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1

Four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) using image-based respiratory surrogate: A feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) has been widely used in radiation therapy to assess patient-specific breathing motion for determining individual safety margins. However, it has two major drawbacks: low soft-tissue contrast and an excessive imaging dose to the patient. This research aimed to develop a clinically feasible four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) technique to overcome these limitations. Methods: The proposed 4D-MRI technique was achieved by continuously acquiring axial images throughout the breathing cycle using fast 2D cine-MR imaging, and then retrospectively sorting the images by respiratory phase. The key component of the technique was the use of body area (BA) of the axial MR images as an internal respiratory surrogate to extract the breathing signal. The validation of the BA surrogate was performed using 4D-CT images of 12 cancer patients by comparing the respiratory phases determined using the BA method to those determined clinically using the Real-time position management (RPM) system. The feasibility of the 4D-MRI technique was tested on a dynamic motion phantom, the 4D extended Cardiac Torso (XCAT) digital phantom, and two healthy human subjects. Results: Respiratory phases determined from the BA matched closely to those determined from the RPM: mean (±SD) difference in phase:??3.9% (±6.4%); mean (±SD) absolute difference in phase: 10.40% (±3.3%); mean (±SD) correlation coefficient: 0.93 (±0.04). In the motion phantom study, 4D-MRI clearly showed the sinusoidal motion of the phantom; image artifacts observed were minimal to none. Motion trajectories measured from 4D-MRI and 2D cine-MRI (used as a reference) matched excellently: the mean (±SD) absolute difference in motion amplitude:??0.3 (±0.5) mm. In the 4D-XCAT phantom study, the simulated “4D-MRIimages showed good consistency with the original 4D-XCAT phantom images. The motion trajectory of the hypothesized “tumor” matched excellently between the two, with a mean (±SD) absolute difference in motion amplitude of 0.5 (±0.4) mm. 4D-MRI was able to reveal the respiratory motion of internal organs in both human subjects; superior–inferior (SI) maximum motion of the left kidney of Subject #1 and the diaphragm of Subject #2 measured from 4D-MRI was 0.88 and 1.32 cm, respectively. Conclusions: Preliminary results of our study demonstrated the feasibility of a novel retrospective 4D-MRI technique that uses body area as a respiratory surrogate. PMID:22149822

Cai, Jing; Chang, Zheng; Wang, Zhiheng; Paul Segars, William; Yin, Fang-Fang

2011-01-01

2

Diffusion Microscopist Simulator: A General Monte Carlo Simulation System for Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

This article describes the development and application of an integrated, generalized, and efficient Monte Carlo simulation system for diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI), named Diffusion Microscopist Simulator (DMS). DMS comprises a random walk Monte Carlo simulator and an MR image synthesizer. The former has the capacity to perform large-scale simulations of Brownian dynamics in the virtual environments of neural tissues at various levels of complexity, and the latter is flexible enough to synthesize dMRI datasets from a variety of simulated MRI pulse sequences. The aims of DMS are to give insights into the link between the fundamental diffusion process in biological tissues and the features observed in dMRI, as well as to provide appropriate ground-truth information for the development, optimization, and validation of dMRI acquisition schemes for different applications. The validity, efficiency, and potential applications of DMS are evaluated through four benchmark experiments, including the simulated dMRI of white matter fibers, the multiple scattering diffusion imaging, the biophysical modeling of polar cell membranes, and the high angular resolution diffusion imaging and fiber tractography of complex fiber configurations. We expect that this novel software tool would be substantially advantageous to clarify the interrelationship between dMRI and the microscopic characteristics of brain tissues, and to advance the biophysical modeling and the dMRI methodologies. PMID:24130783

Yeh, Chun-Hung; Schmitt, Benoît; Le Bihan, Denis; Li-Schlittgen, Jing-Rebecca; Lin, Ching-Po; Poupon, Cyril

2013-01-01

3

Diffusion magnetic resonance HE MAGNETIC resonance application that the rest of this thesis will be concerned with is that  

E-print Network

4 Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging T HE MAGNETIC resonance application that the rest of this thesis will be concerned with is that of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). This chapter provides a brief description of diffusion and how it can be examined in the brain with dMRI. Mathematical

Clayden, Jonathan D.

4

A new method for joint susceptibility artefact correction and super-resolution for dMRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has become increasingly relevant in clinical research and neuroscience. It is commonly carried out using the ultra-fast MRI acquisition technique Echo-Planar Imaging (EPI). While offering crucial reduction of acquisition times, two limitations of EPI are distortions due to varying magnetic susceptibilities of the object being imaged and its limited spatial resolution. In the recent years progress has been made both for susceptibility artefact correction and increasing of spatial resolution using image processing and reconstruction methods. However, so far, the interplay between both problems has not been studied and super-resolution techniques could only be applied along one axis, the slice-select direction, limiting the potential gain in spatial resolution. In this work we describe a new method for joint susceptibility artefact correction and super-resolution in EPI-MRI that can be used to increase resolution in all three spatial dimensions and in particular increase in-plane resolutions. The key idea is to reconstruct a distortion-free, high-resolution image from a number of low-resolution EPI data that are deformed in different directions. Numerical results on dMRI data of a human brain indicate that this technique has the potential to provide for the first time in-vivo dMRI at mesoscopic spatial resolution (i.e. 500?m) a spatial resolution that could bridge the gap between white-matter information from ex-vivo histology (?1?m) and in-vivo dMRI (?2000?m).

Ruthotto, Lars; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

2014-03-01

5

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)  

MedlinePLUS

... Radiation-Emitting Products and Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Description Uses Risks/Benefits Information for ... Regulations & Performance Standards Industry Guidance Other Resources Description Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging procedure ...

6

Magnetic resonance imaging: prologue  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging is becoming an increasingly important method of diagnostic imaging. This new method can compete with computed tomography for several applications, especially those involving the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging is rapidly evolving, and several advances can be anticipated in the near future.

Jacobson, H.G.

1987-12-11

7

Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

The main disadvantage of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are its long scan times and, in consequence, its sensitivity to motion. Exploiting the complementary information from multiple receive coils, parallel imaging is able to recover images from under-sampled k-space data and to accelerate the measurement. Because parallel magnetic resonance imaging can be used to accelerate basically any imaging sequence it has many important applications. Parallel imaging brought a fundamental shift in image reconstruction: Image reconstruction changed from a simple direct Fourier transform to the solution of an ill-conditioned inverse problem. This work gives an overview of image reconstruction from the perspective of inverse problems. After introducing basic concepts such as regularization, discretization, and iterative reconstruction, advanced topics are discussed including algorithms for auto-calibration, the connection to approximation theory, and the combination with compressed sensing.

Uecker, Martin

2015-01-01

8

Magnetic resonance imaging  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a review of magnetic resonance imaging. Many topics are explored from instrumentation, spectroscopy, blood flow and sodium imaging to detailed clinical applications such as the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or adrenal adenoma. The emphasis throughout is on descriptions of normal multiplanar anatomy and pathology as displayed by MRI.

Stark, D.D.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.

1988-01-01

9

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

2013-01-01

10

Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven to be extremely versatile and useful for studying cardiac anatomy and function,\\u000a both for providing a deeper understanding of cardiac physiology and as a means to diagnose cardiac diseases. The capabilities\\u000a of MRI as a tomographic imaging modality to capture, with high spatial resolution, the anatomy of 3D structures was already\\u000a well appreciated before

Michael Jerosch-Herold; Ravi Teja Seethamraju; Carsten Rickers

11

Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson ties the preceding lessons together and brings students back to the grand challenge question on MRI safety. During this lesson, students focus on the logistics of magnetic resonance imaging as well as the MRI hardware. Students can then integrate this knowledge with their acquired knowledge on magnetic fields to solve the challenge question.

2014-09-18

12

Clinical magnetic resonance imaging  

SciTech Connect

This book presents clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging with a strong clinical orientation. Covers technique, instrumentation, and contrast agents. Describes MRI of the neck, brain, heart, spine, TMJ and orbit, chest abdomen, pelvis, and the joints. Also includes a high field atlas of the central nervous system.

Brady, T.J.; Edelman, R.R.

1988-01-01

13

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging  

SciTech Connect

A method of imaging a body by nuclear magnetic resonance wherein volume scanning of a region of the body is achieved by scanning a first planar slice of the region and at least one further slice of the region in the relaxation time for the scan of the first slice.

Young, I.R.

1984-07-03

14

Introduction Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)  

E-print Network

Introduction Statistics Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Statistics in the UK Statistics at UCL and Beyond #12;Introduction Statistics Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Statistics in the UK Statistics Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Statistics in the UK Statistics at UCL Outline Why do Statistics? Some

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

15

An Optimal Dimensionality Sampling Scheme on the Sphere for Antipodal Signals In Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

We propose a sampling scheme on the sphere and develop a corresponding spherical harmonic transform (SHT) for the accurate reconstruction of the diffusion signal in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). By exploiting the antipodal symmetry, we design a sampling scheme that requires the optimal number of samples on the sphere, equal to the degrees of freedom required to represent the antipodally symmetric band-limited diffusion signal in the spectral (spherical harmonic) domain. Compared with existing sampling schemes on the sphere that allow for the accurate reconstruction of the diffusion signal, the proposed sampling scheme reduces the number of samples required by a factor of two or more. We analyse the numerical accuracy of the proposed SHT and show through experiments that the proposed sampling allows for the accurate and rotationally invariant computation of the SHT to near machine precision accuracy.

Bates, Alice P; Kennedy, Rodney A

2015-01-01

16

Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

Pelc, Norbert

2000-03-01

17

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation Procedure What ...

18

Parallel magnetic resonance imaging: characterization and comparison  

E-print Network

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is now increasingly being used for fast imaging applications such as real-time cardiac imaging, functional brain imaging, contrast enhanced MRI, etc. Imaging speed in MRI is mainly limited by different imaging...

Rane, Swati Dnyandeo

2005-11-01

19

Magnetic resonance imaging  

SciTech Connect

The author succeeds in making the physical phenomena of MR imaging quite comprehensible. The chapters on imaging sequences and parameters and the effects of pathologic conditions on MR images are written in a way that helps the beginner. MR artifacts are discussed in a special chapter. The atlas, which makes up 60% of the book; includes a detailed imaging guide with protocols concentrating mainly on the head, neck and brain. MR imaging of the chest is discussed as well as abdomen, pelvis and hips, and the spine, breast, and knee. The book ends with a list of MR equipment manufacturers, specifications of nine major commercial MR imagers, and a glossary of MR terminology.

Elster, A.D.

1986-01-01

20

Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

Optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) provides ultrasensitive means to detect and image a small number of electron and nuclear spins, down to the single spin level with nanoscale resolution. Despite the significant recent progress in this field, it has never been combined with the power of pulsed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. Here, we demonstrate for the first time how these two methodologies can be integrated using short pulsed magnetic field gradients to spatially-encode the sample. This results in what we denote as an "optically detected magnetic resonance imaging" (ODMRI) technique. It offers the advantage that the image is acquired in parallel from all parts of the sample, with well-defined three-dimensional point-spread function, and without any loss of spectroscopic information. In addition, this approach may be used in the future for parallel but yet spatially-selective efficient addressing and manipulation of the spins in the sample. Such capabilities are of fundamental importan...

Blank, Aharon; Fischer, Ran; London, Paz; Gershoni, David

2014-01-01

21

Optically detected magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optically detected magnetic resonance provides ultrasensitive means to detect and image a small number of electron and nuclear spins, down to the single spin level with nanoscale resolution. Despite the significant recent progress in this field, it has never been combined with the power of pulsed magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Here, we demonstrate how these two methodologies can be integrated using short pulsed magnetic field gradients to spatially encode the sample. This result in what we denote as an "optically detected magnetic resonance imaging" technique. It offers the advantage that the image is acquired in parallel from all parts of the sample, with well-defined three-dimensional point-spread function, and without any loss of spectroscopic information. In addition, this approach may be used in the future for parallel but yet spatially selective efficient addressing and manipulation of the spins in the sample. Such capabilities are of fundamental importance in the field of quantum spin-based devices and sensors.

Blank, Aharon; Shapiro, Guy; Fischer, Ran; London, Paz; Gershoni, David

2015-01-01

22

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Dementias  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent studies of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in demen tia, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, idiopathic Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and vascular dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spec troscopy can detect structural alteration and biochemical abnormalities in the brain of demented subjects and may help in the differential

Yuan-Yu Hsu; An-Tao Du; Norbert Schuff; Michael W. Weiner

2001-01-01

23

Bayesian Optimization of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences  

E-print Network

Bayesian Optimization of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequences Matthias Seeger MMCI Cluster SAARLANDES Seeger (MMCI) Bayesian MRI Optimization 28 November 2008 1 / 19 #12;Outline 1 Magnetic Resonance) Bayesian MRI Optimization 28 November 2008 2 / 19 #12;Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Seeger, Matthias

24

Breast magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast MRI is becoming an important tool for the improved management of breast cancer. The technical attributes of high contrast, high-resolution breast MRI acquisitions are summarized. The fundamentals of image interpretation are outlined, including lesion enhancement, morphological features, and extent categories. The indications for breast MRI include compromised mammography, staging of disease within the breast and adjacent structures, difficult histology,

Steven E Harms

1998-01-01

25

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)  

Cancer.gov

Different tissues (including tumors) emit a more or less intense signal based on their chemical makeup, so a picture of the body organs can be displayed on a computer screen. Much like CT scans, MRI can produce three-dimensional images of sections of the body, but MRI is sometimes more sensitive than CT scans for distinguishing soft tissues.

26

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of concrete  

E-print Network

1 Magnetic Resonance Imaging of concrete Dr Chris Burgoyne Department of Engineering University of Cambridge Assessment of Concrete Structures · How can we tell what is going on inside concrete? · We would like to know:- · Has the concrete hardened? · Is there corrosion? · Is there cracking? · Where

Burgoyne, Chris

27

Low field magnetic resonance imaging  

DOEpatents

A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Sakellariou, Dimitrios (Billancourt, FR); Meriles, Carlos A. (Fort Lee, NJ); Trabesinger, Andreas H. (London, GB)

2010-07-13

28

JAMA Patient Page: Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

MedlinePLUS

... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Magnetic Resonance Imaging M agnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses magnetic fields ... of magnetic fields processed with highly sophisticated computers, MRI scans produce detailed and clear pictures of body parts. ...

29

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) During Pregnancy Play Video Clip (00:02:58) Your Radiologist Explains MRI During ... during the exam? Contrast material MRI during pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) If you are pregnant and ...

30

Interventional Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) combines excellent soft-tissue contrast, multiplanar views, and dynamic imaging of cardiac function without ionizing radiation exposure. Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) leverages these features to enhance conventional interventional procedures or to enable novel ones. Although still awaiting clinical deployment, this young field has tremendous potential. We survey promising clinical applications for iCMR. Next, we discuss the technologies that allow CMR-guided interventions and, finally, what still needs to be done to bring them to the clinic. PMID:19909937

Saikus, Christina E.; Lederman, Robert J.

2010-01-01

31

Magnetic resonance imaging of electrolysis.  

PubMed

This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research. PMID:25659942

Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

2015-01-01

32

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.  

PubMed Central

This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research. PMID:25659942

Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

2015-01-01

33

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research.

Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

2015-02-01

34

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Dementias  

PubMed Central

This article reviews recent studies of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, idiopathic Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and vascular dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect structural alteration and biochemical abnormalities in the brain of demented subjects and may help in the differential diagnosis and early detection of affected individuals, monitoring disease progression, and evaluation of therapeutic effect. PMID:11563438

Hsu, Yuan-Yu; Du, An-Tao; Schuff, Norbert; Weiner, Michael W.

2007-01-01

35

Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides structural and functional cardiovascular information with excellent soft tissue contrast. Real-time MRI can guide transcatheter cardiovascular interventions in large animal models, and may prove superior to x-ray and adjunct modalities for peripheral vascular, structural heart and cardiac electrophysiology applications. We describe technical considerations, pre-clinical work and early clinical studies in this emerging field. PMID:17662914

Raman, Venkatesh K.; Lederman, Robert J.

2008-01-01

36

Multispectral magnetic resonance image analysis.  

PubMed

Multiecho magnetic resonance (MR) scanning produces tomographic images with approximately equal morphologic information but varying gray scales at the same anatomic level. Multispectral image classification techniques, originally developed for satellite imaging, have recently been applied to MR tissue characterization. Statistical assessment of multispectral tissue classification techniques has been used to select the most promising of several alternative methods. MR examinations of the head and body, obtained with a 0.35, 0.5, or 1.5T imager, comprised data sets with at least two pulse sequences yielding three images at each anatomical level: (1) TR = 0.3 sec, TE = 30 msec, (2) TR = 1.5, TE = 30, (3) TR = 1.5, TE = 120. Normal and pathological images have been analyzed using multispectral analysis and image classification. MR image data are first subjected to radiometric and geometric corrections to reduce error resulting from (1) instrumental variations in data acquisition, (2) image noise, and (3) misregistration. Training regions of interest (ROI) are outlined in areas of normal (gray and white matter, CSF) and pathological tissue. Statistics are extracted from these ROIs and classification maps generated using table lookup, minimum distance to means, maximum likelihood, and cluster analysis. These synthetic maps are then compared pixel by pixel with manually prepared classification maps of the same MR images. Using these methods, the authors have found that: (1) both supervised and unsupervised classification techniques yielded theme maps (class maps) which demonstrated tissue characteristic signatures and (2) tissue classification errors found in computer-generated theme maps were due to subtle gray scale changes present in the original MR data sets arising from radiometric inhomogeneity and spatial nonuniformity. PMID:3691157

Vannier, M W; Butterfield, R L; Rickman, D L; Jordan, D M; Murphy, W A; Biondetti, P R

1987-01-01

37

Magnetic resonance imaging: Principles and applications  

SciTech Connect

This text covers the physics underlying magnetic resonance (MR) imaging; pulse sequences; image production; equipment; aspects of clinical imaging; and the imaging of the head and neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, and musculoskeletal system; and MR imaging. The book provides about 150 examples of MR images that give an overview of the pathologic conditions imaged. There is a discussion of the physics of MR imaging and also on the spin echo.

Kean, D.; Smith, M.

1986-01-01

38

Artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging and foreign bodies within the patient's body may be confused with a pathology or may reduce the quality of examinations. Radiologists are frequently not informed about the medical history of patients and face postoperative/other images they are not familiar with. A gallery of such images was presented in this manuscript. A truncation artifact in the spinal cord could be misinterpreted as a syrinx. Motion artifacts caused by breathing, cardiac movement, CSF pulsation/blood flow create a ghost artifact which can be reduced by patient immobilization, or cardiac/respiratory gating. Aliasing artifacts can be eliminated by increasing the field of view. An artificially hyperintense signal on FLAIR images can result from magnetic susceptibility artifacts, CSF/vascular pulsation, motion, but can also be found in patients undergoing MRI examinations while receiving supplemental oxygen. Metallic and other foreign bodies which may be found on and in patients' bodies are the main group of artifacts and these are the focus of this study: e.g. make-up, tattoos, hairbands, clothes, endovascular embolization, prostheses, surgical clips, intraorbital and other medical implants, etc. Knowledge of different types of artifacts and their origin, and of possible foreign bodies is necessary to eliminate them or to reduce their negative influence on MR images by adjusting acquisition parameters. It is also necessary to take them into consideration when interpreting the images. Some proposals of reducing artifacts have been mentioned. Describing in detail the procedures to avoid or limit the artifacts would go beyond the scope of this paper but technical ways to reduce them can be found in the cited literature. PMID:25745524

Krupa, Katarzyna; Bekiesi?ska-Figatowska, Monika

2015-01-01

39

Artifacts in Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Summary Artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging and foreign bodies within the patient’s body may be confused with a pathology or may reduce the quality of examinations. Radiologists are frequently not informed about the medical history of patients and face postoperative/other images they are not familiar with. A gallery of such images was presented in this manuscript. A truncation artifact in the spinal cord could be misinterpreted as a syrinx. Motion artifacts caused by breathing, cardiac movement, CSF pulsation/blood flow create a ghost artifact which can be reduced by patient immobilization, or cardiac/respiratory gating. Aliasing artifacts can be eliminated by increasing the field of view. An artificially hyperintense signal on FLAIR images can result from magnetic susceptibility artifacts, CSF/vascular pulsation, motion, but can also be found in patients undergoing MRI examinations while receiving supplemental oxygen. Metallic and other foreign bodies which may be found on and in patients’ bodies are the main group of artifacts and these are the focus of this study: e.g. make-up, tattoos, hairbands, clothes, endovascular embolization, prostheses, surgical clips, intraorbital and other medical implants, etc. Knowledge of different types of artifacts and their origin, and of possible foreign bodies is necessary to eliminate them or to reduce their negative influence on MR images by adjusting acquisition parameters. It is also necessary to take them into consideration when interpreting the images. Some proposals of reducing artifacts have been mentioned. Describing in detail the procedures to avoid or limit the artifacts would go beyond the scope of this paper but technical ways to reduce them can be found in the cited literature.

Krupa, Katarzyna; Bekiesi?ska-Figatowska, Monika

2015-01-01

40

Investigating the capability to resolve complex white matter structures with high b-value diffusion magnetic resonance imaging on the MGH-USC Connectom scanner.  

PubMed

One of the major goals of the NIH Blueprint Human Connectome Project was to map and quantify the white matter connections in the brain using diffusion tractography. Given the prevalence of complex white matter structures, the capability of resolving local white matter geometries with multiple crossings in the diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data is critical. Increasing b-value has been suggested for delineation of the finer details of the orientation distribution function (ODF). Although increased gradient strength and duration increase sensitivity to highly restricted intra-axonal water, gradient strength limitations require longer echo times (TE) to accommodate the increased diffusion encoding times needed to achieve a higher b-value, exponentially lowering the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquisition. To mitigate this effect, the MGH-USC Connectom scanner was built with 300 mT/m gradients, which can significantly reduce the TE of high b-value diffusion imaging. Here we report comparisons performed across b-values based on q-ball ODF metrics to investigate whether high b-value diffusion imaging on the Connectom scanner can improve resolving complex white matter structures. The q-ball ODF features became sharper as the b-value increased, with increased power fraction in higher order spherical harmonic series of the ODF and increased peak heights relative to the overall size of the ODF. Crossing structures were detected in an increasingly larger fraction of white matter voxels and the spatial distribution of two-way and three-way crossing structures was largely consistent with known anatomy. Results indicate that dMRI with high diffusion encoding on the Connectom system is a promising tool to better characterize, and ultimately understand, the underlying structural organization and motifs in the human brain. PMID:25287963

Fan, Qiuyun; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Witzel, Thomas; Zanzonico, Roberta; Keil, Boris; Cauley, Stephen; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Tisdall, Dylan; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Buckner, Randy L; Wedeen, Van J; Rosen, Bruce R; Wald, Lawrence L

2014-11-01

41

Prenatal Imaging: Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development held a workshop on September 18–19, 2006, to summarize the available evidence on the role and performance of current fetal imaging technology and to establish a research agenda. Ultrasonography is the imaging modality of choice for pregnancy evaluation due to its relatively low cost, real-time capability, safety, and operator comfort and experience. First-trimester ultrasonography extends the available window for fetal observation and raises the possibility of performing an early anatomic survey. Three-dimensional ultrasonography has the potential to expand the clinical application of ultrasonography by permitting local acquisition of volumes and remote review and interpretation at specialized centers. New advances allow performance of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without maternal or fetal sedation, with improved characterization and prediction of prognosis of certain fetal central nervous system anomalies such as ventriculomegaly when compared with ultrasonography. Fewer data exist on the usefulness of fetal MRI for non–central nervous system anomalies. PMID:18591320

Reddy, Uma M.; Filly, Roy A.; Copel, Joshua A.

2009-01-01

42

Advanced and delayed images through an image resonator.  

PubMed

We performed optical image propagation experiments in an image resonator consisting of a Fabry-Perot resonator in reflection geometry. Two-dimensional images encoded on optical pulses of 32ns were stored, and either advanced, -6.0ns, or delayed, 10.9ns, using the dispersion relation relevant to the image resonator, in the under- or over- coupling condition, respectively. The overall images are propagated through the resonator clearly, while the diffraction effects were analyzed both in real-space and in k-space. PMID:20588386

Tomita, Makoto; Sultana, Parvin; Takami, Akira; Matsumoto, Takahiro

2010-06-01

43

Pocket atlas of cranial magnetic resonance imaging  

SciTech Connect

This atlas illustrates normal cerebral anatomy in magnetic resonance images. From their studies in cerebral anatomy utilizing cryomicrotome and other techniques, the authors selected more than 100 high-resolution images that represent the most clinically useful scans.

Haughton, V.M.; Daniels, D.L.

1986-01-01

44

Manual of clinical magnetic resonance imaging  

SciTech Connect

This work is a guide to conducting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. The manual presents specific imaging protocols for various MRI examinations of the body. An introductory section describes the physical principles and techniques of magnetic resonance imaging and describes the most commonly encountered artifacts. Guidelines are offered for selecting imaging protocols and conducting examinations of the head, spine, neck, chest, cardiovascular system, abdomen, pelvis, musculoskeletal system, and breast.

Heiken, J.P.; Glazer, H.S.; Lee, J.K.T.; Murphy, W.A.; Gado, M.

1986-01-01

45

Spread spectrum magnetic resonance imaging  

E-print Network

We propose a novel compressed sensing technique to accelerate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition process. The method, coined spread spectrum MRI or simply s2MRI, consists of pre-modulating the signal of interest by a linear chirp before random k-space under-sampling, and then reconstructing the signal with non-linear algorithms that promote sparsity. The effectiveness of the procedure is theoretically underpinned by the optimization of the coherence between the sparsity and sensing bases. The proposed technique is thoroughly studied by means of numerical simulations, as well as phantom and in vivo experiments on a 7T scanner. Our results suggest that s2MRI performs better than state-of-the-art variable density k-space under-sampling approaches

Puy, Gilles; Gruetter, Rolf; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Wiaux, Yves; 10.1109/TMI.2011.2173698

2012-01-01

46

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Angiography of Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in 16 patients with vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD). Five patients had compressive cranial nerve deficits and 11 patients presented with transient or permanent ischemic deficits related to the vertebrobasilar system. VBD did not present with distinct clinical findings and no clear correlation between basilar artery ectasia and the presence of

Franz T. Aichner; Stephan R. Felber; Günther G. Birbamer; Andrea Posch

1993-01-01

47

Magnetic resonance imaging of radiation optic neuropathy  

SciTech Connect

Three patients with delayed radiation optic neuropathy after radiation therapy for parasellar neoplasms underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The affected optic nerves and chiasms showed enlargement and focal gadopentetate dimeglumine enhancement. The magnetic resonance imaging technique effectively detected and defined anterior visual pathway changes of radionecrosis and excluded the clinical possibility of visual loss because of tumor recurrence.

Zimmerman, C.F.; Schatz, N.J.; Glaser, J.S. (Univ. of Miami, FL (USA))

1990-10-15

48

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pediatric Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.…

Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew

2008-01-01

49

76 FR 58281 - Magnetic Resonance Imaging Safety; Public Workshop  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0640] Magnetic Resonance Imaging Safety; Public Workshop...announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Public...discuss factors affecting the safe use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and...

2011-09-20

50

Imaging agents for in vivo magnetic resonance and scintigraphic imaging  

DOEpatents

Methods are provided for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and/or scintigraphic imaging of a subject using chelated transition metal and lanthanide metal complexes. Novel ligands for these complexes are provided. No Drawings

Engelstad, B.L.; Raymond, K.N.; Huberty, J.P.; White, D.L.

1991-04-23

51

Imaging agents for in vivo magnetic resonance and scintigraphic imaging  

DOEpatents

Methods are provided for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and/or scintigraphic imaging of a subject using chelated transition metal and lanthanide metal complexes. Novel ligands for these complexes are provided.

Engelstad, Barry L. (Orinda, CA); Raymond, Kenneth N. (Berkeley, CA); Huberty, John P. (Corte Madera, CA); White, David L. (Oakland, CA)

1991-01-01

52

Stepped Impedance Resonators for High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) multi-element transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections referred to as stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) is investigated. Single element simulation results in free space and in a phantom at 7 tesla (298 MHz) demonstrate the rationale and feasibility of the SIR design strategy. Simulation and image results at 7 tesla in a phantom and human head illustrate the improvements in transmit magnetic field, as well as, RF efficiency (transmit magnetic field versus SAR) when two different SIR designs are incorporated in 8-element volume coil configurations and compared to a volume coil consisting of microstrip elements. PMID:23508243

Akgun, Can E.; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J.; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J. Thomas

2014-01-01

53

Magnetic resonance imaging in cardiovascular disease   

E-print Network

Background Superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIO) are part of a novel and exciting class of ‘smart’ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents that are taken up by inflammatory cells. Ultrasmall SPIO ...

Richards, Jennifer Margaret Jane

2013-07-06

54

Coronary Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Cardiac computed tomography and magnetic resonance are relatively new imaging modalities that can exceed the ability of established imaging modalities to detect present pathology or predict patient outcomes. Coronary calcium scoring may be useful in asymptomatic patients at intermediate risk. Computed tomographic coronary angiography is a first-line indication to evaluate congenitally abnormal coronary arteries and, along with stress magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging, is useful in symptomatic patients with nondiagnostic conventional stress tests. Cardiac magnetic resonance is indicated for visualizing cardiac structure and function, and delayed enhancement magnetic resonance is a first-line indication for assessing myocardial viability. Imaging plaque and molecular mechanisms related to plaque rupture holds great promise for the presymptomatic detection of patients at risk for coronary events but is not yet suitable for routine clinical use. PMID:19269527

Kantor, Birgit; Nagel, Eike; Schoenhagen, Paul; Barkhausen, Jörg; Gerber, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

55

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth > Parents > Cancer Center > Diagnostic Tests > Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation Procedure What to Expect ...

56

PANDA: a pipeline toolbox for analyzing brain diffusion images  

PubMed Central

Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is widely used in both scientific research and clinical practice in in-vivo studies of the human brain. While a number of post-processing packages have been developed, fully automated processing of dMRI datasets remains challenging. Here, we developed a MATLAB toolbox named “Pipeline for Analyzing braiN Diffusion imAges” (PANDA) for fully automated processing of brain diffusion images. The processing modules of a few established packages, including FMRIB Software Library (FSL), Pipeline System for Octave and Matlab (PSOM), Diffusion Toolkit and MRIcron, were employed in PANDA. Using any number of raw dMRI datasets from different subjects, in either DICOM or NIfTI format, PANDA can automatically perform a series of steps to process DICOM/NIfTI to diffusion metrics [e.g., fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD)] that are ready for statistical analysis at the voxel-level, the atlas-level and the Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS)-level and can finish the construction of anatomical brain networks for all subjects. In particular, PANDA can process different subjects in parallel, using multiple cores either in a single computer or in a distributed computing environment, thus greatly reducing the time cost when dealing with a large number of datasets. In addition, PANDA has a friendly graphical user interface (GUI), allowing the user to be interactive and to adjust the input/output settings, as well as the processing parameters. As an open-source package, PANDA is freely available at http://www.nitrc.org/projects/panda/. This novel toolbox is expected to substantially simplify the image processing of dMRI datasets and facilitate human structural connectome studies. PMID:23439846

Cui, Zaixu; Zhong, Suyu; Xu, Pengfei; He, Yong; Gong, Gaolang

2013-01-01

57

Hosted by Yalin Wang Methods in Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

Hosted by Yalin Wang Methods in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abstract: Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM), and served on the ISMRM Board of Trustees and chaired their 20th Resonance Imaging and on the editorial boards of the journal Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. Dr. Pipe

Reisslein, Martin

58

Thomas T. Liu Center for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

Thomas T. Liu Center for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging University of California, San Diego Engineering, Stanford University 1999-2001 Postgraduate Researcher, Magnetic Resonance Physics Group for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2007-Present Associate Professor of Radiology and Bioengineering

California at San Diego, University of

59

Thomas T. Liu Center for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

Thomas T. Liu Center for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging University of California, San Diego Engineering, Stanford University 1999-2001 Postgraduate Researcher, Magnetic Resonance Physics Group for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2007-Present Associate Professor (with Tenure) of Radiology

California at San Diego, University of

60

Approach to breast magnetic resonance imaging interpretation.  

PubMed

With the increasing use of breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging comes the expectation that the breast radiologist is as fluent in its interpretation as in that of mammography and breast ultrasonography. Knowledge of who should be included for imaging and how to perform the imaging are as essential as interpreting the images. When reading the examination, the radiologist should approach the images from both a global and focused perspective, synthesizing findings into a report that includes a management plan. This article reviews a systematic and organized approach to breast MR imaging interpretation. PMID:24792657

Palestrant, Sarah; Comstock, Christopher E; Moy, Linda

2014-05-01

61

Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a set of simple, inexpensive, classical demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles that illustrate the resonance condition associated with magnetic dipoles and the dependence of the resonance frequency on environment. (WRM)

Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Landis, Clark R.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.

2000-01-01

62

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Elbow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elbow injuries are common, especially in the athlete, and can be basically classified into acute or chronic injuries. The\\u000a following discussion of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the elbow will address variations in normal anatomy that represent\\u000a pitfalls in imaging diagnosis, and commonly encountered osseous and soft-tissue pathology.

C. Chung; L. Steinbach

63

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Postoperative Meniscus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging of the postoperative meniscus is a challenge. Nevertheless, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the symptomatic knee after meniscal surgery is a valuable diagnostic study of both the menisci and the entire joint. At present, symptomatic patients who have had partial meniscectomy of less than 25% may be evaluated by MRI. For those with partial meniscectomy of greater than 25%

Kennan Vance; Richard Meredick; Mark E. Schweitzer; James H. Lubowitz

2009-01-01

64

Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

2008-01-01

65

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guidance for Tumor Ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1980s, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been added to ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) as a\\u000a cross-sectional imaging tool that can be used to guide the interventional diagnosis and treatment of a variety of disorders.\\u000a Due to its superior soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capabilities, lack of ionizing radiation, and, most importantly, ability\\u000a to image tissue function

Koenraad J. Mortele; Stuart G. Silverman; Vito Cantisani; Kemal Tuncali; Sridhar Shankar; Eric vanSonnenberg

66

Magnetic resonance imaging strategies for heart studies  

SciTech Connect

Given a suitable trigger signal, cardiac synchronized magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is simple to implement; however, single section techniques are not efficacious, especially when the heart rate sets the repetition interval. We demonstrate multi-section, double, and single-echo imaging, any of which rapidly covers the cardiac volume; 3-D modes capable of achieving very thin sections; and cycled multi-section imaging capable of efficaciously providing dynamic data on heart motion.

Crooks, L.E.; Barker, B.; Chang, H.; Feinberg, D.; Hoenninger, J.C.; Watts, J.C.; Arakawa, M.; Kaufman, L.; Sheldon, P.E.; Botvinick, E.

1984-11-01

67

Pharmaceutical applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful imaging modality that provides internal images of materials and living organisms on a microscopic and macroscopic scale. It is non-invasive and non-destructive, and one of very few techniques that can observe internal events inside undisturbed specimens in situ. It is versatile, as a wide range of NMR modalities can be accessed, and 2D

J. Craig Richardson; Richard W. Bowtell; Karsten Mäder; Colin D. Melia

2005-01-01

68

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Acute Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the investigation of ischemic stroke, conventional structural magnetic resonance (MR) techniques (e.g., T1-weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, and proton density-weighted imaging) are valuable for the assessment of infarct extent and location beyond the first 12 to 24 hours after onset, and can be combined with MR angiography to noninvasively assess the intracranial and extracranial vasculature. However, during the critical first

Alison E. Baird; Steven Warach

1998-01-01

69

Musculoskeletal applications of magnetic resonance imaging: Council on Scientific Affairs  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging provides superior contrast, resolution, and multiplanar imaging capability, allowing excellent definition of soft-tissue and bone marrow abnormalities. For these reasons, magnetic resonance imaging has become a major diagnostic imaging method for the evaluation of many musculoskeletal disorders. The applications of magnetic resonance imaging for musculoskeletal diagnosis are summarized and examples of common clinical situations are given. General guidelines are suggested for the musculoskeletal applications of magnetic resonance imaging.

Harms, S.E.; Fisher, C.F.; Fulmer, J.M. (American Medical Association, Chicago, IL (USA))

1989-11-03

70

Choledochocele: diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is demonstrated in a\\u000a case of a 22-year-old female with a small choledochocele clinically presenting with acute cholecystitis and pancreatitis.\\u000a Previous abdominal sonography and computed tomography were not diagnostic. MRI and MRCP showed a cystic dilatation of the\\u000a distal common bile duct, intramurally located in the second portion

A. I. De Backer; K. Van den Abbeele; A. M. De Schepper; A. Van Baarle

2000-01-01

71

Spin echo magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

The spin echo sequence is a fundamental pulse sequence in MRI. Many of today's applications in routine clinical use are based on this elementary sequence. In this review article, the principles of the spin echo formation are demonstrated on which the generation of the fundamental image contrasts T1, T2, and proton density is based. The basic imaging parameters repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE) and their influence on the image contrast are explained. Important properties such as the behavior in multi-slice imaging or in the presence of flow are depicted and the basic differences with gradient echo imaging are illustrated. The characteristics of the spin echo sequence for different magnetic field strengths with respect to clinical applications are discussed. PMID:23526758

Jung, Bernd André; Weigel, Matthias

2013-04-01

72

Granular convection observed by magnetic resonance imaging  

SciTech Connect

Vibrations in a granular material can spontaneously produce convection rolls reminiscent of those seen in fluids. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a sensitive and noninvasive probe for the detection of these convection currents, which have otherwise been difficult to observe. A magnetic resonance imaging study of convection in a column of poppy seeds yielded data about the detailed shape of the convection rolls and the depth dependence of the convection velocity. The velocity was found to decrease exponentially with depth; a simple model for this behavior is presented here. 31 refs., 4 figs.

Ehrichs, E.E.; Jaeger, H.M.; Knight, J.B.; Nagel, S.R.; Karczmar, G.S.; Kuperman, V.Yu. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-03-17

73

Granular convection observed by magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrations in a granular material can spontaneously produce convection rolls reminiscent of those seen in fluids. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a sensitive and noninvasive probe for the detection of these convection currents, which have otherwise been difficult to observe. A magnetic resonance imaging study of convection in a column of poppy seeds yielded data about the detailed shape of the convection rolls and the depth dependence of the convection velocity. The velocity was found to decrease exponentially with depth; a simple model for this behavior is presented here.

Ehrichs, E. E.; Jaeger, H. M.; Karczmar, Greg S.; Knight, James B.; Kuperman, Vadim Yu.; Nagel, Sidney R.

1995-03-01

74

Review: Magnetic resonance imaging techniques in ophthalmology  

PubMed Central

Imaging the eye with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved difficult due to the eye’s propensity to move involuntarily over typical imaging timescales, obscuring the fine structure in the eye due to the resulting motion artifacts. However, advances in MRI technology help to mitigate such drawbacks, enabling the acquisition of high spatiotemporal resolution images with a variety of contrast mechanisms. This review aims to classify the MRI techniques used to date in clinical and preclinical ophthalmologic studies, describing the qualitative and quantitative information that may be extracted and how this may inform on ocular pathophysiology. PMID:23112569

Fagan, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

75

Adaptive Fuzzy Segmentation of Magnetic Resonance Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is presented for the fuzzy segmentation of two and three-dimensionalmultispectral magnetic resonance (MR) images that have been corrupted by intensity inhomogeneities,also known as shading artifacts. The algorithm is an extension of the two-dimensionaladaptive fuzzy C-means algorithm (2-D AFCM) presented in previous work by the authors. Thisalgorithm models the intensity inhomogeneities as a gain field that causes image intensities

Dzung L. Pham; Jerry L. Prince

1999-01-01

76

Magnetic resonance imaging in radiotherapy treatment planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

From its inception in the early 1970's up to the present, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved into a sophisticated technique, which has aroused considerable interest in var-\\u000aious subelds of medicine including radiotherapy. MRI is capable of imaging in any plane\\u000aand does not use ionizing radiation by virtue of which MRI lends itself admirably to the\\u000apurpose of

Marinus Adriaan Moerland

1996-01-01

77

Magnetic resonance imaging in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MR imaging has experienced an important growth worldwide and in particular in the USA and Japan. This imaging technique has also shown an important rise in the number of MR imagers in Mexico. However, the development of MRI has followed a typical way of Latin American countries, which is very different from the path shown in the industrialised countries. Despite the fact that Mexico was one the very first countries to install and operate MR imagers in the world, it still lacks of qualified clinical and technical personnel. Since the first MR scanner started to operate, the number of units has grown at a moderate space that now sums up approximately 60 system installed nationwide. Nevertheless, there are no official records of the number of MR units operating, physicians and technicians involved in this imaging modality. The MRI market is dominated by two important companies: General Electric (approximately 51%) and Siemens (approximately 17.5%), the rest is shared by other five companies. According to the field intensity, medium-field systems (0.5 Tesla) represent 60% while a further 35% are 1.0 T or higher. Almost all of these units are in private hospitals and clinics: there is no high-field MR imagers in any public hospital. Because the political changes in the country, a new public plan for health care is still in the process and will be published soon this year. This plan will be determined by the new Congress. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and president Fox. Experience acquired in the past shows that the demand for qualified professionals will grow in the new future. Therefore, systematic training of clinical and technical professionals will be in high demand to meet the needs of this technique. The National University (UNAM) and the Metropolitan University (UAM-Iztapalapa) are collaborating with diverse clinical groups in private facilities to create a systematic training program and carry out research and development in MRI

Rodriguez, A. O.; Rojas, R.; Barrios, F. A.

2001-10-01

78

Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an accepted non invasive modality for evaluation of soft tissue pathology without exposure to ionizing radiation. Current appli cations demonstrate excellent visualization of the anat omy and pathology of various organs. Preliminary stud ies in the knee reveal fine resolution of anatomy and pathology involving the meniscus. The purpose of this study is to determine

D. W. Jackson; L. D. Jennings; R. M. Maywood; P. E. Berger

1988-01-01

79

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pain Consciousness  

E-print Network

clinical pain states can be studied. Preliminary results are shown in patients suffering from chronicFunctional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pain Consciousness: Cortical Networks of Pain Critically Depend on What is Implied by "Pain" A. Vania Apkarian, PhD Address SUNY Health Science Center, Department

Apkarian, A. Vania

80

Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

2010-01-01

81

Cine magnetic resonance imaging of aqueductal stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral aqueductal stenosis is one of the most common causes of congenital and acquired hydrocephalus, but the etiology, pathophysiology and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics of aqueductal stenosis have yet to be clarified. Utilizing cardiac gated cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, we evaluated aqueductal configuration and pulsatile motion of brain and CSF flow stimulated by cardiac pulsation in five patients with

Chikafusa Kadowaki; Mitsuhiro Hara; Mitsuo Numoto; Kazuo Takeuchi; Isamu Saito

1995-01-01

82

The diabetic foot: magnetic resonance imaging evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen diabetic patients with suspected foot infection and\\/or neuropathic joint (Charcot Joint) were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an attempt to assess the extent of the infection and also to distinguish infection from the changes seen with neuroarthropathy. The majority of patients with infection had more than one site of involvement and the following diagnoses were made by

Javier Beltran; D. Scott Campanini; Charles Knight; Melinda McCalla

1990-01-01

83

Magnetic resonance imaging in motor neuron disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was evaluated in 20 patients with motor neuron disease (MND) and in a control group of 11 healthy people. Bilateral increased signal areas of various sizes in the centrum semiovale, corona radiata, internal capsule, pedunculi of midbrain, pons, medulla and even in the frontal lobe, topographically related with the corticospinal tract, were found

M. L. Sales Luís; A. Hormigo; C. Maurício; M. M. Alves; R. Serrão

1990-01-01

84

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) of the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) can provide detailed images of human brain that reflect localized changes in cerebral blood flow and oxygenation induced by sensory, motor, or cognitive tasks. This review presents methods for gradient-recalled echo-planar functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Also included is a discussion of the hypothesized basis of FMRI, imaging hardware, a unique visual stimulation apparatus, image

Edgar A. DeYoe; Peter Bandettini; Jay Neitz; David Miller; Paula Winans

1994-01-01

85

Magnetic resonance imaging of knee cartilage repair.  

PubMed

Cartilage injury resulting in osteoarthritis is a frequent cause of disability in young people. Osteoarthritis, based on either cartilage injury or degeneration, is a leading cause of disability in the United States. Over the last several decades, much progress has been made in understanding cartilage injury and repair. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, with its unique ability to noninvasively image and characterize soft tissue, has shown promise in assessment of cartilage integrity. In addition to standard MR imaging methods, MR imaging contrast mechanisms under development may reveal detailed information regarding the physiology and morphology of cartilage. MR imaging will play a crucial role in assessing the success or failure of therapies for cartilage injury and degeneration. PMID:9894740

Gold, G E; Bergman, A G; Pauly, J M; Lang, P; Butts, R K; Beaulieu, C F; Hargreaves, B; Frank, L; Boutin, R D; Macovski, A; Resnick, D

1998-12-01

86

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Charles L. Epstein and Felix W. Wehrli  

E-print Network

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Charles L. Epstein and Felix W. Wehrli June 3, 2005 1 Introduction Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a subtle quantum mechanical phenomenon that, through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has played a major role in the revolution in medical imaging over the last 30 years

87

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Function and Neurochemistry  

E-print Network

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Function and Neurochemistry KAMIL UGURBIL, DAE-SHIK KIM, TIM ANDERSEN, AND GREGOR ADRIANY Invited Paper In the past decade, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research approaches to map brain function. This capability, often referred to as functional magnetic resonance imaging

Duong, Timothy Q.

88

A Scalable Framework For Segmenting Magnetic Resonance Images  

E-print Network

A Scalable Framework For Segmenting Magnetic Resonance Images Prodip Hore, Lawrence O. Hall, Dmitry, accurate and fully automatic method of segmenting magnetic resonance images of the human brain a framework for auto- matically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the human brain. The framework

Hall, Lawrence O.

89

Ferromagnetic resonance imaging of Co films using magnetic resonance force microscopy  

E-print Network

Ferromagnetic resonance imaging of Co films using magnetic resonance force microscopy B. J. Suh, P of microscopic ferromagnetic resonance FMR detected using the magnetic resonance force microscope MRFM of structural and magnetic properties of materials. The mag- netic resonance force microscope MRFM can

Hammel, P. Chris

90

Magnetic Resonance Image Example Based Contrast Synthesis  

PubMed Central

The performance of image analysis algorithms applied to magnetic resonance images is strongly influenced by the pulse sequences used to acquire the images. Algorithms are typically optimized for a targeted tissue contrast obtained from a particular implementation of a pulse sequence on a specific scanner. There are many practical situations, including multi-institution trials, rapid emergency scans, and scientific use of historical data, where the images are not acquired according to an optimal protocol or the desired tissue contrast is entirely missing. This paper introduces an image restoration technique that recovers images with both the desired tissue contrast and a normalized intensity profile. This is done using patches in the acquired images and an atlas containing patches of the acquired and desired tissue contrasts. The method is an example-based approach relying on sparse reconstruction from image patches. Its performance in demonstrated using several examples, including image intensity normalization, missing tissue contrast recovery, automatic segmentation, and multimodal registration. These examples demonstrate potential practical uses and also illustrate limitations of our approach. PMID:24058022

Roy, Snehashis; Carass, Aaron; Prince, Jerry L.

2013-01-01

91

Magnetic resonance imaging of pancreatitis: An update  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and staging of acute and chronic pancreatitis and may represent the best imaging technique in the setting of pancreatitis due to its unmatched soft tissue contrast resolution as well as non-ionizing nature and higher safety profile of intravascular contrast media, making it particularly valuable in radiosensitive populations such as pregnant patients, and patients with recurrent pancreatitis requiring multiple follow-up examinations. Additional advantages include the ability to detect early forms of chronic pancreatitis and to better differentiate adenocarcinoma from focal chronic pancreatitis. This review addresses new trends in clinical pancreatic MR imaging emphasizing its role in imaging all types of acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatitis complications and other important differential diagnoses that mimic pancreatitis. PMID:25356038

Manikkavasakar, Sriluxayini; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Busireddy, Kiran K; Ramalho, Miguel; Nilmini, Viragi; Alagiyawanna, Madhavi; Semelka, Richard C

2014-01-01

92

In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past year the Woodlands Baylor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facility became fully operational. A detailed description of this facility is given. One significant instrument addition this year was the 100 MHz, 40cm bore superconducting imaging spectrometer. This instrument gives researchers the capability to acquire high energy phosphate spectra. This will be used to investigate ATP, phosphocreatinine and inorganic phosphate changes in normal and atrophied muscle before, during and after exercise. An exercise device for use within the bore of the imaging magnet is under design/construction. The results of a study of T sub 1 and T sub 2 changes in atrophied muscle in animals and human subjects are given. The imaging and analysis of the lower leg of 15 research subjects before and after 5 weeks of complete bedrest was completed. A compilation of these results are attached.

Leblanc, A.

1986-01-01

93

Exploring brain function with magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its invention in the early 1990s, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has rapidly assumed a leading role among the techniques used to localize brain activity. The spatial and temporal resolution provided by state-of-the-art MR technology and its non-invasive character, which allows multiple studies of the same subject, are some of the main advantages of fMRI over the other functional

F. Di Salle; E. Formisano; D. E. J. Linden; R. Goebel; S. Bonavita; A. Pepino; F. Smaltino; G. Tedeschi

1999-01-01

94

New magnetic resonance imaging methods in nephrology  

PubMed Central

Established as a method to study anatomic changes, such as renal tumors or atherosclerotic vascular disease, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to interrogate renal function has only recently begun to come of age. In this review, we briefly introduce some of the most important MRI techniques for renal functional imaging, and then review current findings on their use for diagnosis and monitoring of major kidney diseases. Specific applications include renovascular disease, diabetic nephropathy, renal transplants, renal masses, acute kidney injury and pediatric anomalies. With this review, we hope to encourage more collaboration between nephrologists and radiologists to accelerate the development and application of modern MRI tools in nephrology clinics. PMID:24067433

Zhang, Jeff L.; Morrell, Glen; Rusinek, Henry; Sigmund, Eric; Chandarana, Hersh; Lerman, Lilach O.; Prasad, Pottumarthi Vara; Niles, David; Artz, Nathan; Fain, Sean; Vivier, Pierre H.; Cheung, Alfred K.; Lee, Vivian S.

2013-01-01

95

Magnetic resonance imaging: present and future applications  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has created considerable excitement in the medical community, largely because of its great potential to diagnose and characterize many different disease processes. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that, because MR imaging is similar to computed tomography (CT) scanning in identifying structural disorders and because it is more costly and difficult to use, this highly useful technique must be judged against CT before it can become an accepted investigative tool. At present MR imaging has demonstrated diagnostic superiority over CT in a limited number of important, mostly neurologic, disorders and is complementary to CT in the diagnosis of certain other disorders. For most of the remaining organ systems its usefulness is not clear, but the lack of ionizing radiation and MR's ability to produce images in any tomographic plane may eventually prove to be advantageous. The potential of MR imaging to display in-vivo spectra, multinuclear images and blood-flow data makes it an exciting investigative technique. At present, however, MR imaging units should be installed only in medical centres equipped with the clinical and basic research facilities that are essential to evaluate the ultimate role of this technique in the care of patients. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:3884120

Johnston, Donald L.; Liu, Peter; Wismer, Gary L.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Stark, David D.; New, Paul F.J.; Okada, Robert D.; Brady, Thomas J.

1985-01-01

96

Rhinopharyngoscopy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Rhinitis is defined as nasal congestion, sneezing, itching and rhinorrhoea, recently classified as allergic, infective, structural or "other". The increasing employment of flexible rhynolaringoscopy may represent one of the most useful diagnostic tools in the complex differential diagnosis between allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. Furthermore, chronic allergic rhinitis, with secondary impairment of mucociliary clearance and the plethora of frequent anatomical variations, especially in the ostiomeatal complex, appear to predispose the patient to recurrent rhinosinusitis. In the last two decades, a better understanding of mucociliary clearance of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses has shifted the attention from the maxillary sinuses to the area of the antherior ethmoid sinuses. Plain film radiographic examination, the historical standard, due to its inability to individualize ethmoid and sphenoid disease, is being rapidly supplanted by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of rhinosinusitis. In allergic and non-allergic rhinitis the diagnostic role of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography is still under debate. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are more efficient in demonstrating the bone wall, mucosal layer and sinus content than classical and computerized radiology; they have a higher diagnostic performance index in spite of a higher cost and, for computed tomography, a higher radiation dose. PMID:9188945

Bonifazi, F; Bilò, M B; Antonicelli, L; Bonetti, M G

1997-01-01

97

Gastrointestinal imaging-practical magnetic resonance imaging approach  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades, advances in cross-sectional imaging such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have dramatically changed the concept of gastrointestinal imaging. MR is playing an increasing role in the evaluation of gastrointestinal disorders. MRI combines the advantages of excellent soft-tissue contrast, noninvasiveness, functional information and lack of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, recent developments of MRI have led to improved spatial and temporal resolution as well as decreased motion artifacts. In this article we describe the technical aspects of gastrointestinal MRI and present a practical approach for a well-known spectrum of gastrointestinal disease processes. PMID:25170393

Liu, Baodong; Ramalho, Miguel; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Busireddy, Kiran K; Altun, Ersan; Kalubowila, Janaka; Semelka, Richard C

2014-01-01

98

Magnetic resonance imaging of triangular fibrocartilage.  

PubMed

Due to their small size and complex structure, diagnosing injury of the proximal wrist ligamentous structures can be challenging. The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is an example of one such structure, for which lesions may be missed unless high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained via a standard matrix with a small field of view or high-resolution imaging matrix (small spatial scale matrix elements/large matrix size) is utilized. While there have been recent advances in increasing MRI spatial resolution, attempts at improved visualization by isolated increase in the spatial resolution will be ineffective if the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the images obtained is low. Additionally, high contrast resolution is important to facilitate a more precise visualization of these structures and their pathology. Thus, a balance of the three important imaging factor qualifications of high spatial resolution, high SNR, and high contrast resolution must be struck for optimized TFCC and wrist imaging. The goal of this article, then, is to elucidate the theory and techniques of effective high-resolution imaging of the proximal ligamentous structures of the wrist, balancing SNR and high contrast resolution constraints, and focusing on imaging of the TFCC as a prototypical example. PMID:22434698

Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Burns, Joseph E

2012-04-01

99

Volumetric segmentation of magnetic resonance images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current computer graphics techniques can generate 3-D views of the human anatomy from magnetic resonance images. These techniques require that the images first be segmented into the various tissue types. However, there has been no fully automated system that can perform this task on a single set of high-resolution 3-D magnetic resonance images. We present a fully automated segmentation algorithm based on the 3-D difference of Gaussians (DOG) filter. A novel method for the classification of regions found by the DOG filter, as well as a correction procedure that detects errors from the DOG filter, is presented. Regions are classified based on the mean gray level of the voxels within closed contours. In previous work, the user had to manually split falsely merged regions. Our automated correction algorithm detects such errors and splits the merged regions. Spatial information is also incorporated to help discriminate between tissues. Encouraging results were obtained with an average of less than five percent error in each image. Integral shading is used to obtain a 3-D rendering of the data set.

Lee, James D.; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J.

1994-09-01

100

Magnetic resonance imaging in acute mastoiditis  

PubMed Central

Background In cases of suspected mastoiditis, imaging is used to evaluate the extent of mastoid destruction and possible complications. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in mastoiditis has not been systematically evaluated. Purpose To assess the diagnostic performance of MRI in patients with suspected acute mastoiditis. Material and Methods Twenty-three patients with suspected acute mastoiditis were included in this retrospective study (15 boys, 8 girls; mean age, 2 years 11 months). All patients were examined on a 1.5?T MRI system. The MRI examination included both enhanced and non-enhanced turbo spin echo (TSE), diffusion-weighted images, and venous time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF MRA) for the evaluation of the venous sinuses. Surgical findings, as well as clinical and imaging follow-up were used as the standard of reference. The sensitivity and accuracy of MRI for mastoiditis and subperiosteal abscesses was calculated. Results Twenty (87%) of 23 patients had mastoiditis, and 12 (52%) of 23 patients had a subperiosteal abscess in addition to mastoiditis. Mastoiditis and subperiosteal abscesses were identified by MRI in all cases. Sensitivity for mastoiditis was 100%, specificity was 66%, and accuracy was 86%. Sensitivity for subperiosteal abscesses was 100% and accuracy was 100%. Conclusion Multiparametric MRI has high accuracy for mastoiditis and subperiosteal abscesses. PMID:24778805

Kitzler, Hagen H; Gudziol, Volker; Laniado, Michael; Hahn, Gabriele

2014-01-01

101

Mapping motion from 4D-MRI to 3D-CT for use in 4D dose calculations: A technical feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Target sites affected by organ motion require a time resolved (4D) dose calculation. Typical 4D dose calculations use 4D-CT as a basis. Unfortunately, 4D-CT images have the disadvantage of being a 'snap-shot' of the motion during acquisition and of assuming regularity of breathing. In addition, 4D-CT acquisitions involve a substantial additional dose burden to the patient making many, repeated 4D-CT acquisitions undesirable. Here the authors test the feasibility of an alternative approach to generate patient specific 4D-CT data sets. Methods: In this approach motion information is extracted from 4D-MRI. Simulated 4D-CT data sets [which the authors call 4D-CT(MRI)] are created by warping extracted deformation fields to a static 3D-CT data set. The employment of 4D-MRI sequences for this has the advantage that no assumptions on breathing regularity are made, irregularities in breathing can be studied and, if necessary, many repeat imaging studies (and consequently simulated 4D-CT data sets) can be performed on patients and/or volunteers. The accuracy of 4D-CT(MRI)s has been validated by 4D proton dose calculations. Our 4D dose algorithm takes into account displacements as well as deformations on the originating 4D-CT/4D-CT(MRI) by calculating the dose of each pencil beam based on an individual time stamp of when that pencil beam is applied. According to corresponding displacement and density-variation-maps the position and the water equivalent range of the dose grid points is adjusted at each time instance. Results: 4D dose distributions, using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets as input were compared to results based on a reference conventional 4D-CT data set capturing similar motion characteristics. Almost identical 4D dose distributions could be achieved, even though scanned proton beams are very sensitive to small differences in the patient geometry. In addition, 4D dose calculations have been performed on the same patient, but using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets based on variable breathing patterns to show the effect of possible irregular breathing on active scanned proton therapy. Using a 4D-CT(MRI), including motion irregularities, resulted in significantly different proton dose distributions. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated that motion information from 4D-MRI can be used to generate realistic 4D-CT data sets on the basis of a single static 3D-CT data set. 4D-CT(MRI) presents a novel approach to test the robustness of treatment plans in the circumstance of patient motion.

Boye, Dirk [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Computer Vision Laboratory, ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Lomax, Tony [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Knopf, Antje [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

2013-06-15

102

Metabolite specific proton magnetic resonance imaging  

SciTech Connect

An imaging method is described that makes use of proton double quantum nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to construct images based on selected metabolites such as lactic acid. The optimization of the method is illustrated in vitro, followed by in vivo determination of lactic acid distribution in a solid tumor model. Water suppression and editing of lipid signals are such that two-dimensional spectra of lactic acid may be obtained from a radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumor in under 1 min and lactic acid images from the same tumor in under 1 hr at 2.0 T. This technique provides a fast and reproducible method at moderate magnetic field strength for mapping biologically relevant metabolites.

Hurd, R.E.; Freeman, D.M.

1989-06-01

103

Genetically encoded reporters for hyperpolarized xenon magnetic resonance imaging  

E-print Network

Genetically encoded reporters for hyperpolarized xenon magnetic resonance imaging Mikhail G Pines5,6, David V. Schaffer2,7 and Vikram S. Bajaj5,6 * Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables high , such that its magnetic resonance signal in a saturated aqueous solution at millimolar concentrations

Schaffer, David V.

104

Magnetic Resonance Imaging at Ultrahigh Fields  

PubMed Central

Since the introduction of 4 T human systems in three academic laboratories circa 1990, rapid progress in imaging and spectroscopy studies in humans at 4 T and animal model systems at 9.4 T have led to the introduction of 7 T and higher magnetic fields for human investigation at about the turn of the century. Work conducted on these platforms has demonstrated the existence of significant advantages in SNR and biological information content at these ultrahigh fields, as well as the presence of numerous challenges. Primary difference from lower fields is the deviation from the near field regime; at the frequencies corresponding to hydrogen resonance conditions at ultrahigh fields, the RF is characterized by attenuated traveling waves in the human body, which leads to image nonuniformities for a given sample-coil configuration because of interferences. These nonuniformities were considered detrimental to the progress of imaging at high field strengths. However, they are advantageous for parallel imaging for signal reception and parallel transmission, two critical technologies that account, to a large extend, for the success of ultrahigh fields. With these technologies, and improvements in instrumentation and imaging methods, ultra-high fields have provided unprecedented gains in imaging of brain function and anatomy, and started to make inroads into investigation of the human torso and extremities. As extensive as they are, these gains still constitute a prelude to what is to come given the increasingly larger effort committed to ultrahigh field research and development of ever better instrumentation and techniques. PMID:24686229

U?urbil, Kamil

2014-01-01

105

On Image Registration In Magnetic Resonance Imaging School of Statistics, University of Minnesota  

E-print Network

On Image Registration In Magnetic Resonance Imaging Peihua Qiu School of Statistics, University for Biological Cybernetics, High­Field Magnetic Resonance Center Spemannstrasse 41, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany tram.nguyen@tuebingen.mpg.de Abstract Image registration is used in many fields for mapping one image to another. In magnetic resonance

Qiu, Peihua

106

On Image Registration In Magnetic Resonance Imaging School of Statistics, University of Minnesota  

E-print Network

On Image Registration In Magnetic Resonance Imaging Peihua Qiu School of Statistics, University for Biological Cybernetics, High-Field Magnetic Resonance Center Spemannstrasse 41, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany tram.nguyen@tuebingen.mpg.de Abstract Image registration is used in many fields for mapping one image to another. In magnetic resonance

Qiu, Peihua

107

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences Magnetic Resonance Imaging (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology) -  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences ­ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (with certification and ATS Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sectional Anatomy I 2 C RIS 44031 Patient Management Credit Hours] RIS 34086 Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sectional Anatomy II 2 C RIS

Sheridan, Scott

108

ASA monitoring standards and magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Some patients, often because of age or altered mental state, require general anesthesia or monitored anesthesia care and sedation if adequate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to be accomplished. This study evaluated whether patients can be monitored during MRI with 1.5-tesla scanners in a manner which complies with ASA monitoring standards without causing degradation of image quality. Ten volunteers were scanned in the MRI without sedation. Monitors meeting ASA standards were placed and electronic artifact produced by the magnetic resonance (MR) scanner was evaluated, after which two scans of the head and two of the chest were performed. One of each pair of scans was obtained with the monitors functioning and one with them turned off. Four radiologists, blinded as to whether the monitors were turned on or off, independently evaluated the 20 pairs of scans. Differences in diagnostic quality and image degradation between the scans were evaluated and scores assigned. All monitors functioned appropriately during the scans, with the exception of the electrocardiogram (ECG) which was grossly distorted to the extent that only ventricular rate could be evaluated. None of the head or body scans was nondiagnostic; however, images with the monitors off were of better quality overall than with them on. Two types of noise were generated and are described. During the head scans, three of seven monitoring combinations caused degradation of the images, while four were judged clinically adequate. During the body scans, two of six monitoring combinations created noticeable noise, while four introduced no significant noise. Ungated cardiac scans were nondiagnostic.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7978439

Jorgensen, N H; Messick, J M; Gray, J; Nugent, M; Berquist, T H

1994-12-01

109

Tools for cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

In less than fifteen years, as a non-invasive imaging option, cardiovascular MR has grown from a being a mere curiosity to becoming a widely used clinical tool for evaluating cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is now routinely used to study myocardial structure, cardiac function, macro vascular blood flow, myocardial perfusion, and myocardial viability. For someone entering the field of cardiac MR, this rapid pace of development in the field of CMRI might make it difficult to identify a cohesive starting point. In this brief review, we have attempted to summarize the key cardiovascular imaging techniques that have found widespread clinical acceptance. In particular, we describe the essential cardiac and respiratory gating techniques that form the backbone of all cardiovascular imaging methods. It is followed by four sections that discuss: (I) the gradient echo techniques that are used to assess ventricular function; (II) black-blood turbo spin echo (SE) methods used for morphologic assessment of the heart; (III) phase-contrast based techniques for the assessment of blood flow; and (IV) CMR methods for the assessment of myocardial ischemia and viability. In each section, we briefly summarize technical considerations relevant to the clinical use of these techniques, followed by practical information for its clinical implementation. In each of those four areas, CMRI is considered either as the benchmark imaging modality against which the diagnostic performance of other imaging modalities are compared against, or provides a complementary capability to existing imaging techniques. We have deliberately avoided including cutting-edge CMR imaging techniques practiced at few academic centers, and restricted our discussion to methods that are widely used and are likely to be available in a clinical setting. Our hope is that this review would propel an interested reader toward more comprehensive reviews in the literature. PMID:24834409

Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Cheong, Benjamin

2014-01-01

110

Magnetic resonance imaging of primary breast lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Primary lymphomas of the breast (PBNHL) are uncommon. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of these malignancies can\\u000a be relevant in establishing the extent of disease and planning the appropriate therapeutic strategy, usually represented by\\u000a chemo- and radiotherapy, rather than surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess MRI features of PBNHL.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  MRI examinations performed on seven patients

S. Rizzo; L. Preda; G. Villa; S. Brambilla; G. Pruneri; A. Alietti; E. Cassano; G. Martinelli; M. Bellomi

2009-01-01

111

[Magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic plaque].  

PubMed

Recent advances in terms of spatial and temporal resolution have enabled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to be used to display atherosclerotic plaque. MRI permits not only to detect atherosclerotic lesions but also enables determination of plaque volume and plaque characterization. It allows to display different plaque components such as lipid core, fibrous cap, calcium, and thrombus. To improve the spatial resolution, different invasive approaches based on intravascular coils have been evaluated. Novel contrast agent developments aim at the detection of inflammatory plaque activity in order to identify lesions with a high vascular risk (vulnerable plaque). PMID:14564414

Ruehm, Stefan G

2003-09-01

112

Foundations of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Summary: During the past decade, major breakthroughs in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quality were made by means of quantum leaps in scanner hardware and pulse sequences. Some advanced MRI techniques have truly revolutionized the detection of disease states and MRI can now—within a few minutes—acquire important quantitative information noninvasively from an individual in any plane or volume at comparatively high resolution. This article provides an overview of the most common advanced MRI methods including diffusion MRI, perfusion MRI, functional MRI, and the strengths and weaknesses of MRI at high magnetic field strengths. PMID:15897944

Bammer, Roland; Skare, Stefan; Newbould, Rexford; Liu, Chunlei; Thijs, Vincent; Ropele, Stefan; Clayton, David B.; Krueger, Gunnar; Moseley, Michael E.; Glover, Gary H.

2005-01-01

113

Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides useful information regarding the elbow joint. Many abnormalities seen in the elbow are a result of trauma, often from sports such as baseball and tennis. Elbow problems are frequently related to the medial tension-lateral compression phenomenon where repeated valgus stress produces flexor-pronator strain, ulnar collateral ligament sprain, ulnar traction spurring, and ulnar neuropathy. The lateral compression causes osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum and radial head, degenerative arthritis, and loose bodies. Other elbow abnormalities seen on MRI include radial collateral ligament injuries, biceps and triceps tendon injuries, other nerve entrapment syndromes, loose bodies, osseous and soft tissue trauma, arthritis, and masses, including bursae. PMID:9430831

Steinbach, L S; Fritz, R C; Tirman, P F; Uffman, M

1997-11-01

114

Creating a magnetic resonance imaging ontology.  

PubMed

The goal of this work is to build an ontology of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The MRI domain has been analysed regarding MRI simulators and the DICOM standard. Tow MRI simulators have been analysed: JEMRIS, which is developed in XML and C++, has a hierarchical organisation and SIMRI, which is developed in C, has a good representation of MRI physical processes. To build the ontology we have used Protégé 4, owl2 that allows quantitative representations. The ontology has been validated by a reasoner (Fact++) and by a good representation of DICOM headers and of MRI processes. The MRI ontology would improved MRI simulators and eased semantic interoperability. PMID:21893854

Lasbleiz, Jérémy; Saint-Jalmes, Hervé; Duvauferrier, Régis; Burgun, Anita

2011-01-01

115

Creating a magnetic resonance imaging ontology  

PubMed Central

The goal of this work is to build an ontology of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The MRI domain has been analysed regarding MRI simulators and the DICOM standard. Tow MRI simulators have been analysed: JEMRIS, which is developed in XML and C++, has a hierarchical organisation and SIMRI, which is developed in C, has a good representation of MRI physical processes. To build the ontology we have used Protégé 4, owl2 that allows quantitative representations. The ontology has been validated by a reasoner (Fact++) and by a good representation of DICOM headers and of MRI processes. The MRI ontology would improved MRI simulators and eased semantic interoperability. PMID:21893854

Lasbleiz, Jérémy; Saint-Jalmes, Hervé; Duvauferrier, Régis; Burgun, Anita

2011-01-01

116

Designing Magnetic Resonance Imaging Curriculum for Undergraduates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new hands-on curriculum developed at Vanderbilt University focuses on teaching medical imaging, specifically magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). This material was designed to engage students in real world applications of biomedical engineering through challenge based activities. These activities include homework, quizzes, and hands-on experiments. The materials for each activity are easy to find and can be purchased for under $25. The curriculum begins with a Grand Challenge that presents a medical case in order to interest the students. The challenge questions allow the students to play the role of the patient, technician, and physician. The material was organized in five modules: Electromagnetic Fields and Magnetic Moments, Spin Behavior: Excitation and Relaxation, Spatial Encoding and Detecting Signals, Image Reconstruction, and Image Characteristics. In addition, there are expert interviews that provide the students with multiple perspectives on the information. The material was tested in the summer of 2007 on five students in order to gain feedback, correct errors, and gauge student understanding. Testing showed that the curriculum had a positive impact on student interest in biomedical imaging and resulted in several improvements and additions to the curriculum. During the academic year, the materials will be field-tested at the undergraduate and high school level. Additionally, the materials are being adapted for high school level implementation.

117

Cardiac imaging using gated magnetic resonance  

SciTech Connect

To overcome the limitations of magnetic resonance (MR) cardiac imaging using nongated data acquisition, three methods for acquiring a gating signal, which could be applied in the presence of a magnetic field, were tested; an air-filled plethysmograph, a laser-Doppler capillary perfusion flowmeter, and an electrocardiographic gating device. The gating signal was used for timing of MR imaging sequences (IS). Application of each gating method yielded significant improvements in structural MR image resolution of the beating heart, although with both plethysmography and laser-Doppler velocimetry it was difficult to obtain cardiac images from the early portion of the cardiac cycle due to an intrinsic delay between the ECG R wave and peripheral detection of the gating signal. Variations in the temporal relationship between the R wave and plethysmographic and laser-Doppler signals produced inconsistencies in the timing of IS. Since the ECG signal is virtually free of these problems, the preferable gating technique is IS synchronization with an electrocardiogram. The gated images acquired with this method provide sharp definition of internal cardiac morphology and can be temporarily referenced to end diastole and end systole or intermediate points.

Lanzer, P.; Botvinick, E.H.; Schiller, N.B.

1984-01-01

118

Magnetic resonance imaging of placenta accreta  

PubMed Central

Placenta accreta (PA) is a severe pregnancy complication which occurs when the chorionic villi (CV) invade the myometrium abnormally. Optimal management requires accurate prenatal diagnosis. Ultrasonography (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the modalities for prenatal diagnosis of PA, although USG remains the primary investigation of choice. MRI is a complementary technique and reserved for further characterization when USG is inconclusive or incomplete. Breath-hold T2-weighted half-Fourier rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) and balanced steady-state free precession imaging in the three orthogonal planes is the key MRI technique. Markedly heterogeneous placenta, thick intraplacental dark bands on half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE), and disorganized abnormal intraplacental vascularity are the cardinal MRI features of PA. MRI is less reliable in differentiating between different degrees of placental invasion, especially between accreta vera and increta. PMID:24604945

Varghese, Binoj; Singh, Navdeep; George, Regi A.N; Gilvaz, Sareena

2013-01-01

119

Endometriosis: the role of magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Several imaging options are available today to diagnose endometriosis. Currently, the two techniques most used are sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three-dimensional (3D) sonography has proved to be particularly sensitive in the diagnosis of endometriosis. In recent years, MRI has emerged as a high reproducible method to explore endometriosis; moreover, its capability to evaluate tissue signal is an extremely powerful system in the differential diagnosis with other pathologies and for the identification of malignant degeneration. The purpose of this paper is to present the state-of-the-art of MRI of endometriosis by performing a review of the literature and showing the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and classification of endometriosis. In this work, the technique that should be used, MR findings of endometriosis and the principles of differential diagnosis are explained. PMID:24676084

Saba, Luca; Sulcis, Rosa; Melis, Gian Benedetto; de Cecco, Carlo Nicola; Laghi, Andrea; Piga, Mario; Guerriero, Stefano

2015-03-01

120

Magnetic resonance imaging after exposure to microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of physiological changes were demonstrated in bone, muscle, and blood from exposure of humans and animals to microgravity. Determining mechanisms and the development of effective countermeasures for long-duration space missions is an important NASA goal. Historically, NASA has had to rely on tape measures, x-ray, and metabolic balance studies with collection of excreta and blood specimens to obtain this information. The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the possibility of greatly extending these early studies in ways not previously possible; MRI is also non-invasive and safe; i.e., no radiation exposure. MRI provides both superb anatomical images for volume measurements of individual structures and quantification of chemical/physical changes induced in the examined tissues. This investigation will apply MRI technology to measure muscle, intervertebral disc, and bone marrow changes resulting from exposure to microgravity.

Leblanc, Adrian

1993-01-01

121

In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of physiological changes have been demonstrated in bone, muscle and blood after exposure of humans and animals to microgravity. Determining mechanisms and the development of effective countermeasures for long duration space missions is an important NASA goal. The advent of tomographic nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR or MRI) gives NASA a way to greatly extend early studies of this phenomena in ways not previously possible; NMR is also noninvasive and safe. NMR provides both superb anatomical images for volume assessments of individual organs and quantification of chemical/physical changes induced in the examined tissues. The feasibility of NMR as a tool for human physiological research as it is affected by microgravity is demonstrated. The animal studies employed the rear limb suspended rat as a model of mucle atrophy that results from microgravity. And bedrest of normal male subjects was used to simulate the effects of microgravity on bone and muscle.

Leblanc, A.; Evans, H.; Bryan, R. N.; Johnson, P.; Schonfeld, E.; Jhingran, S. G.

1984-01-01

122

Overview of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) depicts changes in deoxyhemoglobin concentration consequent to task-induced or spontaneous modulation of neural metabolism. Since its inception in 1990, this method has been widely employed in thousands of studies of cognition for clinical applications such as surgical planning, for monitoring treatment outcomes, and as a biomarker in pharmacologic and training programs. Technical developments have solved most of the challenges of applying fMRI in practice. These challenges include low contrast to noise ratio of BOLD signals, image distortion, and signal dropout. More recently, attention is turning to the use of pattern classification and other statistical methods to draw increasingly complex inferences about cognitive brain states from fMRI data. This paper reviews the methods, some of the challenges and the future of fMRI. PMID:21435566

Glover, Gary H.

2010-01-01

123

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods in Soil Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique to study water content, dynamics and transport in natural porous media. However, MRI systems and protocols have been developed mainly for medical purposes, i.e. for media with comparably high water contents and long relaxation times. In contrast, natural porous media like soils and rocks are characterized by much lower water contents, typically 0 < theta < 0.4, and much faster T1 and T2 relaxation times. So, the usage of standard medical scanners and protocols is of limited benefit. Three strategies can be applied for the monitoring of water contents and dynamics in natural porous media: i) Dedicated high-field scanners (with vertical bore) allowing stronger gradients and faster switching so that shorter echo times can be realized. ii) Special measurement sequences using ultrashort rf- and gradient-pulses like single point imaging derivates (SPI, SPRITE)(1) and multi-echo methods, which monitor series of echoes and allow for extrapolation to zero time(2). Hence, the loss of signal during the first echo period may be compensated to determine the initial magnetization (= water content) as well as relaxation time maps simultaneously. iii) Finally low field( < 1T) scanners also provide longer echo times and hence detect larger fractions of water, since the T2 relaxation time of water in most porous media increases with decreasing magnetic field strength(3). In the presentation examples for all three strategies will be given. References 1) Pohlmeier et al. Vadose Zone J. 7, 1010-1017 (2008) 2) Edzes et al., Magn. Res. Imag. 16, 185-196 (1998) 3) Raich H, and Blümler P, Concepts in Magn. Reson. B 23B, 16-25 (2004) 4) Pohlmeier et al. Magn. Res. Imag. doi:10.1016/j.mri.2008.06.007 (2008)

Pohlmeier, A.; van Dusschoten, D.; Blümler, P.

2009-04-01

124

Functional magnetic resonance imaging using RASER  

PubMed Central

Although functional imaging of neuronal activity by magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become the primary methodology employed in studying the brain, significant portions of the brain are inaccessible by this methodology due to its sensitivity to macroscopic magnetic field inhomogeneities induced near air filled cavities in the head. In this paper, we demonstrate that this sensitivity is eliminated by a novel pulse sequence, RASER (rapid acquisition by sequential excitation and refocusing) (Chamberlain et al., 2007), that can generate functional maps. This is accomplished because RASER acquired signals are purely and perfectly T2 weighted, without any T2*-effects that are inherent in the other image acquisition schemes employed to date. T2-weighted fMRI sequences are also more specific to the site of neuronal activity at ultrahigh magnetic fields than T2*-variations since they are dominated by signal components originating from the tissue in the capillary bed. The RASER based fMRI response is quantified; it is shown to have inherently less noisy time series and to provide fMRI in brain regions, such as the orbitofrontal cortex, which are challenging to image with conventional techniques. PMID:20699123

Goerke, Ute; Garwood, Michael; Ugurbil, Kamil

2010-01-01

125

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Intercranial Plasmocytic Granuloma  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to determine characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of intracranial plasmocytic granulomas. Pathological confirmation of three patients with intracranial pathologically confirmed plasmocytic granuloma are presented. Clinical records as well pre- and postgadolinium-enhanced images from each patient are reviewed. The location of the abnormalities is compared with previous reported cases of plasmocytic granulomas, to determine if there is a characteristic finding in this disense. The predominance of this abnormality in the pediatric and young adult patient was striking. On T1-weighted MRI, plasmocytic granulomas appear as hypointense lesions, with isointense appearance on T2 images, and significant, variable patterns of enhancement after the infusion of gadolinium. Typically, the lesion is infiltrating, and causes little mass effect. A dural based lesion, as well as a sellar region abnormality and an infiltrating cortical lesion with little mass effect in the pediatric or young adult age group may lead the observer to suspect the diagnosis of plasmocytic granuloma. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:17171115

Wilner, Harvey I.; Vinas, Federico C.; Duffy, Colleen; Kupsky, William J.; Guthikonda, Murali

1999-01-01

126

Methods for chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging  

E-print Network

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a relatively new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition technique that generates contrast dependent on tissue microenvironment, such as protein concentration and ...

Scheidegger, Rachel Nora

2013-01-01

127

Magnetic Resonance Imaging–guided Vascular Interventions  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provides superior soft-tissue imaging and no known harmful effects, has the potential as an alternative modality to guide various medical interventions. This review will focus on MR-guided endovascular interventions and present its current state and future outlook. In the first technical part, enabling technologies such as developments in fast imaging, catheter devices, and visualization techniques are examined. This is followed by a clinical survey that includes proof-of-concept procedures in animals and initial experience in human subjects. In preclinical experiments, MRI has already proven to be valuable. For example, MRI has been used to guide and track targeted cell delivery into or around myocardial infarctions, to guide atrial septal puncture, and to guide the connection of portal and systemic venous circulations. Several investigational MR-guided procedures have already been reported in patients, such as MR-guided cardiac catheterization, invasive imaging of peripheral artery atheromata, selective intraarterial MR angiography, and preliminary angioplasty and stent placement. In addition, MR-assisted transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedures in patients have been shown in a novel hybrid double-doughnut x-ray/MRI system. Numerous additional investigational human MR-guided endovascular procedures are now underway in several medical centers around the world. There are also significant hurdles: availability of clinical-grade devices, device-related safety issues, challenges to patient monitoring, and acoustic noise during imaging. The potential of endovascular interventional MRI is great because as a single modality, it combines 3-dimensional anatomic imaging, device localization, hemodynamics, tissue composition, and function. PMID:16924170

Ozturk, Cengizhan; Guttman, Michael; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Lederman, Robert J.

2007-01-01

128

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences Magnetic Resonance Imaging (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology) -  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences ­ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (with certification and ATS courses. RIS 34084 Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sectional Anatomy I 2 C RIS 44031 Patient Management in MRI 2 C RIS 44035 MRI Clinical Education I 3 C RIS 44044 Magnetic Resonance

Sheridan, Scott

129

Functional magnetic resonance imaging: imaging techniques and contrast mechanisms.  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a widely used technique for generating images or maps of human brain activity. The applications of the technique are widespread in cognitive neuroscience and it is hoped they will eventually extend into clinical practice. The activation signal measured with fMRI is predicated on indirectly measuring changes in the concentration of deoxyhaemoglobin which arise from an increase in blood oxygenation in the vicinity of neuronal firing. The exact mechanisms of this blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast are highly complex. The signal measured is dependent on both the underlying physiological events and the imaging physics. BOLD contrast, although sensitive, is not a quantifiable measure of neuronal activity. A number of different imaging techniques and parameters can be used for fMRI, the choice of which depends on the particular requirements of each functional imaging experiment. The high-speed MRI technique, echo-planar imaging provides the basis for most fMRI experiments. The problems inherent to this method and the ways in which these may be overcome are particularly important in the move towards performing functional studies on higher field MRI systems. Future developments in techniques and hardware are also likely to enhance the measurement of brain activity using MRI. PMID:10466145

Howseman, A M; Bowtell, R W

1999-01-01

130

In vivo Off-Resonance Saturation Magnetic Resonance Imaging of AvB3-Targeted Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles  

E-print Network

#12;In vivo Off-Resonance Saturation Magnetic Resonance Imaging of AvB3-Targeted Superparamagnetic of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful mechanisms and imaging probes have been actively pursued for cancer molecular imaging by magnetic resonance

Gao, Jinming

131

Use of contrast agents in oncological imaging: magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Abstract Magnetic resonance plays a leading role in the management of oncology patients, providing superior contrast resolution and greater sensitivity compared with other techniques, which enables more accurate tumor identification, characterization and staging. Contrast agents are widely used in clinical magnetic resonance imaging; approximately 40–50% of clinical scans are contrast enhanced. Most contrast agents are based on the paramagnetic gadolinium ion Gd3+, which is chelated to avoid the toxic effects of free gadolinium. Multiple factors such as molecule structure, molecule concentration, dose, field strength and temperature determine the longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates (R1 and R2, respectively) and thus the T1- and T2-relaxivities of these chelates. These T1- and T2-relaxivities, together with their pharmacokinetic properties (i.e. distribution and concentration in the area of interest), determine the radiologic efficacy of the gadolinium-based contrast agents. PMID:24060901

Cugini, Christian; Scatto, Giuliano; Zanato, Riccardo; Fusaro, Michele; Dorigo, Alberto

2013-01-01

132

Designing and characterizing hyperpolarizable silicon nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging  

E-print Network

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most powerful noninvasive tools for diagnosing human disease, but its utility is limited because current contrast agents are ineffective when imaging air-tissue interfaces, ...

Anahtar, Melis Nuray

2008-01-01

133

Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging using parallel transmission at 7T  

E-print Network

Conventional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), also known as phase-encoded (PE) chemical shift imaging (CSI), suffers from both low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the brain metabolites, as well as inflexible ...

Gagoski, Borjan Aleksandar

2011-01-01

134

Magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal gland.  

PubMed

The authors review their experience with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the adrenal gland and discuss the appearance of adrenal diseases where MRI is clinically useful. A basic description of some of the newer pulse sequences is provided. Fat-suppressed MRI is advantageous because of reduction of cardiac and respiratory motion induced artifacts, accentuation of small differences in tissue contrast, and elimination of chemical shift artifacts. These advantages far outweigh the disadvantages of inhomogeneity of fat suppression and the fewer slices obtained per acquisition. Chemical shift imaging is used to differentiate benign from malignant adrenal diseases based on a gradient echo phase cycling technique. Detailed descriptions of MRI findings in adrenal pheochromocytomas, hemorrhage, cysts, adenomas, myelolipomas, and metastases are provided. Most pheochromocytomas appear markedly hyperintense to the liver on T2-weighted images. However, this appearance is not specific as adrenal metastases and adrenal adenomas may occasionally produce a similar appearance. In addition, pheochromocytomas may occasionally be isointense or hypointense to the liver on T2-weighted images. Differentiation of adrenal metastases from adrenal adenomas with MRI is problematic using signal intensity ratios (33% overlap) or T2 calculations. The future of discriminating between adrenal metastases and adenomas may rest with chemical shift MRI, which uses in- and out-of-phase gradient echo pulse sequences for differentiation. This approach relies on the fact that adrenal adenomas contain fat, while adrenal metastases do not. The reported accuracy of chemical shift imaging in differentiating between adrenal adenomas and adrenal metastases ranges from 96 to 100%. An algorithmic approach to differentiating benign from malignant adrenal diseases is presented that relies on an initial noncontrast CT with CT attenuation values obtained from the adrenal mass. If CT attenuation values are less than zero, the mass is characterized as benign. If the mass remains indeterminate after CT, chemical shift MR is performed. If the mass remains indeterminate after MR, biopsy is required. PMID:7612177

Boland, G W; Lee, M J

1995-01-01

135

TOPICAL REVIEW: Endovascular interventional magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minimally invasive interventional radiological procedures, such as balloon angioplasty, stent placement or coiling of aneurysms, play an increasingly important role in the treatment of patients suffering from vascular disease. The non-destructive nature of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), its ability to combine the acquisition of high quality anatomical images and functional information, such as blood flow velocities, perfusion and diffusion, together with its inherent three dimensionality and tomographic imaging capacities, have been advocated as advantages of using the MRI technique for guidance of endovascular radiological interventions. Within this light, endovascular interventional MRI has emerged as an interesting and promising new branch of interventional radiology. In this review article, the authors will give an overview of the most important issues related to this field. In this context, we will focus on the prerequisites for endovascular interventional MRI to come to maturity. In particular, the various approaches for device tracking that were proposed will be discussed and categorized. Furthermore, dedicated MRI systems, safety and compatibility issues and promising applications that could become clinical practice in the future will be discussed.

Bartels, L. W.; Bakker, C. J. G.

2003-07-01

136

Thoracic magnetic resonance imaging: pulmonary thromboembolism.  

PubMed

Ongoing technical developments have substantially improved the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the assessment of the pulmonary circulation. These developments includes improved magnet and hardware design, new k-space sampling techniques (ie, parallel imaging), and alternative contrast materials. With these techniques, not only can pulmonary vessels be visualized by MR angiography with high spatial resolution but also the perfusion of the lungs and its changes in relation to pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) can be assessed. Considering venous thromboembolism as a systemic disease, MR venography might be added for the diagnosis of underlying deep venous thrombosis. A unique advantage of MRI over other imaging tests is its potential to evaluate changes in cardiac function as a result of obstruction of the pulmonary circulation, which may have a significant impact on patient monitoring and treatment. Finally, MRI does not involve radiation, which is advantageous, especially in young patients. Over the years, a number of studies have shown promising results not only for MR angiography but also for MRI of lung perfusion and for MR venography. This review article summarizes and discusses the current evidence on pulmonary MRI for patients with suspected PE. PMID:23545949

Fink, Christian; Henzler, Thomas; Shirinova, Aysel; Apfaltrer, Paul; Wasser, Klaus

2013-05-01

137

Bioengineering 278: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Laboratory Winter 2010  

E-print Network

Bioengineering 278: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Laboratory Winter 2010 Lab 4 1. EPI. In this exercise, you will observe and correct the effects of time shifts and resonance offset in EPI. Place, in units of the sampling period. (6 points) b. Off resonance effects in EPI. In addition to the time shift

California at San Diego, University of

138

A Spectral-Scanning Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Integrated System  

E-print Network

A Spectral-Scanning Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Integrated System Arjang Hassibi1,2 , Aydin of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA Abstract- An integrated spectral-scanning magnetic resonance customized magnetic resonance (MR) excitation signals, and also recovering the MR response using a coherent

Hajimiri, Ali

139

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Knee  

PubMed Central

Context: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affords high-resolution visualization of the soft tissue structures (menisci, ligaments, cartilage, etc) and bone marrow of the knee. Evidence Acquisition: Pertinent clinical and research articles in the orthopaedic and radiology literature over the past 30 years using PubMed. Results: Ligament tears can be accurately assessed with MRI, but distinguishing partial tears from ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can be challenging. Determining the extent of a partial tear is often extremely difficult to accurately assess. The status of the posterolateral corner structures, menisci, and cartilage can be accurately evaluated, although limitations in the evaluation of certain structures exist. Patellofemoral joint, marrow, tibiofibular joint, and synovial pathology can supplement physical examination findings and provide definitive diagnosis. Conclusions: MRI provides an accurate noninvasive assessment of knee pathology. PMID:24381701

Hash, Thomas W.

2013-01-01

140

Magnetic resonance imaging for acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is characterized by acute chemical injury of the pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissue. The increased frequency of death in acute pancreatitis is directly correlated with the degree and progress of pancreatic necrosis. Moreover, the occurrence of some local complications in acute pancreatitis, such as pancreatic hemorrhage, peripancreatic abscess or large pseudocyst, and pseudoaneurysm, could influence the choice of treatment for these patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to help evaluate the presence and degree of pancreatic necrosis, and is crucial for identifying complications of acute pancreatitis and predicting prognosis. The purpose of this article is to describe MRI techniques for acute pancreatitis, to review the spectrum of pancreatic and peripancreatic patterns, as well as to survey various complications secondary to acute pancreatitis on MRI. The role of MRI in the initial evaluation and staging of acute pancreatitis is emphasized. PMID:21160684

Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Ming

2010-01-01

141

Claustrophobia and the magnetic resonance imaging procedure.  

PubMed

We examined fear induced by the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure in 80 adult patients who were undergoing the procedure for the first time. Participants completed self-report measures of claustrophobia, anxiety sensitivity, thoughts about the scan, and pain. Participants were assessed pre- and postscan, and at 1-month follow-up. Twenty-five percent of the participants experienced moderate to severe anxiety during the MRI scan. Prescan scores on the Claustrophobia Questionnaire (CLQ: Rachman and Taylor, 1993) significantly predicted participants' distress during the scan: pain and anxeity sensitivity did not. Furthermore, CLQ scores discriminated between participants who reported panic during the scan and participants who did not report panic. A brief screening instrument consisting of six items from the 29-item CLQ is suggested. This brief screening instrument administered prior to the scan may help identify in advance those people who are most likely to experience claustrophobic fear and, in particular, those who panic during the MRI procedure. PMID:9642571

McIsaac, H K; Thordarson, D S; Shafran, R; Rachman, S; Poole, G

1998-06-01

142

Functional magnetic resonance imaging in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The integration of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with cognitive and affective neuroscience paradigms enables examination of the brain systems underlying the behavioral deficits manifested in schizophrenia; there have been a remarkable increase in the number of studies that apply fMRI in neurobiological studies of this disease. This article summarizes features of fMRI methodology and highlights its application in neurobehavioral studies in schizophrenia. Such work has helped elucidate potential neural substrates of deficits in cognition and affect by providing measures of activation to neurobehavioral probes and connectivity among brain regions. Studies have demonstrated abnormalities at early stages of sensory processing that may influence downstream abnormalities in more complex evaluative processing. The methodology can help bridge integration with neuropharmacologic and genomic investigations. PMID:20954429

Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

2010-01-01

143

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of liver hemangiomas  

SciTech Connect

Nine patients with cavernous hemangioma of the liver were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 0.5 T superconductive magnet. Spin-echo technique was used with varying time to echo (TE) and repetition times (TR). Results were compared with /sup 99m/Tc red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT), echography, and arteriography. Four illustrated cases are reported. It was possible to establish a pattern for MRI characteristics of cavernous hemangiomas; rounded or smooth lobulated shape, marked increase in T1 and T2 values as compared with normal liver values. It is concluded that, although more experience is necessary to compare the specificity with that of ultrasound and CT, MRI proved to be very sensitive for the diagnosis of liver hemangioma, especially in the case of small ones which may be missed by /sup 99m/Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy.

Sigal, R.; Lanir, A.; Atlan, H.; Naschitz, J.E.; Simon, J.S.; Enat, R.; Front, D.; Israel, O.; Chisin, R.; Krausz, Y.

1985-10-01

144

Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an accepted non-invasive modality for evaluation of soft tissue pathology without exposure to ionizing radiation. Current applications demonstrate excellent visualization of the anatomy and pathology of various organs. Preliminary studies in the knee reveal fine resolution of anatomy and pathology involving the meniscus. The purpose of this study is to determine a prospective correlation between MRI scans and actual meniscal pathology as documented at the time of arthroscopy. MRI scans were obtained in 155 patients, on 156 knees (one patient with bilateral scans), with 86 patients (87 knees) eventually undergoing diagnostic and operative videoarthroscopy performed by the same surgeon (DWJ). All images were obtained on the same high-resolution 1.5 Tesla GE Signa Magnetic Resonance Scanner with the same radiologist performing all readings (PEB). The knees were studied in the coronal and sagittal plane using a spin echo sequence and 5 mm slice thicknesses. The menisci were described as having Grade 1, 2, or 3 changes, with Grade 3 reserved for complete tears. Using arthroscopy as the diagnostic standard, the accuracy of MRI in diagnosing medial and lateral meniscal tears was 93.1% and 96.6%, respectively with a Grade 3 MRI reading. For tears of the ACL, the accuracy was 96.6% as confirmed at arthroscopy. Five tears of the PCL were also documented by MRI and correlated with clinical evaluation. Other abnormalities seen were articular cartilage and osteochondral defects, bone tumors, tibial plateau fractures, Baker's cysts, and meniscal cysts. The MRI scan is a highly accurate, noninvasive modality for documentation of meniscal pathology as well as cruciate ligament tears in the knee. PMID:3344877

Jackson, D W; Jennings, L D; Maywood, R M; Berger, P E

1988-01-01

145

Fast neutron resonance radiography for elemental imaging: theory and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (NRR) has been devised as an elemental imaging method with applications such as contraband detection and mineral analysis. In NRR, a 2-D elemental mapping of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen oxygen and the sum of other elements is obtained from fast neutron radiographic images taken at different neutron energies chosen to cover the resonance cross-section features of one

Gongyin Chen; Richard C. Lanza

2001-01-01

146

Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Studies of Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions  

E-print Network

Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Studies of Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions Emily A. Smith; E-mail: corn@chem.wisc.edu; kiessling@chem.wisc.edu Abstract: Carbohydrate arrays fabricated on gold films were used to study carbohydrate-protein interactions with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging

147

Fetal magnetic resonance imaging in obstetric practice  

PubMed Central

Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary imaging method for prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities since its discovery. Although it is the primary method of fetal imaging, it cannot provide sufficient information about the fetus in some conditions such as maternal obesity, oligohydramnios and engagement of the fetal head. At this stage, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilitates examination by providing more specific information. The need and importance of fetal MRI applications further increased by the intrauterine surgery which is currently gaining popularity. Some advantages of fetal MRI over USG are the good texture of contrast, a greater study area and visualization of the lesion and neighbourhood relations, independence of the operators. Also it is not affected by maternal obesity and severe oligohydramnios. However, MRI is inadequate in detecting fetal limb and cardiac abnormalities when compared to USG. MRI is not used routinely in pregnancy. It is used in situations where nonionizing imaging methods are inadequate or ionizing radiation is required in pregnant women. It is not recommended during the first trimester. Contrast agent (Godalinium) is not used during pregnancy. It is believed that MRI is not harmful to the fetus, although the biological risk of MRI application is not known. MRI technique is superior to USG in the detection of corpus callosum dysgenesis, third-trimester evaluation of posterior fossa malformations, bilateral renal agenesis, diaphragmatic hernia and assessment of lung maturation. Especially, it is the method of choice for evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities. Fetal MRI has a complementary role with USG. It provides important information for prenatal diagnosis, increases diagnostic accuracy, and in turn affects the prenatal treatment, prenatal interventions and birth plan. PMID:24591956

Kö?ü?, Ayd?n; Kö?ü?, Nermin; Usluo?ullar?, Betül; Duran, Müzeyyen; Turhan, Nilgün Öztürk; Tek?am, Mehmet

2011-01-01

148

Small Animal Imaging with Magnetic Resonance Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Small animal magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved significantly from testing the boundaries of imaging physics to its expanding use today as a tool in non-invasive biomedical investigations. This review is intended to capture the state-of-the-art in MRM for scientists who may be unfamiliar with this modality, but who want to apply its capabilities to their research. We therefore include a brief review of MR concepts and methods of animal handling and support before covering a range of MRM applications including the heart, lung, brain, and the emerging field of MR histology. High-resolution anatomical imaging reveals increasingly exquisite detail in healthy animals and subtle architectural aberrations that occur in genetically altered models. Resolution of 100 µm in all dimensions is now routinely attained in living animals, and 10 µm3 is feasible in fixed specimens. Such images almost rival conventional histology while allowing the object to be viewed interactively in any plane. MRM is now increasingly used to provide functional information in living animals. Images of the beating heart, breathing lung, and functioning brain can be recorded. While clinical MRI focuses on diagnosis, MRM is used to reveal fundamental biology or to non-invasively measure subtle changes in the structure or function of organs during disease progression or in response to experimental therapies. The ability of MRM to provide a detailed functional and anatomical picture in rats and mice, and to track this picture over time, makes it a promising platform with broad applications in biomedical research. PMID:18172332

Driehuys, Bastiaan; Nouls, John; Badea, Alexandra; Bucholz, Elizabeth; Ghaghada, Ketan; Petiet, Alexandra; Hedlund, Laurence W.

2009-01-01

149

MAGNETIC RESONANCE ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY (MR-EIT): A new technique for high resolution conductivity imaging  

E-print Network

MAGNETIC RESONANCE ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY (MR-EIT): A new technique for high resolution field measurements are performed by using magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The conductivity resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, if the conductor contains magnetic resonance active nuclei [2

Eyüboðlu, Murat

150

Imaging of Surfaces by Concurrent Surface Plasmon Resonance and Surface Plasmon Resonance-Enhanced Fluorescence  

PubMed Central

Surface plasmon resonance imaging and surface plasmon induced fluorescent are sensitive tools for surface analysis. However, existing instruments in this area have provided limited capability for concurrent detection, and may be large and expensive. We demonstrate a highly cost-effective system capable of concurrent surface plasmon resonance microscopy (SPRM) and surface plasmon resonance-enhanced fluorescence (SPRF) imaging, allowing for simultaneous monitoring of reflectivity and fluorescence from discrete spatial regions. The instrument allows for high performance imaging and quantitative measurements with surface plasmon resonance, and surface plasmon induced fluorescence, with inexpensive off-the-shelf components. PMID:20360841

Thariani, Rahber; Yager, Paul

2010-01-01

151

Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal dysraphism.  

PubMed

Spinal cord development occurs through three consecutive periods. Gastrulation (weeks 2-3) is characterized by conversion of the embryonic disk from a bilaminar to a trilaminar arrangement and establishment of a notochord. Primary neurulation (weeks 3-4) produces the uppermost nine tenths of the spinal cord. Secondary neurulation and retrogressive differentiation (weeks 5-6) result in formation of the conus tip and filum terminale. Defects in these early embryonic stages produce spinal dysraphisms, which are characterized by anomalous differentiation and fusion of dorsal midline structures. Spinal dysraphisms may be categorized clinically into two subsets. In open spinal dysraphisms, the placode (non-neurulated neural tissue) is exposed to the environment. These disorders include myelomeningocele, myeloschisis, hemimyelomeningocele, and hemimyelocele, and are always associated with a Chiari II malformation. Closed spinal dysraphisms are covered by intact skin, although cutaneous stigmata usually indicate their presence. Two subsets may be identified based on whether a subcutaneous mass is present in the low back. Closed spinal dysraphisms with mass comprise lipomyeloschisis, lipomyelomeningocele, meningocele, and myelocystocele. Closed spinal dysraphisms without mass comprise complex dysraphic states (ranging from complete dorsal enteric fistula to neurenteric cysts, split cord malformations, dermal sinuses, caudal regression, and spinal segmental dysgenesis), bony spina bifida, tight filum terminale, filar and intradural lipomas, and persistent terminal ventricle. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice for investigation of this complex group of disorders. PMID:11744877

Tortori-Donati, P; Rossi, A; Biancheri, R; Cama, A

2001-12-01

152

Magnetic resonance imaging in cardiac amyloidosis  

SciTech Connect

Primary amyloidosis (AL) involves the myocardium in 90% of cases and may present as apparent ischemia, vascular disease, or congestive heart failure. Two-dimensional echocardiography (echo) has proven useful in the diagnosis, particularly in differentiating AL from constrictive pericarditis. The findings of thickened RV and LV myocardium, normal LV cavity dimension, and a diffuse hyperrefractile ''granular sparkling'' appearance are virtually diagnostic. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may improve the resolution of anatomic changes seen in cardiac AL and has the potential to provide more specific information based on biochemical tissue alterations. In this preliminary study, the authors obtained both MR and echo images in six patients with AL and biopsy-proven myocardial involvement. 5/6 patients also had Tc-99 PYP myocardial studies including emission tomography (SPECT). MR studies utilized a 0.6 Tesla superconductive magnet. End diastolic gated images were obtained with TE=30msec and TR=R-R interval on the ECG. 6/6 pts. showed LV wall thickening which was concentric and included the septum. Papillary muscles were identified in all and were enlarged in 3/6. 4/6 pts. showed RV wall thickening but to a lesser degree than LV. Pericardial effusions were present in 4 cases. These findings correlated well with the results of echo although MR gave better RV free wall resolution. PYP scans were positive in 3 pts. but there was no correlation with degree of LV thickening. The authors conclude that there are no identifiable MR findings in patients with cardiac AL which encourage further attempts to characterize myocardial involvement by measurement of MR relaxation times in vivo.

O'Donnell, J.K.; Go, R.T.; Bott-Silverman, C.; Feiglin, D.H.; Salcedo, E.; MacIntyre, W.J.

1984-01-01

153

Imaging of tophaceous gout: computed tomography provides specific images compared with magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the usefulness of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and Doppler ultrasonography (US) in providing specific images of gouty tophi.Methods: Four male patients with chronic gout with tophi affecting the knee joints (three cases) or the olecranon processes of the elbows (one case) were assessed. Crystallographic analyses of the synovial fluid or tissue aspirates of the

J C Gerster; M Landry; L Dufresne; J Y Meuwly

2002-01-01

154

DIABETIC RETINOPATHY UPDATE Magnetic resonance imaging of the retina: A brief  

E-print Network

DIABETIC RETINOPATHY UPDATE Magnetic resonance imaging of the retina: A brief historical and future KEYWORDS MRI; Magnetic resonance imaging; Diabetic retinopathy; Retinitis pigmentosa; Glaucoma Abstract

Duong, Timothy Q.

155

Bridging the Gap: Integrating Cellular and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies  

E-print Network

Bridging the Gap: Integrating Cellular and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies and interpreting experimental results. The temporal and spatial resolution of functional magnetic resonance imaging

Rotstein, Horacio G.

156

[Magnetic resonance contract agents and perfusion imaging].  

PubMed

Contrast agents may be categorised as non-specific or specific agents. Non-specific agents are freely diffusible in the extracellular and extravascular compartment with the exception of the brain where only blood brain barrier lesions enables the contrast agent to pass. In the specific agent group, a new class of products has been developed, that of blood pool contrast agent, which are distributed in the total intravascular volume and are slowly cleared from the blood. Crossing the healthy capillary wall is limited and depends both on the pathological state of the endothelial permeability tissue of the organ under interest and on the characteristics of the contrast agent (size, charge, molecular shape...). The diagnostic efficacy in perfusion imaging including cerebral perfusion is modulated by the pharmacokinetic profile of the blood pool contrast agent. One way to improve the vascular residence time, consists in binding a vector such as synthetic polymer or a biological macromolecule and a lanthanide like Gd3+, Mn2+, Dy3+ or metal ions. A second way is the synthesis of ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles which could escape rapid recognition by the monocyte macrophage phagocytic system mainly of liver and spleen. Because of their cristalline structure and the large number of non-paired spins, five electrons for the iron metal, the nanoparticles behave as magnetic domain when an external field is applied. They consequently have a high dipolar magnetic moment, and can produce a T2 effect in vivo, resulting in a drop in the magnetic resonance signal. Possible interests and developments toward perfusion imaging are demonstrated in experimental models studies. PMID:8656086

Benderbous, S; Bonnemain, B

1996-01-01

157

Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Postprostatectomy Radiotherapy Planning  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate whether the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prostate bed treatment planning could influence definition of the clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk. Methods and Materials: A total of 21 consecutive patients referred for prostate bed radiotherapy were included in the present retrospective study. The CTV was delineated according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer recommendations on computed tomography (CT) and T{sub 1}-weighted (T{sub 1}w) and T{sub 2}-weighted (T{sub 2}w) MRI. The CTV magnitude, agreement, and spatial differences were evaluated on the planning CT scan after registration with the MRI scans. Results: The CTV was significantly reduced on the T{sub 1}w and T{sub 2}w MRI scans (13% and 9%, respectively) compared with the CT scans. The urinary bladder was drawn smaller on the CT scans and the rectum was smaller on the MRI scans. On T{sub 1}w MRI, the rectum and urinary bladder were delineated larger than on T{sub 2}w MRI. Minimal agreement was observed between the CT and T{sub 2}w images. The main spatial differences were measured in the superior and superolateral directions in which the CTV on the MRI scans was 1.8-2.9 mm smaller. In the posterior and inferior border, no difference was seen between the CT and T{sub 1}w MRI scans. On the T{sub 2}w MRI scans, the CTV was larger in these directions (by 1.3 and 1.7 mm, respectively). Conclusions: The use of MRI in postprostatectomy radiotherapy planning resulted in a reduction of the CTV. The main differences were found in the superior part of the prostate bed. We believe T{sub 2}w MRI enables more precise definition of prostate bed CTV than conventional planning CT.

Sefrova, Jana, E-mail: sefrova@post.cz [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Odrazka, Karel [Department of Clinical and Radiation Oncology, Multiscan and Pardubice Regional Hospital, Pardubice (Czech Republic); First and Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Paluska, Petr [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Belobradek, Zdenek [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Brodak, Milos [Department of Urology, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Dolezel, Martin [Department of Clinical and Radiation Oncology, Multiscan and Pardubice Regional Hospital, Pardubice (Czech Republic); First and Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Prosvic, Petr [Department of Urology, Regional Hospital Nachod, Nachod (Czech Republic); Macingova, Zuzana; Vosmik, Milan [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Hoffmann, Petr [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Louda, Miroslav [Department of Urology, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Nejedla, Anna [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

2012-02-01

158

Narrow band deformable registration of prostate magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, and computed tomography studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Endorectal (ER) coil-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is often used to obtain anatomic and metabolic images of the prostate and to accurately identify and assess the intraprostatic lesions. Recent advancements in high-field (3 Tesla or above) MR techniques affords significantly enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and makes it possible to obtain high-quality MRI data. In

Eduard Schreibmann; Lei Xing

2005-01-01

159

Magnetic resonance imaging: Review of imaging techniques and overview of liver imaging  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver is slowly transitioning from a problem solving imaging modality to a first line imaging modality for many diseases of the liver. The well established advantages of MRI over other cross sectional imaging modalities may be the basis for this transition. Technological advancements in MRI that focus on producing high quality images and fast imaging, increasing diagnostic accuracy and developing newer function-specific contrast agents are essential in ensuring that MRI succeeds as a first line imaging modality. Newer imaging techniques, such as parallel imaging, are widely utilized to shorten scanning time. Diffusion weighted echo planar imaging, an adaptation from neuroimaging, is fast becoming a routine part of the MRI liver protocol to improve lesion detection and characterization of focal liver lesions. Contrast enhanced dynamic T1 weighted imaging is crucial in complete evaluation of diseases and the merit of this dynamic imaging relies heavily on the appropriate timing of the contrast injection. Newer techniques that include fluoro-triggered contrast enhanced MRI, an adaptation from 3D MRA imaging, are utilized to achieve good bolus timing that will allow for optimum scanning. For accurate interpretation of liver diseases, good understanding of the newer imaging techniques and familiarity with typical imaging features of liver diseases are essential. In this review, MR sequences for a time efficient liver MRI protocol utilizing newer imaging techniques are discussed and an overview of imaging features of selected common focal and diffuse liver diseases are presented. PMID:21160685

Maniam, Santhi; Szklaruk, Janio

2010-01-01

160

Magnetic resonance imaging of the kidneys  

SciTech Connect

A study of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the kidneys in six normal volunteers and 52 patients is reported. Corticomedullary differentiation was seen with the inversion-recovery (IR 1400/400) sequence in the normal volunteers and in patients with functioning transplanted kidneys and acute tubular necrosis. Partial or total loss of corticomedullary differentiation was seen in glomerulonephritis, acute and chronic renal failure, renal artery stenosis, and transplant rejection. The T1 of the kidneys was increased in glomerulonephritis with neuphrotic syndrome, but the T1 was within the normal range for renal medulla in glomerulonephritis without nephrotic syndrome, renal artery stenosis, and chronic renal failure. A large staghorn calculus was demonstrated with MRI, but small calculi were not seen. Fluid within the hydonephrosis, simple renal cysts, and polycystic kidneys displayed very low signal intensity and long T1 values. Tumors displayed varied appearances. Hypernephromas were shown to be hypo- or hyperintense with the renal medulla on the IR 1400/400 sequence. After intravenous injection of gadolinium-DTPA, there was marked decrease in the tumor T1.

Leung, A.W.L.; Bydder, G.M.; Steinter, R.E.; Bryant, D.J.; Young, I.R.

1984-12-01

161

Imaging intelligence with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is a technique for the assay of brain neurochemistry in vivo. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), the most prominent metabolite visible within the 1H-MRS spectrum, is found primarily within neurons. The current study was designed to further elucidate NAA–cognition relationships, particularly whether such relationships are moderated by sex, or tissue type (gray or white matter). We administered standard measures of intelligence to 63 young, healthy subjects and obtained spectroscopic imaging data within a slab of tissue superior to the lateral ventricles. We found that lower NAA within right anterior gray matter predicted better performance VIQ (F=6.83, p=.011, r2=.10), while higher NAA within the right posterior gray matter region predicted better PIQ (F=8.175, p=.006, r2=.12). These findings add to the small but growing body of literature linking brain biochemistry to intelligence in normal healthy subjects using 1H-MRSI. PMID:19936275

Jung, Rex E.; Gasparovic, Charles; Chavez, Robert S.; Caprihan, Arvind; Barrow, Ranee; Yeo, Ronald A.

2009-01-01

162

A Penalized Likelihood Approach to Magnetic Resonance Image Reconstruction  

E-print Network

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) technology are reconstructed using the discrete inverse Fourier transform is that the images obtained from MRI technology can be very noisy due to various factors, such as motionMRI), which is used to study the activation patterns of the brain. In fMRI, a series of MR images of the brain

163

Detection of Entorhinal Layer II Using Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

) to minimize background effects. Images were collected on a 7T whole-body MRI scanner based on a Siemens Sonata islands using magnetic resonance imaging. We scanned human autopsied temporal lobe blocks in a 7T human used a human whole-body 7T scanner, obtaining images with 100 m isotropic voxels, and were able

Fischl, Bruce

164

Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears

Richard Kijowski; Michael Tuite; Matthew Sanford

2005-01-01

165

Quantifying mixing using magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Mixing is a unit operation that combines two or more components into a homogeneous mixture. This work involves mixing two viscous liquid streams using an in-line static mixer. The mixer is a split-and-recombine design that employs shear and extensional flow to increase the interfacial contact between the components. A prototype split-and-recombine (SAR) mixer was constructed by aligning a series of thin laser-cut Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates held in place in a PVC pipe. Mixing in this device is illustrated in the photograph in Fig. 1. Red dye was added to a portion of the test fluid and used as the minor component being mixed into the major (undyed) component. At the inlet of the mixer, the injected layer of tracer fluid is split into two layers as it flows through the mixing section. On each subsequent mixing section, the number of horizontal layers is duplicated. Ultimately, the single stream of dye is uniformly dispersed throughout the cross section of the device. Using a non-Newtonian test fluid of 0.2% Carbopol and a doped tracer fluid of similar composition, mixing in the unit is visualized using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is a very powerful experimental probe of molecular chemical and physical environment as well as sample structure on the length scales from microns to centimeters. This sensitivity has resulted in broad application of these techniques to characterize physical, chemical and/or biological properties of materials ranging from humans to foods to porous media (1, 2). The equipment and conditions used here are suitable for imaging liquids containing substantial amounts of NMR mobile (1)H such as ordinary water and organic liquids including oils. Traditionally MRI has utilized super conducting magnets which are not suitable for industrial environments and not portable within a laboratory (Fig. 2). Recent advances in magnet technology have permitted the construction of large volume industrially compatible magnets suitable for imaging process flows. Here, MRI provides spatially resolved component concentrations at different axial locations during the mixing process. This work documents real-time mixing of highly viscous fluids via distributive mixing with an application to personal care products. PMID:22314707

Tozzi, Emilio J; McCarthy, Kathryn L; Bacca, Lori A; Hartt, William H; McCarthy, Michael J

2012-01-01

166

Magnetic resonance imaging in entomology: a critical review  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables in vivo imaging of organisms. The recent development of the magnetic resonance microscope (MRM) has enabled organisms within the size range of many insects to be imaged. Here, we introduce the principles of MRI and MRM and review their use in entomology. We show that MRM has been successfully applied in studies of parasitology, development, metabolism, biomagnetism and morphology, and the advantages and disadvantages relative to other imaging techniques are discussed. In addition, we illustrate the images that can be obtained using MRM. We conclude that although MRM has significant potential, further improvements to the technique are still desirable if it is to become a mainstream imaging technology in entomology. Abbreviation: CSI chemical shift imaging. The dependence of the resonance frequency of a nucleus on the chemical binding of the atom or molecule in which it is contained. (N)MRI (nuclear) magnetic resonance imaging MRM magnetic resonance microscopy Voxel A contraction for volume element, which is the basic unit of MR reconstruction; represented as a pixel in the display of the MR image. PMID:15841222

Hart, A.G.; Bowtell, R.W.; Köckenberger, W.; Wenseleers, T.; Ratnieks, F.L.W.

2003-01-01

167

Patellar tendinitis: the significance of magnetic resonance imaging findings.  

PubMed

We evaluated the significance of magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with patellar tendinitis. Midline sagittal magnetic resonance images were taken of 12 knees from 10 patients and of 17 knees from 15 age- and activity-matched subjects who underwent imaging for reasons other than patellar tendinitis. Of the 12 magnetic resonance imaging scans of knees with clinical patellar tendinitis, 3 (25%) exhibited no defect and only 7 (58%) had unequivocal intratendinous lesions. Among the 17 scans of subjects without clinical patellar tendinitis, 5 (34%) showed no defect and 4 (24%) had unequivocal intratendinous lesions. Proximal tendon width was significantly larger for the tendinitis patient group (5.0 +/- 1.7 mm versus 3.9 +/- 1.0 mm), although considerable overlap was present. All subjects with unequivocal intratendinous signal changes had a significantly longer nonarticular inferior patellar pole and were significantly older (38.1 years versus 26.8 years). Only Blazina stage III lesions were associated with abnormal findings on magnetic resonance imaging. As a whole, the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging was 75% and 29%, respectively. In younger patients with relatively mild symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging did not show significant changes; in older, active patients changes may be present in asymptomatic knees. PMID:10352771

Shalaby, M; Almekinders, L C

1999-01-01

168

Magnetic resonance image enhancement using V-filter  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to present a method of boundary enhancement algorithms for magnetic resonance images using a V-filter. The boundary of the brain tumor was precisely extracted by the region segmentation techniques.

Yamamoto, H.; Sugita, K. (School of Health Sciences, Okayama Univ., Shikata, Okayama 700 (JP)); Kanzaki, N.; Johja, I.; Hiraki, Y. (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Kuwahara, M. (Osaka Industrial Univ., Nakagaito, Daito 574 (JP))

1990-06-01

169

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Method For Estimating Cone Of Uncertainty  

Cancer.gov

The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), Section on Tissue Biophysics and Biomimetics, is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize magnetic resonance imaging techniques.

170

Magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents for chemical sensing  

E-print Network

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used for examining the human body. MRI contrast agents currently used in the clinic assist physicians in locating problematic areas, but other tools are needed to interrogate ...

Liu, Vincent Hok

2014-01-01

171

Fast magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging using RF coil arrays  

E-print Network

Conventional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) suffers from both low signal-to-noise (SNR), as well as long acquisition times. The development of high-fidelity gradient coils has opened opportunities for fast ...

Gagoski, Borjan Aleksandar

2006-01-01

172

Improvements in magnetic resonance imaging excitation pulse design  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on the design of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radio-frequency (RF) excitation pulses, and its primary contributions are made through connections with the novel multiple-system single-output (MSSO) ...

Zelinski, Adam Charles

2008-01-01

173

Microfluidically Cryo-Cooled Planar Coils for Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is typically required for higher resolution and faster speed in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Planar microcoils as receiver probes in MRI systems offer the potential to be configured into array elements for fast...

Koo, Chiwan

2013-08-09

174

FY08 Annual Report for Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Imaging  

SciTech Connect

FY08 annual report for project the "Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Imaging" project. Reviews accomplishments of last 3 years, including U-235 signature search, comparison of different photon sources, and examination of NRF measurements using monochromatic photon source.

Warren, Glen A.; Caggiano, Joseph A.

2009-01-06

175

The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded in December 2003 to chemist Paul C. Lauterbur and physicist Peter Mansfield for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a long overdue recognition of the huge impact MRI has had in medical diagnostics and research is mentioned. MRI was derived, and remains an extension of nuclear magnetic resonance

Fry, Charles G.

2004-01-01

176

Fast neutron resonance radiography for elemental imaging: theory and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast neutron resonance radiography (NRR) has been devised as an elemental imaging method with applications such as contraband detection and mineral analysis. In NRR, a two-dimensional (2-D) elemental mapping of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and the sum of other elements is obtained from fast neutron radiographic images, taken at different neutron energies and chosen to cover the resonance cross-section features

Gongyin Chen; Richard C. Lanza

2002-01-01

177

Cranial and spinal magnetic resonance imaging: A guide and atlas  

SciTech Connect

This atlas provides a clinical guide to interpreting cranial and spinal magnetic resonance images. The book includes coverage of the cerebrum, temporal bone, and cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, with more than 400 scan images depicting both normal anatomy and pathologic findings. Introductory chapters review the practical physics of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, offer guidelines for interpreting cranial MR scans, and provide coverage of each anatomic region of the cranium and spine. For each region, scans accompanied by captions, show normal anatomic sections matched with MR images. These are followed by MR scans depicting various disease states.

Daniels, D.L.; Haughton, V.M.

1987-01-01

178

Probing Tissue Microstructure with Restriction Spectrum Imaging: Histological and Theoretical Validation  

PubMed Central

Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is a powerful tool for studying biological tissue microarchitectures in vivo. Recently, there has been increased effort to develop quantitative dMRI methods to probe both length scale and orientation information in diffusion media. Diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) is one such approach that aims to resolve such information on the basis of the three-dimensional diffusion propagator at each voxel. However, in practice only the orientation component of the propagator function is preserved when deriving the orientation distribution function. Here, we demonstrate how a straightforward extension of the linear spherical deconvolution (SD) model can be used to probe tissue orientation structures over a range (or “spectrum”) of length scales with minimal assumptions on the underlying microarchitecture. Using high b-value Cartesian q-space data on a fixed rat brain sample, we demonstrate how this “restriction spectrum imaging” (RSI) model allows for separating the volume fraction and orientation distribution of hindered and restricted diffusion, which we argue stems primarily from diffusion in the extra- and intra-neurite water compartment, respectively. Moreover, we demonstrate how empirical RSI estimates of the neurite orientation distribution and volume fraction capture important additional structure not afforded by traditional DSI or fixed-scale SD-like reconstructions, particularly in grey matter. We conclude that incorporating length scale information in geometric models of diffusion offers promise for advancing state-of-the-art dMRI methods beyond white matter into grey matter structures while allowing more detailed quantitative characterization of water compartmentalization and histoarchitecture of healthy and diseased tissue. PMID:23169482

White, Nathan S.; Leergaard, Trygve B.; D’Arceuil, Helen; Bjaalie, Jan G.; Dale, Anders M.

2012-01-01

179

Probing tissue microstructure with restriction spectrum imaging: Histological and theoretical validation.  

PubMed

Water diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is a powerful tool for studying biological tissue microarchitectures in vivo. Recently, there has been increased effort to develop quantitative dMRI methods to probe both length scale and orientation information in diffusion media. Diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) is one such approach that aims to resolve such information based on the three-dimensional diffusion propagator at each voxel. However, in practice, only the orientation component of the propagator function is preserved when deriving the orientation distribution function. Here, we demonstrate how a straightforward extension of the linear spherical deconvolution (SD) model can be used to probe tissue orientation structures over a range (or "spectrum") of length scales with minimal assumptions on the underlying microarchitecture. Using high b-value Cartesian q-space data on a rat brain tissue sample, we demonstrate how this "restriction spectrum imaging" (RSI) model allows for separating the volume fraction and orientation distribution of hindered and restricted diffusion, which we argue stems primarily from diffusion in the extraneurite and intraneurite water compartment, respectively. Moreover, we demonstrate how empirical RSI estimates of the neurite orientation distribution and volume fraction capture important additional structure not afforded by traditional DSI or fixed-scale SD-like reconstructions, particularly in gray matter. We conclude that incorporating length scale information in geometric models of diffusion offers promise for advancing state-of-the-art dMRI methods beyond white matter into gray matter structures while allowing more detailed quantitative characterization of water compartmentalization and histoarchitecture of healthy and diseased tissue. PMID:23169482

White, Nathan S; Leergaard, Trygve B; D'Arceuil, Helen; Bjaalie, Jan G; Dale, Anders M

2013-02-01

180

Comparison of magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and conventional angiography in cerebral arteriovenous malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

10 patients with an AVM of the brain were examined by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and conventional cerebral angiography (CCA). From MRA in 7\\/10 patients important information about vascular supply could be provided; in 3 patients, all with small AVM's it could be only suspected. CCA revealed the vascularisation of the AVM's in all patients and

F. Nüssel; H. Wegmüller; P. Huber

1991-01-01

181

1H Magnetic resonance imaging and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy in experimental filariasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

1H Magnetic resonance imaging and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have been carried out in experimental rodent filariasis, i.e., Acanthocheilonema viteae infection in the rodent host, Mastomys coucha. The T2-weighted image of the infected host shows fine hyperintense thread like structures of adult filariid nests in the cervical region. 31P MRS of normal and infected hosts, localized over the same

Amita Shukla-Dave; Nigar Fatma; Raja Roy; S. Srivastava; R. K. Chatterjee; V. Govindaraju; A. Kasi Viswanathan; P. Raghunathan

1997-01-01

182

Magnetic resonance imaging in lateral sinus hypoplasia and thrombosis.  

PubMed

Lateral sinus thrombosis may be difficult to differentiate angiographically from lateral sinus hypoplasia, which mainly affects its proximal transverse portion. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated six patients who demonstrated poor filling or lack of filling of one or both lateral sinuses at angiography. In each patient, magnetic resonance imaging unambiguously demonstrated either lateral sinus thrombosis or lateral sinus hypoplasia. The latter was characterized by a frank asymmetry in size (surface of section) of the transverse portion of the lateral sinuses on parasagittal images without any abnormal signal in the course of the sinus. Lateral sinus thrombosis was indicated by increased intraluminal signal on all planes and with all pulse sequences. By virtue of its freedom from bone-related artifact, its multiplanar imaging capability, and its sensitivity to both blood flow and thrombus formation, magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent tool for the evaluation of lateral sinus thrombosis or hypoplasia. PMID:2396274

Mas, J L; Meder, J F; Meary, E; Bousser, M G

1990-09-01

183

Advanced image reconstruction in parallel magnetic resonance imaging : constraints and solutions.  

E-print Network

Imaging speed is a crucial consideration for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The speed of conventional MRI is limited by hardware performance and physiological safety measures. "Parallel" MRI is a new technique that ...

Yeh, Ernest Nanjung, 1975-

2005-01-01

184

Fundamental and practical limits to image acceleration in parallel magnetic resonance imaging  

E-print Network

Imaging speed in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is limited by the performance of magnetic field gradients and the rate of power deposition in tissue. Parallel MRI techniques overcome these constraints by ...

Ohliger, Michael A

2005-01-01

185

Imaging of the hip joint. Computed tomography versus magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors reviewed the applications and limitations of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the assessment of the most common hip disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive technique in detecting osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Magnetic resonance reflects the histologic changes associated with osteonecrosis very well, which may ultimately help to improve staging. Computed tomography can more accurately identify subchondral fractures than MR imaging and thus remains important for staging. In congenital dysplasia of the hip, the position of the nonossified femoral head in children less than six months of age can only be inferred by indirect signs on CT. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates the cartilaginous femoral head directly without ionizing radiation. Computed tomography remains the imaging modality of choice for evaluating fractures of the hip joint. In some patients, MR imaging demonstrates the fracture even when it is not apparent on radiography. In neoplasm, CT provides better assessment of calcification, ossification, and periosteal reaction than MR imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging, however, represents the most accurate imaging modality for evaluating intramedullary and soft-tissue extent of the tumor and identifying involvement of neurovascular bundles. Magnetic resonance imaging can also be used to monitor response to chemotherapy. In osteoarthrosis and rheumatoid arthritis of the hip, both CT and MR provide more detailed assessment of the severity of disease than conventional radiography because of their tomographic nature. Magnetic resonance imaging is unique in evaluating cartilage degeneration and loss, and in demonstrating soft-tissue alterations such as inflammatory synovial proliferation.

Lang, P.; Genant, H. K.; Jergesen, H. E.; Murray, W. R.

1992-01-01

186

The Multisensory Attentional Consequences of Tool Use: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

E-print Network

The Multisensory Attentional Consequences of Tool Use: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Oxford Centre for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford functional magnetic resonance imaging, while they used a simple tool to discriminate between target

Hansen, Peter

187

Magnetic resonance imaging of live freshwater mussels (Unionidae) F. Michael Holliman,1,a  

E-print Network

Magnetic resonance imaging of live freshwater mussels (Unionidae) F. Michael Holliman,1,a Denise 2 Magnetic Resonance Research Center, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Eastern elliptio Elliptio complanata, via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), acquiring data with a widely

Kwak, Thomas J.

188

Advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

Due to advances in cardiac surgery, survival of patients with congenital heart disease has increased considerably during the past decades. Many of these patients require repeated cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess cardiac anatomy and function. In the past decade, technological advances have enabled faster and more robust cardiovascular magnetic resonance with improved image quality and spatial as well as temporal resolution. This review aims to provide an overview of advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance hardware and acquisition techniques relevant to both pediatric and adult patients with congenital heart disease and discusses the techniques used to assess function, anatomy, flow and tissue characterization. PMID:25552386

Driessen, Mieke M P; Breur, Johannes M P J; Budde, Ricardo P J; van Oorschot, Joep W M; van Kimmenade, Roland R J; Sieswerda, Gertjan Tj; Meijboom, Folkert J; Leiner, Tim

2015-01-01

189

Travelling wave magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waveguides have been successfully used to generate magnetic resonance images at 7 T with whole-body systems. The bore diameter limits the magnetic resonance signal transmitted because its specific cut-off frequency is greater than the majority of resonant frequencies in magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. This restriction can be overcome by using a parallel-plate waveguide whose cut-off frequency is zero for the transverse electromagnetic modes and it can propagate any frequency. To study the potential benefits of travelling-wave excitation for whole-body imaging at 3 T, we compare numerical simulations of the principal mode propagation for a parallel-plate waveguide filled with a cylindrical phantom and two surface coils for all simulations at 1.5 T, 3 T, 4.7, 7 T, and 9.4 T. The principal mode shows very little variation of the field magnitude along the propagation direction at 3 T when compared to other higher resonant frequencies. Unlike the standard method for travelling-wave magnetic resonance imaging, a parallel-plate waveguide prototype was built and used together with a whole-body birdcage coil for signal transmission and a pair of circular coils for reception. Experimental B1 mapping was computed to investigate the feasibility of this approach and, the point spread function method was used to measure the imager performance. Human leg images were acquired to experimentally validate this approach. The numerical magnetic field and specific absorption rate of a simulated leg were computed and results are within the safety limits. The B1 mapping and point spread function results showed that it is possible to conduct travelling-wave imaging experiments with good imager performance. Human leg images were also obtained with the whole-body birdcage coil for comparison purposes. The simulated and in vivo travelling-wave results of the human leg correspond very well for the signal received. A similar image signal-to-noise ratio was observed for the travelling-wave approach and the conventional one. We have demonstrated the feasibility of travelling-wave magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T and whole-body magnetic resonance systems, using a parallel-plate waveguide with standard pulse sequences and only one coil array. This extends the use of the waveguide approach to a wider range of resonant frequencies.

Vazquez, F.; Martin, R.; Marrufo, O.; Rodriguez, A. O.

2013-08-01

190

Manganese encephalopathy: utility of early magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed Central

The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides visual evidence of cerebral deposits of paramagnetic metals. The usefulness of MRI is described in connection with the manganese poisoning of a 44 year old arc welder who had been engaged in the repair and recycling of railroad track made of manganese steel alloy. Images PMID:8329316

Nelson, K; Golnick, J; Korn, T; Angle, C

1993-01-01

191

Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Experimental Models of Brain Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review gives an overview of the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in experimental models of brain disorders. MRI is a noninvasive and versatile imaging modality that allows longitudinal and three-dimensional assessment of tissue morphology, metabolism, physiology, and function. MRI can be sensitized to proton density, T1, T2, susceptibility contrast, magnetization transfer, diffusion, perfusion, and flow. The combination of

Rick M. Dijkhuizen; Klaas Nicolay

2003-01-01

192

Magnetic Resonance Perfusion Imaging in the Study of Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a brief review of various uses of magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in the investigation of brain/language relationships. The reviewed studies illustrate how perfusion imaging can reveal areas of brain where dysfunction due to low blood flow is associated with specific language deficits, and where restoration of blood flow…

Hillis, Argye E.

2007-01-01

193

Disclosure of Unknown Harms in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unknown harms are by their nature difficult to communicate. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has known risks (e.g., metal projectiles, dislodgement of medical implants), this imaging modality also has potential unknown long-term negative health effects associated with its static magnetic fields. We carried out a research ethics board (REB) file review of previously approved MRI research studies and found that

Jennifer Marshall

2010-01-01

194

NMR-0Fessler, Univ. of Michigan Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

NMR-0Fessler, Univ. of Michigan Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging Jeffrey A. Fessler EECS Department The University of Michigan NSS-MIC: Fundamentals of Medical Imaging Oct. 20, 2003 #12;NMR-1Fessler, Univ. of Michigan Outline · Background · Basic physics · 4 magnetic fields · Bloch equation

Fessler, Jeffrey A.

195

Assessing gene expression in vivo: magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy afford the possibility of detecting and assessing transfer, expression and subsequent therapeutic changes of effector or marker transgenes noninvasively. In the field of MR imaging, ‘smart’ MR contrast agents are being developed, so called because they change their conformational structure and in so doing induce MR detectable changes in a given tissue.

JD Bell; SD Taylor-Robinson

2000-01-01

196

Magnetic resonance imaging of the intrauterine fetal genitourinary tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although ultrasonography (US) remains the most widely used diagnostic imaging modality for routine evaluation of the fetus, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become an invaluable complement to US in all cases in which additional information is desirable. While the ability of US to detect fetal abnormalities is limited in cases such as maternal obesity, oligohydramnios, and in certain fetal positions,

C. Martín; A. Darnell; C. Durán; P. Bermúdez; F. Mellado; S. Rigol

2004-01-01

197

Magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for extravehicular activity analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this research is to examine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a means of conducting kinematic studies of the hand for the purpose of EVA capability enhancement. After imaging the subject hand using a magnetic resonance scanner, the resulting 2D slices were reconstructed into a 3D model of the proximal phalanx of the left hand. Using the coordinates of several landmark positions, one is then able to decompose the motion of the rigid body. MRI offers highly accurate measurements due to its tomographic nature without the problems associated with other imaging modalities for in vivo studies.

Dickenson, R.; Lorenz, C.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

1992-01-01

198

Echo-Planar Imaging: Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Fraction of a Second  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress has recently been made in implementing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that can be used to obtain images in a fraction of a second rather than in minutes. Echo-planar imaging (EPI) uses only one nuclear spin excitation per image and lends itself to a variety of critical medical and scientific applications. Among these are evaluation of cardiac function in

Michael K. Stehling; Robert Turner; Peter Mansfield

1991-01-01

199

Magnetic Resonance Image Tissue Classification Using a Partial Volume Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a sequence of low-level operations to isolate and classify brain tissue within T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI). Our method first removes nonbrain tissue using a combination of anisotropic diffusion filtering, edge detection, and mathematical morphology. We compensate for image nonuniformities due to magnetic field inhomogeneities by fitting a tricubic B-spline gain field to local estimates of the image

David W. Shattuck; Stephanie R. Sandor-Leahy; Kirt A. Schaper; David A. Rottenberg; Richard M. Leahy

2001-01-01

200

[Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intracranial chordomas].  

PubMed

MR images of 5 patients with intracranial chordoma were evaluated and compared with those of other clival lesions (1 clival osteomyelitis, 1 metastatic clival tumor, 3 clival meningiomas). The MR examination was performed using a 0.5 T superconductive magnet, with approximately 10 mm section thickness, one average and a 256 x 256 matrix. T1 weighted images were obtained by inversion recovery (IR) with TR 2100-2500 msec, TI 600 msec and TE 40 msec. T2 weighted images were obtained by spin echo pulse sequence with TR 1800-2500 msec and TE 120 msec (long SE). In several cases, the spin echo pulse sequences with TR 1000 msec and TE 40 msec (short SE) were also done. Multiplaned images were obtained. Four of 5 intracranial chordomas were low in intensity compared to cerebral gray matter on T1 weighted images, and all of 5 chordomas were as high in intensity as cerebrospinal fluid or higher than that of cerebrospinal fluid on T2 weighted images. Clival fatty marrow is high intensity on T1 weighted images. Clival involvement by a tumor was a clearly demonstrated as disappearance of this high intensity in all cases. In two cases, the tumor extended to the retropharyngeal space and this was detected clearly on short SE image. Although clival fatty marrow was disappeared, osteomyelitis and metastatic tumor in clivus were iso-intense to cerebral gray matter on both T1 and T2 weighted images.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3395520

Fukuda, T; Inoue, Y; Shakudo, M; Hashimoto, H; Nishioka, M; Matsumura, Y; Nemoto, Y; Takemoto, K; Onoyama, Y; Hakuba, A

1988-03-01

201

Correlating Hemodynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging with high-field Intracranial Vessel Wall Imaging in Stroke  

PubMed Central

Vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field (7 Tesla) can be used to visualize vascular lesions noninvasively and holds potential for improving stroke-risk assessment in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. We present the first multi-modal comparison of such high-field vessel wall imaging with more conventional (i) 3 Tesla hemodynamic magnetic resonance imaging and (ii) digital subtraction angiography in a 69-year-old male with a left temporal ischemic infarct. PMID:25426229

Langdon, Weston; Donahue, Manus J.; van der Kolk, Anja G.; Rane, Swati; Strother, Megan K.

2014-01-01

202

Imaging Intelligence with Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([to the first power]H-MRS) is a technique for the assay of brain neurochemistry "in vivo." N-acetylaspartate (NAA), the most prominent metabolite visible within the [to the first power]H-MRS spectrum, is found primarily within neurons. The current study was designed to further elucidate NAA-cognition…

Jung, Rex E.; Gasparovic, Charles; Chavez, Robert S.; Caprihan, Arvind; Barrow, Ranee; Yeo, Ronald A.

2009-01-01

203

Magnetic resonance imaging in cancer research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive assessment of antineoplastic response and correlation of the location, magnitude and duration of transgene expression in vivo would be particularly useful for evaluating cancer gene therapy protocols. This review presents selected examples of how magnetic resonance (MR) has been used to assess therapeutic efficacy by non-invasive quantitation of cell kill, to detect a therapeutic response prior to a change

B. D. Ross; T. L. Chenevert; A. Rehemtulla

2002-01-01

204

Magnetic Resonance Imaging: From Spin Physics to Medical Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two rather similar historical evolutions are evoked, each one originating in fundamental spin studies by physicists, and ending\\u000a as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a set of invaluable tools for clinical diagnosis in the hands of medical doctors. The\\u000a first one starts with the early work on nuclear magnetic resonance, the founding stone of the usual proton-based MRI, of which\\u000a the

Pierre-Jean Nacher

2009-01-01

205

Method for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging  

DOEpatents

A method for in vivo NMR imaging of the blood vessels and organs of a patient characterized by using a dark dye-like imaging substance consisting essentially of a stable, high-purity concentration of D/sub 2/O in a solution with water.

Kehayias, J.J.; Joel, D.D.; Adams, W.H.; Stein, H.L.

1988-05-26

206

[Diagnostic approach to cardiopathies by means of magnetic resonance imaging].  

PubMed

Cardiomyopathies encompass a broad spectrum of heart pathologies having a basic principle, the intrinsic injury of the myocardial fiber. By definition, cardiomyopathies could be primary (dilated cardiomyopathy), or can be a consequence of another cardiovascular illness (high blood pressure), or of genetic anomalies, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or due to alterations in myocytes due to fibrolipidic material as occurs in right ventricle arrhythmogenic dysplasia. Currently, magnetic resonance imaging is the best method to approach the diagnosis of these pathologies. Magnetic resonance imaging has allowed us to study histological sections through adequate sequences and using gadolinium as contrast agent. We present herein a simple way to approach the diagnosis of cardiomyopathies by means of magnetic resonance imaging methods. PMID:15909747

Gutiérrez Zamora, Agustín

2005-01-01

207

Renal Relevant Radiology: Renal Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Summary Because of its noninvasive nature and provision of quantitative measures of a wide variety of physiologic parameters, functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows great potential for research and clinical applications. Over the past decade, application of functional MRI extended beyond detection of cerebral activity, and techniques for abdominal functional MRI evolved. Assessment of renal perfusion, glomerular filtration, interstitial diffusion, and parenchymal oxygenation turned this modality into an essential research and potentially diagnostic tool. Variations in many renal physiologic markers can be detected using functional MRI before morphologic changes become evident in anatomic magnetic resonance images. Moreover, the framework of functional MRI opened a window of opportunity to develop novel pathophysiologic markers. This article reviews applications of some well validated functional MRI techniques, including perfusion, diffusion-weighted imaging, and blood oxygen level–dependent MRI, as well as some emerging new techniques such as magnetic resonance elastography, which might evolve into clinically useful tools. PMID:24370767

Ebrahimi, Behzad; Textor, Stephen C.

2014-01-01

208

Magnetic resonance imaging of interstitial laser photocoagulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously demonstrated the detection of reversible and irreversible changes on MR images oflaser energy deposition and tissue heating and cooling1. It is possible to monitor and control energy deposition during interstitial laser therapy. This presentation describes some first steps toward optimizing the power and total energy deposited in various tissues in vivo, by analyzing the irreversible tissue changes and their spatial distribution as revealed by spin echo imaging. We used various power settings of an Nd.YAG laser delivered by a fiber optic inserted into several tissues (brain, muscle, liver) of anesthetized rats and rabbits. MR imaging was performed at 1.9 T. Photothermally-produced lesions were seen on both T1- and Ta-weighted images. The overall size of the lesions correlated with the magnitude of the energy applied. The MR image appearance depended not only on the laser energy but also on the way it was delivered, on the type of tissue, and the MR pulse sequence applied. While Ti-weighted images adequately demonstrated an area of tissue destruction, T2- weighted images showed a more heterogeneous and more extensive lesion which could be better correlated with the complex histological representation of these lesions. Typically, when rabbit brain, liver, and muscle had been exposed to laser power of 2.5 Watts for a range of 55 to 120 seconds, depending on the tissue, a central area of signal void was surrounded by an inner hypointensity and an outer hyperintensity on T2-weighted images. The 3D extent of the lesions was well demonstrated on multislice images, providing correlation of the affected volumes seen on MRI with volumes seen in histological or histochemical preparations. We are developing an analytical model of laser heating and its effect on MR images to assess whether heating during imaging will produce unacceptable artifacts during surgery. The effect of heating is modeled as a change in magnetization during image acquisition. The region in which the change occurs is blurred by the Fourier transform of the change in magnetization as a function of time. Thus, blurring is minimized when changes occur slowly, compared to image acquisition times. We conclude that MRI can demonstrate the 3D extent of the lesions induced by lasers and can be used to investigate and optimize the control of induced tissue change within the affected volume.

Bleier, Alan R.; Higuchi, Nobuya; Panych, Lawrence P.; Jakab, Peter D.; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

1990-06-01

209

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Parkinson’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows no convincing structural changes in Parkinson’s disease (PD)\\u000a itself, but it may be useful in helping to distinguish PD from other neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes. Magnetic resonance\\u000a spectroscopy (MRS) also may provide useful information in distinguishing PD from disorders such as multiple system atrophy.\\u000a The general field of MRI and MRS is evolving

W. R. Wayne Martin

210

Magnetic resonance imaging findings in Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome  

PubMed Central

Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome (ARS) is a genetic disorder representing a disease spectrum resulting from neural crest cell maldevelopment. Glaucoma is a common complication from the incomplete formation of the iridocorneal angle structures. Neural crest cells also form structures of the forebrain and pituitary gland, dental papillae, aortic arch walls, genitalia, and long bones; therefore, patients with ARS manifest a wide range of systemic findings. To our knowledge, detailed magnetic resonance imaging findings have not been previously reported. We report a case of a 19-month-old Indian male diagnosed with ARS with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging findings of the globes, brain, teeth, and skull base. PMID:23723681

Whitehead, Matthew T; Choudhri, Asim F; Salim, Sarwat

2013-01-01

211

Portable low-cost magnetic resonance imaging  

E-print Network

Purpose: As the premiere modality for brain imaging, MRI could find wider applicability if lightweight, portable systems were available for siting in unconventional locations such as intensive care units (ICUs), physician ...

Cooley, Clarissa Zimmerman

2014-01-01

212

A protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of the temporomandibular joints.  

PubMed

The complex concepts and procedures of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are unfamiliar to many dentists. Similarly, many radiologists lack understanding of the clinical requirements of the dentist for accurate assessment of TMJ abnormalities. Thus, TMJ imaging procedures may be inadequate or incomplete, may vary from facility to facility, and sometimes from patient to patient in a given facility. A protocol for TMJ imaging is presented which meets dental requirements and is rapidly performed in the MRI facility. The protocol may be copied and attached to the prescription to the imaging center. It may be modified or expanded to accommodate specific patient requirements or equipment performance. PMID:10029751

Gibbs, S J; Simmons, H C

1998-10-01

213

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Tracking of Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

To date, several stem cell labeling protocols have been developed, contributing to a fast growing and promising field of stem cell imaging by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). Most of these methods utilize iron oxide nanoparticles (MION, SPIO, USPIO, VSIOP) for cell labeling, which provide negative (dark) signal effects on T2-weighted MR images. The following protocol describes stem cell labeling techniques with commercially available gadolinium chelates, which provide positive contrast on T1-weighted MR images, which can be advantageous for specific applications. PMID:23743862

Nejadnik, Hossein; Castillo, Rostislav; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

2014-01-01

214

High resolution resonance ionization imaging detector and method  

DOEpatents

A resonance ionization imaging device (RIID) and method for imaging objects using the RIID are provided, the RIID system including a RIID cell containing an ionizable vapor including monoisotopic atoms or molecules, the cell being positioned to intercept scattered radiation of a resonance wavelength .lambda..sub.1 from the object which is to be detected or imaged, a laser source disposed to illuminate the RIID cell with laser radiation having a wavelength .lambda..sub.2 or wavelengths .lambda..sub.2, .lambda..sub.3 selected to ionize atoms in the cell that are in an excited state by virtue of having absorbed the scattered resonance laser radiation, and a luminescent screen at the back surface of the RIID cell which presents an image of the number and position of charged particles present in the RIID cell as a result of the ionization of the excited state atoms. The method of the invention further includes the step of initially illuminating the object to be detected or imaged with a laser having a wavelength selected such that the object will scatter laser radiation having the resonance wavelength .lambda..sub.1.

Winefordner, James D. (Gainesville, FL); Matveev, Oleg I. (Gainesville, FL); Smith, Benjamin W. (Gainesville, FL)

1999-01-01

215

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences -Magnetic Resonance Imaging (with AAS Radiologic Technology) -  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences - Magnetic Resonance Imaging (with AAS Radiologic Technology) - Bachelor of Radiologic and Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-MRRT] Regional College Catalog Year Hours] Note: Students must have earned an AAS degree in Radiologic Technology (43 semester credits

Sheridan, Scott

216

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences -Magnetic Resonance Imaging (with AAS Radiologic Technology) -  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences - Magnetic Resonance Imaging (with AAS Radiologic Technology) - Bachelor of Radiologic and Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-MRRT] Regional College Catalog Year Hours] Note: Students must have earned an AAS degree in Radiologic Technology (69-71 semester credits

Sheridan, Scott

217

Hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance pulmonary imaging: Image processing tools for clinical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance imaging has emerged as an in vivo imaging pulmonary research tool. It is unique among imaging methods in that it provides simultaneous lung structural and functional information at high resolution without the use of ionizing radiation, and thus is ideally suited for intensive serial longitudinal studies and for examining treatment effects. Despite the great promise of

Lindsay Mathew; Andrew Wheatley; David G. McCormack; Grace Parraga

2008-01-01

218

He Lung Imaging in an Open Access, Very-Low-Field Human Magnetic Resonance Imaging System  

E-print Network

3 He Lung Imaging in an Open Access, Very-Low-Field Human Magnetic Resonance Imaging System R. W. Butler,6 F. W. Hersman,4 and R. L. Walsworth1 The human lung and its functions are extremely sensitive lung restrict sub- jects to lying horizontally. Imaging of human lungs using inhaled laser-polarized 3

Walsworth, Ronald L.

219

Magnetic resonance imaging for lung cancer screen  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death throughout the world. Lung cancer is an example of a disease for which a large percentage of the high-risk population can be easily identified via a smoking history. This has led to the investigation of lung cancer screening with low-dose helical/multi-detector CT. Evidences suggest that early detection of lung cancer allow more timely therapeutic intervention and thus a more favorable prognosis for the patient. The positive relationship of lesion size to likelihood of malignancy has been demonstrated previously, at least 99% of all nodules 4 mm or smaller are benign, while noncalcified nodules larger than 8 mm diameter bear a substantial risk of malignancy. In the recent years, the availability of high-performance gradient systems, in conjunction with phased-array receiver coils and optimized imaging sequences, has made MR imaging of the lung feasible. It can now be assumed a threshold size of 3-4 mm for detection of lung nodules with MRI under the optimal conditions of successful breath-holds with reliable gating or triggering. In these conditions, 90% of all 3-mm nodules can be correctly diagnosed and that nodules 5 mm and larger are detected with 100% sensitivity. Parallel imaging can significantly shorten the imaging acquisition time by utilizing the diversity of sensitivity profile of individual coil elements in multi-channel radiofrequency receive coil arrays or transmit/receive coil arrays to reduce the number of phase encoding steps required in imaging procedure. Compressed sensing technique accelerates imaging acquisition from dramatically undersampled data set by exploiting the sparsity of the images in an appropriate transform domain. With the combined imaging algorithm of parallel imaging and compressed sensing and advanced 32-channel or 64-channel RF hardware, overall imaging acceleration of 20 folds or higher can then be expected, ultimately achieve free-breathing and no ECG gating acquisitions in lung cancer MRI screening. Further development of protocols, more clinical trials and the use of advanced analysis tools will further evaluate the real significance of lung MRI. PMID:25276380

Lo, Gladys G.; Yuan, Jing; Larson, Peder E. Z.

2014-01-01

220

Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging by Retrospective Gating: Mathematical Modelling and Reconstruction Algorithms  

E-print Network

Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging by Retrospective Gating: Mathematical Modelling of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the beating human heart. In particular we investigate the so, 69K45, 78A70, 92A09. Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, cardiac imaging, retrospective gating

Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

221

Field Inhomogeneity Correction based on Gridding Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

1 Field Inhomogeneity Correction based on Gridding Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Imaging H in magnetic resonance images if disregarded in reconstruction. With non-Cartesian k-space sampling, they often and a balance between reconstruction and correction accuracy. Index Terms-- Magnetic resonance imaging, image re

222

Magnetic resonance imaging of the cirrhotic liver: An update  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive imaging has become the standard for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis in cirrhotic livers. In this review paper, we go over the basics of MR imaging in cirrhotic livers and describe the imaging appearance of a spectrum of hepatic nodules marking the progression from regenerative nodules to low- and high-grade dysplastic nodules, and ultimately to HCCs. We detail and illustrate the typical imaging appearances of different types of HCC including focal, multi-focal, massive, diffuse/infiltrative, and intra-hepatic metastases; with emphasis on the diagnostic value of MR in imaging these lesions. We also shed some light on liver imaging reporting and data system, and the role of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents and future MRI techniques including the use of advanced MR pulse sequences and utilization of hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agents, and how they might contribute to improving the diagnostic performance of MRI in early stage HCC diagnosis.

Watanabe, Agnes; Ramalho, Miguel; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Kim, Hye Jin; Velloni, Fernanda G; Semelka, Richard C

2015-01-01

223

Patterned Resonance Plasmonic Microarrays for High-Performance SPR Imaging  

PubMed Central

We report a novel optical platform based on SPR generation and confinement inside a defined 3-dimensional microwell geometry that leads to background resonance-free SPR images. The array shows an exceptionally high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N>80) for imaging analysis and subnanometric thickness resolution. An angular sensitivity of 1 degree/0.01 RIU has been achieved and the signal to background ratio (S/B) improves to 20, one order of magnitude higher than best literature results. The design proves effective for probing supported lipid membrane arrays in real time with a thickness resolution of 0.24 nm and allows for imaging analysis of microfluidic circuits where resonant spots are separated by only one pixel (~ 7 ?m). The high image quality and unique chip geometry open up new avenues for array screening and biomicrofluidics using SPRi detection. PMID:21417424

Abbas, Abdennour; Linman, Matthew J.; Cheng, Quan

2011-01-01

224

Magnetic resonance nanoparticles for cardiovascular molecular imaging and therapy.  

PubMed

Molecular vascular imaging represents a novel tool that promises to change the current medical paradigm of 'see and treat' to a 'detect and prevent' strategy. Nanoparticle agents, such as superparamagnetic nanoparticles and perfluorocarbon nanoparticle emulsions, have been developed for noninvasive imaging, particularly for magnetic resonance imaging. Designed to target specific epitopes in tissues, these agents are beginning to enter clinical trials for cardiovascular applications. The delivery of local therapy with these nanoparticles, using mechanisms such as contact-facilitated drug delivery, is in the advanced stages of preclinical research. Ultimately, combined diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticle formulations may allow patients to be characterized noninvasively and segmented to receive custom-tailored therapy. This review focuses on recent developments of nanoparticle technologies with an emphasis on cardiovascular applications of magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:16076280

Cyrus, Tillmann; Winter, Patrick M; Caruthers, Shelton D; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

2005-07-01

225

Clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging - current status  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging has far-reaching real and possible clinical applications. Its usefulness has been best explored and realized in the central nervous system, especially the posterior fossa and brain stem, where most abnormalities are better identified than with computed tomography. Its lack of ionizing radiation and extreme sensitivity to normal and abnormal patterns of myelination make magnetic resonance imaging advantageous for diagnosing many neonatal and pediatric abnormalities. New, reliable cardiac gating techniques open the way for promising studies of cardiac anatomy and function. The ability to image directly in three orthogonal planes gives us new insight into staging and follow-up of pelvic tumors and other pelvic abnormalities. Exquisite soft tissue contrast, far above that attainable by other imaging modalities, has made possible the early diagnosis of traumatic ligamentous knee injury, avascular necrosis of the hip and diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of musculoskeletal neoplasms. 59 references, 9 figures.

Cammoun, D.; Hendee, W.R.; Davis, K.A.

1985-12-01

226

Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer clinical application  

PubMed Central

As prostate cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease for which a variety of treatment options are available, the major objective of prostate cancer imaging is to achieve more precise disease characterization. In clinical practice, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the imaging tools for the evaluation of prostate cancer, the fusion of MRI or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is improving the evaluation of cancer location, size, and extent, while providing an indication of tumor aggressiveness. This review summarizes the role of MRI in the application of prostate cancer and describes molecular MRI techniques (including MRSI and DCE-MRI) for aiding prostate cancer management. PMID:23592906

Li, Bing; Du, Yong; Huang, Yayong; Meng, Jun; Xiao, Dongmei

2013-01-01

227

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging with hyperpolarised helium-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relies on magnetisation of hydrogen nuclei (protons) of water molecules in tissue as source of the signal. This technique has been valuable for studying tissues that contain significant amounts of water, but biological settings with low proton content, notably the lungs, are difficult to image. We report use of spin-polarised helium-3 for lung MRI.Methods A

M Ebert; T Grossmann; W Heil; E. W Otten; R Surkau; M Thelen; M Leduc; P Bachert; M. V Knopp; L. R Schad

1996-01-01

228

Peri and Postoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Localization of Pallidotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postoperative magentic resonance imaging (MRI) of basal ganglia functional lesions illustrates the accuracy of preoperative target localization. The technique of perioperative MRI and CT localization for pallidotomy will be discussed and correlated with the center of the lesion on postoperative standard MRI as well as three-dimensional (3-D) volume acquisition of image. Using a 1.5-tesla Signa system, a conventional acquisition of

R. M. Lehman; Rubin Mezrich; Jacob Sage; Lawrence Goldbe

1994-01-01

229

Cardiomyocyte Death: Insights from Molecular and Microstructural Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiomyocytes can die via necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagy. Although the molecular signals and pathways underlying these\\u000a processes have been well elucidated, the pathophysiology of cardiomyocyte death remains incompletely understood. This review\\u000a describes the development and application of novel imaging techniques to detect and characterize cardiomyocyte death noninvasively\\u000a in vivo. It focuses on molecular and microstructural magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and

Natalia C. Berry; David E. Sosnovik

2011-01-01

230

Magnetic resonance imaging of acute "wiiitis" of the upper extremity.  

PubMed

We present the first reported case of acute "wiiitis", documented clinically and by imaging, of the upper extremity, caused by prolonged participation in a physically interactive virtual video-game. Unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated marked T2-weighted signal abnormality within several muscles of the shoulder and upper arm, without evidence of macroscopic partial- or full-thickness tearing of the muscle or of intramuscular hematoma. PMID:18259743

Nett, Michael P; Collins, Mark S; Sperling, John W

2008-05-01

231

Very low field magnetic resonance imaging with spintronic sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very low field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) setup based on magnetoresistive-superconducting mixed sensors is presented. A flux transformer is used to achieve coupling between the sample to image and the mixed sensor. The novel detector was implemented in a spin echo MRI experiment, exposing the mixed sensor to RF pulses without use of any RF switch. The performance of the novel detector is given in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and is compared with classical tuned coils.

Herreros, Q.; Dyvorne, H.; Campiglio, P.; Jasmin-Lebras, G.; Demonti, A.; Pannetier-Lecoeur, M.; Fermon, C.

2013-09-01

232

Computer analysis of magnetic resonance images  

SciTech Connect

Robust high breakdown point location estimators are employed to analyze image stacks under the piecewise constant image structure model. To reduce the effect of bias along the Z axis, the class parameters are extracted using three consecutive slices. The segmentation algorithm first determines the most reliable seed regions which are then used in a region-growing procedure supported by local evidence. The robustness and stability of the proposed technique is shown with both synthetic and real data, the latter consisting of two MRI sets.

Garza-Jinich, Maria [IIMAS, UNAM, Apdo. 20-726, Mexico D.F. 01000 (Mexico); Meer, Peter [ECED, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08855-0909 (United States); Medina, Veronica [DIE, UAM-Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. 09340 (Mexico)

1998-08-28

233

Nanoscale scanning probe ferromagnetic resonance imaging using localized modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the demonstration of scanned probe ferromagnetic resonance imaging (FMRI), a new technique based on Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy that offers a window into nanoscale properties of buried ferromagnets. Images have been obtained with a current resolution of 200 nm, and significant improvements are straightforwardly possible. Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) is a powerful spectroscopic tool for studying internal magnetic fields, interactions and dynamic magnetic properties of ferromagnetic systems, but conventional FMR measures global properties of an entire sample. In FMRI the "magnetic field well" created by the probe tip field confines the spin wave modes; these can then be scanned to obtain FMR images. This new microscope is unique in its ability to map internal magnetic fields in buried ferromagnets with spectroscopic precision and nanoscale resolution. First images in permalloy films reveal the ability to image inhomogeneities in magnetic properties with field resolution of approximately 1 Gauss/?Hz. We report a first application to imaging the internal exchange bias field in exchange-biased films.

Hammel, P. Chris

2011-03-01

234

Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Myeloma: Diagnostic and Clinical Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) permits the detection of diffuse and focal bone marrow infiltration in the absence of osteopenia or focal osteolysis on standard metastatic bone surveys (MBSs). Patients and Methods Both baseline MBS and MRI were available in 611 of 668 myeloma patients who were treated uniformly with a tandem autologous transplantation-based protocol and were evaluated to determine

Ronald Walker; Bart Barlogie; Jeffrey Haessler; Guido Tricot; Elias Anaissie; John D. Shaughnessy Jr; Joshua Epstein; Rudy van Hemert; Eren Erdem; Antje Hoering; John Crowley; Ernest Ferris; Klaus Hollmig; Frits van Rhee; Maurizio Zangari; Mauricio Pineda-Roman; Abid Mohiuddin; Shmuel Yaccoby; Jeffrey Sawyer; Edgardo J. Angtuaco

2010-01-01

235

Modeling Left Ventricle Wall Motion Using Tagged Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

A two-parameter computational model is proposed for the study of the regional motion of the left ventricle (LV) wall using tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tMRI) data. In this model, the LV wall motion is mathematically decomposed into two...

Alenezy, Mohammed D.

2009-04-17

236

Functional Connectivity Magnetic Resonance Imaging Classification of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Group differences in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity between individuals with autism and typically developing controls have been widely replicated for a small number of discrete brain regions, yet the whole-brain distribution of connectivity abnormalities in autism is not well characterized. It is also unclear…

Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; DuBray, Molly B.; Druzgal, T. Jason; Cariello, Annahir N.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Zielinski, Brandon A.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E.

2011-01-01

237

Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy (AMRIS) Facility  

E-print Network

1 Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy (AMRIS) Facility Progress and Research Report #3, April 2000 R E P O R T SThe National High Magnetic Field Laboratory FLOR IDA STATE UNIVER SITY ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY AMRIS continued on page 7 World's Most Powerful Magnet Tested -- Ushers in New

Weston, Ken

238

Travelling wave approach for high field magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical investigation of the travelling-wave approach for high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presented. The travelling wave probes excite the fields in the longitudinal direction of the bore, so that the effects of the attenuation constant due to high permittivity and lossy tissue need to be calculated. In addition, the travelling wave modes should affect the B1+ field

Ibrahim A. Elabyad; A. Omar; T. Herrmann; J. Mallow; J. Bernarding

2010-01-01

239

In vivo microelectrode track reconstruction using magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain more precise anatomical information about cortical sites of microelectrode recording and microstimulation experiments in alert animals, we have developed a non-invasive, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for reconstructing microelectrode tracks. We made microelectrode penetrations in the brains of anesthetized rats and marked sites along them by depositing metal, presumably iron, with anodic monophasic or biphasic current from the

S. H. Fung; D. Burstein; R. T. Born

1998-01-01

240

Manganese encephalopathy: utility of early magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides visual evidence of cerebral deposits of paramagnetic metals. The usefulness of MRI is described in connection with the manganese poisoning of a 44 year old arc welder who had been engaged in the repair and recycling of railroad track made of manganese steel alloy.

K Nelson; J Golnick; T Korn; C Angle

1993-01-01

241

Magnetic resonance imaging of controlled release pharmaceutical dosage forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging offers us a powerful non-invasive method for picturing events inside controlled-release dosage forms. It allows us to observe, follow and measure important processes, such as hydration and diffusion, that can contribute directly to the process of drug release. The potential of this technique for increasing our understanding of drug release mechanisms, and the behaviour of dosage forms

Colin D Melia; Ali R Rajabi-Siahboomi; Richard W Bowtell

1998-01-01

242

The use of magnetic resonance imaging in exertional compartment syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective, double-blind study was carried out to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive method in the diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome (CCS). As well, a new radiopharmaceutical known as methoxy isobutyl isoni trile that has been shown to be taken up by muscle in direct proportion to its blood flow was used to illustrate

A. Amendola; C. H. Rorabeck; D. Vellett; W. Vezina; B. Rutt; Linda Nott

1990-01-01

243

Human Brain Language Areas Identified by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) was used to identify candidate language processing areas in the intact hu- man brain. Language was defined broadly to include both phonological and lexical-semantic functions and to exclude sensory, motor, and general executive functions. The language activation task required phonetic and semantic analysis of aurally presented words and was compared with a control task involving

Jeffrey R. Binder; Julie A. Frost; Thomas A. Hammeke; Robert W. Cox; Stephen M. Rao; Thomas Prieto

1997-01-01

244

Low Cost Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Compatible Stepper  

E-print Network

female, 29.2 6 3.9 yr old) showing significant exercise-induced changes in heart rate Manuscript receivedLow Cost Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Compatible Stepper Exercise Device for Use in Cardiac Stress during a car- diac stress test. Current approaches include either exercise or pharmacological stress

Chesler, Naomi C.

245

Blood Flow Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Retinal Degeneration  

E-print Network

Blood Flow Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Retinal Degeneration Yingxia Li,1 Haiying Cheng,1 Qiang. Duong1,2,3,4,5,6,7 PURPOSE. This study aims to investigate quantitative basal blood flow as well as hypercapnia- and hyperoxia-induced blood flow changes in the retinas of the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS

Duong, Timothy Q.

246

Biosensing and imaging based on bioluminescence resonance energy transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) operates with biochemical energy generated by bioluminescent proteins to excite fluorophores and offers additional advantages over fluorescence energy transfer (FRET) for in vivo imaging and biosensing. While fluorescent proteins are frequently used as BRET acceptors, both small molecule dyes and nanoparticles can also serve as acceptor fluorophores. Semiconductor fluorescent nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are

Zuyong Xia; Jianghong Rao

2009-01-01

247

Magnetic resonance imaging of patients with large vestibular aqueducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vestibular aqueduct (VA) and endolymphatic sac (ES) were examined by magnetic resonance imaging in eight patients (14 ears) with large VAs, and the results were compared with those obtained in five normal volunteers (10 ears). It was not possible to identify either the VA or ES in any of the control ears. However, in all the 14 ears with

T. Okumura; I. Honjo; H. Takahashi; A. Takagi; R. Azato

1996-01-01

248

Brain development in Turner syndrome: a magnetic resonance imaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turner syndrome (TS) results from the absence of an X chromosome in females. This genetic condition is associated with specific cognitive deficits and variations in brain volumes. The goal of this study was to use high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine morphological variations in TS and to investigate the effects of parental origin of the X chromosome on brain

Wendy E. Brown; Shelli R. Kesler; Stephan Eliez; Ilana S. Warsofsky; Michael Haberecht; Anil Patwardhan; Judith L. Ross; E. Kirk Neely; She Min Zeng; Jerome Yankowitz; Allan L Reiss

2002-01-01

249

Detection of Prostate Cancer from Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

050 051 052 053 Detection of Prostate Cancer from Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Anonymous (MRI) based technique of detecting prostate cancer is developed. A machine learning algorithm, based. The classifier is trained to detect prostate cancer in the peripheral zone and using the trained classifier

de Freitas, Nando

250

Measuring Cerebral Blood Flow Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging techniques measuring CBF have developed rapidly in the last decade, resulting in a wide range of available methods. The most successful approaches are based either on dynamic tracking of a bolus of a paramagnetic contrast agent (dynamic susceptibility contrast) or on arterial spin labeling. This review discusses their principles, possible pitfalls, and potential for absolute quantification and

Fernando Calamante; David L. Thomas; Gaby S. Pell; Jonna Wiersma; Robert Turner

1999-01-01

251

Copper T 380A IUD and magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundConcerns about women who have implanted or in situ medical devices undergoing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging engender the need for testing. Prior testing of the Copper T 380A intrauterine device (IUD) has been done using MR systems of 1.5 T or less. This study was performed to test this IUD in a MR system of 3.0 T.

Miriam Zieman; Emanuel Kanal

2007-01-01

252

Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Velopharyngeal Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To report the feasibility of using a 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for examining velopharyngeal structures. Using collected 3D MRI data, the authors investigated the effect of sex on the midsagittal velopharyngeal structures and the levator veli palatini (levator) muscle configurations. Method: Ten Caucasian…

Bae, Youkyung; Kuehn, David P.; Sutton, Bradley P.; Conway, Charles A.; Perry, Jamie L.

2011-01-01

253

Appearance of the canine meninges in subtraction magnetic resonance images.  

PubMed

The canine meninges are not visible as discrete structures in noncontrast magnetic resonance (MR) images, and are incompletely visualized in T1-weighted, postgadolinium images, reportedly appearing as short, thin curvilinear segments with minimal enhancement. Subtraction imaging facilitates detection of enhancement of tissues, hence may increase the conspicuity of meninges. The aim of the present study was to describe qualitatively the appearance of canine meninges in subtraction MR images obtained using a dynamic technique. Images were reviewed of 10 consecutive dogs that had dynamic pre- and postgadolinium T1W imaging of the brain that was interpreted as normal, and had normal cerebrospinal fluid. Image-anatomic correlation was facilitated by dissection and histologic examination of two canine cadavers. Meningeal enhancement was relatively inconspicuous in postgadolinium T1-weighted images, but was clearly visible in subtraction images of all dogs. Enhancement was visible as faint, small-rounded foci compatible with vessels seen end on within the sulci, a series of larger rounded foci compatible with vessels of variable caliber on the dorsal aspect of the cerebral cortex, and a continuous thin zone of moderate enhancement around the brain. Superimposition of color-encoded subtraction images on pregadolinium T1- and T2-weighted images facilitated localization of the origin of enhancement, which appeared to be predominantly dural, with relatively few leptomeningeal structures visible. Dynamic subtraction MR imaging should be considered for inclusion in clinical brain MR protocols because of the possibility that its use may increase sensitivity for lesions affecting the meninges. PMID:24833219

Lamb, Christopher R; Lam, Richard; Keenihan, Erin K; Frean, Stephen

2014-01-01

254

Role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging as an imaging biomarker of urothelial carcinoma.  

PubMed

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a type of functional imaging that is increasingly being applied in the management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma and bladder cancer. The image contrast is derived from differences in the Brownian motion of water molecules in tissues. The homogenous high signal intensity of upper tract urothelial carcinoma and bladder cancer on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging provides helpful diagnostic information for the presence of cancerous lesions in a non-invasive manner. Recently, growing evidence has emerged showing that diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging can serve as an imaging biomarker for characterizing cancer pathophysiology, because the signal reflects biophysical information about the tissues. Quantitative analysis by evaluating the apparent diffusion coefficient values potentially reflects the histological grade and the biological aggressiveness of urothelial carcinoma. The apparent diffusion coefficient value could be a biomarker predicting the clinical course of upper tract urothelial carcinoma and bladder cancer. In addition, in chemoradiotherapy-based bladder-sparing approaches against muscle-invasive bladder cancer, the role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for predicting the chemoradiosensitivity and for monitoring therapeutic response has been shown. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is expected to improve the diagnostic accuracy, and this qualitative information might allow individualized treatment strategies for patients with urothelial carcinoma. PMID:25074594

Yoshida, Soichiro; Koga, Fumitaka; Masuda, Hitoshi; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori

2014-12-01

255

High-resolution breath-hold cardiac magnetic resonance imaging  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation work is composed of investigations of three methods for fast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These methods include (1) 2D breath-hold magnetization prepared gradient echo and fast spin-echo (FSE) cardiac imaging, (2) 3D breath-hold magnetization prepared gradient echo cardiac imaging, and (3) real-time monitoring, feedback, and triggering for breath-hold MRI. The hypothesis of this work is that high resolution 2D and 3D magnetic resonance data sets for the heart can be acquired with the combination of magnetization prepared blood suppression for gradient echo techniques and accurate breath-holding methods. The 2D method included development of magnetic resonance data acquisition for cardiac imaging. The acquisition time is within a single breath-hold of 16 seconds (assuming heart 60/min). The data acquisition is synchronized with the electrocardiogram signal. Based on consistent observations of specific small cardiac structures like the papillary muscle, trabeculae, moderator band, and coronary vessels in studies of normal volunteers, the image quality represents a significant improvement over that obtained with fast imaging methods previously. To further improve the image quality provided by the 2D method, the first 3D cardiac MRI technique was developed. This method provides even better spatial resolution for cardiac images, with a voxel size of 1.09 [times] 2.19 [times] 4 mm[sup 3]. A 3D acquisition is completed in 8 breath-holds. The data acquisition for 3D cardiac imaging requires a consistent breath-hold position to avoid respiratory artifacts. To improve the reliability of the 3DFT acquisition, a new technique called MR breath-hold feedback was developed to provide reproducible breathholding. The diaphragm location is used as the index for breath-hold reproducibility measurement. The range of the diaphragm displacement in different breath-hold is reduced from 8.3 mm without the technique, to 1.3 mm with the technique.

Liu, Yu.

1993-01-01

256

Ferromagnetic resonance imaging of Co films using magnetic resonance force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Lateral one-dimensional imaging of cobalt (Co) films by means of microscopic ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) detected using the magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) is demonstrated. A novel approach involving scanning a localized magnetic probe is shown to enable FMR imaging in spite of the broad resonance linewidth. We introduce a spatially selective local field by means of a small, magnetically polarized spherical crystallite of yttrium iron garnet (YIG). Using MRFM-detected FMR signals from a sample consisting of two Co films, we can resolve the {approximately}20 {mu}m lateral separation between the films. The results can be qualitatively understood by consideration of the calculated spatial profiles of the magnetic field generated by the YIG sphere. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Vacuum Society.}

Suh, B.J.; Hammel, P.C.; Zhang, Z. [Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Midzor, M.M.; Roukes, M.L. [Condensed Matter Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] [Condensed Matter Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Childress, J.R. [University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)] [University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

1998-07-01

257

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in children.  

PubMed

MRI is an important additional tool in the diagnostic work-up of children with congenital heart disease. This review aims to summarise the role MRI has in this patient population. Echocardiography remains the main diagnostic tool in congenital heart disease. In specific situations, MRI is used for anatomical imaging of congenital heart disease. This includes detailed assessment of intracardiac anatomy with 2-D and 3-D sequences. MRI is particularly useful for assessment of retrosternal structures in the heart and for imaging large vessel anatomy. Functional assessment includes assessment of ventricular function using 2-D cine techniques. Of particular interest in congenital heart disease is assessment of right and single ventricular function. Two-dimensional and newer 3-D techniques to quantify flow in these patients are or will soon become an integral part of quantification of shunt size, valve function and complex flow patterns in large vessels. More advanced uses of MRI include imaging of cardiovascular function during stress and tissue characterisation of the myocardium. Techniques used for this purpose need further validation before they can become part of the daily routine of MRI assessment of congenital heart disease. PMID:25552387

Helbing, Willem A; Ouhlous, Mohamed

2015-01-01

258

Magnetic resonance imaging of isolated single liposome by magnetic resonance force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is very useful spectroscopy to visualize a three-dimensional (3D) real structure inside the sample without physical destruction. The spatial resolution of the readily available MRI spectrometer is, however, limited by a few ten to hundreds of microns due to a technological boundary of generating larger magnetic field gradient and to the insensitivity inherent to the inductive

S. Tsuji; T. Masumizu; Y. Yoshinari

2004-01-01

259

Application of Parallel Imaging to Murine Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

. This dissertation describes foundational level work to enable parallel imaging of mice on a 4.7 Tesla/40 cm bore research scanner. Reducing the size of the hardware setup associated with typical parallel imaging was an integral part of achieving the work, as animal...

Chang, Chieh-Wei 1980-

2012-09-21

260

Molecular Characterization of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Several recent advances in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may transform the detection and monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These advances depict both anatomic and molecular alterations from RA. Previous techniques could detect specific end products of metabolism in vitro, or were limited to providing anatomic information. This review focuses on the novel molecular imaging techniques of hyperpolarized carbon-13 (13C) MRI, MRI with iron labeled probes, and fusion of MRI with positron emission tomography. These new imaging approaches go beyond the anatomic description of RA and lend new information into the status of this disease by giving molecular information. PMID:22648081

Gu, Jeffrey T.; Nguyen, Linda; Chaudhari, Abhijit J.; MacKenzie, John D.

2012-01-01

261

Magnetic resonance imaging of convection in laser-polarized xenon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We demonstrate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of the flow and diffusion of laser-polarized xenon (129Xe) gas undergoing convection above evaporating laser-polarized liquid xenon. The large xenon NMR signal provided by the laser-polarization technique allows more rapid imaging than one can achieve with thermally polarized gas-liquid systems, permitting shorter time-scale events such as rapid gas flow and gas-liquid dynamics to be observed. Two-dimensional velocity-encoded imaging shows convective gas flow above the evaporating liquid xenon, and also permits the measurement of enhanced gas diffusion near regions of large velocity variation.

Mair, R. W.; Tseng, C. H.; Wong, G. P.; Cory, D. G.; Walsworth, R. L.

2000-01-01

262

Myxoid Adrenocortical Adenoma: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pathology Correlation  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 74-year-old female with myxoid adrenocortical adenoma which showed different magnetic resonance imaging findings compared to those of a typical adrenocortical adenoma. The myxoid change in the adrenocortical adenoma is a rare form of degeneration. It presents a considerable diagnostic challenge to both radiologists and clinicians because it can mimic other adrenal tumor types on imaging. The MRI findings of the presented case included a high signal intensity on T2-weighted images similar to that of fluid and delayed progressive enhancement. PMID:24643431

Kim, Tae Un; Lee, Jun Woo; Lee, Nam Kyung; Ha, Hong Koo; Park, Won Young

2014-01-01

263

Interactions between magnetic resonance imaging and dental material  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a common and important life-saving diagnostic tool in recent times, for diseases of the head and neck region. Dentists should be aware of the interactions of various restorative dental materials and different technical factors put to use by an MRI scanning machine. Specific knowledge about these impacts, at the dentist level and at the level of the personnel at the MRI centers can save valuable time for the patient and prevent errors in MRI images. Artifacts from metal restorations are a major hindrance at such times, as they result in disappearance or distortion of the image and loss of important information. PMID:23946562

Mathew, Chalakuzhiyl Abraham; Maller, Sudhakara; Maheshwaran

2013-01-01

264

A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the tradeo between semantics and phonology  

E-print Network

A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the tradeo¡ between semantics and phonology@haskins.yale.edu Received 31January 2005; accepted11February 2005 Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we explored

265

Magnetic Field Gradient Calibration as an Experiment to Illustrate Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory is described that encompasses both qualitative and quantitative pedagogical goals. Qualitatively, the experiment illustrates how images are obtained in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Quantitatively, students experience the…

Seedhouse, Steven J.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

2008-01-01

266

Optically trapped atomic resonant devices for narrow linewidth spectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis focuses on the development of atomic resonant devices for spectroscopic applications. The primary emphasis is on the imaging properties of optically thick atomic resonant fluorescent filters and their applications. In addition, this thesis presents a new concept for producing very narrow linewidth light as from an atomic vapor lamp pumped by a nanosecond pulse system. This research was motivated by application for missile warning system, and presents an innovative approach to a wide angle, ultra narrow linewidth imaging filter using a potassium vapor cell. The approach is to image onto and collect the fluorescent photons emitted from the surface of an optically thick potassium vapor cell, generating a 2 GHz pass-band imaging filter. This linewidth is narrow enough to fall within a Fraunhefer dark zone in the solar spectrum, thus make the detection solar blind. Experiments are conducted to measure the absorption line shape of the potassium resonant filter, the quantum efficiency of the fluorescent behavior, and the resolution of the fluorescent image. Fluorescent images with different spatial frequency components are analyzed by using a discrete Fourier transform, and the imaging capability of the fluorescent filter is described by its Modulation Transfer Function. For the detection of radiation that is spectrally broader than the linewidth of the potassium imaging filter, the fluorescent image is seen to be blurred by diffuse fluorescence from the slightly off resonant photons. To correct this, an ultra-thin potassium imaging filter is developed and characterized. The imaging property of the ultra-thin potassium imaging cell is tested with a potassium seeded flame, yielding a resolution image of ˜ 20 lines per mm. The physics behind the atomic resonant fluorescent filter is radiation trapping. The diffusion process of the resonant photons trapped in the atomic vapor is theoretically described in this thesis. A Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the absorption and fluorescence. The optimum resolution of the fluorescent image is predicted by simulation. Radiation trapping is also shown to be useful for the generation of ultra-narrow linewidth light from an atomic vapor flash lamp. A 2 nanosecond, high voltage pulse is used to excite low pressure mercury vapor mixed with noble gases, producing high intensity emission at the mercury resonant line at 253.7 nm. With a nanosecond pumping time and high electrical current, the radiation intensity of the mercury discharge is increased significantly compared to a normal glow discharge lamp, while simultaneously suppressing the formation of an arc discharge. By avoiding the arc discharge, discrete spectral lines of mercury were kept at narrow bandwidth. Due to radiation trapping, the emission linewidth from the nanosecond mercury lamp decreases with time and produces ultra-narrow linewidth emission 100 ns after of the excitation, this linewidth is verified by absorption measurements through low pressure mercury absorption filter. The lamp is used along with mercury absorption filters for spectroscopic applications, including Filtered Rayleigh Scattering with different CO2 pressures and Raman scattering from methanol.

Qian, Lipeng

267

Functional magnetic resonance imaging in oncology: state of the art*  

PubMed Central

In the investigation of tumors with conventional magnetic resonance imaging, both quantitative characteristics, such as size, edema, necrosis, and presence of metastases, and qualitative characteristics, such as contrast enhancement degree, are taken into consideration. However, changes in cell metabolism and tissue physiology which precede morphological changes cannot be detected by the conventional technique. The development of new magnetic resonance imaging techniques has enabled the functional assessment of the structures in order to obtain information on the different physiological processes of the tumor microenvironment, such as oxygenation levels, cellularity and vascularity. The detailed morphological study in association with the new functional imaging techniques allows for an appropriate approach to cancer patients, including the phases of diagnosis, staging, response evaluation and follow-up, with a positive impact on their quality of life and survival rate. PMID:25741058

Guimaraes, Marcos Duarte; Schuch, Alice; Hochhegger, Bruno; Gross, Jefferson Luiz; Chojniak, Rubens; Marchiori, Edson

2014-01-01

268

The origins and future of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging  

SciTech Connect

What began as a curiosity of physics has become the preeminent method of diagnostic medical imaging and may displace x-ray-based techniques in the 21st century. During the past two decades nuclear magnetic resonance has revolutionized chemistry, biochemistry, biology and, more recently, diagnostic medicine. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, (MRI) as it is commonly called, is fundamentally different from x-ray-based techniques in terms of the principles of spatial encoding and mechanisms of signal and contrast generation involved. MRI has a far richer ultimate potential than any other imaging technique known today, and its technology and applications are still far from maturation, which may not occur until early in the 21st century. 23 refs., 6 figs.

Wehrli, F.W. (Univ. of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1992-06-01

269

Sparse based optical flow estimation in cardiac magnetic resonance images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical ow enables the accurate estimation of cardiac motion. In this research, a sparse based algorithm is used to estimate the optical ow in cardiac magnetic resonance images. The dense optical ow eld is represented using a discrete cosine basis dictionary aiming at a sparse representation. The optical ow is estimated in this transformed space by solving a L1 problem inspired on compressive sensing techniques. The algorithm is validated using four synthetic image sequences whose velocity eld is known. A comparison is performed with respect to the Horn and Schunck and the Lucas and Kanade algorithm. Then, the technique is applied to a magnetic resonance image sequence. The results show average magnitude errors as low as 0.35 % for the synthetic sequences, however results on real data are not consistent with respect to the obtained by other algorithms suggesting the need for additional constrains for coping with the dense noise.

Ibarra, Emiro; Medina, Rubén.

2013-11-01

270

Magnetic resonance imaging for image-guided implantology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image guided implantology using navigation systems is more accurate than manual dental implant insertion. The underlying image data are usually derived from computer tomography. The suitability of MR imaging for dental implant planning is a marginal issue so far. MRI data from cadaver heads were acquired using various MRI sequences. The data were assessed for the quality of anatomical imaging, geometric accuracy and susceptibility to dental metal artefacts. For dental implant planning, 3D models of the jaws were created. A software system for segmentation of the mandible and maxilla MRI data was implemented using c++, mitk, and qt. With the VIBE_15 sequence, image data with high geometric accuracy were acquired. Dental metal artefacts were lower than in CT data of the same heads. The segmentation of the jaws was feasible, in contrast to the segmentation of the dentition, since there is a lack of contrast to the intraoral soft tissue structures. MRI is a suitable method for imaging of the region of mouth and jaws. The geometric accuracy is excellent and the susceptibility to artefacts is low. However, there are yet two limitations: Firstly, the imaging of the dentition needs further improvement to allow accurate segmentation of these regions. Secondly, the sequence used in this study takes several minutes and hence is susceptible to motion artefacts.

Eggers, Georg; Kress, Bodo; Fiebach, Jochen; Rieker, Marcus; Spitzenberg, Doreen; Marmulla, Rüdiger; Dickhaus, Hartmut; Mühling, Joachim

2006-03-01

271

Instrumentation for parallel magnetic resonance imaging  

E-print Network

scanners would be useful for increasing the speed (i.e., throughput) of small animal imaging studies, were it not for the high cost and complexity of MR system hardware. Recently, however, advances in the consumer electronics industry have led... the SMASH technique, total scan time may be reduced at most by a factor equal to the number of coils in the array. However, it must be noted that at high acceleration factors (i.e., as the acceleration factor approaches the number of coils in the array...

Brown, David Gerald

2007-04-25

272

SEVEN TOPICS IN FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING  

PubMed Central

Functional MRI (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging methodology that started in 1991 and allows human brain activation to be imaged at high resolution within only a few minutes. Because it has extremely high sensitivity, is relatively easy to implement, and can be performed on most standard clinical MRI scanners. It continues to grow at an explosive rate throughout the world. Over the years, at any given time, fMRI has been defined by only a handful of major topics that have been the focus of researchers using and developing the methodology. In this review, I attempt to take a snapshot of the field of fMRI as it is in mid-2009 by discussing the seven topics that I feel are most on the minds of fMRI researchers. The topics are, in no particular order or grouping: (1) Clinical impact, (2) Utilization of individual functional maps, (3) fMRI signal interpretation, (4) Pattern effect mapping and decoding, (5) Endogenous oscillations, (6) MRI technology, and (7) Alternative functional contrast mechanisms. Most of these topics are highly interdependent, each advancing as the others advance. While most fMRI involves applications towards clinical or neuroscience questions, all applications are fundamentally dependent on advances in basic methodology as well as advances in our understanding of the relationship between neuronal activity and fMRI signal changes. This review neglects almost completely an in-depth discussion of applications. Rather the discussions are on the methods and interpretation. PMID:19938211

BANDETTINI, PETER A.

2010-01-01

273

Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging-conditional robotic devices for therapy and diagnosis.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging presents high-resolution preoperative scans of target tissue and allows for the availability of intraoperative real-time images without the exposure of patients to ionizing radiation. This has motivated scientists and engineers to integrate medical robotics with the magnetic resonance imaging modality to allow robot-assisted, image-guided diagnosis and therapy. This article provides a review of the state-of-the-art medical robotic systems available for use in conjunction with intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging. The robot functionalities and mechanical designs for a wide range of magnetic resonance imaging interventions are presented, including their magnetic resonance imaging compatibility, actuation, kinematics and the mechanical and electrical designs of the robots. Classification and comparative study of various intraoperative magnetic resonance image guided robotic systems are provided. The robotic systems reviewed are summarized in a table in detail. Current technologies for magnetic resonance imaging-conditional robotics are reviewed and their potential future directions are sketched. PMID:24534419

Fisher, Taylor; Hamed, Abbi; Vartholomeos, Panagiotis; Masamune, Ken; Tang, Guoyi; Ren, Hongliang; Tse, Zion T H

2014-03-01

274

Effect of peripheral nerve action currents on magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Many researchers have attempted to detect neural currents directly using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The action currents of a peripheral nerve create their own magnetic field that can cause the phase of the spins to change. Our goal in this paper is to use the measured magnetic field of a nerve to estimate the resulting phase shift in the magnetic resonance signal. We examine three cases: the squid giant axon, the frog sciatic nerve, and the human median nerve. In each case, the phase shift is much less than one degree, and will be very difficult to measure with current technology. PMID:19963781

Wijesinghe, Ranjith; Roth, Bradley J

2009-01-01

275

Infiltrative Eosinophilic Myocarditis Diagnosed and Localized by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

Infiltrative Eosinophilic Myocarditis Diagnosed and Localized by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5T was performed using steady-state free preces- sion imaging. Cardiac magnetic resonance may be of value in guiding cardiac biopsy site, as interstitial infiltration

Kamp, Tim

276

High fidelity magnetic resonance imaging by frequency sweep encoding and Fourier Jun Shen *, Yun Xiang  

E-print Network

High fidelity magnetic resonance imaging by frequency sweep encoding and Fourier decoding Jun Shen February 2010 Available online 20 February 2010 Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging Encoding Decoding The dominating schemes for magnetic resonance imaging have been based on the Fourier transform relationship

Shen, Jun

277

r Human Brain Mapping 000:000000 (2011) r Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The  

E-print Network

r Human Brain Mapping 000:000­000 (2011) r Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Coordinated modalities--anatomical MRI, functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and magnetic resonance: multimodal MRI; anatomical MRI; functional MRI; diffusion tensor imaging; magnetic resonance spectroscopy

278

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 1 A new global optimization algorithm and its application to a  

E-print Network

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 1 A new global optimization algorithm and its application to a Magnetic-cost, low-field multipolar magnet for Magnetic Resonance Imaging with a high field uniformity with probability one. Key Words: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, global optimization, simulated annealing, derivative

Neumaier, Arnold

279

Magnetic resonance imaging method based on magnetic susceptibility effects to estimate bubble size in alveolar products  

E-print Network

Magnetic resonance imaging method based on magnetic susceptibility effects to estimate bubble size-00454523,version1-8Feb2010 Author manuscript, published in "Magnetic Resonance Imaging 27, 4 (2009) p. 577 - p. 585" #12;Abstract18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Magnetic resonance imaging has proven its

Boyer, Edmond

280

Application of topological sensitivity toward tissue elasticity imaging using magnetic resonance data  

E-print Network

Application of topological sensitivity toward tissue elasticity imaging using magnetic resonance the magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) measurements. The basic idea of the MRE imaging is to apply time the resolution of tissue (visco-) elasticity reconstruction by way of magnetic resonance imaging. 1 Introduction

Guzina, Bojan

281

A Bayesian TimeCourse Model for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data  

E-print Network

A Bayesian Time­Course Model for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Christopher R. Genovese Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a new technique for studying the workings of the active human brain. During an fMRI ex­ periment, a sequence of Magnetic Resonance images is acquired while a subject

Genovese, Christopher

282

Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging: modelling, inference and optimization  

E-print Network

Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging: modelling, inference and optimization Oliver, 10 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging is a recent. With these models in mind, we then consider how the properties of functional magnetic resonance imaging data

Henson, Rik

283

Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging protocol for endoscopic cranial base image-guided surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveDespite the increasing utilization of image-guided surgery, no radiology protocols for obtaining magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of adequate quality are available in the current literature. At our institution, more than 300 endonasal cranial base procedures including pituitary, extended pituitary, and other anterior skullbase procedures have been performed in the past 3 years. To facilitate and optimize preoperative evaluation and assessment,

Christopher R. Grindle; Joseph M. Curry; Melissa D. Kang; James J. Evans; Marc R. Rosen

2011-01-01

284

Enhancing magnetic resonance imaging tumor detection with fluorescence intensity and lifetime imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection is important for many solid cancers but the images provided by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography applied alone or together, are often not sufficient for decisive early screening\\/diagnosis. We demonstrate that MRI augmented with fluorescence intensity (FI) substantially improves detection. Early stage murine pancreatic tumors that could not be identified by blinded, skilled observers using

Ahmet Erten; David Hall; Carl Hoh; Hop S. Tran Cao; Sharmeela Kaushal; Sadik Esener; Robert M. Hoffman; Michael Bouvet; James Chen; Santosh Kesari; Milan Makale

2010-01-01

285

Medical Imaging Field of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Identification of Specialties within the Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to determine if specialty areas are emerging in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profession due to advancements made in the medical sciences, imaging technology, and clinical applications used in MRI that would require new developments in education/training programs and national registry examinations. In this…

Grey, Michael L.

2009-01-01

286

Elastomeric actuator devices for magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is directed to devices and systems used in magnetic imaging environments that include an actuator device having an elastomeric dielectric film with at least two electrodes, and a frame attached to the actuator device. The frame can have a plurality of configurations including, such as, for example, at least two members that can be, but not limited to, curved beams, rods, plates, or parallel beams. These rigid members can be coupled to flexible members such as, for example, links wherein the frame provides an elastic restoring force. The frame preferably provides a linear actuation force characteristic over a displacement range. The linear actuation force characteristic is defined as .+-.20% and preferably 10% over a displacement range. The actuator further includes a passive element disposed between the flexible members to tune a stiffness characteristic of the actuator. The passive element can be a bi-stable element. The preferred embodiment actuator includes one or more layers of the elastomeric film integrated into the frame. The elastomeric film can be made of many elastomeric materials such as, for example, but not limited to, acrylic, silicone and latex.

Dubowsky, Steven (Inventor); Hafez, Moustapha (Inventor); Jolesz, Ferenc A. (Inventor); Kacher, Daniel F. (Inventor); Lichter, Matthew (Inventor); Weiss, Peter (Inventor); Wingert, Andreas (Inventor)

2008-01-01

287

Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves.  

PubMed

Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the ulnar collateral ligament and lateral collateral ligament of the elbow with high sensitivity and specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging can determine the extent of tendon pathology in patients with medial epicondylitis and lateral epicondylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the biceps tendon and triceps tendon and can distinguishing between partial and complete tendon rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging is also helpful in evaluating patients with nerve disorders at the elbow. PMID:15480640

Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew

2005-01-01

288

Clinical examination or whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: the Holy Grail of spondyloarthritis imaging  

PubMed Central

Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging allows acquisition of diagnostic images in the shortest scan time, leading to better patient compliance and artifact-free images. Methods of clinical examination of the anterior chest wall joints vary between physician groups and consideration of the rules of rib motion is suggested. The type of joint and its synovial lining may also aid imaging/clinical correlation. This well-written study by experts in the field with a standardized design and methodology allows good scientific analysis and suggests the advantages of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in anterior chest wall imaging. Selection of clinical examination criteria and specific joints may have had an influence on the study results and the lack of association reported. PMID:22380535

2012-01-01

289

Far-field superresolution by imaging of resonance scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that superresolution imaging in the far-field region of the sources and receivers is theoretically and practically possible if migration of resonant multiples is employed. A resonant multiple is one that bounces back and forth between two scattering points; it can also be the multiple between two smoothly varying interfaces as long as the reflection wave paths partially overlap and reflect from the same Fresnel zone. For a source with frequency f, compared to a one-way trip, N round trips in propagating between two scatterers increase the effective frequency by 2N × f and decrease the effective wavelength by ?/(2N). Thus, multiples can, in principle, be used as high-frequency probes to estimate detailed properties of layers. Tests with both synthetic and field data validate this claim. Improved resolution by multiple imaging is not only feasible for crustal reflections, but might be applicable to mantle and core reverberations recorded by earthquake seismologists.

Schuster, Gerard T.; Huang, Yunsong

2014-12-01

290

Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging comparisons in boxers  

SciTech Connect

The efficacy of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying traumatic injuries of the brain was compared in a referred population of 21 amateur and professional boxers. Three boxers displayed CT scans with equivocal findings that were verified as artifacts by MRI. Eleven boxers had both CT and MRI scans with normal findings, and 7 boxers had both CT and MRI scans with abnormal findings. There were no instances where abnormalities demonstrated on CT scanning were not detected by MRI. However, some abnormalities detected on MRI were not detected on CT scans. These included a subdural hematoma, white-matter changes, and a focal contusion. Magnetic resonance imaging appears to be the neuroradiodiagnostic test of choice compared with CT.

Jordan, B.D. (Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (USA)); Zimmerman, R.D. (New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, NY (USA))

1990-03-23

291

Incidental multifocal white matter lesions in pediatric magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

This study sought to describe the occurrence and potential significance of white matter abnormalities of unknown cause on pediatric cranial magnetic resonance scans, and to review the literature. We included 16 children in whom white matter abnormalities were incidentally revealed on magnetic resonance scans performed during a 7-year period at a tertiary pediatric medical center. Background data were retrospectively collected from medical files. White matter lesions were classified by size, location, and extent. Indications for imaging included convulsive disorder (n = 5), headache (n = 5), endocrine disorder (n = 4), and others. Patients' abnormalities did not correlate with the locations and patterns of white matter lesions. No changes in lesions were evident over time. Given the absence of evident benefits from repeated imaging studies, we suggest they are not warranted in every patient, and should be tailored according to clinical course. Further investigations of incidental intracranial findings are required in this age group. PMID:22704009

Fisch, Naama; Konen, Osnat; Halevy, Ayelet; Cohen, Roni; Shuper, Avinoam

2012-07-01

292

Improved guided image fusion for magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging.  

PubMed

Improved guided image fusion for magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging is proposed. Existing guided filtering scheme uses Gaussian filter and two-level weight maps due to which the scheme has limited performance for images having noise. Different modifications in filter (based on linear minimum mean square error estimator) and weight maps (with different levels) are proposed to overcome these limitations. Simulation results based on visual and quantitative analysis show the significance of proposed scheme. PMID:24695586

Jameel, Amina; Ghafoor, Abdul; Riaz, Muhammad Mohsin

2014-01-01

293

Improved Guided Image Fusion for Magnetic Resonance and Computed Tomography Imaging  

PubMed Central

Improved guided image fusion for magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging is proposed. Existing guided filtering scheme uses Gaussian filter and two-level weight maps due to which the scheme has limited performance for images having noise. Different modifications in filter (based on linear minimum mean square error estimator) and weight maps (with different levels) are proposed to overcome these limitations. Simulation results based on visual and quantitative analysis show the significance of proposed scheme. PMID:24695586

Jameel, Amina

2014-01-01

294

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques: fMRI, DWI, and PWI  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive technique which can acquire important quantitative and anatomical information from an individual in any plane or volume at comparatively high resolution. Over the past several years, developments in scanner hardware and software have enabled the acquisition of fast MRI imaging, proving extremely useful in various clinical and research applications such as in brain mapping or functional MRI (fMRI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). These techniques have revolutionized the use of MRI in the clinics, providing great insight into physiologic mechanisms and pathologic conditions. Since these relatively new areas of MRI have relied on fast scanning techniques, they have only recently been widely introduced to clinical sites. As such, this review article is devoted to the technological aspects of these techniques, as well as their roles and limitations in neuroimaging applications. PMID:18843569

Holdsworth, Samantha J.; Bammer, Roland

2012-01-01

295

[Cerebral white matter lesions: differential diagnosis on magnetic resonance imaging].  

PubMed

It is often difficult to make a differential diagnosis of cerebral white-matter lesions on magnetic resonance images (MRI), because imaging findings are non-specific. However, it is possible to make a correct diagnosis of some kinds of cerebral white-matter lesions upon a detailed analysis of MRI. In analyzing MRI of cerebral white matter lesions, the localization and shape of white-matter lesions are important factors to make a differential diagnosis. Other images such as diffusion-weighted or T2-star weighted images are sometimes also useful for making such a diagnosis. In this manuscript, I describe how to read MRI of cerebral white-matter lesions, and present some educational cases. PMID:25846595

Nakata, Yasuhiro

2015-04-01

296

Effects of magnetic resonance imaging on cardiac pacemakers and electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In phantom studies we investigated the effects of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on pacemakers and electrodes. Twenty-five electrodes were exposed to MRI in a 1.5T scanner with continuous registration of the temperature at the electrode tip. Eleven pacemakers (five single chamber and six dual chamber) were exposed to MRI. Pacemaker output was monitored to detect malfunction in VOO\\/DOO and VVI\\/DDD

Stephan Achenbach; Werner Moshage; Björn Diem; Tobias Bieberle; Volker Schibgilla; Kurt Bachmann

1997-01-01

297

Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in Wilson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen patients with Wilson's disease were examined, using spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GE) sequences with 0.5 T and 1.5 T magnetic resonance (MR) imagers. They fell into three groups: groups 1 and 2 were examined retrospectively after 3–18 years of treatment, while group 3 was examined prospectively from the start of treatment, after recommencement of treatment, or inadequate treatment. MRI

K. Å. Thuomas; S. M. Aquilonius; K. Bergström; K. Westermark

1993-01-01

298

Multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging and cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a multi-layer approach for the synthesis of water-dispersible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and drug delivery applications. In this approach, iron oxide core nanoparticles were obtained by precipitation of iron salts in the presence of ammonia and provided ?-cyclodextrin and pluronic polymer (F127) coatings. This formulation (F127250) was highly water dispersible which

Murali M. Yallapu; Shadi F. Othman; Evan T. Curtis; Brij K. Gupta; Meena Jaggi; Subhash C. Chauhan

2011-01-01

299

Magnetic resonance imaging and cochlear implants: Compatibility and safety aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

With cochlear implants, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has until recently been contraindicated due to excessive magnetic and electromagnetic interference. The aim of this study was to determine the MRI compatibility of the Med-El Combi 40\\/401 cochlear implant, within a wide range of clinical MRI applications. In vitro experiments on a 1.5 T MR scanner were performed. Torque, force, demag- netization,

Christian Teissl; Christian Kremser; Erwin S. Hochmair; Ingeborg J. Hochmair-Desoyer

1999-01-01

300

Magnetic resonance imaging of the peripheral nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnostic work up of patients with peripheral neuropathy largely depends on clinical and electrophysiological investigations.\\u000a In contrast to disorders of the CNS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not been widely used as a diagnostic tool in the\\u000a PNS except for detection of nerve compressing mass lesions. Normal nerves appear isointense to the surrounding tissue on T1-\\u000a and T2-weighted (w)

Guido Stoll; Martin Bendszus; Jose Perez; Mirko Pham

2009-01-01

301

Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging: methods and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been limited by time-consuming data analysis and a low signal-to-noise ratio, impeding online analysis. Recent advances in acquisition techniques, computational power and algorithms increased the sensitivity and speed of fMRI significantly, making real-time analysis and display of fMRI data feasible. So far, most reports have focused on the technical aspects of real-time fMRI (rtfMRI).

Nikolaus Weiskopf; Ranganatha Sitaram; Oliver Josephs; Ralf Veit; Frank Scharnowski; Rainer Goebele; Niels Birbaumer; Ralf Deichmann; Klaus Mathiakf

302

Surface charge switching nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

In this study, polypeptide-based nanoparticles [constituted using poly(L-lysine) coupled with deoxycholic acid (DOCA) and conjugated with 2,3-dimethylmaleic acid (DMA)] have high tumor selectivity once electrostatically switched by the acidic milieu of solid tumors. These nanoparticles exhibited a significantly increased in vitro cellular uptake and high accumulation in the acidic tumor site in vivo. Consequently, Fe3O4-loaded nanoparticles enabled high contrast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the tumor in vivo. PMID:24858382

Lee, Dong Jin; Oh, Young Taik; Lee, Eun Seong

2014-08-25

303

Intravascular contrast agents suitable for magnetic resonance imaging. [Dogs  

SciTech Connect

Two paramagnetic chelates, chromium EDTA and gadolinium DTPA, were evaluated as potential intravenous contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. After evaluating both agents in vitro, in vivo studies were conducted in dogs to document changes in renal appearance produced by contrast injection. Acute splenic and renal infarction were diagnosed with contrast-enhanced MR and confirmed by gamma camera imaging following administration of Tc-99m-labeled DMSA and sulfur colloid. The authors conclude that intravenous paramagnetic contrast agents presently offer the best mechanism for assessment of tissue function and changes in perfusion with MR.

Runge, V.M.; Clanton, J.A.; Herzer, W.A.; Gibbs, S.J.; Price, A.C.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

1984-10-01

304

Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of adrenocortical oncocytoma cases.  

PubMed

We present two cases of adrenocortical oncocytomas that were well-delineated on multi-detector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The images showed a well-enhanced large mass with multiple stippled calcifications in a 10-yr-old girl who was consulted due to precocious puberty. A well-enhanced solid mass with necrotic components was incidentally noticed in a 54-yr-old man. These lesions were resected and diagnosed as adrenocortical oncocytomas through immunohistochemical studies and electron microscopy. Adrenocortical oncocytomas are rare disease entities, therefore, we report these interesting, rare adrenocortical oncocytomas here with radiologic findings, and discuss differential diagnosis. PMID:24616598

Yoon, Jung-Hee; Cha, Seong-Sook; Yoon, Seong Kuk

2014-03-01

305

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in brain imaging methods are on the verge of changing the evaluation of people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). This includes an assortment of techniques ranging from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to iron-sensitive methods such as T2*, as well as adiabatic methods R1? and R2?, resting-state functional MRI, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Using a multi-modality approach that ascertains different aspects of the pathophysiology or pathology of PD, it may be possible to better characterize disease phenotypes as well as provide a surrogate of disease and a potential means to track disease progression. PMID:24639916

Tuite, Paul J; Mangia, Silvia; Michaeli, Shalom

2014-01-01

306

Image contrast reversals in contact resonance atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple image contrast inversions are observed along with the increase of modulation frequency for contact resonance atomic force microscopy (CR-AFM) imaging of a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) specimen. Analysis of the contact vibrational spectra indicates that the inversions can be attributed to structure-induced variations of tip-sample contact mechanics. Contact stiffness and damping at HOPG step edges exhibit significant increases relative to those in the flat regions. For quantitative evaluation of mechanical properties in CR-AFM, coupling effects of the surface geometry must be considered.

Ma, Chengfu; Chen, Yuhang; Wang, Tian

2015-02-01

307

Magnetic resonance imaging of large chromophobe renal cell carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objective of this study was to clarify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of large chromophobe renal cell carcinomas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Five patients diagnosed pathologically with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma are included. MRI findings were retrospectively\\u000a evaluated for the tumor contour, uniformity and hypointensity of the rim of the tumor on T2-weighted images, “microscopic\\u000a fat,” enhancement degree and pattern

Kohei Sasaguri; Hiroyuki Irie; Noriyuki Kamochi; Takahiko Nakazono; Ken Yamaguchi; Jiro Uozumi; Sho Kudo

2010-01-01

308

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) : tour an MRI machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, appropriate for students in high school and beyond, the user navigates through a five-page illustrated explanation of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). Each page profiles a different step in the MRI process. The resource addresses the science behind how MRI works, revealing how a strong magnet and radio wave pulses affect the targeted area of the body and allow that area to be imaged. As part of a set of materials about brain scanning technologies, this resource focuses on brain MRI. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

David Grubin Productions

2001-01-01

309

Cranial magnetic resonance imaging in chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy.  

PubMed Central

Twenty one patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and five patients with chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with benign monoclonal paraproteinaemia none of whom had signs or symptoms of central nervous system disease, had cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 1.5 Tesla unit. Areas of increased white matter signal intensity were seen in one of 10 patients aged less than 50 years and in five of 16 patients aged more than 50 years. In only two of the patients (8%), neither of whom had paraproteinaemia, did the appearance strongly suggest demyelination. The only clinical variable that predicted MRI changes was age (p less than 0.01). Images PMID:2123236

Hawke, S H; Hallinan, J M; McLeod, J G

1990-01-01

310

Magnetic resonance imaging of the retina: from mice to men.  

PubMed

This mini-review provides an overview of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications to study rodent, cat, non-human primate, and human retinas. These techniques include T(1) - and T(2) -weighted anatomical, diffusion, blood flow, blood volume, blood-oxygenation level dependent, manganese-enhanced, physiological, and functional MRI. Applications to study the retinas in diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and retinal degeneration are also reviewed. MRI offers some unique advantages compared with existing imaging techniques and has the potential to further our understanding of physiology and function in healthy and diseased retinas. PMID:23716429

Duong, Timothy Q

2014-04-01

311

Very low field magnetic resonance imaging with spintronic sensors.  

PubMed

A very low field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) setup based on magnetoresistive-superconducting mixed sensors is presented. A flux transformer is used to achieve coupling between the sample to image and the mixed sensor. The novel detector was implemented in a spin echo MRI experiment, exposing the mixed sensor to RF pulses without use of any RF switch. The performance of the novel detector is given in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and is compared with classical tuned coils. PMID:24089875

Herreros, Q; Dyvorne, H; Campiglio, P; Jasmin-Lebras, G; Demonti, A; Pannetier-Lecoeur, M; Fermon, C

2013-09-01

312

Magnetic resonance imaging features of sinonasal disorders in horses.  

PubMed

Diseases of paranasal sinuses and nasal passages in horses can be a diagnostic challenge because of the complex anatomy of the head and limitations of many diagnostic modalities. Our hypothesis was that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging would provide excellent anatomical detail and soft tissue resolution, and would be accurate in the diagnosis of diseases of the paranasal sinuses and nasal passages in horses. Fourteen horses were imaged. Inclusion criteria were lesions located to the sinuses or nasal passages that underwent MR imaging and subsequent surgical intervention and/or histopathologic examination. A low field, 0.3 tesla open magnet was used. Sequences in the standard protocol were fast spin echo T2 sagittal and transverse, spin echo T1 transverse, short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) dorsal, gradient echo 3D T1 MPR dorsal (plain and contrast enhanced), spin echo T1 fatsat (contrast enhanced). Mean scan time to complete the examination was 53 min (range 39-99 min). Lesions identified were primary or secondary sinusitis (six horses), paranasal sinus cyst (four horses), progressive ethmoid hematoma (two horses), and neoplasia (two horses). The most useful sequences were fast spin echo T2 transverse and sagittal, STIR dorsal and FE3D MPR (survey and contrast enhanced). Fluid accumulation, mucosal thickening, presence of encapsulated contents, bone deformation, and thickening were common findings observed in MR imaging. In selected horses, magnetic resonance imaging is a useful tool in diagnosing lesions of the paranasal sinuses and nasal passages. PMID:22994147

Tessier, Caroline; Brühschwein, Andreas; Lang, Johann; Konar, Martin; Wilke, Markus; Brehm, Walter; Kircher, Patrick

2013-01-01

313

Simultaneous in vivo positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely used in vivo imaging technologies with both clinical and biomedical research applications. The strengths of MRI include high-resolution, high-contrast morphologic imaging of soft tissues; the ability to image physiologic parameters such as diffusion and changes in oxygenation level resulting from neuronal stimulation; and the measurement of metabolites using chemical shift imaging. PET images the distribution of biologically targeted radiotracers with high sensitivity, but images generally lack anatomic context and are of lower spatial resolution. Integration of these technologies permits the acquisition of temporally correlated data showing the distribution of PET radiotracers and MRI contrast agents or MR-detectable metabolites, with registration to the underlying anatomy. An MRI-compatible PET scanner has been built for biomedical research applications that allows data from both modalities to be acquired simultaneously. Experiments demonstrate no effect of the MRI system on the spatial resolution of the PET system and <10% reduction in the fraction of radioactive decay events detected by the PET scanner inside the MRI. The signal-to-noise ratio and uniformity of the MR images, with the exception of one particular pulse sequence, were little affected by the presence of the PET scanner. In vivo simultaneous PET and MRI studies were performed in mice. Proof-of-principle in vivo MR spectroscopy and functional MRI experiments were also demonstrated with the combined scanner. PMID:18319342

Catana, Ciprian; Procissi, Daniel; Wu, Yibao; Judenhofer, Martin S.; Qi, Jinyi; Pichler, Bernd J.; Jacobs, Russell E.; Cherry, Simon R.

2008-01-01

314

Microtesla magnetic resonance imaging with a superconducting quantum interference device  

SciTech Connect

We have constructed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner based on a dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) configured as a second-derivative gradiometer. The magnetic field sensitivity of the detector is independent of frequency; it is therefore possible to obtain high-resolution images by prepolarizing the nuclear spins in a field of 300 mT and detecting the signal at 132 fYT, corresponding to a proton Larmor frequency of 5.6 kHz. The reduction in the measurement field by a factor of 10,000 compared with conventional scanners eliminates inhomogeneous broadening of the nuclear magnetic resonance lines, even in fields with relatively poor homogeneity. The narrow linewidths result in enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution for a fixed strength of the magnetic field gradients used to encode the image. We present two-dimensional images of phantoms and pepper slices, obtained in typical magnetic field gradients of 100 fYT/m, with a spatial resolution of about 1mm. We further demonstrate a slice-selected image of an intact pepper. By varying the time delay between removal of the polarizing field and initiation of the spin echo sequence we acquire T1-weighted contrast images of water phantoms, some of which are doped with a paramagnetic salt; here, T1 is the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time. The techniques presented here could readily be adapted to existing multichannel SQUID systems used for magnetic source imaging of brain signals. Further potential applications include low-cost systems for tumor screening and imaging peripheral regions of the body.

McDermott, Robert; Lee, SeungKyun; ten Haken, Bennie; Trabesinger, Andreas H.; Pines, Alexander; Clarke, John

2004-03-15

315

Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in 49,XXXXY Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Klinefelter syndrome is a chromosomal disorder characterized by one or more supernumerary X chromosomes, in addition to the normal 46,XY male karyotype. Whereas classic Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) occurs in 1:400 births, the most severe Klinefelter variant (49,XXXXY) occurs in only 1:85,000 births. The degree of cognitive impairment, specific skeletal changes, and genital abnormalities in Klinefelter syndrome variants is thought to correlate with the number of additional X-chromosomes present. Magnetic resonance imaging studies in individuals with classic Klinefelter syndrome show smaller brain volumes, but magnetic resonance imaging data are lacking for individuals with rarer and more severe Klinefelter variants. We present case reports and magnetic resonance imaging studies on 3 individuals with 49,XXXXY. All 3 patients exhibited varying degrees of volume loss and abnormalities in white matter. Changes in white matter may represent a specific finding in patients with severe Klinefelter variants such as 49,XXXXY, and karyotype analysis should be considered in patients with unexplained white-matter disease, especially when developmental delay or genital abnormalities are present. PMID:18486832

Hoffman, Trevor L.; Vossough, Arastoo; Ficicioglu, Can; Visootsak, Jeannie

2015-01-01

316

Anomalous diffusion process applied to magnetic resonance image enhancement.  

PubMed

Diffusion process is widely applied to digital image enhancement both directly introducing diffusion equation as in anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter, and indirectly by convolution as in Gaussian filter. Anomalous diffusion process (ADP), given by a nonlinear relationship in diffusion equation and characterized by an anomalous parameters q, is supposed to be consistent with inhomogeneous media. Although classic diffusion process is widely studied and effective in various image settings, the effectiveness of ADP as an image enhancement is still unknown. In this paper we proposed the anomalous diffusion filters in both isotropic (IAD) and anisotropic (AAD) forms for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement. Filters based on discrete implementation of anomalous diffusion were applied to noisy MRI T2w images (brain, chest and abdominal) in order to quantify SNR gains estimating the performance for the proposed anomalous filter when realistic noise is added to those images. Results show that for images containing complex structures, e.g. brain structures, anomalous diffusion presents the highest enhancements when compared to classical diffusion approach. Furthermore, ADP presented a more effective enhancement for images containing Rayleigh and Gaussian noise. Anomalous filters showed an ability to preserve anatomic edges and a SNR improvement of 26% for brain images, compared to classical filter. In addition, AAD and IAD filters showed optimum results for noise distributions that appear on extreme situations on MRI, i.e. in low SNR images with approximate Rayleigh noise distribution, and for high SNR images with Gaussian or non central ? noise distributions. AAD and IAD filter showed the best results for the parametric range 1.2 < q < 1.6, suggesting that the anomalous diffusion regime is more suitable for MRI. This study indicates the proposed anomalous filters as promising approaches in qualitative and quantitative MRI enhancement. PMID:25716129

da S Senra Filho, A C; Garrido Salmon, C E; Murta Junior, L O

2015-03-21

317

Respiratory Amplitude Guided 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of prospectively guiding 4-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image acquisition using triggers at preselected respiratory amplitudes to achieve T{sub 2} weighting for abdominal motion tracking. Methods and Materials: A respiratory amplitude-based triggering system was developed and integrated into a commercial turbo spin echo MRI sequence. Initial feasibility tests were performed on healthy human study participants. Four respiratory states, the middle and the end of inhalation and exhalation, were used to trigger 4D MRI image acquisition of the liver. To achieve T{sub 2} weighting, the echo time and repetition time were set to 75 milliseconds and 4108 milliseconds, respectively. Single-shot acquisition, together with parallel imaging and partial k-space imaging techniques, was used to improve image acquisition efficiency. 4D MRI image sets composed of axial or sagittal slices were acquired. Results: Respiratory data measured and logged by the MRI scanner showed that the triggers occurred at the appropriate respiratory levels. Liver motion could be easily observed on both 4D MRI image datasets by sensing either the change of liver in size and shape (axial) or diaphragm motion (sagittal). Both 4D MRI image datasets were T{sub 2}-weighted as expected. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the feasibility of achieving T{sub 2}-weighted 4D MRI images using amplitude-based respiratory triggers. With the aid of the respiratory amplitude-based triggering system, the proposed method is compatible with most MRI sequences and therefore has the potential to improve tumor-tissue contrast in abdominal tumor motion imaging.

Hu, Yanle, E-mail: yhu@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Caruthers, Shelton D. [Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)] [Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Parikh, Parag J.; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

2013-05-01

318

Anomalous diffusion process applied to magnetic resonance image enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion process is widely applied to digital image enhancement both directly introducing diffusion equation as in anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter, and indirectly by convolution as in Gaussian filter. Anomalous diffusion process (ADP), given by a nonlinear relationship in diffusion equation and characterized by an anomalous parameters q, is supposed to be consistent with inhomogeneous media. Although classic diffusion process is widely studied and effective in various image settings, the effectiveness of ADP as an image enhancement is still unknown. In this paper we proposed the anomalous diffusion filters in both isotropic (IAD) and anisotropic (AAD) forms for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement. Filters based on discrete implementation of anomalous diffusion were applied to noisy MRI T2w images (brain, chest and abdominal) in order to quantify SNR gains estimating the performance for the proposed anomalous filter when realistic noise is added to those images. Results show that for images containing complex structures, e.g. brain structures, anomalous diffusion presents the highest enhancements when compared to classical diffusion approach. Furthermore, ADP presented a more effective enhancement for images containing Rayleigh and Gaussian noise. Anomalous filters showed an ability to preserve anatomic edges and a SNR improvement of 26% for brain images, compared to classical filter. In addition, AAD and IAD filters showed optimum results for noise distributions that appear on extreme situations on MRI, i.e. in low SNR images with approximate Rayleigh noise distribution, and for high SNR images with Gaussian or non central ? noise distributions. AAD and IAD filter showed the best results for the parametric range 1.2 < q < 1.6, suggesting that the anomalous diffusion regime is more suitable for MRI. This study indicates the proposed anomalous filters as promising approaches in qualitative and quantitative MRI enhancement.

Senra Filho, A. C. da S.; Garrido Salmon, C. E.; Murta Junior, L. O.

2015-03-01

319

Physiological basis and image processing in functional magnetic resonance imaging: Neuronal and motor activity in brain  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is recently developing as imaging modality used for mapping hemodynamics of neuronal and motor event related tissue blood oxygen level dependence (BOLD) in terms of brain activation. Image processing is performed by segmentation and registration methods. Segmentation algorithms provide brain surface-based analysis, automated anatomical labeling of cortical fields in magnetic resonance data sets based on oxygen metabolic state. Registration algorithms provide geometric features using two or more imaging modalities to assure clinically useful neuronal and motor information of brain activation. This review article summarizes the physiological basis of fMRI signal, its origin, contrast enhancement, physical factors, anatomical labeling by segmentation, registration approaches with examples of visual and motor activity in brain. Latest developments are reviewed for clinical applications of fMRI along with other different neurophysiological and imaging modalities. PMID:15125779

Sharma, Rakesh; Sharma, Avdhesh

2004-01-01

320

Magnetic resonance imaging of the heart: positioning and gradient angle selection for optimal imaging planes  

SciTech Connect

Electrocardiographically gated magnetic resonance images were acquired in 20 subjects using a spin-echo pulse sequence. For optimizing the display of cardiac anatomy, a technique was developed which uses patients positioning in addition to alteration of gradient angle to select image planes. High-quality images were acquired in three basic cardiac projections: (1) the long axis of the left ventricle, through the aortic valve and apex, parallel to the interventricular septum, (2) the long axis of the left ventricle, perpendicular to the septum, and (3) the short axis of the left ventricle at multiple levels including outflow, papillary muscle, and apex. Images of the aorta included axial images at multiple levels and long-axis images oriented to display the plane of the aortic arch. Images of these planes are easily achieved and, in contrast to standard images orthogonal to the chest wall, provide a reproductible and logical display of cardiac anatomy.

Dinsmore, R.E.; Wismer, G.L.; Levine, R.A.; Okada, R.D.; Brady, T.J.

1984-12-01

321

Magnetic resonance imaging in foals with infectious arthritis.  

PubMed

The magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of foals with infectious and noninfectious arthritis are described. Six foals with infectious arthritis and three foals with noninfectious arthritis were grouped based on synovial fluid analysis results and examined with radiography and MR imaging. Four out of six foals with infectious arthritis had osseous lesions in MR images indicative of osteomyelitis and only 4/19 lesions were detected on digital radiographs. The three foals with noninfectious arthritis had no osseous lesions in MR images or radiographically. Of the six joints that had osseous lesions detected with MR imaging, three had at least one lytic lesion detected radiographically. Osseous lesions in the epiphysis, metaphysis, and physis appeared in MR images as T2W, short tau inversion recovery, and proton density hyperintense foci with a hypointense halo. The same lesions appeared hyperintense in the 3D RSSG water excitation pulse sequence but lacked a surrounding hypointense halo. Most joints of foals with infectious arthritis had heterogenous signals within the synovial fluid whereas all of the nonseptic joints had homogenous synovial fluid signals. MR imaging appears to be better than radiography in the detection of osseous lesions in foals diagnosed with infectious arthritis and may be a valuable screening test for the presence of osteomyelitis. PMID:21699619

Gaschen, Lorrie; LeRoux, Alexandre; Trichel, Jessica; Riggs, Laura; Bragulla, Herman H; Rademacher, Nathalie; Rodriguez, Daniel

2011-01-01

322

Development of a Hybrid Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Imaging System  

PubMed Central

A system which allows magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound (US) image data to be acquired simultaneously has been developed. B-mode and Doppler US were performed inside the bore of a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner using a clinical 1–4?MHz US transducer with an 8-metre cable. Susceptibility artefacts and RF noise were introduced into MR images by the US imaging system. RF noise was minimised by using aluminium foil to shield the transducer. A study of MR and B-mode US image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a function of transducer-phantom separation was performed using a gel phantom. This revealed that a 4?cm separation between the phantom surface and the transducer was sufficient to minimise the effect of the susceptibility artefact in MR images. MR-US imaging was demonstrated in vivo with the aid of a 2?mm VeroWhite 3D-printed spherical target placed over the thigh muscle of a rat. The target allowed single-point registration of MR and US images in the axial plane to be performed. The system was subsequently demonstrated as a tool for the targeting and visualisation of high intensity focused ultrasound exposure in the rat thigh muscle. PMID:25177702

Sherwood, Victoria; Rivens, Ian; Collins, David J.; Leach, Martin O.; ter Haar, Gail R.

2014-01-01

323

Ferritin reporter used for gene expression imaging by magnetic resonance  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a minimally invasive way to provide high spatial resolution tomograms. However, MRI has been considered to be useless for gene expression imaging compared to optical imaging. In this study, we used a ferritin reporter, binding with biogenic iron, to make it a powerful tool for gene expression imaging in MRI studies. GL261 mouse glioma cells were over-expressed with dual-reporter ferritin-DsRed under {beta}-actin promoter, then gene expression was observed by optical imaging and MRI in a brain tumor model. GL261 cells expressing ferritin-DsRed fusion protein showed enhanced visualizing effect by reducing T2-weighted signal intensity for in vitro and in vivo MRI studies, as well as DsRed fluorescence for optical imaging. Furthermore, a higher contrast was achieved on T2-weighted images when permeating the plasma membrane of ferritin-DsRed-expressing GL261. Thus, a ferritin expression vector can be used as an MRI reporter to monitor in vivo gene expression.

Ono, Kenji; Fuma, Kazuya; Tabata, Kaori [Department of Brain Functions, Division of Stress Adaptation and Protection, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)] [Department of Brain Functions, Division of Stress Adaptation and Protection, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Sawada, Makoto, E-mail: msawada@riem.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Brain Functions, Division of Stress Adaptation and Protection, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)] [Department of Brain Functions, Division of Stress Adaptation and Protection, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)

2009-10-23

324

In Vivo Phenotyping of the ob\\/ob Mouse by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We studied ob\\/ob and wild-type (WT) mice to characterize the adipose tissues depots and other visceral organs and to establish an experimental paradigm for in vivo phenotyping.Research Methods and Procedures: An in vivo evaluation was conducted using magnetic resonance imaging and 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). We used T1-weighted images and three-dimensional spin echo T1-weighted images for the morphological analysis

Laura Calderan; Pasquina Marzola; Elena Nicolato; Paolo F. Fabene; Chiara Milanese; Paolo Bernardi; Antonio Giordano; Saverio Cinti; Andrea Sbarbati

2006-01-01

325

Evaluation of muscle injury using magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study was to investigate spin echo T2 relaxation time changes in thigh muscles after intense eccentric exercise in healthy men. Spin echo and calculated T2 relaxation time images of the thighs were obtained on several occasions after exercise of one limb; the contralateral limb served as control. Muscle damage was verified by elevated levels of serum creatine kinase (CK). Thirty percent of the time no exercise effect was discernible on the magnetic resonance (MR) images. In all positive MR images (70%) the semitendinosus muscle was positive, while the biceps femoris, short head, and gracilis muscles were also positive in 50% and 25% of the total cases, respectively. The peak T2 relaxation time and serum CK were correlated (r = 0.94, p<0.01); temporal changes in muscle T2 relaxation time and serum CK were similar, although T2 relaxation time remained positive after serum CK returned to background levels. We conclude that magnetic resonance imaging can serve as a useful tool in the evaluation of eccentric exercise muscle damage by providing a quantitative indicator of damage and its resolution as well as the specific areas and muscles.

LeBlanc, A. D.; Jaweed, M.; Evans, H.

1993-01-01

326

Magnetic resonance imaging markers for early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease?  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective and progressive degeneration, as well as loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. In PD, approximately 60-70% of nigrostriatal neurons are degenerated and 80% of content of the striatal dopamine is reduced before the diagnosis can be established according to widely accepted clinical diagnostic criteria. This condition describes a stage of disease called “prodromal”, where non-motor symptoms, such as olfactory dysfunction, constipation, rapid eye movement behaviour disorder, depression, precede motor sign of PD. Detection of prodromal phase of PD is becoming an important goal for determining the prognosis and choosing a suitable treatment strategy. In this review, we present some non-invasive instrumental approaches that could be useful to identify patients in the prodromal phase of PD or in an early clinical phase, when the first motor symptoms begin to be apparent. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and advanced MRI techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging, diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI, are useful to differentiate early PD with initial motor symptoms from atypical parkinsonian disorders, thus, making easier early diagnosis. Functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging techniques can show abnormalities in the olfactory system in prodromal PD. PMID:25745453

Marino, Silvia; Ciurleo, Rosella; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Barresi, Marina; De Salvo, Simona; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Bramanti, Alessia; Lanzafame, Pietro; Bramanti, Placido

2012-01-01

327

How to get ahead in imaging Advances in magnetic resonance imaging are helping scientists learn more about the structure and  

E-print Network

How to get ahead in imaging Advances in magnetic resonance imaging are helping scientists learn more about the structure and function of the brain. Nathan Blow looks at how far the technology has technology. "Magnetic resonance imaging used to be only in the hands of radiologists, but today more and more

Vilis, Tutis

328

Characterization of trabecular bone structure from high-resolution magnetic resonance images using fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to apply fuzzy logic image processing techniques to characterize the trabecular bone structure with high-resolution magnetic resonance images. Fifteen ex vivo high-resolution magnetic resonance images of specimens of human radii at 1.5 T and 12 in vivo high-resolution magnetic resonance images of the calcanei of peri- and postmenopausal women at 3 T were obtained.

Julio Carballido-Gamio; Catherine Phan; Thomas M. Link; Sharmila Majumdar

2006-01-01

329

The Spleen Revisited: An Overview on Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Despite being well visualized by different cross-sectional imaging techniques, the spleen is many times overlooked during the abdominal examination. The major reason is the low frequency of splenic abnormalities, the majority consisting of incidental findings. There has been a steady increase in the number of performed abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies; therefore, it is important to be familiar to the major MRI characteristics of disease processes involving the spleen, in order to interpret the findings correctly, reaching whenever possible the appropriate diagnosis. The spleen may be involved in several pathologic conditions like congenital diseases, trauma, inflammation, vascular disorders and hematologic disorders, benign and malignant tumors, and other disease processes that focally or diffusely affect the spleen. This paper presents a description and representative MRI images for many of these disorders. PMID:24377046

Palas, João; Matos, António P.; Ramalho, Miguel

2013-01-01

330

Clinical applications for diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in radiotherapy.  

PubMed

In this article, we review the clinical applications of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the radiotherapy treatment of several key clinical sites, including those of the central nervous system, the head and neck, the prostate, and the cervix. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) is an imaging technique that is rapidly gaining widespread acceptance owing to its ease and wide availability. DWI measures the mobility of water within tissue at the cellular level without the need of any exogenous contrast agent. For radiotherapy treatment planning, DWI improves upon conventional imaging techniques, by better characterization of tumor tissue properties required for tumor grading, diagnosis, and target volume delineation. Because DWI is also a sensitive marker for alterations in tumor cellularity, it has potential clinical applications in the early assessment of treatment response following radiation therapy. PMID:24931097

Tsien, Christina; Cao, Yue; Chenevert, Thomas

2014-07-01

331

Tracking immune cells in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

The increasing complexity of in vivo imaging technologies, coupled with the development of cell therapies, has fuelled a revolution in immune cell tracking in vivo. Powerful magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods are now being developed that use iron oxide- and 19F-based probes. These MRI technologies can be used for image-guided immune cell delivery and for the visualization of immune cell homing and engraftment, inflammation, cell physiology and gene expression. MRI-based cell tracking is now also being applied to evaluate therapeutics that modulate endogenous immune cell recruitment and to monitor emerging cellular immunotherapies. These recent uses show that MRI has the potential to be developed in many applications to follow the fate of immune cells in vivo. PMID:24013185

Ahrens, Eric T.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

2013-01-01

332

Magnetic resonance imaging features of equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MR) was used to make a diagnosis of equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia in a horse. Equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia is a neurodegenerative disease that has many characteristics with Parkinson-like diseases in humans. Historically, horses were euthanized based on clinical signs and exposure to the toxic weed, yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis). Previously, the disease has only been confirmed on necropsy. MR imaging can provide accurate and sensitive visualization of typical lesions seen in the brain of horses affected with equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia. Lesions were seen on T1-weighted, T2-weighted and proton density images. There was no contrast enhancement following Gd-DTPA administration. Lesions seen on MR were confirmed at necropsy. Using MR to confirm a diagnosis of equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia will prevent unnecessary suffering of horses and expense to owners that would otherwise incur, while further diagnostics are performed. PMID:11499702

Sanders, S G; Tucker, R L; Bagley, R S; Gavin, P R

2001-01-01

333

Visualizing myeloarchitecture with magnetic resonance imaging in primates.  

PubMed

The pattern of myelination over the cerebral cortex, termed myeloarchitecture, is an established and often-used feature to visualize cortical organization with histology in a variety of primate species. In this paper, we use in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and advanced image processing using surface rendering to visualize and characterize myeloarchitecture in a small nonhuman primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Through images made in four female adult marmosets, we produce a representative 3D map of marmoset myeloarchitecture and flatten and annotate this map to show the location and extent of a variety of major areas of the cortex, including the primary visual, auditory, and somatosensory areas. By treating our MRI data as a surface, we can measure the surface area of cortical areas, and we present these measurements here to summarize cortical organization in the marmoset. PMID:21599695

Bock, Nicholas A; Hashim, Eyesha; Kocharyan, Ara; Silva, Afonso C

2011-05-01

334

Magnetic resonance imaging features of pituitary yttrium-90 rod implantation.  

PubMed

Intersellar implantation of yttrium-90 rods was a common treatment for a variety of pituitary tumours in the 1960s and 1970s. The magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features in three patients with implants (two for growth hormone-secreting and one for prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas) are presented: the implants appeared as low signal cylinders with no image distortion, in contradistinction to CT where the implants generate beam hardening and back projection artefacts. Confident evaluation of the pituitary fossa for residential tumour and sequelae of therapy could be made on MR. It is the imaging technique of choice in the follow-up of patients treated with yttrium-90 implants. PMID:9744588

Jarosz, J M; Malcolm, P N; Cox, T C; Bingham, J B

1998-08-01

335

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography measure local changes in brain  

E-print Network

202 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography measure local underlying the different signal modalities. Address Massachusetts General Hospital Nuclear Magnetic Resonance dipole EEG electroencephalography ERP event-related potential fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging

Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

336

Fast approximate solution of Bloch equation for simulation of RF artifacts in Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

Fast approximate solution of Bloch equation for simulation of RF artifacts in Magnetic Resonance, France SUMMARY The technique used to spot information in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) uses size. key words: Bloch equation, magnetic resonance imaging, Fourier series expansion, Floquet theory 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

337

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of Oak Trees Infected With Phytophthora ramorum to  

E-print Network

91 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of Oak Trees Infected With Phytophthora ramorum to Determine Potential Avenues of Infection in Bark1 Edwin R. Florance2 Abstract Non-destructive magnetic resonance as an avenue of infection for P. ramorum. Key words: magnetic resonance imaging, microscopy, periderm

Standiford, Richard B.

338

Abstract-In this study, imaging of electrical current density in conducting objects, which contain nuclear magnetic resonance  

E-print Network

nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) active nuclei is planned using 0.15T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Experiments performed on several phantoms and the results are presented. Keywords - Magnetic Resonance Imaging]. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging techniques can be used to image the current density J . Joy et al. [6

Eyüboðlu, Murat

339

The emerging clinical role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Starting as a research method little more than a decade ago, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has rapidly evolved to become a powerful diagnostic tool used in routine clinical cardiology. The contrast in CMR images is generated from protons in different chemical environments and, therefore, enables high-resolution imaging and specific tissue characterization in vivo, without the use of potentially harmful ionizing radiation. CMR imaging is used for the assessment of regional and global ventricular function, and to answer questions regarding anatomy. State-of-the-art CMR sequences allow for a wide range of tissue characterization approaches, including the identification and quantification of nonviable, edematous, inflamed, infiltrated or hypoperfused myocardium. These tissue changes are not only used to help identify the etiology of cardiomyopathies, but also allow for a better understanding of tissue pathology in vivo. CMR tissue characterization may also be used to stage a disease process; for example, elevated T2 signal is consistent with edema and helps differentiate acute from chronic myocardial injury, and the extent of myocardial fibrosis as imaged by contrast-enhanced CMR correlates with adverse patient outcome in ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies. The current role of CMR imaging in clinical cardiology is reviewed, including coronary artery disease, congenital heart disease, nonischemic cardiomyopathies and valvular disease. PMID:20548977

Kumar, Andreas; Patton, David J; Friedrich, Matthias G

2010-01-01

340

Multisensor integration and image recognition using Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this work was to investigate the use of 'sensor based real time decision and control technology' applied to actively control the arrestment of aircraft (manned or unmanned). The proposed method is to develop an adaptively controlled system that would locate the aircraft's extended tailhook, predict its position and speed at the time of arrestment, adjust an arresting end effector to actively mate with the arresting hook and remove the aircraft's kinetic energy, thus minimizing the arresting distance and impact stresses. The focus of the work presented in this paper was to explore the use of fuzzy adaptive resonance theorem (fuzzy art) neural network to form a MSI scheme which reduces image data to recognize incoming aircraft and extended tailhook. Using inputs from several image sources a single fused image was generated to give details about range and tailhook characteristics for an F18 naval aircraft. The idea is to partition an image into cells and evaluate each using fuzzy art. Once the incoming aircraft is located in a cell that subimage is again divided into smaller cells. This image is evaluated to locate various parts of the aircraft (i.e., wings, tail, tailhook, etc.). the cell that contains the tailhook provides resolved position information. Multiple images from separate sensors provides opportunity to generate range details overtime.

Singer, Steven M.

1997-04-01

341

Magnetic resonance imaging and contrast enhancement. Scientific report  

SciTech Connect

Chapters II through VI of this report discuss: Relaxation of Nuclear Spins; Echo Techniques; Basic Imaging Pulse Sequences; Partial Saturation Recovery; Inversion Recovery; Spin Echo; Effects of Pulse Sequence on Image Contrast; Contrast Agents; Theoretical Aspects; Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity; and Physiological Rationale for Agent Selection. One of the major goals in all medical imaging techniques is to maximize one's ability to visualize and differentiate adjacent tissue regions in the body on the basis of differences in anatomy, physiology, or various pathological processes. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers distinct advantages over conventional x-ray imaging because of the possibility of selecting specific pulse sequences that can differentiate adjacent structures on the basis of differences in proton density, T/sub 1/ or T/sub 2/ relaxation rates, or flow. As a result of applying these various pulse sequences, numerous images have been obtained of the brain and other organs that demonstrate considerably more-detailed anatomical structure than had previously been available with computerized tomography, ultrasound, or nuclear medicine techniques. In some situations it is clearly superior, such as in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

Swenberg, C.E.; Movius, E.G.

1988-01-01

342

Magnetic resonance imaging safety of deep brain stimulator devices.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard of care for the evaluation of different neurological disorders of the brain and spinal cord due to its multiplanar capabilities and excellent soft tissue resolution. With the large and increasing population of patients with implanted deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices, a significant proportion of these patients with chronic neurological diseases require evaluation of their primary neurological disease processes by MRI. The presence of an implanted DBS device in a magnetic resonance environment presents potential hazards. These include the potential for induction of electrical currents or heating in DBS devices, which can result in neurological tissue injury, magnetic field-induced device migration, or disruption of the operational aspects of the devices. In this chapter, we review the basic physics of potential interactions of the MRI environment with implanted DBS devices, summarize results from phantom studies and clinical series, and discuss present recommendations for safe MRI in patients with implanted DBS devices. PMID:24112886

Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

2013-01-01

343

Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the murine cardiovascular system  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a powerful and reliable tool to noninvasively study the cardiovascular system in clinical practice. Because transgenic mouse models have assumed a critical role in cardiovascular research, technological advances in MRI have been extended to mice over the last decade. These have provided critical insights into cardiac and vascular morphology, function, and physiology/pathophysiology in many murine models of heart disease. Furthermore, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has allowed the nondestructive study of myocardial metabolism in both isolated hearts and in intact mice. This article reviews the current techniques and important pathophysiological insights from the application of MRI/MRS technology to murine models of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23292717

Akki, Ashwin; Gupta, Ashish

2013-01-01

344

Magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography as indexes of muscle function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hypothesis is tested that exercise-induced magnetic resonance (MR) contrast shifts would relate to electromyography (EMG) amplitude if both measures reflect muscle use during exercise. Both magnetic resonance images (MRI) and EMG data were obtained for separate eccentric (ECC) and cocentric (CON) exercise of increasing intensity for seven subjects 30-32 yr old. CON and ECC actions caused increased integrated EMG (IEMG) and T2 values which were strongly related with relative resistance. The rate of increase and absolute value of both T2 and IEMG were found to be greater for CON than for ECC actions. For both actions IEMG and T2 were correlated. Data obtained suggest that surface IEMG accurately reflects the contractile behavior of muscle and exercise-induced increases in MRI T2 values reflect certain processes that scale with muscle use.

Adams, Gregory R.; Duvoisin, Marc R.; Dudley, Gary A.

1992-01-01

345

Innovative computing for diagnoses from medical, magnetic-resonance imaging  

SciTech Connect

The author presents a final report on a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project, Innovative Computing for Diagnoses from Medical, Magnetic-Resonance Imaging, performed during fiscal years 1992 and 1993. The project defined a role for high-performance computing in surgery: the supercomputer can automatically summarize the three-dimensional extents of lesions and other clinically-relevant structures, and can deliver these summaries to workstation-based, augmented-reality environments at the clinical site. The author developed methods and software to make these summaries from the digital data already acquired using clinical, magnetic-resonance machines. In joint work with Albuquerque`s Department of Veterans Affairs Hospital, the author applied this work, and obtained a basis for planning, for rehearsal, and for guidance during surgery.

Diegert, C.

1997-01-01

346

Resonant marker design and fabrication techniques for device visualization during interventional magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has great potential as an imaging modality for guiding minimally invasive interventions because of its superior soft tissue contrast and the possibility of arbitrary slice positioning while avoiding ionizing radiation and nephrotoxic iodine contrast agents. The major constraints are: limited patient access, the insufficient assortment of compatible instruments and the difficult device visualization compared to X-ray based techniques. For the latter, resonant MRI markers, fabricated by using the wire-winding technique, have been developed. This fabrication technique serves as a functional model but has no clinical use. Thus, the aim of this study is to illustrate a four-phase design process of resonant markers involving microsystems technologies. The planning phase comprises the definition of requirements and the simulation of electromagnetic performance of the MRI markers. The following technologies were considered for the realization phase: aerosol-deposition process, hot embossing technology and thin film technology. The subsequent evaluation phase involves several test methods regarding electrical and mechanical characterization as well as MRI visibility aspects. The degree of fulfillment of the predefined requirements is determined within the analysis phase. Furthermore, an exemplary evaluation of four realized MRI markers was conducted, focusing on the performance within the MRI environment. PMID:25460277

Kaiser, Mandy; Detert, Markus; Rube, Martin A; El-Tahir, Abubakr; Elle, Ole Jakob; Melzer, Andreas; Schmidt, Bertram; Rose, Georg H

2015-04-01

347

Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Functional Lung Microstructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperpolarized 129Xe (HXe) is a non-invasive contrast agent for lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which upon inhalation follows the functional pathway of oxygen in the lung by dissolving into lung tissue structures and entering the blood stream. HXe MRI therefore provides unique opportunities for functional lung imaging of gas exchange which occurs from alveolar air spaces across the air-blood boundary into parenchymal tissue. However challenges in acquisition speed and signal-to-noise ratio have limited the development of a HXe imaging biomarker to diagnose lung disease. This thesis addresses these challenges by introducing parallel imaging to HXe MRI. Parallel imaging requires dedicated hardware. This work describes design, implementation, and characterization of a 32-channel phased-array chest receive coil with an integrated asymmetric birdcage transmit coil tuned to the HXe resonance on a 3 Tesla MRI system. Using the newly developed human chest coil, a functional HXe imaging method, multiple exchange time xenon magnetization transfer contrast (MXTC) is implemented. MXTC dynamically encodes HXe gas exchange into the image contrast. This permits two parameters to be derived regionally which are related to gas-exchange functionality by characterizing tissue-to-alveolar-volume ratio and alveolar wall thickness in the lung parenchyma. Initial results in healthy subjects demonstrate the sensitivity of MXTC by quantifying the subtle changes in lung microstructure in response to orientation and lung inflation. Our results in subjects with lung disease show that the MXTC-derived functional tissue density parameter exhibits excellent agreement with established imaging techniques. The newly developed dynamic parameter, which characterizes the alveolar wall, was elevated in subjects with lung disease, most likely indicating parenchymal inflammation. In light of these observations we believe that MXTC has potential as a biomarker for the regional quantification of 1) emphysematous tissue destruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (using the tissue density parameter) and 2) parenchymal inflammation or thickening (using the wall thickness parameter). By simultaneously quantifying two lung function parameters, MXTC provides a more comprehensive picture of lung microstructure than existing lung imaging techniques and could become an important non-invasive and quantitative tool to characterize pulmonary disease.

Dregely, Isabel

348

Magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of pituitary macrotumors in dogs.  

PubMed

The value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the evaluation of dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and CNS signs was assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed in 13 dogs with PDH and neurologic signs. The diagnosis of PDH was made on the basis of results of adrenocortical function tests and abdominal ultrasonography, in conjunction with appropriate history, clinical signs, and clinicopathologic alterations. Eight dogs had been treated with the adrenocorticolytic agent, mitotane, for 1 to 30 months before the development of neurologic signs. Prior to MRI, each dog had progressive neurologic signs that could not be attributed to hypocortisolism or mitotane toxicosis. The neurologic signs most frequently detected were disorientation and ataxia. Mean age of dogs at the time neurologic signs developed was 9.5 years. Sex predilection was not detected; however, most were large-breed dogs, with 11 of the 13 dogs weighing more than 20 kg. A large mass in the pituitary gland, suprasellar region, or both was easily identified on the magnetic resonance images of each dog. The masses ranged from 8 to 24 mm in size. Expansion of tumors into the suprasellar region and compression of structures adjacent to the pituitary gland were readily detected by MRI. Contrast enhancement did not improve tumor identification, but did enable better delineation between tumor and surrounding structures. After the diagnosis of a macrotumor was made by MRI, radiotherapy was initiated in 9 dogs and was successfully completed in 6. Three dogs had a relapse of neurologic signs 8, 11, and 26 months after radiotherapy was completed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7744687

Duesberg, C A; Feldman, E C; Nelson, R W; Bertoy, E H; Dublin, A B; Reid, M H

1995-03-01

349

White matter microstructure on diffusion tensor imaging is associated with conventional magnetic resonance imaging findings and  

E-print Network

White matter microstructure on diffusion tensor imaging is associated with conventional magnetic to evaluate white matter architecture after preterm birth. The goals were (1) to compare white matter if sex, gestational age, birth- weight, white matter injury score from conventional magnetic resonance

Grill-Spector, Kalanit

350

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, VOL. , NO. , 1 Synthetic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Revisited  

E-print Network

Field (MRF) structure on a transformation of the spin-lattice relaxation time, the spin-spin relaxation time and the proton density at each voxel. The MRF structure is specified through a Matrix Normal MAGNETIC Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a radiologic tool ([1], [2], [3]) used to visualize tissue structure

Maitra, Ranjan

351

Magnetic resonance imaging by using nano-magnetic particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetism and magnetic materials play a major role in various biological applications, such as magnetic bioseparation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia treatment of cancer and drug delivery. Among these techniques, MRI is a powerful method not only for diagnostic radiology but also for therapeutic medicine that utilizes a magnetic field and radio waves. Recently, this technique has contributed greatly to the promotion of the human quality life. Thus, this paper presents a short review of the physical principles and recent advances of MRI, as well as providing a summary of the synthesis methods and properties of contrast agents, like different core materials and surfactants.

Shokrollahi, H.; Khorramdin, A.; Isapour, Gh.

2014-11-01

352

Use of magnetic resonance imaging to monitor iron overload.  

PubMed

Treatment of iron overload requires robust estimates of total-body iron burden and its response to iron chelation therapy. Compliance with chelation therapy varies considerably among patients, and individual reporting is notoriously unreliable. Even with perfect compliance, intersubject variability in chelator effectiveness is extremely high, necessitating reliable iron estimates to guide dose titration. In addition, each chelator has a unique profile with respect to clearing iron stores from different organs. This article presents the tools available to clinicians to monitor their patients, focusing on noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging methods because they have become the de facto standard of care. PMID:25064711

Wood, John C

2014-08-01

353

Magnetic resonance imaging of nonmetallic orbital foreign bodies.  

PubMed

We studied a cadaver head model in which we inserted three orbital foreign bodies. We chose these foreign bodies because of their similarity to substances found in orbital trauma. Teflon and Lucite were used to represent synthetic materials, and dry pine was chosen as a type of organic material. Lucite is similar in radiographic density to plastics used in interior trim for automobiles and spectacle frames. While both orbital ultrasound and plain skull films failed to detect the foreign bodies consistently, both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging detected and localized the foreign bodies relatively well. Computed tomography was better in delineating shape and characterizing composition. PMID:3287937

Wilson, W B; Dreisbach, J N; Lattin, D E; Stears, J C

1988-06-15

354

Imaging tumor metabolism using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a powerful tool for noninvasively investigating normal and abnormal metabolism. When used in combination with imaging strategies, multinuclear MRS methods provide detailed biochemical information that can be directly correlated with anatomical features. Hyperpolarized C MRS is a new technology that reflects real-time metabolic conversion and is likely to be extremely valuable in managing patients with cancer. This article reviews the use of in vivo P, H, and C MRS for assessing cancer metabolism in order to provide information for diagnosis, planning treatment, assessing response to therapy, and predicting survival for patients with cancer. PMID:25815853

Li, Yan; Park, Ilwoo; Nelson, Sarah J

2015-01-01

355

Segmental inertial properties in dogs determined by magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Data regarding the segmental inertial properties of the dog are currently unavailable, although such parameters are needed for dynamic analyses of canine motion. The purpose of this study was to measure the segmental inertial properties in three medium sized dogs of average build using magnetic resonance imaging. The parameters included the mass, location of centre of mass and moments of inertia for each body segment. The normalised results will serve as a preliminary foundation for various biomechanical studies in dogs, although further study is required to characterise them for specific dog breeds and to determine how they may be affected by age and gender. PMID:18691919

Amit, T; Gomberg, B R; Milgram, J; Shahar, R

2009-10-01

356

Magnetic resonance imaging of sports injuries of the elbow.  

PubMed

Many abnormalities seen in the elbow result from trauma, often from sports such as baseball and tennis. Elbow problems are frequently related to the medial tension-lateral compression phenomenon, where repeated valgus stress produces flexor-pronator strain, ulnar collateral ligament sprain, ulnar traction spurring, and ulnar neuropathy. Lateral compression causes osteochondral lesions of the capitellum and radial head, degenerative arthritis, and loose bodies. Other elbow abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging include radial collateral ligament injuries, biceps and triceps tendon injuries, other nerve entrapment syndromes, loose bodies, osseous and soft-tissue trauma, arthritis, and masses, including bursae. PMID:12606870

Thornton, Raymond; Riley, Geoffrey M; Steinbach, Lynne S

2003-02-01

357

Effect of dental metals on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to examine the effects of metals used in dentistry upon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten disk-shaped samples of metals have been used in this study. Each sample has been set into a volunteer who had produced a normal MR image when tested. The subject was imaged in the sagittal, frontal and coronal plane with a 0.1 T MRI device and results examined for MR defects. Au, Ag, Au-Ag-Pd and amalgam produced no defect. Ni-Cr, Co-Cr and SUS304 expressed small amounts of MR defects, but SUS405, Pd-Co-Ni and Sm-Co expressed large defects. Those metals which create MR image degradation must not be used for fixed prosthesis or orthodontic devices both of which could easily be made from other metals. If the MR image degrading metals are to be used in dentistry, their application should be restricted to removable prosthesis. PMID:8429428

Masumi, S; Arita, M; Morikawa, M; Toyoda, S

1993-01-01

358

ROUTINE THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF JOINTS  

PubMed Central

Due to its high spatial resolution and excellent tissue contrast, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become the most commonly used imaging method to evaluate joints. Most musculoskeletal MR imaging is performed using two-dimensional fast spin-echo sequences. However, three-dimensional sequences have also been used for joint imaging and have the advantage of acquiring thin continuous slices through joints which reduces the effects of partial volume averaging. With recent advances in MR technology, three-dimensional sequences with isotropic resolution have been developed. These sequences allow high quality multi-planar reformat images to be obtained following a single acquisition, thereby eliminating the need to repeat sequences with identical tissue contrast in different planes. Preliminary results on the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional isotropic resolution sequences are encouraging. However, additional studies are needed to determine whether these sequences can replace currently used two-dimensional fast spin-echo sequences for providing comprehensive joint assessment in clinical practice. PMID:21448939

Kijowki, Richard; Gold, Garry E.

2011-01-01

359

Intensity Inhomogeneity Correction of Magnetic Resonance Images using Patches.  

PubMed

This paper presents a patch-based non-parametric approach to the correction of intensity inhomogeneity from magnetic resonance (MR) images of the human brain. During image acquisition, the inhomogeneity present in the radio-frequency coil, is usually manifested on the reconstructed MR image as a smooth shading effect. This artifact can significantly deteriorate the performance of any kind of image processing algorithm that uses intensities as a feature. Most of the current inhomogeneity correction techniques use explicit smoothness assumptions on the inhomogeneity field, which sometimes limit their performance if the actual inhomogeneity is not smooth, a problem that becomes prevalent in high fields. The proposed patch-based inhomogeneity correction method does not assume any parametric smoothness model, instead, it uses patches from an atlas of an inhomogeneity-free image to do the correction. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is comparable to N3, a current state of the art method, when the inhomogeneity is smooth, and outperforms N3 when the inhomogeneity contains non-smooth elements. PMID:25077011

Roy, Snehashis; Carass, Aaron; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Prince, Jerry L

2011-03-11

360

Ventilation and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging of the lung  

PubMed Central

Summary A close interaction between the respiratory pump, pulmonary parenchyma and blood circulation is essential for a normal lung function. Many pulmonary diseases present, especially in their initial phase, a variable regional impairment of ventilation and perfusion. In the last decades various techniques have been established to measure the lung function. Besides the global pulmonary function tests (PFTs) imaging techniques gained increasing importance to detect local variations in lung function, especially for ventilation and perfusion assessment. Imaging modalities allow for a deeper regional insight into pathophysiological processes and enable improved planning of invasive procedures. In contrast to computed tomography (CT) and the nuclear medicine techniques, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as a radiation free imaging modality gained increasing importance since the early 1990 for the assessment of pulmonary function. The major inherent problems of lung tissue, namely the low proton density and the pulmonary and cardiac motion, were overcome in the last years by a constant progress in MR technology. Some MR techniques are still under development, a process which is driven by scientific questions regarding the physiology and pathophysiology of pulmonary diseases, as well as by the need for fast and robust clinically applicable imaging techniques as safe therapy monitoring tools. MRI can be considered a promising ionizing-free alternative to techniques like CT or nuclear medicine techniques for the evaluation of lung function. The goal of this article is to provide an overview on selected MRI techniques for the assessment of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion. PMID:22802864

Bauman, Grzegorz; Eichinger, Monika

2012-01-01

361

Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of intraocular tumors  

SciTech Connect

Proton magnetic resonance imaging (/sup 1/H MRI) has emerged as a clinically useful tool for the diagnosis of intraocular tumors. During the last four years 1H MRI characteristics, including spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) and spin-spin relaxation times (T2), have been established for several types of tumors. The introduction of surface coils to the imaging process has significantly improved the quality of intraocular MR images, leading some clinicians to suggest that 1H MR images are preferable to CT scans. Another MRI technique, in which sodium-23 (/sup 23/Na) is imaged rather than protons, is now under development as tool for intraocular diagnosis. The potential of /sup 23/Na MRI depends upon the high concentration and visibility of sodium in the vitreous body, and upon the apparent differences in sodium behavior in normal cells vs. tumor cells. The metabolism of normal ocular tissues and intraocular tumors may be probed noninvasively with phosphorus-31 MR spectroscopy (/sup 31/P MRS). Much progress has been made during the last few years in understanding the appearance of /sup 31/P MR spectra of many types of healthy and diseased cells and tissues. Clinical application of this technique to the diagnosis and monitoring of intraocular tumors following conservative treatment will be dependent upon the development of spectroscopy techniques that collect information from the volume of interest (tumor) only. 54 references.

Kolodny, N.H.; Gragoudas, E.S.; D'Amico, D.J.; Albert, D.M.

1989-05-01

362

Automated Brain Extraction from T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Images  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop and implement an automated and robust technique to extract brain from T2-weighted images. Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 75 adult volunteers to acquire dual fast spin echo (FSE) images with fat-saturation technique on a 3T Philips scanner. Histogram-derived thresholds were derived directly from the original images followed by the application of regional labeling, regional connectivity, and mathematical morphological operations to extract brain from axial late-echo FSE (T2-weighted) images. The proposed technique was evaluated subjectively by an expert and quantitatively using Bland-Altman plot and Jaccard and Dice similarity measures. Results Excellent agreement between the extracted brain volumes with the proposed technique and manual stripping by an expert was observed based on Bland-Altman plot and also as assessed by high similarity indices (Jaccard: 0.9825± 0.0045; Dice: 0.9912 ±0.0023). Conclusion Brain extraction using proposed automated methodology is robust and the results are reproducible. PMID:21448946

Datta, Sushmita; Narayana, Ponnada A.

2011-01-01

363

Magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of pancreatic neoplasms.  

PubMed

Recently, with the rapid scanning time and improved image quality, outstanding advances in magnetic resonance (MR) methods have resulted in an increase in the use of MRI for patients with a variety of pancreatic neoplasms. MR multi-imaging protocol, which includes MR cross-sectional imaging, MR cholangiopancreatography and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR angiography, integrates the advantages of various special imaging techniques. The non-invasive all-in-one MR multi-imaging techniques may provide the comprehensive information needed for the preoperative diagnosis and evaluation of pancreatic neoplasms. Pancreatic neoplasms include primary tumors and pancreatic metastases. Primary tumors of the pancreas may be mainly classified as ductal adenocarcinomas, cystic tumors and islet cell tumors (ICT). Pancreatic adenocarcinomas can be diagnosed in a MRI study depending on direct evidence or both direct and indirect evidence. The combined MRI features of a focal pancreatic mass, pancreatic duct dilatation and parenchymal atrophy are highly suggestive of a ductal adenocarcinoma. Most cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are either microcystic adenomas or mucinous cystic neoplasms. Intraductal papillary mucinous tumors are the uncommon low-grade malignancy of the pancreatic duct. ICT are rare neoplasms arising from neuroendocrine cells in the pancreas or the periampullary region. ICT are classified as functioning and non-functioning. The most frequent tumors to metastasize to the pancreas are cancers of the breast, lung, kidney and melanoma. The majority of metastases present as large solitary masses with well-defined margins. PMID:17650223

Zhong, Liang

2007-08-01

364

In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Amyloid-? Plaques in Mice  

PubMed Central

Transgenic mice are used increasingly to model brain amyloidosis, mimicking the pathogenic processes involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this chapter, an in vivo strategy is described that has been successfully used to map amyloid-? deposits in transgenic mouse models of AD with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), utilizing both the endogenous contrast induced by the plaques attributed to their iron content and by selectively enhancing the signal from amyloid-? plaques using molecular-targeting vectors labeled with MRI contrast agents. To obtain sufficient spatial resolution for effective and sensitive mouse brain imaging, magnetic fields of 7-Tesla (T) or more are required. These are higher than the 1.5-T field strength routinely used for human brain imaging. The higher magnetic fields affect contrast agent efficiency and dictate the choice of pulse sequence parameters for in vivo MRI, all addressed in this chapter. Two-dimensional (2D) multi-slice and three-dimensional (3D) MRI acquisitions are described and their advantages and limitations are discussed. The experimental setup required for mouse brain imaging is explained in detail, including anesthesia, immobilization of the mouse's head to reduce motion artifacts, and anatomical landmarks to use for the slice alignment procedure to improve image co-registration during longitudinal studies and for subsequent matching of MRI with histology. PMID:22528108

Wadghiri, Youssef Zaim; Hoang, Dung Minh; Wisniewski, Thomas; Sigurdsson, Einar M.

2013-01-01

365

Gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of musculoskeletal infectious processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess whether gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides diagnostic information beyond that given by nonenhanced imaging in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infectious processes and whether it can be used for differentiating infectious from noninfectious inflammatory lesions. Magnetic resonance images performed with and without intravenous gadolinium-DTPA in 34 cases in which musculoskeletal infection had

Katharine L. Hopkins; King C. P. Li; Gabrielle Bergman

1995-01-01

366

Echo-planar imaging: magnetic resonance imaging in a fraction of a second.  

PubMed

Progress has recently been made in implementing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that can be used to obtain images in a fraction of a second rather than in minutes. Echo-planar imaging (EPI) uses only one nuclear spin excitation per image and lends itself to a variety of critical medical and scientific applications. Among these are evaluation of cardiac function in real time, mapping of water diffusion and temperature in tissue, mapping of organ blood pool and perfusion, functional imaging of the central nervous system, depiction of blood and cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics, and movie imaging of the mobile fetus in utero. Through shortened patient examination times, higher patient throughput, and lower cost per MRI examination, EPI may become a powerful tool for early diagnosis of some common and potentially treatable diseases such as ischemic heart disease, stroke, and cancer. PMID:1925560

Stehling, M K; Turner, R; Mansfield, P

1991-10-01

367

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Meshaal Al Yahya, Student, 200426900, Dept. of EE, KFUPM, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

1 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Meshaal Al Yahya, Student, 200426900, Dept. of EE, KFUPM, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia Abstract-- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is basically a medical imaging me to pick this topic. II. WHAT IS MRI? Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an imaging tech- nique

Masoudi, Husain M.

368

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) and brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for radiotherapy treatment planning of glioma.  

PubMed

Conventional radiotherapy of glioma is ineffective due to uncertainties in target delineation, inadequate radiation dose, and difficulties in identifying radio-resistant high-grade tumor for dose escalation. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provide information on altered metabolic activity of tumor cells and functionally critical brain tissues, which are not available from anatomical imaging. In this paper, we review the pathological and physiological information that might be derived from MRSI and fMRI to better delineate the treatment volume and critical organs for glioma radiotherapy. Technical difficulties for incorporating MRSI and fMRI into radiotherapy treatment planning process are discussed and potential solutions are presented. A fusion protocol is used to illustrate the feasibility of registering MRSI and fMRI with simulation CT for one glioma case. An IMRT (intensity-modulated radiotherapy) dose painting plan for this case is also presented using the fused MRSI and fMRI to delineate the clinical target volumes and Broca's area. PMID:18783284

Chang, Jenghwa; Thakur, Sunitha B; Huang, Wei; Narayana, Ashwatha

2008-10-01

369

Quantum control of proximal spins using nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging  

E-print Network

Quantum control of individual spins in condensed matter systems is an emerging field with wide-ranging applications in spintronics, quantum computation, and sensitive magnetometry. Recent experiments have demonstrated the ability to address and manipulate single electron spins through either optical or electrical techniques. However, it is a challenge to extend individual spin control to nanoscale multi-electron systems, as individual spins are often irresolvable with existing methods. Here we demonstrate that coherent individual spin control can be achieved with few-nm resolution for proximal electron spins by performing single-spin magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is realized via a scanning magnetic field gradient that is both strong enough to achieve nanometric spatial resolution and sufficiently stable for coherent spin manipulations. We apply this scanning field-gradient MRI technique to electronic spins in nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond and achieve nanometric resolution in imaging, char...

Grinolds, M S; Hong, S; Lukin, M D; Walsworth, R L; Yacoby, A

2011-01-01

370

Synthesis of gadolinium oxide magnetoliposomes for magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the synthesis of gadolinium oxide magnetoliposomes, i.e., nanosized gadolinium oxide magnetic particles coated by a phospholipid membrane, is presented. Magnetoliposomes were prepared by reacting lauric acid coated gadolinium oxide nanoparticles with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes prepared using a direct injection method. The gadolinium oxide magnetoliposomes were characterized using transmission electron microscopy imaging, x-ray diffraction, and fluorescence. The magnetic properties of the magnetoliposomes were investigated with a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. Our results indicate that the magnetoliposomes contain approximately spherical nanoparticles averaging 20 nm in diameter. The occurrence of a phospholipid bilayer surrounding the magnetic particles is confirmed both by transmission electron micrographs of samples negatively stained with uranyl acetate and by digital fluorescence imaging microscopy measurements of magnetoliposomes labeled with fluorescein. The particles are paramagnetic at room temperature. NMR measurements show that the ratio between the relaxivities of the particles depends largely on their preparation.

Roberts, Danielle; Zhu, Weibe L.; Frommen, Christoph M.; Rosenzweig, Zeev

2000-05-01

371

Utility of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging for human epilepsy  

PubMed Central

This review discusses the potential utility of broad based use of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging for human epilepsy and seizure localization. The clinical challenges are well known to the epilepsy community, intrinsic in the variability of location, volumetric size and network extent of epileptogenic tissue in individual patients. The technical challenges are also evident, with high performance requirements in multiple steps, including magnet homogeneity, detector performance, sequence design, speed of acquisition in addition to large territory spectral processing. We consider how MR spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging has been informative for epilepsy thus far, with specific attention to what is measured, the interpretation of such measurements and technical performance challenges. Examples are shown from medial temporal lobe and neocortical epilepsies are considered from 4T, 7T and most recently 3T. PMID:25853088

Kuzniecky, Ruben I.

2015-01-01

372

Utility of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging for human epilepsy.  

PubMed

This review discusses the potential utility of broad based use of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging for human epilepsy and seizure localization. The clinical challenges are well known to the epilepsy community, intrinsic in the variability of location, volumetric size and network extent of epileptogenic tissue in individual patients. The technical challenges are also evident, with high performance requirements in multiple steps, including magnet homogeneity, detector performance, sequence design, speed of acquisition in addition to large territory spectral processing. We consider how MR spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging has been informative for epilepsy thus far, with specific attention to what is measured, the interpretation of such measurements and technical performance challenges. Examples are shown from medial temporal lobe and neocortical epilepsies are considered from 4T, 7T and most recently 3T. PMID:25853088

Pan, Jullie W; Kuzniecky, Ruben I

2015-04-01

373

Magnetic resonance imaging of chemical waves in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a powerful tool for the investigation of chemical structures in optically opaque porous media, in which chemical concentration gradients can be visualized, and diffusion and flow properties are simultaneously determined. In this paper we give an overview of the MRI technique and review theory and experiments on the formation of chemical waves in a tubular packed bed reactor upon the addition of a nonlinear chemical reaction. MR images are presented of reaction-diffusion waves propagating in the three-dimensional (3D) network of channels in the reactor, and the 3D structure of stationary concentration patterns formed via the flow-distributed oscillation mechanism is demonstrated to reflect the local hydrodynamics in the packed bed. Possible future directions regarding the influence of heterogeneities on transport and reaction are discussed.

Taylor, Annette F.; Britton, Melanie M.

2006-09-01

374

Preclinical magnetic resonance imaging in mouse cancer models.  

PubMed

The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in humans and animal models has been rapidly growing. MRI provides high spatial resolution, excellent tissue contrast, and outstanding definition of the anatomical structure of normal organs and tumors. Because MRI does not require genetically encoded reporters, it can be used for tumor surveillance and the assessment of treatment effects in a variety of mouse cancer models. MRI systems for preclinical imaging typically operate at higher magnetic field strength, ranging from 4.7 to 15 T, as opposed to clinical MRI scanners, which range from 1.5 to 3 T. The higher field strength of dedicated preclinical systems provides higher spatial resolution and higher signal-to-noise ratios. MRI of mouse cancer models requires optimization of numerous parameters, including pulse sequences and radio frequency coils. Here, we describe a protocol covering the general procedures for MRI. PMID:25561616

Sun, Yanping; Kung, Andrew L

2015-01-01

375

Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Tumors at Ultrahigh Field  

PubMed Central

With the advancement of the magnetic resonance (MR) technology, the whole-body ultrahigh field MR system operated from 7 to 9.4 T becomes feasible for the routine patient imaging in clinical settings. The associated potentials and challenges from the perspectives of technology, physics, and biology as well as clinical application of the ultrahigh field MR systems are different from those systems operated at 3 T, 1.5 T, or lower field strength. In this article, we will present our initial experiences of brain tumor imaging using the 7 and 8 T whole-body MR systems at the Ohio State University Medical Center and provide a brief overview pertinent to the ultrahigh field clinical MR systems. PMID:17198222

Yuh, William T.C.; Christoforidis, Greg A.; Koch, Regina Maria; Sammet, Steffen; Schmalbrock, Petra; Yang, Ming; Knopp, Michael V.

2012-01-01

376

Direct Neural Imaging using Ultra-Low Field Magnetic Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An enduring challenge in neuroscience is the accurate in vivo mapping of neural activity with high spatial and temporal resolution. A method being developed by our group tries to meet this challenge by using Ultra-Low Field (ULF) MRI. Other groups have attempted direct neural imaging (DNI) using high field MRI. However, the use of ULF presents two advantages. First, the susceptibility artifact at high fields, which masks the DNI signal, is negligible at low fields. Second, the reduced Larmor frequency at ULF may overlap with the frequency spectrum of the neural magnetic field, resonantly enhancing the MRI signal. In this presentation, I will first show our custom-built ULF MRI setups that have successfully produced ULF anatomical images. I will then highlight the numerous studies we have done to investigate the feasibility of DNI with these systems, including both experimental and theoretical studies.

Maskaly, Karlene; Espy, Michelle; Flynn, Mark; Gomez, John; Kraus, Robert; Matlashov, Andrei; Mosher, John; Newman, Shaun; Owens, Tuba; Peters, Mark; Sandin, J.; Schultz, Larry; Urbaitis, Algis; Volegov, Petr; Zotev, Vadim

2009-03-01

377

The role of magnetic resonance imaging in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inheritable cardiac disorder, with an estimated prevalence of 1:500 in the general population. Most cases of HCM are phenotypically expressed in adolescence or early adulthood but age-related penetrance with certain phenotypes is increasingly recognized. Clinical manifestations of HCM are usually the result of systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction, left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). In recent years magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become established as an important tool for the evaluation of suspected HCM as it can reliably establish the diagnosis, help distinguish HCM from other causes of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and identify those patients at greatest risk of SCD. This article reviews the current status of MRI in the evaluation of the HCM patient including imaging protocols, disease characterization and the emerging role of MRI for risk stratification and proband screening. PMID:25392824

Elassaly, Mohamed; Ganeshan, Arul; Watkin, Richard W.; Simpson, Helen

2014-01-01

378

Simultaneous Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Consolidation Measurement of Articular Cartilage  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the opportunity to study biological tissues and processes in a non-disruptive manner. The technique shows promise for the study of the load-bearing performance (consolidation) of articular cartilage and changes in articular cartilage accompanying osteoarthritis. Consolidation of articular cartilage involves the recording of two transient characteristics: the change over time of strain and the hydrostatic excess pore pressure (HEPP). MRI study of cartilage consolidation under mechanical load is limited by difficulties in measuring the HEPP in the presence of the strong magnetic fields associated with the MRI technique. Here we describe the use of MRI to image and characterize bovine articular cartilage deforming under load in an MRI compatible consolidometer while monitoring pressure with a Fabry-Perot interferometer-based fiber-optic pressure transducer. PMID:24803188

Wellard, Robert Mark; Ravasio, Jean-Philippe; Guesne, Samuel; Bell, Christopher; Oloyede, Adekunle; Tevelen, Greg; Pope, James M.; Momot, Konstantin I.

2014-01-01

379

Measurement of flow through porous media by magnetic resonance imaging  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative imaging of flow through porous media is possible utilizing pulsed gradient phase encoding techniques in MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). The random directional motion of the fluid in a porous medium causes signal attenuation due to the dispersion of the phase information when velocity phase encoding gradient pulses are applied. Isolation of the effect of molecular diffusion process which is random not only in space but also in time in achieved by acquiring images with velocity compensated gradient pulses for measurement of the diffusion constant. PFOB (perfluorooctyl bromide) was used as an intravascular contrast agent in the experiments on the rabbit kidney models for extraction of all available information about the parameters governing the microvascular flow process in one MRI setup. A pulse sequence program was developed on a 1.5 T whole body MRI system to incorporate the multislice data collection, chemical-shift artifact correction, and cardiac gating algorithms. The complete imaging setup also included several radio frequency coils for F-19 imaging and an image reconstruction program with a motion artifact suppression algorithm required for collection of flow sensitive images in in-vivo studies. The results obtained from the experiments on the rabbit kidneys verified the proposed formulation for the quantitative analysis of microvascular flow. These studies on the animal models indicated that the measurement of microvascular flow on an absolute scale can be realized using the phase sensitive pulsed gradient velocity encoding methods. Utilization of the measurement and analysis techniques can be possible in the controlled experiments such as monitoring tumor responses to a certain kind of therapy through the evaluation of the microvascular flow.

Oezdemirel, B.

1992-01-01

380

Design of multi-channel radio-frequency front-end for 200mhz parallel magnetic resonance imaging  

E-print Network

The increasing demands for improving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quality, especially reducing the imaging time have been driving the channel number of parallel magnetic resonance imaging (Parallel MRI) to increase. When the channel number...

Liu, Xiaoqun

2009-05-15

381

Relationship of Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Perfusion, and Other Disease Factors to Neuropsychological Outcome in Sickle Cell Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the relationship between neuropsychological functioning and radiographic findings in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) with no history of clinical neurological events. Methods Thirty-one patients with SCD randomly selected from a regional treatment center underwent neuropsychological and disease severity assessments. Of these, 22 also had structural magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance perfusion studies performed. Results Forty-five

Royal Grueneich; M. Douglas Ris; William Ball; Karen A. Kalinyak; Robert Noll; Kathy Vannatta; Robert Wells

2004-01-01

382

Method of images applied to an opto-mechanical Fabry-Perot resonator  

E-print Network

The method of images, when applied to an opto-mechanical Fabry-Perot resonator with a heavy, charged mirror, and a light, charged mirror that can be driven into motion, reveals that the highest order images can move relativistically when the Q of the superconducting resonator is on the order of 10^10. The implications of such relativistic motions of the charge and mass of these images to the emission of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation within the resonator is explored.

Chiao, Raymond

2013-01-01

383

Use of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Imaging, Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) in Brain Development Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of several new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques has facilitated serial observations of the developing human brain in utero. For example, the noninvasive technique of functional MRI, which is used to study brain anatomy, function and metabolism in both humans and animals, has already enhanced our understanding of brain development and behavior relations. Currently, three main kinds of

Fei Fei Yang; Shu Guang Yuan; David T. Yew

2008-01-01

384

Realistic analytical phantoms for parallel magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

The quantitative validation of reconstruction algorithms requires reliable data. Rasterized simulations are popular but they are tainted by an aliasing component that impacts the assessment of the performance of reconstruction. We introduce analytical simulation tools that are suited to parallel magnetic resonance imaging and allow one to build realistic phantoms. The proposed phantoms are composed of ellipses and regions with piecewise-polynomial boundaries, including spline contours, Bézier contours, and polygons. In addition, they take the channel sensitivity into account, for which we investigate two possible models. Our analytical formulations provide well-defined data in both the spatial and k-space domains. Our main contribution is the closed-form determination of the Fourier transforms that are involved. Experiments validate the proposed implementation. In a typical parallel magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction experiment, we quantify the bias in the overly optimistic results obtained with rasterized simulations-the inverse-crime situation. We provide a package that implements the different simulations and provide tools to guide the design of realistic phantoms. PMID:22049364

Guerquin-Kern, M; Lejeune, L; Pruessmann, K P; Unser, M

2012-03-01

385

Whiplash injuries can be visible by functional magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Whiplash trauma can result in injuries that are difficult to diagnose. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in injuries to the upper segments of the cervical spine (craniocervical joint [CCJ] complex). Studies indicate that injuries in that region may be responsible for the cervicoencephalic syndrome, as evidenced by headache, balance problems, vertigo, dizziness, eye problems, tinnitus, poor concentration, sensitivity to light and pronounced fatigue. Consequently, diagnosis of lesions in the CCJ region is important. Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a radiological technique that can visualize injuries of the ligaments and the joint capsules, and accompanying pathological movement patterns. Three severely injured patients that had been extensively examined without any findings of structural lesions were diagnosed by functional magnetic resonance imaging to have injuries in the CCJ region. These injuries were confirmed at surgery, and after surgical stabilization the medical condition was highly improved. It is important to draw attention to the urgent need to diagnose lesions and dysfunction in the CCJ complex and also improve diagnostic methods. PMID:16960637

Johansson, Bengt H

2006-01-01

386

The physics of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a methodology for detecting dynamic patterns of activity in the working human brain. Although the initial discoveries that led to fMRI are only about 20 years old, this new field has revolutionized the study of brain function. The ability to detect changes in brain activity has a biophysical basis in the magnetic properties of deoxyhemoglobin, and a physiological basis in the way blood flow increases more than oxygen metabolism when local neural activity increases. These effects translate to a subtle increase in the local magnetic resonance signal, the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, when neural activity increases. With current techniques, this pattern of activation can be measured with resolution approaching 1 mm3 spatially and 1 s temporally. This review focuses on the physical basis of the BOLD effect, the imaging methods used to measure it, the possible origins of the physiological effects that produce a mismatch of blood flow and oxygen metabolism during neural activation, and the mathematical models that have been developed to understand the measured signals. An overarching theme is the growing field of quantitative fMRI, in which other MRI methods are combined with BOLD methods and analyzed within a theoretical modeling framework to derive quantitative estimates of oxygen metabolism and other physiological variables. That goal is the current challenge for fMRI: to move fMRI from a mapping tool to a quantitative probe of brain physiology. PMID:24006360

Buxton, Richard B

2015-01-01

387

The physics of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a methodology for detecting dynamic patterns of activity in the working human brain. Although the initial discoveries that led to fMRI are only about 20 years old, this new field has revolutionized the study of brain function. The ability to detect changes in brain activity has a biophysical basis in the magnetic properties of deoxyhemoglobin, and a physiological basis in the way blood flow increases more than oxygen metabolism when local neural activity increases. These effects translate to a subtle increase in the local magnetic resonance signal, the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, when neural activity increases. With current techniques, this pattern of activation can be measured with resolution approaching 1 mm3 spatially and 1 s temporally. This review focuses on the physical basis of the BOLD effect, the imaging methods used to measure it, the possible origins of the physiological effects that produce a mismatch of blood flow and oxygen metabolism during neural activation, and the mathematical models that have been developed to understand the measured signals. An overarching theme is the growing field of quantitative fMRI, in which other MRI methods are combined with BOLD methods and analyzed within a theoretical modeling framework to derive quantitative estimates of oxygen metabolism and other physiological variables. That goal is the current challenge for fMRI: to move fMRI from a mapping tool to a quantitative probe of brain physiology.

Buxton, Richard B.

2013-09-01

388

Radiation-induced optic neuropathy: A magnetic resonance imaging study  

SciTech Connect

Optic neuropathy induced by radiation is an infrequent cause of delayed visual loss that may at times be difficult to differentiate from compression of the visual pathways by recurrent neoplasm. The authors describe six patients with this disorder who experienced loss of vision 6 to 36 months after neurological surgery and radiation therapy. Of the six patients in the series, two had a pituitary adenoma and one each had a metastatic melanoma, multiple myeloma, craniopharyngioma, and lymphoepithelioma. Visual acuity in the affected eyes ranged from 20/25 to no light perception. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed sellar and parasellar recurrence of both pituitary adenomas, but the intrinsic lesions of the optic nerves and optic chiasm induced by radiation were enhanced after gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) administration and were clearly distinguishable from the suprasellar compression of tumor. Repeated MR imaging showed spontaneous resolution of gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of the optic nerve in a patient who was initially suspected of harboring recurrence of a metastatic malignant melanoma as the cause of visual loss. The authors found the presumptive diagnosis of radiation-induced optic neuropathy facilitated by MR imaging with gadolinium-DTPA. This neuro-imaging procedure may help avert exploratory surgery in some patients with recurrent neoplasm in whom the etiology of visual loss is uncertain.

Guy, J.; Mancuso, A.; Beck, R.; Moster, M.L.; Sedwick, L.A.; Quisling, R.G.; Rhoton, A.L. Jr.; Protzko, E.E.; Schiffman, J. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

1991-03-01

389

Magnetic resonance imaging of microstructure transition in stainless steel.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance images are prone to artifacts caused by metallic objects. Such artifacts may not only hamper image interpretation, but also have been shown to provide information about the magnetic properties of the substances involved. In this work, we aim to explore the potential of MRI to detect, localize and characterize changes in magnetic properties that may occur when certain alloys have been exposed to a thermomechanical stress. For this purpose, stainless steel 304 L wires were drawn to induce a change from paramagnetic austenitic into ferromagnetic martensitic microstructure. The changes in magnetic behavior were quantified by analyzing the geometric distortion in spin echo and the geometric distortion and intravoxel dephasing in gradient echo images at 0.5, 1.5 and 3 T. The results of both imaging strategies were in agreement and in accordance with independent measurements with a vibrating sample magnetometer. Drawing wire to 2% of its cross-sectional area was found to increase the volume fraction of the ferromagnetic martensite from 0.3% to 80% and to enhance the magnetization up to two or three orders of magnitude. The results demonstrate the potential of MRI to locate and quantify stress-induced changes in the magnetic properties of alloys in a completely noninvasive and nondestructive way. PMID:16735191

Peeters, Johannes M; van Faassen, Ernst E H; Bakker, Chris J G

2006-06-01

390

Magnetic resonance imaging of microvessels using iron-oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The visualization of microstructures including blood vessels with an inner overall cross-sectional area below approximately 200 ?m remains beyond the capabilities of current clinical imaging modalities. But with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, magnetic entities cause susceptibility artifacts in the images by disrupting the homogeneous magnetic field in a much larger scale than their actual size. As validated in this paper through simulation and in-vitro experiments, these artifacts can serve as a source of contrast, enabling microvessels with an inner diameter below the spatial resolution of any medical imaging modalities to be visualized using a clinical MR scanner. For such experiments, micron-sized agglomerations of iron-oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were injected in microchannels with internal diameters of 200 and 50 ?m equivalent to a narrower artery or a larger arteriole, and down to a smaller arteriole, respectively. The results show the feasibility of the proposed method for micro-particle detection and the visualization of microvessels using a 1.5 T clinical MR scanner. It was confirmed that the method is reproducible and accurate at the sub-pixel level.

Olamaei, N.; Cheriet, F.; Martel, S.

2013-03-01

391

Active resonant subwavelength grating for scannerless range imaging sensors.  

SciTech Connect

In this late-start LDRD, we will present a design for a wavelength-agile, high-speed modulator that enables a long-term vision for the THz Scannerless Range Imaging (SRI) sensor. It takes the place of the currently-utilized SRI micro-channel plate which is limited to photocathode sensitive wavelengths (primarily in the visible and near-IR regimes). Two of Sandia's successful technologies--subwavelength diffractive optics and THz sources and detectors--are poised to extend the capabilities of the SRI sensor. The goal is to drastically broaden the SRI's sensing waveband--all the way to the THz regime--so the sensor can see through image-obscuring, scattering environments like smoke and dust. Surface properties, such as reflectivity, emissivity, and scattering roughness, vary greatly with the illuminating wavelength. Thus, objects that are difficult to image at the SRI sensor's present near-IR wavelengths may be imaged more easily at the considerably longer THz wavelengths (0.1 to 1mm). The proposed component is an active Resonant Subwavelength Grating (RSG). Sandia invested considerable effort on a passive RSG two years ago, which resulted in a highly-efficient (reflectivity greater than gold), wavelength-specific reflector. For this late-start LDRD proposal, we will transform the passive RSG design into an active laser-line reflector.

Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Nellums, Robert O.; Boye, Robert R.; Peters, David William

2006-11-01

392

Magnetic resonance imaging of clays: swelling, sedimentation, dissolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While most magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications concern medical research, there is a rapidly increasing number of MRI studies in the field of environmental science and technology. In this presentation, MRI will be introduced from the latter perspective. While many processes in these areas are similar to those addressed in medical applications of MRI, parameters and experimental implementations are often quite different and, in many respects, far more demanding. This hinders direct transfer of existing methods developed for biomedical research, especially when facing the challenging task of obtaining spatially resolved quantitative information. In MRI investigation of soils, clays, and rocks, mainly water signal is detected, similarly to MRI of biological and medical samples. However, a strong variation of water mobility and a wide spread of water spin relaxation properties in these materials make it difficult to use standard MRI approaches. Other significant limitations can be identified as following: T2 relaxation and probe dead time effects; molecular diffusion artifacts; varying dielectric losses and induced currents in conductive samples; limited dynamic range; blurring artifacts accompanying drive for increasing sensitivity and/or imaging speed. Despite these limitations, by combining MRI techniques developed for solid and liquid states and using independent information on relaxation properties of water, interacting with the material of interest, true images of distributions of both water, material and molecular properties in a wide range of concentrations can be obtained. Examples of MRI application will be given in the areas of soil and mineral research where understanding water transport and erosion processes is one of the key challenges. Efforts in developing and adapting MRI approaches to study these kinds of systems will be outlined as well. Extensive studies of clay/water interaction have been carried out in order to provide a quantitative measure of clay distribution in extended samples during different physical processes such as swelling, dissolution, and sedimentation on the time scale from minutes to years [1-3]. To characterize the state of colloids that form after/during clay swelling the water self-diffusion coefficient was measured on a spatially resolved manner. Both natural clays and purified and ion-exchanged montmorillonite clays were investigated. The primary variables were clay composition and water ionic strength. These results have a significant impact for engineering barriers for storage of spent nuclear fuel where clay erosion by low salinity water must be addressed. Presented methods were developed under the motivation of using bentonite clays as a buffer medium to build in-ground barriers for the encapsulation of radioactive waste. Nevertheless, the same approaches can be found suitable in other applications in soil and environmental science to study other types of materials as they swell, dissolve, erode, or sediment. Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) and the Swedish Research Council VR. [1] N. Nestle, T. Baumann, R. Niessner, Magnetic resonance imaging in environmental science. Environ. Sci. Techn. 36 154A (2002). [2] S. V. Dvinskikh, K. Szutkowski, I. Furó. MRI profiles over a very wide concentration ranges: application to swelling of a bentonite clay. J. Magn. Reson. 198 146 (2009). [3] S. V. Dvinskikh, I. Furó. Magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of bentonite systems. Technical Report, TR-09-27, SKB (2009), www.skb.se.

Dvinskikh, Sergey; Furo, Istvan

2010-05-01

393

Methodological challenges and solutions in auditory functional magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies involve substantial acoustic noise. This review covers the difficulties posed by such noise for auditory neuroscience, as well as a number of possible solutions that have emerged. Acoustic noise can affect the processing of auditory stimuli by making them inaudible or unintelligible, and can result in reduced sensitivity to auditory activation in auditory cortex. Equally importantly, acoustic noise may also lead to increased listening effort, meaning that even when auditory stimuli are perceived, neural processing may differ from when the same stimuli are presented in quiet. These and other challenges have motivated a number of approaches for collecting auditory fMRI data. Although using a continuous echoplanar imaging (EPI) sequence provides high quality imaging data, these data may also be contaminated by background acoustic noise. Traditional sparse imaging has the advantage of avoiding acoustic noise during stimulus presentation, but at a cost of reduced temporal resolution. Recently, three classes of techniques have been developed to circumvent these limitations. The first is Interleaved Silent Steady State (ISSS) imaging, a variation of sparse imaging that involves collecting multiple volumes following a silent period while maintaining steady-state longitudinal magnetization. The second involves active noise control to limit the impact of acoustic scanner noise. Finally, novel MRI sequences that reduce the amount of acoustic noise produced during fMRI make the use of continuous scanning a more practical option. Together these advances provide unprecedented opportunities for researchers to collect high-quality data of hemodynamic responses to auditory stimuli using fMRI. PMID:25191218

Peelle, Jonathan E.

2014-01-01

394

Dedicated Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Radiotherapy Clinic  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To introduce a novel technology arrangement in an integrated environment and outline the logistics model needed to incorporate dedicated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the radiotherapy workflow. An initial attempt was made to analyze the value and feasibility of MR-only imaging compared to computed tomography (CT) imaging, testing the assumption that MR is a better choice for target and healthy tissue delineation in radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A 1.5-T MR unit with a 70-cm-bore size was installed close to a linear accelerator, and a special trolley was developed for transporting patients who were fixated in advance between the MR unit and the accelerator. New MR-based workflow procedures were developed and evaluated. Results: MR-only treatment planning has been facilitated, thus avoiding all registration errors between CT and MR scans, but several new aspects of MR imaging must be considered. Electron density information must be obtained by other methods. Generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) for x-ray setup verification is not straight forward, and reliable corrections of geometrical distortions must be applied. The feasibility of MR imaging virtual simulation has been demonstrated, but a key challenge to overcome is correct determination of the skeleton, which is often needed for the traditional approach of beam modeling. The trolley solution allows for a highly precise setup for soft tissue tumors without the invasive handling of radiopaque markers. Conclusions: The new logistics model with an integrated MR unit is efficient and will allow for improved tumor definition and geometrical precision without a significant loss of dosimetric accuracy. The most significant development needed is improved bone imaging.

Karlsson, Mikael [Radiation Physics Section, Department of Radiation Sciences, Umea University, 90187 Umea (Sweden)], E-mail: Mikael.Karlsson@radfys.umu.se; Karlsson, Magnus G. [Department of Radiation Physics, Umea University Hospital, 90185 Umea (Sweden); Nyholm, Tufve [Radiation Physics Section, Department of Radiation Sciences, Umea University, 90187 Umea (Sweden); Department of Radiation Physics, Umea University Hospital, 90185 Umea (Sweden); Amies, Christopher [Siemens Medical Systems, Oncology Care Systems Group, Concord, California (United States); Zackrisson, Bjoern [Section of Oncology, Department of Radiation Sciences, Umea University, 90187 Umea (Sweden)

2009-06-01

395

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography image enhancement for automatic disease detection  

PubMed Central

AIM: To sufficiently improve magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) quality to enable reliable computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). METHODS: A set of image enhancement strategies that included filters (i.e. Gaussian, median, Wiener and Perona-Malik), wavelets (i.e. contourlet, ridgelet and a non-orthogonal noise compensation implementation), graph-cut approaches using lazy-snapping and Phase Unwrapping MAxflow, and binary thresholding using a fixed threshold and dynamic thresholding via histogram analysis were implemented to overcome the adverse characteristics of MRCP images such as acquisition noise, artifacts, partial volume effect and large inter- and intra-patient image intensity variations, all of which pose problems in application development. Subjective evaluation of several popular pre-processing techniques was undertaken to improve the quality of the 2D MRCP images and enhance the detection of the significant biliary structures within them, with the purpose of biliary disease detection. RESULTS: The results varied as expected since each algorithm capitalized on different characteristics of the images. For denoising, the Perona-Malik and contourlet approaches were found to be the most suitable. In terms of extraction of the significant biliary structures and removal of background, the thresholding approaches performed well. The interactive scheme performed the best, especially by using the strengths of the graph-cut algorithm enhanced by user-friendly lazy-snapping for foreground and background marker selection. CONCLUSION: Tests show promising results for some techniques, but not others, as viable image enhancement modules for automatic CAD systems for biliary and liver diseases. PMID:21160667

Logeswaran, Rajasvaran

2010-01-01

396

Enhancing magnetic resonance imaging tumor detection with fluorescence intensity and lifetime imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection is important for many solid cancers but the images provided by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography applied alone or together, are often not sufficient for decisive early screening/diagnosis. We demonstrate that MRI augmented with fluorescence intensity (FI) substantially improves detection. Early stage murine pancreatic tumors that could not be identified by blinded, skilled observers using MRI alone, were easily identified with MRI along with FI images acquired with photomultiplier tube detection and offset laser scanning. Moreover, we show that fluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging enables positive identification of the labeling fluorophore and discriminates it from surrounding tissue autofluorescence. Our data suggest combined-modality imaging with MRI, FI, and FLT can be used to screen and diagnose early tumors.

Erten, Ahmet; Hall, David; Hoh, Carl; Tran Cao, Hop S.; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Esener, Sadik; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael; Chen, James; Kesari, Santosh; Makale, Milan

2010-11-01

397

From Roentgen to magnetic resonance imaging: the history of medical imaging.  

PubMed

Medical imaging has advanced in remarkable ways since the discovery of x-rays 120 years ago. Today's radiologists can image the human body in intricate detail using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, ultrasound, and various other modalities. Such technology allows for improved screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease, but it also comes with risks. Many imaging modalities expose patients to ionizing radiation, which potentially increases their risk of developing cancer in the future, and imaging may also be associated with possible allergic reactions or risks related to the use of intravenous contrast agents. In addition, the financial costs of imaging are taxing our health care system, and incidental findings can trigger anxiety and further testing. This issue of the NCMJ addresses the pros and cons of medical imaging and discusses in detail the following uses of medical imaging: screening for breast cancer with mammography, screening for osteoporosis and monitoring of bone mineral density with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, screening for congenital hip dysplasia in infants with ultrasound, and evaluation of various heart conditions with cardiac imaging. Together, these articles show the challenges that must be met as we seek to harness the power of today's imaging technologies, as well as the potential benefits that can be achieved when these hurdles are overcome. PMID:24663131

Scatliff, James H; Morris, Peter J

2014-01-01

398

Towards simultaneous single emission microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the combined nuclear imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has drawn extensive research effort. They can provide simultaneously acquired anatomical and functional information inside the human/small animal body in vivo. In this dissertation, the development of an ultrahigh resolution MR-compatible SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) system that can be operated inside a pre-existing clinical MR scanner for simultaneous dual-modality imaging of small animals will be discussed. This system is constructed with 40 small pixel CdTe detector modules assembled in a fully stationary ring SPECT geometry. Series of experiments have demonstrated that this system is capable of providing an imaging resolution of <500?m, when operated inside MR scanners. The ultrahigh resolution MR-compatible SPECT system is built around a small pixel CdTe detector module that we recently developed. Each module consists of CdTe detectors having an overall size of 2.2 cm x 1.1 cm, divided into 64 x 32 pixels of 350 mum in size. A novel hybrid pixel-waveform (HPWF) readout system is also designed to alleviate several challenges for using small-pixel CdTe detectors in ultrahigh-resolution SPECT imaging applications. The HPWF system utilizes a modified version of a 2048-channel 2-D CMOS ASIC to readout the anode pixel, and a digitizing circuitry to sample the signal waveform induced on the cathode. The cathode waveform acquired with the HPWF circuitry offers excellent spatial resolution, energy resolution and depth of interaction (DOI) information, even with the presence of excessive charge-sharing/charge-loss between the small anode pixels. The HPWF CdTe detector is designed and constructed with a minimum amount of ferromagnetic materials, to ensure the MR-compatibility. To achieve sub-500?m imaging resolution, two special designed SPECT apertures have been constructed with different pinhole sizes of 300?m and 500?m respectively. It has 40 pinhole inserts that are made of cast platinum (90%)-iridium (10%) alloy, which provides the maximum stopping power and are compatible with MR scanners. The SPECT system is installed on a non-metal gantry constructed with 3-D printing using nylon powder material. This compact system can work as a "low-cost" desktop ultrahigh resolution SPECT system. It can also be directly operated inside an MR scanner. Accurate system geometrical calibration and corresponding image reconstruction methods for the MRC-SPECT system is developed. In order to account for the magnetic field induced distortion in the SPECT image, a comprehensive charge collection model inside strong magnetic field is adopted to produce high resolution SPECT image inside MR scanner.

Cai, Liang

399

[Imaging and differentiation of atherosclerotic plaque with magnetic resonance tomography].  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies have allowed the imaging of an atheroma, its size, shape, and lipid contents. The aim of our study was to characterize atherosclerotic lesions using a 0.5 T magnet, to delineate plaque components, and to compare MR results with histology. Thirty necropsy specimens of human iliac arteries were studied. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were carried out on a 0.5 Tesla superconducting magnet using a 5 cm surface coil. The position for the coronal MR planes was oriented by an external marker. The matrix size was 256 x 256, 4 NEX, and the FOV was 45 mm. The pulse sequences used included SE 520/29 and SE 2200/28 and 90. Signal intensity (SI) of fibrous plaques increased significantly from 28.3 +/- 3.8 to 49.1 +/- 8.2 (p < or = 0.0001) and decreased at SE 2200/90 to 24.1 +/- 6.8 (p < or = 0.0001). However, lipid plaque components showed no significant change in SI between T1-weighted pulse-sequences (28.2 +/- 5.4) and T2-weighted pulse-sequences (25.5 +/- 5.9). Only at SE 2200/90 SI of lipid plaques decreased significantly (11.8 +/- 3.9, p < or = 0.0001). As compared to histology, MR has shown a high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of fibrous and lipid plaque components. In conclusions, our study demonstrated that MR is highly effective in the characterization of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:9782595

Loewe, C; Oberhuber, G; Loewe, R; Frank, H

1998-08-01

400

Advanced theory of driven birdcage resonator with losses for biomedical magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A complete time-dependent physics theory of symmetric unperturbed driven hybrid birdcage resonator was developed for general application. In particular, the theory can be applied for radiofrequency (RF) coil engineering, computer simulations of coil-sample interaction, etc. Explicit time dependence is evaluated for different forms of driving voltage. The major steps of the solution development are shown and appropriate explanations are given. Green's functions and spectral density formula were developed for any form of periodic driving voltage. The concept of distributed power losses based on transmission line theory is developed for evaluation of local losses of a coil. Three major types of power losses are estimated as equivalent series resistances in the circuit of the birdcage resonator. Values of generated resistances in legs and end-rings are estimated. An application of the theory is shown for many practical cases. Experimental curve of B(1) field polarization dependence is measured for eight-sections birdcage coil. It was shown that the steady-state driven resonance frequencies do not depend on damping factor unlike the free oscillation (transient) frequencies. An equivalent active resistance is generated due to interaction of RF electromagnetic field with a sample. Resistance of the conductor (enhanced by skin effect), Eddy currents and dielectric losses are the major types of losses which contribute to the values of generated resistances. A biomedical sample for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy is the source of the both Eddy current and dielectric losses of a coil. As demonstrated by the theory, Eddy current loss is the major effect of coil shielding. PMID:20869184

Novikov, Alexander

2011-02-01

401

A prototype manipulator for magnetic resonance-guided interventions inside standard cylindrical magnetic resonance imaging scanners.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to develop a remotely controlled manipulator to perform minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in the abdominal and thoracic cavities, with real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance inside clinical cylindrical MR scanners. The manipulator is composed of a three degree of freedom Cartesian motion system, which resides outside the gantry of the scanner, and serves as the holder and global positioner of a three degree of freedom arm which extends inside the gantry of the scanner At its distal end, the arm's end-effector can carry an interventional tool such as a biopsy needle, which can be advanced to a desired depth by means of a seventh degree of freedom. These seven degrees of freedom, provided by the entire assembly, offer extended manipulability to the device and a wide envelope of operation to the user, who can select a trajectory suitable for the procedure. The device is constructed of nonmagnetic and nonconductive fiberglass, and carbon fiber composite materials, to minimize artifacts and distortion on the MR images as well as eliminate effects on its operation from the high magnetic field and the fast switching magnetic field gradients used in MR imaging. A user interface was developed for man-in-the-loop control of the device using real-time MR images. The user interface fuses all sensor signals (MR and manipulator information) in a visualization, planning, and control command environment. Path planning is performed with graphical tools for setting the trajectory of insertion of the interventional tool using multislice and/or three dimensional MR images which are refreshed in real time. The device control is performed with an embedded computer which runs real-time control software. The manipulator compatibility with the MR environment and image-guided operation was tested on a 1.5 T MR scanner. PMID:16438235

Tsekos, Nikolaos V; Ozcan, Alpay; Christoforou, Eftychios

2005-11-01

402

Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment  

PubMed Central

Although intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator is the only proven treatment after acute ischemic stroke, there is always a concern of hemorrhagic risk after thrombolysis. Therefore, selection of patients with potential benefits in overcoming potential harms of thrombolysis is of great importance. Despite the practical issues in using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for acute stroke treatment, multimodal MRI can provide useful information for accurate diagnosis of stroke, evaluation of the risks and benefits of thrombolysis, and prediction of outcomes. For example, the high sensitivity and specificity of diffusion-weighted image (DWI) can help distinguish acute ischemic stroke from stroke-mimics. Additionally, the lesion mismatch between perfusion-weighted image (PWI) and DWI is thought to represent potential salvageable tissue by reperfusion therapy. However, the optimal threshold to discriminate between benign oligemic areas and the penumbra is still debatable. Signal changes of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery image within DWI lesions may be a surrogate marker for ischemic lesion age and might indicate risks of hemorrhage after thrombolysis. Clot sign on gradient echo image may reflect the nature of clot, and their location, length and morphology may provide predictive information on recanalization by reperfusion therapy. However, previous clinical trials which solely or mainly relied on perfusion-diffusion mismatch for patient selection, failed to show benefits of MRI-based thrombolysis. Therefore, understanding the clinical implication of various useful MRI findings and comprehensively incorporating those variables into therapeutic decision-making may be a more reasonable approach for expanding the indication of acute stroke thrombolysis. PMID:25328872

Kim, Bum Joon; Kang, Hyun Goo; Kim, Hye-Jin; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Kim, Na Young; Warach, Steven

2014-01-01

403

Magnetic resonance imaging in laboratory petrophysical core analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-known technique in medical diagnosis and materials science. In the more specialized arena of laboratory-scale petrophysical rock core analysis, the role of MRI has undergone a substantial change in focus over the last three decades. Initially, alongside the continual drive to exploit higher magnetic field strengths in MRI applications for medicine and chemistry, the same trend was followed in core analysis. However, the spatial resolution achievable in heterogeneous porous media is inherently limited due to the magnetic susceptibility contrast between solid and fluid. As a result, imaging resolution at the length-scale of typical pore diameters is not practical and so MRI of core-plugs has often been viewed as an inappropriate use of expensive magnetic resonance facilities. Recently, there has been a paradigm shift in the use of MRI in laboratory-scale core analysis. The focus is now on acquiring data in the laboratory that are directly comparable to data obtained from magnetic resonance well-logging tools (i.e., a common physics of measurement). To maintain consistency with well-logging instrumentation, it is desirable to measure distributions of transverse (T2) relaxation time-the industry-standard metric in well-logging-at the laboratory-scale. These T2 distributions can be spatially resolved over the length of a core-plug. The use of low-field magnets in the laboratory environment is optimal for core analysis not only because the magnetic field strength is closer to that of well-logging tools, but also because the magnetic susceptibility contrast is minimized, allowing the acquisition of quantitative image voxel (or pixel) intensities that are directly scalable to liquid volume. Beyond simple determination of macroscopic rock heterogeneity, it is possible to utilize the spatial resolution for monitoring forced displacement of oil by water or chemical agents, determining capillary pressure curves, and estimating wettability. The history of MRI in petrophysics is reviewed and future directions considered, including advanced data processing techniques such as compressed sensing reconstruction and Bayesian inference analysis of under-sampled data. Although this review focuses on rock core analysis, the techniques described are applicable in a wider context to porous media in general, such as cements, soils, ceramics, and catalytic materials.

Mitchell, J.; Chandrasekera, T. C.; Holland, D. J.; Gladden, L. F.; Fordham, E. J.

2013-05-01

404

Magnetic resonance pore imaging, a tool for porous media research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internal structure of porous materials is of importance in many areas such as medicine, chemical engineering, and petrophysics. While diffraction methods such as x ray are widely used to study the internal pore space, these methods suffer from the loss of the phase information in the detected signals. Recently, an advanced diffusive diffraction NMR method was proposed [F. B. Laun , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.048102 107, 048102 (2011)] which is predicted to preserve the phase information, thus overcoming this severe limitation of diffraction methods in general. Here we provide experimental confirmation that the suggested approach is indeed able to acquire the diffractive signal including its phase which allows the direct image reconstruction of the pore space, averaged over all pores. We furthermore prove that this approach may combine the advantages of magnetic resonance imaging, namely, its robust and straightforward image reconstruction via a Fourier transformation with the much improved spatial resolution of pulsed gradient spin echo NMR.

Hertel, Stefan; Hunter, Mark; Galvosas, Petrik

2013-03-01

405

A magnetic-resonance-imaging-compatible remote catheter navigation system.  

PubMed

A remote catheter navigation system compatible with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed to facilitate MRI-guided catheterization procedures. The interventionalist's conventional motions (axial motion and rotation) on an input catheter - acting as the master - are measured by a pair of optical encoders, and a custom embedded system relays the motions to a pair of ultrasonic motors. The ultrasonic motors drive the patient catheter (slave) within the MRI scanner, replicating the motion of the input catheter. The performance of the remote catheter navigation system was evaluated in terms of accuracy and delay of motion replication outside and within the bore of the magnet. While inside the scanner bore, motion accuracy was characterized during the acquisition of frequently used imaging sequences, including real-time gradient echo. The effect of the catheter navigation system on image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was also evaluated. The results show that the master-slave system has a maximum time delay of 41 ± 21 ms in replicating motion; an absolute value error of 2 ± 2° was measured for radial catheter motion replication over 360° and 1.0 ± 0.8 mm in axial catheter motion replication over 100 mm of travel. The worst-case SNR drop was observed to be 2.5%. PMID:23192485

Tavallaei, Mohammad Ali; Thakur, Yogesh; Haider, Syed; Drangova, Maria

2013-04-01

406

An optimal design method for magnetic resonance imaging gradient waveforms.  

PubMed

A method of using nonlinear constrained optimization to design gradient waveforms for magnetic resonance imaging is described. Formulation and solution of the waveform optimization problem are described and example waveforms are presented for a variety of design objectives and constraint sets. Most design objectives can be expressed as linear or quadratic functions of the discrete parameter set, and most constraint functions are linear. Thus, linear and quadratic programming techniques can be utilized to solve the optimization problem. Among the objectives considered are: minimize RMS current; minimize waveform slewing; minimize waveform moments to reduce motion induced dephasing; minimize echo time (TE) for given imaging and motion refocusing conditions; maximize the gradient amplitude during RF application and sampling and the area of the phase encoding waveform to maximize resolution; and minimize or maximize the gradient b factor or diffusion sensitivity. This optimal design procedure produces physically realizable waveforms which optimally achieve specific imaging and motion artifact reduction goals, and it is likely to reduce waveform design time by making it more scientifically (rather than heuristically) based. PMID:18218425

Simonetti, O P; Duerk, J L; Chankong, V

1993-01-01

407

Fusion of color Doppler and magnetic resonance images of the heart.  

PubMed

This study was designed to establish and analyze color Doppler and magnetic resonance fusion images of the heart, an approach for simultaneous testing of cardiac pathological alterations, performance, and hemodynamics. Ten volunteers were tested in this study. The echocardiographic images were produced by Philips IE33 system and the magnetic resonance images were generated from Philips 3.0-T system. The fusion application was implemented on MATLAB platform utilizing image processing technology. The fusion image was generated from the following steps: (1) color Doppler blood flow segmentation, (2) image registration of color Doppler and magnetic resonance imaging, and (3) image fusion of different image types. The fusion images of color Doppler blood flow and magnetic resonance images were implemented by MATLAB programming in our laboratory. Images and videos were displayed and saved as AVI and JPG. The present study shows that the method we have developed can be used to fuse color flow Doppler and magnetic resonance images of the heart. We believe that the method has the potential to: fill in information missing from the ultrasound or MRI alone, show structures outside the field of view of the ultrasound through MR imaging, and obtain complementary information through the fusion of the two imaging methods (structure from MRI and function from ultrasound). PMID:21656081

Wang, Chao; Chen, Ming; Zhao, Jiang-Min; Liu, Yi

2011-12-01

408

Towards magnetic resonance imaging guided radiation therapy (MRIgRT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work is to address key aspects of the magnetic resonance imaging guided radiation therapy (MRIgRT) process of cancer sites. MRIgRT is implemented by using a system comprised of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner coupled with a radiation source, in our case a radiotherapy accelerator (Linac). The potential benefits of MRIgRT are the real-time tracking of the tumor and neighbouring healthy anatomy during treatment irradiation leading to on-line treatment plan optimization. Ultimately, this results in an increased accuracy and efficiency of the overall treatment process. A large research effort is conducted at Cross Cancer Institute to develop a hybrid MRI-Linac system consisting of a bi-planar 0.2 T permanent magnet coupled with a 6 MV Linac. The present work is part of this project and aims to address the following key components: (a) magnetic shielding and dosimetric effects of the MRI-Linac system, (b) measure and correction of scanner-related MR image distortions, and (c) MRI-based treatment planning procedure for intracranial lesions. The first two components are essential for the optimal construction and operation of the MRI-Linac system while the third one represents a direct application of the system. The linac passive shielding was achieved by (a) adding two 10 cm thick steel (1020) plates placed at a distance of 10 cm from the structure on opposite sides of the magnet; and (b) a box lined with a 1 mm MuMetal(TM) wall surrounding the Linac. For our proposed MRI-Linac configuration (i.e. 0.2 T field and rotating bi-planar geometry) the maximum dose difference from zero magnetic field case was found to be within 6% and 12% in a water and water-lung-water phantom, respectively. We developed an image system distortion correction method for MRI that relies on adaptive thresholding and an iterative algorithm to determine the 3D distortion field. Applying this technique the residual image distortions were reduced to within the voxel resolution of the raw imaging data. We investigated a procedure for the MRI Simulation of brain lesions which consists of (a) correction of MR images for 3D distortions, (b) automatic segmentation of head sub-structures (i.e. scalp, bone, and brain) relevant for dosimetric calculations, (c) conversion of MRI datasets into CT-like images by assigning bulk CT values to head sub-structures and MRI-based dose calculations, and (d) RT plan evaluation based on isodose distributions, dosimetric parameters, dose volume histograms, and an RT ranking tool. The proposed MRI-based treatment planning procedure performed similarly to the standard clinical technique, which relies on both CT and MR imaging modalities, and is suitable for the radiotherapy of brain cancer.

Stanescu, Teodor Marius

409

Influence of open and sealed fractures on fluid flow and water saturation in sandstone cores using Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-print Network

Magnetic Resonance Imaging S. Baraka-Lokmane,1,2 G. Teutsch1 and I. G. Main2 1 Department of Applied form 2000 July 3 SUMMARY We use Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to image the imbibition of water saturation. 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now established as an important

410

Imaging Atherosclerosis with Hybrid Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive imaging of atherosclerosis could potentially move patient management towards individualized triage, treatment, and followup. The newly introduced combined positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system could emerge as a key player in this context. Both PET and MRI have previously been used for imaging plaque morphology and function: however, the combination of the two methods may offer new synergistic opportunities. Here, we will give a short summary of current relevant clinical applications of PET and MRI in the setting of atherosclerosis. Additionally, our initial experiences with simultaneous PET/MRI for atherosclerosis imaging are presented. Finally, future potential vascular applications exploiting the unique combination of PET and MRI will be discussed. PMID:25695091

Kjær, Andreas

2015-01-01

411

Magnetic resonance imaging of sellar and juxtasellar abnormalities in the paediatric population: an imaging review.  

PubMed

The sellar and juxtasellar regions in the paediatric population are complex both anatomically and pathologically, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) being the "gold standard" imaging modality due to the high contrast of detail. Assessment requires a detailed understanding of the anatomy, embryology, pathophysiology and normal signal characteristics of the pituitary gland and surrounding structures in order to appropriately characterise abnormalities. This article aims to provide an overview of the imaging characteristics of developmental/congenital and acquired disease processes which affect the sellar and juxtasellar region in the paediatric population. Main Messages • The sellar region is anatomically complex and covers a wide pathology spectrum. • MRI is the key imaging modality to assess sellar and juxtasellar pathology. • Numerous developmental anomalies may not be discovered until adulthood. • Knowledge of pathology alerts and guides the clinician towards appropriate management. PMID:25794595

Shields, Rachel; Mangla, Rajiv; Almast, Jeevak; Meyers, Steven

2015-04-01

412

Concurrent multiscale imaging with magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Abstract. We develop a novel platform based on a tele-operated robot to perform high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging under continuous large field-of-view magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. Intra-operative MRI (iMRI) is a promising guidance tool for high-precision surgery, but it may not have sufficient resolution or contrast to visualize certain small targets. To address these limitations, we develop an MRI-compatible OCT needle probe, which is capable of providing microscale tissue architecture in conjunction with macroscale MRI tissue morphology in real time. Coregistered MRI/OCT images on ex vivo chicken breast and human brain tissues demonstrate that the complementary imaging scales and contrast mechanisms have great potential to improve the efficiency and the accuracy of iMRI procedure.

Liang, Chia-Pin; Yang, Bo; Kim, Il Kyoon; Makris, George; Desai, Jaydev P.; Gullapalli, Rao P.; Chen, Yu

2013-01-01

413

Concurrent multiscale imaging with magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Abstract. We develop a novel platform based on a tele-operated robot to perform high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging under continuous large field-of-view magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. Intra-operative MRI (iMRI) is a promising guidance tool for high-precision surgery, but it may not have sufficient resolution or contrast to visualize certain small targets. To address these limitations, we develop an MRI-compatible OCT needle probe, which is capable of providing microscale tissue architecture in conjunction with macroscale MRI tissue morphology in real time. Coregistered MRI/OCT images on ex vivo chicken breast and human brain tissues demonstrate that the complementary imaging scales and contrast mechanisms have great potential to improve the efficiency and the accuracy of iMRI procedure. PMID:23609326

Liang, Chia-Pin; Yang, Bo; Kim, Il Kyoon; Makris, George; Desai, Jaydev P.; Gullapalli, Rao P.; Chen, Yu

2013-01-01

414

Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have become an important tool in clinical medicine. The most common agents are Gd3+-based complexes that shorten bulk water T1 by rapid exchange of a single innersphere water molecule with bulk solvent water. Current gadolinium agents lack tissue specificity and typically do not respond to their chemical environment. Recently, it has been demonstrated that MR contrast may be altered by an entirely different mechanism based on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). CEST contrast can originate from exchange of endogenous amide or hydroxyl protons or from exchangeable sites on exogenous CEST agents. This has opened the door for the discovery of new classes of responsive agents ranging from MR gene reporter molecules to small molecules that sense their tissue environment and respond to biological events. PMID:18647117

Sherry, A. Dean; Woods, Mark

2009-01-01

415

Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Cardiac Venous Anatomic Variants  

SciTech Connect

The incidence of persistent left superior venacava (PLSVC) is approximately 0.5% in the general population; however,the coexistent absence of the right SVC has a reported incidence in tertiary centers of 0.1%. The vast majority of reports are limited to pediatric cardiology. Likewise, sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is a rare congenital anomaly, with a reported incidence of 0.1-3.5% of all congenital heart defects. We present a 71-year-old patient undergoing preoperative evaluation for incidental finding of aortic root aneurysm,and found to have all three in coexistence. Suggestive findings were demonstrated on cardiac catheterization and definitive diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging. The use of MRI for the diagnosis of asymptomatic adult congenital heart disease will be reviewed.

Eckart, Robert E. [Brooke Army Medical Center, 3851 Roger Brooke Drive, Fort Sam Houston, Texas 78234-6200, Cardiology Service (United States)], E-mail: Robert.Eckart@amedd.army.mil; Leitch, W. Shad [Brooke Army Medical Center, 3851 Roger Brooke Drive, Fort Sam Houston, Texas 78234-6200, Internal Medicine (United States); Shry, Eric A. [Brooke Army Medical Center, 3851 Roger Brooke Drive, Fort Sam Houston, Texas 78234-6200, Cardiology Service (United States); Krasuski, Richard A. [Wilford Hall Air Force Medical Center, Texas, Cardiology Service (United States); Lane, Michael J. [Brooke Army Medical Center, 3851 Roger Brooke Drive, Fort Sam Houston, Texas 78234-6200, Department of Radiology (United States); Leclerc, Kenneth M. [Brooke Army Medical Center, 3851 Roger Brooke Drive, Fort Sam Houston, Texas78234-6200, Cardiology Service (United States)

2003-06-15

416

Recycling of 3He from lung magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

We have developed the means to recycle (3) He exhaled by patients after imaging the lungs using magnetic resonance of hyperpolarized (3) He. The exhaled gas is collected in a helium leak proof bag and further compressed into a steel bottle. The collected gas contains about 1-2% of (3) He, depending on the amount administered and the number of breaths collected to wash out the (3) He gas from the lungs. (3) He is separated from the exhaled air using zeolite molecular sieve adsorbent at 77 K followed by a cold head at 8 K. Residual gaseous impurities are finally absorbed by a commercial nonevaporative getter. The recycled (3) He gas features high purity, which is required for repolarization by metastability exchange optical pumping. At present, we achieve a collection efficiency of 80-84% for exhaled gas from healthy volunteers and cryogenic separation efficiency of 95%. PMID:22135249

Salhi, Z; Grossmann, T; Gueldner, M; Heil, W; Karpuk, S; Otten, E W; Rudersdorf, D; Surkau, R; Wolf, U

2012-06-01

417

Nonlinear split-ring metamaterial slabs for magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work analyzes the ability of split-ring metamaterial slabs with zero/high permeability to reject/confine the radiofrequency magnetic field in magnetic resonance imaging systems. Split-ring slabs are designed and fabricated to work in a 1.5 T system. Nonlinear elements consisting of pairs of crossed diodes are inserted in the split-rings, so that the slab permeability can be switched between a value close to unity when interacting with the strong field of the transmitting coil, and zero or high values when interacting with the weak field produced by protons in tissue. Experiments are shown where these slabs locally increase the signal-to-noise-ratio.

Lopez, Marcos A.; Freire, Manuel J.; Algarin, Jose M.; Behr, Volker C.; Jakob, Peter M.; Marqués, Ricardo

2011-03-01

418

Multimodality magnetic resonance imaging in hepatic encephalopathy: An update  

PubMed Central

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric complication of cirrhosis or acute liver failure. Currently, HE is regarded as a continuous cognitive impairment ranging from the mildest stage, minimal HE to overt HE. Hyperammonaemia and neuroinflammation are two main underlying factors which contribute to the neurological alterations in HE. Both structural and functional impairments are found in the white mater and grey mater involved in HE. Although the investigations into HE pathophysiological mechanism are enormous, the exact pathophysiological causes underlying HE remain controversial. Multimodality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in helping to understand the pathological process of HE. This paper reviews the up-to-date multimodality MRI methods and predominant findings in HE patients with a highlight of the increasingly important role of blood oxygen level dependent functional MRI. PMID:25170210

Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Long-Jiang; Wu, Sheng-Yong; Lu, Guang-Ming

2014-01-01

419

Contrast enhancement by feedback fields in magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

A conceptually new approach giving rise to contrast enhancement by feedback fields in magnetic resonance imaging is proposed, and the detailed mechanism is described. Nonlinear spin dynamics under the feedback fields of the distant dipolar field and/or radiation damping are examined and shown to amplify contrast due to small variations in spin density and precession frequency. Feedback-based contrast enhancement depends on the instability of the initial magnetization configuration and is propagated by positive feedback, as shown through numerical simulations and experimental results on simple phantom samples. On the basis of a theoretical understanding of contrast enhancement, insight into pulse sequence design and optimal contrast attainable under the individual and joint feedback fields is provided. PMID:17078642

Datta, Sandip; Huang, Susie Y; Lin, Yung-Ya

2006-11-01

420

Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging manifestations of Holmes tremor.  

PubMed

Holmes tremor is a rare symptomatic slow tremor in the proximal parts of the limbs. It may be present at rest or maintenance of a posture, or during the movement of the affected limb. We describe herein three patients of Holmes tremor with possible etiologies of brainstem infarction and head injury. The intervals between the causal events and the appearance of tremor range from 1 month to 12 months. Magnetic resonance imaging studies reveal hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus in all of the three patients, although only one of them has palatal myoclonus. The surface electromyographic recordings reveal characteristic slow oscillation with frequencies of 3.5 to 4.2 Hz. These features suggest that perturbation of the dentato-rubral-olivary circuitry may play a pivotal role for the generation of Holmes tremor. However, no tight correlation is observed between the presence of inferior olivary nuclear hypertrophy and the appearance of symptomatic palatal myoclonus in the current report. PMID:15835283

Yang, Yu-Wan; Chang, Fang-Chia; Tsai, Chon-Haw; Wu, Jui-Chen; Lu, Chin-Song; Kuo, Chi-Chung; Lu, Ming-Kuei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Lee, Cheng-Chun

2005-03-01

421

Magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal aortic aneurysms. [Aneurysm  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 20 patients with radiologically or surgically proven abdominal aortic aneurysms using a Siemens Magnetom scanner with a 0.35-T superconductive magnet. Of nine patients who underwent surgical repair, MRI correctly demonstrated the origin of the aortic aneurysm in nine and accurately determined the status of the iliac arteries in eight. Of 11 patients who did not have surgical repair, MRI findings correlated well with other radiologic studies. MRI was found to be more reliable than sonography in determining the relation between the aneurysm and the renal arteries as well as the status of the iliac arteries. Despite these advantages, the authors still advocate sonography as the screening procedure of choice in patients with suspected abdominal aortic aneurysms because of its lower cost and ease of performance. MRI should be reserved for patients who have had unsuccessful or equivocal sonographic examinations.

Lee, J.K.T.; Ling, D.; Heiken, J.P.; Glazer, H.S.; Sicard, G.A.; Totty, W.G.; Levitt, R.G.; Murphy, W.A.

1984-12-01

422

Magnetic resonance imaging of aortic disease: preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen patients with a variety of aortic diseases were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These included abdominal aortic aneurysms (eight cases), aortoiliac aneurysm (one), thoracoabdominal aneurysm (one), aortic dissections (four), and Takayasu arteritis (one). The size and extent of aneurysms, the presence of thrombus or atherosclerotic debris, the relation to renal and iliac arteries, and the effect of aneurysms on adjacent structures were readily demonstrated by MRI. The size of the residual lumen in a variety of vascular diseases and abnormal blood flow patterns could be assessed. These early results indicated that MRI achieved precise and complete assessment of a number of aortic abnormalities without the administration of any type of contrast material. Thus, early experience suggests that an important application of MRI will be as a totally noninvasive and reliable method for evaluating aortic disease.

Amparo, E.G.; Higgins, C.B.; Hoddick, W.; Hricak, H.; Kerlan, R.K.; Ring, E.J.; Kaufman, L.; Hedgecock, M.W.

1984-12-01

423

In vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Tumor Protease Activity  

PubMed Central

Increased expression of cathepsins has diagnostic as well as prognostic value in several types of cancer. Here, we demonstrate a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, which uses poly-L-glutamate (PLG) as an MRI probe to map cathepsin expression in vivo, in a rat brain tumor model. This noninvasive, high-resolution and non-radioactive method exploits the differences in the CEST signals of PLG in the native form and cathepsin mediated cleaved form. The method was validated in phantoms with known physiological concentrations, in tumor cells and in an animal model of brain tumor along with immunohistochemical analysis. Potential applications in tumor diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic response are outlined. PMID:25124082

Haris, Mohammad; Singh, Anup; Mohammed, Imran; Ittyerah, Ranjit; Nath, Kavindra; Nanga, Ravi Prakash Reddy; Debrosse, Catherine; Kogan, Feliks; Cai, Kejia; Poptani, Harish; Reddy, Damodar; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

2014-01-01

424

Primate comparative neuroscience using magnetic resonance imaging: promises and challenges  

PubMed Central

Primate comparative anatomy is an established field that has made rich and substantial contributions to neuroscience. However, the labor-intensive techniques employed mean that most comparisons are often based on a small number of species, which limits the conclusions that can be drawn. In this review we explore how new developments in magnetic resonance imaging have the potential to apply comparative neuroscience to a much wider range of species, allowing it to realize an even greater potential. We discuss (1) new advances in the types of data that can be acquired, (2) novel methods for extracting meaningful measures from such data that can be compared between species, and (3) methods to analyse these measures within a phylogenetic framework. Together these developments will allow researchers to characterize the relationship between different brains, the ecological niche they occupy, and the behavior they produce in more detail than ever before. PMID:25339857

Mars, Rogier B.; Neubert, Franz-Xaver; Verhagen, Lennart; Sallet, Jérôme; Miller, Karla L.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Barton, Robert A.

2014-01-01

425

Capsule endoscopy device retention and magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

A 55-year-old man was hospitalized for a neurologic and infectious workup after having hallucinations and productive cough for 2 days. During hospitalization, he experienced dark stools with an acute drop in hemoglobin. Upper endoscopy and colonoscopy were negative for an identifiable source of bleed. Capsule endoscopy was later done and subsequently an anteroposterior abdominal radiograph confirmed the presence of a retained capsule near the junction of the descending and distal transverse colon, likely contained within a colonic diverticulum. In the interim, the patient developed acute right-sided lumbar radiculopathy prompting emergent lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). During the scanning process, the retained capsule was seen and the test was immediately terminated without harm to the patient. Device retention is a complication unique to capsule endoscopy, occurring at a rate of 1% to 1.7%; retained devices are considered a danger and contraindication to MRI. PMID:23814387

Liang, Jackson J.; DeJesus, Ramona S.

2013-01-01

426

Nanostructured surfaces for surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has achieved widespread recognition as a sensitive, label-free, and versatile optical method for monitoring changes in refractive index at a metal-dielectric interface. Refractive index deviations of 10-6 RIU are resolvable using SPR, and the method can be used in real-time or ex-situ. Instruments based on carboxymethyl dextran coated SPR chips have achieved commercial success in biological detection, while SPR sensors can also be found in other fields as varied as food safety and gas sensing. Chapter 1 provides a physical background of SPR sensing. A brief history of the technology is presented, and publication data are included that demonstrate the large and growing interest in surface plasmons. Numerous applications of SPR sensors are listed to illustrate the broad appeal of the method. Surface plasmons (SPs) and surface plasmon polaritions (SPPs) are formally defined, and important parameters governing their spatial behavior are derived from Maxwell's equations and appropriate boundary conditions. Physical requirements for exciting SPs with incident light are discussed, and SPR imaging is used to illustrate the operating principle of SPR-based detection. Angle-tunable surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) of polymer vibrational modes via grating-coupled SPR is demonstrated in Chapter 2. Over 10-fold enhancement of C-H stretching modes was found relative to the absorbance of the same film in the absence of plasmon excitation. Modeling results are used to support and explain experimental observations. Improvements to the grating coupler SEIRA platform in Chapter 2 are explored in Chapters 3 and 4. Chapter 3 displays data for two sets of multipitch gratings: one set with broadly distributed resonances with the potential for multiband IR enhancement and the other with finely spaced, overlapping resonances to form a broadband IR enhancement device. Diffraction gratings having multiple periods were fabricated using a Lloyd's mirror interferometer to perform multiple exposures at multiple angles before developing. Precise control of the resonance position is shown by locating three SPR dips at predetermined wavenumbers of 5000, 4000, and 3000 cm-1, respectively. A set of three gratings, each having four closely spaced resonances is employed to show how the sensor response could be broadened. The work in Chapter 3 shows potential for simultaneous enhancement of multiple vibrational modes; the multiband approach might find application for modes at disparate locations within the IR spectrum, while the broadband approach may allow concurrent probing of broad single modes or clusters of narrow modes within a particular neighborhood of the spectrum. Chapter 4 uses the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method to numerically explore another facet of the nanostructure-based tunability of grating-baed SPR sensing. The work in this chapter illustrates how infrared signal enhancement could be tailored by through adjustment of the grating amplitude. Modeled infrared reflection absorption (IRRAS) spectra and electric field distributions were generated for several nanostructured grating configurations. It was found that there exists a critical amplitude value for a given grating pitch where the plasmon response achieves a maximum. Amplitudes greater than this critical value produce a broader and attenuated plasmon peak, while smaller amplitudes produce a plasmon resonance that is not as intense. Field simulations show how amplitudes nearer the critical amplitude resulted in large increases in the electric field within an analyte film atop the sensor surface, and the relative strength of the increased field is predictable based on the appearance of the IRRAS spectra. It is believed that these larger fields are the cause of observed enhanced absorption. Published reports pertaining to interactions of SPs with molecular resonance and to diffraction-based tracking of plasmons without a spectrometer are included in the Appendix to this thesis. In the first of the two reports, it is shown that plasmons

Petefish, Joseph W.

427

Electron beam imaging and spectroscopy of plasmonic nanoantenna resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoantennas are metal structures that provide strong optical coupling between a nanoscale volume and the far field. This coupling is mediated by surface plasmons, oscillations of the free electrons in the metal. Increasing the control over the resonant plasmonic field distribution opens up a wide range of applications of nanoantennas operating both in receiving and transmitting mode. This thesis presents how the dispersion and confinement of surface plasmons in nanoantennas are resolved and further engineered. Fabrication of nanostructures is done using focused ion beam milling (FIB) in metallic surfaces. We demonstrate that patterning in single-crystal substrates allows us to precisely control the geometry in which plasmons are confined. The nanoscale properties of the resonant plasmonic fields are resolved using a new technique developed in this thesis: angle- and polarization controlled cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging spectroscopy. The use of a tightly focused electron beam allows us to probe the optical antenna properties with deep subwavelength resolution. We show using this technique that nanoantennas consisting of 500-1200 nm long polycrystalline Au nanowires support standing plasmon waves. We directly observe the plasmon wavelengths which we use to derive the dispersion relation of guided nanowire plasmons. A 590-nm-long ridge-shaped nanoantenna was fabricated using FIB milling on a single-crystal Au substrate, demonstrating a level of control over the fabrication impossible with polycrystalline metals. CL experiments show that the ridge supports multiple-order resonances. The confinement of surface plasmons to the ridge is confirmed by boundary-element-method (BEM) calculations. The resonant modes in plasmonic whispering gallery cavities consisting of a FIB-fabricated circular groove are resolved. We find an excellent agreement between boundary element method calculations and the measured CL emission from the ring-shaped cavities. The calculations show that the ring supports resonances with increasing azimuthal or radial order. The smallest cavity fits only one wavelength in its circumference. We theoretically show that in these cavities, spontaneous emission can be enhanced over a broad spectral band due to the small modal volume of the plasmon resonances. A Purcell factor >2000 was found. We further study the mode symmetries and coupling of the ring resonances using far-field excitation, fluorescence, angle-resolved cathodoluminescence and photoelectron emission microscopy. We demonstrate spectral reshaping of emitters, mode-specific angular emission patterns, and a mode-selective excitation by incoming light, and we directly resolve the modal fields at high resolution. In the next chapter, we present metal-insulator-metal plasmon waveguides in which we engineer the dispersion to reach a refractive index of zero. Using spatially- and angle-resolved CL we directly observe the spatial mode profiles and determine the dispersion relation of plasmon modes. At the cutoff frequency, the emission pattern corresponds to that of a line dipole antenna demonstrating the entire waveguide is in phase (n=0). A strongly enhanced density of optical states is directly observed at cutoff from the enhanced CL intensity. Finally, we present 5 possible applications: a localized surface plasmon sensor, a plasmon ring laser, template stripping technique, an in-situ monitor of ionoluminescence and cathodoluminescence in a FIB system and a single-photon source.

Vesseur, E. J. R.

2011-07-01

428

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging characteristics of cerebral Blastomycosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Blastomycosis is a dimorphic fungus that is endemic to the midwest and southwestern United States. Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is thought to only represent 5-10% of cases of disseminated Blastomycosis. Case Description: A 54-year-old Caucasian female presented to the Neurosurgery service with a 1-day history of progressive right sided hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a 2 × 4 cm heterogeneous intracranial mass lesion involving the left motor cortex and extending into the ipsilateral parietal lobe. Single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) over the enhancing area demonstrated diminished N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) to creatine ratio (1.10), normal choline to NAA ratio (0.82), normal choline to creatine ratio (0.9), and a diminished myoinositol to creatine ratio (0.39). There appeared to be peaks between 3.6 and 3.8 ppm over the enhancing area that were not present in the contralateral normal brain and thought to represent a “trehalose” peak. Due to worsening symptoms and uncertain preoperative diagnosis, the patient underwent a left fronto-parietal craniotomy for open surgical biopsy with possible resection approximately one month after presentation. Pathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of Blastomycosis. Conclusion: We present the second documented case of intracranial Blastomycosis with MRS imaging. There appears to be a characteristic peak between 3.6 and 3.8 ppm that is thought to represent a “trehalose” peak. This peak is rather specific to fungi and can be helpful in differentiating fungal abscesses from pyogenic abscesses and malignant neoplasms. PMID:24949223

Vachhani, Jay A.; Lee, William C.; Desanto, Jeffrey R.; Tsung, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

429

[Functional imaging of the lung using a gaseous contrast agent: (3)helium-magnetic resonance imaging].  

PubMed

Current imaging methods of the lung concentrate on morphology as well as on the depiction of the pulmonary parenchyma. The need of an advanced and more subtle imaging technology compared to conventional radiography is met by computed topography as the method of choice. Nevertheless, computed tomography yields very limited functional information. This is to be derived from arterial blood gas analysis, spirometry and body plethysmography. These methods, however, lack the scope for regional allocation of any pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lung has been advanced by the use of hyperpolarised (3)Helium as an inhaled gaseous contrast agent. The inhalation of the gas provides functional data by distribution, diffusion and relaxation of its hyperpolarised state. Because anatomical landmarks of the lung can be visualised as well, functional information can be linked with regional information. Furthermore, the method provides high spatial and temporal resolution and lacks the potential side-effects of ionising radiation. Four different modalities have been established: 1. Spin density imaging studies the distribution of gas, normally after a single inhalation of contrast gas in inspiratory breath hold. 2. Dynamic cine imaging studies the distribution of gas with respect to regional time constants of pulmonary gas inflow. 3. Diffusion weighted imaging can exhibit the presence and severity of pulmonary airspace enlargement, as in pulmonary emphysema. 4. Oxygen sensitive imaging displays intrapulmonary oxygen partial pressure and its distribution. Currently, the method is limited by comparably high costs and limited availability. As there have been recent developments which might bring this modality closer to clinical use, this review article will comprise the methodology as well as the current state of the art and standard of knowledge of magnetic resonance imaging of the lung using hyperpolarised (3)Helium. PMID:15871081

Gast, K K; Heussel, C P; Schreiber, W G; Kauczor, H-U

2005-05-01

430

Gray Matter Alterations in Early Aging: A Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Many studies have observed altered neurofunctional and structural organization in the aging brain. These observations from functional neuroimaging studies show a shift in brain activity from the posterior to the anterior regions with aging (PASA model), as well as a decrease in cortical thickness, which is more pronounced in the frontal lobe followed by the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes (retrogenesis model). However, very little work has been done using diffusion MRI (dMRI) with respect to examining the structural tissue alterations underlying these neurofunctional changes in the gray matter. Thus, for the first time, we propose to examine gray matter changes using diffusion MRI in the context of aging. In this work, we propose a novel dMRI based measure of gray matter “heterogeneity” that elucidates these functional and structural models (PASA and retrogenesis) of aging from the viewpoint of diffusion MRI. In a cohort of 85 subjects (all males, ages 15–55 years), we show very high correlation between age and “heterogeneity” (a measure of structural layout of tissue in a region-of-interest) in specific brain regions. We examine gray matter alterations by grouping brain regions into anatomical lobes as well as functional zones. Our findings from dMRI data connects the functional and structural domains and confirms the “retrogenesis” hypothesis of gray matter alterations while lending support to the neurofunctional PASA model of aging in addition to showing the preservation of paralimbic areas during healthy aging. PMID:24382651

Rathi, Y.; Pasternak, O.; Savadjiev, P.; Michailovich, O.; Bouix, S.; Kubicki, M.; Westin, C.-F.; Makris, N.; Shenton, M.E.

2014-01-01

431

Mechanical effects of leg position on vertebral structures examined by magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Leg manipulation has been postulated to affect spinal curvature and position of the cauda equina within the dural sac. However, no evidence of such mechanical effects has been shown in living subjects. We used magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the mechanical effects of leg position on these 2 parameters. Methods: Sagittal and axial magnetic resonance images of

Yoshihiro Hirabayashi; Takashi Igarashi; Hideo Suzuki; Hirokazu Fukuda; Kazuhiko Saitoh; Norimasa Seo

2002-01-01

432

Abstract--Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) guided nanorobotic systems that could perform diagnostic, curative  

E-print Network

Abstract-- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) guided nanorobotic systems that could perform drug delivery systems guided by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners have been proposed on the use of a MRI scanner to induce the required external driving forces to guide magnetic nanocapsules

Mavroidis, Constantinos

433

Diagnosis of Anterolateral Ankle ImpingementComparison Between Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Clinical Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed 22 patients who had arthroscopic evalu ations and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies of their ankles because of chronic anterolateral ankle pain after sprains. The ability of surgeons to use the initial clinical examination to predict arthroscopi cally confirmed anterolateral ankle impingement was compared with the ability to predict this condition using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. The patient

Stephen H. Liu; Stephen L. Nuccion; Gerald Finerman

1997-01-01

434

The Superiority of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Differentiating the Cause of Hip Pain in Endurance Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging of the hip was prospectively evaluated in 19 military subjects engaged in endurance training. These patients had hip pain, negative radiographs, and radionuclide bone scans consistent with femoral neck stress fracture. Twenty-two hips were identified as positive for femoral neck stress fracture by bone scan. Each patient under went magnetic resonance imaging and 6-week

Alexander Y. Shin; William D. Morin; John D. Germany; Steven B. Jones; Anthony S. Lapinsky

1996-01-01

435

Brain Activation in Parkinson's Disease during a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Set Shifting Task: Preliminary Findings  

E-print Network

Brain Activation in Parkinson's Disease during a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Set Shifting with Parkinson's disease (PD) and age-matched controls using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Cognitive impairment is a common non-motor manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD

Lichtarge, Olivier

436

Recalcitrant Patellar TendinitisMagnetic Resonance Imaging, Histologic Evaluation, and Surgical Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging findings and the results of surgical treatment and histologic evaluation of 11 knees in 9 athletes with recalcitrant patellar tendinitis are reported. All of the athletes had no improvement with traditional nonoperative treatment and all had ab normal magnetic resonance imaging findings consis tent with chronic patellar tendinitis. Surgical exploration and debridement were performed on the 11

James E. Popp; Joseph S. Yu; Christopher C. Kaeding

1997-01-01

437

Heat stroke in an infant with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: brain magnetic resonance imaging findings.  

PubMed

We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 4 month old infant with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia who developed heat stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed signal alteration with restricted diffusion in the splenium of corpus callosum, cerebral peduncles and cerebellar dentate nuclei. PMID:23358631

Ray, Sanghamitra; Sharma, Suvasini; Maheshwari, Anu; Aneja, Satinder; Kumar, Atin

2013-04-01

438

PTFOS: Flexible and Absorbable Intracranial Electrodes for Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Intracranial electrocortical recording and stimulation can provide unique knowledge about functional brain anatomy in patients undergoing brain surgery. This approach is commonly used in the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. However, it can be very difficult to integrate the results of cortical recordings with other brain mapping modalities, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The ability to integrate imaging and electrophysiological information with simultaneous subdural electrocortical recording/stimulation and fMRI could offer significant insight for cognitive and systems neuroscience as well as for clinical neurology, particularly for patients with epilepsy or functional disorders. However, standard subdural electrodes cause significant artifact in MRI images, and concerns about risks such as cortical heating have generally precluded obtaining MRI in patients with implanted electrodes. We propose an electrode set based on polymer thick film organic substrate (PTFOS), an organic absorbable, flexible and stretchable electrode grid for intracranial use. These new types of MRI transparent intracranial electrodes are based on nano-particle ink technology that builds on our earlier development of an EEG/fMRI electrode set for scalp recording. The development of MRI-compatible recording/stimulation electrodes with a very thin profile could allow functional mapping at the individual subject level of the underlying feedback and feed forward networks. The thin flexible substrate would allow the electrodes to optimally contact the convoluted brain surface. Performance properties of the PTFOS were assessed by MRI measurements, finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations, micro-volt recording, and injecting currents using standard electrocortical stimulation in phantoms. In contrast to the large artifacts exhibited with standard electrode sets, the PTFOS exhibited no artifact due to the reduced amount of metal and conductivity of the electrode/trace ink and had similar electrical properties to a standard subdural electrode set. The enhanced image quality could enable routine MRI exams of patients with intracranial electrode implantation and could also lead to chronic implantation solutions. PMID:22984396

Bonmassar, Giorgio; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Golby, Alexandra J.

2012-01-01

439

PTFOS: flexible and absorbable intracranial electrodes for magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Intracranial electrocortical recording and stimulation can provide unique knowledge about functional brain anatomy in patients undergoing brain surgery. This approach is commonly used in the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. However, it can be very difficult to integrate the results of cortical recordings with other brain mapping modalities, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The ability to integrate imaging and electrophysiological information with simultaneous subdural electrocortical recording/stimulation and fMRI could offer significant insight for cognitive and systems neuroscience as well as for clinical neurology, particularly for patients with epilepsy or functional disorders. However, standard subdural electrodes cause significant artifact in MRI images, and concerns about risks such as cortical heating have generally precluded obtaining MRI in patients with implanted electrodes. We propose an electrode set based on polymer thick film organic substrate (PTFOS), an organic absorbable, flexible and stretchable electrode grid for intracranial use. These new types of MRI transparent intracranial electrodes are based on nano-particle ink technology that builds on our earlier development of an EEG/fMRI electrode set for scalp recording. The development of MRI-compatible recording/stimulation electrodes with a very thin profile could allow functional mapping at the individual subject level of the underlying feedback and feed forward networks. The thin flexible substrate would allow the electrodes to optimally contact the convoluted brain surface. Performance properties of the PTFOS were assessed by MRI measurements, finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations, micro-volt recording, and injecting currents using standard electrocortical stimulation in phantoms. In contrast to the large artifacts exhibited with standard electrode sets, the PTFOS exhibited no artifact due to the reduced amount of metal and conductivity of the electrode/trace ink and had similar electrical properties to a standard subdural electrode set. The enhanced image quality could enable routine MRI exams of patients with intracranial electrode implantation and could also lead to chronic implantation solutions. PMID:22984396

Bonmassar, Giorgio; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Golby, Alexandra J

2012-01-01

440

Three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of fossils across taxa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency of life forms in the fossil record is largely determined by the extent to which they were mineralised at the time of their death. In addition to mineral structures, many fossils nonetheless contain detectable amounts of residual water or organic molecules, the analysis of which has become an integral part of current palaeontological research. The methods available for this sort of investigations, though, typically require dissolution or ionisation of the fossil sample or parts thereof, which is an issue with rare taxa and outstanding materials like pathological or type specimens. In such cases, non-destructive techniques could provide a valuable methodological alternative. While Computed Tomography has long been used to study palaeontological specimens, a number of complementary approaches have recently gained ground. These include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which had previously been employed to obtain three-dimensional images of pathological belemnites non-invasively on the basis of intrinsic contrast. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether 1H MRI can likewise provide anatomical information about non-pathological belemnites and specimens of other fossil taxa. To this end, three-dimensional MR image series were acquired from intact non-pathological invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossils. At routine voxel resolutions in the range of several dozens to some hundreds of micrometers, these images reveal a host of anatomical details and thus highlight the potential of MR techniques to effectively complement existing methodological approaches for palaeontological investigations in a wide range of taxa. As for the origin of the MR signal, relaxation and diffusion measurements as well as 1H and 13C MR spectra acquired from a belemnite suggest intracrystalline water or hydroxyl groups, rather than organic residues.

Mietchen, D.; Aberhan, M.; Manz, B.; Hampe, O.; Mohr, B.; Neumann, C.; Volke, F.

2008-01-01

441

Three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of fossils across taxa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The visibility of life forms in the fossil record is largely determined by the extent to which they were mineralised at the time of their death. In addition to mineral structures, many fossils nonetheless contain detectable amounts of residual water or organic molecules, the analysis of which has become an integral part of current palaeontological research. The methods available for this sort of investigations, though, typically require dissolution or ionisation of the fossil sample or parts thereof, which is an issue with rare taxa and outstanding materials like pathological or type specimens. In such cases, non-destructive techniques could provide an interesting methodological alternative. While Computed Tomography has long been used to study palaeontological specimens, a number of complementary approaches have recently gained ground. These include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which had previously been employed to obtain three-dimensional images of pathological belemnites non-invasively on the basis of intrinsic contrast. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether 1H MRI can likewise provide anatomical information about non-pathological belemnites and specimens of other fossil taxa. To this end, three-dimensional MR image series were acquired from intact non-pathological invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossils. At routine voxel resolutions in the range of several dozens to some hundreds of micrometers, these images reveal a host of anatomical details and thus highlight the potential of MR techniques to effectively complement existing methodological approaches for palaeontological investigations in a wide range of taxa. As for the origin of the MR signal, relaxation and diffusion measurements as well as 1H and 13C MR spectra acquired from a belemnite suggest intracrystalline water or hydroxyl groups, rather than organic residues.

Mietchen, D.; Aberhan, M.; Manz, B.; Hampe, O.; Mohr, B.; Neumann, C.; Volke, F.

2007-08-01

442

Nuclear magnetic resonance whole-body imager operating at 3. 5 Kgauss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical advantages of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging at higher field strengths are discussed. Examples of images created at 3.5 KGauss (0.35 T) are demonstrated. The authors present a method of collecting several tomographic images sequentially during the time required for a single image.

Lawrence Crooks; Mitsuaki Arakawa; John Hoenninger; Jeffrey Watts; R. McRee; L. Kaufman; Peter L. Davis; Alexander R. Margulis; Jack DeGroot

1982-01-01

443

Anatomy of a live invertebrate revealed by manganese-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive imaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are increasingly in demand by researchers in many biological disciplines. However, when imaging small animals such as invertebrates, not only is the use of high-field magnets necessary to gain satisfactory spatial resolution, but the achievement of adequate contrast between tissues also requires the identification of applicable imaging parameters by means of

Jens Herberholz; Christopher J. Mims; X Xihang; Dh Edwards

2004-01-01

444

A method for correlating in vivo prostate magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology using individualized magnetic resonance -based molds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the design and rapid manufacture of a patient specific tissue slicing device based on in vivo images in order to facilitate the process of correlating the images with histopathology is presented. The method is applied to radical prostatectomy specimens where the customized mold is designed using magnetic resonance (MR) images of each patient obtained prior to surgery. In this case, the mold holds the prostate in place while a knife with a single blade or multiple blades is inserted in slots which are positioned to obtain tissue blocks corresponding to the slices in the MR images. The resulting histological specimens demonstrate good anatomical correlation with the MR images.

Shah, Vijay; Pohida, Thomas; Turkbey, Baris; Mani, Haresh; Merino, Maria; Pinto, Peter A.; Choyke, Peter; Bernardo, Marcelino

2009-10-01

445

Clinical positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging applications.  

PubMed

Although clinical positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) applications were obvious and have completely replaced PET in oncology, clinical applications of PET/magnetic resonance (MR) are currently not clearly defined. This is due to the lack of clinical data, which is mainly because PET/MR technology is not clinically mature at this point. Open issues are technical and concern ease of obtaining PET attenuation correction maps, dealing with, for example, MR surface coil metal in the PET field-of-view and appropriate workflows leading to a cost-effective examination. All issues can be circumvented by using a shuttle-connected PET/CT-MR system, but the penalty is that simultaneous PET and MR imaging are not possible and potential motion between examinations may occur. Clinically, some systems installed worldwide start to have a reasonable bulk of clinical data. Preliminary results suggest that in oncology, PET/MR may have advantages over PET/CT in head and neck imaging. In liver imaging, more PET-positive lesions are seen on MR than on CT, but that does not mean that PET/MR is superior to PET/CT. Possibly in some settings where a contrast-enhanced PET/CT is needed to be diagnostic, PET/MR can be done without contrast media. Although PET/CT has virtually no role in brain imaging, this may be an important domain for PET/MR, particularly in dementia imaging. The role of PET/MR in the heart is as yet undefined, and much research will have to be done to elucidate this role. At this point, it is also not clear where the simultaneity afforded by a fully integrated PET/MR is really needed. Sequential data acquisition even on separate systems and consecutive software image fusion may well be appropriate. With the increasing installed base of systems, clinical data will be forthcoming and define more clearly where there is clinical value in PET/MR at an affordable price. PMID:23178084

von Schulthess, Gustav K; Kuhn, Felix Pierre; Kaufmann, Philipp; Veit-Haibach, Patrick

2013-01-01

446

Comparison of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation of canine intranasal neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Canine intranasal neoplasia is commonly evaluated using computed tomography to indicate the diagnosis, to determine disease extent, to guide histological sampling location and to plan treatment. With the expanding use of magnetic resonance imaging in veterinary medicine, this modality has been recently applied for the same purpose. The aim of this study was to compare the features of canine intranasal neoplasia using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Methods Twenty-one dogs with confirmed intranasal neoplasia underwent both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The images were reviewed retrospectively for the bony and soft tissue features of intranasal neoplasia. Results Overall computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging performed very similarly. However, lysis of bones bordering the nasal cavity and mucosal thickening was found on computed tomography images more often than on magnetic resonance images. Small amounts of fluid in the nasal cavity were more often seen on magnetic resonance images. However, fluid in the frontal sinuses was seen equally well with both modalities. Clinical Significance We conclude that computed tomography is satisfactory for evaluation of canine intranasal neoplasia, and no clinically relevant benefit is gained using magnetic resonance imaging for intranasal neoplasia without extent into the cranial cavity. PMID:19508490

Drees, R.; Forrest, L. J.; Chappell, R.

2009-01-01

447

Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Findings of Children with Kernicterus  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The term kernicterus, or bilirubin encephalopathy, is used to describe pathological bilirubin staining of the basal ganglia, brain stem, and cerebellum, and is associated with hyperbilirubinemia. Kernicterus generally occurs in untreated hyperbilirubinemia or cases where treatment is delayed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based studies have shown characteristic findings in kernicterus. The objective of our study was to describe the role of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in demonstrating these metabolic changes and to review conventional MRI findings of kernicterus. Material/Methods Forty-eight pediatric cases with kernicterus were included in this study. MRI and MRS examinations were performed on variable dates (10–29 days after birth). NAA, Cr, Cho, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, and Cho/Cr values were evaluated visually and by computer analysis. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the NAA and Cho levels in the acute kernicterus patients and the control group (healthy patients), whereas both were significantly elevated in the chronic kernicterus patients. Both the mean NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratio values were significantly higher in the acute and chronic cases compared to the control group. The NAA/Cho ratio value was statistically lower in the acute cases than in the control group while it was similar in the chronic cases. Conclusions Conventional MR imaging and 1H-MRS are important complementary tools in the diagnostics of neonatal bilirubin encephalopathy. This study provided important information for applying these MR modalities in the evaluation of neonates with bilirubin encephalopathy. PMID:25745520

Sar?, Sahabettin; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Batur, Aabdussamet; Bora, Ayd?n; Caksen, Huseyin

2015-01-01

448

Application of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Evaluation of the Lower Extremity  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This article reviews current magnetic resonance imaging techniques for imaging the lower extremity, focusing on imaging of the knee, ankle, and hip joints. Recent advancements in MRI include imaging at 7 Tesla, using multiple receiver channels, T2* imaging, and metal suppression techniques, allowing more detailed visualization of complex anatomy, evaluation of morphological changes within articular cartilage, and imaging around orthopedic hardware. PMID:23622097

Braun, Hillary J.; Dragoo, Jason L.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Levenston, Marc E.; Gold, Garry E.

2012-01-01

449

Fetal imaging by nuclear magnetic resonance: a study in goats: work in progress  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear magnetic resonance proton imaging was used to obtain images of goat fetuses in utero. The long T1 relaxation time of amniotic fluid makes it appear black on proton density images when examined using the Aberdeen imager, and so allows very good discrimination of the position and structure of the fetus. Some fetal internal tissues can be seen on T1 images. These findings suggest that NMR imaging has great potential in pregnancy studies.

Foster, M.A. (Univ. of Aberdeen, Scotland); Knight, C.H.; Rimmington, J.E.; Mallard, J.R.

1983-10-01

450

Quantum control of proximal spins using nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum control of individual spins in condensed-matter systems is an emerging field with wide-ranging applications in spintronics, quantum computation and sensitive magnetometry. Recent experiments have demonstrated the ability to address and manipulate single electron spins through either optical or electrical techniques. However, it is a challenge to extend individual-spin control to nanometre-scale multi-electron systems, as individual spins are often irresolvable with existing methods. Here we demonstrate that coherent individual-spin control can be achieved with few- nanometre resolution for proximal electron spins by carrying out single-spin magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is realized using a scanning-magnetic-field gradient that is both strong enough to achieve nanometre spatial resolution and sufficiently stable for coherent spin manipulations. We apply this scanning-field-gradient MRI technique to electronic spins in nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres in diamond and achieve nanometre resolution in imaging, characterization and manipulation of individual spins. For NV centres, our results in individual-spin control demonstrate an improvement of nearly two orders of magnitude in spatial resolution when compared with conventional optical diffraction-limited techniques. This scanning-field-gradient microscope enables a wide range of applications including materials characterization, spin entanglement and nanoscale magnetometry.

Grinolds, M. S.; Maletinsky, P.; Hong, S.; Lukin, M. D.; Walsworth, R. L.; Yacoby, A.

2011-09-01

451

Spinal epidural lipomatosis in lumbar magnetic resonance imaging scans.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to quantify the frequency of advanced spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) detected on lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans performed at the authors' hospital and to compare the frequency, cause, and progression of SEL in these cases with that reported in the literature. The total number of MRI examinations of the lumbar spine performed at this hospital over 45 months was 1498 (705 men and 793 women; mean age, 60.3 years). After the MRI data were reduced (T1- and T2-weighted sagittal and axial images) on the basis of the exclusion criteria, the anterior and posterior diameters of the dural sac and spinal canal were measured, as well as the thickness of the epidural fat. On the basis of these parameters, the severity of SEL was classified as grade 0 to grade III. Five cases of grade III SEL were diagnosed. The frequency of grade III SEL noted in this study was 0.33% (5/1498). Obesity (body mass index greater than 27.5) was noted in 3 cases, and the use of exogenous corticosteroids was noted in 3 cases. Exogenous steroid usage associated with advanced SEL in this study was greater than that reported in the literature. Most symptoms of SEL progress slowly, and early diagnosis allows for a dose reduction of the prescribed steroids. Thus, lumbar MRI examinations should be conducted aggressively in patients with exogenous steroid use and presenting with low back pain or buttock pain. PMID:24762841

Sugaya, Hisashi; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Ogawa, Takeshi; Mishima, Hajime

2014-04-01

452

Radio-frequency energy quantification in magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mapping of radio frequency (RF) energy deposition has been challenging for 50+ years, especially, when scanning patients in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment. As result, electromagnetic simulation software is often used for estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR), the rate of RF energy deposition in tissue. The thesis work presents challenges associated with aligning information provided by electromagnetic simulation and MRI experiments. As result of the limitations of simulations, experimental methods for the quantification of SAR were established. A system for quantification of the total RF energy deposition was developed for parallel transmit MRI (a system that uses multiple antennas to excite and image the body). The system is capable of monitoring and predicting channel-by-channel RF energy deposition, whole body SAR and capable of tracking potential hardware failures that occur in the transmit chain and may cause the deposition of excessive energy into patients. Similarly, we demonstrated that local RF power deposition can be mapped and predicted for parallel transmit systems based on a series of MRI temperature mapping acquisitions. Resulting from the work, we developed tools for optimal reconstruction temperature maps from MRI acquisitions. The tools developed for temperature mapping paved the way for utilizing MRI as a diagnostic tool for evaluation of RF/microwave emitting device safety. Quantification of the RF energy was demonstrated for both MRI compatible and non-MRI-compatible devices (such as cell phones), while having the advantage of being noninvasive, of providing millimeter resolution and high accuracy.

Alon, Leeor

453

A Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Instrument for Multiplexed Biosensing  

PubMed Central

Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy has been widely used for label-free, highly-sensitive measurements of interactions at a surface. LSPR imaging (LSPRi) has the full advantages of LSPR, but enables high-throughput, multiplexed measurements by simultaneously probing multiple individually addressable sensors on a single sample surface. Each spatially distinct sensor can be tailored to provide data regarding different surface functionalities or reaction environments. Previously, LSPRi has focused on single particle sensing where the size scale is very small. Here, we create defined macroscale arrays of nanoparticles that are compatible with common patterning methods such as dip-pen nanolithography and multi-channel microfluidic delivery devices. With this new LSPR sensing format, we report the first demonstration of multiplexed LSPR imaging and show that the increased throughput of our instrument enables the collection of a complete Langmuir binding curve on a single sensor surface. In addition, the multiplexed LSPR sensor is highly selective, as demonstrated by the hybridization of single-stranded DNA to complementary sequences immobilized on the sensor surface. The LSPR arrays described in this work exhibit uniform sensitivity and tailorable optical properties, making them an ideal platform for high-throughput, label-free analysis of a variety of molecular binding interactions. PMID:23560643

Ruemmele, Julia A.; Hall, W. Paige; Ruvuna, Laura K.; Van Duyne, Richard P.

2013-01-01