CS) comprises lesions in the brain often associated by risk factors such as a diet high in fat, salt, cholesterol and sugar (HFSCS). Developing a rodent model for CS incorporating these characteristics is useful for developing and testing interventions. The purpose of this thesis was to determine if magnetic resonance (MR) can detect brain abnormalities to confirm this model will have the desired anatomical effects. Ex vivo MR showed brain abnormalities for rats with the induced lesions and fed the HFSCS diet. Spectra acquired on the fixed livers had an average percent area under the fat peak relative to the water peak of (20+/-4)% for HFSCS and (2+/-2)% for control. In vivo MR images had significant differences between surgeries to induce the lesions (p=0.04). These results show that applying MR identified abnormalities in the rat model and therefore is important in the development of this CS rodent model.

  5. Concurrent multiscale imaging with magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chia-Pin; Yang, Bo; Kim, Il Kyoon; Makris, George; Desai, Jaydev P.; Gullapalli, Rao P.; Chen, Yu

    2013-04-01

    We develop a novel platform based on a tele-operated robot to perform high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging under continuous large field-of-view magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. Intra-operative MRI (iMRI) is a promising guidance tool for high-precision surgery, but it may not have sufficient resolution or contrast to visualize certain small targets. To address these limitations, we develop an MRI-compatible OCT needle probe, which is capable of providing microscale tissue architecture in conjunction with macroscale MRI tissue morphology in real time. Coregistered MRI/OCT images on ex vivo chicken breast and human brain tissues demonstrate that the complementary imaging scales and contrast mechanisms have great potential to improve the efficiency and the accuracy of iMRI procedure.

  6. Imaging Atherosclerosis with Hybrid Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kjr, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging of atherosclerosis could potentially move patient management towards individualized triage, treatment, and followup. The newly introduced combined positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system could emerge as a key player in this context. Both PET and MRI have previously been used for imaging plaque morphology and function: however, the combination of the two methods may offer new synergistic opportunities. Here, we will give a short summary of current relevant clinical applications of PET and MRI in the setting of atherosclerosis. Additionally, our initial experiences with simultaneous PET/MRI for atherosclerosis imaging are presented. Finally, future potential vascular applications exploiting the unique combination of PET and MRI will be discussed. PMID:25695091

  7. Concurrent multiscale imaging with magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chia-Pin; Yang, Bo; Kim, Il Kyoon; Makris, George; Desai, Jaydev P; Gullapalli, Rao P; Chen, Yu

    2013-04-01

    We develop a novel platform based on a tele-operated robot to perform high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging under continuous large field-of-view magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. Intra-operative MRI (iMRI) is a promising guidance tool for high-precision surgery, but it may not have sufficient resolution or contrast to visualize certain small targets. To address these limitations, we develop an MRI-compatible OCT needle probe, which is capable of providing microscale tissue architecture in conjunction with macroscale MRI tissue morphology in real time. Coregistered MRI/OCT images on ex vivo chicken breast and human brain tissues demonstrate that the complementary imaging scales and contrast mechanisms have great potential to improve the efficiency and the accuracy of iMRI procedure. PMID:23609326

  8. Concurrent multiscale imaging with magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chia-Pin; Yang, Bo; Kim, Il Kyoon; Makris, George; Desai, Jaydev P.; Gullapalli, Rao P.; Chen, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. We develop a novel platform based on a tele-operated robot to perform high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging under continuous large field-of-view magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. Intra-operative MRI (iMRI) is a promising guidance tool for high-precision surgery, but it may not have sufficient resolution or contrast to visualize certain small targets. To address these limitations, we develop an MRI-compatible OCT needle probe, which is capable of providing microscale tissue architecture in conjunction with macroscale MRI tissue morphology in real time. Coregistered MRI/OCT images on ex vivo chicken breast and human brain tissues demonstrate that the complementary imaging scales and contrast mechanisms have great potential to improve the efficiency and the accuracy of iMRI procedure. PMID:23609326

  9. Concurrent multiscale imaging with magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chia-Pin; Yang, Bo; Kim, Il Kyoon; Makris, George; Desai, Jaydev P.; Gullapalli, Rao P.; Chen, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. We develop a novel platform based on a tele-operated robot to perform high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging under continuous large field-of-view magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. Intra-operative MRI (iMRI) is a promising guidance tool for high-precision surgery, but it may not have sufficient resolution or contrast to visualize certain small targets. To address these limitations, we develop an MRI-compatible OCT needle probe, which is capable of providing microscale tissue architecture in conjunction with macroscale MRI tissue morphology in real time. Coregistered MRI/OCT images on ex vivo chicken breast and human brain tissues demonstrate that the complementary imaging scales and contrast mechanisms have great potential to improve the efficiency and the accuracy of iMRI procedure.

  10. [Development of RF coil of permanent magnet mini-magnetic resonance imager and mouse imaging experiments].

    PubMed

    Hou, Shulian; Xie, Huantong; Chen, Wei; Wang, Guangxin; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Shiyu

    2014-10-01

    In the development of radio frequency (RF) coils for better quality of the mini-type permanent magnetic resonance imager for using in the small animal imaging, the solenoid RF coil has a special advantage for permanent magnetic system based on analyses of various types.of RF coils. However, it is not satisfied for imaging if the RF coils are directly used. By theoretical analyses of the magnetic field properties produced from the solenoid coil, the research direction was determined by careful studies to raise further the uniformity of the magnetic field coil, receiving coil sensitivity for signals and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The method had certain advantages and avoided some shortcomings of the other different coil types, such as, birdcage coil, saddle shaped coil and phased array coil by using the alloy materials (from our own patent). The RF coils were designed, developed and made for keeled applicable to permanent magnet-type magnetic resonance imager, multi-coil combination-type, single-channel overall RF receiving coil, and applied for a patent. Mounted on three instruments (25 mm aperture, with main magnetic field strength of 0.5 T or 1.5 T, and 50 mm aperture, with main magnetic field strength of 0.48 T), we performed experiments with mice, rats, and nude mice bearing tumors. The experimental results indicated that the RF receiving coil was fully applicable to the permanent magnet-type imaging system. PMID:25764715

  11. What roles are there for magnetic resonance imaging in process tomography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, S. J.; Hall, L. D.

    1996-05-01

    Currently pursued technologies and requirements for process tomography are briefly reviewed with emphasis on comparing existing methods and identifying roles for magnetic resonance techniques. It is concluded that fundamental studies of transport phenomena are among the beneficial applications of magnetic resonance techniques. After a brief review of the theory of magnetic resonance and a description of modern hardware for magnetic resonance imaging, specific examples of magnetic resonance investigations of mass and heat transfer are presented including studies of thermal processing, multiphase distributions, polymerization, and diffusion and flow. We conclude by speculating on future roles of NMR imaging for process developement and monitoring.

  12. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Claudia F.E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Over the past 20 years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advanced due to new techniques involving increased magnetic field strength and developments in coils and pulse sequences. These advances allow increased opportunity to delineate the complex skull base anatomy and may guide the diagnosis and treatment of the myriad of pathologies that can affect the skull base. Objectives The objective of this article is to provide a brief background of the development of MRI and illustrate advances in skull base imaging, including techniques that allow improved conspicuity, characterization, and correlative physiologic assessment of skull base pathologies. Data Synthesis Specific radiographic illustrations of increased skull base conspicuity including the lower cranial nerves, vessels, foramina, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, and effacement of endolymph are provided. In addition, MRIs demonstrating characterization of skull base lesions, such as recurrent cholesteatoma versus granulation tissue or abscess versus tumor, are also provided as well as correlative clinical findings in CSF flow studies in a patient pre- and post-suboccipital decompression for a Chiari I malformation. Conclusions This article illustrates MRI radiographic advances over the past 20 years, which have improved clinicians' ability to diagnose, define, and hopefully improve the treatment and outcomes of patients with underlying skull base pathologies. PMID:25992137

  13. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at superresolution: Overview and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasten, Jeffrey; Klauser, Antoine; Lazeyras, François; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2016-02-01

    The notion of non-invasive, high-resolution spatial mapping of metabolite concentrations has long enticed the medical community. While magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is capable of achieving the requisite spatio-spectral localization, it has traditionally been encumbered by significant resolution constraints that have thus far undermined its clinical utility. To surpass these obstacles, research efforts have primarily focused on hardware enhancements or the development of accelerated acquisition strategies to improve the experimental sensitivity per unit time. Concomitantly, a number of innovative reconstruction techniques have emerged as alternatives to the standard inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT). While perhaps lesser known, these latter methods strive to effect commensurate resolution gains by exploiting known properties of the underlying MRSI signal in concert with advanced image and signal processing techniques. This review article aims to aggregate and provide an overview of the past few decades of so-called "superresolution" MRSI reconstruction methodologies, and to introduce readers to current state-of-the-art approaches. A number of perspectives are then offered as to the future of high-resolution MRSI, with a particular focus on translation into clinical settings.

  14. Mapping infant brain myelination with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Deoni, Sean C L; Mercure, Evelyne; Blasi, Anna; Gasston, David; Thomson, Alex; Johnson, Mark; Williams, Steven C R; Murphy, Declan G M

    2011-01-12

    Myelination, the elaboration of myelin surrounding neuronal axons, is essential for normal brain function. The development of the myelin sheath enables rapid synchronized communication across the neural systems responsible for higher order cognitive functioning. Despite this critical role, quantitative visualization of myelination in vivo is not possible with current neuroimaging techniques including diffusion tensor and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although these techniques offer insight into structural maturation, they reflect several different facets of development, e.g., changes in axonal size, density, coherence, and membrane structure; lipid, protein, and macromolecule content; and water compartmentalization. Consequently, observed signal changes are ambiguous, hindering meaningful inferences between imaging findings and metrics of learning, behavior or cognition. Here we present the first quantitative study of myelination in healthy human infants, from 3 to 11 months of age. Using a new myelin-specific MRI technique, we report a spatiotemporal pattern beginning in the cerebellum, pons, and internal capsule; proceeding caudocranially from the splenium of the corpus callosum and optic radiations (at 3-4 months); to the occipital and parietal lobes (at 4-6 months); and then to the genu of the corpus callosum and frontal and temporal lobes (at 6-8 months). Our results also offer preliminary evidence of hemispheric myelination rate differences. This work represents a significant step forward in our ability to appreciate the fundamental process of myelination, and provides the first ever in vivo visualization of myelin maturation in healthy human infancy. PMID:21228187

  15. Radio-frequency energy quantification in magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alon, Leeor

    Mapping of radio frequency (RF) energy deposition has been challenging for 50+ years, especially, when scanning patients in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment. As result, electromagnetic simulation software is often used for estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR), the rate of RF energy deposition in tissue. The thesis work presents challenges associated with aligning information provided by electromagnetic simulation and MRI experiments. As result of the limitations of simulations, experimental methods for the quantification of SAR were established. A system for quantification of the total RF energy deposition was developed for parallel transmit MRI (a system that uses multiple antennas to excite and image the body). The system is capable of monitoring and predicting channel-by-channel RF energy deposition, whole body SAR and capable of tracking potential hardware failures that occur in the transmit chain and may cause the deposition of excessive energy into patients. Similarly, we demonstrated that local RF power deposition can be mapped and predicted for parallel transmit systems based on a series of MRI temperature mapping acquisitions. Resulting from the work, we developed tools for optimal reconstruction temperature maps from MRI acquisitions. The tools developed for temperature mapping paved the way for utilizing MRI as a diagnostic tool for evaluation of RF/microwave emitting device safety. Quantification of the RF energy was demonstrated for both MRI compatible and non-MRI-compatible devices (such as cell phones), while having the advantage of being noninvasive, of providing millimeter resolution and high accuracy.

  16. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDonald, Brenna C.; Anand, Amit; Saykin, Andrew J.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The neurobiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has become increasingly understood since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Initial observations of an above-average head circumference were supported by structural MRI studies that found evidence of increased total brain volume and early rapid brain overgrowth in affected individuals. Subsequent research revealed consistent abnormalities in cortical gray and white matter volume in ASDs. The structural integrity and orientation of white matter have been further elucidated via diffusion tensor imaging methods. The emergence of functional MRI techniques led to an enhanced understanding of the neural circuitry of ASDs, demonstrating areas of dysfunctional cortical activation and atypical cortical specialization. These studies have provided evidence of underconnectivity in distributed cortical networks integral to the core impairments associated with ASDs. Abnormalities in the default-mode network during the resting state have also been identified. Overall, structural and functional MRI research has generated important insights into the neurobiology of ASDs. Additional research is needed to further delineate the underlying brain basis of this constellation of disorders. PMID:21130750

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of experimentally induced liver disease. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Bass, N.M.; Moss, A.A.; Bacon, B.R.; McKerrow, J.H.; Cann, C.E.; Brito, A.; Goldberg, H.I.

    1983-09-01

    Experimental animal models of hepatitis, fatty liver, and hepatic iron overload were evaluated using a 3.5-kGauss nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging system. Increases in image intensity measurements and in T/sub 2/ relaxation times equalled the sensitivity of histologic findings for the detection of early stages of hepatitis. A significant shift in T/sub 1/ relaxation times characterized the early stages of hepatic necrosis. Liver triglyceride content correlated significantly with increases in NMR intensity measurements (p<0.01); however, changes in liver water content had a much greater influence on intensity, T/sub 1/, and T/sub 2/. Thus, it may be possible to distinguish hepatitis from benign fatty liver. Liver iron content correlated with decreases in NMR intensity measurements (p<0.001), and iron levels as low as 1.2 mg/g were detected. NMR may more specifically identify hepatocellular iron overload than do other techniques that do not distinguish hepatocellular from reticuloendothelial iron.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the kidney: renal masses

    SciTech Connect

    Hricak, H.; Williams, R.D.; Moon, K.L. Jr.; Moss, A.A.; Alpers, C.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.

    1983-06-01

    Fifteen patients with a variety of renal masses were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), computed tomography, ultrasound, and intravenous urography. NMR clearly differentiated between simple renal cysts and other renal masses. On spin echo images, the simple renal cyst appeared as a round or slightly oval, homogeneous low-intensity mass with characteristically long T1 and T2 values. The thickness of the cyst wall was not measurable. The cyst had a smooth outer margin and a distict, sharp interface with normal parenchyma. Hemorrhagic cysts were seen as high-intensity lesions. Renal cell carcinomas displayed a wide range of intensity. The T1 and T2 values of the tumors were always different from those of the surrounding renal parenchyma. Tumor pseudocapsule was identified in four of five patients examined. All carcinomas were accurately staged by NMR and extension of the tumor thrombus into the inferior vena cava was demonstrated. The authors predict that if these preliminary results are confirmed by data from a larger number of patients, NMR will play a significant role in renal imaging.

  19. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of brain–immune interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gauberti, Maxime; Montagne, Axel; Quenault, Aurélien; Vivien, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Although the blood–brain barrier (BBB) was thought to protect the brain from the effects of the immune system, immune cells can nevertheless migrate from the blood to the brain, either as a cause or as a consequence of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, thus contributing to their evolution and outcome. Accordingly, as the interface between the CNS and the peripheral immune system, the BBB is critical during neuroinflammatory processes. In particular, endothelial cells are involved in the brain response to systemic or local inflammatory stimuli by regulating the cellular movement between the circulation and the brain parenchyma. While neuropathological conditions differ in etiology and in the way in which the inflammatory response is mounted and resolved, cellular mechanisms of neuroinflammation are probably similar. Accordingly, neuroinflammation is a hallmark and a decisive player of many CNS diseases. Thus, molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of inflammatory processes is a central theme of research in several neurological disorders focusing on a set of molecules expressed by endothelial cells, such as adhesion molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1, P-selectin, E-selectin, …), which emerge as therapeutic targets and biomarkers for neurological diseases. In this review, we will present the most recent advances in the field of preclinical molecular MRI. Moreover, we will discuss the possible translation of molecular MRI to the clinical setting with a particular emphasis on myeloperoxidase imaging, autologous cell tracking, and targeted iron oxide particles (USPIO, MPIO). PMID:25505871

  20. Accurate Measurement of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Gradient Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Matson, Gerald B.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, gradient performance and fidelity has become of increasing interest, as the fidelity of the magnetic resonance (MR) image is somewhat dependent on the fidelity of the gradient system. In particular, for high fidelity non-Cartesian imaging, due to non-fidelity of the gradient system, it becomes necessary to know the actual k-space trajectory as opposed to the requested trajectory. In this work we show that, by considering the gradient system as a linear time-invariant system, the gradient impulse response function (GIRF) can be reliably measured to a relatively high degree of accuracy with a simple setup, using a small phantom and a series of simple experiments. It is shown experimentally that the resulting GIRF is able to predict actual gradient performance with a high degree of accuracy. The method captures not only the frequency response but also gradient timing errors and artifacts due to mechanical vibrations of the gradient system. Some discussion is provided comparing the method presented here with other analogous methods, along with limitations of these methods. PMID:25343017

  1. Towards the invisible cryogenic system for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmeyer, F.; Retz, P. W.; White, K.; Lang, A.; Stautner, W.; Smith, P. N.; Gilgrass, G.

    2002-05-01

    With about 10,000 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) systems installed worldwide, helium cooled magnets have become familiar equipment in hospitals and imaging centers. Patients and operators are only aware of the hissing sound of the Gifford-MacMahon refrigerator. Service technicians, however, still work with cryogenic fluids and cold gases, e.g. for replenishing the helium reservoir, inserting retractable current leads for magnet ramps, or replacing burst disks after a magnet quench. We will describe the steps taken at Oxford Magnet Technology towards the ultimate goal of a superconducting magnet being as simple as a household fridge. Early steps included the development of resealing quench valves, as well as permanently installed transfer siphons that only open when fully cooled to 4K. On recently launched 1.5 Tesla solenoid magnets, 500 A current leads are permanently fixed into the service turret, with hardly any boil-off penalty (40-50 cc/hr total). Ramping of the magnet has been fully automated, including electronic supervision of the gas-cooled current leads. One step ahead, the 1 Tesla High Field Open magnet is refrigerated by a single 4K Gifford MacMahon coldhead, relieving the user from the necessity to refill with helium. Our conduction cooled 0.2 Tesla HTS magnet testbed does not require liquid cryogens at any time in its life, including initial cool-down.

  2. Stable cerasomes for simultaneous drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhong; Zhu, Wenjian; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chunyang; Xu, Ming; Liu, Jie; Feng, Shi-Ting; Jiang, Qing; Xie, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic liposomes have been frequently used as nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging in recent years. Despite great potentials, their morphological/structural instability in the physiological environment still remains an intractable challenge for clinical applications. In this study, stable hybrid liposomal cerasomes (ie, liposomes partially coated with silica) which can co-encapsulate Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the anticancer drug paclitaxel were developed using thin film hydration method. Compared with the drug loaded liposomes, the paclitaxel-loaded magnetic cerasomes (PLMCs) exhibited much higher storage stability and better sustained release behavior. Cellular uptake study showed that the utilization of an external magnetic field significantly facilitated the internalization of PLMCs into cancer cells, resulting in potentiated drug efficacy of killing tumor cells. The T2 relaxivity (r2) of our PLMCs was much higher than that of free Fe3O4 nanoparticles, suggesting increased sensitivity in T2-weighted imaging. Given its excellent biocompatibility also shown in the study, such dual functional PLMC is potentially a promising nanosystem for effective cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25395848

  3. Distributed large-scale simulation of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Brenner, A R; Krsch, J; Noll, T G

    1997-06-01

    The concept and the implementation of a parallelized and spin-based simulator for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is presented. The dynamics of magnetization are modeled using the Bloch equation covering arbitrary radiofrequency (RF) pulses, gradients, main-field inhomogeneity, and relaxation. A temporal decomposition of a given sequence is introduced, leading to basic sequence elements called atoms. A concept of spatial sampling of the object by spins is proposed, in the course of which Shannon's sampling theorem must be respected. In biomedical MR imaging, spins can be modeled as noninteracting entities, permitting an efficient parallelization of the simulation. The simulator ParSpin was implemented on a heterogeneous, interconnected cluster of workstations based on existing message passing libraries. The communication overhead has been kept moderately small. The aggregate computing performance of many processors enables the research into very complex problems (e.g., three-dimensional or steady-state MR experiments requiring up to 10(6) spins). Additionally, ParSpin allows a comprehensive visualization for educational purposes. PMID:9268077

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the female pelvis: initial experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hricak, H.; Alpers, C.; Crooks, L.E.; Sheldon, P.E.

    1983-12-01

    The potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated in 21 female subjects: seven volunteers, 12 patients scanned for reasons unrelated to the lower genitourinary tract, and two patients referred with gynecologic disease. The uterus at several stages was examined; the premenarcheal uterus (one patient), the uterus of reproductive age (12 patients), the postmenopausal uterus (two patients), and in an 8 week pregnancy (one patient). The myometrium and cyclic endometrium in the reproductive age separated by a low-intensity line (probably stratum basale), which allows recognition of changes in thickness of the cyclic endometrium during the menstrual cycle. The corpus uteri can be distinguished from the cervix by the transitional zone of the isthmus. The anatomic relation of the uterus to bladder and rectum is easily outlined. The vagina can be distinguished from the cervix, and the anatomic display of the closely apposed bladder, vagina, and rectum is clear on axial and coronal images. The ovary is identified; the signal intensity from the ovary depends on the acquisition parameter used. Uterine leiomyoma, endometriosis, and dermoid cyst were depicted, but further experience is needed to ascertain the specificity of the findings.

  5. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Stigler, Kimberly A; McDonald, Brenna C; Anand, Amit; Saykin, Andrew J; McDougle, Christopher J

    2011-03-22

    The neurobiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has become increasingly understood since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Initial observations of an above-average head circumference were supported by structural MRI studies that found evidence of increased total brain volume and early rapid brain overgrowth in affected individuals. Subsequent research revealed consistent abnormalities in cortical gray and white matter volume in ASDs. The structural integrity and orientation of white matter have been further elucidated via diffusion tensor imaging methods. The emergence of functional MRI techniques led to an enhanced understanding of the neural circuitry of ASDs, demonstrating areas of dysfunctional cortical activation and atypical cortical specialization. These studies have provided evidence of underconnectivity in distributed cortical networks integral to the core impairments associated with ASDs. Abnormalities in the default-mode network during the resting state have also been identified. Overall, structural and functional MRI research has generated important insights into the neurobiology of ASDs. Additional research is needed to further delineate the underlying brain basis of this constellation of disorders. PMID:21130750

  6. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at superresolution: Overview and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kasten, Jeffrey; Klauser, Antoine; Lazeyras, Franois; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2016-02-01

    The notion of non-invasive, high-resolution spatial mapping of metabolite concentrations has long enticed the medical community. While magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is capable of achieving the requisite spatio-spectral localization, it has traditionally been encumbered by significant resolution constraints that have thus far undermined its clinical utility. To surpass these obstacles, research efforts have primarily focused on hardware enhancements or the development of accelerated acquisition strategies to improve the experimental sensitivity per unit time. Concomitantly, a number of innovative reconstruction techniques have emerged as alternatives to the standard inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT). While perhaps lesser known, these latter methods strive to effect commensurate resolution gains by exploiting known properties of the underlying MRSI signal in concert with advanced image and signal processing techniques. This review article aims to aggregate and provide an overview of the past few decades of so-called "superresolution" MRSI reconstruction methodologies, and to introduce readers to current state-of-the-art approaches. A number of perspectives are then offered as to the future of high-resolution MRSI, with a particular focus on translation into clinical settings. PMID:26766215

  7. [Role of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Pickuth, D; Heywang-Köbrunner, S H; Spielmann, R P

    1999-10-01

    Neurological involvement is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with sarcoidosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of patients with neurosarcoidosis. The MRI brain scans of 22 patients with sarcoidosis were retrospectively reviewed, along with the clinical information provided in the request form. All patients had signs and symptoms referable to the head and were examined with gadolinium enhancement. Cranial (facial) nerve paralysis was the most common clinical manifestation identified in 10 patients. A wide spectrum of MR findings was noted: periventricular and white matter lesions on T2 W spin echo images, mimicking multiple sclerosis (46%); multiple supratentorial and infratentorial brain lesions, mimicking metastases (36%); solitary intraaxial mass, mimicking high-grade astrocytoma (9%); solitary extraaxial mass, mimicking meningioma (5%); leptomeningeal enhancement (36%). The diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis is often difficult, particularly so in patients who lack either pulmonary or systemic manifestations of sarcoidosis. MRI shows a wide spectrum of brain abnormalities associated with neurosarcoidosis. These findings, however, are not specific for sarcoidosis and one must consider appropriate clinical circumstances in arriving at the correct diagnosis. In selected cases with isolated brain involvement, meningeal or cerebral biopsy may be required. PMID:10550389

  8. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of acute experimental brain ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Risto A

    2014-07-01

    Ischaemia is a condition in which blood flow either drops to zero or proceeds at severely decreased levels that cannot supply sufficient oxidizable substrates to maintain energy metabolism in vivo. Brain, a highly oxidative organ, is particularly susceptible to ischaemia. Ischaemia leads to loss of consciousness in seconds and, if prolonged, permanent tissue damage is inevitable. Ischaemia primarily results in a collapse of cerebral energy state, followed by a series of subtle changes in anaerobic metabolism, ion and water homeostasis that eventually initiate destructive internal and external processes in brain tissue. (31)P and (1)H NMR spectroscopy were initially used to evaluate anaerobic metabolism in brain. However, since the early 1990s (1)H Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), exploiting the nuclear magnetism of tissue water, has become the key method for assessment of ischaemic brain tissue. This article summarises multi-parametric (1)H MRI work that has exploited diffusion, relaxation and magnetisation transfer as 'contrasts' to image ischaemic brain in preclinical models for the first few hours, with a view to assessing evolution of ischaemia and tissue viability in a non-invasive manner. PMID:24924265

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Pfahler, M; Jessel, C; Steinborn, M; Refior, H J

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the changes that might be detected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis of the elbow and to judge its value concerning the clinical treatment. Thirty-four patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis were included in a prospective study. All individuals underwent MRI of the elbow on a 0.2-T dedicated system. The MRI findings were interpreted by an independent radiologist without knowledge of the clinical findings. In 6 surgical cases an additional histological study was done. The biopsy of the extensor tendon was performed for correlation with the MRI. In 21 of 34 symptomatic patients, increased signal changes in T1- and T2-weighted images were seen. In a further 11 cases, the morphology and signal intensity were normal. The histopathological analysis of 6 surgical cases confirmed the preoperative MRI findings by showing either focal fibrous degenerative tendon tissue or microruptures of collagenous fibres. MRI in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis can help to differentiate the disease and may be of use in clinical management, preoperative planning, and in the evaluation of the degree of degeneration at the common extensor tendon insertion. PMID:9932184

  10. [Diagnosis. Radiological study. Ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Because of its low cost, availability in primary care and ease of interpretation, simple X-ray should be the first-line imaging technique used by family physicians for the diagnosis and/or follow-up of patients with osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, this technique should only be used if there are sound indications and if the results will influence decision-making. Despite the increase of indications in patients with rheumatological disease, the role of ultrasound in patients with osteoarthritis continues to be limited. Computed tomography (CT) is of some -although limited- use in osteoarthritis, especially in the study of complex joints (such as the sacroiliac joint and facet joints). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has represented a major advance in the evaluation of joint cartilage and subchondral bone in patients with osteoarthritis but, because of its high cost and diagnostic-prognostic yield, this technique should only be used in highly selected patients. The indications for ultrasound, CT and MRI in patients with osteoarthritis continue to be limited in primary care and often coincide with situations in which the patient may require hospital referral. Patient safety should be bourne in mind. Patients should be protected from excessive ionizing radiation due to unnecessary repeat X-rays or inadequate views or to requests for tests such as CT, when not indicated. PMID:24467957

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of live freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, Holliman F.; Davis, D.; Bogan, A.E.; Kwak, T.J.; Gregory, Cope W.; Levine, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the soft tissues of live freshwater mussels, Eastern elliptio Elliptio complanata, via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), acquiring data with a widely available human whole-body MRI system. Anatomical features depicted in the profile images included the foot, stomach, intestine, anterior and posterior adductor muscles, and pericardial cavity. Noteworthy observations on soft tissue morphology included a concentration of lipids at the most posterior aspect of the foot, the presence of hemolymph-filled fissures in the posterior adductor muscle, the presence of a relatively large hemolymph-filled sinus adjacent to the posterior adductor muscle (at the ventral-anterior aspect), and segmentation of the intestine (a diagnostic description not reported previously in Unionidae). Relatively little is known about the basic biology and ecological physiology of freshwater mussels. Traditional approaches for studying anatomy and tissue processes, and for measuring sub-lethal physiological stress, are destructive or invasive. Our study, the first to evaluate freshwater mussel soft tissues by MRI, clarifies the body plan of unionid mussels and demonstrates the efficacy of this technology for in vivo evaluation of the structure, function, and integrity of mussel soft tissues. ?? 2008, The American Microscopical Society, Inc.

  12. Measurement of AC magnetic field distribution using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ider, Y Z; Muftuler, L T

    1997-10-01

    Electric currents are applied to body in numerous applications in medicine such as electrical impedance tomography, cardiac defibrillation, electrocautery, and physiotherapy. If the magnetic field within a region is measured, the currents generating these fields can be calculated using the curl operator. In this study, magnetic fields generated within a phantom by currents passing through an external wire is measured using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. A pulse sequence that is originally designed for mapping static magnetic field inhomogeneity is adapted. AC current in the form of a burst sine wave is applied synchronously with the pulse sequence. The frequency of the applied current is in the audio range with an amplitude of 175-mA rms. It is shown that each voxel value of sequential images obtained by the proposed pulse sequence is modulated similar to a single tone broadband frequency modulated (FM) waveform with the ac magnetic field strength determining the modulation index. An algorithm is developed to calculate the ac magnetic field intensity at each voxel using the frequency spectrum of the voxel signal. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can be used to calculate ac magnetic field distribution within a conducting sample that is placed in an MRI system. PMID:9368117

  13. Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Stankovic, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction in the 1970’s, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a standard imaging modality. With its broad and standardized application, it is firmly established in the clinical routine and an essential element in cardiovascular and abdominal imaging. In addition to sonography and computer tomography, MRI is a valuable tool for diagnosing cardiovascular and abdominal diseases, for determining disease severity, and for assessing therapeutic success. MRI techniques have improved over the last few decades, revealing not just morphologic information, but functional information about perfusion, diffusion and hemodynamics as well. Four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, a time-resolved phase contrast-MRI with three-dimensional (3D) anatomic coverage and velocity encoding along all three flow directions has been used to comprehensively assess complex cardiovascular hemodynamics in multiple regions of the body. The technique enables visualization of 3D blood flow patterns and retrospective quantification of blood flow parameters in a region of interest. Over the last few years, 4D flow MRI has been increasingly performed in the abdominal region. By applying different acceleration techniques, taking 4D flow MRI measurements has dropped to a reasonable scanning time of 8 to 12 min. These new developments have encouraged a growing number of patient studies in the literature validating the technique’s potential for enhanced evaluation of blood flow parameters within the liver’s complex vascular system. The purpose of this review article is to broaden our understanding of 4D flow MRI for the assessment of liver hemodynamics by providing insights into acquisition, data analysis, visualization and quantification. Furthermore, in this article we highlight its development, focussing on the clinical application of the technique. PMID:26755862

  14. Functional assessment of transplanted kidneys with magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Ting; Li, Ying-Chun; Yin, Long-Lin; Pu, Hong; Chen, Jia-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Kidney transplantation has emerged as the treatment of choice for many patients with end-stage renal disease, which is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Given the shortage of clinically available donor kidneys and the significant incidence of allograft dysfunction, a noninvasive and accurate assessment of the allograft renal function is critical for postoperative management. Prompt diagnosis of graft dysfunction facilitates clinical intervention of kidneys with salvageable function. New advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology have enabled the calculation of various renal parameters that were previously not feasible to measure noninvasively. Diffusion-weighted imaging provides information on renal diffusion and perfusion simultaneously, with quantification by the apparent diffusion coefficient, the decrease of which reflects renal function impairment. Diffusion-tensor imaging accounts for the directionality of molecular motion and measures fractional anisotropy of the kidneys. Blood oxygen level-dependent MR evaluates intrarenal oxygen bioavailability, generating the parameter of R2* (reflecting the concentration of deoxyhemoglobin). A decrease in R2* could happen during acute rejection. MR nephro-urography/renography demonstrates structural data depicting urinary tract obstructions and functional data regarding the glomerular filtration and blood flow. MR angiography details the transplant vasculature and is particularly suitable for detecting vascular complications, with good correlation with digital subtraction angiography. Other functional MRI technologies, such as arterial spin labeling and MR spectroscopy, are showing additional promise. This review highlights MRI as a comprehensive modality to diagnose a variety of etiologies of graft dysfunction, including prerenal (e.g., renal vasculature), renal (intrinsic causes) and postrenal (e.g., obstruction of the collecting system) etiologies. PMID:26516431

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation and simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, Marcus; Lindenberg, Robert; Darkow, Robert; Ulm, Lena; Copland, David; Flel, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that uses weak electrical currents administered to the scalp to manipulate cortical excitability and, consequently, behavior and brain function. In the last decade, numerous studies have addressed short-term and long-term effects of tDCS on different measures of behavioral performance during motor and cognitive tasks, both in healthy individuals and in a number of different patient populations. So far, however, little is known about the neural underpinnings of tDCS-action in humans with regard to large-scale brain networks. This issue can be addressed by combining tDCS with functional brain imaging techniques like functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or electroencephalography (EEG). In particular, fMRI is the most widely used brain imaging technique to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and motor functions. Application of tDCS during fMRI allows analysis of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioral tDCS effects with high spatial resolution across the entire brain. Recent studies using this technique identified stimulation induced changes in task-related functional brain activity at the stimulation siteand also in more distant brain regions, which were associated with behavioral improvement. In addition, tDCS administered during resting-state fMRI allowed identification of widespread changes in whole brain functional connectivity. Future studies using this combined protocol should yield new insights into the mechanisms of tDCS action in health and disease and new options for more targeted application of tDCS in research and clinical settings. The present manuscript describes this novel technique in a step-by-step fashion, with a focus on technical aspects of tDCS administered during fMRI. PMID:24796646

  16. Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction in the 1970's, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a standard imaging modality. With its broad and standardized application, it is firmly established in the clinical routine and an essential element in cardiovascular and abdominal imaging. In addition to sonography and computer tomography, MRI is a valuable tool for diagnosing cardiovascular and abdominal diseases, for determining disease severity, and for assessing therapeutic success. MRI techniques have improved over the last few decades, revealing not just morphologic information, but functional information about perfusion, diffusion and hemodynamics as well. Four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, a time-resolved phase contrast-MRI with three-dimensional (3D) anatomic coverage and velocity encoding along all three flow directions has been used to comprehensively assess complex cardiovascular hemodynamics in multiple regions of the body. The technique enables visualization of 3D blood flow patterns and retrospective quantification of blood flow parameters in a region of interest. Over the last few years, 4D flow MRI has been increasingly performed in the abdominal region. By applying different acceleration techniques, taking 4D flow MRI measurements has dropped to a reasonable scanning time of 8 to 12 min. These new developments have encouraged a growing number of patient studies in the literature validating the technique's potential for enhanced evaluation of blood flow parameters within the liver's complex vascular system. The purpose of this review article is to broaden our understanding of 4D flow MRI for the assessment of liver hemodynamics by providing insights into acquisition, data analysis, visualization and quantification. Furthermore, in this article we highlight its development, focussing on the clinical application of the technique. PMID:26755862

  17. Automated Analysis of Craniofacial Morphology Using Magnetic Resonance Images

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Aleong, Rosanne; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G. Bruce; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of craniofacial morphology is of interest to scholars working in a wide variety of disciplines, such as anthropology, developmental biology, and medicine. T1-weighted (anatomical) magnetic resonance images (MRI) provide excellent contrast between soft tissues. Given its three-dimensional nature, MRI represents an ideal imaging modality for the analysis of craniofacial structure in living individuals. Here we describe how T1-weighted MR images, acquired to examine brain anatomy, can also be used to analyze facial features. Using a sample of typically developing adolescents from the Saguenay Youth Study (N?=?597; 292 male, 305 female, ages: 12 to 18 years), we quantified inter-individual variations in craniofacial structure in two ways. First, we adapted existing nonlinear registration-based morphological techniques to generate iteratively a group-wise population average of craniofacial features. The nonlinear transformations were used to map the craniofacial structure of each individual to the population average. Using voxel-wise measures of expansion and contraction, we then examined the effects of sex and age on inter-individual variations in facial features. Second, we employed a landmark-based approach to quantify variations in face surfaces. This approach involves: (a) placing 56 landmarks (forehead, nose, lips, jaw-line, cheekbones, and eyes) on a surface representation of the MRI-based group average; (b) warping the landmarks to the individual faces using the inverse nonlinear transformation estimated for each person; and (3) using a principal components analysis (PCA) of the warped landmarks to identify facial features (i.e. clusters of landmarks) that vary in our sample in a correlated fashion. As with the voxel-wise analysis of the deformation fields, we examined the effects of sex and age on the PCA-derived spatial relationships between facial features. Both methods demonstrated significant sexual dimorphism in craniofacial structure in areas such as the chin, mandible, lips, and nose. PMID:21655288

  18. Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging-MALDI-TOF Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Thin Tissue Sections.

    PubMed

    Forest, Simon; Breault-Turcot, Julien; Chaurand, Pierre; Masson, Jean-Francois

    2016-02-16

    Identification and quantification of proteins in imaging of biological samples are a challenge in today's science. Here, we demonstrate a novel surface plasmon resonance imaging-matrix assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (SPRi-MALDI IMS) coupled technique competent for the acquisition of multiparametric information by creating a tissue section imprint on an SPRi sensor surface. Correlated images were acquired in SPRi and in MALDI IMS for abundant proteins from a single mouse kidney tissue. The spatial organization of the transferred proteins from the tissue to the SPRi surface was preserved and imaged by SPR and MALDI MS. Surface chemistry was selected to nonspecifically adsorb and retain high concentrations of proteins on the SPRi surface. The diffusion kinetics were controlled to ensure fast transfer of proteins from the tissue sections with minimal lateral diffusion to achieve high spatial fidelity transfer. Lastly, the SPRi instrument was modified to insert a tissue sample in the fluidics chamber to facilitate the real-time measurement of the transfer process. The MALDI IMS experimental conditions, such as matrix deposition and the interface between the SPRi prism and the MALDI IMS instrument, were also optimized. The results show quantitative and regioselective SPRi images correlating to MALDI IMS images of different proteins transferred from a single tissue section. PMID:26765517

  19. Development of the 1.2?T~1.5?T Permanent Magnetic Resonance Imaging Device and Its Application for Mouse Imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangxin; Xie, Huantong; Hou, Shulian; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Shiyu

    2015-01-01

    By improving the main magnet, gradient, and RF coils design technology, manufacturing methods, and inventing new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) special alloy, a cost-effective and small animal specific permanent magnet-type three-dimensional magnetic resonance imager was developed. The main magnetic field strength of magnetic resonance imager with independent intellectual property rights is 1.2~1.5?T. To demonstrate its effectiveness and validate the mouse imaging experiments in different directions, we compared the images obtained by small animal specific permanent magnet-type three-dimensional magnetic resonance imager with that obtained by using superconductor magnetic resonance imager for clinical diagnosis. PMID:26539531

  20. Development of the 1.2 T~1.5 T Permanent Magnetic Resonance Imaging Device and Its Application for Mouse Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangxin; Xie, Huantong; Hou, Shulian; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Shiyu

    2015-01-01

    By improving the main magnet, gradient, and RF coils design technology, manufacturing methods, and inventing new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) special alloy, a cost-effective and small animal specific permanent magnet-type three-dimensional magnetic resonance imager was developed. The main magnetic field strength of magnetic resonance imager with independent intellectual property rights is 1.2~1.5 T. To demonstrate its effectiveness and validate the mouse imaging experiments in different directions, we compared the images obtained by small animal specific permanent magnet-type three-dimensional magnetic resonance imager with that obtained by using superconductor magnetic resonance imager for clinical diagnosis. PMID:26539531

  1. Serial proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and quantitative lesion volumetry in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Narayana, P A; Doyle, T J; Lai, D; Wolinsky, J S

    1998-01-01

    Serial magnetic resonance (MR) studies that included proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), contrast-enhanced MR imaging (MRI), and lesion volumetric studies were performed on 25 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with mild to modest clinical deficits. Each patient was scanned at varying intervals for up to 2 years, resulting in a total of 124 usable MR sessions. In these longitudinal studies, metabolic changes were observed on MRSI for some subjects before the appearance of lesions on MRI scanning. Regional changes in metabolite levels were observed to be dynamic and reversible in some patients. Transient changes in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels were sometimes found in acute plaques and indicate that a reduced NAA level does not necessarily imply axonal loss. An inverse correlation between the average NAA within the spectroscopic volume and the total lesion volume in the whole brain was observed. This negative correlation implies that NAA can serve as an objective marker of the disease burden. Strong lipid peaks in the absence of gadolinium enhancement and MRI-defined lesions were observed in 4 patients. This observation suggests that demyelination can occur independent of perivenous inflammatory changes and supports the presence of more than one pathophysiological process leading to demyelination in MS. PMID:9450769

  2. Superresolution parallel magnetic resonance imaging: Application to functional and spectroscopic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Otazo, Ricardo; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Wiggins, Graham; Jordan, Ramiro; Sodickson, Daniel; Posse, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Standard parallel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques suffer from residual aliasing artifacts when the coil sensitivities vary within the image voxel. In this work, a parallel MRI approach known as Superresolution SENSE (SURE-SENSE) is presented in which acceleration is performed by acquiring only the central region of k-space instead of increasing the sampling distance over the complete k-space matrix and reconstruction is explicitly based on intra-voxel coil sensitivity variation. In SURE-SENSE, parallel MRI reconstruction is formulated as a superresolution imaging problem where a collection of low resolution images acquired with multiple receiver coils are combined into a single image with higher spatial resolution using coil sensitivities acquired with high spatial resolution. The effective acceleration of conventional gradient encoding is given by the gain in spatial resolution, which is dictated by the degree of variation of the different coil sensitivity profiles within the low resolution image voxel. Since SURE-SENSE is an ill-posed inverse problem, Tikhonov regularization is employed to control noise amplification. Unlike standard SENSE, for which acceleration is constrained to the phase-encoding dimension/s, SURE-SENSE allows acceleration along all encoding directions for example, two-dimensional acceleration of a 2D echo-planar acquisition. SURE-SENSE is particularly suitable for low spatial resolution imaging modalities such as spectroscopic imaging and functional imaging with high temporal resolution. Application to echo-planar functional and spectroscopic imaging in human brain is presented using two-dimensional acceleration with a 32-channel receiver coil. PMID:19341804

  3. Fahr disease: use of susceptibility-weighted imaging for diagnostic dilemma with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Neslin; Solak, Aynur; Genc, Berhan; Kulu, Ugur

    2015-08-01

    Fahr disease (FD) is a well-defined rare neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by idiopathic bilateral symmetric extensive striopallidodentate calcifications. The patients may present with diverse manifestations, most commonly movement disorder, cognitive impairment, and ataxia. Computed tomography (CT) is considered to be critical for accurate diagnosis because it is difficult to reliably identify calcifications by routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a relatively new 3D gradient-echo (GE) MR sequence with special phase and magnitude processing. SWI phase images can recognize calcifications definitively with higher sensitivity compared to other MRI sequences. In this article, we present two cases of FD with different manifestations and neuroimaging in different age groups and genders, which were diagnosed by SWI and confirmed with CT, and we discuss the contribution of SWI in the diagnosis of FD. In conclusion, we suggest integrating SWI with MRI protocol to identify calcifications in suspicion of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26435928

  4. Fahr disease: use of susceptibility-weighted imaging for diagnostic dilemma with magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Solak, Aynur; Genc, Berhan; Kulu, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    Fahr disease (FD) is a well-defined rare neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by idiopathic bilateral symmetric extensive striopallidodentate calcifications. The patients may present with diverse manifestations, most commonly movement disorder, cognitive impairment, and ataxia. Computed tomography (CT) is considered to be critical for accurate diagnosis because it is difficult to reliably identify calcifications by routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a relatively new 3D gradient-echo (GE) MR sequence with special phase and magnitude processing. SWI phase images can recognize calcifications definitively with higher sensitivity compared to other MRI sequences. In this article, we present two cases of FD with different manifestations and neuroimaging in different age groups and genders, which were diagnosed by SWI and confirmed with CT, and we discuss the contribution of SWI in the diagnosis of FD. In conclusion, we suggest integrating SWI with MRI protocol to identify calcifications in suspicion of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26435928

  5. Conductivity tensor imaging of the brain using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekino, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Kikuo; Iriguchi, Norio; Ueno, Shoogo

    2003-05-01

    Conductivity tensor images of the rat brain were obtained by a method based on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diffusion-weighted images were acquired by a 4.7 T MRI system with motion probing gradients (MPGs) applied in three directions. Conductivities in each MPG direction were calculated from the fast component of the apparent diffusion coefficient and the fraction of the fast component, and two-dimensional conductivity tensor was estimated. Regions of interest (ROIs) were selected in the cortex and the corpus callosum. The mean conductivities in each ROI were 0.014 S/m and 0.018 S/m, respectively. The corpus callosum exhibited higher conductivity anisotropy resulting from anisotropic tissue structures such as axons and dendrites.

  6. Fetal Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings In Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection With Postnatal Imaging Correlation.

    PubMed

    Averill, Lauren W; Kandula, Vinay V R; Akyol, Yakup; Epelman, Monica

    2015-12-01

    Fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool in the diagnosis of symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection, requiring a detailed search for specific features. A combination of anterior temporal lobe abnormalities, white matter lesions, and polymicrogyria is especially predictive. Fetal MRI may provide a unique opportunity to detect anterior temporal cysts and occipital horn septations, as dilation of these areas may decrease later in development. Cortical migration abnormalities, white matter abnormalities, cerebellar dysplasia, and periventricular calcifications are often better depicted on postnatal imaging but can also be detected on fetal MRI. We present the prenatal brain MRI findings seen in congenital cytomegalovirus infection and provide postnatal imaging correlation, highlighting the evolution of findings at different times in prenatal and postnatal developments. PMID:26614131

  7. Fetal imaging by nuclear magnetic resonance: a study in goats: work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, M.A.; Knight, C.H.; Rimmington, J.E.; Mallard, J.R.

    1983-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance proton imaging was used to obtain images of goat fetuses in utero. The long T1 relaxation time of amniotic fluid makes it appear black on proton density images when examined using the Aberdeen imager, and so allows very good discrimination of the position and structure of the fetus. Some fetal internal tissues can be seen on T1 images. These findings suggest that NMR imaging has great potential in pregnancy studies.

  8. Application of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Evaluation of the Lower Extremity

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Hillary J.; Dragoo, Jason L.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Levenston, Marc E.; Gold, Garry E.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews current magnetic resonance imaging techniques for imaging the lower extremity, focusing on imaging of the knee, ankle, and hip joints. Recent advancements in MRI include imaging at 7 Tesla, using multiple receiver channels, T2* imaging, and metal suppression techniques, allowing more detailed visualization of complex anatomy, evaluation of morphological changes within articular cartilage, and imaging around orthopedic hardware. PMID:23622097

  9. NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF WATER CONTENT IN THE SUBSURFACE

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickx, Jan M.H.

    1999-12-31

    This report contains the experimental, theoretical and numerical studies performed under Department of Energy (DOE) Agreement Number DE-FG07-96ER14732 entitled ''Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for Imaging Subsurface Water.'' DOE and Department of Defense (DOD) complexes and test ranges are situated in widely varying climatic conditions from the desert southwest to the humid east. The mission of the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is to clean up the inventory of inactive DOE sites and facilities, and the goal of the EM Office of Technology Development (OTD) is to deliver technologies to make environmental restoration more efficient and cost effective. In the western United States, where a number of DOE facilities are located, the water table can occur several hundred feet below the surface. The zone between surface and water table is called the vadose zone or unsaturated zone. A characteristic of that zone is that mobility of water and contaminants is greatly reduced compared to rate of movement in the saturated zone. A thick vadose zone lowers the risk and, at least, increases the time before contaminants enter drinking water supplies. The assessment of risk is often performed by modeling of ground water flow and contaminant migration by analytical methods or unsaturated flow models (e.g. Hendrickx et al 1991). Necessary inputs for these models are the hydraulic properties of the different geological formations (e.g. Hendrickx 1990) and the water content distribution in the vadose zone (Freeze and Cherry 1979). Accurate risk assessments for ground water contamination cannot be conducted without actual measurements of the water content distribution in the vadose zone. To date, very few techniques have been developed to provide such information at an acceptable speed and cost. Because soil water contents exhibit a large spatial and temporal variability, the costs of conventional measurement techniques, such as gravimetric sampling, gypsum blocks, and neutron probes, are high. Only non-intrusive tests with a cost factor much lower than that of an intrusive test will offer acceptable alternatives. Therefore, a definite need exists for a non-intrusive water content measurement method. The surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique applied to imaging of ground water was first developed by Russian scientists from the Institute of Chemical and Combustion in Novosibirsk, Russia. Over the last two decades they have published a series of papers and reports describing the theory of the method, along with experimental measurements from the surface to a depth of about 100 m. Preliminary evaluation of the concepts and results merited further investigations, particularly because of the critical technical need for cost-effective water content measurements in environmental restoration.

  10. Nanostructured surfaces for surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petefish, Joseph W.

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has achieved widespread recognition as a sensitive, label-free, and versatile optical method for monitoring changes in refractive index at a metal-dielectric interface. Refractive index deviations of 10-6 RIU are resolvable using SPR, and the method can be used in real-time or ex-situ. Instruments based on carboxymethyl dextran coated SPR chips have achieved commercial success in biological detection, while SPR sensors can also be found in other fields as varied as food safety and gas sensing. Chapter 1 provides a physical background of SPR sensing. A brief history of the technology is presented, and publication data are included that demonstrate the large and growing interest in surface plasmons. Numerous applications of SPR sensors are listed to illustrate the broad appeal of the method. Surface plasmons (SPs) and surface plasmon polaritions (SPPs) are formally defined, and important parameters governing their spatial behavior are derived from Maxwell's equations and appropriate boundary conditions. Physical requirements for exciting SPs with incident light are discussed, and SPR imaging is used to illustrate the operating principle of SPR-based detection. Angle-tunable surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) of polymer vibrational modes via grating-coupled SPR is demonstrated in Chapter 2. Over 10-fold enhancement of C-H stretching modes was found relative to the absorbance of the same film in the absence of plasmon excitation. Modeling results are used to support and explain experimental observations. Improvements to the grating coupler SEIRA platform in Chapter 2 are explored in Chapters 3 and 4. Chapter 3 displays data for two sets of multipitch gratings: one set with broadly distributed resonances with the potential for multiband IR enhancement and the other with finely spaced, overlapping resonances to form a broadband IR enhancement device. Diffraction gratings having multiple periods were fabricated using a Lloyd's mirror interferometer to perform multiple exposures at multiple angles before developing. Precise control of the resonance position is shown by locating three SPR dips at predetermined wavenumbers of 5000, 4000, and 3000 cm-1, respectively. A set of three gratings, each having four closely spaced resonances is employed to show how the sensor response could be broadened. The work in Chapter 3 shows potential for simultaneous enhancement of multiple vibrational modes; the multiband approach might find application for modes at disparate locations within the IR spectrum, while the broadband approach may allow concurrent probing of broad single modes or clusters of narrow modes within a particular neighborhood of the spectrum. Chapter 4 uses the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method to numerically explore another facet of the nanostructure-based tunability of grating-baed SPR sensing. The work in this chapter illustrates how infrared signal enhancement could be tailored by through adjustment of the grating amplitude. Modeled infrared reflection absorption (IRRAS) spectra and electric field distributions were generated for several nanostructured grating configurations. It was found that there exists a critical amplitude value for a given grating pitch where the plasmon response achieves a maximum. Amplitudes greater than this critical value produce a broader and attenuated plasmon peak, while smaller amplitudes produce a plasmon resonance that is not as intense. Field simulations show how amplitudes nearer the critical amplitude resulted in large increases in the electric field within an analyte film atop the sensor surface, and the relative strength of the increased field is predictable based on the appearance of the IRRAS spectra. It is believed that these larger fields are the cause of observed enhanced absorption. Published reports pertaining to interactions of SPs with molecular resonance and to diffraction-based tracking of plasmons without a spectrometer are included in the Appendix to this thesis. In the first of the two reports, it is shown that plasmons coupling to dye molecular resonance can be quenched due to the effects of the high extinction coefficient of the dye. In the second report, the thickness of nanometer-scale SiO films on a gold-coated grating is evaluated by tracking the plasmon using a Bertrand lens and camera. Model results show close agreement with observations in both works. This work aims to show the versatility of SPR sensing in multiple applications. The inherent angle- and wavelength-tunability of plasmon responses is a distinct advantage for sensing phenomena over a wide range of conditions. SPR sensing is also highly dependent on the nanostructure at and near the metal-dielectric interface. The thickness of thin metal coatings, as well as the pitch, amplitude, and shape of metallic gratings all affect the behavior of SPPs in profound ways. Gratings provide an especially information-rich avenue for SPR sensing, as data is contained in multiple diffracted orders over a wide range of angles and wavelengths.

  11. Diffusion-based spatial priors for functional magnetic resonance images

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, L.M.; Penny, W.; Daunizeau, J.; Friston, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    We recently outlined a Bayesian scheme for analyzing fMRI data using diffusion-based spatial priors [Harrison, L.M., Penny, W., Ashburner, J., Trujillo-Barreto, N., Friston, K.J., 2007. Diffusion-based spatial priors for imaging. NeuroImage 38, 677695]. The current paper continues this theme, applying it to a single-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of the auditory system. We show that spatial priors on functional activations, based on diffusion, can be formulated in terms of the eigenmodes of a graph Laplacian. This allows one to discard eigenmodes with small eigenvalues, to provide a computationally efficient scheme. Furthermore, this formulation shows that diffusion-based priors are a generalization of conventional Laplacian priors [Penny, W.D., Trujillo-Barreto, N.J., Friston, K.J., 2005. Bayesian fMRI time series analysis with spatial priors. NeuroImage 24, 350362]. Finally, we show how diffusion-based priors are a special case of Gaussian process models that can be inverted using classical covariance component estimation techniques like restricted maximum likelihood [Patterson, H.D., Thompson, R., 1974. Maximum likelihood estimation of components of variance. Paper presented at: 8th International Biometrics Conference (Constanta, Romania)]. The convention in SPM is to smooth data with a fixed isotropic Gaussian kernel before inverting a mass-univariate statistical model. This entails the strong assumption that data are generated smoothly throughout the brain. However, there is no way to determine if this assumption is supported by the data, because data are smoothed before statistical modeling. In contrast, if a spatial prior is used, smoothness is estimated given non-smoothed data. Explicit spatial priors enable formal model comparison of different prior assumptions, e.g., that data are generated from a stationary (i.e., fixed throughout the brain) or non-stationary spatial process. Indeed, for the auditory data we provide strong evidence for a non-stationary process, which concurs with a qualitative comparison of predicted activations at the boundary of functionally selective regions. PMID:18387821

  12. Detectability of early brain meningitis with magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M.

    1995-08-01

    The ability of high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect early brain meningitis was evaluated in a canine model. Contrast dose, timing postinjection, and imaging technique (specifically the use of magnetization transfer) were assessed. Imaging of five canines was performed at 1.5 T 24 hours after injection of Cowans staphylococcus into the cisterna magna. Two control animals also were imaged using the same protocol. Contrast doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.8 mmol/kg gadoteridol were compared. Scans were performed at 2, 13, and 22 minutes after an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg. Thirty minutes after the initial injection of contrast, a supplemental dose of 0.2 mmol/kg was given. Scans were then repeated at 2, 12, and 22 minutes after this dose was administered. A second supplemental contrast injection of 0.5 mmol/kg was given at 70 minutes, and immediate postinjection scans with and without MT were acquired. Results. In the animals receiving a cisternal injection of bacteria, the degree of meningeal enhancement was greatest at 0.8 mmol/kg, intermediate at 0.3 mmol/kg, and least at 0.1 mmol/kg. Scans in control studies did not demonstrate abnormal meningeal enhancement. High-contrast dose, MT, and acquisition of immediate postcontrast scans all resulted in statistically significant improvement. On masked film review, abnormal meningeal enhancement was noted in only 2 of 5 experimental dogs at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg (regardless of the use of MT) compared with all animals at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg. In 18 of 37 dogs (paired scans with and without MT), when abnormal enhancement was noted, the use of MT improved the visualization of abnormal meningeal enhancement. In early brain meningitis, high-contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg), MT, and scanning immediately after injection improve detection of abnormal meningeal enhancement, thus facilitating the diagnosis of meningitis. Of these factors, contrast dose is the most important. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. SQUID-Detected Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MicroteslaFields

    SciTech Connect

    Moessle, Michael; Hatridge, Michael; Clarke, John

    2006-08-14

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has developed into a powerful clinical tool for imaging the human body (1). This technique is based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of protons (2, 3) in a static magnetic field B{sub 0}. An applied radiofrequency pulse causes the protons to precess about B{sub 0} at their Larmor frequency {nu}{sub 0} = ({gamma}/2{pi})B{sub 0}, where {gamma} is the gyromagnetic ratio; {gamma}/2{pi} = 42.58 MHz/tesla. The precessing protons generate an oscillating magnetic field and hence a voltage in a nearby coil that is amplified and recorded. The application of three-dimensional magnetic field gradients specifies a unique magnetic field and thus an NMR frequency in each voxel of the subject, so that with appropriate encoding of the signals one can acquire a complete image (4). Most clinical MRI systems involve magnetic fields generated by superconducting magnets, and the current trend is to higher magnetic fields than the widely used 1.5-T systems (5). Nonetheless, there is ongoing interest in the development of less expensive imagers operating at lower fields. Commercially available 0.2-T systems based on permanent magnets offer both lower cost and a more open access than their higher-field counterparts, at the expense of signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and spatial resolution. At the still lower field of 0.03 mT maintained by a conventional, room-temperature solenoid, Connolly and co-workers (6, 7) obtain good spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by prepolarizing the protons in a field B{sub p} of 0.3 T. Prepolarization (8) enhances the magnetic moment of an ensemble of protons over that produced by the lower precession field; after the polarizing field is removed, the higher magnetic moment produces a correspondingly larger signal during its precession in B{sub 0}. Using the same method, Stepisnik et al. (9) obtained MR images in the Earth's magnetic field ({approx} 50 {micro}T). Alternatively, one can enhance the signal amplitude in MRI using laser polarized noble gases such as {sup 3}He or {sup 129}Xe (10-12). Hyperpolarized gases were used successfully to image the human lung in fields on the order of several mT (13-15). To overcome the sensitivity loss of Faraday detection at low frequencies, ultrasensitive magnetometers based on the Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) (16) are used to detect NMR and MRI signals (17-24). Recently, SQUID-based MRI systems capable of acquiring in vivo images have appeared. For example, in the 10-mT system of Seton et al. (18) signals are coupled to a SQUID via a superconducting tuned circuit, while Clarke and coworkers (22, 25, 26) developed a system at 132 {micro}T with an untuned input circuit coupled to a SQUID. In a quite different approach, atomic magnetometers have been used recently to detect the magnetization (27) and NMR signal (28) of hyperpolarized gases. This technique could potentially be used for low-field MRI in the future. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the-art of MRI in microtesla fields detected with SQUIDs. The principles of SQUIDs and NMR are briefly reviewed. We show that very narrow NMR linewidths can be achieved in low magnetic fields that are quite inhomogeneous, with illustrative examples from spectroscopy. After describing our ultralow-field MRI system, we present a variety of images. We demonstrate that in microtesla fields the longitudinal relaxation T{sub 1} is much more material dependent than is the case in high fields; this results in a substantial improvement in 'T{sub 1}-weighted contrast imaging'. After outlining the first attempts to combine microtesla NMR with magnetoencephalography (MEG) (29), we conclude with a discussion of future directions.

  14. The Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) magnetic resonance imaging quality assurance update

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, E.; NessAiver, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Longitudinal quantitative evaluation of cartilage disease requires reproducible measurements over time. We report 8 years of quality assurance (QA) metrics for quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) knee analyses from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) and show the impact of MR system, phantom, and acquisition protocol changes. Method Key 3 T MR QA metrics, including signal-to-noise, signal uniformity, T2 relaxation times, and geometric distortion, were quantified monthly on two different phantoms using an automated program. Results Over 8 years, phantom measurements showed root-mean-square coefficient-of-variation reproducibility of <0.25% (190.0 mm diameter) and <0.20% (148.0 mm length), resulting in spherical volume reproducibility of <0.35%. T2 relaxation time reproducibility varied from 1.5% to 5.3%; seasonal fluctuations were observed at two sites. All other QA goals were met except: slice thicknesses were consistently larger than nominal on turbo spin echo images; knee coil signal uniformity and signal level varied significantly over time. Conclusions The longitudinal variations for a spherical volume should have minimal impact on the accuracy and reproducibility of cartilage volume and thickness measurements as they are an order of magnitude smaller than reported for either unpaired or paired (repositioning and reanalysis) precision errors. This stability should enable direct comparison of baseline and follow-up images. Cross-comparison of the geometric results from all four OAI sites reveal that the MR systems do not statistically differ and enable results to be pooled. MR QA results identified similar technical issues as previously published. Geometric accuracy stability should have the greatest impact on quantitative analysis of longitudinal change in cartilage volume and thickness precision. PMID:23092792

  15. Intramuscular schwannoma: clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features

    PubMed Central

    Salunke, Abhijeet Ashok; Chen, Yongsheng; Tan, Jun Hao; Chen, Xi; Foo, Tun-Lin; Gartner, Louise Elizabeth; Puhaindran, Mark Edward

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Schwannomas that arise within the muscle plane are called intramuscular schwannomas. The low incidence of these tumours and the lack of specific clinical features make preoperative diagnosis difficult. Herein, we report our experience with intramuscular schwannomas. We present details of the clinical presentation, radiological diagnosis and management of these tumours. METHODS Between January 2011 and December 2013, 29 patients were diagnosed and treated for histologically proven schwannoma at the National University Hospital, Singapore. Among these 29 patients, eight (five male, three female) had intramuscular schwannomas. RESULTS The mean age of the eight patients was 40 (range 27–57) years. The most common presenting feature was a palpable mass. The mean interval between surgical treatment and the onset of clinical symptoms was 17.1 (range 4–72) months. Six of the eight tumours (75.0%) were located in the lower limb, while 2 (25.0%) were located in the upper limb. None of the patients had any preoperative neurological deficits. Tinel’s sign was present in one patient. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed that the findings of split-fat sign, low signal margin and fascicular sign were present in all patients. The entry and exit sign was observed in 4 (50.0%) patients, a hyperintense rim was observed in 7 (87.5%) patients and the target sign was observed in 5 (62.5%) patients. All patients underwent microsurgical excision of the tumour and none developed any postoperative neurological deficits. CONCLUSION Intramuscular schwannomas demonstrate the findings of split-fat sign, low signal margin and fascicular sign on MR imaging. These findings are useful for the radiological diagnosis of intramuscular schwannoma. PMID:26512147

  16. Correlation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Knee Anterolateral Ligament Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; Helito, Paulo Victor Partezani; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Pécora, José Ricardo; Bordalo-Rodrigues, Marcelo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; Demange, Marco Kawamura

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anatomic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have recently characterized the knee anterolateral ligament (ALL). So far, no study has focused on confirming whether the evaluated MRI parameters truly correspond with ALL anatomy. Purpose: To assess the validity of MRI in detecting the ALL using an anatomic evaluation as reference. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: A total of 13 cadaveric knees were subjected to MRI and then to anatomic dissection. Dissection was performed according to previous anatomic study methodology. MRIs were performed with a 0.6- to 1.5-mm slice thickness and prior saline injection. The following variables were analyzed: distance from the origin of the ALL to the origin of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL), distance from the origin of the ALL to its bifurcation point, maximum length of the ALL, distance from the tibial insertion of the ALL to the articular surface of the tibia, ALL thickness, and ALL width. The 2 sets of measurements were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (ρ) and Bland-Altman plots. Results: The ALL was clearly observed in all dissected knees and MRI scans. It originated anterior and distal to the LCL, close to the lateral epycondile center, and showed an anteroinferior path toward the tibia, inserting between the Gerdy tubercle and the fibular head, around 5 mm under the lateral plateau. The ρ values tended to increase together for all studied variables between the 2 methods, and all were statistically significant, except for thickness (P = .077). Bland-Altman plots showed a tendency toward a reduction of ALL thickness and width by MRI compared with anatomic dissection. Conclusion: MRI scanning as described can accurately assess the ALL and demonstrates characteristics similar to those seen under anatomic dissection. Clinical Relevance: MRI can accurately characterize the ALL in the anterolateral region of the knee, despite the presence of structures that might overlap and thus cause confusion when making assessments based on imaging methods. PMID:26779553

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): A review of genetic damage investigations.

    PubMed

    Vijayalaxmi; Fatahi, Mahsa; Speck, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful, non-invasive diagnostic medical imaging technique widely used to acquire detailed information about anatomy and function of different organs in the body, in both health and disease. It utilizes electromagnetic fields of three different frequency bands: static magnetic field (SMF), time-varying gradient magnetic fields (GMF) in the kHz range and pulsed radiofrequency fields (RF) in the MHz range. There have been some investigations examining the extent of genetic damage following exposure of bacterial and human cells to all three frequency bands of electromagnetic fields, as used during MRI: the rationale for these studies is the well documented evidence of positive correlation between significantly increased genetic damage and carcinogenesis. Overall, the published data were not sufficiently informative and useful because of the small sample size, inappropriate comparison of experimental groups, etc. Besides, when an increased damage was observed in MRI-exposed cells, the fate of such lesions was not further explored from multiple 'down-stream' events. This review provides: (i) information on the basic principles used in MRI technology, (ii) detailed experimental protocols, results and critical comments on the genetic damage investigations thus far conducted using MRI equipment and, (iii) a discussion on several gaps in knowledge in the current scientific literature on MRI. Comprehensive, international, multi-centered collaborative studies, using a common and widely used MRI exposure protocol (cardiac or brain scan) incorporating several genetic/epigenetic damage end-points as well as epidemiological investigations, in large number of individuals/patients are warranted to reduce and perhaps, eliminate uncertainties raised in genetic damage investigations in cells exposed in vitro and in vivo to MRI. PMID:26041266

  18. Observations of field line resonance with global auroral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, K.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-12-01

    We report results from a detailed analysis of an auroral luminosity pulsation event in the Pc 5 range associated with auroral breakup using Polar ultraviolet imager data and magnetic field observations from the ground-based CARISMA magnetometer array and in space by the GOES 8 satellite. It is found that (1) the auroral pulsation appeared predominantly at frequencies around ~0.9 mHz and ~1.8 mHz in the midnight sector centered at the onset (~2100 magnetic local time (MLT)), (2) the longitudinal extent of the auroral pulsation is wider (~12 h in MLT) for the lower-frequency mode and is much narrower for the higher-frequency mode (~3 h in MLT), (3) both auroral and ground magnetic field data show latitudinal wave amplitude and phase shift structures consistent with the field-line resonance (FLR) theory, (4) magnetic field measurements from GOES 8, which was near the onset location, also show two spectral peaks at ~0.9 mHz in the compressional component and at ~2.1 mHz in the poloidal component. It is suggested the observed Pc 5 ULF waves are FLRs produced by the onset-associated magnetic field dipolarization.

  19. Optimal design of a self shielded magnetic resonance imaging magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, M.; Vidigal, C.; Taquin, J.; Sauzade, M.

    1993-11-01

    This paper describes an optimal design of a highly homogeneous resistive coil system for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Magnetic material is used to improve field uniformity at the central region and to shield the magnet. The influence of magnetic material is calculated by using a code based on the solution of scalar and vector potentials equations. The obtained result is an axisymmetric coil configuration enveloped by iron whose optimization was made by fixing one of the criteria: the weak stray field near the magnet. It presents a great accessibility to the homogeneous area and satisfies the bore's required dimensions. Dimensions and field charts are given. Cet article prsente une configuration optimale d'un aimant rsistif trs homogne pour I.R.M. Un matriau magntique permet la fois de parfaire l'homognit au centre et de raliser le blindage de l'ensemble. les calculs ont t effectus l'aide d'un code utilisant les notions de potentiels scalaire et vecteur. Le rsultat obtenu concerne un systme de rvolution avec des cylindres de fer entourant les bobines. Conu pour un imageur corps entier, il prsente une grande accessibilit du fait de son faible encombrement en longueur. Les dimensions des diffrents lments et les cartes de champs sont prsentes.

  20. In vivo microelectrode track reconstruction using magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Fung, S.H.; Burstein, D.; Born, R.T.

    2010-01-01

    To obtain more precise anatomical information about cortical sites of microelectrode recording and microstimulation experiments in alert animals, we have developed a non-invasive, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for reconstructing microelectrode tracks. We made microelectrode penetrations in the brains of anesthetized rats and marked sites along them by depositing metal, presumably iron, with anodic monophasic or biphasic current from the tip of a stainless steel microelectrode. The metal deposits were clearly visible in the living animal as approximately 200 ?m wide hypointense punctate marks using gradient echo sequences in a 4.7T MRI scanner. We confirmed the MRI findings by comparing them directly to the postmortem histology in which the iron in the deposits could be rendered visible with a Prussian blue reaction. MRI-visible marks could be created using currents as low as 1 ?A (anodic) for 5 s, and they remained stable in the brains of living rats for up to nine months. We were able to make marks using either direct current or biphasic current pulses. Biphasic pulses caused less tissue damage and were similar to those used by many laboratories for functional microstimulation studies in the brains of alert monkeys. PMID:9667395