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1

Explosives detection by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of 14N nuclei is quite promising as a method for detecting explosives such as RDX and contraband narcotics such as cocaine and heroin in quantities of interest. Pure NQR is conducted without an external applied magnetic field, so potential concerns about damage to magnetically encoded data or exposure of personnel to large magnetic fields are

Allen N. Garroway; M. L. Buess; J. P. Yesinowski; J. B. Miller; Ronald A. Krauss

1994-01-01

2

Methyl quantum tunneling and nitrogen-14 NQR NMR studies using a SQUID magnetic resonance spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) techniques have been very successful in obtaining molecular conformation and dynamics information. Unfortunately, standard NMR and NQR spectrometers are unable to adequately detect resonances below a few megahertz due to the frequency dependent sensitivity of their Faraday coil detectors. For this reason a new spectrometer with a dc SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) detector, which has no such frequency dependence, has been developed. Previously, this spectrometer was used to observe {sup 11}B and {sup 27}Al NQR resonances. The scope of this study was increased to include {sup 23}Na, {sup 51}V, and {sup 55}Mn NQR transitions. Also, a technique was presented to observe {sup 14}N NQR resonances through cross relaxation of the nitrogen polarization to adjacent proton spins. When the proton Zeeman splitting matches one nitrogen quadrupoler transition the remaining two {sup 14}N transitions can be detected by sweeping a saturating rf field through resonance. Additionally, simultaneous excitation of two nitrogen resonances provides signal enhancement which helps to connect transitions from the same site. In this way, nitrogen-14 resonances were observed in several amino acids and polypeptides. This spectrometer has also been useful in the direct detection of methyl quantum tunneling splittings at 4.2 K. Tunneling, frequencies of a homologous series of carboxylic acids were measured and for solids with equivalent crystal structures, an exponential correlation between the tunneling frequency and the enthalpy of fusion is observed. This correlation provides information about the contribution of intermolecular interactions to the energy barrier for methyl rotation.

Black, B.E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-07-01

3

New technologies: nuclear quadrupole resonance as an explosive and narcotic detection technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possibilities of detecting nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals in explosives and drugs are considered. Direct and indirect NQR techniques for searching substances are described and the potentialities of various experimental methods are compared.

Vadim S Grechishkin; Nikolai Ya Sinyavskii

1997-01-01

4

Measurement of in-situ stress in salt and rock using NQR techniques  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of how stress and strain affect the quantities which can be measured in an NQR experiment shows that, for stresses of the magnitude to be expected at depths up to about 10,000 feet, quadrupole coupling constants will fall in the range of 1 to 10 kHz for both the sodium and chloride ions in NaCl. The most promising system involves pulsed nuclear double resonance detection; and alterative is to observe the quadrupolar splitting of the NMR signal. Choices to be made in the measurement and mapping techniques are discussed. The well-known perturbation of the homogenous stress field in the neighborhood of a borehole is shown to be advantageous from the point of view of obtaining directional information on the stress. Construction and operation of a borehole stress sensor are considered. The NQR technique seems feasible for measuring the magnitude and direction of underground stress with a resolution of about 25 psi, or 2.5% at 1000 psi. Downhole instrumentation suitable for in-situ determinations of stress appears within the state of the art. Additional tasks required on the project are identified.

Schempp, E.; Hirschfeld, T.; Klainer, S.

1980-12-01

5

Structure-activity study of thiazides by magnetic resonance methods (NQR, NMR, EPR) and DFT calculations.  

PubMed

The paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the electronic structure of thiazides and their biological activity. The compounds of interest were studied in solid state by the resonance methods nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and quantum chemistry (ab inito and DFT) methods. Detailed parallel analysis of the spectroscopic parameters such as quadrupole coupling constant (QCC) NQR chemical shift (delta), chemical shift anisotropy (CSA), asymmetry parameter (eta), NMR and hyperfine coupling constant (A), EPR was performed and the electronic effects (polarisation and delocalisation) were revealed and compared. Biological activity of thiazides has been found to depend on many factors, but mainly on the physico-chemical properties whose assessment was possible on the basis of electron density determination in the molecules performed by experimental and theoretical methods. PMID:15670953

Latosi?ska, J N

2005-01-01

6

The development of pure ?-NQR techniques for measurements of nuclear ground state quadrupole moments in lithium isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ?-NQR spectrometer becomes a powerful tool to study changes in nuclear ground state properties along isotopic chains when coupled to a laser excitation beamline to polarise the nuclei of interest. Recently, the ?-NQR technique in a zero magnetic field has been applied for the first-time to measure ratios of static nuclear quadrupole moments of, Li. Preliminary results of the experiment determining the ratios Q9/Q8 and Q11/Q9 show agreement with present literature values with improved precision.

Voss, A.; Pearson, M. R.; Billowes, J.; Buchinger, F.; Chow, K. H.; Crawford, J. E.; Hossein, M. D.; Kiefl, R. F.; Levy, C. D. P.; MacFarlane, W. A.; Mané, E.; Morris, G. D.; Parolin, T. J.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Smadella, M.; Song, Q.; Wang, D.

2011-09-01

7

Quadrupole coupling parameters and structural aspects of crystalline and amorphous solids by NMR and NQR  

SciTech Connect

NMR and NQR techniques were combined to obtain the quadrupole coupling constant (Qcc) and asymmetry parameter ({eta}) and extract structural information for several borate, gallate, and metavanadate compounds and glasses. {sup 71}Ga and {sup 69}Ga NMR was used to study crystalline {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and several gallate glasses. Quadrupole parameters were acquired for GaO{sub 6} and GaO{sub 4} units in {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} by the computer simulation of the NMR powder patterns. A sensitive CW NQR spectrometer was built to detect NQR resonances below 2 MHz. The spectrometer includes a modified Robinson oscillator-detector, a new bi-symmetric square wave Zeeman modulator and a computerized data acquisition system. {sup 51}V (I = 7/2) NQR resonances below 850 kHz were detected for several metavanadates at both room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature. Two methods, Zeeman perturbed NQR powder pattern and {sup 10}B NQR, can be employed to obtain both Qcc and {eta}. With a double coil tank circuit design, pure {sup 11}B NQR was used to determine the fraction of borons in BO{sub 3} and BO{sub 4} configurations in hydrated zinc borates. {sup 11}B NMR and NQR were also used to study lead borate glasses.

Mao, Degen.

1991-01-01

8

NQR investigation and characterization of cocrystals and crystal polymorphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of 14N NQR to the study of cocrystals and crystal polymorphs is reviewed. In ferroelectric and antiferroelectric organic cocrystals 14N NQR is used to determine proton position in an N-H...O hydrogen bond and proton displacement below TC. In cocrystal isonicitinamide - oxalic acid (2:1) 14N NQR is used to distinguish between two polymorphs and to determine the type of the hydrogen bond (N-...H-O). The difference in the 14N NQR spectra of cocrystal formers and cocrystal is investigated in case of carbamazepine, saccharin and carbamazepine - saccharin (1:1). The experimental resolution allows an unambiguous distinction between the 14N NQR spectrum of the cocrystal and the 14N NQR spectra of the cocrystal formers. The possibility of application of NQR and double resonance for the determination of the inhomogeneity of the sample and for the study of the life time of an unstable polymorph is discussed.

Seliger, Janez; Žagar, Veselko; Asaji, Tetsuo

2013-05-01

9

Landmine detection using feedback NQR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is well suited for detecting land mines with non-metallic cases. It provides both spatial localization and chemical identification of explosives. A search coil produces a train of radio frequency (RF) magnetic pulses that perturb the orientation of nitrogen nuclei contained within the explosive material. Following each RF pulse, the nuclei rotate back to orientations of lower

Andrew J. Blauch; Jeffrey L. Schiano; Mark D. Ginsberg

1999-01-01

10

Detection of {sup 14}N and {sup 35}Cl in cocaine base and hydrochloride using NQR, NMR, and SQUID techniques  

SciTech Connect

Results from {sup 14}N pure NQR of cocaine in the free base form (cocaine base) yield a nuclear quadrupole coupling constant (NQCC) e{sup 2}Qq/h of 5.0229 ({+-}0.0001) MHz and an asymmetry parameter {eta} of 0.0395 ({+-}0.0001) at 295 K, with corresponding values of 5.0460 ({+-}0.0013) MHz and 0.0353 ({+-}0.0008) at 77 K. Both pure NQR (at 295-77 K) and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detector (at 4.2 K) were used to measure the very low (<1 MHz) {sup 14}N transition frequencies in cocaine hydrochloride; at 295 K the NQCC is 1.1780 ({+-}0.0014) MHz and the asymmetry parameter is 0.2632 ({+-}0.0034). Stepping the carrier frequency enables one to obtain a powder pattern without the severe intensity distortions that otherwise arise from finite pulse power. A powder pattern simulation using an NQCC value of 5.027 MHz and an asymmetry parameter {eta} of 0.2 agrees reasonably well with the experimental stepped-frequency spectrum. The use of pure NQR for providing nondestructive, quantitative, and highly specific detection of crystalline compounds is discussed, as are experimental strategies. 31 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Yesinowski, J.P.; Buess, M.L.; Garroway, A.N. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Ziegeweid, M.; Pines, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-07-01

11

Nuclear electric quadrupole moment of 9Li using zero-field ?-detected NQR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ?-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectrometer becomes a powerful tool to study changes in nuclear ground-state properties along isotopic chains when coupled to a laser excitation beamline to polarize the nuclei of interest. Recently, the ?-NQR technique in a zero magnetic field has been applied for the first time to measure the ratio of static nuclear quadrupole moments of 8, 9Li, Q9/Q8 = 0.966 75(9) denoted by Q8 for 8Li and Q9 for 9Li, respectively. This shows agreement with present literature values but with significantly improved precision. Based on the literature, the quadrupole moment for 8Li has been re-evaluated to be |Q8| = 32.6(5) mb. From this, the quadrupole moment for 9Li is calculated as |Q9| = 31.5(5) mb with the error being dominated by the error of Q8.

Voss, A.; Pearson, M. R.; Billowes, J.; Buchinger, F.; Chow, K. H.; Crawford, J. E.; Hossein, M. D.; Kiefl, R. F.; Levy, C. D. P.; MacFarlane, W. A.; Mané, E.; Morris, G. D.; Parolin, T. J.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Smadella, M.; Song, Q.; Wang, D.

2011-07-01

12

Nuclear quadrupole resonances in compact vapor cells: the crossover from the NMR to the NQR interaction regimes  

E-print Network

We present the first experimental study that maps the transformation of nuclear quadrupole resonances from the pure nuclear quadrupole regime to the quadrupole-perturbed Zeeman regime. The transformation presents an interesting quantum-mechanical problem, since the quantization axis changes from being aligned along the axis of the electric-field gradient tensor to being aligned along the magnetic field. We achieve large nuclear quadrupole shifts for I = 3/2 131-Xe by using a 1 mm^3 cubic cell with walls of different materials. When the magnetic and quadrupolar interactions are of comparable size, perturbation theory is not suitable for calculating the transition energies. Rather than use perturbation theory, we compare our data to theoretical calculations using a Liouvillian approach and find excellent agreement.

E. A. Donley; J. L. Long; T. C. Liebisch; E. R. Hodby; T. A. Fisher; J. Kitching

2008-10-21

13

Investigation of structural information for boron-rich solids and aluminates via NMR and NQR studies  

SciTech Connect

Along with NMR, Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) has become important recently for obtaining structural information from oxide glasses. The NQR studies prove in this thesis that they provide more accurate structural information than the NMR studies have done. This study presents boron and aluminum NMR, and NQR studies for some borate glasses and compounds, icosahedral boron-rich solids, some crystalline aluminosilicates. Various borates were employed to acquire structural information as well as to determine the quadrupole parameters (the quadrupole coupling constant Qcc and the asymmetry parameter {eta}) using NQR under a guidance of NMR or vice versa. By NQR a previously unknown boron site was observed for vitreous Li{sub 2}O{center dot}B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The NMR and NQR studies were performed on some icosachedral boron-rich solids: {alpha}-rhombohedral boron (B{sub 12}), {beta}-boron (B{sub 105}) and boron carbide (B{sub 12}C{sub 3}). Three different forms of crystalline aluminosilicate (Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}) were studied by NQR. The NQR study yielded more accurate values of the quadrupole parameters for {sup 27}Al than the previous NMR single crystal study did.

Lee, D.

1991-01-01

14

Rapid detection of arsenic minerals using portable broadband NQR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

remote real-time detection of specific arsenic species would significantly benefit in minerals processing to mitigate the release of arsenic into aquatic environments and aid in selective mining. At present, there are no technologies available to detect arsenic minerals in bulk volumes outside of laboratories. Here we report on the first room-temperature broadband 75As nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) detection of common and abundant arsenic ores in the Earth crust using a large sample (0.78 L) volume prototype sensor. Broadband excitation aids in detection of natural minerals with low crystallinity. We briefly discuss how the proposed NQR detector could be employed in mining operations.

Lehmann-Horn, J. A.; Miljak, D. G.; O'Dell, L. A.; Yong, R.; Bastow, T. J.

2014-10-01

15

Two-dimensional NQR using ultra-broadband electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently developed an ultra-broadband instrument that can effectively excite and detect NMR and NQR signals over a wide frequency range. Our current system operates between 100 kHz and 3.2 MHz using an un-tuned sample coil. The major benefits of this instrument compared to conventional NQR/NMR systems include increased robustness, ease of use (in particular for multi-frequency experiments), and elimination of the need for tuning adjustments in the hardware. Here we describe its use for performing two-dimensional (2D) scans, which allow improved interpretation of complex NQR spectra by detecting the connected resonances. Our method relies on population transfers between the three energy levels of spin-1 nuclei (such as 14N) by using multi-frequency excitation and a single RF coil. Experimental results on pure samples and mixtures are also presented.

Mandal, S.; Song, Y.-Q.

2014-03-01

16

Two-dimensional NQR using ultra-broadband electronics.  

PubMed

We have recently developed an ultra-broadband instrument that can effectively excite and detect NMR and NQR signals over a wide frequency range. Our current system operates between 100 kHz and 3.2 MHz using an un-tuned sample coil. The major benefits of this instrument compared to conventional NQR/NMR systems include increased robustness, ease of use (in particular for multi-frequency experiments), and elimination of the need for tuning adjustments in the hardware. Here we describe its use for performing two-dimensional (2D) scans, which allow improved interpretation of complex NQR spectra by detecting the connected resonances. Our method relies on population transfers between the three energy levels of spin-1 nuclei (such as (14)N) by using multi-frequency excitation and a single RF coil. Experimental results on pure samples and mixtures are also presented. PMID:24495675

Mandal, S; Song, Y-Q

2014-03-01

17

Local electric state of noncentrosymmetric superconductor Mo3Al2C revealed by Mo NQR and NMR experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements were performed on a noncentrosymmetric superconductor Mo3Al2C to investigate the local electronic state at Mo nuclei, which carries the electrons responsible for superconductivity. The NQR frequency, which is linked to the electric field gradient at Mo site, was determined from 95Mo NMR spectrum and the result was verified by the independent 97Mo NQR measurement. The experimentally obtained value is compared to the result of a point charge calculation to extract the EFG induced by conduction electrons and reveal the local electronic state.

Ihara, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Kumagai, K.; Bauer, E.; Rogl, G.; Rogl, P.

2012-12-01

18

Low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance with a dc SQUID  

SciTech Connect

Conventional pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a technique well suited for the study of very large quadrupolar interactions. Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed for the study of smaller quadrupolar interactions. However, there are many nuclei which have quadrupolar interactions of intermediate strength. Quadrupolar interactions in this region have traditionally been difficult or unfeasible to detect. This work describes the development and application of a SQUID NQR technique which is capable of measuring intermediate strength quadrupolar interactions, in the range of a few hundred kilohertz to several megahertz. In this technique, a dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) is used to monitor the longitudinal sample magnetization, as opposed to the transverse magnetization, as a rf field is swept in frequency. This allows the detection of low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonances over a very wide frequency range with high sensitivity. The theory of this NQR technique is discussed and a description of the dc SQUID system is given. In the following chapters, the spectrometer is discussed along with its application to the study of samples containing half-odd-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei, in particular boron-11 and aluminum-27. The feasibility of applying this NQR technique in the study of samples containing integer spin nuclei is discussed in the last chapter. 140 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs.

Chang, J.W.

1991-07-01

19

14N NQR in the tetrazole family  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

14N NQR frequencies and spin-lattice relaxation times were measured in technologically important 5-aminotetrazole and 5-aminotetrazole monohydrate at different temperatures between 77 K and 300 K. Five NQR triplets ?+, ?- and ?0 were found for the five inequivalent nitrogen atoms in each compound between 0.7 MHz and 4 MHz. Carr-Purcell based multipulse sequences were used to accumulate quadrupole echo signals before the FFT analysis. Assignment of the frequencies to atomic positions was made and the results are analysed in relation to the molecular chemical bonds and possible H-bonds in the crystal structures. The new NQR frequencies are reasonably related to the previously published NQR spectrum of the third family member, 1H-tetrazole.

Pirnat, Janez; Lužnik, Janko; Jazbinšek, Vojko; Žagar, Veselko; Seliger, Janez; Klapötke, Thomas M.; Trontelj, Zvonko

2009-10-01

20

Techniques for Automatic Magnetic Resonance Image Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing and developing automatic techniques for magnetic resonance images (MR) for data analysis is very challenging. One popular and public available method, FAST (FMRIB Automatic Segmentation Tool) has been widely used for automatic brain tissue segmentation for this purpose. This paper investigates limitations of this software algorithm on implementation and further develops a new approach to automatic MR brain tissue

Hsian-Min Chen; Shih-Yu Chen; Jyh Wen Chai; Clayton Chi-Chang Chen; Chao-Cheng Wu; Yen-Chieh Ouyang; Ching Tsorng Tsai; Ching-Wen Yang; San-Kan Lee; Chein-I Chang

2010-01-01

21

Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Study of the Nitrogen Mustards and Local Anesthetics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The density matrix description of pulsed nitrogen -14 nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spin-echoes is presented. The parallel between this problem, when formulated in terms of the fictitious spin- 1/2 operators, and that of spin - 1/2 NMR spin-echoes in liquids is discussed along with the complications which arise in multiple-pulse NQR experiments in powders due to the random orientation of the electric field gradient tensors. The equipment and procedures involved in searching for, detecting and identifying NQR resonances using pulsed techniques are described. The ('14)N NQR spectra of several nitrogen mustard compounds in the solid state are reported and analyzed in the framework of the Townes and Dailey theory. For the aniline derivatives, a correlation exists between l -(sigma), l being the nitrogen lone-pair electron density and (sigma) the average N-C sigma bond electron density, and the enhanced Hammett sigma constant (sigma)('-). An improved correlation is obtained between l-(sigma) and (sigma)(,R)('-), which emphasizes the importance of resonance effects in determining l-(sigma). The increase of hydrolysis and alkylation rates with increasing values of l-(sigma) is in agreement with the identification of the cyclic immonium ion as the intermediate in the hydrolysis and alkylation processes of the aromatic nitrogen mustards. A possible correlation is noted between the ('35)Cl NQR spectra for some of the mustards and measures of toxic and antitumor activity. ('14)N NQR spectra for several local anesthetics in the solid state are also reported and analyzed using the Townes and Dailey approach. The changes in the electron distributions at various nitrogen sites, produced by protonating the tertiary amino nitrogen, are discussed and shown to be in general agreement with expectations bases on the increased electrophilic character of the protonated amino group.

Buess, Michael Lee

22

Resonant Wave-Particle Manipulation Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charged particle dynamics can be altered considerably even by weak electromagnetic waves if some of the particles are in resonance. Depending on the wave parameters, the resonances in the phase space can either be well separated, in which case the particle dynamics is regular almost everywhere, or they can overlap leading to stochastic particle motion in a large volume of the phase space. Although different, both of these regimes allow one to manipulate particle ensembles by arranging resonant interactions with appropriate waves. This thesis is devoted to studying two wave-particle manipulation techniques having potential applications in fusion and laser-plasma interaction research. Specifically, we study the alpha-channeling effect (which relies on stochastic diffusion of resonant particles) and the so-called negative-mass effect (NME) (which involves the conservation of the adiabatic invariant). The alpha-channeling effect entails the use of radio-frequency waves to expel and cool high-energetic alpha particles born in a fusion reactor; the device reactivity can then be increased even further by redirecting the extracted energy to fuel ions. Recently, the alpha-channeling technique, originally proposed for tokamaks, was shown to be suitable for application in mirror machines as well. In the first part of this thesis, we deepen the understanding of issues and possibilities of the alpha-channeling implementation in open-ended reactors. We verify the feasibility of this technique and identify specific waves and supplementary techniques, which can potentially be used for implementing the alpha-channeling in realistic mirror devices. We also propose a new technique for using the alpha-channeling wave energy to catalyze fusion reaction by employing minority ions as a mediator species. In the second part of this thesis, the NME manifesting itself as an unusual response of a resonant particle to external adiabatic perturbations mimicking the behavior of a particle with a negative mass, is discussed. Using the Hamiltonian perturbation theory, the calculation of the effective parallel mass is extended to the non-vacuum waves and the NME is shown to be robust. Also, the consequences of radiation friction and collisions with the background particles on the NME are studied and new collective phenomena emerging in plasmas with negative-mass particles are considered.

Zhmoginov, Andrey I.

23

A miniaturized NQR spectrometer for a multi-channel NQR-based detection device.  

PubMed

A low frequency (0.5-5MHz) battery operated sensitive pulsed NQR spectrometer with a transmitter power up to 5W and a total mass of about 3kg aimed at detecting (14)N NQR signals, predominantly of illicit materials, was designed and assembled. This spectrometer uses a standard software defined radio (SDR) platform for the data acquisition unit. Signal processing is done with the LabView Virtual instrument on a personal computer. We successfully tested the spectrometer by measuring (14)N NQR signals from aminotetrazole monohydrate (ATMH), potassium nitrate (PN), paracetamol (PCM) and trinitrotoluene (TNT). Such a spectrometer is a feasible component of a portable single or multichannel (14)N NQR based detection device. PMID:25233110

Beguš, Samo; Jazbinšek, Vojko; Pirnat, Janez; Trontelj, Zvonko

2014-10-01

24

A miniaturized NQR spectrometer for a multi-channel NQR-based detection device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low frequency (0.5-5 MHz) battery operated sensitive pulsed NQR spectrometer with a transmitter power up to 5 W and a total mass of about 3 kg aimed at detecting 14N NQR signals, predominantly of illicit materials, was designed and assembled. This spectrometer uses a standard software defined radio (SDR) platform for the data acquisition unit. Signal processing is done with the LabView Virtual instrument on a personal computer. We successfully tested the spectrometer by measuring 14N NQR signals from aminotetrazole monohydrate (ATMH), potassium nitrate (PN), paracetamol (PCM) and trinitrotoluene (TNT). Such a spectrometer is a feasible component of a portable single or multichannel 14N NQR based detection device.

Beguš, Samo; Jazbinšek, Vojko; Pirnat, Janez; Trontelj, Zvonko

2014-10-01

25

Heteronuclear and quadrupolar second moment determination of the NQR line of 127I in NaIO4.  

PubMed

This work reports on a theoretical expression of the heteronuclear dipolar second moment (M2IS) of a NQR line of spin 5/2 nuclei. The result is applied to obtain M2IS for the resonance line of 127I in NaIO4, and in addition, an indirect determination of the quadrupolar second moment is given. PMID:10023847

Azurmendi, H F; Nagel, O A; Ramia, M E

1998-12-01

26

Nuclear quadrupole resonance: a technique to control hydration processes in the pharmaceutical industry.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals can exist in many solid forms, which can have different physical and chemical properties. These solid forms include polymorphs, solvates, amorphous, and hydrates. Particularly, hydration process can be quite common since pharmaceutical solids can be in contact with water during manufacturing process and can also be exposed to water during storage. In the present work, it is proved that NQR technique is capable of detecting different hydrated forms not only in the pure raw material but also in the final product (tablets), being in this way a useful technique for quality control. This technique was also used to study the dehydration process from pentahydrate to trihydrate. PMID:21314133

Limandri, Silvina; Visñovezky, Claudia; Pérez, Silvina C; Schurrer, Clemar A; Wolfenson, Alberto E; Ferro, Maribel; Cuffini, Silvia L; de Souza, Joel Gonçalves; Aguiar, F Armani; de Gaitani, C Masetto

2011-03-01

27

Electromagnetic contactless interrogation technique for quartz resonator sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for contactless readout of AT-cut quartz resonator sensors is proposed and validated. The technique is based on the separation in time of the excitation and detection phases, exploiting the sensing of the transient response of the resonator. An external primary coil is electromagnetically air-coupled to a secondary coil connected to the electrodes of the resonator. During the excitation

M. Bau; M. Ferrari; V. Ferrari; E. Tonoli

2011-01-01

28

Statistical normalization techniques for magnetic resonance imaging???  

PubMed Central

While computed tomography and other imaging techniques are measured in absolute units with physical meaning, magnetic resonance images are expressed in arbitrary units that are difficult to interpret and differ between study visits and subjects. Much work in the image processing literature on intensity normalization has focused on histogram matching and other histogram mapping techniques, with little emphasis on normalizing images to have biologically interpretable units. Furthermore, there are no formalized principles or goals for the crucial comparability of image intensities within and across subjects. To address this, we propose a set of criteria necessary for the normalization of images. We further propose simple and robust biologically motivated normalization techniques for multisequence brain imaging that have the same interpretation across acquisitions and satisfy the proposed criteria. We compare the performance of different normalization methods in thousands of images of patients with Alzheimer's disease, hundreds of patients with multiple sclerosis, and hundreds of healthy subjects obtained in several different studies at dozens of imaging centers. PMID:25379412

Shinohara, Russell T.; Sweeney, Elizabeth M.; Goldsmith, Jeff; Shiee, Navid; Mateen, Farrah J.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Jarso, Samson; Pham, Dzung L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.

2014-01-01

29

A Technique for Adjusting Eigenfrequencies of WGM Resonators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple technique has been devised for making small, permanent changes in the eigenfrequencies (resonance frequencies) of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) dielectric optical resonators that have high values of the resonance quality factor (Q). The essence of the technique is to coat the resonator with a thin layer of a transparent polymer having an index of refraction close to that of the resonator material. Successive small frequency adjustments can be made by applying successive coats. The technique was demonstrated on a calcium fluoride resonator to which successive coats of a polymer were applied by use of a hand-made wooden brush. To prevent temperature- related frequency shifts that could interfere with the verification of the effectiveness of this technique, the temperature of the resonator was stabilized by means of a three-stage thermoelectric cooler. Measurements of the resonator spectrum showed the frequency shifts caused by the successive coating layers.

Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Martin, Jan

2009-01-01

30

Staggered magnetization in La2-xSrxCuO4 from 139La NQR and muSR: Effects of Sr doping in the range 0  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used 139La nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) and positive muon spin rotation (muSR) measurements to probe the weakly doped antiferromagnetic (AF) region (x<0.02) of the La2-xSrxCuO4 system below the three-dimensional (3D) AF ordering (Néel) temperature TN(x). From these measurements, our previous 139La NQR measurements [F. C. Chou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2323, (1993)], and auxiliary 139La nuclear

F. Borsa; P. Carreta; J. H. Cho; F. C. Chou; Q. Hu; D. C. Johnston; A. Lascialfari; D. R. Torgeson; R. J. Gooding; N. M. Salem; K. J. E. Vos

1995-01-01

31

Electron density distribution in cladribine (2-chloro-2?-deoxyadenosine) - A drug against leukemia and multiple sclerosis - Studied by multinuclear NQR spectroscopy and DFT calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2-Chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (Cladribine) chemotherapeutic drug has been studied experimentally in solid state by 35Cl NQR and NMR-NQR double resonance and theoretically by the Density Functional Theory. Fifteen resonance frequencies on 14N have been detected and assigned to particular nitrogen sites in the 2-CdA molecule. The effects of tautomerism, regioisomerism, conformations and molecular aggregations, related to intermolecular hydrogen bond formation, on the NQR parameters have been analysed within the DFT and AIM ( Atoms in Molecules) formalism. The properties of the whole molecule, the so-called global reactivity descriptors, have been calculated for a comparison of both syn and anti conformations of 2-CdA molecule to check the effect of crystal packing on molecular conformation.

Latosi?ska, J. N.; Latosi?ska, M.; Seliger, J.; Žagar, V.; Kazimierczuk, Z.

2009-07-01

32

NDI using mm-wave resonant techniques  

SciTech Connect

Millimeter wave resonant measurements are commonly used for surface and near-surface materials characterization including the detection of cracks and defects, analysis of semiconducting and dielectric materials, and analysis of metallic electrical properties beneath coatings. Recent work has also shown the approach to be useful in evaluating corrosion products and the detection of incipient corrosion and corrosion cracking. In the analysis area, complex permittivity data of the corrosion products can be extracted, usually with accuracy of a few percent or better, to aid in identification of the product and possibly of mechanisms. In the detection area, corrosion-related cracks of order 100{mu}m or less near the surface have been detected and corrosion products have been detected beneath a variety of paints. Surface preparation requirements are minimal, particularly compared to some optical techniques, giving increased hope of field applicability. A number of examples of NDI on aircraft related materials and structures will be presented along with an assessment of detection and accuracy limits.

Martens, J.S.; Sachtjen, S. [Conductus, Inc. (United States); Sorensen, N.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-08-01

33

NQR Line Broadening Due to Crystal Lattice Imperfections and Its Relationship to Shock Sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrodynamic hot spot model is used to explain the difference between shock sensitive and shock insensitive explosives. Among the major factors that influence the shock sensitivity of energetic compounds are the quality and particle size of the energetic crystals used to formulate the cast plastic bonded explosive. As do all energetic compounds, RDX and HMX exhibit internal crystal defects the magnitude and type of which depend on the manufacturing process used to synthesize and re-crystallize the energetic compound. Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) spectroscopy was used to determine the crystal quality of RDX, HMX and CL-20 obtained from various manufacturers. The NQR experimental results are discussed. Cast plastic bonded explosives were made using the RDX and HMX obtained from the various manufacturers and subsequently subjected to the NOL large-scale gap test (LSGT). The results of the LSGT are discussed and correlated with the NQR results. A relationship between the crystal defect density and shock initiation pressure of the plastic bonded explosive is developed and discussed.

Caulder, S. M.; Buess, M. L.; Garroway, A. N.; Miller, P. J.

2004-07-01

34

Direct current superconducting quantum interference device spectrometer for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance at frequencies up to 5 MHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectrometer based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) has been developed for the direct detection of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) at frequencies up to 5 MHz. The sample is coupled to the input coil of the niobium-based SQUID via a nonresonant superconducting circuit. The flux locked loop involves the direct offset integration technique with additional positive feedback in which the output of the SQUID is coupled directly to a low-noise preamplifier. Precession of the nuclear quadrupole spins is induced by a magnetic field pulse with the feedback circuit disabled; subsequently, flux locked operation is restored and the SQUID amplifies the signal produced by the nuclear free induction signal. The spectrometer has been used to detect 27Al NQR signals in ruby (Al2O3[Cr3+]) at 359 and 714 kHz.

TonThat, Dinh M.; Clarke, John

1996-08-01

35

35Cl-NQR and DFT study of electronic structure of amlodipine and felodipine vascular-selective drugs from the dihydropyridine Ca ++ antagonists group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amlodipine (AM) and felodipine (FL) have been studied in solid state by the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) and density functional theory (DFT). The results have shown that NQR data do not permit a differentiation between R and S enantiomers, which is a consequence of the symmetry of the 4-aryl ring, whereas they permit a differentiation between free bases and salts. The HOMO-LUMO gap is smaller for AM than for FL, which suggests smaller energy of excitation for AM. The absolute hardness, chemical potential and electrophilicity of both AM enantiomers are lower than the corresponding values for FL enantiomers, suggesting that AM should be more reactive than FL in unimolecular reactions.

Latosi?ska, J. N.; Latosi?ska, M.; Kasprzak, J.

2008-09-01

36

NDI using mm-wave resonant techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millimeter wave resonant measurements are commonly used for surface and near-surface materials characterization including the detection of cracks and defects, analysis of semiconducting and dielectric materials, and analysis of metallic electrical properties beneath coatings. Recent work has also shown the approach to be useful in evaluating corrosion products and the detection of incipient corrosion and corrosion cracking. In the analysis

J. S. Martens; S. Sachtjen; N. R. Sorensen

1995-01-01

37

35 Cl NQR spectra of group 1 and silver dichloromethanesulfonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dichloromethanesulfonates of silver and other +1-charged cations, M\\u000a ?+?(Cl2CHSO (M = Ag, Tl, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) were synthesized and studied by 35Cl NQR. Dichloromethanesulfonic acid was prepared by the methanolysis of dichloromethanesulfonyl chloride, and was then neutralized\\u000a with the carbonates of the +1-charged cations to produce the corresponding dichloromethanesulfonate salt. This NQR study completed\\u000a the investigation of

Gabriel Gillette; Gary Wulfsberg

2008-01-01

38

Beta-detected NQR in zero field with a low energy beam of 8Li+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beta-detected nuclear quadrupole resonances ( ?-NQR) in zero field are observed using a beam of low energy highly polarized radioactive Li+8. The resonances were detected in SrTiO 3, Al 2O 3 and Sr 2RuO 4 single crystals by monitoring the beta-decay anisotropy as a function of a small audio frequency magnetic field. The resonances show clearly that Li+8 occupies one site with non-cubic symmetry in SrTiO 3, two in Al 2O 3 and three sites in Sr 2RuO 4. The resonance amplitude and width are surprisingly large compared to the values expected from transitions between the |±2>?|±1> spin states, indicating a significant mixing between the |±m> quadrupolar split levels.

Salman, Z.; Kiefl, R. F.; Chow, K. H.; MacFarlane, W. A.; Kreitzman, S. R.; Arseneau, D. J.; Daviel, S.; Levy, C. D. P.; Maeno, Y.; Poutissou, R.

2006-03-01

39

In vivo studies of brain development by magnetic resonance techniques.  

PubMed

Understanding of the morphological development of the human brain has largely come from neuropathological studies obtained postmortem. Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques have recently allowed the provision of detailed structural, metabolic, and functional information in vivo on the human brain. These techniques have been utilized in studies from premature infants to adults and have provided invaluable data on the sequence of normal human brain development. This article will focus on MR techniques including conventional structural MR imaging techniques, quantitative morphometric MR techniques, diffusion weighted MR techniques, and MR spectroscopy. In order to understand the potential applications and limitations of MR techniques, relevant physical and biological principles for each of the MR techniques are first reviewed. This is followed by a review of the understanding of the sequence of normal brain development utilizing these techniques. MRDD Research Reviews 6:59-67, 2000. PMID:10899798

Inder, T E; Huppi, P S

2000-01-01

40

Narcotics and explosives detection by 14N pure nuclear quadrupole resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of 14N nuclei is quite promising as a method for detecting explosives such as RDX and contraband narcotics such as cocaine and heroin in quantities of interest. Pure NQR is conducted without an external applied magnetic field, so potential concerns about damage to magnetically encoded data or exposure of personnel to large magnetic fields are

Allen N. Garroway; M. L. Buess; J. P. Yesinowski; J. B. Miller

1994-01-01

41

Detection of RDX and TNT mine like targets by nuclear quadrupole resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is being researched in order to confirm the presence of explosives as part of landmine sensor suites for the UK MOD hand held and vehicle mounted detection applied research programs. A low power NQR system has been developed as a non-contacting, but short range, detection method for explosives typically found in landmines. The results of stand-off

Robert M. Deas; Ian A. Burch; Daniel M. Port

2002-01-01

42

Temperature compensation techniques for resonantly enhanced sensors and devices based on optical microcoil resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that environmental effects have a major influence on the optical stability of resonantly enhanced sensors and devices based on optical microfiber, namely in the configuration of a microcoil resonator. We propose a geometric design to reduce such effects by chirping the refractive index of successive paired turns in the microcoil resonator. The resistance to external effects such as temperature drifts can be considerably improved by optimizing the coupling coefficients and chirping profile, such that the wavelength span of the resonant condition is maximized without compensating its sensitivity to the desired measurand. We also demonstrate another technique based on resonant wavelength tuning using a compact piezoelectric ceramic disk measuring 3 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness, attaining tunability as high as 6.5 pm/100 V.

Chen, G. Y.; Lee, T.; Zhang, X. L.; Brambilla, G.; Newson, T. P.

2012-10-01

43

Ab initio DFT study of bisphosphonate derivatives as a drug for inhibition of cancer: NMR and NQR parameters.  

PubMed

DFT computations were carried out to characterize the (17)Oand (2)H electric field gradient, EFG, in various bisphosphonate derivatives. The computations were performed at the B3LYP level with 6-311++G (d,P) standard basis set. Calculated EFG tensors were used to determine the (17)O and (2)H nuclear quadrupole coupling constant, ? and asymmetry parameter, ?. For better understanding of the bonding and electronic structure of bisphosphonates, isotropic and anisotropic NMR chemical shieldings were calculated for the (13)C, (17)O and (31)P nuclei using GIAO method for the optimized structure of intermediate bisphosphonates at B3LYP level of theory using 6-311++G (d, p) basis set. The results showed that various substituents have a strong effect on the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) parameters (?, ?) of (17)O in contrast with (2)H NQR parameters. The NMR and NQR parameters were studied in order to find the correlation between electronic structure and the activity of the desired bisphosphonates. In addition, the effect of substitutions on the bisphosphonates polarity was investigated. Molecular polarity was determined via the DFT calculated dipole moment vectors and the results showed that substitution of bromine atom on the ring would increase the activity of bisphosphonates. PMID:21633790

Aghabozorg, Hussein; Sohrabi, Beheshteh; Mashkouri, Sara; Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza

2012-03-01

44

35Cl NQR spectra of group 1 and silver dichloromethanesulfonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dichloromethanesulfonates of silver and other +1-charged cations, M + (Cl2CHSO3-) ( M = Ag, Tl, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) were synthesized and studied by 35Cl NQR. Dichloromethanesulfonic acid was prepared by the methanolysis of dichloromethanesulfonyl chloride, and was then neutralized with the carbonates of the +1-charged cations to produce the corresponding dichloromethanesulfonate salt. This NQR study completed the investigation of the chloroacetates and chloromethanesulfonates of silver, Ag + (Cl x CH3 - x SO3-) and Ag + (Cl x CH3 - x CO2-), and suggests (1) that the ability of organochlorine atoms to coordinate to silver decreases as the number of electron-withdrawing groups (Cl, SO3-, CO2-) attached to the carbon atom increases; (2) that the unusually large NQR spectral width found among M + (Cl2CHCO2-) salts is not present among M + (Cl2CHSO3-) salts, and therefore is not generally characteristic of the dichloromethyl group in salts.

Gillette, Gabriel; Wulfsberg, Gary

2008-01-01

45

Munitions classification using an Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopic technique  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Bilateral Chemical Weapons Agreement between the United States and Russia, Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique that discriminates between different types of artillery munitions. This NDE classification technique allows on-site inspectors to rapidly classify the munitions as chemical or high explosive, and furthermore discriminates between various subclasses of these types of munitions. This technique, based on acoustic resonance measurements, has been successfully demonstrated on a wide variety of high explosive and chemical munitions. The technique consists of building templates of spectral features from sets of known munitions. Spectral features of unknown munitions are compared with a library of templates, and the degree of match between the features and the templates is used to classify the munition. This paper describes the technique, including the feature extraction, clustering and classification algorithms.

Roberts, R.S.; Chen, J.T.; Vela, O.A.; Lewis, P.S.

1993-12-01

46

Cottonseed oil estimation by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed asymmetry and moisture associated with the seeds are known to affect seed oil estimation by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance\\u000a (NMR) technique employing free induction decay or single spin echo (SE) pulse sequence. UsingGossypium (cottonseeds) as experimental material, it is shown that transverse relaxation times (T2) of seed oil, in different varieties of seeds, measured in vivo, are not the

V. T. Srinivasan; B. B. Singh; P. K. Chidambareswaran; V. Sundaram

1985-01-01

47

Total body water measurements using resonant cavity perturbation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent paper proposed a novel technique for determining the total body water (TBW) of patients suffering with abnormal hydration levels, using a resonant cavity perturbation method. Current techniques to measure TBW are limited by resolution and technical constraints. However, this new method involves measuring the dielectric properties of the body, by placing a subject in a large cavity resonator and measuring the subsequent change in its resonant frequency, fres and its Q-factor. Utilizing the relationship that water content correlates to these dielectric properties, it has been shown that the measured response of these parameters enables determination of TBW. Results are presented for a preliminary study using data estimated from anthropometric measurements, where volunteers were asked to lie and stand in an electromagnetic screened room, before and after drinking between 1 and 2 l of water, and in some cases, after voiding the bladder. Notable changes in the parameters were observed; fres showed a negative shift and Q was reduced. Preliminary calibration curves using estimated values of water content have been developed from these results, showing that for each subject the measured resonant frequency is a linear function of TBW. Because the gradients of these calibration curves correlate to the mass-to-height-ratio of the volunteers, it has proved that a system in which TBW can be unequivocally obtained is possible. Measured values of TBW have been determined using this new pilot-technique, and the values obtained correlate well with theoretical values of body water (r = 0.87) and resolution is very good (750 ml). The results obtained are measurable, repeatable and statistically significant. This leads to confidence in the integrity of the proposed technique.

Stone, Darren A.; Robinson, Martin P.

2004-05-01

48

Solid-state NMR/NQR and first-principles study of two niobium halide cluster compounds.  

PubMed

Two hexanuclear niobium halide cluster compounds with a [Nb6X12](2+) (X=Cl, Br) diamagnetic cluster core, have been studied by a combination of experimental solid-state NMR/NQR techniques and PAW/GIPAW calculations. For niobium sites the NMR parameters were determined by using variable Bo field static broadband NMR measurements and additional NQR measurements. It was found that they possess large positive chemical shifts, contrary to majority of niobium compounds studied so far by solid-state NMR, but in accordance with chemical shifts of (95)Mo nuclei in structurally related compounds containing [Mo6Br8](4+) cluster cores. Experimentally determined ?iso((93)Nb) values are in the range from 2,400 to 3,000 ppm. A detailed analysis of geometrical relations between computed electric field gradient (EFG) and chemical shift (CS) tensors with respect to structural features of cluster units was carried out. These tensors on niobium sites are almost axially symmetric with parallel orientation of the largest EFG and the smallest CS principal axes (Vzz and ?33) coinciding with the molecular four-fold axis of the [Nb6X12](2+) unit. Bridging halogen sites are characterized by large asymmetry of EFG and CS tensors, the largest EFG principal axis (Vzz) is perpendicular to the X-Nb bonds, while intermediate EFG principal axis (Vyy) and the largest CS principal axis (?11) are oriented in the radial direction with respect to the center of the cluster unit. For more symmetrical bromide compound the PAW predictions for EFG parameters are in better correspondence with the NMR/NQR measurements than in the less symmetrical chlorine compound. Theoretically predicted NMR parameters of bridging halogen sites were checked by (79/81)Br NQR and (35)Cl solid-state NMR measurements. PMID:24581866

Peri?, Berislav; Gautier, Régis; Pickard, Chris J; Bosio?i?, Marko; Grbi?, Mihael S; Požek, Miroslav

2014-01-01

49

Investigation of ferromagnetic resonance by the inelastic light scattering technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ferromagnetic resonance at X-band microwave frequency is detected by the inelastic light scattering technique. The spin precession generates frequency shifted light contained in the direct laser beam which is observed either in transmission or reflection. Discrimination from the unshifted light is done with a tandem 4+2 pass Fabry-Perot interferometer. The microwave excitation is performed with conventional waveguide techniques and with planar microwave structures. YIG platelets, epitaxial YIG films on GGG substrate, iron borate platelets and single crystal iron films on GaAs substrates are investigated. The method is very sensitive; under favourable conditions even the thermally excited uniform precession (i.e. no microwave excitation) can be detected. Furthermore the technique allows spatially resolved recording of the FMR intensity.

Wettling, W.; Jantz, W.

1984-11-01

50

Three-dimensional high-inductance birdcage coil for NQR applications.  

PubMed

A birdcage coil capable of operating simultaneously and independently in three orthogonal dimensions has been developed. A co-rotational end-ring mode producing an RF field in the longitudinal direction was utilized in addition to the two common transverse orthogonal modes. Two conductor turns were used for each of the coil's windows, increasing its inductance by a factor of four, thereby, making the coil suitable for low-frequency applications. Two or three-frequency detection can be easily carried out with this device. Orthogonality of the coil's channels allows arbitrarily close frequency positioning of each resonant mode, potentially useful in wide-line NQR studies, in which simultaneous excitation/detection of signals from three adjacent regions of a single wide line can be performed. The coil's performance was evaluated using a three-dimensional scheme, in which a circularly polarized experiment was combined with a linearly polarized measurement at another frequency, resulting in SNR improvement by 55%. PMID:16584871

Peshkovsky, A S; Cerioni, L; Osan, T M; Avdievich, N I; Pusiol, D J

2006-09-01

51

27Al-NQR\\/NMR Study of Kondo Semiconductor CeFe2Al10  

Microsoft Academic Search

27Al-NQR\\/NMR measurements have been performed on CeFe2Al10 in relevance to the novel phase below T0=27 K of isostructural CeRu2Al10. NQR peaks are assigned to five crystallographically inequivalent Al sites. No splitting of the NQR spectra down to 1.5 K confirms the lack of phase transition in this compound. The gaplike decrease in the spin-lattice relaxation rate 1\\/T1 above about 20

Yukihiro Kawamura; Shingo Edamoto; Tomoaki Takesaka; Takashi Nishioka; Harukazu Kato; Masahiro Matsumura; Yo Tokunaga; Shinsaku Kambe; Hiroshi Yasuoka

2010-01-01

52

Magnetic resonance enterography in Crohn's disease: Standard and advanced techniques  

PubMed Central

Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects mainly young people. The clinical management is based on the Crohn’s Disease Activity Index and especially on biologic parameters with or without additional endoscopic and imaging procedures, such as barium and computed tomography examinations. Recently, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been a promising diagnostic radiologic technique with lack of ionizing radiation, enabling superior tissue contrast resolution due to new pulse-sequence developments. Therefore, MR enterography has the potential to become the modality of choice for imaging the small bowel in CD patients. PMID:21160577

Kayhan, Arda; Oommen, Jacob; Dahi, Farid; Oto, Aytekin

2010-01-01

53

Functional magnetic resonance imaging: imaging techniques and contrast mechanisms.  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a widely used technique for generating images or maps of human brain activity. The applications of the technique are widespread in cognitive neuroscience and it is hoped they will eventually extend into clinical practice. The activation signal measured with fMRI is predicated on indirectly measuring changes in the concentration of deoxyhaemoglobin which arise from an increase in blood oxygenation in the vicinity of neuronal firing. The exact mechanisms of this blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast are highly complex. The signal measured is dependent on both the underlying physiological events and the imaging physics. BOLD contrast, although sensitive, is not a quantifiable measure of neuronal activity. A number of different imaging techniques and parameters can be used for fMRI, the choice of which depends on the particular requirements of each functional imaging experiment. The high-speed MRI technique, echo-planar imaging provides the basis for most fMRI experiments. The problems inherent to this method and the ways in which these may be overcome are particularly important in the move towards performing functional studies on higher field MRI systems. Future developments in techniques and hardware are also likely to enhance the measurement of brain activity using MRI. PMID:10466145

Howseman, A M; Bowtell, R W

1999-01-01

54

Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Studies of Charge Distributions in Molecular Solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed description of an NMR-NQR double resonance spectrometer designed and constructed in this laboratory is given, including some instruction on its use. ('14)N NQR data obtained by pulse methods for six classes of nitrogen-containing compounds are presented and analyzed in the framework of the Townes and Dailey theory. A study of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide, isophosphamide and triphosphamide suggests

Steven Garry Greenbaum

1982-01-01

55

A resonant series counterpulse technique for high current opening switches  

SciTech Connect

A counterpulse technique for the controlled interruption of very high currents in inductive storage pulsed power systems is described and analyzed, and some simulation results of its performance are presented. The accompanying circuit comprises a pre-charged capacitor bank, connected in series with the inductive load, which has to be provided with a current pulse. Upon actuation, a resonant counterpulse current is created in the opening switch, connected in parallel with the current source and the load. In this way, the opening switch is opened at low current. A separate closing switch prevents closing of the opening switch at high voltage. Operation of the opening switch, often a mechanical switch, at low current and low voltage prevents arc erosion of the contacts. The advantage of this circuit compared to other counterpulse circuits is that the capacitor bank does not experience a voltage reversal. Electrolytic capacitors, which have a high energy density, are applied. The remaining energy of the capacitor bank after opening the opening switch, is transferred to the load. The required initial voltage of the capacitor bank is only a few hundred volts, whereas it may be above a kilovolt in other circuits. Another advantage of the method described here is that the load does not experience a pre-current, causing unwanted preheating of the load, before the resonant current is activated. At the moment, work is being performed at the Pulse Physics Laboratory to develop the resonant series counterpulse circuit for use with rail accelerators, which must be supplied with current pulses in the millisecond range up to the mega-ampere level.

Dijk, E. van [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Lab. for Power Electronics and Electrical Machines] [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Lab. for Power Electronics and Electrical Machines; Gelder, P. van [TNO PML-Pulse Physics Lab., Delft (Netherlands)] [TNO PML-Pulse Physics Lab., Delft (Netherlands)

1995-01-01

56

35Cl NQR spectra of group 1 and silver dichloromethanesulfonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dichloromethanesulfonates of silver and other +1-charged cations, M +(Cl2CHSO{3/-}) (M=Ag, Tl, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) were synthesized and studied by 35Cl NQR. Dichloromethanesulfonic acid was prepared by the methanolysis of dichloromethanesulfonyl chloride, and was then neutralized with the carbonates of the +1-charged cations to produce the corresponding dichloromethanesulfonate salt. This NQR study completed the investigation of the chloroacetates and chloromethanesulfonates of silver, Ag+(Cl x CH3-x SO{3/-}) and Ag+(Cl x CH3-x CO{2/-}), and suggests (1) that the ability of organochlorine atoms to coordinate to silver decreases as the number of electron-withdrawing groups (Cl, SO{3/-} CO{2/-}) attached to the carbon atom increases; (2) that the unusually large NQR spectral width found among M+(Cl2CHCO{2/-}) salts is not present among M+(Cl2CHS0{3/-}) salts, and therefore is not generally characteristic of the dichloromethyl group in salts.

Gillette, Gabriel; Wulfsberg, Gary

57

An ultra-broadband low-frequency magnetic resonance system.  

PubMed

MR probes commonly employ resonant circuits for efficient RF transmission and low-noise reception. These circuits are narrow-band analog devices that are inflexible for broadband and multi-frequency operation at low Larmor frequencies. We have addressed this issue by developing an ultra-broadband MR probe that operates in the 0.1-3MHz frequency range without using conventional resonant circuits for either transmission or reception. This "non-resonant" approach significantly simplifies the probe circuit and allows robust operation without probe tuning while retaining efficient power transmission and low-noise reception. We also demonstrate the utility of the technique through a variety of NMR and NQR experiments in this frequency range. PMID:24632101

Mandal, S; Utsuzawa, S; Cory, D G; Hürlimann, M; Poitzsch, M; Song, Y-Q

2014-05-01

58

Magnetic Resonance Elastography of Liver: Technique, Analysis and Clinical Applications  

PubMed Central

Many pathological processes cause marked changes in the mechanical properties of tissue. Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is a non-invasive MRI based technique for quantitatively assessing the mechanical properties of tissues in vivo. MRE is performed by using a vibration source to generate low frequency mechanical waves in tissue, imaging the propagating waves using a phase contrast MRI technique, and then processing the wave information to generate quantitative images showing mechanical properties such as tissue stiffness. Since its first description in 1995, published studies have explored many potential clinical applications including brain, thyroid, lung, heart, breast, and skeletal muscle imaging. However, the best-documented application to emerge has been the use of MRE to assess liver disease. Multiple studies have demonstrated that there is a strong correlation between MRE-measured hepatic stiffness and the stage of fibrosis at histology. The emerging literature indicates that MRE can serve as a safer, less expensive, and potentially more accurate alternative to invasive liver biopsy which is currently the gold standard for diagnosis and staging of liver fibrosis. This review describes the basic principles, technique of performing a liver MRE, analysis and calculation of stiffness, clinical applications, limitations, and potential future applications. PMID:23423795

Venkatesh, Sudhakar K; Yin, Meng; Ehman, Richard L

2012-01-01

59

Resonant frequency calculations using a hybrid perturbation-Galerkin technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-step hybrid perturbation Galerkin technique is applied to the problem of determining the resonant frequencies of one or several degree of freedom nonlinear systems involving a parameter. In one step, the Lindstedt-Poincare method is used to determine perturbation solutions which are formally valid about one or more special values of the parameter (e.g., for large or small values of the parameter). In step two, a subset of the perturbation coordinate functions determined in step one is used in Galerkin type approximation. The technique is illustrated for several one degree of freedom systems, including the Duffing and van der Pol oscillators, as well as for the compound pendulum. For all of the examples considered, it is shown that the frequencies obtained by the hybrid technique using only a few terms from the perturbation solutions are significantly more accurate than the perturbation results on which they are based, and they compare very well with frequencies obtained by purely numerical methods.

Geer, James F.; Andersen, Carl M.

1991-01-01

60

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is the only logging technique available to estimate pore-size  

E-print Network

1 ABSTRACT Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is the only logging technique available to estimate, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) logging has been used to assess a handful of key petrophysical parameters

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

61

Differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: contribution of magnetic resonance techniques.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are not totally specific for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. White matter lesions that mimic those of multiple sclerosis may be detected in both normal volunteers and patients harbouring different diseases. Virtually all the characteristic features of multiple sclerosis are sometimes encountered in other conditions affecting predominantly the white matter. Different conditions such as vasculitis, subcortical atherosclerotic leukoencephalopathy, Lyme disease, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis can be virtually indistinguishable from multiple sclerosis on conventional MR images. Also the FLAIR technique adds little to the differential diagnosis. The calculation of magnetisation transfer ratio (MT ratio) may be useful to better characterise some entities, such as vasculitis, from multiple sclerosis. PMID:9647278

Triulzi, F; Scotti, G

1998-05-01

62

I: Low Frequency NMR and NQR Using a dc SQUID. II: Variable-temperature 13C CP/MAS of Organometallics  

SciTech Connect

NMR and NQR at low frequencies are difficult prospects due to small nuclear spin polarization. Furthermore, the sensitivity'of the inductive pickup circuitry of standard spectrometers is reduced as the frequency is lowered. I have used a cw-SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) spectrometer, which has no such frequency dependence, to study the local atomic environment of {sup 14}N via the quadrupolar interaction. Because {sup 14}N has spin I = 1 and a 0-6 MHz frequency range, it is not possible to obtain well-resolved spectra in high magnetic fields. I have used a technique to observe {sup 14}N NQR resonances via their effect on neighboring protons mediated by the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to study peptides and narcotics. The sensitivity of the SQUID is not enough to measure low-frequency surface (or other low spin density) systems. The application of spin-polarized xenon has been previously used to enhance polarization in conventional NMR experiments. Because xenon only polarizes spins with which it is in contact, it is surface selective. While differences in chemical shifts between surface and bulk spins are not large, it is expected that the differences in quadrupole coupling constant should be very large due to the drastic change of the electric field gradient surrounding spins at the surface. With this in mind, I have taken preliminary steps to measure SQUID detected polarization transfer from Xe to another spin species at 4.2 K and in small magnetic fields (<50 G). In this regime, the spin-lattice relaxation of xenon is dependent on the applied magnetic field. The results of our efforts to characterize the relaxation of xenon are presented. The final section describes the solid-state variable-temperature (VT) one- and two-dimensional {sup 13}C cross polarization (CP)/magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR of Hf({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}({eta}{sup 1}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}, Zr({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 3}({eta}{sup 1}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}) and Sn({eta}{sup 1}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 4}. This work was undertaken in the hope of gaining insight into the intramolecuhrr dynamics, specifically which fluxional processes exist in the solid state, by what mechanism rearrangements are occurring, and the activation energies by which these processes are governed.

Ziegeweid, M.A.

1995-11-29

63

The two-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance for explosives detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of14N nuclei is described for purposes of explosives detection. Two applications are known: two-frequency NQR for increasing the\\u000a signal intensity, two-frequency NQR for improved reliability of explosives detection. The two-frequency experiments were carried\\u000a out in hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine C3H6N6O6 and sodium nitrite NaNO2 as a substitute for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocycine C4H8N8O8. The two-frequency sequences for NQR are proposed

G. V. Mozjoukhine

2000-01-01

64

Mathematical modeling and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques to understand electrochemically active biofilms .  

E-print Network

??The objective of this dissertation was to explore the electron transfer capabilities of electrochemically-active biofilms by employing mathematical modeling and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. This… (more)

[No author

2012-01-01

65

Analysis of resonant responses of split ring resonators using conformal mapping techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a novel method for modeling the resonant frequency response of infra-red light, in the range of 2 to 10 microns, reflected from metallic spilt ring resonators (SRRs) fabricated on a silicon substrate. The calculated positions of the TM and TE peaks are determined from the plasma frequency associated with the filling fraction of the metal array and the equivalent LC circuit defined by the SRR elements. The capacitance of the equivalent circuit is calculated using conformal mapping techniques to determine the co-planar capacitance associated with both the individual and the neighbouring elements. The inductance of the equivalent circuit is based on the self-inductance of the individual elements and the mutual inductance of the neighboring elements. The results obtained from the method are in good agreement with experimental results and simulation results obtained from a commercial FDTD simulation software package. The method allows the frequency response of a SRR to be readily calculated without complex computational methods and enables new designs to be optimised for a particular frequency response by tuning the LC circuit.

McMeekin, Scott G.; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Lahiri, Basudev; De La Rue, Richard M.; Johnson, Nigel P.

2007-05-01

66

Wireless interrogation techniques for sensors utilizing inductively coupled resonance circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods needed to interrogate passive resonance sensors are studied. A portable impedance measurement unit and the methods to extract a coupling coefficient compensated resonance frequency are presented. The interrogation methods are demonstrated with ECG and pressure measurements. The results show that the quality of the ECG signal measured with a flexible textile coil is sufficient to extract the heart

Timo Salpavaara; Jarmo Verho; Pekka Kumpulainen; Jukka Lekkala

2010-01-01

67

Spin diffusion of dipolar energy in NQR.  

PubMed

The theory of spin diffusion was extended to the case of nuclear dipolar order in solids containing paramagnetic impurities and nuclei with spin I > 1/2 having nuclear quadrupole moment. We show that spin diffusion process of dipolar order takes place in solids containing paramagnetic impurities. At the start of relaxation process, the direct relaxation regime is realized with non-exponential time dependence. Then the relaxation regime will be changed to diffusion-limited one. Using obtained expressions for the spin lattice relaxation times for these two relaxation regimes, the diffusion coefficient of the dipolar order in nuclear quadrupole resonance can be estimated from experimental data. PMID:10868572

Furman, G B; Goren, S D

2000-06-01

68

Magnetic correlations in La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 from NQR relaxation and specific heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

La-139 and Cu-63 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) relaxation measurements in La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 for x ranging from 0 up to 0.3, with particular emphasis on the effect of doping on the Cu(2+) magnetic correlations and dynamics, are reviewed. In the low doping limit, x less than or equal to 0.05, the results can be interpreted consistently in terms of a simple phenomenological 'two-fluids' model whereby the effect of thermally-activated mobile O(2p) holes is the one of disrupting locally the Cu(2+) spin correlations. For x greater than or equal to 0.1, the results indicate the onset, as T approaches T(sub c)(+), of a strong coupling between Cu(2+) spins and the Fermi liquid of O(2p) holes leading to the apparent disappearance of localized Cu(2+) moment in connection with the opening of a superconducting gap.

Borsa, F.; Rigamonti, A.

1991-01-01

69

Copper Nqr and NMR Study of Metal-Substituted Yttrium BARIUM(2) COPPER(3) OXYGEN(7) and Yttrium BARIUM(2) COPPER(4) OXYGEN(8)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have been used to investigate the effect of metal-substitution for copper in YBa_2Cu_3O_7 (YBCO123) and YBa_2Cu_4O_8 (YBCO124). Among many metal substitutions, Zn has an especially dramatic effect in suppressing the superconducting temperature T_{c}, and hence superconductivity. More interesting is that Zn and Fe have the same T_{c} suppression effect in YBCO124. This study focuses on the Zn substitutions in YBCO123 and Zn, Fe, and Co substitutions in YBCO124. In Zn doped YBCO123, Cu(2), plane site, NQR spectra and the frequency dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rates have been measured over a temperature range from 77 K to 300 K to study the correlation of the suppression of the relaxation rate with the distance between the probe Cu nuclei and the impurity. It is found that the relaxation rate is insensitive to the variation of the NQR resonance frequency. However, by comparing the results of the Zn doped YBCO124 with those of YBCO123, it can be concluded that the suppression of the relaxation rate for both YBCO compounds in the normal state is caused by destruction of short-range antiferromagnetic correlation with substitution of nonmagnetic ion Zn on the Cu(2) sites. NQR and NMR measurements were carried out on both Cu(2), plane, and Cu(1), chain sites, for various concentrations of Zn, Fe, and Co dopants in YBCO124 over a temperature range from 77 K to 300 K. A strong correlation of the enhancement of Cu(2) spin lattice relaxation rate and suppression of superconductivity by impurities was found. The temperature dependence of the Cu(2) NMR linewidth exhibits a strong RKKY type exchange interaction below 225 K for Zn and Fe doped samples, which indicates the formation of the local magnetic moment. The enhancement of the relaxation rate is caused by the local magnetic moment Fe^ {+3} ion and the moments on Cu(2) neighbors when Zn^{+2} is substituted on Cu(2). This study gives us a clear picture of the spin pseudogap behavior in the high temperature superconductor cuprates. It also suggests that the magnetic moment on the CuO_2 plane may relate to the suppression of T_{c} in metal-substituted YBCO124.

Cheng, Show-Jye

70

Surface Plasmon Resonance: An Introduction to a Surface Spectroscopy Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has become an important optical biosensing technology in the areas of biochemistry, biology, and medical sciences because of its real-time, label-free, and noninvasive nature. The high cost of commercial devices and consumables has prevented SPR from being introduced in the undergraduate laboratory. Here, we present…

Tang, Yijun; Zeng, Xiangqun; Liang, Jennifer

2010-01-01

71

Resonant ultrasound spectroscopic techniques for measurement of the elastic moduli of solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical resonant response of a solid depends on its shape, density, elastic moduli and dissipation. We describe here instrumentation and computational methods for acquiring and analyzing the resonant ultrasound spectrum of very small (0.001 cm3) samples as a function of temperature, and provide examples to demonstrate the power of the technique. The information acquired is in some cases comparable

A. Migliori; J. L. Sarrao; William M. Visscher; T. M. Bell; Ming Lei; Z. Fisk; R. G. Leisure

1993-01-01

72

Determination of noble metals by resonance neutron activation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodium, palladium, platinum and iridium have been determined in silver matrix by nondestructive activation analysis upon\\u000a activation with cadmium- and silver-filtered resonance neutrons. Experiments with different types of filter combinations are\\u000a reported. The sensitivity of the method is 5·10?3% for rhodium, 5·10?3% for palladium, 3·10?2% for platinum and 5·10?3% for iridium.

M. Ördöch; Á. Biróné; G. Csath; E. Szabó

1976-01-01

73

Electron-volt spectroscopy at a pulsed neutron source using a resonance detector technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of the neutron resonance detector spectrometer for deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements has been assessed by measuring the Pb scattering on the eVS spectrometer at ISIS pulsed neutron source and natural U foils as (n,?) resonance converters. A conventional NaI scintillator with massive shielding has been used as ? detector. A neutron energy window up to 90 eV, including four distinct resonance peaks, has been assessed. A net decrease of the intrinsic width of the 6.6 eV resonance peak has also been demonstrated employing the double difference spectrum technique, with two uranium foils of different thickness.

Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Bracco, A.; Rhodes, N.; Schooneveld, E.

2002-04-01

74

Coal thickness gauge using RRAS techniques, part 1. [radiofrequency resonance absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A noncontacting sensor having a measurement range of 0 to 6 in or more, and with an accuracy of 0.5 in or better is needed to control the machinery used in modern coal mining so that the thickness of the coal layer remaining over the rock is maintained within selected bounds. The feasibility of using the radiofrequency resonance absorption (RRAS) techniques of electron magnetic resonance (EMR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as the basis of a coal thickness gauge is discussed. The EMR technique was found, by analysis and experiments, to be well suited for this application.

Rollwitz, W. L.; King, J. D.

1978-01-01

75

Determination of Heparin Using Azure B by Flow Injection Analysis?Resonance Light Scattering Coupled Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow injection analysis?resonance light scattering (FIA?RLS) coupled technique was developed originally to determine hepanrin in the presence of Azure B (AB). The FIA?RLS coupled technique overcomes the drawbacks of RLS technique such as poor reproducibility and tedious operation without sacrificing sensitivity and simplicity. The method is based on the enhanced weak RLS intensity of AB by the addition of

Cheng Zhi Huang; Xiao Bing Pang; Yuan Fang Li

2005-01-01

76

27Al-NQR Study on Novel Phase Transition in CeOs2Al10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed 27Al-NQR measurements in CeOs2Al10 which exhibits a novel phase transition at T0=29 K The NQR parameters determined for all the Al sites in ambient pressure were compared with those in CeRu2Al10 with T0=27 K and CeFe2Al10 with no phase transition. The distinct NQR splitting just below T0=32.5 K under pressure 0.66 GPa ensures an enhancement of T0 and a homogeneous transition. Despite the increase of T0, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/Tl is suppressed over whole range of temperature than in ambient pressure. The characteristic features of no critical slowing down at T0 and of the remarkable decrease of 1/T1T starting at T > T0 become prominent under pressure, suggesting an approach to Kondo semiconductor in a valence fluctuation regime.

Matsumura, M.; Inagaki, T.; Kato, H.; Nishioka, T.; Tanida, H.; Sera, M.

2012-12-01

77

Resonator fiber optic gyro using the triangle wave phase modulation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the Sagnac effect, resonator fiber optic gyro (R-FOG) has potential as a high accuracy inertial rotation sensor. An R-FOG based on the triangle wave phase modulation technique is proposed in this paper. The slope of the demodulation curve near the resonance dip is found to affect the ultimate sensitivity of the gyro. In order to maximize the slope of the demodulation signal, the parameters of the triangle wave are analyzed. By employing Fourier series and the method of field overlapping, the relationship between the demodulation signal and the resonance frequency deviation is analyzed. The optimum values for the modulation frequency and phase modulation index are obtained. And the relationship between the carrier component and the phase modulation index under analysis in this paper shows that the triangle wave phase modulation technique is more advantageous than the traditional modulation technique in reducing the noise induced by backscattering.

Ying, Diqing; Ma, Huilian; Jin, Zhonghe

2008-02-01

78

Suppression of electron correlations in the collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 under ambient pressure demonstrated by As75 NMR/NQR measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The static and the dynamic spin correlations in the low-temperature collapsed tetragonal and the high-temperature tetragonal phase in CaFe2As2 have been investigated by As75 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements. Through the temperature (T) dependence of the nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates (1/T1) and the Knight shifts, although stripe-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin correlations are realized in the high-temperature tetragonal phase, no trace of the AFM spin correlations can be found in the nonsuperconducting, low-temperature, collapsed tetragonal (cT) phase. Given that there is no magnetic broadening in As75 NMR spectra, together with the T-independent behavior of magnetic susceptibility ? and the T dependence of 1/T1T?, we conclude that Fe spin correlations are completely quenched statically and dynamically in the nonsuperconducting cT phase in CaFe2As2.

Furukawa, Y.; Roy, B.; Ran, S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

2014-03-01

79

Unconventional superconductivity near quantum critical point revealed by Co-NQR measurements on Nax(H3O)CoO2·yH2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) frequency of Co nuclei and the nuclear spin lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 were measured on several bilayered hydrate (BLH) Nax(H3O)CoO2·yH2O (y˜1.3) with variety of superconducting (SC) and magnetic transition temperatures, Tc and TM, together with non-SC mono-layered hydrate (MLH) Nax(H3O)CoO2·yH2O (y˜0.7). In the high temperature region above 70 K, 1/T1T in all the samples follows the same temperature dependence which is interpreted as the pseudogap behavior. In the BLH compounds, 1/T1T increases with decreasing temperature below 70 K, and the values of 1/T1T at Tc are large in high-Tc samples. The magnetic ordering is ascertained from the observation of the prominent divergence of 1/T1T at TM in the samples whose NQR frequency is higher than 12.5 MHz. The temperature dependence of 1/T1T is found to be consistently expressed by a unique function with two fitting parameters. We analyze the temperature dependence of 1/T1T on the basis of this function, and investigate the relationship between the magnetic fluctuations and superconductivity in the BLH compounds.

Ihara, Y.; Takeya, H.; Ishida, K.; Michioka, C.; Yoshimura, K.; Takada, K.; Sasaki, T.; Sakurai, H.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.

2007-11-01

80

Foil cycling technique for the VESUVIO spectrometer operating in the resonance detector configuration  

SciTech Connect

This article reports a novel experimental technique, namely, the foil cycling technique, developed on the VESUVIO spectrometer (ISIS spallation source) operating in the resonance detector configuration. It is shown that with a proper use of two foils of the same neutron absorbing material it is possible, in a double energy analysis process, to narrow the width of the instrumental resolution of a spectrometer operating in the resonance detector configuration and to achieve an effective subtraction of the neutron and gamma backgrounds. Preliminary experimental results, obtained from deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements on lead, zirconium hydride, and deuterium chloride samples, are presented.

Schooneveld, E. M.; Mayers, J.; Rhodes, N. J.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Senesi, R.; Gorini, G.; Perelli-Cippo, E.; Tardocchi, M. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Roma 'Tor Vergata', Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica 'G. Occhialini', Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, I-20126 Milan (Italy) and CNR-INFM, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, I-20126 Milan (Italy)

2006-09-15

81

Apodization of coupled resonator optical waveguide devices through a longitudinal offset technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a novel technique to set the coupling constant between cells of a coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) device, in order to tailor the filter response, is presented. It is known that using the same K value for all the couplers produces filtering responses with significant side-lobes for the side-coupled integrated spaced sequence of resonators (SCISSOR) or significant ripples in the pass-band for the direct coupled microrings (CROW). It is also known that the side-lobes/ripples can be reduced, and the pass/reject bands can be made wider, by apodizing the K value of each individual coupler in the structure, starting from a nominal K value (either increasing or decreasing it). This technique consists on changing the effective length of the coupling section by applying a longitudinal offset between the resonators. On the contrary, the conventional techniques are based in the transversal change of the distance between the ring resonators, in steps that are commonly below the current fabrication resolution step (nm scale), leading to strong restrictions in the designs. The technique has been experimentally demonstrated employing a racetrack ring resonator geometry. The proposed longitudinal offset technique allows a more precise control of the coupling and presents an increased robustness against the fabrication limitations, since the needed resolution step is two orders of magnitude higher. Both techniques are compared in terms of the transmission response of CROW devices, under finite fabrication resolution steps. The offset technique presented is sufficient by itself for apodization, and optimized CROW's can be produced with a fixed distance between the rings, solely by changing the offsets.

Doménech, J. D.; Muñoz, P.; Capmany, J.

2010-05-01

82

Investigating real-time activation of adenosine receptors by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adenosine receptors play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes, for example regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and the release of neurotransmitters. The activations of adenosine receptors have been studied by some kinds of techniques, such as western blot, immunohistochemistry, etc. However, these techniques cannot reveal the dynamical response of adenosine receptors under stimulation. In this paper, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique was introduced to study the real-time activation of adenosine receptors by monitoring the dynamics of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level. The results showed that there were significant differences between adenosine receptors on real-time responses under stimulation. Moreover, the dynamics of cAMP level demonstrated that competition between adenosine receptors existed. Taken together, our study indicates that monitoring the dynamics of cAMP level using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique could be one potential approach to investigate the mechanism of competitions between adenosine receptors.

Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Zheng, Liqin; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

2013-02-01

83

Sensing of chemical substances using SQUID-based nuclear quadrupole resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a high- Tc radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (rf SQUID) with a normal metal transformer, we successfully detected the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) at about 888 kHz of 14N in p-nitrotoluene (PNT) at room temperature. Only one coil was used as the resonator coil for the transmission and the pickup coil of the transformer. To reduce the influence of the strong excitation field, cross diodes and switches were inserted in the transformer. The signal-to-noise ratio of the NQR spectrum using high- Tc rf SQUID system was comparable to that of using a low noise preamplifier.

Tachiki, M.; He, D. F.; Itozaki, H.

2007-10-01

84

Electronic properties of Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors as seen by Cu and O NMR/NQR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) allow the investigation of electronic properties at the atomic level. We will report on such studies of typical members of the the Y-Ba-Cu-O family such as YBa2Cu30(6 + x) (1-2-3-(6 + x)), YBa2Cu4O8 (1-2-4) and Y2Ba4Cu7015 (2-4-7) with many examples of recent work performed in our laboratory. In particular, we will deal with Knight shift and relaxation studies of copper and oxygen. We will discuss important issues of current studies such as: (1) Existence of a common electronic spin-susceptibility in the planes (and perhaps in the chains) of 1-2-4; (2) Strong evidence for the existence of a pseudo spin-gap of the antiferromagnetic fluctuations in 1-2-4 and 2-4-7; (3) Evidence for d-wave pairing in 1-2-4; (4) Strong coupling of inequivalent Cu-O planes in 2-4-7 and possible origin for the high Tc value of this compound; and (5) The possibility to describe NMR data in the framework of a charge-excitation picture.

Brinkmann, D.

1995-01-01

85

Application of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Evaluation of the Lower Extremity  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This article reviews current magnetic resonance imaging techniques for imaging the lower extremity, focusing on imaging of the knee, ankle, and hip joints. Recent advancements in MRI include imaging at 7 Tesla, using multiple receiver channels, T2* imaging, and metal suppression techniques, allowing more detailed visualization of complex anatomy, evaluation of morphological changes within articular cartilage, and imaging around orthopedic hardware. PMID:23622097

Braun, Hillary J.; Dragoo, Jason L.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Levenston, Marc E.; Gold, Garry E.

2012-01-01

86

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) This technique observes signals from nuclear spins  

E-print Network

magnetic moment () The Bohr model of H atom electron Nucleus I I = n I An intrinsic property of the nucleus alter the alignment of this magnetization, causing the hydrogen nuclei to produce a rotating magnetic #12; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) This technique observes signals from nuclear spins

Chen, Yang-Yuan

87

Non-invasive in vivo temperature mapping of ultrasound heating using magnetic resonance techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major problem with conventional methods of measuring heating in vivo is that they are invasive and therefore interfere with heat propagation. A sensitive non-invasive method for temperature measurement using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the temperature dependent chemical shift of the cobalt (III) nucleus has been developed. Initial experiments demonstrate that this technique can be used to

Nadine Bame Smith; Andrew G. Webb; D. Scott Ellis; Lisa J. Wilmes; William D. O'Brien Jr

1994-01-01

88

Radiation-sterilized bone grafts evaluated by electron spin resonance technique and mechanical tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of the Central Tissue Bank in Poland are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on evaluation of changes in the mechanical properties of bone tissue subjected to lyophilization and radiosterilization and the application of the electron spin resonance technique in the research of mineralizing tissues. The following topics are discussed: technology of tissue conservation; clinical results of conserved tissue application;

J. Komender; A. Komender; A. Dziedzic-Goclawska; K. Ostrowski

1976-01-01

89

The use of spectroscopic techniques (especially phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance [31  

E-print Network

with aluminum- and iron hydroxides, and phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate). Solution 31 P-NMR spectroscopy1617 The use of spectroscopic techniques (especially phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance [31 P-NMR that receive alum (aluminum sulfate) to reduce water-soluble P and control ammonia emissions from poultry

Sparks, Donald L.

90

ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING DATA USING SIGNAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUES  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 Clustered Components Analysis for fMRI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3 Supertemporal Resolution Analysis for fMRI Timeseries Data . . . . . . . 31 3.1 IntroductionANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING DATA USING SIGNAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUES A Thesis

91

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cerebral Associative White Matter Bundles Employing Fast-Scan Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid scan techniques have introduced new sequence parameters as well as novel contrast concepts into everyday magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In particular contrast characteristics of fast-spin echo (FSE) sequences showed some significant differences when compared to conventional spin echo images. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the capabilities of FSE MRI in identifying and characterizing the in vivo

M. Cellerini; A. Konze; G. Caracchíni; M. Santoni; G. D. Dal Pozzo

1997-01-01

92

Magnetic resonance techniques in the evaluation of the perinatal brain: recent advances and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques are attractive for use in the developing brain because of their resolving power and their relative noninvasiveness. Their ability to provide detailed structural as well as metabolic and functional information without the use of ionizing radiation is unique. Conventional MR Imaging has widely proven its potential for identifying normal and pathologic brain morphology. Functional MR imaging

Petra S. Huppi; Terrie E. Inder

2001-01-01

93

Resonance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For advanced undergraduate students: Observe resonance in a collection of driven, damped harmonic oscillators. Vary the driving frequency and amplitude, the damping constant, and the mass and spring constant of each resonator. Notice the long-lived transients when damping is small, and observe the phase change for resonators above and below resonance.

Simulations, Phet I.; Dubson, Michael; Loeblein, Patricia; Olson, Jonathan; Perkins, Kathy; Gratny, Mindy

2011-07-20

94

An efficient technique for the reduction of wavelength noise in resonance-based integrated photonic sensors.  

PubMed

A systematic study of the limit of detection (LOD) in resonance-based silicon photonic lab-on-chip sensors is presented. The effects of the noise, temperature fluctuations, and the fundamental thermodynamic limit of the resonator are studied. Wavelength noise is identified as the dominant source of noise, and an efficient technique for suppressing this noise is presented. A large ensemble of statistical data from the transmission measurements in a laser-scanning configuration on five silicon nitride (SiN) microrings is collected to discuss and identify the sources of noise. The experimental results show that the LOD is limited by a 3? wavelength noise of ?1.8 pm. We present a sub-periodic interferometric technique, relying on an inverse algorithm, to suppress this noise. Our technique reduces the wavelength noise by more than one order of magnitude to an ensemble average of 3? = 120 fm, for a resonator quality factor (Q) of about 5 × 10(4) without any temperature stabilization or cooling. This technique is readily amenable to on-chip integration to realize highly accurate and low-cost lab-on-chip sensors. PMID:25243248

Ghasemi, Farshid; Chamanzar, Maysamreza; Eftekhar, Ali A; Adibi, Ali

2014-10-15

95

Nanoscale imaging of plasmonic hot spots and dark modes with the photothermal-induced resonance technique.  

PubMed

The collective oscillation of conduction electrons, responsible for the localized surface plasmon resonances, enables engineering nanomaterials by tuning their optical response from the visible to terahertz as a function of nanostructure size, shape, and environment. While theoretical calculations helped tremendously in understanding plasmonic nanomaterials and optimizing their light matter interaction, only a few experimental techniques are available to study these materials with high spatial resolution. In this work, the photothermal-induced resonance (PTIR) technique is applied for the first time to image the dark plasmonic resonance of gold asymmetric split ring resonators (A-SRRs) in the mid-infrared (IR) spectral region with nanoscale resolution. Additionally, the chemically specific PTIR signal is used to map the local absorption enhancement of poly(methyl methacrylate) coated on A-SRRs, revealing hot spots with local enhancement factors up to ?30 at 100 nm lateral resolution. We argue that PTIR nanoscale characterization will facilitate the engineering and application of plasmonic nanomaterials for mid-IR applications. PMID:23777547

Lahiri, Basudev; Holland, Glenn; Aksyuk, Vladimir; Centrone, Andrea

2013-07-10

96

Interference of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents with the serum calcium measurement technique using colorimetric reagents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possible interaction between either linear (Gd–DTPA–BMA and Gd–DTPA) or macrocyclic (Gd–DOTA) gadolinium complexes used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents and colorimetric technique reagents for the measurement of serum calcium was evaluated on human serum pools, and its mechanism was investigated by means of UV spectrometry and electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The highest concentration tested was 2.5

Jing Lin; Jean-Marc Idee; Marc Port; Andre Diai; Christine Berthommier; Martine Robert; Isabelle Raynal; Ludovic Devoldere; Claire Corot

1999-01-01

97

Magnetic correlations in La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 from NQR relaxation and specific heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

La-139 and Cu-63 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) relaxation measurements in La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 for O = to or less than 0.3 and in the temperature range 1.6 + 450 K are analyzed in terms of Cu(++) magnetic correlations and dynamics. It is described how the magnetic correlations that would result from Cu-Cu exchange are reduced by mobile charge defects related to x-doping. A comprehensive picture is given which explains satisfactorily the x and T dependence of the correlation time, of the correlation length and of the Neel temperature T(sub n)(x) as well as being consistent with known electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. It is discussed how, in the superconducting samples, the mobile defects also cause the decrease, for T yields T(sub c)(+) of the hyperfine Cu electron-nucleus effective interaction, leading to the coexistence of quasi-localized, reduced magnetic moments from 3d Cu electrons and mobile oxygen p-hole carriers. The temperature dependence of the effective hyperfine field around the superconducting transition yields an activation energy which could be related to the pairing energy. New specific heat measurements are also presented and discussed in terms of the above picture.

Borsa, F.; Rigamonti, A.

1990-01-01

98

Dynamic neutron scattering on incoherent systems using efficient resonance spin flip techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed numerical ray-tracing Monte-Carlo-simulations of incoherent dynamic neutron scattering experiments. We intend to optimize the efficiency of incoherent measurements depending on the fraction of neutrons scattered without and with spin flip at the sample. In addition to conventional spin echo, we have numerically and experimentally studied oscillating intensity techniques. The results point out the advantages of these different spin echo variants and are an important prerequisite for neutron resonance spin echo instruments like RESEDA (FRM II, Munich), to choose the most efficient technique depending on the scattering vector range and the properties of the sample system under study.

Häussler, Wolfgang; Kredler, Lukas

2014-05-01

99

Infra-Red Surface-Plasmon-Resonance technique for biological studies  

E-print Network

We report on a Surface-Plasmon-Resonance (SPR) technique based on Fourier -Transform - Infra - Red (FTIR) spectrometer. In contrast to the conventional surface plasmon technique, operating at a fixed wavelength and a variable angle of incidence, our setup allows the wavelength and the angle of incidence to be varied simultaneously. We explored the potential of the SPR technique in the infrared for biological studies involving aqueous solutions. Using computer simulations, we found the optimal combination of parameters (incident angle, wavelength) for performing this task. Our experiments with physiologically important glucose concentrations in water and in human plasma verified our computer simulations. Importantly, we demonstrated that the sensitivity of the SPR technique in the infrared range is not lower and in fact is even higher than that for visible light. We emphasize the advantages of infra red SPR for studying glucose and other biological molecules in living cells.

V. Lirtsman; M. Golosovsky; D. Davidov

2007-11-18

100

Intermetallic solid solution Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Ga{sub 3}: Synthesis, structure, NQR study and electronic band structure calculations  

SciTech Connect

Unlimited solid solution Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Ga{sub 3} was prepared from Ga flux. Its crystal structure was refined for Fe{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 3} (P4{sub 2}/mnm, a=6.2436(9), c=6.4654(13), Z=4) and showed no ordering of the metal atoms. A combination of the electronic band structure calculations within the density functional theory (DFT) approach and {sup 69,71}Ga nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy clearly shows that the Fe-Fe and Co-Co dumbbells are preferred to the Fe-Co dumbbells in the crystals structure. The band structure features a band gap of about 0.4 eV, with the Fermi level crossing peaks of a substantial density of electronic states above the gap for x>0. The solid solution is metallic for x>0.025. The study of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation shows that the rate of the relaxation, 1/T{sub 1}, is very sensitive to the Co concentration and correlates well with the square of the density of states at the Fermi level, N{sup 2}(E{sub F}). - Graphical abstract: Rate of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation, 1/T{sub 1}, observed in the {sup 69}Ga NQR experiments for the intermetallic solid solution Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Ga{sub 3} is the highest for x=0.25 with the highest calculated density of electronic states at the Fermi level, N(E{sub F}); in general, 1/T{sub 1} correlates with N{sup 2}(E{sub F}). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Ga{sub 3} solid solution is prepared in single crystalline form from Ga flux. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the crystal structure Fe-Fe and Co-Co dumbbells are preferred to Fe-Co dumbbells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal-to-semiconductor transition occurs at 0NQR spectra efficiently probe local environment of two independent Ga atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rate of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation follows squared DOS at the Fermi level.

Verchenko, V.Yu.; Likhanov, M.S.; Kirsanova, M.A. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)] [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Gippius, A.A; Tkachev, A.V.; Gervits, N.E. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation) [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation); Galeeva, A.V. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)] [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Buettgen, N.; Kraetschmer, W. [Institut fuer Physik, University of Augsburg, Augsburg D-86135 (Germany)] [Institut fuer Physik, University of Augsburg, Augsburg D-86135 (Germany); Lue, C.S. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Okhotnikov, K.S. [Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Shevelkov, A.V., E-mail: shev@inorg.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

2012-10-15

101

Part I. Analyzing the distribution of gas law questions in chemistry textbooks. Part II. Chlorine-35 NQR spectra of group 1 and silver dichloromethanesulfonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Two studies involving the gas law questions in eight high school and Advanced Placement/college chemistry textbooks were performed using loglinear analysis to look for associations among six variables. These variables included Bloom's Taxonomy (higher-order, lower-order), Book Type (high school, college), Question Format (multiple-choice, problem, short answer), Question Placement (in-chapter, end-of-chapter, test bank), Representation (macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic), and Arkansas Science Standard (conceptual, mathematical; gas laws, pressure conversion, stoichiometry). The first study, involving the conceptual gas law questions, found the Book Type and Question Placement variables had the biggest impact, each appearing in 5 of the 11 significant associations. The second study, involving the mathematical gas law questions, found the Question Placement had the biggest impact, appearing in 7 of the 11 significant associations, followed by Book Type and the Arkansas Science Standard variables, which appeared in 5 of the 11 significant associations. These studies showed that compared to the high school books, college books have fewer multiple-choice questions (compared to short-answer and problem questions), fewer in-chapter questions (compared to end-of-chapter and test bank questions), fewer questions in the chapters and more questions at the end of the chapters and fewer multiple-choice questions in and at the end of the books and more multiple-choice questions in the test banks. Part II. The dichloromethanesulfonate salts of several +1 charged cations, M+Cl2CHSO3 - (M = Li, Na, K, Rb Ag, Cs Tl) were synthesized and studied by 35Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). Dichloromethanesulfonic acid was prepared by the methanolysis of dichloromethanesulfonyl chloride, which was neutralized with the metal carbonates to produce the corresponding metal dichloromethanesulfonate salts. This study completed the NQR investigation of the family of chloroacetates and chloromethanesulfonates of silver. The study suggests that the ability of organochlorine atoms to coordinate to silver ions decreases as the number of electron-withdrawing groups attached to carbon atom bound to the coordinating chlorine atom increases. The unusually large NQR spectral width found among M+Cl2CHCO2 - salts are not present among M+Cl2CHSO 3- salts and does not appear to be generally characteristic of the dichloromethyl family of salts.

Gillette, Gabriel

102

Weak itinerant antiferromagnetism in PuIn3 explored using 115In nuclear quadrupole resonance.  

PubMed

The results of (115)In nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements on PuIn3 are reported. Three of the four NQR lines of (115)In expected for nuclear spin I = 9/2 are observed. The equal spacing of these lines at 20 K yields the NQR frequency of ?Q = 10.45 MHz, and the asymmetry parameter of the electric field gradient ? = 0. The NQR line profile and the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 display an abrupt change at 14 K, which is associated with the onset of long-range antiferromagnetic order. The temperature dependences of the staggered magnetization MQ(T), extracted from the NQR spectra, and 1/T1 below TN = 14 K are well explained by the self-consistent renormalization (SCR) theory for spin fluctuations. In addition, the scaling between T1T and MQ(T)/MQ(0) is also consistent with the predictions of SCR theory, providing further evidence that PuIn3 is a weak itinerant antiferromagnet in which spin fluctuations around the antiferromagnetic wavevector play a major role in the system's behavior at finite temperatures. PMID:24334529

Chudo, H; Koutroulakis, G; Yasuoka, H; Bauer, E D; Tobash, P H; Mitchell, J N; Thompson, J D

2014-01-22

103

14N nuclear quadrupole resonance of p-nitrotoluene using a high-Tc rf SQUID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a high-Tc radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device (rf SQUID), we successfully detected nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) at about 887 kHz for 14N in p-nitrotoluene (PNT). A normal metal transformer made of copper wire was used to improve the sensitivity of the high-Tc rf SQUID and pulse-controlled rf switches and cross diodes were inserted in the transformer to reduce the influence of the strong excitation field. The preliminary results for NQR detection using the high-Tc SQUID had a similar signal-to-noise ratio to that of using a low noise preamplifier.

He, D. F.; Tachiki, M.; Itozaki, H.

2007-03-01

104

Oxidative Stress Imaging in Live Animals with Techniques Based on Electron Paramagnetic Resonance  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress has been the object of considerable biological and biochemical investigation. Quantification has been difficult although the quantitative level of products of biological oxidations in tissues and tissue products has emerged as a widely used technique. The relationship between these products and the amount of oxidative stress is less clear. Imaging oxidative stress with electron paramagnetic resonance related magnetic resonance imaging, while not addressing the specific issue of quantification of initiating events, focuses on the anatomic specific location of the oxidative stress. Moreover, the relative quantification of oxidative stress of one location against another is possible, sharpening our understanding of oxidative stress. This promises to improve our understanding of oxidative stress and its deleterious consequences and enhance our understanding of the effectiveness of interventions to modulate oxidative stress and its consequences. PMID:22348251

Elas, Martyna; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Halpern, Howard J.

2013-01-01

105

Subfemtotesla radio-frequency atomic magnetometer for detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance  

E-print Network

Subfemtotesla radio-frequency atomic magnetometer for detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance S 20 November 2006 A radio-frequency tunable atomic magnetometer is developed for detection of nuclearHz 14 N NQR frequency of ammonium nitrate. A potential application of the magnetometer is detection

Romalis, Mike

106

Addition compounds of antimony trichloride and tribromide. Crystal structure and charge transfer from NQR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correlation analysis of the quadrupcle coupling constants(QCC) for the antimony nuclei in the intermolecular compounds of SbCl 3 and SbBr 3 with aromatic hydrocarbons is carried out. The results confirm a supposition about the general similarity of the crystal structures of these complexes. The correlative dependence between the antimony QCC values and also the results of the chlorine and bromine NQR spectra Investigation permit the evaluation of the relative acceptor strength of the antimony trihalide molecules.

Kjuntsel, I. A.; Gordeev, A. D.

107

Review of pyroelectric thermal energy harvesting and new MEMs-based resonant energy conversion techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harvesting electrical energy from thermal energy sources using pyroelectric conversion techniques has been under investigation for over 50 years, but it has not received the attention that thermoelectric energy harvesting techniques have during this time period. This lack of interest stems from early studies which found that the energy conversion efficiencies achievable using pyroelectric materials were several times less than those potentially achievable with thermoelectrics. More recent modeling and experimental studies have shown that pyroelectric techniques can be cost competitive with thermoelectrics and, using new temperature cycling techniques, has the potential to be several times as efficient as thermoelectrics under comparable operating conditions. This paper will review the recent history in this field and describe the techniques that are being developed to increase the opportunities for pyroelectric energy harvesting. The development of a new thermal energy harvester concept, based on temperature cycled pyroelectric thermal-to-electrical energy conversion, are also outlined. The approach uses a resonantly driven, pyroelectric capacitive bimorph cantilever structure that can be used to rapidly cycle the temperature in the energy harvester. The device has been modeled using a finite element multi-physics based method, where the effect of the structure material properties and system parameters on the frequency and magnitude of temperature cycling, and the efficiency of energy recycling using the proposed structure, have been modeled. Results show that thermal contact conductance and heat source temperature differences play key roles in dominating the cantilever resonant frequency and efficiency of the energy conversion technique. This paper outlines the modeling, fabrication and testing of cantilever and pyroelectric structures and single element devices that demonstrate the potential of this technology for the development of high efficiency thermal-toelectrical energy conversion devices.

Hunter, Scott R.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Mostafa, Salwa; Rajic, Slo; Datskos, Panos G.

2012-06-01

108

Reduction of reset pulse in resonant frequency servo loop for resonant fiber-optic gyro by an auto-controlled reset technique.  

PubMed

Resonant fiber-optic gyro (RFOG) based on the Sagnac effect has the potential to achieve the inertial navigation system requirement with a short sensing coil. A high-accuracy resonant frequency servo loop is indispensable for a high-performance RFOG. A digital proportional-integral (PI) controller is always adopted in the resonant frequency servo loop. The resonant frequency of the optical fiber ring resonator drifts with environmental temperature changes. When the resonant frequency drift is beyond the tracking range of the resonant frequency servo loop, the digital PI controller overflows and outputs a reset signal. A large reset pulse, which is equivalent to a rotation rate error of 26°/h, has been observed at the output of the RFOG, while a long time is required for returning to the lock-in state simultaneously. To reduce the effect of the overflow resetting in the digital PI controller, an auto-controlled reset technique is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. As a result, the time for returning to the lock-in state is reduced to 5 ms from 8 s. With the integration time of 1 s, the equivalent accuracy of the resonant frequency servo loop is improved to 0.18°/h. PMID:24513942

Ma, Huilian; Lu, Xiao; Jin, Zhonghe

2013-12-20

109

27Al-NQR/NMR Study of Kondo Semiconductor CeFe2Al10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

27Al-NQR/NMR measurements have been performed on CeFe2Al10 in relevance to the novel phase below T0=27 K of isostructural CeRu2Al10. NQR peaks are assigned to five crystallographically inequivalent Al sites. No splitting of the NQR spectra down to 1.5 K confirms the lack of phase transition in this compound. The gaplike decrease in the spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 above about 20 K, following the Korringa law (T1T = const.) below 20 K, indicates a pseudogap opening near the Fermi level. The gap magnitude of 70 K with a mid-gap state of 42% is estimated based on a rectangular density of states. The gap magnitude is much larger than the gap of 15 K evaluated previously from the electrical resistivity, which suggests CeFe2Al10 to be a Kondo semiconductor with a Kondo temperature much higher than 300 K.

Kawamura, Yukihiro; Edamoto, Shingo; Takesaka, Tomoaki; Nishioka, Takashi; Kato, Harukazu; Matsumura, Masahiro; Tokunaga, Yo; Kambe, Shinsaku; Yasuoka, Hiroshi

2010-10-01

110

Development of techniques in magnetic resonance and structural studies of the prion protein  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance is the most powerful analytical tool used by chemists today. Its applications range from determining structures of large biomolecules to imaging of human brains. Nevertheless, magnetic resonance remains a relatively young field, in which many techniques are currently being developed that have broad applications. In this dissertation, two new techniques are presented, one that enables the determination of torsion angles in solid-state peptides and proteins, and another that involves imaging of heterogenous materials at ultra-low magnetic fields. In addition, structural studies of the prion protein via solid-state NMR are described. More specifically, work is presented in which the dependence of chemical shifts on local molecular structure is used to predict chemical shift tensors in solid-state peptides with theoretical ab initio surfaces. These predictions are then used to determine the backbone dihedral angles in peptides. This method utilizes the theoretical chemicalshift tensors and experimentally determined chemical-shift anisotropies (CSAs) to predict the backbone and side chain torsion angles in alanine, leucine, and valine residues. Additionally, structural studies of prion protein fragments are described in which conformationally-dependent chemical-shift measurements were made to gain insight into the structural differences between the various conformational states of the prion protein. These studies are of biological and pathological interest since conformational changes in the prion protein are believed to cause prion diseases. Finally, an ultra-low field magnetic resonance imaging technique is described that enables imaging and characterization of heterogeneous and porous media. The notion of imaging gases at ultra-low fields would appear to be very difficult due to the prohibitively low polarization and spin densities as well as the low sensitivities of conventional Faraday coil detectors. However, Chapter 5 describes how gas imaging at ultra-low fields is realized by incorporating the high sensitivities of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with the high polarizations attainable through optica11y pumping {sup 129}Xe gas.

Bitter, Hans-Marcus L.

2000-07-01

111

Resonance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Resonance, is the sixth chapter in the Volume II textbook. Topics covered in this chapter include: electric pendulum, simple parallel resonance, simple series resonance, resonance in series-parallel circuits, and Q and bandwidth of a resonant circuit. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-07

112

Achievements in resonance Raman spectroscopy review of a technique with a distinct analytical chemistry potential.  

PubMed

In an extended introduction, key aspects of resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) such as enhanced sensitivity and selectivity are briefly discussed in comparison with normal RS. The analytical potential is outlined. Then achievements in different fields of research are highlighted in four sections, with emphasis on recent breakthroughs: (1) The use of visible RRS for analyzing carotenoids in biological matrices, for pigments and dyes as dealt with in art and forensics, and for characterizing carbon nanotubes. (2) The use of RRS in the deep UV (excitation below 260nm) in the bioanalytical and life sciences fields, including nucleic acids, proteins and protein-drug interactions. Metalloproteins can be studied by visible RRS in resonance with their chromophoric absorption. (3) Progress in theoretical calculations of RRS excitation profiles and enhancement factors, which ultimately might facilitate analytical RRS. (4) Instrumental and methodological achievements including fiber-optic UV-RRS, coupling of RRS to liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Sensitivities can approach the single-molecule level with surface-enhanced RRS or tip-enhanced RRS. Last but not least, promising fluorescence background rejection techniques based on time-gated detection will be presented. This review ends with a concluding section on future expectations for RRS, in particular its potential as an analytical technique. PMID:18082644

Efremov, Evtim V; Ariese, Freek; Gooijer, Cees

2008-01-14

113

Biochemical component identification by light scattering techniques in whispering gallery mode optical resonance based sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental data on detection and identification of variety of biochemical agents, such as proteins (albumin, interferon, C reactive protein), microelements (Na+, Ca+), antibiotic of different generations, in both single and multi component solutions under varied in wide range concentration are represented. Analysis has been performed on the light scattering parameters of whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonance based sensor with dielectric microspheres from glass and PMMA as sensitive elements fixed by spin - coating techniques in adhesive layer on the surface of substrate or directly on the coupling element. Sensitive layer was integrated into developed fluidic cell with a digital syringe. Light from tuneable laser strict focusing on and scattered by the single microsphere was detected by a CMOS camera. The image was filtered for noise reduction and integrated on two coordinates for evaluation of integrated energy of a measured signal. As the entrance data following signal parameters were used: relative (to a free spectral range) spectral shift of frequency of WGM optical resonance in microsphere and relative efficiency of WGM excitation obtained within a free spectral range which depended on both type and concentration of investigated agents. Multiplexing on parameters and components has been realized using spatial and spectral parameters of scattered by microsphere light with developed data processing. Biochemical component classification and identification of agents under investigation has been performed by network analysis techniques based on probabilistic network and multilayer perceptron. Developed approach is demonstrated to be applicable both for single agent and for multi component biochemical analysis.

Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Saetchnikov, Anton V.; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

2014-03-01

114

Magnetic resonance imaging: Review of imaging techniques and overview of liver imaging  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver is slowly transitioning from a problem solving imaging modality to a first line imaging modality for many diseases of the liver. The well established advantages of MRI over other cross sectional imaging modalities may be the basis for this transition. Technological advancements in MRI that focus on producing high quality images and fast imaging, increasing diagnostic accuracy and developing newer function-specific contrast agents are essential in ensuring that MRI succeeds as a first line imaging modality. Newer imaging techniques, such as parallel imaging, are widely utilized to shorten scanning time. Diffusion weighted echo planar imaging, an adaptation from neuroimaging, is fast becoming a routine part of the MRI liver protocol to improve lesion detection and characterization of focal liver lesions. Contrast enhanced dynamic T1 weighted imaging is crucial in complete evaluation of diseases and the merit of this dynamic imaging relies heavily on the appropriate timing of the contrast injection. Newer techniques that include fluoro-triggered contrast enhanced MRI, an adaptation from 3D MRA imaging, are utilized to achieve good bolus timing that will allow for optimum scanning. For accurate interpretation of liver diseases, good understanding of the newer imaging techniques and familiarity with typical imaging features of liver diseases are essential. In this review, MR sequences for a time efficient liver MRI protocol utilizing newer imaging techniques are discussed and an overview of imaging features of selected common focal and diffuse liver diseases are presented. PMID:21160685

Maniam, Santhi; Szklaruk, Janio

2010-01-01

115

Novel Technique for Cardiac Electromechanical Mapping with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Tagging and an Epicardial Electrode Sock  

PubMed Central

Near-simultaneous measurements of electrical and mechanical activation over the entire ventricular surface are now possible using magnetic resonance imaging tagging and a multielectrode epicardial sock. This new electromechanical mapping technique is demonstrated in the ventricularly paced canine heart. A 128-electrode epicardial sock and pacing electrodes were placed on the hearts of four anesthetized dogs. In the magnetic resonance scanner, tagged cine images (8–15 ms/frame) and sock electrode recordings (1000 Hz) were acquired under right-ventricular pacing and temporally referenced to the pacing stimulus. Electrical recordings were obtained during intermittent breaks in image acquisition, so that both data sets represented the same physiologic state. Since the electrodes were not visible in the images, electrode recordings and cine images were spatially registered with Gd-DTPA markers attached to the sock. Circumferential strain was calculated at locations corresponding to electrodes. For each electrode location, electrical and mechanical activation times were calculated and relationships between the two activation patterns were demonstrated. This method holds promise for improving understanding of the relationships between the patterns of electrical activation and contraction in the heart. PMID:12723684

Faris, Owen P.; Evans, Frank J.; Ennis, Daniel B.; Helm, Patrick A.; Taylor, Joni L.; Chesnick, A. Scott; Guttman, Michael A.; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Mcveigh, Elliot R.

2005-01-01

116

Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Ferrite by XRD, Vsm and Electron Spin Resonance Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, the synthesis of zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) by co-precipitation method has been presented along with its subsequent characterization by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques. The obtained XRD results of as-synthesized sample indicates the cubic spinel phase formation, which was confirmed from the XRD data of the above calcined sample at 1000°C. By using VSM, a complex magnetic structure was observed with substantial change on calcined sample. The ESR result of zinc ferrite sample studied at room temperature was found to be significantly different from that of the low temperature results, especially after heat-treatment.

Nayak, Pranaba K.; Jothiramalingam, R.

2013-02-01

117

The Application of Proton-Electron Double-Resonance Imaging Techniques to Proton Mobility Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of analyzing NMR images obtained using proton-electron double-resonance imaging (PEDRI) to image free-radical distributions is presented. The dependence of image intensity on proton mobility within the sample is demonstrated for samples of the nitroxide free radical TEMPOL in water/glycerol mixtures of different viscosities. From the images obtained at a fixed magnetic field strength of 10 mT, the parameters which are responsible for the image dependence on viscosity are determined. Field-cycling techniques are used to measure this dependence as a function of magnetic field strength with a view to defining a single parameter reflecting changes in proton mobility within a sample of unknown concentration.

Nicholson, I.; Lurie, D. J.; Robb, F. J. L.

118

Roles of the Sodium-Translocating NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) on Vibrio cholerae Metabolism, Motility and Osmotic Stress Resistance  

PubMed Central

The Na+ translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) is a unique respiratory enzyme catalyzing the electron transfer from NADH to quinone coupled with the translocation of sodium ions across the membrane. Typically, Vibrio spp., including Vibrio cholerae, have this enzyme but lack the proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I). Thus, Na+-NQR should significantly contribute to multiple aspects of V. cholerae physiology; however, no detailed characterization of this aspect has been reported so far. In this study, we broadly investigated the effects of loss of Na+-NQR on V. cholerae physiology by using Phenotype Microarray (Biolog), transcriptome and metabolomics analyses. We found that the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant showed multiple defects in metabolism detected by Phenotype Microarray. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant up-regulates 31 genes and down-regulates 55 genes in both early and mid-growth phases. The most up-regulated genes included the cadA and cadB genes, encoding a lysine decarboxylase and a lysine/cadaverine antiporter, respectively. Increased CadAB activity was further suggested by the metabolomics analysis. The down-regulated genes include sialic acid catabolism genes. Metabolomic analysis also suggested increased reductive pathway of TCA cycle and decreased purine metabolism in the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant. Lack of Na+-NQR did not affect any of the Na+ pumping-related phenotypes of V. cholerae suggesting that other secondary Na+ pump(s) can compensate for Na+ pumping activity of Na+-NQR. Overall, our study provides important insights into the contribution of Na+-NQR to V. cholerae physiology. PMID:24811312

Minato, Yusuke; Halang, Petra; Quinn, Matthew J.; Faulkner, Wyatt J.; Aagesen, Alisha M.; Steuber, Julia; Stevens, Jan F.; Hase, Claudia C.

2014-01-01

119

Roles of the sodium-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) on vibrio cholerae metabolism, motility and osmotic stress resistance.  

PubMed

The Na+ translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) is a unique respiratory enzyme catalyzing the electron transfer from NADH to quinone coupled with the translocation of sodium ions across the membrane. Typically, Vibrio spp., including Vibrio cholerae, have this enzyme but lack the proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I). Thus, Na+-NQR should significantly contribute to multiple aspects of V. cholerae physiology; however, no detailed characterization of this aspect has been reported so far. In this study, we broadly investigated the effects of loss of Na+-NQR on V. cholerae physiology by using Phenotype Microarray (Biolog), transcriptome and metabolomics analyses. We found that the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant showed multiple defects in metabolism detected by Phenotype Microarray. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant up-regulates 31 genes and down-regulates 55 genes in both early and mid-growth phases. The most up-regulated genes included the cadA and cadB genes, encoding a lysine decarboxylase and a lysine/cadaverine antiporter, respectively. Increased CadAB activity was further suggested by the metabolomics analysis. The down-regulated genes include sialic acid catabolism genes. Metabolomic analysis also suggested increased reductive pathway of TCA cycle and decreased purine metabolism in the V. cholerae ?nqrA-F mutant. Lack of Na+-NQR did not affect any of the Na+ pumping-related phenotypes of V. cholerae suggesting that other secondary Na+ pump(s) can compensate for Na+ pumping activity of Na+-NQR. Overall, our study provides important insights into the contribution of Na+-NQR to V. cholerae physiology. PMID:24811312

Minato, Yusuke; Fassio, Sara R; Kirkwood, Jay S; Halang, Petra; Quinn, Matthew J; Faulkner, Wyatt J; Aagesen, Alisha M; Steuber, Julia; Stevens, Jan F; Häse, Claudia C

2014-01-01

120

Nuclear quadrupole resonance of explosives: Simultaneous detection of RDX and PETN in semtex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) for the detection of14N in explosives and introduce a new method for the simultaneous detection of the explosives cyclotrimethylene trinitramine\\u000a (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). We have developed an interleaved pulse sequence, which provides efficient excitation\\u000a of both RDX and PETN, to drive a solenoid coil that is doubly resonant at 3.41 and

R. I. Jenkinson; J. M. Bradley; G. N. Shilstone

2004-01-01

121

Surface plasmon resonance: a useful technique for cell biologists to characterize biomolecular interactions  

PubMed Central

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a powerful technique for monitoring the affinity and selectivity of biomolecular interactions. SPR allows for analysis of association and dissociation rate constants and modeling of biomolecular interaction kinetics, as well as for equilibrium binding analysis and ligand specificity studies. SPR has received much use and improved precision in classifying protein–protein interactions, as well as in studying small-molecule ligand binding to receptors; however, lipid–protein interactions have been underserved in this regard. With the field of lipids perhaps the next frontier in cellular research, SPR is a highly advantageous technique for cell biologists, as newly identified proteins that associate with cellular membranes can be screened rapidly and robustly for lipid specificity and membrane affinity. This technical perspective discusses the conditions needed to achieve success with lipid–protein interactions and highlights the unique lipid–protein interaction mechanisms that have been elucidated using SPR. It is intended to provide the reader a framework for quantitative and confident conclusions from SPR analysis of lipid–protein interactions. PMID:23533209

Stahelin, Robert V.

2013-01-01

122

Focal hepatic lymphoma: magnetic resonance demonstration using current techniques including gadolinium enhancement.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates the appearance of focal hepatic lymphoma using current magnetic resonance techniques including gadolinium enhancement. Fifteen patients with hepatic lymphoma were imaged at 1.5T. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, immediate, and 5-10-min delayed T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo images were acquired in all patients. Determination was made of lesion size, number, morphology, and signal intensity of lesions on all sequences. Seven patients had solitary lesions and 8 patients had multiple lesions. Focal lesions of hepatic lymphoma ranged in size from 5 mm to 15 cm. They were well defined masses with mild to moderate low signal intensity relative to liver on T1-weighted images. Lymphoma lesions in 6 patients were moderately high in signal intensity on T2-weighted images compared with liver (Type I lesions), and enhancement of lesions was intense on early post-gadolinium images in 5 of these patients. Lymphoma lesions in 6 patients were mildly hypointense to mildly hyperintense on T2-weighted images compared to liver (Type II lesions), and lesions in 5 of these patients enhanced minimally on the early post-gadolinium spoiled gradient echo images. The remaining 3 patients had received chemotherapy before the magnetic resonance examination, and the imaging findings varied reflecting presumed differences in treatment responses. Transient ill defined perilesional enhancement on immediate post-gadolinium spoiled gradient echo images was observed in 9 patients including patients with either type of lesion. Focal lesions of hepatic lymphoma are usually low in signal intensity on T1-weighted images but have variable signal intensity on T2-weighted images. In general, lesions that are mildly hypointense to minimally hyperintense in signal intensity on T2-weighted images enhance minimally, and lesions moderately high in signal intensity of T2-weighted images enhance intensely. Transient increased perilesional enhancement is common. PMID:9285802

Kelekis, N L; Semelka, R C; Siegelman, E S; Ascher, S M; Outwater, E K; Woosley, J T; Reinhold, C; Mitchell, D G

1997-01-01

123

Phase diagram in bilayered-hydrate NaxCoO2·yH2O revealed by Co nuclear quadrupole resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed Co nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements in various bilayered-hydrate (BLH) NaxCoO2·yH2O compounds, showing superconducting (SC) and non-SC characteristics. A weak magnetic order was found in a BLH sample with a longer c-axis lattice parameter. We also found that the NQR frequency ?Q arising from the ±{7}/{2}?±{5}/{2} transition is related to the ground state of this system. A phase diagram is developed, in which the superconducting and magnetic-order temperature Tc and TM are plotted with respect to ?Q.

Ishida, K.; Ihara, Y.; Takeya, H.; Michioka, C.; Yoshimura, K.; Takada, K.; Sasaki, T.; Sakurai, H.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.

2006-05-01

124

Variable-Pitch Rectangular Cross-section Radiofrequency Coils for the Nitrogen-14 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Investigation of Sealed Medicines Packets  

PubMed Central

The performance of rectangular radio frequency (RF) coils capable of being used to detect nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals from blister packs of medicines has been compared. The performance of a fixed-pitch RF coil was compared with that from two variable-pitch coils, one based on a design in the literature and the other optimized to obtain the most homogeneous RF field over the whole volume of the coil. It has been shown from 14N NQR measurements with two medicines, the antibiotic ampicillin (as trihydrate) and the analgesic medicine Paracetamol, that the latter design gives NQR signal intensities almost independent of the distribution of the capsules or pills within the RF coil and is therefore more suitable for quantitative analysis. PMID:23057555

2012-01-01

125

Variable-pitch rectangular cross-section radiofrequency coils for the nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance investigation of sealed medicines packets.  

PubMed

The performance of rectangular radio frequency (RF) coils capable of being used to detect nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals from blister packs of medicines has been compared. The performance of a fixed-pitch RF coil was compared with that from two variable-pitch coils, one based on a design in the literature and the other optimized to obtain the most homogeneous RF field over the whole volume of the coil. It has been shown from (14)N NQR measurements with two medicines, the antibiotic ampicillin (as trihydrate) and the analgesic medicine Paracetamol, that the latter design gives NQR signal intensities almost independent of the distribution of the capsules or pills within the RF coil and is therefore more suitable for quantitative analysis. PMID:23057555

Barras, Jamie; Katsura, Shota; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Itozaki, Hideo; Kyriakidou, Georgia; Rowe, Michael D; Althoefer, Kaspar A; Smith, John A S

2012-11-01

126

A comparison of neural network and fuzzy clustering techniques in segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance (MR) brain section images are segmented and then synthetically colored to give visual representations of the original data with three approaches: the literal and approximate fuzzy c-means unsupervised clustering algorithms, and a supervised computational neural network. Initial clinical results are presented on normal volunteers and selected patients with brain tumors surrounded by edema. Supervised and unsupervised segmentation techniques

L. O. Hall; A. M. Bensaid; L. P. Clarke; R. P. Velthuizen; M. S. Silbiger; J. C. Bezdek

1992-01-01

127

Sensitivity Analysis and Experimental Investigation of Microstrip Resonator Technique for the in-process Moisture\\/Permittivity Measurement of Petrochemicals and Emulsions of Crude Oil and Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate, instantaneous, non-destructive, microstrip resonator technique has been applied to the measurement of permittivity and moisture in emulsions of crude oil and water. A single parameter, the resonant frequency of the microstrip resonator, is necessary for measurement of the real part of permittivity of the material. This is an advantage for on-line measurement. Assisted by dedicated software, the measurements

K. K. Joshi; R. D. Pollard

2006-01-01

128

Application of fluorescence resonance energy transfer techniques to establish ligand-receptor orientation.  

PubMed

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been utilized to determine distances between a fluorescence donor and a fluorescence acceptor having appropriately overlapping spectra. In this chapter, we utilize this approach to establish distances between a fluorescence donor situated in a distinct position within a docked ligand and a fluorescence acceptor situated in a distinct position within its receptor. This technique is applicable to receptor expressed in the environment of an intact cell containing the full complement of signaling and regulatory proteins. A number of controls are necessary, including those establishing the normal function of the modified ligand and receptor, the absence of energy transfer to non-receptor proteins, and the specificity of transfer between the donor of interest and the acceptor of interest. We have utilized the example of FRET between a secretin peptide incorporating Alexa(488) and a secretin receptor construct derivatized with Alexa(568). The latter was prepared by the derivatization of a mono-cysteine-reactive receptor construct with a fluorescent methanethiosulfonate reagent. This approach can provide important spatial information that can be useful in the meaningful docking of a ligand at its receptor. PMID:19513658

Harikumar, Kaleeckal G; Miller, Laurence J

2009-01-01

129

Microdetermination of proteins by resonance light scattering technique based on aggregation of ferric nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A new method for protein determination is presented that allows measurement of proteins at nanogram levels with simple procedure. The method applies a resonance light scattering (RLS) technique, but based on aggregation of ferric nanoparticles on protein template instead of the usual interaction of organic days with proteins. By mixing ferric colloid with sodium cacodylate buffer solution, ferric nanoparticles can be obtained in the size of about 5nm and kept their positive charges in a wide range of pH 1.8-7.6. The ferric nanoparticles can interact with proteins to form particular aggregates and thus result in strong and stable RLS. Under optimal conditions (wavelength of 451nm and pH 7.4), few substances interfere with this assay. The detection limitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) is 6.6ng/mL and the linear range is 20-700ng/mL. This method gives almost identical responses for BSA, human serum albumin (HSA) and gamma-globulin (gamma-G), and can be used for the determination of total proteins in human serum with satisfactory results. PMID:19111501

Shu-hong, Zhang; Yong-shan, Fan; Shuo, Feng; Yun-feng, Zhang

2009-05-01

130

A resonance technique for the acoustic characterization of liquids in harsh environments.  

PubMed

Accurate knowledge of a liquid's acoustic properties, such as sound speed as a function of temperature and pressure, is important for both basic and applied science. For basic science, sound speed is important for constraining thermodynamic equations-of-state as well as determining elastic nonlinearity parameters. From an applied perspective, sound speed can be used together with other properties to monitor fluid temperature, pressure, and composition. There are important applications, such as in oil/gas or geothermal well characterization, where it is desirable to measure sound speed in liquids in well bore under high pressure, high temperature, and in corrosive environments. However, few experimental sound speeds have been previously reported above 100°C even in liquids as common as water. This talk focuses on the development of a portable, rugged, resonance-based measurement cell for high precision (better than 0.1%) in-situ measurements of sound speed in high temperature, high pressure, and corrosive liquids. As an example of the technique, experimentally determined sound speeds in liquid water up to 250°C and 3000 psi will be presented. Acoustic nonlinearity in water, as determined from sound speed as a function of temperature and pressure, will also be discussed. PMID:25235512

Sturtevant, Blake

2014-04-01

131

Magnetic resonance imaging techniques for monitoring changes in tumor oxygenation and blood flow.  

PubMed

The application of functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques to the measurement of oxygenation and blood flow in tumors is described. Gradient recalled echo MR imaging (GRE-MRI) offers a real-time noninvasive method for monitoring tumor response to vasomodulators such as carbogen (95% O2/5% CO2) breathing in attempts to overcome tumor hypoxia and improve treatment efficacy. Although the response is tumor-type dependent, increases in signal intensity of up to 100% have been observed in several animal tumor types. Responses are also seen in human tumors. The observed increases in GRE-MRI signal intensity are due to a combination of a reduction of deoxyhemoglobin in the blood causing changes in the MR imaging relaxation time T2* and changes in blood flow and may also reflect the capillary density. Thus, the magnitude of the GRE image intensity change gives an indication of the potential response of an individual tumor to treatments that aim to improve tissue oxygenation and therefore how the tumor may respond to therapy. In addition, carbogen breathing by the host has been shown to increase the uptake and efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents in animal tumors. PMID:9634496

Robinson, S P; Howe, F A; Rodrigues, L M; Stubbs, M; Griffiths, J R

1998-07-01

132

An efficient birdcage resonator at 2.5 MHz using a novel multilayer self-capacitance construction technique.  

PubMed

The birdcage resonator, well appreciated for its high signal-to-noise ratio and its magnetic field uniformity characteristics, operates efficiently in mid- to high-field MRI systems but, unfortunately not for low-field (< 0.4 T) applications. The inherently low inductance of the birdcage architecture is the main obstacle to achieving low-frequency resonance because of the need to use very high-value capacitors for the tuning. Small-case-size, high-value ceramic capacitors are known to have high dissipation factors which when used in the fabrication of RF coils could result in poor efficiency. To overcome this limitation, a novel technique known as multilayer self-capacitance (MLSC) construction has been developed and a prototype 2.5 MHz bird-cage resonator of length 25 cm and diameter 20 cm has been built. The technique involves the modification of the leg sections of the conductors constituting the bird cage into integrated capacitors using very low-loss materials as dielectrics. The observed unloaded Q-factor was 267 using the MLSC construction, and when loaded with a 16-cm-diameter bottle of 0.45% saline, its Q dropped to 246. The RF field uniformity plots have demonstrated that the MLSC technique has no adverse effects on the magnetic field homogeneity of the bird-cage resonator. PMID:8749735

Yeung, D; Hutchison, J M; Lurie, D J

1995-01-01

133

Rabi and Larmor nuclear quadrupole double resonance of spin-1 nuclei.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the creation of two novel double-resonance conditions between spin-1 and spin-1/2 nuclei in a crystalline solid. Using a magnetic field oscillating at the spin-1/2 Larmor frequency, the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) frequency is matched to the Rabi or Rabi plus Larmor frequency, as opposed to the Larmor frequency as is conventionally done. We derive expressions for the cross-polarization rate for all three conditions in terms of the relevant secular dipolar Hamiltonian, and demonstrate with these expressions how to measure the strength of the heterogenous dipolar coupling using only low magnetic fields. In addition, the combination of different resonance conditions permits the measurement of the spin-1/2 angular momentum vector using spin-1 NQR, opening up an alternate modality for the monitoring of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance. We use ammonium nitrate to explore these resonance conditions, and furthermore use the oscillating field to increase the signal-to-noise ratio per time by a factor of 3.5 for NQR detection of this substance. PMID:23231223

Prescott, D W; Malone, M W; Douglass, S P; Sauer, K L

2012-12-01

134

A scheme to expand the delay-bandwidth product in the resonator-based delay lines by optical OFDM technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel scheme to expand the inherent limit in the product of the optical delay and the transmission bandwidth in resonator-based delay lines, with the optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) technique. The optical group delay properties of a single ring resonator were theoretically studied, and double-carrier OOFDM signals were transmitted through such a device in the experiment, where the subcarrier-frequencies matched those of the resonant modes in the device. The results show that, although the delay-bandwidth product (DBP) is limited in the order of 50 ps×10 Gb/s for signals on each of the sub-carriers, the total DBP of the system is doubled to 2×50 ps×10 Gb/s due to the double-carrier transmission.

Zhu, Jiangbo; Tao, Li; Zhang, Ziran; Pu, Minhao; Ou, Haiyan; Chi, Nan; Yu, Siyuan

2013-09-01

135

Accuracy of single-cut adjustment technique for double resonant Brillouin fiber lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed error analysis of the algorithm for adjustment of double resonance in short-length Brillouin ring fiber laser. Adjusted laser cavity is simultaneously resonant for the pump and Stokes radiations. We demonstrate that this algorithm provides an accuracy of 1-7 MHz for the resonance peak location under conditions of regular uncertainties in measurement and cutting. Demonstrated approach is equally useful for the design of singlemode fiber lasers with ultra-narrow optical spectra, Q-switched Brillouin fiber lasers as well as for applications employing high power fiber cavities free from stimulated Brillouin scattering.

López-Mercado, Cesar A.; Spirin, Vasily V.; Kablukov, Sergey I.; Zlobina, Ekaterina A.; Zolotovskiy, Igor O.; Mégret, Patrice; Fotiadi, Andrei A.

2014-06-01

136

NQR studies of gallium and bismuth trichlorides complexes with n- and ? -donors.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 35,37C1, 69,71Ga and 209Bi NQR spectra of the charge-transfer complexes of GaCl 3 with ketones, nitriles and BiCl 3 with methyl substituted derivatives of benzene at 77K have been investigated. The complexing of BiCl 3 with methyl substituted derivatives of benzene leads to an increase in 209Bi Quadrupole Coupling Constant (QCC) along the direction of the maximum field gradient of e 2Qq zzh. The nature of the frequency changes of 35,37 Cl in the acceptor molecule is different for axial and equatorial chlorine atoms. There is a correlation between the QCC 14N of the nitriles and the shifts of the 69Ga on complexing and also between shifts of the 35Cl and 69 Ga frequencies on complexing.

Popkova, L. A.; Guryanova, E. N.; Volkov, A. F.

137

Electron-volt spectroscopy at a pulsed neutron source using a resonance detector technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of the neutron resonance detector spectrometer for deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements has been assessed by measuring the Pb scattering on the eVS spectrometer at ISIS pulsed neutron source and natural U foils as (n,?) resonance converters. A conventional NaI scintillator with massive shielding has been used as ? detector. A neutron energy window up to 90eV, including

C. Andreani; A. Pietropaolo; R. Senesi; G. Gorini; M. Tardocchi; A. Bracco; N. Rhodes; E. Schooneveld

2002-01-01

138

The use of magnetic resonance imaging techniques in assessing the uptake of surface treatments and water movement through stone faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses some practical questions regarding the influence of hydrophobic treatments on the movement of water in\\u000a sandstone. The broad line gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging technique has been used for monitoring the depth of penetration\\u000a of alkyl alkoxysilane treatment into untreated sandstone and subsequently to visualise the movement and spatial distribution\\u000a profile of water in the untreated and

T. B. Benson; P. J. McDonald; M. Mulheron; S. O. Nwaubani

1998-01-01

139

Comparison of surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance techniques for studying DNA assembly and hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique for studying DNA assembly and hybridization reactions. Specifically, we apply in parallel an SPR instrument and a 5MHz QCM device with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) to monitor the assembly of biotinylated DNA (biotin-DNA) on a streptavidin-modified surface and the subsequent

Xiaodi Su; Ying-Ju Wu; Wolfgang Knoll

2005-01-01

140

Structure of the Cu-NQR Spectrum in Hg-1223 Between 4.2 K and 145 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extremely low noise RF preamplifier cooled with liquid helium has been developed and is used to perform Cu-NQR measurements for Hg-1223 (Tc=134 K) at temperatures from 4.2 K to 145 K. At temperatures from 4.2 K to 20 K the spectra are centered at 15 MHz with a spectral width of approximately 2 MHz, similar to the Cu-NQR spectra of the other members of the HgBa2Can-1CunO2n+2+? series. The Cu-NQR spectra in this temperature range exhibit some features indicating an unresolved splitting but they can still be fitted quite well by a set of two pairs of 63/65Cu lines, as expected for the 1223 structure. The spectra at 40 K and above clearly show a structure that can not be fitted suitable by a set of two pairs of 63/65Cu lines. However, a fit with a set of four pairs of 63/65Cu lines is in good agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, the spectra at 80 K, 85 K and 90 K show a strong variation with respect to each other which might indicate a structural change like the formation of a superstructure, as discussed for other high-Tc compounds, instead of a simple disorder in the crystal lattice.

Breitzke, H.; Lüders, K.; Gippius, A. A.; Antipov, E. V.

141

Advanced numerical technique for analysis of surface and bulk acoustic waves in resonators using periodic metal gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical technique characterized by a unified approach for the analysis of different types of acoustic waves utilized in resonators in which a periodic metal grating is used for excitation and reflection of such waves is described. The combination of the Finite Element Method analysis of the electrode domain with the Spectral Domain Analysis (SDA) applied to the adjacent upper and lower semi-infinite regions, which may be multilayered and include air as a special case of a dielectric material, enables rigorous simulation of the admittance in resonators using surface acoustic waves, Love waves, plate modes including Lamb waves, Stonely waves, and other waves propagating along the interface between two media, and waves with transient structure between the mentioned types. The matrix formalism with improved convergence incorporated into SDA provides fast and robust simulation for multilayered structures with arbitrary thickness of each layer. The described technique is illustrated by a few examples of its application to various combinations of LiNbO3, isotropic silicon dioxide and silicon with a periodic array of Cu electrodes. The wave characteristics extracted from the admittance functions change continuously with the variation of the film and plate thicknesses over wide ranges, even when the wave nature changes. The transformation of the wave nature with the variation of the layer thicknesses is illustrated by diagrams and contour plots of the displacements calculated at resonant frequencies.

Naumenko, Natalya F.

2014-09-01

142

Comparison of analysis techniques for extracting resonance parameters from lattice Monte Carlo data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different methods for extracting resonance parameters from Euclidean lattice field theory are tested. Monte Carlo simulations of the O(4) nonlinear sigma model are used to generate energy spectra in a range of different volumes both below and above the inelastic threshold. The applicability of the analysis methods in the elastic region is compared. Problems which arise in the inelastic region are also emphasized.

Giudice, Pietro; McManus, Darran; Peardon, Michael

2012-10-01

143

Novel Fabrication Techniques for Wafer-Scale Graphene Drum NanoElectroMechanical Resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS) have shown excellent mass sensitivity as well as resonant and oscillatory behaviors that are desirable in mass sensors and active elements in Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit (RFIC) design. Out of many structures proposed for graphene NEMS, it has been recently shown that a drum resonator exhibits higher Q-factor than other structures such as a bar resonator. However, fabricating a large array of drum graphene resonator has been problematic because liquid or gas can be trapped inside the drum. Such issues led to designs with a hole in the center of a drum or with a drainage trench, either at the cost of additional lithography step or lowered Q-factor. Here, we demonstrate two novel fabrication methods that are free of the trapping without any compromise in additional lithography step or Q-factor degradation. In one method, wafer scale graphene is dry-stamped on prefabricated leads, holes and local gates. In the other method, an resist strip with a circular hole at the center holds graphene underneath. I will discuss direct electrical readout and characterization of devices using these two methods. These drum structures may provide a practical way to achieve wafer scale high Q graphene NEMS.

Lee, Sunwoo; Chen, Changyao; Deshpande, Vikram V.; Lee, Gwan Hyoung; Storch, Isaac; Zhang, Congchun; Yu, Young-Jun; Kim, Philip; McEuen, Paul; Hone, James

2012-02-01

144

Bulk wave membrane quartz resonators fabricated by a hollow cathode RF plasma etching technique.  

PubMed

A hollow cathode maskless plasma etching method for fabrication of thin quartz membranes is presented. A special geometric arrangement of electrodes and substrates allows the complete plasma structure (plasma sheath, bulk plasma) to be transferred to the substrate area during the etching process. The process has successfully been used in preparing thin quartz membranes with plane-convex and plane-parallel shape, and thicknesses of less than 5 mum. Vibration modes in these thin quartz membranes are calculated using the method of equivalent resonant radius. The membranes are used for realization of bulk acoustic wave resonators at fundamental frequencies above 60 MHz. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental characteristics is achieved. PMID:18263204

Yankov, D Y; Schreiter, S

1993-01-01

145

NQR-NMR studies of higher alcohol synthesis Cu-Co catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Copper and cobalt are the key elements in syngas conversion catalyst systems used for higher alcohol synthesis. Their proximity and synergy sensitively control the selectivity and efficiency of the process. It is believed that their outer electronic charge distribution which is responsible for their electrical and magnetic properties might be governing their catalytic properties also. To examine the correlation between catalytic and magnetic properties, a series of copper cobalt catalysts (Co/Cu ratio 5:1 to 5:5) with and without a support were prepared. The nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrum of copper and (zero-field) nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of cobalt and magnetization and hysteresis character of the catalyst were analyzed. Similar to the catalytic results, the magnetic results also were found to be very sensitive to the preparation technique. The results indicate possible electron exchange between copper and cobalt, and cobalt and the support Titania.

Not Available

1991-01-14

146

Determination of dextrin based on its self-aggregation by resonance light scattering technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel free-probe assay of dextrin was established based on the resonance light scattering (RLS) enhancement in aqueous solution due to the self-aggregation of dextrin. The RLS intensity was well proportional to the concentration of dextrin over the wide range 0.2–14?gmL?1 and a detection limit 0.02?gmL?1 was obtained in the optimum conditions. The effect factors such as pH, buffer medium,

Zhanguang Chen; Li Zhu; Tianhe Song; Jinhai Huang; Yali Han

2009-01-01

147

Determination of deoxyribonucleic acids by a resonance light scattering technique and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, acetamiprid has been used to determine nucleic acid (DNA) using the resonance light scattering (RLS). The RLS of acetamiprid was greatly enhanced by DNA in the range of pH 1.6–1.8. A RLS peak at 313 nm was found, and the enhanced intensity of RLS at this wavelength was proportional to the concentration of DNA. The linear

Nianqin Jie; Guifang Jia; Shicong Hou; Yanmei Xiong; Yanhong Dong

2003-01-01

148

Evaluation of resonant damping techniques for Z-source current-type inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the renewable energy sources whose outputs vary continuously, Z-source current-type inverter has been proposed as a possible buck-boost alternative for grid-interfacing. With a unique X-shaped LC network connected between its dc power source and inverter topology, Z-source current-type inverter is however expected to suffer from compounded resonant complications in addition to those associated with its second-order output filter. To

P. C. Loh; C. J. Gajanayake; D. M. Vilathgamuwa; F. Blaabjerg

2006-01-01

149

Technique for magnetic susceptibility determination in the highly doped semiconductors by electron spin resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for determining the magnetic susceptibility in the highly doped semiconductors is considered. It is suitable for the semiconductors near the metal - insulator transition when the conductivity changes very quickly with the temperature and the resonance line form distorts. A procedure that is based on double integration of the positive part of the derivative of the absorption line having a Dyson shape and takes into account the depth of the skin layer is described. Analysis is made for the example of arsenic-doped germanium samples at a rather high concentration corresponding to the insulator-metal phase transition.

Veinger, A. I.; Zabrodskii, A. G.; Tisnek, T. V.; Goloshchapov, S. I.; Semenikhin, P. V.

2014-08-01

150

Study of the pygmy dipole resonance in 94Mo using the (?,???) coincidence technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The (?,?'?) reaction at E?=136 MeV was used to study the electric dipole response in the open-shell vibrational nucleus 94Mo below the neutron-separation threshold. The coincidence experiment has been performed at the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut in Groningen, The Netherlands, exploiting the Big-Bite Spectrometer and an array of large volume High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Due to the excellent energy resolution and high selectivity to transitions stemming from the pygmy dipole resonance, singles ?-scattering cross sections could be determined for individual electric dipole excitations between 4 and 8 MeV. For three of the excited low-lying J?=1- states in 94Mo a ?-decay branch into the J?=21+ state could be observed. The experiment extends the systematic studies of the pygmy dipole resonance by real-photon scattering (?,?') experiments and (?,?'?) experiments. Recently, a (?,?') experiment on 94Mo was performed at the Darmstadt High-Intensity Photon Setup at the S-DALINAC in Darmstadt, Germany, permitting the comparison of B(E1)? strength distribution and ?-scattering cross sections.

Derya, V.; Endres, J.; Elvers, M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Siebenhühner, F.; Stoica, V. I.; Wörtche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

2013-05-01

151

A study of the semiconductor compound ?uAlO2 by the method of nuclear quadrupole resonance of Cu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of nuclear quadrupole resonance of Cu (NQR Cu) is used to study the samples of a semiconductor compound CuAlO2. The crystal structure of CuAlO2 belongs to the family of delafossite - the mineral of a basic CuFeO2 structure. Transparent semiconductor oxides, such as CuAlO2, have attracted recent attention as promising thermoelectric materials.

Matukhin, V. L.; Khabibulin, I. Kh.; Shul'gin, D. A.; Smidt, S. V.

2012-07-01

152

Noise-resilient multi-frequency surface sensor for nuclear quadrupole resonance.  

PubMed

A planar nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) sensor has been developed. The sensor is resilient to environmental noise and is capable of simultaneous independent multi-frequency operation. The device was constructed as an open multimodal birdcage structure, in which the higher modes, generally not used in magnetic resonance, are utilized for NQR detection. These modes have smooth distributions of the amplitudes of the corresponding radiofrequency magnetic fields everywhere along the sensor's surface. The phases of the fields, on the other hand, are cyclically shifted across the sensor's surface. Noise signals coming from distant sources, therefore, induce equal-magnitude cyclically phase-shifted currents in different parts of the sensor. When such cyclically phase-shifted currents arrive at the mode connection point, they destructively interfere with each other and are cancelled out. NQR signals of polycrystalline or disordered substances, however, are efficiently detected by these modes because they are insensitive to the phases of the excitation/detection. No blind spots exist along the sensor's surface. The sensor can be used for simultaneous detection of one or more substances in locations with environmental noise. PMID:18667343

Peshkovsky, A S; Cattena, C J; Cerioni, L M; Osán, T M; Forguez, J G; Peresson, W J; Pusiol, D J

2008-10-01

153

Feasibility Study of Velocity and Temperature Measurements of an Arcjet Flow using Laser Resonance Doppler Velocimetric (LRDV) Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials are used in space vehicles to shield from high heating environment encountered during their atmospheric reentry. Arcjet wind tunnels are used to simulate the flowfield encountered by the spacecrafts, and are used for testing TPS materials. How well these tests simulate the actual heating environment encountered by space vehicles depends on the characteristics of the simulated flow. The flow characterization requires the determination of temperature, concentration, and velocity of the various atomic and molecular species present in the flow. However, determining these parameters requires a complex set of both analytical and experimental procedures. The ability to properly simulate the flight environment is directly related to the accuracy with which these techniques can be used to define the arcjet Laser Resonance Doppler Velocimetric (LRDV) technique can be used to accurately determine the velocity and temperature of a gaseous species. In this technique, the medium is probed with a laser beam that is in resonance with an absorbing transition of the species. The absorption lineshape is Doppler-shifted due to the flow velocity of the species, and the frequency shift is detected as the variation in intensity of the fluorescence emitted by the species. Thus a measurement of the Doppler shift and the width of a spectral line can give both the temperature and the velocity of the flowfield. This summer, our project was to make a feasibility study to set up an experimental arrangement for the laser resonance Doppler velocimetric technique using a ring dye laser. Experiments required troubleshooting, cleaning, testing, and alignment of two lasers and several diagnostics instruments. All instruments and lasers necessary for the project worked well, but the output power of the broadband fundamental dye laser was limited to about 20 mW. This was quite low as compared to that necessary to obtain second harmonic oscillation at 327.49 nm for the LRDV studies. Further optimization of the dye laser optical elements is necessary before it can be used for the experiment, which requires narrowband (about 20 Mhz) laser operation.

Rob, Mohammad A.

1996-01-01

154

Determination of deoxyribonucleic acids by a resonance light scattering technique and its application.  

PubMed

For the first time, acetamiprid has been used to determine nucleic acid (DNA) using the resonance light scattering (RLS). The RLS of acetamiprid was greatly enhanced by DNA in the range of pH 1.6-1.8. A RLS peak at 313 nm was found, and the enhanced intensity of RLS at this wavelength was proportional to the concentration of DNA. The linear range of the calibration curve was 0-11.0 microg ml(-1) with the detection limit of 20 ng ml(-1). The nucleic acids in synthetic sample and in rice seedling extraction were determined satisfactorily. The interaction mechanism of acetamiprid and DNA is discussed. Mechanism studies show that the enhanced RLS is due to the aggregation of acetamiprid in the presence of DNA. PMID:14607226

Jie, Nianqin; Jia, Guifang; Hou, Shicong; Xiong, Yanmei; Dong, Yanhong

2003-12-01

155

Determination of deoxyribonucleic acids by a resonance light scattering technique and its application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, acetamiprid has been used to determine nucleic acid (DNA) using the resonance light scattering (RLS). The RLS of acetamiprid was greatly enhanced by DNA in the range of pH 1.6-1.8. A RLS peak at 313 nm was found, and the enhanced intensity of RLS at this wavelength was proportional to the concentration of DNA. The linear range of the calibration curve was 0-11.0 ?g ml -1 with the detection limit of 20 ng ml -1. The nucleic acids in synthetic sample and in rice seedling extraction were determined satisfactorily. The interaction mechanism of acetamiprid and DNA is discussed. Mechanism studies show that the enhanced RLS is due to the aggregation of acetamiprid in the presence of DNA.

Jie, Nianqin; Jia, Guifang; Hou, Shicong; Xiong, Yanmei; Dong, Yanhong

2003-12-01

156

Advanced Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques of the Human Spinal Cord  

PubMed Central

Unlike those of the brain, advances in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the human spinal cord have been challenged by the more complicated and inhomogeneous anatomy of the spine, the differences in magnetic susceptibility between adjacent air and fluid-filled structures and the surrounding soft tissues, and the inherent limitations of the initially used echo-planar imaging techniques used to image the spine. Interval advances in DWI techniques for imaging the human spinal cord, with the specific aims of improving the diagnostic quality of the images, and the simultaneous reduction in unwanted artifacts have resulted in higher-quality images that are now able to more accurately portray the complicated underlying anatomy and depict pathologic abnormality with improved sensitivity and specificity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has benefited from the advances in DWI techniques, as DWI images form the foundation for all tractography and DTI. This review provides a synopsis of the many recent advances in DWI of the human spinal cord, as well as some of the more common clinical uses for these techniques, including DTI and tractography. PMID:22158130

Andre, Jalal B.; Bammer, Roland

2012-01-01

157

A sensitive resveratrol assay with a simple probe methylene blue by resonance light scattering technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel resonance light scattering (RLS) method was developed for the determination of resveratrol based on the interaction between resveratrol and methylene blue (MB). It was found that at pH 8.69, the weak RLS intensity of MB was remarkably enhanced by the addition of trace amount of resveratrol with the maximum peak located at 385.0 nm. Under the optimum conditions, a good linear relationship between the enhanced RLS intensities and the concentrations of resveratrol was obtained over the range of 2.0-14.0 ?g ml -1 with the detection limit (3 ?) of 0.63 ?g ml -1. The results of the analysis of resveratrol in synthetic samples and human urine are satisfactory, which showed it may provide a more sensitive, convenient, rapid and reproducible method for the detection of resveratrol, especially in biological and pharmaceutical field. In this work, the characteristics of RLS, absorption and fluorescence spectra of the resveratrol-MB system, the influencing factors and the optimum conditions of the reaction were investigated.

Xiang, Haiyan; Dai, Kaijin; Luo, Qizhi; Duan, Wenjun; Xie, Yang

2011-01-01

158

Rock magnetic techniques complemented by ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy to analyse a sediment record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental magnetism uses the spatial and temporal occurrence of magnetic carriers as diagnostic tools to detect environmental changes. Concentration, composition, grain size and configuration of the carriers inferred from magnetic properties are key parameters, because they are indicative of the formation conditions of magnetic phases, and/or of processes such as diagenesis and weathering. We present a detailed ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy analysis in concert with routinely used rock magnetic measurements to determine these parameters in a sediment record that documents the development of Lake Soppensee (Central Switzerland) since latest Pleistocene. FMR spectroscopy monitors varying concentration of the predominant magnetite/maghemite by the spectral signal intensity, whereas the stable single domain and superparamagnetic states are determined by the signal shape at room and low temperature. Fitting and simulation of FMR spectra are successfully applied to samples with well-defined magnetite components in the sediment matrix. Clear evidence for the colonization of magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) in Lake Soppensee was possible by applying empirical spectral separation to measured FMR signals that yield two magnetite populations differing in their configuration, that is, dispersed and aligned in chains. Low temperature measurements showed that these MTB can be preserved as pure or oxidized magnetite. The FMR data set confirms and completes rock magnetic information obtained from the lacustrine sedimentary record. The advanced application of FMR spectroscopy in the presented study critically highlights the benefit of this rapid and non-destructive method for future analysis of magnetic properties in environmental studies.

Kind, Jessica; Raden, Ulrike J. van; García-Rubio, Inés.; Gehring, Andreas U.

2012-10-01

159

Novel electro-optical coupling technique for magnetic resonance-compatible positron emission tomography detectors.  

PubMed

A new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible positron emission tomography (PET) detector design is being developed that uses electro-optical coupling to bring the amplitude and arrival time information of high-speed PET detector scintillation pulses out of an MRI system. The electro-optical coupling technology consists of a magnetically insensitive photodetector output signal connected to a nonmagnetic vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diode that is coupled to a multimode optical fiber. This scheme essentially acts as an optical wire with no influence on the MRI system. To test the feasibility of this approach, a lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate crystal coupled to a single pixel of a solid-state photomultiplier array was placed in coincidence with a lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystal coupled to a fast photomultiplier tube with both the new nonmagnetic VCSEL coupling and the standard coaxial cable signal transmission scheme. No significant change was observed in 511 keV photopeak energy resolution and coincidence time resolution. This electro-optical coupling technology enables an MRI-compatible PET block detector to have a reduced electromagnetic footprint compared with the signal transmission schemes deployed in the current MRI/PET designs. PMID:19397853

Olcott, Peter D; Peng, Hao; Levin, Craig S

2009-01-01

160

Invited Article: Design techniques and noise properties of ultrastable cryogenically cooled sapphire-dielectric resonator oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the techniques used in the design and construction of cryogenic sapphire oscillators at the University of Western Australia over the 18year history of the project. We describe the project from its beginnings when sapphire oscillators were first developed as low-noise transducers for gravitational wave detection. Specifically, we describe the techniques that were applied to the construction of an interrogation oscillator for the PHARAO Cs atomic clock in CNES, in Toulouse France, and to the 2006 construction of four high performance oscillators for use at NMIJ and NICT, in Japan, as well as a permanent secondary frequency standard for the laboratory at UWA. Fractional-frequency fluctuations below 6×10-16 at integration times between 10 and 200s have been repeatedly achieved.

Locke, C. R.; Ivanov, E. N.; Hartnett, J. G.; Stanwix, P. L.; Tobar, M. E.

2008-05-01

161

Invited article: design techniques and noise properties of ultrastable cryogenically cooled sapphire-dielectric resonator oscillators.  

PubMed

We review the techniques used in the design and construction of cryogenic sapphire oscillators at the University of Western Australia over the 18 year history of the project. We describe the project from its beginnings when sapphire oscillators were first developed as low-noise transducers for gravitational wave detection. Specifically, we describe the techniques that were applied to the construction of an interrogation oscillator for the PHARAO Cs atomic clock in CNES, in Toulouse France, and to the 2006 construction of four high performance oscillators for use at NMIJ and NICT, in Japan, as well as a permanent secondary frequency standard for the laboratory at UWA. Fractional-frequency fluctuations below 6 x 10(-16) at integration times between 10 and 200 s have been repeatedly achieved. PMID:18513054

Locke, C R; Ivanov, E N; Hartnett, J G; Stanwix, P L; Tobar, M E

2008-05-01

162

Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Comprehensive Update on Principles and Techniques  

PubMed Central

Perfusion is a fundamental biological function that refers to the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissue by means of blood flow. Perfusion MRI is sensitive to microvasculature and has been applied in a wide variety of clinical applications, including the classification of tumors, identification of stroke regions, and characterization of other diseases. Perfusion MRI techniques are classified with or without using an exogenous contrast agent. Bolus methods, with injections of a contrast agent, provide better sensitivity with higher spatial resolution, and are therefore more widely used in clinical applications. However, arterial spin-labeling methods provide a unique opportunity to measure cerebral blood flow without requiring an exogenous contrast agent and have better accuracy for quantification. Importantly, MRI-based perfusion measurements are minimally invasive overall, and do not use any radiation and radioisotopes. In this review, we describe the principles and techniques of perfusion MRI. This review summarizes comprehensive updated knowledge on the physical principles and techniques of perfusion MRI. PMID:25246817

Li, Ka-Loh; Ostergaard, Leif; Calamante, Fernando

2014-01-01

163

Field enhancement and resonance phenomena in complex three-dimensional nanoparticles: efficient computation using the source-model technique.  

PubMed

We present a semi-analytical method for computing the electromagnetic field in and around 3D nanoparticles (NP) of complex shape and demonstrate its power via concrete examples of plasmonic NPs that have nonsymmetrical shapes and surface areas with very small radii of curvature. In particular, we show the three axial resonances of a 3D cashew-nut and the broadband response of peanut-shell NPs. The method employs the source-model technique along with a newly developed intricate source distributing algorithm based on the surface curvature. The method is simple and can outperform finite-difference time domain and finite-element-based software tools in both its efficiency and accuracy. PMID:24978226

Ishay, Yakir; Leviatan, Yehuda; Bartal, Guy

2014-05-15

164

A Wafer-Level Sn-Rich Au—Sn Bonding Technique and Its Application in Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sn-rich Au—Sn solder bonding is systematically investigated. High shear strength (64MPa) and good hermeticity (a leak rate lower than 1 × 10-7 torr·l/s) are obtained for Au—Sn solder with 54 wt% Sn bonded at 310°C. The AuSn2 phase with the highest Vickers-hardness among the four stable intermetallic compounds of the Au—Sn system makes a major contribution to the high bonding strength. This bonding technique has been successfully used to package the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensors. The Sn-rich Au—Sn solder bonding provides a reliable, low-cost, low-temperature and wafer-level hermetic packaging solution for the micro-electromechanical system devices and has potential applications in high-end biomedical sensors.

Mao, Xu; Lv, Xing-Dong; Wei, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Jin-Ling; Qi, Zhi-Mei; Yang, Fu-Hua

2014-05-01

165

Evaluation of aortic stenosis by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: comparison with established routine clinical techniques  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate whether direct planimetry of aortic valve area (AVA) by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is a reliable tool for determining the severity of aortic stenosis compared with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE), and cardiac catheterisation. Methods: 44 symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis were studied. By cardiac catheterisation AVA was calculated by the Gorlin equation. AVA was measured with CMR from steady state free precession (true fast imaging with steady state precession) by planimetry. AVA was also determined from TOE images by planimetry and from TTE images by the continuity equation. Results: Bland-Altman analysis evaluating intraobserver and interobserver variability showed a very small bias for both (?0.016 and 0.019, respectively; n ?=? 20). Bias and limits of agreement between CMR and TTE were 0.05 (?0.35, 0.44) cm2 (n ?=? 37), between CMR and TOE 0.02 (?0.39, 0.42) cm2 (n ?=? 32), and between CMR and cardiac catheterisation 0.09 (?0.30, 0.47) cm2 (n ?=? 36). The sensitivity and specificity of CMR to detect AVA ? 0.80 cm2 measured by cardiac catheterisation was 78% and 89%, of TOE 70% and 70%, and of TTE 74% and 67%, respectively. Conclusion: CMR planimetry is highly reliable and reproducible. Further, CMR planimetry had the best sensitivity and specificity of all non-invasive methods for detecting severe aortic stenosis in comparison with cardiac catheterisation. Therefore, CMR planimetry of AVA with steady state free precession is a new powerful diagnostic tool, particularly for patients with uncertain or discrepant findings by other modalities. PMID:15253962

Kupfahl, C; Honold, M; Meinhardt, G; Vogelsberg, H; Wagner, A; Mahrholdt, H; Sechtem, U

2004-01-01

166

Investigating the Impact of Biological Impurities on the Liquid Vein Network in Polycrystalline Ice Using Magnetic Resonance Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work has demonstrated that microorganisms can occupy the liquid filled inter-crystalline vein network in ice and maintain their metabolic activity under these conditions. Additionally, certain cold tolerant microorganisms produce extra-cellular proteins (i.e., ice-binding proteins) that have the ability to bind to the prism face of an ice crystal and inhibit ice recrystallization. One such microorganism is Chryseobacterium sp. V3519-10, a bacterium isolated from a depth of 3519 m in the Vostok Ice Core, Antarctica. While such an adaptation can impact ice crystal structure, it is not known what effect these proteins may have on the liquid vein network and to what extent these organisms may control their habitat. This study uses magnetic resonance techniques to investigate the effects of chemical and biological impurities on the liquid vein structure in ice. Magnetic resonance techniques are powerful tools for probing pore structure and transport dynamics in porous media systems, however, their ability to characterize ice as a porous media has not yet been fully explored. Three experimental conditions were evaluated in this study. Ices were prepared from 7 g/L NaCl solutions with; 1) addition of a quantified amount of extra-cellular proteins (>30kDa) extracted from Chryseobacterium sp. V3519-10 2) addition of equivalent concentrations of the protein, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and 3) no protein addition. Samples were frozen and analyzed at -15°C. The liquid vein structure, as a function of salt and protein concentrations, was characterized to obtain information on liquid water content, vein surface to volume ratios and tortuosity as a measure of vein network interconnectivity. These measurements were non-destructive and made at various time intervals after freezing to monitor the evolution of microstructure due to recrystallization and assess the effects of the added proteins.

Brox, T. I.; Vogt, S. J.; Brown, J. R.; Skidmore, M. L.; Codd, S. L.; Seymour, J. D.

2011-12-01

167

Central role of the Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) in sodium bioenergetics of Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

Abstract Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that lives in brackish or sea water environments. Strains of V. cholerae carrying the pathogenicity islands infect the human gut and cause the fatal disease cholera. Vibrio cholerae maintains a Na+ gradient at its cytoplasmic membrane that drives substrate uptake, motility, and efflux of antibiotics. Here, we summarize the major Na+-dependent transport processes and describe the central role of the Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR), a primary Na+ pump, in maintaining a Na+-motive force. The Na+-NQR is a membrane protein complex with a mass of about 220 kDa that couples the exergonic oxidation of NADH to the transport of Na+ across the cytoplasmic membrane. We describe the molecular architecture of this respiratory complex and summarize the findings how electron transport might be coupled to Na+-translocation. Moreover, recent advances in the determination of the three-dimensional structure of this complex are reported. PMID:25205724

Steuber, Julia; Halang, Petra; Vorburger, Thomas; Steffen, Wojtek; Vohl, Georg; Fritz, Günter

2014-12-01

168

Techniques for High-speed Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Rats and Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Progress in research on hypertension, heart failure, aging, post-infarct remodeling, and the molecular basis of cardiovascular diseases in general has been greatly facilitated in recent years by the development of specialized small-mammal models by selective breeding and/or genetic alteration. Routine noninvasive evaluation of cardiac function and perfusion in these animals models, however, is difficult using existing methods. In principle, MRI can be used for this purpose, but in practice this is difficult because of problems related to RF coils, cardiac gating, and imaging pulse sequences. In this article, solutions to these problems are described that have allowed us to use MRI to routinely image the hearts of rats and rabbits. Specifically described are four RF coils, cardiac gating schemes, and an imaging pulse sequence specially designed for cardiac imaging in these animals on a 4.7 T Omega chemical-shift imaging (CSI) spectrometer. These techniques can be used to obtain, within 2 min, eight double-oblique short-axis images of the rat at different cardiac phases with 200 × 400 ?m in-plane resolution and a slice thickness of 2 mm. Moreover, myocardial tissue tagging can be performed with tag thicknesses and separations comparable to those used routinely in humans. The technical information is presented in sufficient detail to allow researchers at other sites to reproduce the results. This information should facilitate the use of MRI for the noninvasive examination of cardiac function and perfusion, which can be combined with other established techniques for the study of cardiovascular disease in specialized animal models. PMID:8978641

Rehwald, Wolfgang G.; Reeder, Scott B.; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Judd, Robert M.

2007-01-01

169

Experimental models of brain ischemia: a review of techniques, magnetic resonance imaging, and investigational cell-based therapies.  

PubMed

Stroke continues to be a significant cause of death and disability worldwide. Although major advances have been made in the past decades in prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation, enormous challenges remain in the way of translating new therapeutic approaches from bench to bedside. Thrombolysis, while routinely used for ischemic stroke, is only a viable option within a narrow time window. Recently, progress in stem cell biology has opened up avenues to therapeutic strategies aimed at supporting and replacing neural cells in infarcted areas. Realistic experimental animal models are crucial to understand the mechanisms of neuronal survival following ischemic brain injury and to develop therapeutic interventions. Current studies on experimental stroke therapies evaluate the efficiency of neuroprotective agents and cell-based approaches using primarily rodent models of permanent or transient focal cerebral ischemia. In parallel, advancements in imaging techniques permit better mapping of the spatial-temporal evolution of the lesioned cortex and its functional responses. This review provides a condensed conceptual review of the state of the art of this field, from models and magnetic resonance imaging techniques through to stem cell therapies. PMID:24600434

Canazza, Alessandra; Minati, Ludovico; Boffano, Carlo; Parati, Eugenio; Binks, Sophie

2014-01-01

170

Time-domain simulations of nonlinear interaction in microring resonators using finite-difference and coupled mode techniques.  

PubMed

Nonlinear interactions within compact, on-chip microring resonant cavities is a topic of increasing interest in current silicon photonics research. Frequency combs, one of the emerging nonlinear applications in microring optics, offers great potential from both scientific and practical perspectives. However, the mechanisms of comb formation appear to differ from traditional frequency combs formed by pulsed femtosecond lasers, and thus require detailed elucidation through theory and simulation. Here we propose a technique to mimic the accuracy of finite-difference time domain (FDTD) full wave nonlinear optical simulations with only a small fraction of the computational resources. Our new hybrid approach combines a single linear FDTD simulation of the key interaction parameters, then directly inserts them into a coupled-mode theory simulation. Comparison of the hybrid approach and full FDTD shows a good match both in frequency domain and in time domain. Thus, it retains the advantage of FDTD in terms of direct connection with experimental designs, while finishing much faster and sidestepping stability issues associated with direct simulation of nonlinear phenomena. The hybrid technique produces several key results explored in this paper, including: demonstrating that comb formation can occur with both anomalous and normal dispersion; suggesting a new mechanism for incoherent (Type II) frequency comb formation; and illustrating a method for creating soliton-like pulses in on-chip microresonators. PMID:25321006

Shugayev, Roman; Bermel, Peter

2014-08-11

171

? -detected nuclear quadrupole resonance with a low-energy beam of 8Li+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectrum of Li8 has been observed in a single crystal of SrTiO3 using a beam of low-energy highly polarized radioactive Li+8 . The resonances were detected by monitoring the ? -decay anisotropy as a function of a small audio frequency magnetic field. These results demonstrate that low energy nuclear spin polarized Li8 can be used as a sensitive probe of the local magnetic and electronic environment in nanostructures and ultrathin films in zero static applied magnetic field.

Salman, Z.; Reynard, E. P.; Macfarlane, W. A.; Chow, K. H.; Chakhalian, J.; Kreitzman, S. R.; Daviel, S.; Levy, C. D. P.; Poutissou, R.; Kiefl, R. F.

2004-09-01

172

High precision micro-impulse measurements for micro-thrusters based on torsional pendulum and sympathetic resonance techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sympathetic resonance theory is analyzed and applied in a newly developed torsional pendulum to measure the micro-impulse produced by a ?N s-class ablative pulsed plasma thruster. According to theoretical analysis on the dynamical behaviors of a torsional pendulum, the resonance amplification effect of micro-signals is presented. In addition, a new micro-impulse measurement method based on sympathetic resonance theory is proposed as an improvement of the original single pulse measurement method. In contrast with the single pulse measurement method, the advantages of sympathetic resonance method are significant. First, because of the magnification of vibration signals due to resonance processes, measurement precision for the sympathetic resonance method becomes higher especially in reducing reading error. With an increase in peak number, the relative errors induced by readout of voltage signals decrease to approximately ±1.9% for the sympathetic resonance mode, whereas the relative error in single pulse mode is estimated as ±13.4%. Besides, by using the resonance amplification effect the sympathetic resonance method makes it possible to measure an extremely low-impulse beyond the resolution of a thrust stand without redesigning or purchasing a new one. Moreover, because of the simple operational principle and structure the sympathetic resonance method is much more convenient and inexpensive to be implemented than other high-precision methods. Finally, the sympathetic resonance measurement method can also be applied in other thrust stands to improve further the ability to measure the low-impulse bits.

Zhang, Daixian; Wu, Jianjun; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Hua; He, Zhen

2013-12-01

173

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 61, NO. 1, JANUARY 2013 131 A Dual-Mode Dielectric Resonator Filter  

E-print Network

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 61, NO. 1, JANUARY 2013 131 A Dual-Mode cavity. The dual-mode cavities can be conveniently ar- ranged in many practical coupling configurations modes. The dielectric rod resonators are short circuited on the top and bottom surfaces to the metallic

Wu, Ke-Li

174

Evaluation of Elevated Mean Pulmonary Arterial Pressure Based on Magnetic Resonance 4D Velocity Mapping: Comparison of Visualization Techniques  

PubMed Central

Purpose Three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance phase contrast imaging (PC-MRI) allows non-invasive diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and estimation of elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) based on vortical motion of blood in the main pulmonary artery. The purpose of the present study was to compare the presence and duration of PH-associated vortices derived from different flow visualization techniques with special respect to their performance for non-invasive assessment of elevated mPAP and diagnosis of PH. Methods Fifty patients with suspected PH (23 patients with and 27 without PH) were investigated by right heart catheterization and time-resolved PC-MRI of the main pulmonary artery. PC-MRI data were visualized with dedicated prototype software, providing 3D vector, multi-planar reformatted (MPR) 2D vector, streamline, and particle trace representation of flow patterns. Persistence of PH-associated vortical blood flow (tvortex) was evaluated with all visualization techniques. Dependencies of tvortex on visualization techniques were analyzed by means of correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results tvortex values from 3D vector visualization correlated strongly with those from other visualization techniques (r?=?0.98, 0.98 and 0.97 for MPR, streamline and particle trace visualization, respectively). Areas under ROC curves for diagnosis of PH based on tvortex did not differ significantly and were 0.998 for 3D vector, MPR vector and particle trace visualization and 0.999 for streamline visualization. Correlations between elevated mPAP and tvortex in patients with PH were r?=?0.96, 0.93, 0.95 and 0.92 for 3D vector, MPR vector, streamline and particle trace visualization, respectively. Corresponding standard deviations from the linear regression lines ranged between 3 and 4 mmHg. Conclusion 3D vector, MPR vector, streamline as well as particle trace visualization of time-resolved 3D PC-MRI data of the main pulmonary artery can be employed for accurate vortex-based diagnosis of PH and estimation of elevated mPAP. PMID:24349224

Kovacs, Gabor; Stalder, Aurelien F.; Gulsun, Mehmet A.; Greiser, Andreas; Olschewski, Horst; Fuchsjager, Michael

2013-01-01

175

Impact of the state of water on the dispersion stability of a skin cream formulation elucidated by magnetic resonance techniques.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationship between the state of water and the dispersion stability of a skin cream formulation. Hydrophilic ointments treated with a high-pressure wet-type jet mill were used as model formulations. Spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)) were measured by magnetic resonance techniques to estimate the state of water in samples. A shorter T(1) relaxation time was obtained from samples with higher surfactant content, whereas the processing pressure of the jet mill and 1-week storage at 40 °C did not influence the T(1) relaxation time. Observations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that coalescence occurred in samples with lower surfactant contents (1.0% by weight) following 1-week storage at 40 °C. We also investigated samples prepared using a hydrophilic surfactant with a short polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain and with PEG-4000. From the change in T(1) relaxation times after removing the oil phase from samples by centrifugation, it was clarified that most of the surfactant was located on the surface of oil droplets. Furthermore, SEM observations showed that phase separation was facilitated as the PEG chain length of the surfactant shortened. Thus, a thin water layer over oil droplets is the most important factor for stabilizing their dispersion. This study provides proof-of-principle results on the contribution of the state of water to the dispersion stability of a skin cream formulation. PMID:21372414

Nishikawa, Masato; Onuki, Yoshinori; Okuno, Yoshihide; Takayama, Kozo

2011-01-01

176

Established and emerging cardiovascular magnetic resonance techniques for the assessment of stable coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndromes  

PubMed Central

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. International guidelines recommend cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as an investigative option in those presenting with chest pain to inform diagnosis, risk stratify and determine the need for revascularization. CMR offers a unique method to assess global and regional cardiac function, myocardial perfusion, myocardial viability, tissue characterisation and proximal coronary anatomy all within a single study. This results in high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of significant coronary stenoses and an established role in the management of both stable CHD and acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The growing evidence base for the prognostic value of CMR, emerging advances in acquisition techniques, improvements in hardware and the completion of current major multi-centre clinical CMR trials will further raise its prominence in international guidelines and routine cardiological practice. This article will focus on the rapidly evolving role of the multi-parametric CMR examination in the assessment of patients with stable and unstable CHD. PMID:25392820

Ripley, David P.; Motwani, Manish; Plein, Sven

2014-01-01

177

NQR-NMR studies of higher alcohol synthesis Cu-Co catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the project is to examine the relations between the catalytic and magnetic properties of the copper-cobalt higher alcohol synthesis catalysts. We have undertaken to investigate the magnetic character by studying the Nuclear Quadrupole resonance of copper and (Zerofield) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of cobalt in copper cobalt catalysts.

Not Available

1991-12-17

178

Invited Article: Dielectric material characterization techniques and designs of high-Q resonators for applications from micro to millimeter-waves frequencies applicable at room and cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric resonators are key elements in many applications in micro to millimeter wave circuits, including ultra-narrow band filters and frequency-determining components for precision frequency synthesis. Distributed-layered and bulk low-loss crystalline and polycrystalline dielectric structures have become very important for building these devices. Proper design requires careful electromagnetic characterization of low-loss material properties. This includes exact simulation with precision numerical software and precise measurements of resonant modes. For example, we have developed the Whispering Gallery mode technique for microwave applications, which has now become the standard for characterizing low-loss structures. This paper will give some of the most common characterization techniques used in the micro to millimeter wave regime at room and cryogenic temperatures for designing high-Q dielectric loaded cavities.

Le Floch, Jean-Michel; Fan, Y.; Humbert, Georges; Shan, Qingxiao; Férachou, Denis; Bara-Maillet, Romain; Aubourg, Michel; Hartnett, John G.; Madrangeas, Valerie; Cros, Dominique; Blondy, Jean-Marc; Krupka, Jerzy; Tobar, Michael E.

2014-03-01

179

Invited article: Dielectric material characterization techniques and designs of high-Q resonators for applications from micro to millimeter-waves frequencies applicable at room and cryogenic temperatures.  

PubMed

Dielectric resonators are key elements in many applications in micro to millimeter wave circuits, including ultra-narrow band filters and frequency-determining components for precision frequency synthesis. Distributed-layered and bulk low-loss crystalline and polycrystalline dielectric structures have become very important for building these devices. Proper design requires careful electromagnetic characterization of low-loss material properties. This includes exact simulation with precision numerical software and precise measurements of resonant modes. For example, we have developed the Whispering Gallery mode technique for microwave applications, which has now become the standard for characterizing low-loss structures. This paper will give some of the most common characterization techniques used in the micro to millimeter wave regime at room and cryogenic temperatures for designing high-Q dielectric loaded cavities. PMID:24689557

Le Floch, Jean-Michel; Fan, Y; Humbert, Georges; Shan, Qingxiao; Férachou, Denis; Bara-Maillet, Romain; Aubourg, Michel; Hartnett, John G; Madrangeas, Valerie; Cros, Dominique; Blondy, Jean-Marc; Krupka, Jerzy; Tobar, Michael E

2014-03-01

180

Quantitative linear and nonlinear resonance inspection techniques and analysis for material characterization: application to concrete thermal damage.  

PubMed

Developed in the late 1980s, Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) has been widely employed in the field of material characterization. Most of the studies assume the measured amplitude to be proportional to the strain amplitude which drives nonlinear phenomena. In 1D resonant bar experiments, the configuration for which NRUS was initially developed, this assumption holds. However, it is not true for samples of general shape which exhibit several resonance mode shapes. This paper proposes a methodology based on linear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, numerical simulations and nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy to provide quantitative values of nonlinear elastic moduli taking into account the 3D nature of the samples. In the context of license renewal in the field of nuclear energy, this study aims at providing some quantitative information related to the degree of micro-cracking of concrete and cement based materials in the presence of thermal damage. The resonance based method is validated as regard with concrete microstructure evolution during thermal exposure. PMID:25096088

Payan, C; Ulrich, T J; Le Bas, P Y; Saleh, T; Guimaraes, M

2014-08-01

181

Microwave surface resistance of epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin films at 18.7 GHz measured by a dielectric resonator technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a dielectric resonator technique for highly sensitive measurements of the temperature dependence of the microwave surface resistanceRsof 1×1 cm2 superconducting films at 18.7 GHz. It consists of a sapphire disc positioned on the film under investigation within a copper cavity which is acting as a radiation shield. In the TE01d oscillation mode the highly reproducible quality factor of

N. Klein; U. Daehne; U. Poppe; N. Tellmann; K. Urban; S. Orbach; S. Hensen; G. Mueller; H. Piel

1992-01-01

182

Measurement of the graft angles for the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with transtibial technique using postoperative magnetic resonance imaging in comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to quantify the angle and placement of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) grafted with a single\\u000a incision ACL reconstruction technique using postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to compare the results with\\u000a those with a native ACL. Between February 1996 and May 2004, 96 consecutive patients, who had undergone postoperative MRI\\u000a of the knee

Jin Hwan Ahn; Sang Hak Lee; Jae Chul Yoo; Hae Chan Ha

2007-01-01

183

Preclinical Assessment of a New Magnetic Resonance-based Technique for Determining Bone Quality by Characterization of Trabecular Microarchitecture.  

PubMed

The utility of HR-CT to study longitudinal changes in bone microarchitecture is limited by subject radiation exposure. Although MR is not subject to this limitation, it is limited both by patient movement that occurs during prolonged scanning at distal sites, and by the signal-to-noise ratio that is achievable for high-resolution images in a reasonable scan time at proximal sites. Recently, a novel MR-based technique, fine structure analysis (FSA) (Chase et al. Localised one-dimensional magnetic resonance spatial frequency spectroscopy. PCT/US2012/068284 2012, James and Chase Magnetic field gradient structure characteristic assessment using one-dimensional (1D) spatial frequency distribution analysis. 7932720 B2, 2011) has been developed which provides both high-resolution and fast scan times, but which generates at a designated set of spatial positions (voxels) a one-dimensional signal of spatial frequencies. Appendix 1 provides a brief introduction to FSA. This article describes an initial exploration of FSA for the rapid, non-invasive characterization of trabecular microarchitecture in a preclinical setting. For L4 vertebrae of sham and ovariectomized (OVX) rats, we compared FSA-generated metrics with those from CT datasets and from CT-derived histomorphometry parameters, trabecular number (Tb.N), bone volume density (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). OVX caused a reduction of the higher frequency structures that correspond to a denser trabecular lattice, while increasing the preponderance of lower frequency structures, which correspond to a more open lattice. As one example measure, the centroid of the FSA spectrum (which we refer to as fSAcB) showed strong correlation in the same region with CT-derived histomorphometry values: Tb.Sp: r -0.63, p < 0.001; Tb.N: r 0.71, p < 0.001; BV/TV: r 0.64, p < 0.001, Tb.Th: r 0.44, p < 0.05. Furthermore, we found a 17.5 % reduction in fSAcB in OVX rats (p < 0.0001). In a longitudinal study, FSA showed that the age-related increase in higher frequency structures was abolished in OVX rats, being replaced with a 78-194 % increase in lower frequency structures (2.4-2.8 objects/mm range), indicating a more sparse trabecular lattice (p < 0.05). The MR-based fine structure analysis enables high-resolution, radiation-free, rapid quantification of bone structures in one dimension (the specific point and direction being chosen by the clinician) of the spine. PMID:25380571

Evans, B A J; James, T W; James, K; Cox, A; Farr, L; Paisey, S J; Dempster, D W; Stone, M D; Griffiths, P A; Hugtenburg, R P; Brady, Sir M; Wells, T

2014-12-01

184

Simulations of imaging of the local density of states by a charged probe technique for resonant cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simulate scanning probe imaging of the local density of states related to scattering Fermi level wave functions inside a resonant cavity. We calculate the potential landscape within the cavity, taking into account the Coulomb charge of the probe and its screening by deformation of the two-dimensional electron gas using the local density approximation. Approximation of the tip potential by a Lorentz function is discussed. The electron transfer problem is solved with a finite difference approach. We look for stable work points for the extraction of the local density of states from conductance maps. We find that conductance maps are highly correlated with the local density of states when the Fermi energy level enters into Fano resonance with states localized within the cavity. Generally outside resonances the correlation between the local density of states and conductance maps is low.

Kolasi?ski, K.; Szafran, B.

2013-10-01

185

Improved L-C resonant decay technique for Q measurement of quasilinear power inductors: New results for MPP and ferrite powdered cores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The L-C resonant decay technique for measuring circuit Q or losses is improved by eliminating the switch from the inductor-capacitor loop. A MOSFET switch is used instead to momentarily connect the resonant circuit to an existing voltage source, which itself is gated off during the decay transient. Very reproducible, low duty cycle data could be taken this way over a dynamic voltage range of at least 10:1. Circuit Q is computed from a polynomial fit to the sequence of the decaying voltage maxima. This method was applied to measure the losses at 60 kHz in inductors having loose powder cores of moly permalloy and an Mn-Zn power ferrite. After the copper and capacitor losses are separated out, the resulting specific core loss is shown to be roughly as expected for the MPP powder, but anomalously high for the ferrite powder. Possible causes are mentioned.

Niedra, Janis M.; Gerber, Scott S.

1995-01-01

186

59Co Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Studies of Superconducting and Nonsuperconducting Bilayer Water Intercalated Sodium Cobalt Oxides NaxCoO2\\cdotyH2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report 59Co nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) studies of bilayer water intercalated sodium cobalt oxides NaxCoO2\\cdotyH2O (BLH) with the superconducting transition temperatures, 2 K < Tc ? 4.6 K, as well as a magnetic BLH sample without superconductivity. We obtained a magnetic phase diagram of Tc and the magnetic ordering temperature TM against the peak frequency ?3 of the 59Co NQR transition Iz = ± 5/2 ?ftrightarrow ± 7/2 and found a dome-shaped superconducting phase. The 59Co NQR spectrum of the nonsuperconducting BLH shows a broadening below TM without the critical divergence of 1/T1 or 1/T2, suggesting an unconventional magnetic ordering. The degree of enhancement of 1/T1T at low temperatures increases with the increase of ?3 though the optimal ?3 of approximately 12.30 MHz. In the NaxCoO2\\cdotyH2O system, the optimal-Tc superconductivity emerges close to the magnetic instability. Tc is suppressed near the phase boundary at ?3 ˜ 12.50 MHz, which is not a conventional magnetic quantum critical point.

Michioka, C.; Ohta, H.; Itoh, Y.; Yoshimura, K.

2006-06-01

187

Investigation of Structural Information for Boron - Solids and Aluminates via NMR and Nqr Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has been prevailed in investigating local structures for a variety of materials: various oxide glasses, zeolites, superconductors, etc. Since glasses have short range ordered structures instead of long range ordered ones in crystals, NMR is usually more useful in determining the local structures for many glasses than any other detection methods do. Along with NMR, Nuclear

Donghoon Lee

1991-01-01

188

Field-tuned critical fluctuations in YFe2Al10: Evidence from magnetization, 27Al NMR, and NQR investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report magnetization, specific heat, and NMR investigations on YFe2Al10 over a wide range of temperature and magnetic field and zero field (NQR) measurements. Magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and spin-lattice relaxation rate divided by T(1/T1T) follow a weak power law (˜T-0.4) temperature dependence, which is a signature of the critical fluctuations of Fe moments. The value of the Sommerfeld-Wilson ratio and the linear relation between 1/T1T and ? suggest the existence of ferromagnetic correlations in this system. No magnetic ordering down to 50 mK in Cp(T)/T and the unusual T and H scaling of the bulk and NMR data are associated with a magnetic instability which drives the system to quantum criticality. The magnetic properties of the system are tuned by field wherein ferromagnetic fluctuations are suppressed and a crossover from quantum critical to Fermi-liquid behavior is observed with increasing magnetic field.

Khuntia, P.; Strydom, A. M.; Wu, L. S.; Aronson, M. C.; Steglich, F.; Baenitz, M.

2012-12-01

189

A zero-field NQR and low-field NMR study of NaHF 2 and KHF 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quadrupole coupling constants and asymmetry parameters have been measured for 23Na in NaHF 2 and NaDF 2 and an estimate obtained for the quadrupole coupling constant of 39K in KHF 2 using nuclear quadrupole double-resonance (NQDR) techniques. Both fluorine and hydrogen were used as the detecting nuclear species. Using the same field-cycling techniques as are used in NQDR the very low field NMR of the HF2- ion was measured. By a comparison of theory with experiment it was possible to deduce a F-H bond length of 0.115(1) nm for KHF 2 and 0.113(l) nm for NaHF 2.

Gosling, P.; Edmonds, D. T.; Rabbani, S. R.

190

Study of hydrogen in coals, polymers, oxides, and muscle water by nuclear magnetic resonance; extension of solid-state high-resolution techniques. [Hydrogen molybdenum bronze  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been an important analytical and physical research tool for several decades. One area of NMR which has undergone considerable development in recent years is high resolution NMR of solids. In particular, high resolution solid state /sup 13/C NMR spectra exhibiting features similar to those observed in liquids are currently achievable using sophisticated pulse techniques. The work described in this thesis develops analogous methods for high resolution /sup 1/H NMR of rigid solids. Applications include characterization of hydrogen aromaticities in fossil fuels, and studies of hydrogen in oxides and bound water in muscle.

Ryan, L.M.

1981-10-01

191

Conceptual Study on New Isotope Analysis Technique with Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using Inductively Coupled Plasma as an Atomic Source (ICP-RIMS)  

SciTech Connect

We have proposed the novel isotope analysis technique with Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry using Inductively Coupled Plasma as an atomic source (ICP-RIMS). Each component of ICP-RIMS is conceptually designed. We conclude that the orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer (oa-TOF-MS) driven by a high-repetition-rate pulsed laser would be suitable system for ICP-RIMS. We, additionally, suggest that the first vacuum stage of the vacuum interface, which is between the sampling and skimmer cones, is desired to maintain as low pressure as possible in order to suppress the Doppler broadening and to skim the supersonic jet effectively.

Watanabe, K.; Uritani, A. [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Higuchi, Y.; Tomita, H.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Iguchi, T. [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan)

2009-03-17

192

Structure and transport properties of stephanite (Ag5SbS4) according to antimony nuclear quadrupole resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver sulfo-antimonide Ag5SbS4 (stephanite) has been studied by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy on antimony nuclei. The temperature dependences of the spectroscopic and relaxation parameters have been examined in the range of 4.2-395 K. A phase transition at 140 K and internal motions with an activation energy of 0.29 eV have been experimentally detected. The nature of the phase transition and diffusion of silver ions has been discussed in view of the reported data.

Orlova, A. Yu.; Gainov, R. R.; Dooglav, A. V.; Pen'kov, I. N.; Korolev, E. A.

2012-11-01

193

Multipulse sequences for explosives detection by NQR under conditions of magnetoacoustic and piezoelectric ringing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of methods for cancelling magnetoacoustic and piezoelectric ringing signals in the spectroscopy of the nuclear quadrupole\\u000a resonance are presented. The suggested methods include using the sequence (?0)?-(?-?x-2?-?\\u000a y\\u000a -2?-??x\\u000a -2?-??y\\u000a -?)\\u000a n\\u000a and a multipulse analog of the two-pulse Hahn sequence with the first pulse replaced by a short steady-state sequence. Another\\u000a method presented is the method of

V. T. Mikhaltsevitch; T. N. Rudakov; J. H. Flexman; P. A. Hayes; W. P. Chisholm

2004-01-01

194

Surface plasmon resonance technique for directly probing the interaction of DNA and graphene oxide and ultra-sensitive biosensing.  

PubMed

The binding of DNA with graphene oxide (GO) is important for applications in disease diagnosis, genetic screening, and drug discovery. The standard assay methods are mainly limited to indirect observation via fluorescence labeling. Here we report the use of surface plasmon resonance for direct sensing of DNA/GO binding. We show that this can be used for ultra-sensitive detection of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Furthermore, the results provide a more direct probe of DNA/GO binding abilities and confirm that hydrogen bonding plays a key role in the interaction between GO and ssDNA. This enables to a novel biosensor for highly sensitive and selective detection of ssDNA based on indirect competitive inhibition assay (ICIA). We report development of such a sensor with a linear dynamic range of 10(-14)-10(-6)M, a detection limit of 10fM and a high level of stability during repeated regeneration. PMID:24686149

Xue, Tianyu; Cui, Xiaoqiang; Guan, Weiming; Wang, Qiyu; Liu, Chang; Wang, Haitao; Qi, Kun; Singh, D J; Zheng, Weitao

2014-08-15

195

Terahertz-range free-electron laser electron spin resonance spectroscopy: techniques and applications in high magnetic fields.  

PubMed

The successful use of picosecond-pulse free-electron-laser (FEL) radiation for the continuous-wave terahertz-range electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy has been demonstrated. The combination of two linac-based FELs (covering the wavelength range of 4-250 microm) with pulsed magnetic fields up to 70 T allows for multifrequency ESR spectroscopy in a frequency range of 1.2-75 THz with a spectral resolution better than 1%. The performance of the spectrometer is illustrated with ESR spectra obtained in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and the low-dimensional organic material (C6H9N2)CuCl3. PMID:19655938

Zvyagin, S A; Ozerov, M; Cizmár, E; Kamenskyi, D; Zherlitsyn, S; Herrmannsdörfer, T; Wosnitza, J; Wünsch, R; Seidel, W

2009-07-01

196

Topology of the interactions pattern in pharmaceutically relevant polymorphs of methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophiline): combined experimental ((1)h-(14)n nuclear quadrupole double resonance) and computational (DFT and hirshfeld-based) study.  

PubMed

Three anhydrous methylxanthines: caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine; 1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-(3H,7H)-dione) and its two metabolites theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine; 1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione) and theobromine (3,7-dimethyl-xanthine; 3,7-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione), which reveal multifaceted therapeutic potential, have been studied experimentally in solid state by (1)H-(14)N NMR-NQR (nuclear magnetic resonance-nuclear quadrupole resonance) double resonance (NQDR). For each compound the complete NQR spectrum consisting of 12 lines was recorded. The multiplicity of NQR lines indicates the presence of a stable ? form of anhydrous caffeine at 233 K and stable form II of anhydrous theobromine at 213 K. The assignment of signals detected in NQR experiment to particular nitrogen atoms was made on the basis of quantum chemistry calculations performed for monomer, cluster, and solid at the DFT/GGA/BLYP/DPD level. The shifts due to crystal packing interactions were evaluated, and the multiplets detected by NQR were assigned to N(9) in theobromine and N(1) and N(9) in caffeine. The ordering theobromine > theophylline > caffeine site and theophylline < theobromine < caffeine according to increasing electric field gradient (EFG) at the N(1) and N(7) sites, respectively, reflects the changes in biological activity profile of compounds from the methylxanthines series (different pharmacological effects). This difference is elucidated on the basis of the ability to form intra- and intermolecular interactions (hydrogen bonds and ?···? stacking interactions). The introduction of methyl groups to xanthine restricts the ability of nitrogen atoms to participate in strong hydrogen bonds; as a result, the dominating effect shifts from hydrogen bond (theobromine) to ?···? stacking (caffeine). Substantial differences in the intermolecular interactions in stable forms of methylxanthines differing in methylation (site or number) were analyzed within the Hirshfeld surface-based approach. The analysis of local environment of the nitrogen nucleus permitted drawing some conclusions on the nature of the interactions required for effective processes of recognition and binding of a given methylxanthine to A1-A2A receptor (target for caffeine in the brain). Although the interactions responsible for linking neighboring methylxanthines molecules in crystals and methylxanthines with targets in the human organism can differ significantly, the knowledge of the topology of interactions provides reliable preliminary information about the nature of this binding. PMID:25184363

Latosi?ska, Jolanta Natalia; Latosi?ska, Magdalena; Olejniczak, Grzegorz A; Seliger, Janez; Zagar, Veselko

2014-09-22

197

High precision measurement of the 11Li and 9Li quadrupole moment ratio using zero-field ?-NQR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ratio of electric quadrupole moments of 11Li and 9Li was measured using the zero-field ?-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance technique at Triumf-Isac. The precision on the ratio Q11/Q9 = 1.0775(12) was improved by more than one order of magnitude and an absolute value for the quadrupole moment of 11Li was inferred. Systematic effects, as argued here, are not expected to contribute to the ratio on this scale. The zero-field spin-lattice relaxation time for 8Li implanted within SrTiO3 at 295?K in zero-field was found to be T1 = 1.73(2)?s. A comparison of the quadrupole moments of 9, 11Li and their ratio is made with the latest models, however, no conclusion may yet be drawn owing to the size of the theoretical uncertainties.

Voss, A.; Pearson, M. R.; Buchinger, F.; Crawford, J. E.; Kiefl, R. F.; Levy, C. D. P.; MacFarlane, W. A.; Mané, E.; Morris, G. D.; Shelbaya, O. T. J.; Song, Q.; Wang, D.

2014-01-01

198

Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with dc SQUID amplifiers  

SciTech Connect

The development and fabrication of dc SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices) with Nb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Nb Josephson junctions is described. A theory of the dc SQUID as a radio-frequency amplifier is presented, with an optimization strategy that accounts for the loading and noise contributions of the postamplifier and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of the total system. The high sensitivity of the dc SQUID is extended to high field NMR. A dc SQUID is used as a tuned radio-frequency amplifier to detect pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance at 32 MHz from a metal film in a 3.5 Tesla static field. A total system noise temperature of 11 K has been achieved, at a bath temperature of 4.2 K. The minimum number of nuclear Bohr magnetons observable from a free precession signal after a single pulse is about 2 {times} 10{sup 17} in a bandwidth of 25 kHz. In a separate experiment, a dc SQUID is used as a rf amplifier in a NQR experiment to observe a new resonance response mechanism. The net electric polarization of a NaClO{sub 3} crystal due to the precessing electric quadrupole moments of the Cl nuclei is detected at 30 MHz. The sensitivity of NMR and NQR spectrometers using dc SQUID amplifiers is compared to the sensitivity of spectrometers using conventional rf amplifiers. A SQUID-based spectrometer has a voltage sensitivity which is comparable to the best achieved by a FET-based spectrometer, at these temperatures and operating frequencies.

Heaney, M.B. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-11-01

199

A novel technique for the three-dimensional visualization of radio-frequency ablation lesions using delayed enhancement magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of radio-frequency ablation lesions has been shown to be feasible using delayed enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is the determination of the lesion patterns that is of import for correlation with clinical outcome and location of gaps. Visualisation of ablation patterns on two-dimensional (2D) MR images is not intuitive. We present a technique for the three-dimensional (3D) visualisation of ablation patterns by creating a surface from a segmentation of the cardiac chamber of interest, fusing with the delayed enhancement MRI and integrating the MR signal along vectors normal to the cardiac surface. Areas of delayed enhancement will have a larger integral value than healthy myocardium. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) values were used to colour code the cardiac surface for 3D visualisation of the areas of delayed enhancement. The technique was applied to three patients with a cardiac arrhythmia, with successful visualisation of the ablation pattern. Patterns of delayed enhancement were correlated with ablation points derived from electro-anatomical mapping systems (EAMS) and were found to have similar patterns. This visualisation technique allows for the intuitive visualisation of ablation lesions and has many applications for use in electrophysiology.

Knowles, Benjamin R.; Caulfield, Dennis; Ginks, Matthew; Cooklin, Michael; Bostock, Julian; Rinaldi, Aldo; Gill, Jaswinder; Razavi, Reza; Schaeffter, Tobias; Rhode, Kawal S.

2009-02-01

200

Application of Polypyrrole Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite Layer for Detection of Mercury, Lead and Iron Ions Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Technique  

PubMed Central

Polypyrrole multi-walled carbon nanotube composite layers were used to modify the gold layer to measure heavy metal ions using the surface plasmon resonance technique. The new sensor was fabricated to detect trace amounts of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and iron (Fe) ions. In the present research, the sensitivity of a polypyrrole multi-walled carbon nanotube composite layer and a polypyrrole layer were compared. The application of polypyrrole multi-walled carbon nanotubes enhanced the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor for detecting ions in an aqueous solution due to the binding of mercury, lead, and iron ions to the sensing layer. The Hg ion bonded to the sensing layer more strongly than did the Pb and Fe ions. The limitation of the sensor was calculated to be about 0.1 ppm, which produced an angle shift in the region of 0.3° to 0.6°. PMID:24733263

Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Noor, A. S. M.; Bahrami, Afarin; Lim, H. N.; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Mahdi, Mohd. Adzir

2014-01-01

201

Application of polypyrrole multi-walled carbon nanotube composite layer for detection of mercury, lead and iron ions using surface plasmon resonance technique.  

PubMed

Polypyrrole multi-walled carbon nanotube composite layers were used to modify the gold layer to measure heavy metal ions using the surface plasmon resonance technique. The new sensor was fabricated to detect trace amounts of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and iron (Fe) ions. In the present research, the sensitivity of a polypyrrole multi-walled carbon nanotube composite layer and a polypyrrole layer were compared. The application of polypyrrole multi-walled carbon nanotubes enhanced the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor for detecting ions in an aqueous solution due to the binding of mercury, lead, and iron ions to the sensing layer. The Hg ion bonded to the sensing layer more strongly than did the Pb and Fe ions. The limitation of the sensor was calculated to be about 0.1 ppm, which produced an angle shift in the region of 0.3° to 0.6°. PMID:24733263

Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Noor, A S M; Bahrami, Afarin; Lim, H N; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir

2014-01-01

202

The analytical application and spectral investigation of DNA-CPB-emodin and sensitive determination of DNA by resonance Rayleigh light scattering technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new sensitive DNA probe containing cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) and emodin (an effective component of Chinese herbal medicine) was developed using the resonance Rayleigh light scattering (RLS) technique. A novel assay was first developed to detect DNA at nanogram level based on the ternary system of DNA-CPB-emodin. The RLS signal of DNA was enhanced remarkably in the presence of emodin-CPB, and the enhanced RLS intensity at 340.0 nm was in direct proportion to DNA concentration in the range of 0.01-2.72 ?g mL-1 with a good linear relationship. The detection limit was 1.5 ng mL-1. Three synthetic DNA samples were measured obtaining satisfactory results, the recovery was 97.6-107.3%.

Bi, Shuyun; Wang, Yu; Wang, Tianjiao; Pang, Bo; Zhao, Tingting

2013-01-01

203

Development of a label-free immunosensor based on surface plasmon resonance technique for the detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies in canine serum.  

PubMed

In this work, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor was developed using an 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) modified gold SPR sensor chip for the detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies. The soluble antigens of L. infantum were securely immobilized on an SPR gold disk by an 11-MUA self-assembled monolayer. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) techniques were employed in the characterization of the antigen immobilization. After the immunosensor construction, canine serum positive for visceral leishmaniasis was added to its surface and showed significant variation in the SPR angle, indicating excellent sensitivity of the technique for antigen-antibody interaction detection. Moreover, the addition of negative serum was accompanied by a smaller response, demonstrating that the immunosensor shows good specificity against anti-L. infantum antibodies. Therefore, this work demonstrates the successful development of an SPR sensor for anti-L. infantum antibodies detection in short time, showing a great perspective as a sensing system of visceral leishmaniasis in endemic regions. PMID:23500472

Souto, Dênio E P; Silva, Jussara V; Martins, Helen R; Reis, Alexandre B; Luz, Rita C S; Kubota, Lauro T; Damos, Flávio S

2013-08-15

204

Nuclear magnetic resonance with dc SQUID (Super-conducting QUantum Interference Device) preamplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitive radio-frequency (RF) amplifiers based on dc Superconducting QUantum Interface Devices (SQUIDS) are available for frequencies up to 200 MHz. At 4.2 K, the gain and noise temperature of a typical tuned amplifier are 18.6 + or - 0.5 dB and 1.7 + or - 0.5 K at 93 MHz. These amplifiers are being applied to a series of novel experiments on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). The high sensitivity of these amplifiers was demonstrated in the observation of nuclear spin noise, the emission of photons by Cl-35 nuclei in a state of zero polarization. In the more conventional experiments in which one applies a large RF pulse to the spins, a Q-spoiler, consisting of a series array of Josephson junctions, is used to reduce the Q of the input circuit to a very low value during the pulse. The Q-spoiler enables the circuit to recover quickly after the pulse, and has been used in an NQR experiment to achieve a sensitivity of about 2 x 10(16) nuclear Bohr magnetons in a single free precession signal with a bandwidth of 10 kHz. In a third experiment, a sample containing Cl-35 nuclei was placed in a capacitor and the signal detected electrically using a tuned SQUID amplifier and Q-spoiler. In this way, the electrical polarization induced by the precessing Cl nuclear quadrupole moments was detected: this is the inverse of the Stark effect in NQR. Two experiments involving NMR have been carried out. In the first, the 30 MHz resonance in Sn-119 nuclei is detected with a tuned amplifier and Q-spoiler, and a single pulse resolution of 10(18) nuclear Bohr magnetons in a bandwidth of 25 kHz has been achieved. For the second, a low frequency NMR system has been developed that uses an untuned input circuit coupled to the SQUID. The resonance in Pt-195 nuclei has been observed at 55 kHz in a field of 60 gauss.

Fan, N. Q.; Heaney, Michael B.; Clark, John; Newitt, D.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Hahn, Erwin L.; Bierlecki, A.; Pines, A.

1988-08-01

205

HCN, A Triple-Resonance NMR Technique for Selective Observation of Histidine and Tryptophan Side Chains in 13C/ 15N-Labeled Proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HCN, a new 3D NMR technique for stepwise coherence transfer from 1H to 13C to 15N and reverse through direct spin couplings 1JCHand 1JCN, is presented as a method for detection and assignment of histidine and tryptophan side-chain 1H, 13C, and 15N resonances in uniformly 13C/ 15N-labeled proteins. Product-operator calculations of cross-peak volumes vs adjustable delay ? 3were employed for determination of optimal ? 3. For the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K SH3 domain, MW = 9.6 kD) at pH 6, H(C)N, the 1H/ 15N projection, produced observable cross peaks within 20 min. and was completely selective for the single tryptophan and single histidine. The 3D HCN experiment yielded well-defined cross peaks in 20 h for the 13C/ 15N-labeled origin-specific DNA binding domain from simian virus 40 T-antigen (T-ag-OBD 131-259, MW = 15.4 kD) at pH 5.5. Resonances from all six histidines in T-ag-OBD were observed, and 11 of the 12 1H and 13C chemical shifts and 10 of the 12 15N chemical shifts were determined. The 13C dimension proved essential in assignment of the multiply overlapping 1H and 15N resonances. From the spectra recorded at a single pH, three of the imidazoles were essentially neutral and the other three were partially protonated (22-37%). HCN yielded strong cross peaks after 18 h on a 2.0 m Msample of phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF)-inhibited ?-lytic protease (MW = 19.8 kD) at pH 4.4. No spectra have been obtained, however, of native or boronic acid-inhibited ?-lytic protease after 18 h at various temperatures ranging from 5 to 55°C, probably due to efficient relaxation of active-site imidazole 1H and/or 15N nuclei.

Sudmeier, James L.; Ash, Elissa L.; Günther, Ulrich L.; Luo, Xuelian; Bullock, Peter A.; Bachovchin, William W.

206

Resonances and resonance widths  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional betatron resonances are much more important than their simple one-dimensional counterparts and exhibit a strong dependence on the betatron phase advance per cell. A practical definition of ''width'' is expanded upon in order to display these relations in tables. A primarily pedagogical introduction is given to explain the tables, and also to encourage a wider capability for deriving resonance behavior and wider use of ''designer'' resonances.

Collins, T.

1986-05-01

207

A novel method for study of the aggregation of protein induced by metal ion aluminum(III) using resonance Rayleigh scattering technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel method for the study of the aggregation of protein induced by metal ion aluminum(III) using resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) technique. In neutral Tris-HCl medium, the effect of this aggregation of protein results in the enhancement of RRS intensity and the relationship between the enhancement of the RRS signal and the Al concentration is nonlinear. On this basis, we established a new method for the determination of the critical induced-aggregation concentrations ( CCIAC) of metal ion Al(III) inducing the protein aggregation. Our results show that many factors, such as, pH value, anions, salts, temperature and solvents have obvious effects. We also studied the extent of aggregation and structural changes using ultra-violet spectrometry, protein intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism to further understand the exact mechanisms of the aggregation characteristics of proteins induced by metal ion Al(III) at the molecular level, to help us to develop effective methods to investigate the toxicity of metal ion Al, and to provide theoretical and quantitative evidences for the development of appropriate treatments for neurodementia such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and dementia related to dialysis.

Long, Xiufen; Zhang, Caihua; Cheng, Jiongjia; Bi, Shuping

2008-01-01

208

A novel and selective assay for the quantitative analysis of molybdenum(VI) at nanogram level by resonance light scattering quenching technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method is designed for the direct determination of trace amounts of molybdenum(VI) in tap water, human hair, and Chinese herbal medicine by means of decreasing resonance light scattering (RLS) technique. The characteristics of RLS spectra, the effective factors, and optimum conditions of the reaction were studied. In the medium of hydrochloric acid (pH 2.38), Mo(VI), dibromohydroxyphenylfluorone (DBHPF), and Triton X-100 react to form a complex, resulting in significant decreasing RLS signals of DBHPF-Triton X-100. The decreasing RLS intensity at 583.0 nm is proportional to the concentration of Mo(VI) up to 8.0 ng mL -1. The detection limit is 0.013 ng mL -1. The method is simple, reproducible, with reaction rapidity and stability of complexes formed. Moreover, the high selectivity and sensitivity of this method permits its direct determination of molybdenum(VI) in tap water, human hair, and Chinese herbal medicine and the results are in agreement with those obtained by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) method.

Chen, Zhan Guang; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Tai Yu; Liu, Jin Bin; Han, Ya Li

2008-07-01

209

An investigation on the interaction of DNA with hesperetin/apigenin in the presence of CTAB by resonance Rayleigh light scattering technique and its analytical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new systems for measuring DNA at nanogram levels by a resonance Rayleigh light scattering (RLS) technique with a common spectrofluorometer were proposed. In the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), the interaction of DNA with hesperetin and apigenin (two effective components of Chinese herbal medicine) could enhance RLS signals with the maximum peak at 363 and 433 nm respectively. The enhanced intensity of RLS was directly proportional to the concentration of DNA in the range of 0.022-4.4 ?g mL-1 for DNA-CTAB-hesperetin system and 0.013-4.4 ?g mL-1 for DNA-CTAB-apigenin system. The detection limit was 2.34 ng mL-1 and 2.97 ng mL-1 respectively. Synthetic samples were measured satisfactorily. The recovery of DNA-CTAB-hesperetin system was 97.3-101.9% and that of DNA-CTAB-apigenin system was 101.2-109.5%.

Bi, Shuyun; Wang, Yu; Pang, Bo; Yan, Lili; Wang, Tianjiao

2012-05-01

210

Nondestructive testing of adhesive bonds by nuclear quadrupole resonance method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inert, strain sensitive tracer, cuprous oxide, added to polymeric adhesive ensures sufficiently large signal to noise ratio in NQR system output. Method is successful, provided that RF-transparent structural materials are used between modified adhesive and probe of NQR spectrometer.

Hewitt, R. R.

1971-01-01

211

63,65Cu Nuclear Resonance Study of the Coupled Spin Dimers and Chains Compound Cu2Fe2Ge4O13  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of Cu have been measured in a coupled spin dimers and chains compound Cu2Fe2Ge4O13. Cu NQR has also been measured in an isostructural material Cu2Sc2Ge4O13 including only spin dimers. Comparison of the temperature dependence of the 63Cu nuclear spin--lattice relaxation rate between the two compounds reveals that the Fe chains in Cu2Fe2Ge4O13 do not change a spin gap energy of the Cu dimers from that in Cu2Sc2Ge4O13, contributing additionally to the relaxation rate at the Cu site. A modestly large internal field of 3.39 T was observed at the Cu site in the antiferromagnetic state of Cu2Fe2 Ge4O13 at 4.2 K, which is partly because of quantum reduction of the ordered moment of a Cu atom. The internal field and the ordered moment of Cu are noncollinear due to large anisotropy of the hyperfine interaction at the Cu site. A model analysis of the internal field based on the fourfold planar coordination of Cu suggests that a 3d hole of the Cu2+ ion is mainly in the d(x2-y2) orbital state.

Kikuchi, Jun; Nagura, Shiro; Murakami, Kazumasa; Masuda, Takatsugu; Redhammer, Günther J.

2013-03-01

212

Resonant Doppler velocimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Narrow linewidth tunable lasers augur a new kind of laser Doppler velocimetry employing resonant absorption and fluorescence from trace atomic species rather than scattering from particles. This technique may provide better turbulence and small volume information than present velocimetry.

Miles, R. B.

1975-01-01

213

NQR-NMR studies of higher alcohol synthesis Cu-Co catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, September 14--December 15, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Copper and cobalt are the key elements in syngas conversion catalyst systems used for higher alcohol synthesis. Their proximity and synergy sensitively control the selectivity and efficiency of the process. It is believed that their outer electronic charge distribution which is responsible for their electrical and magnetic properties might be governing their catalytic properties also. To examine the correlation between catalytic and magnetic properties, a series of copper cobalt catalysts (Co/Cu ratio 5:1 to 5:5) with and without a support were prepared. The nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrum of copper and (zero-field) nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of cobalt and magnetization and hysteresis character of the catalyst were analyzed. Similar to the catalytic results, the magnetic results also were found to be very sensitive to the preparation technique. The results indicate possible electron exchange between copper and cobalt, and cobalt and the support Titania.

Not Available

1991-01-14

214

Microwave surface resistance of epitaxial YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7] thin films at 18. 7 GHz measured by a dielectric resonator technique  

SciTech Connect

We used a dielectric resonator technique for highly sensitive measurements of the temperature dependence of the microwave surface resistance R[sub s] of 1 x 1 cm[sup 2] superconducting films at 18.7 GHz. It consists of a sapphire disc positioned on the film under investigation within a copper cavity which is acting as a radiation shield. In the TE[sub 01[delta

Klein, N.; Daehne, U.; Poppe, U.; Tellmann, N.; Urban, K. (Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Juelich (Germany)); Orbach, S.; Hensen, S.; Mueller, G.; Piel, H. (Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany))

1992-04-01

215

^7Li NMR and ^139L NQR in La_2Cu_1.985Li_0.015Cu0_4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Li doped La_2CuO4 the Li substitutes in the Cu site and introduces holes which, unlike the Sr doping, are localized. However, the effect of Li doping on the antiferromagnetic transition is much like that of Sr in that the transition is rapidly depressed at low doping concentrations and disappears at 3-4been measured in a 1.5line shows only a small increase in T2 below the transition over that at 300 K, considerably less than the nearest neighbor dipole contribution. The values of T1 also show no dramatic difference above and below the transition. However, the ^139La NQR data show the expected splitting by an internal field below the ordering temperature. This is consistent with the possibility that the the exchange coupling between nearest neighbor Cu's is modified to the extent that they do not participate in the antiferromagnetic order. Complete temperature dependent data of T1 and T2 will be presented.

Kleinhammes, A.; Kuhns, P. L.; Moulton, W. G.; Sarrao, J. L.; Fisk, Cassidy; Sullivan, Z.

1996-03-01

216

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques

Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

2013-01-01

217

Hybridization-driven gap in U3Bi4Ni3: a 209Bi NMR/NQR study  

SciTech Connect

We report {sup 209}Bi nuclear-magnetic-resonance and nuclear-quadrupole-resonance measurements on a single crystal of the Kondo insulator U{sub 3}Bi{sub 4}Ni{sub 3}. The {sup 209}Bi nuclear-spin-lattice relaxation rate (T{sub 1}{sup -1}) shows activated behavior and is well fit by a spin gap of 220 K. The {sup 209}Bi Knight shift (K) exhibits a strong temperature dependence arising from 5f electrons, in which K is negative at high temperatures and increases as the temperature is lowered. Below 50 K, K shows a broad maximum and decreases slightly upon further cooling. Our data provide insight into the evolution of the hyperfine fields in a fully gapped Kondo insulator based on 5f electron hybridization.

Baek, Seung H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

218

Investigation of 60Co ?-irradiated L-(-) malic acid, N-methyl- DL-valine and L-glutamic acid ?-ethyl ester by electron paramagnetic resonance technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of ?-irradiated L-(-) malic acid, N-methyl- DL-valine and L-glutamic acid ?-ethyl ester powders have been investigation at room temperature. Radiation damage centres are attributed to HOOCCH 2?HCOOH, (CH 3) 2?CH(NHCH 3)COOH and C 2H 5OCOCH 2CH 2?(NH 2)COOH radicals, respectively. The spectra have been computer simulated. The EPR parameters of the observed radicals have been determined and discussed.

Ba?kan, M. Halim; Ayd?n, Murat; Osmano?lu, ?emsettin

219

Injection-controlled laser resonator  

DOEpatents

A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality.

Chang, Jim J. (Dublin, CA)

1995-07-18

220

Supramolecular synthon pattern in solid clioquinol and cloxiquine (APIs of antibacterial, antifungal, antiaging and antituberculosis drugs) studied by ³?Cl NQR, ¹H-¹?O and ¹H-¹?N NQDR and DFT/QTAIM.  

PubMed

The quinolinol derivatives clioquinol (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-quinolinol, Quinoform) and cloxiquine (5-chloro-8-quinolinol) were studied experimentally in the solid state via ³?Cl NQR, ¹H-¹?O and ¹H-¹?N NQDR spectroscopies, and theoretically by density functional theory (DFT). The supramolecular synthon pattern of O-H···N hydrogen bonds linking dimers and ?-? stacking interactions were described within the QTAIM (quantum theory of atoms in molecules) /DFT (density functional theory) formalism. Both proton donor and acceptor sites in O-H···N bonds were characterized using ¹H-¹?O and ¹H-¹?N NQDR spectroscopies and QTAIM. The possibility of the existence of O-H···H-O dihydrogen bonds was excluded. The weak intermolecular interactions in the crystals of clioquinol and cloxiquine were detected and examined. The results obtained in this work suggest that considerable differences in the NQR parameters for the planar and twisted supramolecular synthons permit differentiation between specific polymorphic forms, and indicate that the more planar supramolecular synthons are accompanied by a greater number of weaker hydrogen bonds linking them and stronger ?···? stacking interactions. PMID:21080020

Latosi?ska, Jolanta Natalia; Latosi?ska, Magdalena; Tomczak, Marzena Agnieszka; Seliger, Janez; Zagar, Veselko

2011-07-01

221

X-ray resonant single-crystal diffraction technique, a powerful tool to investigate the kesterite structure of the photovoltaic Cu2ZnSnS4 compound.  

PubMed

Cu/Zn disorder in the kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 derivatives used for thin film based solar cells is an important issue for photovoltaic performances. Unfortunately, Cu and Zn cannot be distinguished by conventional laboratory X-ray diffraction. This paper reports on a resonant diffraction investigation of a Cu2ZnSnS4 single crystal from a quenched powdered sample. The full disorder of Cu and Zn in the z = 1/4 atomic plane is shown. The structure, namely disordered kesterite, is then described in the I42m space group. PMID:24675608

Lafond, Alain; Choubrac, Léo; Guillot-Deudon, Catherine; Fertey, Pierre; Evain, Michel; Jobic, Stéphane

2014-04-01

222

Binding investigation on the interaction between Methylene Blue (MB)/TiO2 nanocomposites and bovine serum albumin by resonance light-scattering (RLS) technique and fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The interaction between Methylene Blue (MB)/TiO2 nanocomposites and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by resonance light scattering (RLS), fluorescence, three-dimension spectra and UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy. Several factors which may influence the RLS intensity were also investigated before characterizing MB/TiO2-BSA complex. It was proved that the mechanism of MB/TiO2 nanocomposites binding to BSA was mainly a result of the formation of MB/TiO2-BSA complex. The binding constant of MB/TiO2-BSA is 0.762 × 10(-5) L mol(-1) at 298K. By calculating the binding constant at different temperature, the thermodynamic parameters ?H, ?G, and ?S can be observed and deduced that the hydrophobic interactions played an important role to stabilize the complex. The distance r (3.73 nm) between donor (BSA) and acceptor (MB/TiO2) was obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The binding site for MB/TiO2 on BSA was mainly located in sub-domain IIA. The UV-vis absorbance, circular dichroism and three dimension fluorescence have also been used to investigate the effect of MB/TiO2 on the conformation of BSA. PMID:23985421

Li, Yuesheng; Zhang, Yue; Sun, Shaofa; Zhang, Aiqing; Liu, Yi

2013-11-01

223

Resonance Production in Jet  

E-print Network

Hadronic resonances with short life times and strong coupling to the dense medium may exhibit mass shifts and width broadening as signatures of chiral symmetry restoration at the phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter. Resonances with different lifetimes are also used to extract information about the time evolution and temperature of the expanding hadronic medium. In order to collect information about the early stage (at the phase transition) of a heavy-ion collision, resonances and decay particles which are unaffected by the hadronic medium have to be used. We explore a possible new technique to extract signals from the early stage through the selection of resonances from jets. A first attempt of this analysis, using the reconstructed $\\phi$(1020) from 200 GeV Au+Au collisions in STAR, is presented.

Christina Markert "for the" STAR Collaboration

2007-06-05

224

Isothermal target and signaling probe amplification method, based on a combination of an isothermal chain amplification technique and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer cycling probe technology.  

PubMed

An iTPA (isothermal target and signaling probe amplification) method for the quantitative detection of nucleic acids, based on a combination of novel ICA (isothermal chain amplification) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer cycling probe technology (FRET CPT), is described. In the new ICA method, which relies on the strand displacement activity of DNA polymerase and the RNA degrading activity of RNase H, two displacement events occur in the presence of four specially designed primers. This phenomenon leads to powerful amplification of target DNA. Since the amplification is initiated only after hybridization of the four primers, the ICA method leads to high specificity for the target sequence. As part of the new ICA method, iTPA is achieved by incorporating FRET CPT to generate multiple fluorescence signals from a single target molecule. Using the resulting dual target and signaling probe amplification system, even a single copy level of a target gene can be successfully detected and quantified under isothermal conditions. PMID:20575518

Jung, Cheulhee; Chung, Ji Won; Kim, Un Ok; Kim, Min Hwan; Park, Hyun Gyu

2010-07-15

225

Resonance scraping  

SciTech Connect

Protons lost in a ring leave at a few preferred locations, determined by some non-linear property of the dipoles. This paper suggests taking control of lost protons by beating the magnets at their own game - by means of a designed resonance used as a beam scraper. It is a study of suitable resonances, including estimates of the required multipole element strengths. The appropriate resonances are two-dimensional. A large number of figures is included.

Collins, T.

1986-06-01

226

Effect of tunnel placements on clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the double-bundle technique  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of the study reported here was to find out if the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) have an association. Our hypothesis, which was based on the different functions of the ACL bundles, was that the visibility of the anteromedial graft would have an impact on anteroposterior stability, and the visibility of the posterolateral graft on rotational stability of the knee. Methods This study is a level II, prospective clinical and MRI study (NCT02000258). The study involved 75 patients. One experienced orthopedic surgeon performed all double-bundle ACL reconstructions. Two independent examiners made the clinical examinations at 2-year follow-up: clinical examination of the knee; KT-1000, International Knee Documentation Committee and Lysholm knee evaluation scores; and International Knee Documentation Committee functional score. The MRI evaluations were made by two musculoskeletal radiologists separately, and the means of these measurements were used. Results We found that the location of the graft in the tibia had an impact on the MRI visibility of the graft at 2-year follow-up. There were significantly more partially or totally invisible grafts if the insertion of the graft was more anterior in the tibia. No association was found between the clinical results and the graft locations. Conclusion Anterior graft location in the tibia can cause graft invisibility in the MRI 2 years after ACL reconstruction, but this has no effect on the clinical recovery of the patient. PMID:25249760

Suomalainen, Piia; Kiekara, Tommi; Moisala, Anna-Stina; Paakkala, Antti; Kannus, Pekka; Jarvela, Timo

2014-01-01

227

Maximum toe flexor muscle strength and quantitative analysis of human plantar intrinsic and extrinsic muscles by a magnetic resonance imaging technique  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between the maximum isometric toe flexor muscle strength (TFS) and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the plantar intrinsic and extrinsic muscles and to identify the major determinant of maximum TFS among CSA of the plantar intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. Methods Twenty six young healthy participants (14 men, 12 women; age, 20.4?±?1.6 years) volunteered for the study. TFS was measured by a specific designed dynamometer, and CSA of plantar intrinsic and extrinsic muscles were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To measure TFS, seated participants optimally gripped the bar with their toes and exerted maximum force on the dynamometer. For each participant, the highest force produced among three trials was used for further analysis. To measure CSA, serial T1-weighted images were acquired. Results TFS was significantly correlated with CSA of the plantar intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses identified that the major determinant of TFS was CSA of medial parts of plantar intrinsic muscles (flexor hallucis brevis, flexor digitorum brevis, quadratus plantae, lumbricals and abductor hallucis). There was no significant difference between men and women in TFS/CSA. Conclusions CSA of the plantar intrinsic and extrinsic muscles is one of important factors for determining the maximum TFS in humans. PMID:24955128

2014-01-01

228

A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source.  

PubMed

Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms?molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms?molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of (14)O (71 s), (42)K (12.4 h), (43)K (22.2 h), and (41)Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 10(3) particles per second (pps). About 3.2 × 10(3) pps of 1.4 MeV (14)O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future. PMID:23556809

Naik, V; Chakrabarti, A; Bhattacharjee, M; Karmakar, P; Bandyopadhyay, A; Bhattacharjee, S; Dechoudhury, S; Mondal, M; Pandey, H K; Lavanyakumar, D; Mandi, T K; Dutta, D P; Kundu Roy, T; Bhowmick, D; Sanyal, D; Srivastava, S C L; Ray, A; Ali, Md S

2013-03-01

229

A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms/molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms/molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of 14O (71 s), 42K (12.4 h), 43K (22.2 h), and 41Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 103 particles per second (pps). About 3.2 × 103 pps of 1.4 MeV 14O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future.

Naik, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Karmakar, P.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Dechoudhury, S.; Mondal, M.; Pandey, H. K.; Lavanyakumar, D.; Mandi, T. K.; Dutta, D. P.; Kundu Roy, T.; Bhowmick, D.; Sanyal, D.; Srivastava, S. C. L.; Ray, A.; Ali, Md. S.

2013-03-01

230

Dielectric resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave passive and active devices containing dielectric resonators and the design procedures used to characterize these components are reviewed. The emphasis has been on low noise, small size, low cost and high temperature stability. Both filter and oscillator applications are described. The applications of dielectric resonators in the millimeter-wave frequency band are also discussed

P. Guillon

1988-01-01

231

New techniques for cartilage magnetic resonance imaging relaxation time analysis: texture analysis of flattened cartilage and localized intra- and inter-subject comparisons.  

PubMed

MR relaxation time measurements of knee cartilage have shown potential to characterize knee osteoarthritis (OA). In this work, techniques that allow localized intra- and inter-subject comparisons of cartilage relaxation times, as well as cartilage flattening for texture analysis parallel and perpendicular to the natural cartilage layers, are presented. The localized comparisons are based on the registration of bone structures and the assignment of relaxation time feature vectors to each point in the bone-cartilage interface. Cartilage flattening was accomplished with Bezier splines and warping, and texture analysis was performed with second-order texture measures using gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM). In a cohort of five normal subjects the performance and reproducibility of the techniques were evaluated using T1rho maps of femoral knee cartilage. The feasibility of creating a mean cartilage relaxation time map is also presented. Successful localized intra- and inter-subject T1rho comparisons were obtained with reproducibility similar to that reported in the literature for regional T2. Improvement of the reproducibility of GLCM features was obtained by flattening the T1rho maps. The results indicate that the presented techniques have potential in longitudinal and population studies of knee OA at different stages of the disease. PMID:18506807

Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Link, Thomas M; Majumdar, Sharmila

2008-06-01

232

Monitoring the response of bone metastases to treatment with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and nuclear medicine techniques: A review and position statement by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer imaging group.  

PubMed

Assessment of the response to treatment of metastases is crucial in daily oncological practice and clinical trials. For soft tissue metastases, this is done using computed tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using validated response evaluation criteria. Bone metastases, which frequently represent the only site of metastases, are an exception in response assessment systems, because of the nature of the fixed bony defects, their complexity, which ranges from sclerotic to osteolytic and because of the lack of sensitivity, specificity and spatial resolution of the previously available bone imaging methods, mainly bone scintigraphy. Techniques such as MRI and PET are able to detect the early infiltration of the bone marrow by cancer, and to quantify this infiltration using morphologic images, quantitative parameters and functional approaches. This paper highlights the most recent developments of MRI and PET, showing how they enable early detection of bone lesions and monitoring of their response. It reviews current knowledge, puts the different techniques into perspective, in terms of indications, strengths, weaknesses and complementarity, and finally proposes recommendations for the choice of the most adequate imaging technique. PMID:25139492

Lecouvet, F E; Talbot, J N; Messiou, C; Bourguet, P; Liu, Y; de Souza, N M

2014-10-01

233

1,1-dimethylhydrazine as a high purity nitrogen source for MOVPE-water reduction and quantification using nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography-atomic emission detection spectroscopy and cryogenic-mass spectroscopy analytical techniques  

SciTech Connect

Hydrazine derivatives are attractive low temperature nitrogen sources for use in MOVPE due to their low thermal stability. However their purification and subsequent analysis has not previously been investigated in depth for this application. A detailed study on 1,1-dimethylhydrazine {l{underscore}brace}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}N-NH{sub 2}{r{underscore}brace} purified by eight different methods and the subsequent quantitative measurements of water present in the samples obtained is reported here. A correlation between {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), gas chromatography-atomic emission detection (GC-AED) and cryogenic mass spectroscopy (Cryogenic-MS) has been performed. All three analysis techniques can be used to measure water in the samples and with the best purification the water content can be lowered well below 100 ppm. The high purity of this material has been demonstrated by growth results and the state-of-the-art performance of laser diodes.

Odedra, R.; Smith, L.M.; Rushworth, S.A. [and others

2000-01-01

234

Magnetic resonance annual, 1988  

SciTech Connect

This book features reviews of high-resolution MRI of the knee, MRI of the normal and ischmeic hip, MRI of the heart, and temporomandibular joint imaging, as well as thorough discussion on artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging. Contributors consider the clinical applications of gadolinium-DTPA in magnetic resonance imaging and the clinical use of partial saturation and saturation recovery sequences. Timely reports assess the current status of rapid MRI and describe a new rapid gated cine MRI technique. Also included is an analysis of cerebrospinal fluid flow effects during MRI of the central nervous system.

Kressel, H.Y.

1987-01-01

235

Two-frequency heating technique at the 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences.  

PubMed

The two-frequency heating technique was studied to increase the beam intensities of highly charged ions provided by the high-voltage extraction configuration (HEC) ion source at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The observed dependences on microwave power and frequency suggested that this technique improved plasma stability but it required precise frequency tuning and more microwave power than was available before 2013. Recently, a new, high-power (1200 W) wide band-width (17.1-18.5 GHz) travelling-wave-tube amplifier (TWTA) was installed. After some single tests with klystron and TWT amplifiers the simultaneous injection of the two microwaves has been successfully realized. The dependence of highly charged ions (HCI) currents on the superposed microwave power was studied by changing only the output power of one of the two amplifiers, alternatively. While operating the klystron on its fixed 18.0 GHz, the frequency of the TWTA was swept within its full limits (17.1-18.5 GHz), and the effect of this frequency on the HCI-production rate was examined under several operation conditions. As an overall result, new beam records of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon beams were obtained at the NIRS-HEC ion source by this high-power two-frequency operation mode. PMID:24593510

Biri, S; Kitagawa, A; Muramatsu, M; Drentje, A G; Rácz, R; Yano, K; Kato, Y; Sasaki, N; Takasugi, W

2014-02-01

236

Two-frequency heating technique at the 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source of the National Institute of Radiological Sciencesa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-frequency heating technique was studied to increase the beam intensities of highly charged ions provided by the high-voltage extraction configuration (HEC) ion source at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The observed dependences on microwave power and frequency suggested that this technique improved plasma stability but it required precise frequency tuning and more microwave power than was available before 2013. Recently, a new, high-power (1200 W) wide band-width (17.1-18.5 GHz) travelling-wave-tube amplifier (TWTA) was installed. After some single tests with klystron and TWT amplifiers the simultaneous injection of the two microwaves has been successfully realized. The dependence of highly charged ions (HCI) currents on the superposed microwave power was studied by changing only the output power of one of the two amplifiers, alternatively. While operating the klystron on its fixed 18.0 GHz, the frequency of the TWTA was swept within its full limits (17.1-18.5 GHz), and the effect of this frequency on the HCI-production rate was examined under several operation conditions. As an overall result, new beam records of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon beams were obtained at the NIRS-HEC ion source by this high-power two-frequency operation mode.

Biri, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Drentje, A. G.; Rácz, R.; Yano, K.; Kato, Y.; Sasaki, N.; Takasugi, W.

2014-02-01

237

Acoustic Resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently my collection of historical physics teaching apparatus was given a group of 19th-century tuning forks on resonant boxes. Figure 1 shows the smallest fork sitting on the largest one. The large tuning fork oscillates at 128 Hz and has a resonator that is 57.9 cm long. The small fork has a frequency 10 times higher, but its resonator has a length of 11.0 cm instead of the 5.8 cm that simple scaling would suggest. How is this possible?

Greenslade, Thomas B.

2012-11-01

238

Magnetic Resonance  

Cancer.gov

Focus Group on Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) in Clinical Oncology(April 1999) To explore the technical requirements for MRS and the application of hydrogen and multinuclear spectroscopy for tumor response to therapy.

239

An Advanced Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spin-Trapping and LC/(ESR)/MS Technique for the Study of Lipid Peroxidation  

PubMed Central

There are two types of nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely ?-6s and ?-3s. PUFAs and their metabolites generated from lipid peroxidation via cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) are believed to be involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes in the human body. Both COX- and LOX-catalyzed PUFA peroxidation are complex events that generate a series of radicals, which may then bind proteins, target DNA/RNA, and lead to a number of biological changes. However, due to the lack of an appropriate method, it was not possible until recently to identify the short-lived PUFA-derived radicals in COX-/LOX-catalyzed peroxidation. Failure to characterize free radicals during peroxidation has greatly restricted our knowledge about COX/LOX biology in human health. Here we review the development and refinement of combined ESR spin trapping and LC/ESR/MS to characterize PUFA-derived radicals formed from in vitro (cell-free) peroxidation. We also present the most recent approach for studying peroxidation in cells which allows us to directly assess the potential bioactivity of PUFA-derived free radicals. This advanced technique has resulted in a major breakthrough in radical structural characterization, as well as assessment of free radical-associated cell growth response, thereby greatly improving our knowledge of PUFAs, COX-/LOX-catalyzed lipid peroxidation, and their related biological consequences. PMID:23203086

Xu, Yi; Gu, Yan; Qian, Steven Y.

2012-01-01

240

Resonances in Positronium Hydride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, Ho and his colleagues have calculated the positions and widths of a series of resonances in the Ps+H scattering system, using the complex -rotation method and have compared them with estimates that I made many years ago using a quite different technique. I assumed that the resonance mechanism was the existence in the rearrangement channel [e+ + H-] of an infinite series of perturbed Coulomb bound states. Although these must be broadened and shifted by coupling with the open scattering channel, I expected them to lie very close to the actual resonance positions. To verify this, I did a model calculation for S-waves, including the coupling, and found that the first two resonances were not shifted very far from their unperturbed position. The new, detailed calculation agrees with this result, but when the P-wave was examined it was found, surprisingly, that the lowest resonance indeed moved up in energy by a large amount. With the help of Joseph DiRienzi of the College of Notre Dame of Maryland I am now extending the old calculation to P- and D-waves, in an attempt to understand this unexpected energy shift. Results will be presented at the Workshop.

Drachman, Richard J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

241

NQR-NMR studies of higher alcohol synthesis Cu-Co catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, June 15--September 15, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the project is to examine the relations between the catalytic and magnetic properties of the copper-cobalt higher alcohol synthesis catalysts. We have undertaken to investigate the magnetic character by studying the Nuclear Quadrupole resonance of copper and (Zerofield) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of cobalt in copper cobalt catalysts.

Not Available

1991-12-17

242

GAUSSIAN BEAM LASER RESONATOR PROGRAM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In designing a laser cavity, the laser engineer is frequently concerned with more than the stability of the resonator. Other considerations include the size of the beam at various optical surfaces within the resonator or the performance of intracavity line-narrowing or other optical elements. Laser resonators obey the laws of Gaussian beam propagation, not geometric optics. The Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators using Gaussian ray trace techniques. It can be used to determine the propagation of radiation through laser resonators. The algorithm used in the Gaussian Beam Resonator program has three major components. First, the ray transfer matrix for the laser resonator must be calculated. Next calculations of the initial beam parameters, specifically, the beam stability, the beam waist size and location for the resonator input element, and the wavefront curvature and beam radius at the input surface to the first resonator element are performed. Finally the propagation of the beam through the optical elements is computed. The optical elements can be modeled as parallel plates, lenses, mirrors, dummy surfaces, or Gradient Index (GRIN) lenses. A Gradient Index lens is a good approximation of a laser rod operating under a thermal load. The optical system may contain up to 50 elements. In addition to the internal beam elements the optical system may contain elements external to the resonator. The Gaussian Beam Resonator program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01). It was developed for the IBM PS/2 80-071 microcomputer and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under MS DOS 3.21. The program was developed in 1988 and requires approximately 95K bytes to operate.

Cross, P. L.

1994-01-01

243

Resonance Ionization spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a retrospective view on the appearance and early development of Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) and briefly reviews its basic principles and unique characteristics. Most of the paper concentrates on RIS applications that are most active at present time including on-line facilities with particle accelerators, counting noble gas atoms, ultrasensitive and highly selective techniques, analytical systems which use RIS in combination with thermal atomization (TARIS), laser atomization (LARIS), ion sputtering (SIRIS) and collisional ionization (LEI).

Bekov, G. I.

1995-04-01

244

Resonance Ionization spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a retrospective view on the appearance and early development of Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) and briefly reviews its basic principles and unique characteristics. Most of the paper concentrates on RIS applications that are most active at present time including on-line facilities with particle accelerators, counting noble gas atoms, ultrasensitive and highly selective techniques, analytical systems which use RIS in combination with thermal atomization (TARIS), laser atomization (LARIS), ion sputtering (SIRIS) and collisional ionization (LEI)

Bekov, G. I. [Atom Sciences, Inc., 114 Ridgeway Center, Oak Ridge, TN, 37830 (United States); Institute of Spectroscopy Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region 142092 (Russian Federation)

1995-04-01

245

Direct magnetic resonance arthrography.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography has gained increasing popularity as a diagnostic tool in the assessment of intra-articular derangements. Its role has been studied extensively in the shoulder, but it also has been explored in the hip, elbow, knee, wrist and ankle. This article reviews the current role of direct MR arthrography in several major joints, with consideration of pertinent anatomy, techniques and applications. PMID:15351900

Elentuck, Dmitry; Palmer, William E

2004-11-01

246

Mode Orientation Control For Sapphire Dielectric Ring Resonator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small sapphire tuning wedge used in technique for solving mode-purity problem associated with sapphire dielectric-ring resonator part of cryogenic microwave frequency discriminator. Breaks quasi-degeneracy of two modes and allows selective coupling to just one mode. Wedge mounted on axle entering resonator cavity and rotated while resonator cryogenically operating in vacuum. Furthermore, axle moved vertically to tune resonant frequency.

Santiago, David G.; Dick, G. John; Prata, Aluizio

1996-01-01

247

Laser Resonator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical resonator cavity configuration has a unitary mirror with oppositely directed convex and concave reflective surfaces disposed into one fold and concertedly reversing both ends of a beam propagating from a laser rod disposed between two total internal reflection prisms. The optical components are rigidly positioned with perpendicularly crossed virtual rooflines by a compact optical bed. The rooflines of the internal reflection prisms, are arranged perpendicularly to the axis of the laser beam and to the optical axes of the optical resonator components.

Harper, L. L. (inventor)

1983-01-01

248

Resonance conditions  

E-print Network

Non-linear parametric resonances occur frequently in nature. Here we summarize how they can be studied by means of perturbative methods. We show in particular how resonances can affect the motion of a test particle orbiting in the vicinity of a compact object. These mathematical toy-models find application in explaining the structure of the observed kHz Quasi-Periodic Oscillations: we discuss which aspects of the reality naturally enter in the theory, and which one still remain a puzzle.

P. Rebusco

2005-10-14

249

Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents  

DOEpatents

A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

1997-12-30

250

Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents  

DOEpatents

A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

Smith, Paul H. (Los Alamos, NM); Brainard, James R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM); Ryan, Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01

251

Building Resonance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration of how buildings respond to seismic shaking uses cardboard and stiff paper (such as postcards or computer cards). The effects of building resonance can be found by experimenting with taller and shorter buildings, and varying the frequency of shaking.

Barker, Jeffrey

252

Stochastic resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, stochastic resonance has continuously attracted considerable attention. The term is given to a phenomenon that is manifest in nonlinear systems whereby generally feeble input information (such as a weak signal) can be be amplified and optimized by the assistance of noise. The effect requires three basic ingredients: (i) an energetic activation barrier or, more generally,

Luca Gammaitoni; Peter Hänggi; Peter Jung; Fabio Marchesoni

1998-01-01

253

Whole-body imaging of adoptively transferred T cells using magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography techniques, with a focus on regulatory T cells  

PubMed Central

Cell-based therapies using natural or genetically modified regulatory T cells (Tregs) have shown significant promise as immune-based therapies. One of the main difficulties facing the further advancement of these therapies is that the fate and localization of adoptively transferred Tregs is largely unknown. The ability to dissect the migratory pathway of these cells in a non-invasive manner is of vital importance for the further development of in-vivo cell-based immunotherapies, as this technology allows the fate of the therapeutically administered cell to be imaged in real time. In this review we will provide an overview of the current clinical imaging techniques used to track T cells and Tregs in vivo, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In addition, we will discuss how the finding of these studies can be used, in the context of transplantation, to define the most appropriate Treg subset required for cellular therapy. PMID:23574314

Leech, J M; Sharif-Paghaleh, E; Maher, J; Livieratos, L; Lechler, R I; Mullen, G E; Lombardi, G; Smyth, L A

2013-01-01

254

Techniques for classifying acoustic resonant spectra  

SciTech Connect

A second-generation nondestructive evaluation (NDE) system that discriminates between different types of chemical munitions is under development. The NDE system extracts features from the acoustic spectra of known munitions, builds templates from these features, and performs classification by comparing features extracted from an unknown munition to a template library. Improvements over first-generation feature extraction template construction and classification algorithms are reported. Results are presented on the performance of the system and a large data set collected from surrogate-filled munitions.

Roberts, R.S.; Lewis, P.S.; Chen, J.T.; Vela, O.A.

1995-12-31

255

BNCT neutron beam characterization using a resonance absorption filter method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of a resonance filter technique based on either a BF 3 or a miniature lithium-glass scintillator is described. The principles affecting the choice of suitable resonance absorber materials are discussed, and some preliminary results are shown.

Hamidi, S.; Scott, M. C.

2002-01-01

256

Single-particle resonances in continuum nuclear structure calculations  

SciTech Connect

Accuracy and stability of single-particle resonance parameters under changes of a resonance wave function'' are examined in the context of a projection technique. Implications for their use in nuclear structure calculations are discussed.

Teruya, N.; de Toledo Piza, A.F.R.; Dias, H. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 20516, 01498 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil (BR))

1991-07-01

257

Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting  

PubMed Central

Summary Magnetic Resonance (MR) is an exceptionally powerful and versatile measurement technique. The basic structure of an MR experiment has remained nearly constant for almost 50 years. Here we introduce a novel paradigm, Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) that permits the non-invasive quantification of multiple important properties of a material or tissue simultaneously through a new approach to data acquisition, post-processing and visualization. MRF provides a new mechanism to quantitatively detect and analyze complex changes that can represent physical alterations of a substance or early indicators of disease. MRF can also be used to specifically identify the presence of a target material or tissue, which will increase the sensitivity, specificity, and speed of an MR study, and potentially lead to new diagnostic testing methodologies. When paired with an appropriate pattern recognition algorithm, MRF inherently suppresses measurement errors and thus can improve accuracy compared to previous approaches. PMID:23486058

Ma, Dan; Gulani, Vikas; Seiberlich, Nicole; Liu, Kecheng; Sunshine, Jeffrey L.; Duerk, Jeffrey L.; Griswold, Mark A.

2013-01-01

258

Magnetic resonance imaging of acquired cardiac disease.  

PubMed Central

Over the last 15 years, advances in magnetic resonance imaging techniques have increased the accuracy and applicability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. These advances have improved the utility of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating cardiac morphology, blood flow, and myocardial contractility, all significant diagnostic features in the evaluation of the patient with acquired heart disease. Utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging has been limited, primarily due to clinical reliance upon nuclear scintigraphy and echocardiography. Recent developments in fast and ultrafast imaging should continue to enhance the significance of magnetic resonance imaging in this field. Widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the cardiovascular system will ultimately depend upon its maturation into a comprehensive, noninvasive imaging technique for the varying manifestations of acquired heart disease, including cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, and acquired valvular disease. Images PMID:8792545

Carrol, C L; Higgins, C B; Caputo, G R

1996-01-01

259

Study of lignification by noninvasive techniques in growing maize internodes. An investigation by Fourier transform infrared cross-polarization-magic angle spinning 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and immunocytochemical transmission electron microscopy.  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive techniques were used for the study in situ of lignification in the maturing cell walls of the maize (Zea mays L.) stem. Within the longitudinal axis of a developing internode all of the stages of lignification can be found. The synthesis of the three types of lignins, p-hydroxyphenylpropane (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S), was investigated in situ by cross-polarization-magic angle spinning 13C-solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and immunocytochemical electron microscopy. The first lignin appearing in the parenchyma is of the G-type preceeding the incorporation of S nuclei in the later stages. However, in vascular bundles, typical absorption bands of S nuclei are visible in the Fourier transform infrared spectra at the earliest stage of lignification. Immunocytochemical determination of the three types of lignin in transmission electron microscopy was possible thanks to the use of antisera prepared against synthetic H, G, and the mixed GS dehydrogenative polymers (K. Ruel, O. Faix, J.P. Joseleau [1994] J Trace Microprobe Tech 12: 247-265). The specificity of the immunological probes demonstrated that there are differences in the relative temporal synthesis of the H, G, and GS lignins in the different tissues undergoing lignification. Considering the intermonomeric linkages predominating in the antigens used for the preparation of the immunological probes, the relative intensities of the labeling obtained provided, for the first time to our knowledge, information about the macromolecular nature of lignins (condensed versus noncondensed) in relation to their ultrastructural localization and development stage. PMID:9232887

Joseleau, J P; Ruel, K

1997-01-01

260

If It's Resonance, What is Resonating?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon under the name "resonance," which, is based on the mathematical analogy between mechanical resonance and the behavior of wave functions in quantum mechanical exchange phenomena was described. The resonating system does not have a structure intermediate between those involved in the resonance, but instead a structure which is further…

Kerber, Robert C.

2006-01-01

261

Split ring resonator sensors for infrared detection of single molecular monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a surface enhanced molecular detection technique with zeptomole sensitivity that relies on resonant coupling of plasmonic modes of split ring resonators and infrared vibrational modes of a self-assembled monolayer of octadecanthiol molecules. Large near-field enhancements at the gap of split ring resonators allow for this resonant coupling when the molecular absorption peaks overlap spectrally with the plasmonic resonance.

Ertugrul Cubukcu; Shuang Zhang; Yong-Shik Park; Guy Bartal; Xiang Zhang

2009-01-01

262

Resonance Rings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about resonance and where it is found in related to astronomy. Learners will construct two differently sized rings out of file folder paper and tape them to a piece of cardboard. Next, they will shake the cardboard from side to side, which shakes the rings, and observe what happens when the frequency of the shaking is gradually increased. This activity is from the Stanford Solar Center's All About the Sun: Sun and Stars activity guide for Grades 5-8 and can also accompany the Stanford Solar Center's Build Your Own Spectroscope activity.

263

Magnetic resonance imaging of radiation optic neuropathy  

SciTech Connect

Three patients with delayed radiation optic neuropathy after radiation therapy for parasellar neoplasms underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The affected optic nerves and chiasms showed enlargement and focal gadopentetate dimeglumine enhancement. The magnetic resonance imaging technique effectively detected and defined anterior visual pathway changes of radionecrosis and excluded the clinical possibility of visual loss because of tumor recurrence.

Zimmerman, C.F.; Schatz, N.J.; Glaser, J.S. (Univ. of Miami, FL (USA))

1990-10-15

264

Resonance Ionization spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a retrospective view on the appearance and early development of Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) and briefly reviews its basic principles and unique characteristics. Most of the paper concentrates on RIS applications that are most active at present time including on-line facilities with particle accelerators, counting noble gas atoms, ultrasensitive and highly selective techniques, analytical systems which use RIS in combination with thermal atomization (TARIS), laser atomization (LARIS), ion sputtering (SIRIS) and collisional ionization (LEI). {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

Bekov, G.I. [Atom Sciences, Inc., 114 Ridgeway Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37830 (United States)]|[Institute of Spectroscopy Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region 142092 (Russian Federation)

1995-04-01

265

Secular resonance in extrasolar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two orbits in the HD 160691 planetary system at first appeared highly unstable, but using a new technique called MEGNO (the acronym of Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits), we were able to identify a stability valley in the parameter space. This stability zone is due to the 2:1 mean motion resonance coupled with relative orbital positions of

N. Rambaux; E. Bois

2003-01-01

266

Microcoil nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In comparison with most analytical chemistry techniques, nuclear magnetic resonance has an intrinsically low sensitivity, and many potential applications are therefore precluded by the limited available quantity of certain types of sample. In recent years, there has been a trend, both commercial and academic, towards miniaturization of the receiver coil in order to increase the mass sensitivity of NMR measurements.

A. G. Webb

2005-01-01

267

Methods for chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging  

E-print Network

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a relatively new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition technique that generates contrast dependent on tissue microenvironment, such as protein concentration and ...

Scheidegger, Rachel Nora

2013-01-01

268

Stochastic Resonance  

E-print Network

Stochastic resonance (SR) - a counter-intuitive phenomenon in which the signal due to a weak periodic force in a nonlinear system can be {\\it enhanced} by the addition of external noise - is reviewed. A theoretical approach based on linear response theory (LRT) is described. It is pointed out that, although the LRT theory of SR is by definition restricted to the small signal limit, it possesses substantial advantages in terms of simplicity, generality and predictive power. The application of LRT to overdamped motion in a bistable potential, the most commonly studied form of SR, is outlined. Two new forms of SR, predicted on the basis of LRT and subsequently observed in analogue electronic experiments, are described.

M. I. Dykman; D. G. Luchinsky; R. Mannella; P. V. E. McClintock; S. M. Soskin; N. D. Stein; N. G. Stocks

1993-07-17

269

Techniques for Vocal Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a series of simple yet effective practices, techniques, and tips for improving the singing voice and minimizing stress on the vocal chords. Describes the four components for producing vocal sound: respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation. Provides exercises for each and lists symptoms of sickness and vocal strain. (MJP)

Wiest, Lori

1997-01-01

270

Resonator modeling by field tracing: a flexible approach for fully vectorial laser resonator modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays lasers cover a broad spectrum of applications, like laser material processing, metrology and communications. Therefore a broad variety of different lasers, containing various active media and resonator setups, are used to provide high design flexibility. The optimization of such multi-parameter laser setups requires powerful simulation techniques. In literature mainly three practical resonator modeling techniques can be found: Rigorous techniques, e.g. the finite element method (FEM), approximated solutions based on paraxial Gaussian beam tracing by ABCD matrices and the Fox and Li algorithm are used to analyze transversal resonator modes. All of these existing approaches have in common, that only a single simulation technique is used for the whole resonator. In contrast we reformulate the scalar Fox and Li integral equation for resonator eigenmode calculation into a fully vectorial field tracing operator equation. This allows the flexible combination of different modeling techniques in different subdomains of the resonator. The work introduces the basic concepts of field tracing in resonators to calculate vectorial, transversal eigenmodes of stable and unstable resonators.

Asoubar, Daniel; Wyrowski, Frank; Schweitzer, Hagen; Hellmann, Christian; Kuhn, Michael

2014-05-01

271

A Comparison of FTNMR and FTIR Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared are two spectroscopic methods that commonly use the Fourier transform technique. Discussed are the similarities and differences in the use of the Fourier transform in these two spectroscopic techniques. (CW)

Ahn, Myong-Ku

1989-01-01

272

Russian roulette efficiency in Monte Carlo resonant absorption calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resonant absorption calculation in media containing heavy resonant nuclei is one of the most difficult problems treated in reactor physics. Deterministic techniques need many approximations to solve this kind of problem. On the other hand, the Monte Carlo method is a reliable mathematical tool for evaluating the neutron resonance escape probability. But it suffers from large statistical deviations of

J Ghassoun; A Jehouani

2000-01-01

273

Stochastic resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are taught by conventional wisdom that the transmission and detection of signals is hindered by noise. However, during the last two decades, the paradigm of stochastic resonance (SR) proved this assertion wrong: indeed, addition of the appropriate amount of noise can boost a signal and hence facilitate its detection in a noisy environment. Due to its simplicity and robustness, SR has been implemented by mother nature on almost every scale, thus attracting interdisciplinary interest from physicists, geologists, engineers, biologists and medical doctors, who nowadays use it as an instrument for their specific purposes. At the present time, there exist a lot of diversified models of SR. Taking into account the progress achieved in both theoretical understanding and practical application of this phenomenon, we put the focus of the present review not on discussing in depth technical details of different models and approaches but rather on presenting a general and clear physical picture of SR on a pedagogical level. Particular emphasis will be given to the implementation of SR in generic quantum systems—an issue that has received limited attention in earlier review papers on the topic. The major part of our presentation relies on the two-state model of SR (or on simple variants thereof), which is general enough to exhibit the main features of SR and, in fact, covers many (if not most) of the examples of SR published so far. In order to highlight the diversity of the two-state model, we shall discuss several examples from such different fields as condensed matter, nonlinear and quantum optics and biophysics. Finally, we also discuss some situations that go beyond the generic SR scenario but are still characterized by a constructive role of noise.

Wellens, Thomas; Shatokhin, Vyacheslav; Buchleitner, Andreas

2004-01-01

274

Ion cyclotron resonance cell  

DOEpatents

An ion cyclotron resonance cell is disclosed having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions. 5 figs.

Weller, R.R.

1995-02-14

275

Ion cyclotron resonance cell  

DOEpatents

An ion cyclotron resonance cell having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions.

Weller, Robert R. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

276

Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biological molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of biological systems are investigated using a variety of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The first two studies are applications of the technique to systems in solution. Proton NMR and lanthanide shift agents are used to determine the outside to inside ratio of lipids in large unilamellar vesicles produced by the method of reverse-phase evaporation. The observed ratio

1985-01-01

277

DC Plasma Anodization of Quartz Resonators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique for final tuning AT-quartz resonators having aluminum electrodes by means of a low energy DC oxygen plasma is described. Compared to other techniques, this method is clean, dry, protective, selective, and does not significantly heat the crysta...

C. W. Shanley, L. N. Dworsky

1982-01-01

278

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Field Measurements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory is designed for students to become familiar with the principles and detection techniques of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), examine the relationship between current and magnetic field in an electromagnet, and gain experience in the use of magnetic field measurement techniques.

2012-01-04

279

Tunable resonator-based devices for producing variable delays and narrow spectral linewidths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Devices with two or more coupled resonators to produce narrow spectral responses due to interference of signals that transmit through the resonators and techniques for operating such devices to achieve certain operating characteristics are described. The devices may be optical devices where optical resonators such as whispering gallery mode resonators may be used. In one implementation, at least one of the coupled optical resonators is a tunable resonator and is tuned to change its resonance frequency to tune the spectral response of the device. The described devices and techniques may be applied in optical filters, optical delays, optical waveform generators, and other applications.

Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor)

2006-01-01

280

Magnetic resonance neurography: technical considerations.  

PubMed

Proper performance of magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is essential not only to make the examination easier to interpret but also for its accurate evaluation. This article outlines the technical considerations of MRN, various imaging pulse sequences available on current scanners, as well as their relative advantages and disadvantages. In addition, a guide to the optimal use of high-resolution and high-contrast MRN technique is provided, which will aid clinicians in attaining a good-quality examination. PMID:24210313

Chhabra, Avneesh; Flammang, Aaron; Padua, Abraham; Carrino, John A; Andreisek, Gustav

2014-02-01

281

Hadronic Resonances from Lattice QCD  

SciTech Connect

The determination of the pattern of hadronic resonances as predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics requires the use of non-perturbative techniques. Lattice QCD has emerged as the dominant tool for such calculations, and has produced many QCD predictions which can be directly compared to experiment. The concepts underlying lattice QCD are outlined, methods for calculating excited states are discussed, and results from an exploratory Nucleon and Delta baryon spectrum study are presented.

Lichtl, Adam C. [RBRC, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Bulava, John; Morningstar, Colin [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Edwards, Robert; Mathur, Nilmani; Richards, David [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Fleming, George [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Juge, K. Jimmy [Department of Physics, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211 (United States); Wallace, Stephen J. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2007-10-26

282

Hadronic Resonances from Lattice QCD  

SciTech Connect

The determination of the pattern of hadronic resonances as predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics requires the use of non-perturbative techniques. Lattice QCD has emerged as the dominant tool for such calculations, and has produced many QCD predictions which can be directly compared to experiment. The concepts underlying lattice QCD are outlined, methods for calculating excited states are discussed, and results from an exploratory Nucleon and Delta baryon spectrum study are presented.

John Bulava; Robert Edwards; George Fleming; K. Jimmy Juge; Adam C. Lichtl; Nilmani Mathur; Colin Morningstar; David Richards; Stephen J. Wallace

2007-06-16

283

Hadronic Resonances from Lattice QCD  

E-print Network

The determination of the pattern of hadronic resonances as predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics requires the use of non-perturbative techniques. Lattice QCD has emerged as the dominant tool for such calculations, and has produced many QCD predictions which can be directly compared to experiment. The concepts underlying lattice QCD are outlined, methods for calculating excited states are discussed, and results from an exploratory Nucleon and Delta baryon spectrum study are presented.

John Bulava; Robert Edwards; George Fleming; K. Jimmy Juge; Adam C. Lichtl; Nilmani Mathur; Colin Morningstar; David Richards; Stephen J. Wallace

2007-08-15

284

Hadronic Resonances from Lattice QCD  

E-print Network

The determination of the pattern of hadronic resonances as predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics requires the use of non-perturbative techniques. Lattice QCD has emerged as the dominant tool for such calculations, and has produced many QCD predictions which can be directly compared to experiment. The concepts underlying lattice QCD are outlined, methods for calculating excited states are discussed, and results from an exploratory Nucleon and Delta baryon spectrum study are presented.

Bulava, John; Fleming, George; Juge, K Jimmy; Lichtl, Adam C; Mathur, Nilmani; Morningstar, Colin; Richards, David; Wallace, Stephen J

2007-01-01

285

Thermal response of chalcogenide microsphere resonators  

SciTech Connect

A chalcogenide microsphere resonator (CMR) used for temperature sensing is proposed and demonstrated. The CMR is fabricated using a simple technique of heating chalcogenide glass and allowing the molten glass to form a microsphere on the waist of a tapered silica fibre. The thermal responses of the CMR is investigated and compared to that of a single-mode-fibre (SMF) based microsphere resonator. It is observed that the CMR sensitivity to ambient temperature changes is 8 times higher than that of the SMF-based microsphere resonator. Heating the chalcogenide microsphere with a laser beam periodically turned on and off shows periodic shifts in the transmission spectrum of the resonator. By injecting an intensity-modulated cw signal through the resonator a thermal relaxation time of 55 ms is estimated.

Ahmad, H; Aryanfar, I; Lim, K S; Chong, W Y; Harun, S W

2012-05-31

286

Capacitive microbeam resonator design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonant clamped-clamped microbeams sealed in a hard vacuum cavity are classified as transducers, which can measure physical variables by converting them into axial strain using an appropriate silicon microstructure. These devices can be constructed, using surface micromachining technology, on a single-crystal silicon substrate. They have fundamental resonant frequencies with high sensitivity to strain. Such devices use resonant frequency changes by variables such as pressure, temperature, force, and acceleration to measure these quantities. Electrostatically driven and sensed microbeam resonators may be used for sensor applications. In order to design such microbeam resonators it is useful to use electrical network theory. This requires that the mechanical parameters for the resonator are converted to electrical equivalents. For electrostatically driven and sensed microbeam resonators the drive voltage must contain a dc bias and a small amplitude sinusoid in order to drive the resonators at the resonant frequency. The effects of these dc biases and parasitics on the resonant frequency and the quality factor are clarified here with theoretical calculations using the electrical equivalents of electrostatic microbeam resonators and experimental results. As a result the dc bias and parasitics are dominant factors in determining the performance of capacitive microbeam resonators, especially effecting the resonant frequency and quality factor. The maximum vibration amplitude requirements for pure sinusoidal operation with low power dissipation in the capacitive microbeam resonator have also been identified.

Ahn, Yongchul; Guckel, Henry; Zook, J. David

2001-01-01

287

Coupled unstable resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupling of unstable resonators in circulant arrays is considered, in which the array is invariant with respect to the interchange of any pair of resonators. A proof-of-concept experiment performed with six series coupled CO(2) lasers with confocal unstable resonators is reported. Adjoint coupling was used with two symmetrically placed coupling apertures in each resonator output. The results of measurements of the locking range, supermode content, and beam quality for standing wave and ring resonator arrays are presented and interpreted using simplified models. It is pointed out that adjoint coupled unstable resonators provide a modular scaling configuration with modest phase-locking length control requirements.

Palma, G. E.; Benda, J. A.; Townsend, S. S.; Cunningham, P. R.; Forgham, J.

1990-06-01

288

Opto-electronic oscillators having optical resonators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems and techniques of incorporating an optical resonator in an optical part of a feedback loop in opto-electronic oscillators. This optical resonator provides a sufficiently long energy storage time and hence to produce an oscillation of a narrow linewidth and low phase noise. Certain mode matching conditions are required. For example, the mode spacing of the optical resonator is equal to one mode spacing, or a multiplicity of the mode spacing, of an opto-electronic feedback loop that receives a modulated optical signal and to produce an electrical oscillating signal.

Yao, Xiaotian Steve (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor)

2003-01-01

289

Approaching Moons from Resonance via Invariant Manifolds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this work, the approach phase from the final resonance of the endgame scenario in a tour design is examined within the context of invariant manifolds. Previous analyses have typically solved this problem either by using numerical techniques or by computing a catalog of suitable trajectories. The invariant manifolds of a selected set of libration orbits and unstable resonant orbits are computed here to serve as guides for desirable approach trajectories. The analysis focuses on designing an approach phase that may be tied into the final resonance in the endgame sequence while also targeting desired conditions at the moon.

Anderson, Rodney L.

2012-01-01

290

Time domain characterization of oscillating sensors: Application of frequency counting to resonance frequency determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frequency counting technique is described for determining the resonance frequency of a transiently excited sensor; the technique is applicable to any sensor platform where the characteristic resonance frequency is the parameter of interest. The sensor is interrogated by a pulse-like excitation signal, and the resonance frequency of the sensor subsequently determined by counting the number of oscillations per time

Kefeng Zeng; Keat G. Ong; Casey Mungle; Craig A. Grimes

2002-01-01

291

Spiral parallel magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Spiral k-space scanning is a rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that can provide an order of magnitude reduction in scan time compared to conventional spin warp techniques. Parallel imaging is another method for reducing scan time that exploits spatially varying radiofrequency (RF) coil sensitivities to reduce the amount of data required to reconstruct an image. Combining spiral scanning with parallel imaging provide a scan time reduction factor that is the product of the reduction factors for each of the techniques and thus can permit very rapid imaging. Image reconstruction for spiral parallel MRI is more involved than for spin warp parallel MRI and is an area of active research. Two techniques for performing this image reconstruction are PILS, a simple image-domain method that relies on localized coil sensitivities, and BOSCO, a method that is based on successive convolution operations in k-space. PMID:17946823

Meyer, Craig H; Hu, Peng

2006-01-01

292

Resonances in barred galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inner parts of many spiral galaxies are dominated by bars. These are strong non-axisymmetric features which significantly affect orbits of stars and dark matter particles. One of the main effects is the dynamical resonances between galactic material and the bar. We detect and characterize these resonances in N-body models of barred galaxies by measuring angular and radial frequencies of individual orbits. We found narrow peaks in the distribution of orbital frequencies with each peak corresponding to a specific resonance. We found five different resonances in the stellar disc and two in the dark matter. The corotation resonance (CR) and the inner and outer Lindblad resonances are the most populated. The spatial distributions of particles near resonances are wide. For example, the inner Lindblad resonance is not localized at a given radius. Particles near this resonance are mainly distributed along the bar and span a wide range of radii. On the other hand, particles near the CR are distributed in two broad areas around the two stable Lagrange points. The distribution resembles a wide ring at the corotation radius. Resonances capture disc and halo material in near-resonant orbits. Our analysis of orbits in both N-body simulations and simple analytical models indicates that resonances tend to prevent the dynamical evolution of this trapped material. Only if the bar evolves as a whole, resonances drift through the phase space. In this case particles anchored near resonant orbits track the resonance shift and evolve. The criteria to ensure a correct resonant behaviour discussed by Weinberg and Katz can be achieved with few millions particles because the regions of trapped orbits near resonances are large and evolving.

Ceverino, D.; Klypin, A.

2007-08-01

293

Nanomechanical resonance detector  

DOEpatents

An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

2013-10-29

294

Magnetic resonance angiography  

MedlinePLUS

MRA; Angiography - magnetic resonance ... Kwong RY. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 9th ...

295

Kozai resonance in extrasolar systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We study the possibility that extrasolar two-planet systems, similar to the ones that are observed, can be in a stable Kozai-resonant state, assuming a mutual inclination of the orbital planes of order I_mut˜ 40-60°. Methods: Five known multi-planet systems that are not in mean motion resonance were selected, according to defined criteria, as “possible prototypes” (? Andromedae, HD 12661, HD 169830, HD 74156, HD 155358). We performed a parametric study, integrating several sets of orbits of the two planets, obtained by varying the (unknown) inclination of their orbital planes and their nodal longitudes, thus changing the values of their masses and mutual inclination. We also take into account the reported observational errors on the orbital elements. These numerical results are characterized using analytical secular theory and frequency analysis. Surface of section techniques are also used to distinguish between stable and chaotic motions. Results: Frequency analysis offers a reliable way of identifying the Kozai resonance in a general reference frame, where the argument of the pericenter of the inner planet does not necessarily librate around ±90° as in the frame of the Laplace plane, through the non-coupling of the eccentricities of the two planets. We find that four of the five selected systems (? Andromedae, HD 12661, HD 169830 and HD 74156) could in principle be in Kozai resonance, as their eccentricities and apsidal orientations are such that the system enters in the stability region of the Kozai resonance in 20-70% of the cases, provided that their mutual inclination is at least 45°. Thus, a large fraction of the observed multi-planet systems has observed orbital characteristics that are consistent with stable, Kozai-type, motion in 3D. Unstable sets of orbits are also found, due to the chaos that develops around the stability islands of the Kozai resonance. A variety of physical mechanisms that could generate the necessary large mutual inclinations are discussed, including (a) planet formation; (b) type II migration and resonant interactions during the gas-dominated phase; (c) planetesimal-driven migration and resonance crossing during the gas-free era; (d) multi-planet scattering, caused by the presence of an additional planet.

Libert, A.-S.; Tsiganis, K.

2009-01-01

296

Mechanical Stochastic Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise and nonlinearity can produce a stochastic resonance that maximizes a system's output signal-to-noise ratio. Stochastic resonance has been observed in electronic, chemical, optical, magnetic, and biological systems. Here, we report stochastic resonance in a simple mechanical system consisting of a bistable pendulum driven by a harmonic oscillator and the broad-band noise of a flapping flag.

Wainwright, Elliot; Lindner, John

2013-03-01

297

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Author's preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Basic theory; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Measurement of nuclear properties and general physical applications; 5. Nuclear magnetic resonance in liquids and gases; 6. Nuclear magnetic resonance in non-metallic solids; 7. Nuclear magnetic resonance in metals; 8. Quadrupole effects; Appendices 1-6; Glossary of symbols; Bibliography and author index; Subject index.

Andrew, E. R.

2009-06-01

298

ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 3 ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY 1 Sergei A. Dikanov and 2 Antony R. Crofts 1 for the investigation of unpaired electron spins. Two terms are used in the literature: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron spin resonance (ESR). We will use the first term in this chapter. During the sixty

Crofts, Antony R.

299

Baryon Spectroscopy and Resonances  

SciTech Connect

A short review of current efforts to determine the highly excited state spectrum of QCD, and in particular baryons, using lattice QCD techniques is presented. The determination of the highly excited spectrum of QCD is a major theoretical and experimental challenge. The experimental investigation of the excited baryon spectrum has been a long-standing element of the hadronic-physics program, an important component of which is the search for so-called 'missing resonances', baryonic states predicted by the quark model based on three constituent quarks but which have not yet been observed experimentally. Should such states not be found, it may indicate that the baryon spectrum can be modeled with fewer effective degrees of freedom, such as in quark-diquark models. In the past decade, there has been an extensive program to collect data on electromagnetic production of one and two mesons at Jefferson Lab, MIT-Bates, LEGS, MAMI, ELSA, and GRAAL. To analyze these data, and thereby refine our knowledge of the baryon spectrum, a variety of physics analysis models have been developed at Bonn, George Washington University, Jefferson Laboratory and Mainz. To provide a theoretical determination and interpretation of the spectrum, ab initio computations within lattice QCD have been used. Historically, the calculation of the masses of the lowest-lying states, for both baryons and mesons, has been a benchmark calculation of this discretized, finite-volume computational approach, where the aim is well-understood control over the various systematic errors that enter into a calculation; for a recent review. However, there is now increasing effort aimed at calculating the excited states of the theory, with several groups presenting investigations of the low-lying excited baryon spectrum, using a variety of discretizations, numbers of quark flavors, interpolating operators, and fitting methodologies. Some aspects of these calculations remain unresolved and are the subject of intense effort, notably the ordering of the Roper resonance in the low-lying Nucleon spectrum.

Robert Edwards

2011-12-01

300

Acoustic resonance spectroscopy intrinsic seals  

SciTech Connect

We have begun to quantify the ability of acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) to detect the removal and replacement of the lid of a simulated special nuclear materials drum. Conceptually, the acoustic spectrum of a container establishcs a baseline fingerprint, which we refer to as an intrinsic seal, for the container. Simply removing and replacing the lid changes some of the resonant frequencies because it is impossible to exactly duplicate all of the stress patterns between the lid and container. Preliminary qualitative results suggested that the ARS intrinsic seal could discriminate between cases where a lid has or has not been removed. The present work is directed at quantifying the utility of the ARS intrinsic seal technique, including the technique`s sensitivity to ``nuisance`` effects, such as temperature swings, movement of the container, and placement of the transducers. These early quantitative tests support the potential of the ARS intrinsic seal application, but also reveal a possible sensitivity to nuisance effects that could limit environments or conditions under which the technique is effective.

Olinger, C.T.; Burr, T.; Vnuk, D.R.

1994-08-01

301

Single Molecule Electron Paramagnetic Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is a powerful spectroscopic tool for studying the dynamics of biomolecular systems. EPR measurements on bulk samples using a commercial X-band spectrometer provide insight into atomic-scale structure and dynamics of ensembles of biomolecules. Separately, single molecule measurements of biomolecular systems allow researchers to capture heterogeneous behaviors that have revealed the molecular mechanisms behind many biological processes. We are merging these two powerful techniques to perform single molecule EPR. In this experiment, we selectively label double-stranded DNA molecules with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center nanodiamonds and optically detect the magnetic resonance of the NV probe. Shifts and broadening of our EPR peaks indicate the changing position of the attached DNA relative to the applied magnetic field. Using this new technique, we have successfully measured the first EPR spectrum of a single biomolecule. By controlling the geometry of the diamond and the applied magnetic field, we will quantitatively determine the rotational and translational dynamics of single biomolecules. This research provides the foundation for an advanced single molecule magnetic resonance approach to studies of complex biomolecular systems.

Teeling-Smith, Richelle M.; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Poirier, Michael G.; Hammel, P. Chris

2013-03-01

302

Stochastic resonance of quantum discord  

E-print Network

We study the stochastic resonance of quantum discord (“discord resonance”) in coupled quantum systems and make a comparison with the stochastic resonance of entanglement (“entanglement resonance”). It is found that the ...

Lee, Chee Kong

303

Imaging in breast cancer: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

A technique called in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be performed along with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to obtain information about the chemical content of breast lesions. This information can be used for several clinical applications, such as monitoring the response to cancer therapies and improving the accuracy of lesion diagnosis. Initial MRS studies of breast cancer show promising results, and a growing number of research groups are incorporating the technique into their breast MRI protocols. This article introduces 1H-MRS of the breast, reviews the literature, discusses current methods and technical issues, and describes applications for treatment monitoring and lesion diagnosis. PMID:15987466

Bolan, Patrick J; Nelson, Michael T; Yee, Douglas; Garwood, Michael

2005-01-01

304

Resonant and non-resonant magnetic scattering  

SciTech Connect

The tunability and the polarization of synchrotron radiation open upon new possibilities for the study of magnetism. Studies on magnetic materials performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source are reviewed, and thy fall into four areas: structure, evolution of magnetic order, separation of L and S, and resonance effects. In the vicinity of atomic absorption edges, the Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism, and resonant magnetic scattering are all related resonance effects which measure the spin polarized density of states. The production and analysis of polarized beams are discussed in the context of the study of magnetism with synchrotron radiation.

McWhan, D.B.; Hastings, J.B.; Kao, C.C.; Siddons, D.P.

1991-12-31

305

Resonant and non-resonant magnetic scattering  

SciTech Connect

The tunability and the polarization of synchrotron radiation open upon new possibilities for the study of magnetism. Studies on magnetic materials performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source are reviewed, and thy fall into four areas: structure, evolution of magnetic order, separation of L and S, and resonance effects. In the vicinity of atomic absorption edges, the Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism, and resonant magnetic scattering are all related resonance effects which measure the spin polarized density of states. The production and analysis of polarized beams are discussed in the context of the study of magnetism with synchrotron radiation.

McWhan, D.B.; Hastings, J.B.; Kao, C.C.; Siddons, D.P.

1991-01-01

306

Split ring resonator sensors for infrared detection of single molecular monolayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a surface enhanced molecular detection technique with zeptomole sensitivity that relies on resonant coupling of plasmonic modes of split ring resonators and infrared vibrational modes of a self-assembled monolayer of octadecanthiol molecules. Large near-field enhancements at the gap of split ring resonators allow for this resonant coupling when the molecular absorption peaks overlap spectrally with the plasmonic resonance. Electromagnetic simulations support experimental findings.

Cubukcu, Ertugrul; Zhang, Shuang; Park, Yong-Shik; Bartal, Guy; Zhang, Xiang

2009-07-01

307

Phase-conjugate resonator  

SciTech Connect

By incorporating a phase-conjugating process (Stimulated Brillouin Scattering) with a master oscillator power amplifier laser cavity, a new phase-conjugate resonator (PCR) is obtained. The PCR utilizes flashlamp-pumped dye lasers and a resonator cavity that is formed by a 100% mirror on one end and a Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) cell on the other end. The SBS cell functions as one of the mirrors of the resonator and causes the entire system to operate as a phase-conjugate resonator. The result is vastly improved (an order of magnitude) beam qualities over conventional resonators for large lamp systems.

Russell, S.D.

1988-11-28

308

Optical Helmholtz resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helmholtz resonators are widely used acoustic components able to select a single frequency. Here, based on an analogy between acoustics and electromagnetism wave equations, we present an electromagnetic 2D Helmholtz resonator made of a metallic slit-box structure. At the resonance, the light is funneled in the ?/800 apertures, and is subsequently absorbed in the cavity. As in acoustics, there is no higher order of resonance, which is an appealing feature for applications such as photodetection or thermal emission. Eventually, we demonstrate that the slit is of capacitive nature while the box behaves inductively. We derive an analytical formula for the resonance wavelength, which does not rely on wave propagation and therefore does not depend on the permittivity of the material filling the box. Besides, in contrast with half-wavelength resonators, the resonance wavelength can be engineered by both the slit aspect ratio and the box area.

Chevalier, Paul; Bouchon, Patrick; Haïdar, Riad; Pardo, Fabrice

2014-08-01

309

Microfiber and Microcoil Resonators and Resonant Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manufacture of tapers from optical fibers provides the possibility to get long, uniform, and robust micrometer- or nanometer-size wires. Optical microfibers are fabricated by adiabatically stretching conventional optical fibers and thus preserve the original optical fiber dimensions at their input/output pigtails, allowing ready splicing to standard fibers. Since microfibers have a size comparable to the wavelength of the light propagating in it, a considerable fraction of power can be located in the evanescent field, outside the microfiber physical boundary. When a microfiber is coiled, the mode propagating in it interferes with itself to give a resonator. In this chapter the latest results on the manufacture of optical microfiber resonators are presented. Optical microfibers can be used to fabricate single-loop and multiple-loop (coil) resonators with extremely high Q factors. High Q resonators can be used for refractometric biosensors and because of their design they provide an exceptionally high sensitivity.

Xu, Fei; Brambilla, Gilberto

310

Resonance production in heavy-ion collisions at STAR  

E-print Network

Hadronic resonances are sensitive to the properties of a hot and dense medium created in a heavy ion collisions. During the hadronic phase, after hadronization of quark and gluons into hadrons, resonances are useful to determine the lifetime between chemical and thermal freeze-out, under the assumption that the re-scattering of the decay particles and the probability of regeneration of resonances from hadrons depends on the system properties and the resonance lifetime. The system size and energy dependence of resonance spectra and yields will be shown and discussed in the context of the lifetime and size of the hadronic phase. Elliptic flow measurement will extend the sensitivity of resonance yields to the partonic state through additional information on constituent quark scaling. We also explore a possible new technique to extract signals from the early, potentially chirally symmetric, stage through the selection of resonances from jets.

Christina Markert; for the STAR Collaboration

2007-12-11

311

Hip Prosthesis Detection based on Complex Natural Resonances.  

PubMed

Resonance based radar target detection has been applied to Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) applications for the detection and recognition of landmines. Target detection is achieved by searching for certain target dependent Complex Natural Resonances (CNRs), which could be considered as a feature set for identification. In this paper, detection of a hip prosthesis under human tissues using resonance based target detection technique is investigated. PMID:17282504

Lui, Hoi-Shun; Shuley, Nicholas; Crozier, Stuart

2005-01-01

312

An encapsulating meta-molecule: U resonator containing spiral line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new kind of planar metamaterial is investigated. It consists of meta-molecules where a first resonator encapsulates a second resonator. The near-field coupling between these resonators is the dominating effect determining the characteristics of the material and is discussed in detail at a physical level. The technique of encapsulating allows both to miniaturize the unit cell, which is advantageous with respect to making the material homogeneous, and to invoke strong coupling, which is advantageous for tuning the material.

Yan, Sen; Vandenbosch, Guy A. E.

2014-11-01

313

Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance  

SciTech Connect

This report recaps the "Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance" workshop, held in late 2011. This exploratory workshop's goal was to discuss and address challenges for the next generation of magnetic resonance experimentation. During the workshop, participants from throughout the world outlined the science drivers and instrumentation demands for high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and associated magnetic resonance techniques, discussed barriers to their advancement, and deliberated the path forward for significant and impactful advances in the field.

Mueller, Karl T.; Pruski, Marek; Washton, Nancy M.; Lipton, Andrew S.

2013-03-07

314

Composite nature of the ? (1520) resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the Weinberg compositeness condition of a bound state was generalized to account for resonant states and higher partial waves. We apply this extension to the case of the ? (1520) resonance and quantify the weight of the meson-baryon components in contrast to other possible genuine building blocks. This resonance was theoretically obtained from a coupled channels analysis using the s-wave ??* and K? * and the d-wave K¯N and ?? channels, applying the techniques of the chiral unitary approach. We obtain the result that this resonance is essentially dynamically generated from these meson-baryon channels, leaving room for only 15% weight of other kinds of components in its wave function.

Aceti, F.; Oset, E.; Roca, L.

2014-08-01

315

Resonantly Detecting Axion-Mediated Forces with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a method based on precision magnetometry that can extend the search for axion-mediated spin-dependent forces by several orders of magnitude. By combining techniques used in nuclear magnetic resonance and short-distance tests of gravity, our approach can substantially improve upon current experimental limits set by astrophysics, and probe deep into the theoretically interesting regime for the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) axion. Our method is sensitive to PQ axion decay constants between 109 and 1012 GeV or axion masses between 10-6 and 10-3 eV, independent of the cosmic axion abundance.

Arvanitaki, Asimina; Geraci, Andrew A.

2014-10-01

316

Resonantly detecting axion-mediated forces with nuclear magnetic resonance.  

PubMed

We describe a method based on precision magnetometry that can extend the search for axion-mediated spin-dependent forces by several orders of magnitude. By combining techniques used in nuclear magnetic resonance and short-distance tests of gravity, our approach can substantially improve upon current experimental limits set by astrophysics, and probe deep into the theoretically interesting regime for the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) axion. Our method is sensitive to PQ axion decay constants between 10^{9} and 10^{12}??GeV or axion masses between 10^{-6} and 10^{-3}??eV, independent of the cosmic axion abundance. PMID:25361250

Arvanitaki, Asimina; Geraci, Andrew A

2014-10-17

317

Piezoelectric-Crystal-Resonator High-Frequency Gravitational Wave Generation and Synchro-Resonance Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we show the generation of high-frequency-gravitational-waves (HFGWs) utilizing piezoelectric elements such as the ubiquitous Film-Bulk-Acoustic-Resonators (FBARs), found in cell phones, as energized by inexpensive magnetrons, found in microwave ovens, generating GWs having a frequency of about 4.9GHz and their detection by means of new synchro-resonance techniques developed in China. In the 1960s Weber suggested piezoelectric crystals for gravitational-wave (GW)

Robert M. L. Baker; R. Clive Woods; Fangyu Li

2006-01-01

318

New Imaging Techniques for Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the existing imaging techniques for assessing trabecular and cortical architecture\\u000a as well as emerging advances in these areas. A brief description of the physics behind X-ray computed tomography and magnetic\\u000a resonance imaging is provided to lay the foundation for review of image acquisition techniques. Next, the authors review at\\u000a length image analysis algorithms

Suchandrima Banerjee; Roland Krug; Sven Prevrhal; Sharmila Majumdar

319

4 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and MRI February 26, 2008  

E-print Network

that many nuclei have intrinsic angular momentum and magnetic moments ­ this is true of the ground states materials. The proton has a magnetic moment of µp = 1.409 � 10-26 joules per tesla, and the splitting4 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and MRI February 26, 2008 The technique of nuclear magnetic resonance

Thouless, David

320

Resonant frequency band estimation using adaptive wavelet decomposition level selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibrations induced by machine faults help in diagnosis and prognosis of the machine. It is crucial for the fault diagnostic system to extract resonant frequency band which carries useful information about the defect frequencies and contains maximum signal to noise ratio. The spectral orientation of the resonant frequency band varies with the variation in machine dynamics. The existing techniques

M. F. Yaqub; I. Gondal; J. Kamruzzaman

2011-01-01

321

A personal computer-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using personal computer-based hardware has the potential of enabling the application of NMR methods to fields where conventional state of the art equipment is either impractical or too costly. With such a strategy for data acquisition and processing, disciplines including civil engineering, agriculture, geology, archaeology, and others have the possibility of utilizing magnetic resonance techniques

Constantin Job; Robert M. Pearson; Michael F. Brown

1994-01-01

322

Supine magnetic resonance (MR) mammography in radiotherapy planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Radiotherapy of the breast is normally performed in a supine position, so conventional prone magnetic resonance (MR) mammography is unsuitable for radiotherapy planning purposes. No dedicated supine breast coil is yet available, limiting the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in this area. A technique has been developed on a 0.2T open scanner to produce breast images suitable for

Sadie Dunne; Amanda Gee

1999-01-01

323

Algorithms for the Analysis of 3D Magnetic Resonance Angiography  

E-print Network

Algorithms for the Analysis of 3D Magnetic Resonance Angiography Images Xavier Tizon Centre Magnetic Resonance Angiography Images. Doctoral Thesis ISSN 1401-6230, ISBN 91-576-6700-4 Atherosclerosis- tries. Angiography refers to the group of imaging techniques used through the diagnosis, treatment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

324

Large mode radius resonators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resonator configurations permitting operation with large mode radius while maintaining good transverse mode discrimination are considered. Stable resonators incorporating an intracavity telescope and unstable resonator geometries utilizing an output coupler with a Gaussian reflectivity profile are shown to enable large radius single mode laser operation. Results of heterodyne studies of pulsed CO2 lasers with large (11mm e sup-2 radius) fundamental mode sizes are presented demonstrating minimal frequency sweeping in accordance with the theory of laser-induced medium perturbations.

Harris, Michael R.

1987-01-01

325

Imaging Intelligence with Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([to the first power]H-MRS) is a technique for the assay of brain neurochemistry "in vivo." N-acetylaspartate (NAA), the most prominent metabolite visible within the [to the first power]H-MRS spectrum, is found primarily within neurons. The current study was designed to further elucidate NAA-cognition…

Jung, Rex E.; Gasparovic, Charles; Chavez, Robert S.; Caprihan, Arvind; Barrow, Ranee; Yeo, Ronald A.

2009-01-01

326

Double Nuclear Resonance and Nuclear Relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The double nuclear resonance effect can be observed in materials in ; which nuclear spin-lattice relaxation occurs through paramagnetic imourities. A ; technique using Zeeman transitions of the distant nuclei to detect hyperfine ; transitions associated with nuclei at the paramagnetic impurities is preseated. ; (L.N.N.);

E. C. McIrvine; J. Lambe; N. Laurance; T. Cole

1962-01-01

327

Small-Volume Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most information-rich analytical techniques available. However, it is also inherently insensitive, and this drawback precludes the application of NMR spectroscopy to mass- and volume-limited samples. We review a particular approach to increase the sensitivity of NMR experiments, namely the use of miniaturized coils. When the size of the coil is reduced,

Raluca M. Fratila; Aldrik H. Velders

2011-01-01

328

Comparison Between Different Notions of Resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction A Brief Review on the Analytic Distortion or Dilation Techniques From the Second Definition From the First Definition Case a. The Analytic Dilation (or Complex Scaling) Case b. The Exterior Scaling Case c. The "Regularized" Exterior Scaling (Hislop and Sigal) Case d. A "Linearized" Analytic Distortion Comparison to the Definition of Resonances by Helffer and Sjöstrand Final Remarks

Helffer, Bernard

329

Giant resonance decay  

SciTech Connect

Decay studies of giant multipole resonances are discussed, emphasizing the role of Coulomb excitation with intermediate energy heavy ions, which can provide very large cross sections for both isoscalar and isovector resonances. We discuss measurement of the photon decay of one and two phonon giant resonances, reporting results where available. It is pointed out throughout the presentation that the use of E1 photons as a tag'' provides a means to observe weakly excited resonances that cannot be observed in the singles spectra. 30 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

Beene, J.R.; Bertrand, F.E.

1990-01-01

330

Electron Spin Resonance in Studies of Membranes and Proteins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We provide a review of current electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques for studying basic molecular mechanisms in membranes and proteins by using nitroxide spin labels. We illustrate these capabilities with recent examples.

P. P. Borbat (Cornell University;Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology); A.J. Costa-Filho (Cornell University;Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology); K.A. Earle (Cornell University;Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology); J.K. Moscicki (Cornell University/Jagellonian University;Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology/Smoluchowski Institute of Physics); J.H. Freed (Cornell University;Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology)

2001-01-12

331

Model-based reconstruction of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging  

E-print Network

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique that is used to obtain images of soft tissue throughout the body. Since its development in the 1970s, MRI has gained tremendous importance in clinical practice ...

Chatnuntawech, Itthi

2013-01-01

332

Resonant Tunnelling in Semiconductor Heterostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A number of physical processes are investigated in this thesis, with particular regard to the effect of high magnetic fields on the tunnelling process. A brief outline is as follows: In the remainder of this chapter, the fundamental properties of GaAs and (AlGa)As relevant to this thesis are presented followed by a brief outline of some of the basic concepts in the theory of resonant tunnelling. In Chapter 2 the experimental techniques used to obtain the results are described and details of the samples are given. Chapter 3 describes several aspects of both resonant and non-resonant tunnelling in double barrier structures. Section 3.3 uses magnetoquantum oscillations in the tunnel current and differential capacitance to characterise the 2DEG in the emitter accumulation layer, Section 3.4 presents an investigation of the contributions of elastic scattering and scLO phonon scattering to the valley current using high magnetic fields, the temperature dependence of the I(V) characteristics is analysed in Section 3.5 and Section 3.6 discusses ballistic transport and quantum interference effects in wide quantum wells. Chapter 4 presents a detailed study of bistability in double barrier devices, showing first how charge buildup in the quantum well or high-frequency oscillations in the measuring circuit can lead to hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics and then using an asymmetric structure to enhance charge buildup and observe a genuinely intrinsic bistability. Fourier analysis of magnetoquantum oscillations in a magnetic field applied parallel to the current demonstrates that carriers undergo energy relaxation in the well and therefore the tunnelling process is sequential. Two new effects are noted, the enhancement of charge buildup in high magnetic fields and the observation of a region of inverted bistability in a very asymmetric structure where the off-resonant current actually exceeds the resonant current. Chapter 5 investigates the effect of a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the current. In samples with relatively narrow quantum wells (<200 A), a broadening of the resonance consistent with the conservation of canonical momentum is observed and in wider wells, tunnelling into hybrid magnetoelectric energy levels is seen. Rotation of the magnetic field direction is used to probe the anisotropy of the conduction band and to investigate energy levels in a tilted field. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Leadbeater, Mark Levence

1990-01-01

333

Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 17 selections. Some of the chapter titles are: Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging;Evaluation of Demyelinating Diseases;Respiratory Gating in Magnetic Resonance Imaging;Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Abdomen;Contrast Agents in Magnetic Resonance Imaging;and Economic Considerations in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Mettler, F.A.; Muroff, L.R.; Kulkarni, M.V.

1986-01-01

334

Modulation techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques, proposed for use on and/or applied to satellite channels, are reviewed. In a survey of recent works on digital modulation techniques, the performance of several schemes operating in various environments are compared. Topics covered include: (1) quadrature phase shift keying; (2) offset - QPSK and MSK; (3) combined modulation and coding; and (4) spectrally efficient modulation techniques.

Schilling, D. L.

1982-01-01

335

Improved acoustic viscosimeter technique. [for determining fluid shear viscosity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved technique has been developed for studies of the shear viscosity of fluids. It utilizes an acoustic resonator as a four-terminal electrical device; the resonator's amplitude response may be determined directly and simply related to the fluid's viscosity. The use of this technique is discussed briefly and data obtained in several fluids is presented.

Fisch, M. R.; Moeller, R. P.; Carome, E. F.

1976-01-01

336

Resonance modes of voltage-modulated scanning force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical resonance modes of the scanning force microscope (SFM) cantilever in contact conditions provide contrast enhancement in the imaging of surface charges when using voltage modulation techniques tuned to such resonances. Extensions of the method were made as regards the lateral (twisting) and frontal (buckling) modes of the cantilever, as well as the enhanced second harmonic detection of voltage-modulated response at resonance and near-resonance detection in the SFM tapping mode. As an example of application, vibration spectra and images taken on a triglycine sulfate (TGS) single crystal are discussed.

Labardi, M.; Likodimos, V.; Allegrini, M.

2001-03-01

337

Resonance modes of voltage-modulated scanning force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical resonance modes of the scanning force microscope (SFM) cantilever in contact conditions provide contrast enhancement in the imaging of surface charges when using voltage modulation techniques tuned to such resonances. Extensions of the method were made as regards the lateral (twisting) and frontal (buckling) modes of the cantilever, as well as the enhanced second harmonic detection of voltage-modulated response at resonance and near-resonance detection in the SFM tapping mode. As an example of application, vibration spectra and images taken on a triglycine sulfate (TGS) single crystal are discussed.

Labardi, M.; Likodimos, V.; Allegrini, M.

338

Resonance seeding of stability boundaries in two and four dimensions  

SciTech Connect

Resonance seeding'' refers to the hypothesis that the stochastic layer delineating the dynamic aperture of a Hamiltonian system grows out of separatrices generated by a very low order resonances. This is a physics hypothesis and should not be interpreted as arising from any particular technique for writing perturbative expansions, such as the ones developed by Deprit, Dragt, or Forest. Although analytic representations of the resonances are indeed obtained via perturbation theory, existence of the separatrices and the validity (or otherwise) for resonance seeding are separate from it. We shall describe some of the evidence supporting this idea in two and four dimensions.

Michelotti, L.

1991-05-01

339

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).  

PubMed

This article discusses the basic concepts of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with the intention to introduce the subject to uninitiated. The MRI technique is a powerful noninvasive probe of the body's internal anatomy. In MRI, the images are produced not by X-rays, but through the use of non-ionizing radiowaves that stimulate transitions between spin states of nuclei in a magnetic field when passed through the body. The time required for the nucleus to return to equilibrium gives information about the environment of that nucleus. In this way tissue abnormalities can be determined in vivo. This article covers the basis of MRI phenomena, the concept of magnetic moment of the sample, NMR exalation and emission and the equipment necessary to observe these NMR properties. The primary agents used to increase tissue contrast in MRI are also mentioned. Finally the importance and prospects of this technique in Pakistan have been discussed. PMID:1753410

Khurshid, S J; Hussain, A M

1991-10-01

340

Understanding motor resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of mirror neurons in monkeys, and the finding of motor activity during action observation in humans are generally regarded to support motor theories of action understanding. These theories take motor resonance to be essential in the understanding of observed actions and the inference of action goals. However, the notions of “resonance,” “action understanding,” and “action goal” appear to

Sebo Uithol; Iris van Rooij; Harold Bekkering; Pim Haselager

2011-01-01

341

Helioseismology The Resonant Sun  

E-print Network

Helioseismology The Resonant Sun Professor Bill Chaplin, School of Physics & Astronomy University Eddington #12;The Unseen Interior ''At first sight it would seem that the deep interior of the sun and stars;Overview What are resonant oscillations of the Sun? How do we observe the oscillations? What can we learn

342

Polaritonic Feshbach resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Feshbach resonance occurs when the energy of two interacting free particles comes into resonance with a molecular bound state. When approaching this resonance, marked changes in the interaction strength between the particles can arise. Feshbach resonances provide a powerful tool for controlling the interactions in ultracold atomic gases, which can be switched from repulsive to attractive, and have allowed a range of many-body quantum physics effects to be explored. Here we demonstrate a Feshbach resonance based on the polariton spinor interactions in a semiconductor microcavity. By tuning the energy of two polaritons with anti-parallel spins across the biexciton bound state energy, we show an enhancement of attractive interactions and a prompt change to repulsive interactions. A mean-field two-channel model quantitatively reproduces the experimental results. This observation paves the way for a new tool for tuning polariton interactions and to move forward into quantum correlated polariton physics.

Takemura, N.; Trebaol, S.; Wouters, M.; Portella-Oberli, M. T.; Deveaud, B.

2014-07-01

343

Resonant snubber inverter  

DOEpatents

A resonant, snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the main inverter switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 14 figs.

Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Chen, D.; Scudiere, M.B.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; White, C.P.; McKeever, J.W.

1997-06-24

344

Resonant snubber inverter  

DOEpatents

A resonant, snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the main inverter switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Young, Sr., Robert W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Daoshen (Knoxville, TN); Scudiere, Matthew B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ott, Jr., George W. (Knoxville, TN); White, Clifford P. (Knoxville, TN); McKeever, John W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

345

MAGNETIC RESONANCE ELASTOGRAPHY: A REVIEW  

PubMed Central

Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is a rapidly developing technology for quantitatively assessing the mechanical properties of tissue. The technology can be considered to be an imaging-based counterpart to palpation, commonly used by physicians to diagnose and characterize diseases. The success of palpation as a diagnostic method is based on the fact that the mechanical properties of tissues are often dramatically affected by the presence of disease processes such as cancer, inflammation, and fibrosis. MRE obtains information about the stiffness of tissue by assessing the propagation of mechanical waves through the tissue with a special magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. The technique essentially involves three steps: generating shear waves in the tissue,acquiring MR images depicting the propagation of the induced shear waves andprocessing the images of the shear waves to generate quantitative maps of tissue stiffness, called elastograms. MRE is already being used clinically for the assessment of patients with chronic liver diseases and is emerging as a safe, reliable and noninvasive alternative to liver biopsy for staging hepatic fibrosis. MRE is also being investigated for application to pathologies of other organs including the brain, breast, blood vessels, heart, kidneys, lungs and skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review article is to introduce this technology to clinical anatomists and to summarize some of the current clinical applications that are being pursued. PMID:20544947

Mariappan, Yogesh K; Glaser, Kevin J; Ehman, Richard L

2011-01-01

346

Resonance Parameters and Uncertainties Derived from Epithermal Neutron Capture and Transmission Measurements of Natural Molybdenum  

E-print Network

Resonance Parameters and Uncertainties Derived from Epithermal Neutron Capture and Transmission capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-of-flight technique. Resonance parameters were extracted from the data using the multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY. A table of resonance

Danon, Yaron

347

Pancoast tumor: the role of magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

We report imaging techniques in the definition of the therapeutic planning of a 65-year-old man with a diagnosis of Pancoast tumor. Computed Tomography has a pivotal role in the assessment of nodes involvement and distant metastasis. Magnetic Resonance allows a detailed study of locoregional extension for its high soft tissue resolution. We particularly highlight the actual importance of Magnetic Resonance Neurography, Diffusion-Weighted Imaging, and Magnetic Resonance Angiography techniques in the assessment of the superior sulcus vascular and nervous structures involvement. Their integrity has been showed in our patient with a complete surgical excision of the lesion. PMID:23607032

Manenti, Guglielmo; Raguso, Mario; D'Onofrio, Silvia; Altobelli, Simone; Scarano, Angela Lia; Vasili, Erald; Simonetti, Giovanni

2013-01-01

348

Pancoast Tumor: The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

We report imaging techniques in the definition of the therapeutic planning of a 65-year-old man with a diagnosis of Pancoast tumor. Computed Tomography has a pivotal role in the assessment of nodes involvement and distant metastasis. Magnetic Resonance allows a detailed study of locoregional extension for its high soft tissue resolution. We particularly highlight the actual importance of Magnetic Resonance Neurography, Diffusion-Weighted Imaging, and Magnetic Resonance Angiography techniques in the assessment of the superior sulcus vascular and nervous structures involvement. Their integrity has been showed in our patient with a complete surgical excision of the lesion. PMID:23607032

Manenti, Guglielmo; Raguso, Mario; D'Onofrio, Silvia; Altobelli, Simone; Scarano, Angela Lia; Vasili, Erald; Simonetti, Giovanni

2013-01-01

349

Micromachined piezoelectric resonator at MHz application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the Thin Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator operating at low frequencies. This study aims to substitute quartz resonators in the 4-27 MHz band and to fabricate selective filter for frequencies lower than 1GHz with quality factor higher than 10000. In this paper, we present the design, fabrication and testing of two different types of resonators. It consists of aluminum nitride film (0.8 ?m) sandwiched between two aluminum electrodes (0.2 ?m each). The first resonator is made by clamped edge beam and the second one is a free-free beam construction anchored in the middle of the cantilever. A demonstrator was achieved and the resonators are manufactured on a silicon substrate; AlN and Al layers were deposited on silicon using standard cathode sputtering technique. The resonators operate in extensional mode and the thicknesses of each of the materials are lower than 1?m. ANSYS, a Finite Element Analysis, has been performed to simulate the static, modal and harmonic behaviour. The simulation has been used, on the one hand, to determine the thickness of each material so as to reach the desired frequency range, on the other hand, to compare theoretical and experimental frequency values. First resonant frequencies between 2 and 10MHz were measured for resonators with dimensions of 20-40?m wide and 200-1000?m long and were found close to theory. Quality factor under 10000 operating in air has been achieved. These results confirm that such an integrated solution will replace Quartz oscillators and/or Surface Acoustic Wave filters in very compact applications.

Le, T. Thao; Valbin, Laurie; Verjus, Fabrice; Bourouina, Tarik

2006-03-01

350

Resonance bifurcations of robust heteroclinic networks  

E-print Network

Robust heteroclinic cycles are known to change stability in resonance bifurcations, which occur when an algebraic condition on the eigenvalues of the system is satisfied and which typically result in the creation or destruction of a long-period periodic orbit. Resonance bifurcations for heteroclinic networks are more complicated because different subcycles in the network can undergo resonance at different parameter values, but have, until now, not been systematically studied. In this article we present the first investigation of resonance bifurcations in heteroclinic networks. Specifically, we study two heteroclinic networks in $\\R^4$ and consider the dynamics that occurs as various subcycles in each network change stability. The two cases are distinguished by whether or not one of the equilibria in the network has real or complex contracting eigenvalues. We construct two-dimensional Poincare return maps and use these to investigate the dynamics of trajectories near the network. At least one equilibrium solution in each network has a two-dimensional unstable manifold, and we use the technique developed in [18] to keep track of all trajectories within these manifolds. In the case with real eigenvalues, we show that the asymptotically stable network loses stability first when one of two distinguished cycles in the network goes through resonance and two or six periodic orbits appear. In the complex case, we show that an infinite number of stable and unstable periodic orbits are created at resonance, and these may coexist with a chaotic attractor. There is a further resonance, for which the eigenvalue combination is a property of the entire network, after which the periodic orbits which originated from the individual resonances may interact. We illustrate some of our results with a numerical example.

Vivien Kirk; Claire Postlethwaite; Alastair M. Rucklidge

2012-06-19

351

A Resonant Damping Study Using Piezoelectric Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue (HCF) problems requiring damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery blade research, a feasibility study of resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches with passive and active control techniques has been conducted on cantilever beam specimens. Test results for the passive damping circuit show that the optimum resistive shunt circuit reduces the third bending resonant vibration by almost 50%, and the optimum inductive circuit reduces the vibration by 90%. In a separate test, active control reduced vibration by approximately 98%.

Min, J. B.; Duffy, K. P.; Choi, B. B.; Morrison, C. R.; Jansen, R. H.; Provenza, A. J.

2008-01-01

352

LABCOM resonator Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to develop quartz crystal resonator designs, production processes, and test capabilities for 5-MHz, 6.2-MHz, and 10-MHz resonators for Tactical Miniature Crystal Oscillator (TMXO) applications. GE Neutron Devices (GEND) established and demonstrated the capability to produce and test quartz crystal resonators for use in the TMXO developed by the US Army ERADCOM (now LABCOM). The goals in this project were based on the ERADCOM statement of work. The scope of work indicated that the resonator production facilities for this project would not be completely independent, but that they would be supported in part by equipment and processes in place at GEND used in US Department of Energy (DOE) work. In addition, provisions for production test equipment or or eventual technology transfer costs to a commercial supplier were clearly excluded from the scope of work. The demonstrated technical capability of the deep-etched blank design is feasible and practical. It can be manufactured in quantity with reasonable yield, and its performance is readily predictable. The ceramic flatpack is a very strong package with excellent hermeticity. The four-point mount supports the crystal to reasonable shock levels and does not perturb the resonator's natural frequency-temperature behavior. The package can be sealed with excellent yields. The high-temperature, high-vacuum processing developed for the TMXO resonator, including bonding the piezoid to its mount with conductive polyimide adhesive, is consistent with precision resonator fabrication. 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Keres, L.J.

1990-11-01

353

Active mode-locked lasers and other photonic devices using electro-optic whispering gallery mode resonators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques and devices using whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators, where the optical materials of the WGM resonators exhibit an electro-optical effect to perform optical modulation. Examples of actively mode-locked lasers and other devices are described.

Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

2006-01-01

354

Functionalized Nanomaterials to Sense Toxins/Pollutant Gases Using Perturbed Microwave Resonant Cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter provides an overview of the techniques and methods involving electromagnetic resonators to study the interactions of gas molecules with nanomaterials substrates. A resonant cavity operating in TE011 mode was employed by the author(s) to characterize the nature of interactions of a range of weakly polar to nonpolar gas molecules with carbon nanotubes loaded in the cavity. Microwave resonant cavities are special electromagnetic resonators that can have a very high quality factor, which enhances the sensitivity of the apparatus as compared to standard electrical tank circuits. By measuring shifts in the resonant frequency of these circuits and by calculating the pressure broadening of the resonant peaks, the technique developed offers a highly effective means to quantify the amount of foreign agents perturbing these resonant cylinders. By functionalizing the nanomaterials with specific antibodies and loading them as wicks in these cylinders, the technique can be engineered into a very sensitive and unique chemical and biological sensor prototype.

Anand, Aman; Roberts, J. A.; Dahiya, J. N.

355

Spin resonance strength calculations  

SciTech Connect

In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

Courant,E.D.

2008-10-06

356

Tunable multiwalled nanotube resonator  

DOEpatents

A tunable nanoscale resonator has potential applications in precise mass, force, position, and frequency measurement. One embodiment of this device consists of a specially prepared multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) suspended between a metal electrode and a mobile, piezoelectrically controlled contact. By harnessing a unique telescoping ability of MWNTs, one may controllably slide an inner nanotube core from its outer nanotube casing, effectively changing its length and thereby changing the tuning of its resonance frequency. Resonant energy transfer may be used with a nanoresonator to detect molecules at a specific target oscillation frequency, without the use of a chemical label, to provide label-free chemical species detection.

Jensen, Kenneth J; Girit, Caglar O; Mickelson, William E; Zettl, Alexander K; Grossman, Jeffrey C

2013-11-05

357

The Diversity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of the physical phenomenon of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in 1946 gave rise to the spectroscopic technique that has become a remarkably versatile research tool. One could oversimplify NMR spectros-copy by categorizing it into the two broad applications of structure elucidation of molecules (associated with chemistry and biology) and imaging (associated with medicine). But, this certainly does not do NMR spectroscopy justice in demonstrating its general acceptance and utilization across the sciences. This manuscript is not an effort to present an exhaustive, or even partial review of NMR spectroscopy applications, but rather to provide a glimpse at the wide-ranging uses of NMR spectroscopy found within the confines of a single magnetic resonance research facility, the Stanford Magnetic Resonance Laboratory. Included here are summaries of projects involving protein structure determination, mapping of intermolecular interactions, exploring fundamental biological mechanisms, following compound cycling in the environmental, analysis of synthetic solid compounds, and microimaging of a model organism.

Liu, Corey W.; Alekseyev, Viktor Y.; Allwardt, Jeffrey R.; Bankovich, Alexander J.; Cade-Menun, Barbara J.; Davis, Ronald W.; Du, Lin-Shu; Garcia, K. Christopher; Herschlag, Daniel; Khosla, Chaitan; Kraut, Daniel A.; Li, Qing; Null, Brian; Puglisi, Joseph D.; Sigala, Paul A.; Stebbins, Jonathan F.; Varani, Luca

358

Mode Profiles in Waveguide-Coupled Resonators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) waveguide-coupled resonators are of considerable interest for narrow-band filter applications, though to date there has been very little published on the acoustic details of their operation. As in any resonator, one must fully understand its mode structure and herein we study the SAW mode profiles in these devices. Transverse mode profiles in the resonant cavity of the device were measured at various frequencies of interest using a knife-edge laser probe. In addition we predict the mode profiles for the device structure by two independent methods. One is a stack-matrix approach adapted from integrated optics and the other is a conventional analytical eigenmode analysis of the Helmholtz equation. Both modeling techniques are in good agreement with the measured results.

Hunt, William D.; Cameron, Tom; Saw, John C. B.; Kim, Yoonkee

1993-01-01

359

Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy  

DOEpatents

A resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method provides a unique characterization of an object for use in distinguishing similar objects having physical differences greater than a predetermined tolerance. A resonant response spectrum is obtained for a reference object by placing excitation and detection transducers at any accessible location on the object. The spectrum is analyzed to determine the number of resonant response peaks in a predetermined frequency interval. The distribution of the resonance frequencies is then characterized in a manner effective to form a unique signature of the object. In one characterization, a small frequency interval is defined and stepped though the spectrum frequency range. Subsequent objects are similarly characterized where the characterizations serve as signatures effective to distinguish objects that differ from the reference object by more than the predetermined tolerance.

Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1991-01-01

360

Electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance  

SciTech Connect

We study the magnetoresistance properties of thin ferromagnetic CrO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films under microwave irradiation. Both the sheet resistance {rho} and the Hall voltage V{sub Hall} characteristically change when a ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) occurs in the film. The electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance (EDFMR) signals closely match the conventional FMR, measured simultaneously, in both resonance fields and line shapes. The sign and the magnitude of the resonant changes {delta}{rho}/{rho} and {delta}V{sub Hall}/V{sub Hall} can be consistently described in terms of a Joule heating effect. Bolometric EDFMR thus is a powerful tool for the investigation of magnetic anisotropy and magnetoresistive phenomena in ferromagnetic micro- or nanostructures.

Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Schink, S. W.; Brandlmaier, A.; Boger, A.; Opel, M.; Gross, R.; Keizer, R. S.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Gupta, A.; Huebl, H.; Bihler, C.; Brandt, M. S. [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kavli Institute of NanoScience, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2007-04-16

361

Resonances Do Not Equilibrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss, in qualitative and quantitative fashion, the yields of hadron resonances. We show that these yields, in general, are not in chemical equi- librium. We evaluate the non-equilibrium abundances in a dynamic model implementing the 1+2 leftrightarrow 3 resonance formation reactions. Due to the strength of these reactions, we show the Sigma (1385) enhancement, and the Lambda (1520) suppression explicitly.

Kuznetsova, I.; Letessier, J.; Rafelski, J.

2009-04-01

362

Hexagonal quartz resonator  

DOEpatents

A generally flat, relatively thin AT-cut piezoelectric resonator element structured to minimize the force-frequency effect when mounted and energized in a housing. The resonator is in the form of an equilateral hexagon with the X crystallographic axis of the crystal passing through one set of opposing corners with mounting being effected at an adjacent set of corners respectively .+-.60.degree. away from the X axis which thereby results in a substantially zero frequency shift of the operating frequency.

Peters, Roswell D. M. (Rustburg, VA)

1982-01-01

363

Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear magnetic resonance gyro using two nuclear magnetic resonance gases, preferably xenon 129 and xenon 131, together with two alkaline metal vapors, preferably rubidium, potassium or cesium, one of the two alkaline metal vapors being pumped by light which has the wavelength of that alkaline metal vapor, and the other alkaline vapor being illuminated by light which has the wavelength of that other alkaline vapor.

Grover, B.C.

1984-02-07

364

Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment of brain function in experimental animals and man  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the basic principles and techniques of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS). Examples are given of single event human fMRI studies on control subjects, and a graded activation protocol applied to Parkinsonian patients. Possibilities are discussed for using fMRI techniques to study the neural substrate of various pharmacological agents, including drugs of abuse.The application of

Peter G. Morris

1999-01-01

365

Anomalous Diffusion Near Resonances  

SciTech Connect

Synchro-betatron resonances can lead to emittance growth and the loss of luminosity. We consider the detailed dynamics of a bunch near such a low order resonance driven by crossing angles at the collision points. We characterize the nature of diffusion and find that it is anomalous and sub-diffusive. This affects both the shape of the beam distribution and the time scales for growth. Predictions of a simplified anomalous diffusion model are compared with direct simulations. Transport of particles near resonances is still not a well understood phenomenon. Often, without justification, phase space motion is assumed to be a normal diffusion process although at least one case of anomalous diffusion in beam dynamics has been reported [1]. Here we will focus on the motion near synchro-betatron resonances which can be excited by several means, including beams crossing at an angle at the collision points as in the LHC. We will consider low order resonances which couple the horizontal and longitudinal planes, both for simplicity and to observe large effects over short time scales. While the tunes we consider are not practical for a collider, nonetheless the transport mechanisms we uncover are also likely to operate at higher order resonances.

Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

2010-05-01

366

Optofluidic ring resonator dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We overview the recent progress on optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) dye lasers developed in our research group. The fluidics and laser cavity design can be divided into three categories: capillary optofluidic ring resonator (COFRR), integrated cylindrical optofluidic ring resonator (ICOFRR), and coupled optofluidic ring resonator (CpOFRR). The COFRR dye laser is based on a micro-sized glass capillary with a wall

Yuze Sun; Jonathan D. Suter; Xudong Fan

2010-01-01

367

High temperature resonant ultrasound spectroscopy methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is a technique to obtain the full elastic tensor of single crystal materials by measuring the mechanical resonances of a polished sample. Any direct resonance measurement at high temperatures is limited by the fact that most ultrasound transducers have an upper operational limit of 200-300C. High temperature RUS measurements are made possible by separating the sample, placed in a tube furnace, and the transducers with buffer rods made of low acoustic attenuation materials with good thermal stability such as ceramic alumina or fused quartz. Tests on stainless steel demonstrated that the system has the ability of acquiring resonance signals at temperatures up to 800C. Experimental issues such as additional resonance peaks introduced by the buffer rods and sample loading will be addressed. The apparatus has been used to study high temperature elastic properties of p-zintl thermoelectrics, single crystal quartz, a novel piezoelectric material kepertite, and the glass transition around 400C in bulk metallic glass compounds. Good results from these studies and high temperature test runs of aluminum and stainless steel demonstrate the potential for RUS measurements at elevated temperatures.

Li, Guangyan; Lamberton, Gary; Gladden, Josh

2008-03-01

368

A low-power resonant micromachined compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a micromachined magnetic field sensor based on magnetic resonant structures. A micromechanical resonator fabricated using surface micromachining techniques is modified so as to incorporate a magnetic material. The shift of the fundamental mechanical resonant frequency of the device, caused by the interaction of the external magnetic field and the magnetic component of the resonant system, is used to determine the amplitude or the direction of the external field. We have designed, fabricated and tested two types of micromachined magnetic field sensors relying on the proposed principle of operation. The fabrication of the sensors follows CMOS-compatible and low temperature processes based on surface micromachining. Devices have been fabricated which exhibit a minimum resolution of 45° at 30 µT or less, at an excitation voltage of 10 V, demonstrating their utility as a magnetic compass. The power consumed to actuate the resonator is on the order of 20 nW. A theoretical model of the magnetic field sensor was developed using vibration analysis and nonlinear deflection theory. Good agreement was observed between the predicted and observed behavior of the compass.

Leïchlé, Thierry C.; Von Arx, Martin; Reiman, Stephen; Zana, Iulica; Ye, Wenjing; Allen, Mark G.

2004-04-01

369

Bruker BioSpin EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) is a spectroscopic  

E-print Network

as a magnetic moment. The magnetic moment makes the electron behave like a tiny bar magnet similar to one you the interactions of the electron with the surrounding nuclei. They are extremely powerful techniques for probing is a magnetic resonance technique very similar to NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). However, instead

Niebur, Ernst

370

Saturated absorption inside a Fabry-Perot resonator - Spectroscopic and metrological applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A saturated absorption technique for spectroscopy and metrology based on the use of a Fabry-Perot resonator is presented and applications of the technique are reported. The method involves the placing of the absorption cell within a Fabry-Perot resonator, allowing a considerable increase in sensitivity if the reflection coefficient of the mirrors is close to 1. For saturated absorption spectroscopy of

P. Cerez; A. Brillet; C. Man-Pichot; J. Umezu

1980-01-01

371

Spin-orbit-driven ferromagnetic resonance.  

PubMed

Ferromagnetic resonance is the most widely used technique for characterizing ferromagnetic materials. However, its use is generally restricted to wafer-scale samples or specific micro-magnetic devices, such as spin valves, which have a spatially varying magnetization profile and where ferromagnetic resonance can be induced by an alternating current owing to angular momentum transfer. Here we introduce a form of ferromagnetic resonance in which an electric current oscillating at microwave frequencies is used to create an effective magnetic field in the magnetic material being probed, which makes it possible to characterize individual nanoscale samples with uniform magnetization profiles. The technique takes advantage of the microscopic non-collinearity of individual electron spins arising from spin-orbit coupling and bulk or structural inversion asymmetry in the band structure of the sample. We characterize lithographically patterned (Ga,Mn)As and (Ga,Mn)(As,P) nanoscale bars, including broadband measurements of resonant damping as a function of frequency, and measurements of anisotropy as a function of bar width and strain. In addition, vector magnetometry on the driving fields reveals contributions with the symmetry of both the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit interactions. PMID:21602814

Fang, D; Kurebayashi, H; Wunderlich, J; Výborný, K; Zârbo, L P; Campion, R P; Casiraghi, A; Gallagher, B L; Jungwirth, T; Ferguson, A J

2011-07-01

372

Teaching Techniques  

E-print Network

. Demonstration This technique, also known as method demon- stration, involves the teacher showing youth how to do something. For example: how to change a tire, prepare a recipe or make a tie knot. Another kind of demonstration is the result demonstration.... Demonstration This technique, also known as method demon- stration, involves the teacher showing youth how to do something. For example: how to change a tire, prepare a recipe or make a tie knot. Another kind of demonstration is the result demonstration...

Howard, Jeff W.

2005-05-10

373

Functional magnetic resonance: biomarkers of response in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Functional magnetic resonance (MR) encompasses a spectrum of techniques that depict physiological and molecular processes before morphological changes are visible on conventional imaging. As understanding of the pathophysiological and biomolecular processes involved in breast malignancies evolves, newer functional MR techniques can be employed that define early predictive and surrogate biomarkers for monitoring response to chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is increasingly

Elizabeth AM O’Flynn; Nandita M deSouza

2011-01-01

374

Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Perfusion Imaging of Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review the technique of contrast- enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging of brain neoplasms, with an emphasis on its clinical applica- tions and utility. We start with a discussion of MR perfu- sion techniques available today and their relative merits and shortcomings. Next, the ability of MR perfusion to provide a preoperative assessment of tumor histology

DIEGO J. COVARRUBIAS; BRUCE R. ROSEN; MICHAEL H. LEVa

375

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Moisture Content Profiles of Drying Concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution of moisture in concrete, along with the role this moisture plays in various modes of deterioration, is of fundamental importance to the understanding of concrete behaviour. In this paper a new magnetic resonance imaging technique is utilized for the first time to obtain drying profiles of concrete with sub-millimetre resolution. This technique permits observation of the drying

S. D Beyea; B. J Balcom; T. W Bremner; P. J Prado; D. P Green; R. L Armstrong; P. E Grattan-Bellew

1998-01-01

376

Fabrication of cubic micron-scale 3D metamaterial resonators.  

SciTech Connect

We present a new fabrication technique called Membrane Projection Lithography for the production of three-dimensional metamaterials at infrared wavelengths. Using this technique, multilayer infrared metamaterials that include both in-plane and out-of-plane resonators can be fabricated.

Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal; Wendt, Joel Robert; Burckel, David Bruce; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

2010-06-01

377

Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to try to give a short overview of what the status is on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It's a subject where one really has to spend some time to look at the physics in detail to develop a proper working understanding. I feel it's not appropriate to present to you density matrices, Hamiltonians of all sorts, and differential equations representing the motion of spins. I'm really going to present some history and status, and show a few very simple concepts involved in NMR. It is a form of radio frequency spectroscopy and there are a great number of nuclei that can be studied very usefully with the technique. NMR requires a magnet, a r.f. transmitter/receiver system, and a data acquisition system.

Manatt, Stanley L.

1985-01-01

378

Decomposition techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

1992-01-01

379

Split-ball resonator  

E-print Network

We introduce a new concept of split-ball resonator and demonstrate a strong omnidirectional magnetic dipole response for both gold and silver spherical plasmonic nanoparticles with nanometer-scale cuts. Tunability of the magnetic dipole resonance throughout the visible spectral range is demonstrated by a change of the depth and width of the nanoscale cut. We realize this novel concept experimentally by employing the laser-induced transfer method to produce near-perfect spheres and helium ion beam milling to make cuts with the nanometer resolution. Due to high quality of the spherical particle shape, governed by strong surface tension forces during the laser transfer process, and the clean, straight side walls of the cut made by helium ion milling, magnetic resonance is observed at 600 nm in gold and at 565 nm in silver nanoparticles. Structuring arbitrary features on the surface of ideal spherical resonators with nanoscale dimensions provides new ways of engineering hybrid resonant modes and ultra-high near-f...

Kuznetsov, Arseniy I; Fu, Yuan Hsing; Viswanathan, Vignesh; Rahmani, Mohsen; Valuckas, Vytautas; Kivshar, Yuri; Pickard, Daniel S; Lukiyanchuk, Boris

2014-01-01

380

Resonance capture cross section of Pb207  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiative neutron capture cross section of Pb207 has been measured at the CERN neutron time of flight installation n_TOF using the pulse height weighting technique in the resolved energy region. The measurement has been performed with an optimized setup of two C6D6 scintillation detectors, which allowed us to reduce scattered neutron backgrounds down to a negligible level. Resonance parameters

C. Domingo-Pardo; U. Abbondanno; G. Aerts; H. Álvarez-Pol; F. Alvarez-Velarde; S. Andriamonje; J. Andrzejewski; P A Assimakopoulos; L. Audouin; G. Badurek; P. Baumann; F. Becvár; E. Berthoumieux; S. Bisterzo; F. Calviño; D. Cano-Ott; R. Capote; C. Carrapiço; P. Cennini; V. Chepel; Enrico Chiaveri; N. Colonna; G. Cortes; A. Couture; J. Cox; M. Dahlfors; S. David; I. Dillman; R. Dolfini; W. Dridi; I. Duran; C. Eleftheriadis; M. Embid-Segura; L. Ferrant; A. Ferrari; R. Ferreira-Marques; L. Fitzpatrick; H. Frais-Koelbl; K. Fujii; W. Furman; R. Gallino; I. Goncalves; E M González-Romero; A. Goverdovski; F. Gramegna; E. Griesmayer; C. Guerrero; F. Gunsing; B. Haas; R. Haight; M. Heil; A. Herrera-Martinez; M. Igashira; S. Isaev; E. Jericha; Y. Kadi; F K Käppeler; D. Karamanis; D. Karadimos; M. Kerveno; V. Ketlerov; P. Koehler; V. Konovalov; E. Kossionides; M. Krticka; C. Lamboudis; H. Leeb; A. Lindote; I. Lopes; M. Lozano; S. Lukic; J. Marganiec; S. Marrone; P. Mastinu; A. Mengoni; P. M. Milazzo; C. Moreau; M. Mosconi; F. Neves; Heinz Oberhummer; M. Oshima; S. O'Brien; J. Pancin; C. Papachristodoulou; C. Papadopoulos; C. Paradela; N. Patronis; A. Pavlik; P. Pavlopoulos; L. Perrot; R. Plag; A. Plompen; A. Plukis; A. Poch; C. Pretel; J. Quesada; T. Rauscher; R. Reifarth; M. Rosetti; Carlo Rubbia; G. Rudolf; P. Rullhusen; J. Salgado; L. Sarchiapone; I. Savvidis; C. Stephan; G. Tagliente; J. L. Tain; L. Tassan-Got; L. Tavora; R. Terlizzi; G. Vannini; P. Vaz; A. Ventura; D. Villamarin; M C Vincente; V. Vlachoudis; R. Vlastou; F. Voss; S. Walter; H. Wendler; M. Wiescher; K. Wisshak

2006-01-01

381

Stepwise Precession of the Resonant Swinging Spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The swinging spring, or elastic pendulum, has a 2:1:1 resonance arising at cubic order in its approximate Lagrangian. The corresponding modulation equations are the well-known three-wave equations that also apply, for example, in laser-matter interaction in a cavity. We use Hamiltonian reduction and pattern evocation techniques to derive a formula that describes the characteristic feature of this system's dynamics, namely,

Darryl D. Holm; Peter Lynch

2002-01-01

382

Stepwise Precession of the Resonant Swinging Spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The swinging spring, or elastic pendulum, has a 2:1:1 resonance arising at cubic order in its approximate Lagrangian. The corresponding modulation equations are the well- known three-wave equations that also apply, for example, in laser-matter interaction in a cavity. We use Hamiltonian reduction and pattern evocation techniques to derive a formula that describes the characteristic feature of this system's dynamics,

Darryl D. Holm; Peter Lynch

2001-01-01

383

Isoscalar Giant Dipole Resonance and Nuclear Incompressibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isoscalar giant dipole resonance (ISGDR) in 208Pb has been studied via inelastic ?-scattering of 400 MeV at extremely forward angles, including 0°. Energy spectra virtually free from instrumental background have been obtained with a ray-tracing technique, and the ISGDR strength distribution has been extracted using a multipole-decomposition analysis. These results lead to a value for nuclear incompressibility that is consistent for both the isoscalar dipole and monopole modes.

Uchida, M.; Sakaguchi, H.; Itoh, M.; Yosoi, M.; Kawabata, T.; Takeda, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Murakami, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Taki, T.; Tsukahara, N.; Terashima, S.; Garg, U.; Hedden, M.; Kharraja, B.; Koss, M.; Nayak, B. K.; Zhu, S.; Fujiwara, M.; Fujimura, H.; Hara, K.; Obayashi, E.; Yoshida, H. P.; Akimune, H.; Harakeh, M. N.; Volkerts, M.

2003-04-01

384

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes the correct imaging technique for the magnetic resonance (MR) examination of the kidney, from the fundamental\\u000a morphologic sequences to the MR urography sequences up to diffusion sequences. The basic MR features of vascular and infectious\\u000a renal diseases and solid benign and malignant renal tumors up to the cystic renal tumors are described. The advanced applications\\u000a of the

Maria Assunta Cova; Marco Cavallaro; Paola Martingano; Maja Ukmar

385

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Acute Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the investigation of ischemic stroke, conventional structural magnetic resonance (MR) techniques (e.g., T1-weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, and proton density-weighted imaging) are valuable for the assessment of infarct extent and location beyond the first 12 to 24 hours after onset, and can be combined with MR angiography to noninvasively assess the intracranial and extracranial vasculature. However, during the critical first

Alison E. Baird; Steven Warach

1998-01-01

386

Delta Relaxation Enhanced Magnetic Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally speaking, targeted molecular imaging has always been difficult to perform with magnetic resonance. The difficulty does not arise with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique or equipment itself, but rather with the targeted contrast agents, which the method requires. Also referred to as activatable contrast agents, or MRI probes, targeted contrast agents are pharmaceuticals that will selectively bind to a particular biological (target) molecule. They are used to highlight a certain tissue or the difference between healthy and diseased tissue. Unfortunately, nearly all MRI probes are non-specific, causing localized increases in MR image intensity in both the unbound and target-bound states. Therefore, brightening in a conventional MRI image, following probe injection, does not positively indicate the presence of the target molecule. Herein, a novel method known as delta relaxation enhanced magnetic resonance (dreMR, pronounced "dreamer") is presented that utilizes variable magnetic field technology to produce image contrast related to the dependence of the sample's longitudinal relaxation rates upon the strength of the main magnetic field of the MRI scanner. Since only bound contrast agent shows significant magnetic field dependence, it is an indicator of the bound probe, which is in turn a marker for the target molecule. This work details the development of the dreMR method, focusing on the specialized hardware necessary to provide a clinical, static-field MRI the ability to modulate its main magnetic field throughout an MRI sequence. All modifications were performed in such a manner that the host MRI system was not degraded or permanently modified in any way. The three parts of this technology are: the insertable electromagnet, the power supply system and the control system. The insertable electromagnet modifies the magnetic field, the power system drives the electromagnet, and the control system generates the magnetic field waveform envelope and synchronizes this waveform with the rest of the MRI pulse sequence. On two separate dreMR systems, images were obtained having contrast which was directly proportional to the magnetic field dependence of the sample's relaxation rates. This contrast unambiguously indicated the presence of the bound probe, and its imaging therefore yields a map of the targeted biological molecule. Keywords Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Field-Cycled MRI; MR Probe; Targeted Contrast Agent; Gadolinium; Insert Coil; Power Supply; Relaxation Rate; Relaxivity; Actively Shielded; dreMR; Delta Relaxation Enhanced MRI; MRI Hardware; Gradient Echo; Spin Echo; Spoiled Gradient; Echo iv

Alford, Jamu K.

387

White-Light Whispering-Gallery-Mode Optical Resonators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators can be designed to exhibit continuous spectra over wide wavelength bands (in effect, white-light spectra), with ultrahigh values of the resonance quality factor (Q) that are nearly independent of frequency. White-light WGM resonators have potential as superior alternatives to (1) larger, conventional optical resonators in ring-down spectroscopy, and (2) optical-resonator/electro-optical-modulator structures used in coupling of microwave and optical signals in atomic clocks. In these and other potential applications, the use of white-light WGM resonators makes it possible to relax the requirement of high-frequency stability of lasers, thereby enabling the use of cheaper lasers. In designing a white-light WGM resonator, one exploits the fact that the density of the mode spectrum increases predictably with the thickness of the resonator disk. By making the resonator disk sufficiently thick, one can make the frequency differences between adjacent modes significantly less than the spectral width of a single mode, so that the spectral peaks of adjacent modes overlap, making the resonator spectrum essentially continuous. Moreover, inasmuch as the Q values of the various modes are determined primarily by surface Rayleigh scattering that does not depend on mode numbers, all the modes have nearly equal Q. By use of a proper coupling technique, one can ensure excitation of a majority of the modes. For an experimental demonstration of a white-light WGM resonator, a resonator disk 0.5-mm thick and 5 mm in diameter was made from CaF2. The shape of the resonator and the fiberoptic coupling arrangement were as shown in Figure 1. The resonator was excited with laser light having a wavelength of 1,320 nm and a spectral width of 4 kHz. The coupling efficiency exceeded 80 percent at any frequency to which the laser could be set in its tuning range, which was >100-GHz wide. The resonator response was characterized by means of ring-down tests in which the excitation was interrupted by a shutter having a rise and a fall time of 5 ns. The ring-down time of photodiodes and associated circuitry used to measure the interrupted excitation and the resonator output was <1 ns. Figure 2 shows the shapes of representative input and output light pulses. The average ring-down time was found to be 120 ns, corresponding to Q=2x10(exp 8). The variations of Q with the laser carrier frequency were found to be <5 percent. Hence, the resonator was shown to have the desired white light properties.

Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

2006-01-01

388

Reconfigurable optical routers based on Coupled Resonator Induced Transparency resonances.  

PubMed

The interferometric coupling of pairs of resonators in a resonator sequence generates coupled ring induced transparency (CRIT) resonances. These have quality factors an order of magnitude greater than those of single resonators. We show that it is possible to engineer CRIT resonances in tapered SCISSOR (Side Coupled Integrated Space Sequence of Resonator) to realize fast and efficient reconfigurable optical switches and routers handling several channels while keeping single channel addressing capabilities. Tapered SCISSORs are fabricated in silicon-on-insulator technology. Furthermore, tapered SCISSORs show multiple-channel switching behavior that can be exploited in DWDM applications. PMID:23188351

Mancinelli, M; Bettotti, P; Fedeli, J M; Pavesi, L

2012-10-01

389

Mass spectrometry. [review of techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) and its applications over the past decade are reviewed in depth, with annotated literature references. New instrumentation and techniques surveyed include: modulated-beam MS, chromatographic MS on-line computer techniques, digital computer-compatible quadrupole MS, selected ion monitoring (mass fragmentography), and computer-aided management of MS data and interpretation. Areas of application surveyed include: organic MS and electron impact MS, field ionization kinetics, appearance potentials, translational energy release, studies of metastable species, photoionization, calculations of molecular orbitals, chemical kinetics, field desorption MS, high pressure MS, ion cyclotron resonance, biochemistry, medical/clinical chemistry, pharmacology, and environmental chemistry and pollution studies.

Burlingame, A. L.; Kimble, B. J.; Derrick, P. J.

1976-01-01

390

Energies of Resonances in Atoms and Ions with Three Electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energies of resonances of 2 Ssymmetry were calculated for atoms and ions with three electrons, H2-, He-, and Li, using the stabilization technique. The variational wave function was expanded over a large number (up to 2030) of normalized three-electron basis functions. The basis functions that made significant contributions to the energies were selected using a special procedure. Many high-energy resonances were found with energies of H2- resonances ranging from 1 to 12 eV. The calculated energies of some He- and Li resonances were compared with the experimental data and calculations of other authors. The selected basis set of three-electron wave functions was found to be efficient in calculations of high-energy resonances.

Misurkin, I. A.; Titov, S. V.

2008-03-01

391

Magnetostrictive resonance excitation  

DOEpatents

The resonance frequency spectrum of a magnetostrictive sample is remotely determined by exciting the magnetostrictive property with an oscillating magnetic field. The permeability of a magnetostrictive material and concomitant coupling with a detection coil varies with the strain in the material whereby resonance responses of the sample can be readily detected. A suitable sample may be a magnetostrictive material or some other material having at least one side coated with a magnetostrictive material. When the sample is a suitable shape, i.e., a cube, rectangular parallelepiped, solid sphere or spherical shell, the elastic moduli or the material can be analytically determined from the measured resonance frequency spectrum. No mechanical transducers are required and the sample excitation is obtained without contact with the sample, leading to highly reproducible results and a measurement capability over a wide temperature range, e.g. from liquid nitrogen temperature to the Curie temperature of the magnetostrictive material.

Schwarz, Ricardo B. (Los Alamos, NM); Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani (Tampere, FI)

1992-01-01

392

Magnetic Resonance Online Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This well-organized and very thorough website was developed by the physicist Stanislav Sykora with the aim of providing free online texts, theses, and course materials on the subjects of magnetic resonance (MR), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) and other related topics. The amount of material on the site is impressive. At the top of the page are links to an "MR Blog", as well as to "MR Links" and the "Site Plan & SEARCH". The NMR/MRI Extras section on the right side of the page is particularly useful for visitors interested in all things about MR. Its links to "Events" provides an up-to-date list of symposia, conferences, and meetings, along with links to the events' sites. The "Societies" link offers at least 50 groups about MR, some of which are country-based, and others that are region- or application-based.

Sãâãâ½kora, Stanislav

393

Coupled-Resonator-Induced Transparency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We demonstrate that a cancellation of absorption occurs on resonance for two (or any even number of) coupled optical resonators, due to mode splitting and classical destructive interference, particularly when the resonator finesse is large and the loss in the resonator furthest from the excitation waveguide is small. The linewidth and group velocity of a collection of such coupled-resonator structures may be decreased by using larger resonators of equal size, using larger resonators of unequal size where the optical path length of the larger resonator is an integer multiple of that of the smaller one, or by using a larger number of resonators per structure. We explore the analogy between these effects and electromagnetically induced transparency in an atomic system.

Smith, David D.; Chang, Hong-Rok; Fuller, Kirk A.; Rosenberger, A. T.; Boyd, Robert W.

2003-01-01

394

Neutron Resonance Spectroscopy for the Analysis of Materials and Objects  

SciTech Connect

The presence of resonances in neutron induced reaction cross sections is the basis of the Neutron Resonance Capture (NRCA) and Transmission (NRTA) Analysis techniques. Since resonances can be observed at neutron energies which are specific for each nuclide, they can be used as fingerprints to identify and quantify elements in materials and objects. Both NRCA and NRTA are fully non-destructive methods which determine the bulk elemental composition, do not require any sample preparation and result in a negligible residual activation. In this text we review the technique and present an analysis procedures including one based on a more methodological approach which relies on a full Resonance Shape Analysis (RSA) and accounts directly for the neutron self-shielding, multiple scattering, Doppler broadening and instrumental resolution.

Borella, A.; Lampoudis, C.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Kopecky, S. [EC-JRC-IRMM, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Postma, H. [Delft University of Technology, IRI, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Moxon, M. [Hyde Copse 3, Marcham (United Kingdom)

2009-12-02

395

Liquid contact resonance AFM: analytical models, experiments, and limitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contact resonance AFM (CR-AFM) is a scanning probe microscopy technique that utilizes the contact resonances of the AFM cantilever for concurrent imaging of topography and surface stiffness. The technique has not been used in liquid until recently due to analytical and experimental difficulties, associated with viscous damping of cantilever vibrations and fluid loading effects. To address these difficulties, (i) an analytical approach for contact resonances in liquid is developed, and (ii) direct excitation of the contact resonances is demonstrated by actuating the cantilever directly in a magnetic field. By implementing the analytical approach and the direct actuation through magnetic particles, quantitative stiffness imaging on surfaces with a wide range of stiffness can be achieved in liquid with soft cantilevers and low contact forces.

Parlak, Zehra; Tu, Qing; Zauscher, Stefan

2014-11-01

396

Liquid contact resonance AFM: analytical models, experiments, and limitations.  

PubMed

Contact resonance AFM (CR-AFM) is a scanning probe microscopy technique that utilizes the contact resonances of the AFM cantilever for concurrent imaging of topography and surface stiffness. The technique has not been used in liquid until recently due to analytical and experimental difficulties, associated with viscous damping of cantilever vibrations and fluid loading effects. To address these difficulties, (i) an analytical approach for contact resonances in liquid is developed, and (ii) direct excitation of the contact resonances is demonstrated by actuating the cantilever directly in a magnetic field. By implementing the analytical approach and the direct actuation through magnetic particles, quantitative stiffness imaging on surfaces with a wide range of stiffness can be achieved in liquid with soft cantilevers and low contact forces. PMID:25302928

Parlak, Zehra; Tu, Qing; Zauscher, Stefan

2014-11-01

397

Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) sensor  

E-print Network

The applications of Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) have expanded tremendously in the last 25 years, and the technique has become a staple technique in many biological and biophysical fields. FRET can be used as spectroscopic ruler in various areas such as structural elucidation of biological molecules and their interactions, in vitro assays, in vivo monitoring in cellular research, nucleic acid analysis, signal transduction, light harvesting, and metallic nanomaterials etc. Based on the mechanism of FRET a variety of novel chemical sensors and Biosensors have been developed. This review highlights the recent applications of sensitive and selective ratiometric FRET based sensors.

Hussain, Syed Arshad; Chakraborty, Sekhar; Saha, Jaba; Roy, Arpan Datta; Chakraborty, Santanu; Debnath, Pintu; Bhattacharjee, D

2014-01-01

398

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

NMR imaging is based on the ability to induce and monitor resonance of the magnetic moment of nuclei with an odd number of protons and/or neutrons in the presence of magnetic fields. By the use of magnetic fields whose strength varies with position, it is possible to define both the location and concentration of resonant nuclei, and, thereby, to create images that reflect their distribution in tissue. Hydrogen because it is the most sensitive of the stable nuclei to NMR and because it is also the most abundant nucleus in the body, is ideally suited for NMR imaging. PMID:7323305

Crooks, L; Herfkens, R; Kaufman, L; Hoenninger, J; Arakawa, M; McRee, R; Watts, J

1981-01-01

399

Resonant optical gun.  

PubMed

We propose a concept of a structure-a resonant optical gun-to realize an efficient propulsion of dielectric microparticles by light forces. The structure is based on a waveguide in which a reversal of the electromagnetic momentum flow of the incident mode is realized by exciting a whispering gallery resonance in the microparticle. The propelling force can reach the value up to the theoretical maximum of twice the momentum flow of the initial wave. The force density oscillates along the particle periphery and has very large amplitude. PMID:24784113

Maslov, A V; Bakunov, M I

2014-05-01

400

Field resonance propulsion concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A propulsion concept was developed based on a proposed resonance between coherent, pulsed electromagnetic wave forms, and gravitational wave forms (or space-time metrics). Using this concept a spacecraft propulsion system potentially capable of galactic and intergalactic travel without prohibitive travel times was designed. The propulsion system utilizes recent research associated with magnetic field line merging, hydromagnetic wave effects, free-electron lasers, laser generation of megagauss fields, and special structural and containment metals. The research required to determine potential, field resonance characteristics and to evaluate various aspects of the spacecraft propulsion design is described.

Holt, A. C.

1979-01-01

401

Pygmy resonances and nucleosynthesis  

E-print Network

A microscopic theoretical approach based on a self-consistent density functional theory for the nuclear ground state and QRPA formalism extended with multi-phonon degrees of freedom for the nuclear excited states is implemented in investigations of new low-energy modes called pygmy resonances. Advantage of the method is the unified description of low-energy multiphonon excitations, pygmy resonances and core polarization effects. This is found of crucial importance for the understanding of the fine structure of nuclear response functions at low energies. Aspects of the precise knowledge of nuclear response functions around the neutron threshold are discussed in a connection to nucleosynthesis.

Tsoneva, Nadia

2014-01-01

402

Locally resonant sonic materials  

PubMed

We have fabricated sonic crystals, based on the idea of localized resonant structures, that exhibit spectral gaps with a lattice constant two orders of magnitude smaller than the relevant wavelength. Disordered composites made from such localized resonant structures behave as a material with effective negative elastic constants and a total wave reflector within certain tunable sonic frequency ranges. A 2-centimeter slab of this composite material is shown to break the conventional mass-density law of sound transmission by one or more orders of magnitude at 400 hertz. PMID:10976063

Liu; Zhang; Mao; Zhu; Yang; Chan; Sheng

2000-09-01

403

Optical fiber microcoil resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical microfiber coil resonator with self-coupling turns is suggested and investigated theoretically. This type of a microresonator has a three-dimensional geometry and complements the well-known Fabry-Perot (one-dimensional geometry, standing wave) and ring (two-dimensional geometry, traveling wave) types of microresonators. The coupled wave equations for the light propagation along the adiabatically bent coiled microfiber are derived. The particular cases of a microcoil having two and three turns are considered. The effect of microfiber radius variation on the value of Q-factor of resonances is studied.

Sumetsky, M.

2004-05-01

404

Proton resonance spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Preparations for studying [sup 30]P via [sup 29]Si(p,[gamma]) have continued. We are exploring both the use of the Fourier transform and the statistical behavior of electromagnetic transition strengths within the shell model as alternate approaches to identifying quantum chaos in nuclei. Analysis of interfering resonances in (p,[alpha]) resonances suggests that improvements in the limits on detailed balance in nuclear reactions are possible, but several issues still must be considered before a definitive conclusion can be reached. Plans for a new control system for the High Resolution Laboratory's electrostatic analyzer are being implemented.

Shriner, J.F. Jr.

1992-11-01

405

Physics of Sports: Resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When force is applied by an athlete to sports equipment resonances can occur. Just a few examples are: the ringing of a spiked volleyball, the strumming of a golf club shaft during a swing, and multiple modes induced in an aluminum baseball bat when striking a ball. Resonances produce acoustic waves which, if conditions are favorable, can be detected off the playing field. This can provide a means to evaluate athletic performance during game conditions. Results are given from the use of a simple hand-held acoustic detector - by a spectator sitting in the stands - to determine how hard volleyballs were spiked during college and high school games.

Browning, David

2000-04-01

406

Physics 2000: Resonance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page presents the physics of resonance of standing waves in a confined space. It is presented as a conversation between a student and a teacher, making it lively to read. There is a simulation that provides an animated illustration of resonance. The relation between the wavelength and the length of the confined space is described. Some practical examples are also cited. This is part of a tutorial on the physics of microwave ovens and the larger Physics 2000 web site. Physics 2000 introduces some of the results of modern physical science with interactive and engaging web presentations.

Physics 2000; Goldman, Martin

2007-05-15

407

Chemical Sensors Based on Optical Ring Resonators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical sensors based on optical ring resonators are undergoing development. A ring resonator according to this concept is a closed-circuit dielectric optical waveguide. The outermost layer of this waveguide, analogous to the optical cladding layer on an optical fiber, is a made of a polymer that (1) has an index of refraction lower than that of the waveguide core and (2) absorbs chemicals from the surrounding air. The index of refraction of the polymer changes with the concentration of absorbed chemical( s). The resonator is designed to operate with relatively strong evanescent-wave coupling between the outer polymer layer and the electromagnetic field propagating along the waveguide core. By virtue of this coupling, the chemically induced change in index of refraction of the polymer causes a measurable shift in the resonance peaks of the ring. In a prototype that has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of this sensor concept, the ring resonator is a dielectric optical waveguide laid out along a closed path resembling a racetrack (see Figure 1). The prototype was fabricated on a silicon substrate by use of standard techniques of thermal oxidation, chemical vapor deposition, photolithography, etching, and spin coating. The prototype resonator waveguide features an inner cladding of SiO2, a core of SixNy, and a chemical-sensing outer cladding of ethyl cellulose. In addition to the ring Chemical sensors based on optical ring resonators are undergoing development. A ring resonator according to this concept is a closed-circuit dielectric optical waveguide. The outermost layer of this waveguide, analogous to the optical cladding layer on an optical fiber, is a made of a polymer that (1) has an index of refraction lower than that of the waveguide core and (2) absorbs chemicals from the surrounding air. The index of refraction of the polymer changes with the concentration of absorbed chemical( s). The resonator is designed to operate with relatively strong evanescent-wave coupling between the outer polymer layer and the electromagnetic field propagating along the waveguide core. By virtue of this coupling, the chemically induced change in index of refraction of the polymer causes a measurable shift in the resonance peaks of the ring. In a prototype that has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of this sensor concept, the ring resonator is a dielectric optical waveguide laid out along a closed path resembling a racetrack (see Figure 1). The prototype was fabricated on a silicon substrate by use of standard techniques of thermal oxidation, chemical vapor deposition, photolithography, etching, and spin coating. The prototype resonator waveguide features an inner cladding of SiO2, a core of SixNy, and a chemical-sensing outer cladding of ethyl cellulose. In addition to the ring res

Homer, Margie; Manfreda, Allison; Mansour, Kamjou; Lin, Ying; Ksendzov, Alexander

2005-01-01

408

Developmental neuroimaging of children using magnetic resonance techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive and motor development in children remain fascinating processes that are uniquely human. Progress has been made in recent years in elucidating the prenatal process of human brain development. In addi- tion, much information exists regarding the behavioral aspects of postnatal human development. However, little is known about the relationship be- tween anatomic postnatal central nervous system development and the

Michael J. Rivkin

2000-01-01

409

Extracting Low-Lying Lambda Resonances Using Correlation Matrix Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The lowest-lying negative-parity state of the Lambda is investigated in (2+1)-flavour full-QCD on the PACS-CS configurations made available through the ILDG. We show that a variational analysis using multiple source and sink smearings can extract a state lying lower than that obtained by using a standard fixed smeared source and sink operator alone.

Menadue, Benjamin J.; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Mahbub, M. S. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide (Australia)

2011-05-24

410

Extracting Low-Lying Lambda Resonances Using Correlation Matrix Techniques  

E-print Network

The lowest-lying negative-parity state of the Lambda is investigated in (2+1)-flavour full-QCD on the PACS-CS configurations made available through the ILDG. We show that a variational analysis using multiple source and sink smearings can extract a state lying lower than that obtained by using a standard fixed smeared source and sink operator alone.

Benjamin J. Menadue; Waseem Kamleh; Derek B. Leinweber; M. S. Mahbub

2011-02-17

411

DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROIMAGING OF CHILDREN USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE TECHNIQUES  

E-print Network

* Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts CognitiveMRI) when combined with neurologic and neuropsychologic evaluation, will provide new insights into the cogni discrete learning disabil- ities. Despite the discovery of discrete anatomic differences found on MR images

Stromswold, Karin

412

Dual Series-Resonant Active-Clamp Converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual series-resonant active-clamp dc-dc converter is proposed to obtain high efficiency. The proposed converter employs an active-clamp technique, while a series-resonant scheme controls the output voltage with the complementary pulsewidth modulation controller. The active-clamp circuit serves to recycle the energy stored in the leakage inductance or the magnetizing inductance and provides zero-voltage turn-on switching. The voltage stresses of the

Lee Jong-Jae; Kwon Jung-Min; Kim Eung-Ho; Kwon Bong-Hwan

2008-01-01

413

Integrated high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonators  

E-print Network

Lithium Niobate (LN) is an important nonlinear optical material. Here we demonstrate LN microdisk resonators that feature optical quality factor ~ 100,000, realized using robust and scalable fabrication techniques, that operate over a wide wavelength range spanning visible and near infrared. Using our resonators, and leveraging LN's large second order optical nonlinearity, we demonstrate on-chip second harmonic generation with a conversion efficiency of 0.109 W-1.

Wang, Cheng; Lin, Zin; Atikian, Haig A; Venkataraman, Vivek; Huang, I-Chun; Stark, Peter; Lon?ar, Marko

2014-01-01

414

Unstable laser resonators with super-Gaussian mirrors  

SciTech Connect

A new class of tapered reflectivity mirrors with a super-Gaussian profile R atmI exp(-kr/sup n/) is introduced, and a geometrical-optics approach for analysis and design of unstable resonators made with these mirrors is presented. A super-Gaussian mirror, built by a special evaporation technique, has been tested in an unstable resonator of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, demonstrating its effectiveness in generating diffraction-limited beams.

De Silvestri, S.; Laporta, P.; Magni, V.; Svelto, O.; Majocchi, B.

1988-03-01

415

Resonator modes in high gain free electron lasers  

SciTech Connect

When the gain in a free electron laser is high enough to produce optical guiding, the resonator mode distorts and loses its forward-backward symmetry. We show that the resonator mode in a high gain FEL can be easily constructed using the mode expansion technique taken separately in the interaction and the free-space regions. We propose design strategies to achieve maximal gain and optimal mode quality, and discuss the stability of the optimized mode. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Xie, Ming (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Deacon, D.A.G. (Deacon Research, Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Madey, J.M.J. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1989-10-01

416

ARCPI resonant snubber for the neutral-point-clamped inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a resonant snubber for the neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter using the auxiliary resonant commutated pole inverter (ARCPI) technique. The proposal guarantees zero-voltage switching of the main switches and zero-current switching of the auxiliary switches without incurring any voltage or current spikes across or through the main switches and without being subjected to any modulation constraints. The operation principle

Xiaoming Yuan; Gunthard Orglmeister; Ivo Barbi

2000-01-01

417

Electrostatic-comb drive of lateral polysilicon resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mvestlgates the elcctrostatlc dnve and sense of polynhcon resonators parallel to the substrate, using an mterdlgtated capacitor (elec- trostatic comb) Three expenmental methods are used nucroscoplc observation mth contmuous or stroboscopic iummatlon, capacltlve sensing using an amphtude-modulation technique and SEM ob- servation The mtnnslc quality factor of the phosphorus-doped low-pressure chemlcal-vapor- deposited (LPCVD) polyslhcon resonators is 49 000

William C. Tang; Tu-Cuong H. Nguyen; Michael W. Judy; Roger T. Howe

1990-01-01

418

Probing Studentsâ Understanding of Resonance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Resonant phenomena play a crucial role in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a widely used medical tool in today's society. The basic features of the resonance in MRI can be taught by looking at the resonance of a compass driven by an electromagnetic field. However, resonance in a oscillating magnetic field is not a phenomenon that is familiar to most students. Thus, as a precursor to creating instructional materials, we investigated how students applied their learning about resonance as traditionally taught to this novel system.

Murphy, Sytil K.; Mcbride, Dyan L.; Gross, Josh; Zollman, Dean A.

2010-01-19

419

Phonon counting and intensity interferometry of a nanomechanical resonator  

E-print Network

Using an optical probe along with single photon detection we have performed effective phonon counting measurements of the acoustic emission and absorption processes in a nanomechanical resonator. Applying these measurements in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss set-up, phonon correlations of the nanomechanical resonator are explored from below to above threshold of a parametric instability leading to self-oscillation of the resonator. Discussion of the results in terms of a "phonon laser", and analysis of the sensitivity of the phonon counting technique are presented.

Cohen, Justin D; MacCabe, Gregory S; Groblacher, Simon; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D; Painter, Oskar

2014-01-01

420

Micromachined double resonator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A micromachined resonator mountable to an external support structure has a proof mass coupled to a base structure by a first spring structure, the base structure having a plurality of electrodes, and a second spring structure coupling the base structure to the external support structure.

Gutierrez, Roman (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill (Inventor)

2002-01-01

421

Double resonator cantilever accelerometer  

DOEpatents

A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

Koehler, Dale R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-01-01

422

Double resonator cantilever accelerometer  

DOEpatents

A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

Koehler, D.R.

1982-09-23

423

Exploring Resonance Phenomena.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a demonstration where two 0.5-kg masses and two 1.0-kg masses are hung on springs on a suspended meterstick. The masses can be made to resonate by putting one partner mass in motion. Relates the motion to the history of the telegraph. (MVL)

Blacksten, H. Ric

1994-01-01

424

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Purpose â¢Use microwaves to induce and detect electron paramagnetic resonance. â¢Become familiar with a waveguide spectrometer and phase-sensitive detection. â¢Measure the gyromagnetic ratio and transverse relaxation time of the nearly-free electrons in DPPH.

2012-01-18

425

Magnetic Resonance Annual, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The inaugural volume of Magnetic Resonance Annual includes reviews of MRI of the posterior fossa, cerebral neoplasms, and the cardiovascular and genitourinary systems. A chapter on contrast materials outlines the mechanisms of paramagnetic contrast enhancement and highlights several promising contrast agents.

Kressel, H.Y.

1985-01-01

426

Proton resonance spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: Complete Level Scheme for {sup 30}P; A Search for Resonances Suitable for Tests of Detailed-Balance Violation; The Fourier Transform as a Tool for Detecting Chaos; Entrance Channel Correlations in p + {sup 27}Al; The Parity Dependence of Level Densities in {sup 49}V; and A Computer Program for the Calculation of Angular Momentum Coupling.

Shriner, J.F. Jr.

1991-11-01

427

Laser beams and resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of the theory of laser beams and resonators. It is meant to be tutorial in nature and useful in scope. No attempt is made to be exhaustive in the treatment. Rather, emphasis is placed on formulations and derivations which lead to basic understanding and on results which bear practical significance.

H. Kogelnik; T. Li

1966-01-01

428

Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson ties the preceding lessons together and brings students back to the grand challenge question on MRI safety. During this lesson, students focus on the logistics of magnetic resonance imaging as well as the MRI hardware. Students can then integrate this knowledge with their acquired knowledge on magnetic fields to solve the challenge question.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

429

Ultraviolet Resonant Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives  

SciTech Connect

Raman-based spectroscopy is potentially militarily useful for standoff detection of high explosives. Normal (non-resonance) and resonance Raman spectroscopies are both light scattering techniques that use a laser to measure the vibrational spectrum of a sample. In resonance Raman, the laser is tuned to match the wavelength of a strong electronic absorbance in the molecule of interest, whereas, in normal Raman the laser is not tuned to any strong electronic absorbance bands. The selection of appropriate excitation wavelengths in resonance Raman can result in a dramatic increase in the Raman scattering efficiency of select band(s) associated with the electronic transition. Other than the excitation wavelength, however, resonance Raman is performed experimentally the same as normal Raman. In these studies, normal and resonance Raman spectral signatures of select solid high explosive (HE) samples and explosive precursors were collected at 785 nm, 244 nm and 229 nm. Solutions of PETN, TNT, and explosive precursors (DNT & PNT) in acetonitrile solvent as an internal Raman standard were quantitatively evaluated using ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) microscopy and normal Raman spectroscopy as a function of power and select excitation wavelengths. Use of an internal standard allowed resonance enhancements to be estimated at 229 nm and 244 nm. Investigations demonstrated that UVRR provided {approx}2000-fold enhancement at 244 nm and {approx}800-fold improvement at 229 nm while PETN showed a maximum of {approx}25-fold at 244 nm and {approx}190-fold enhancement at 229 nm solely from resonance effects when compared to normal Raman measurements. In addition to the observed resonance enhancements, additional Raman signal enhancements are obtained with ultraviolet excitation (i.e., Raman scattering scales as !4 for measurements based on scattered photons). A model, based partly on the resonance Raman enhancement results for HE solutions, is presented for estimating Raman enhancements for solid HE samples.

Short, B J; Carter, J C; Gunter, D; Hovland, P; Jagode, H; Karavanic, K; Marin, G; Mellor-Crummey, J; Moore, S; Norris, B; Oliker, L; Olschanowsky, C; Roth, P C; Schulz, M; Shende, S; Snavely, A; Spear, W

2009-06-03

430

Flyby Design Using Heteroclinic and Homoclinic Connections of Unstable Resonant Orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tour designs using flybys have traditionally been studied using two-body patched conic methods. Previous work has shown that trajectories designed using these techniques and with optimization methods follow the invariant manifolds of unstable resonant orbits as they transition between resonances. This work is continued here by computing heteroclinic and homoclinic trajectories associated with these unstable resonant orbits. These trajectories are used with multiple resonances to design flybys that transition between these resonances in the circular restricted three-body problem without the need for two-body approximations.

Anderson, Rodney L.; Lo, Martin W.

2011-01-01

431

Inosiplex affects the spectra of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.  

PubMed

In vivo magnetic resonance techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been some of the most useful tools for evaluation of neurologic diseases. In subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be an additional tool for evaluation of disease progression or the efficacy of the treatment, such as interferon or inosiplex, compared with MRI. Inosiplex is one of the effective drugs for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, but our in vivo and in vitro magnetic resonance spectroscopic study indicated that inosiplex affects the spectra, suggesting a possible failure of neurologic evaluation in a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis treated with inosiplex. PMID:16566890

Kato, Zenichiro; Asano, Takahiko; Kondo, Naomi

2006-02-01

432

Evaluation of stable and unstable resonator configurations for efficient second-harmonic laser systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparative evaluation of a stable resonator, self-filtering unstable resonator, and an unstable resonator with a graded reflectivity mirror (GRM) as the output coupler is presented. The GRM resonator produced a slope efficiency of 1.4 percent, best beam quality (1.4 times diffraction limit), and highest conversion efficiency (50 percent). Other accomplishments include determination of the importance of measuring thermal focusing when designing unstable resonators, development of techniques in measuring thermal focusing and birefringence in laser materials, and development of a high brightness laser system for efficient second harmonic conversion.

Williams-Byrd, Julie A.; Barnes, Norman P.

1992-01-01

433

Optical diagnostics for a ring resonator free-electron lasers  

SciTech Connect

The optical cavity of the Boeing free-electron laser (FEL) was reconfigured as a semiconfocal ring resonator with two glancing incidence hyperboloid-paraboloid telescopes. The challenge for this experiment was the complexity of the ring resonator compared to the simplicity of a concentric cavity. The ring resonator's nonspherical mirror surfaces, its multiple elements, and the size of the components contributed to the problems of keeping the optical mode of the resonator matched to the electron beam in the wiggler. Several new optical diagnostics were developed to determine when the optical mode in the FEL was spatially and temporally matched to the electron beam through the wiggler. These included measurements of the focus position and Rayleigh range of the ring resonator optics to determine the spatial match of the optical mode through the wiggler, and a measurement of the position of the optical axis for multiple passes around the ring resonator to determined the stability of the resonator alignment. This paper also describes the optical measurements that were necessary to achieve reliable lasing. The techniques for measuring ring resonator Rayleigh range and focus position, multiple pass alignment, cavity length, optical energy per micropulse, peak power, optical extraction, small signal gain, ringdown loss, lasing wavelength, electron bunch pulse width, and energy slew are discussed.

Laucks, M.L.; Dowell, D.H.; Lowrey, A.R. (Boeing Defense and Space Group, Seattle, WA (United States)); Bender, S.C.; Lumpkin, A.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Bentz, M.P. (Rocketdyne Div. of Rockwell International, Canoga Park, CA (United States))

1993-02-01

434

35-Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra in diazepam and its 1:1 complex with chloral hydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 35-Cl NQR spectra of diazepam and some of its related compounds are reported; they yield information about the hydrogen bonded complex that diazepam forms with chloral hydrate. The results reflect large changes in electron distribution at the CCl 3 group while the diazepam chlorine at the 7 position remains almost unaffected.

Brisson, Colette; Durand, Marcel; Jugie, Gérard; Pasdeloup, Maurice

1980-11-01

435

Resonance capture at arbitrary inclination  

E-print Network

Resonance capture is studied numerically in the three-body problem for arbitrary inclinations. Massless particles are set to drift from outside the 1:5 resonance with a Jupiter-mass planet thereby encountering the web of the planet's diverse mean motion resonances. Randomly constructed samples explore parameter space for inclinations from 0 to 180 deg with 5deg increments totalling nearly 6x10^5 numerical simulations. Thirty resonances internal and external to the planet's location are monitored. We find that retrograde resonances are unexpectedly more efficient at capture than prograde resonances and that resonance order is not necessarily a good indicator of capture efficiency at arbitrary inclination. Capture probability drops significantly at moderate sample eccentricity for initial inclinations in the range [10deg,110deg]. Orbit inversion is possible for initially circular orbits with inclinations in the range [60deg,130deg]. Capture in the 1:1 coorbital resonance occurs with great likelihood at large re...

Namouni, Fathi

2014-01-01

436

Infrared cubic dielectric resonator metamaterial.  

SciTech Connect

Dielectric resonators are an effective means to realize isotropic, low-loss optical metamaterials. As proof of this concept, a cubic resonator is analytically designed and then tested in the long-wave infrared.

Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal; Peters, David William; Ginn, James Cleveland, III; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

2010-06-01

437

Coherent synchro-betatron resonance  

SciTech Connect

Coherent synchro-betatron resonances can present a serious limit for low-energy synchrotrons with strong space charge. Here, an excitation of a dipole transverse mode is considered at resonance condition.

Burov, A.; Lebedev, V.; /Fermilab

2006-12-01

438

Nanofabrication Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Foothill-De Anza Community College describes a course on nanoscience for those who need an introduction to the subject. This course is the fifth in a five course series that leads to a certificate in nanoscience, nanotechnology, and nanomaterials engineering. Students will obtain a survey of fabrication techniques as well as "hands-on experience creating thin film materials, and quality control 'shadowing' in a clean energy technology fabrication facility." The projects required by the class are also described.

2012-11-08

439

Brain imaging techniques in the diagnosis of dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various recently developed brain imaging techniques used to assist in the diagnosis of dementia are reviewed. The methods reviewed are x-ray computed tomography scan imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and the older techniques of pneumoencephalography and radioisotope cisternography. It was concluded that while these techniques often offer excellent diagnostic information, none of them provides a definitive characteristic image

Artiss L. Powell; D. Frank Benson

1990-01-01

440

Magnetic resonance neurography: diffusion tensor imaging and future directions.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography has progressed in the past 2 decades because of rapid technological developments in both hardware and software. In addition to improvements in high-resolution anatomic pulse sequences, functional techniques are becoming feasible. This article presents the current state-of-the-art three-dimensional anatomic techniques, discusses the advantages of functional techniques being exploited, and portrays novel contrast types and molecular techniques that are under development and promise a bright future for this rapidly evolving technique. PMID:24210323

Eppenberger, Patrick; Andreisek, Gustav; Chhabra, Avneesh

2014-02-01

441

Sensitive algorithm for multiple-excitation-wavelength resonance Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy is a widely used spectroscopic technique with a number of applications. During the past few years, we explored the use of simultaneous multiple-excitation-wavelengths (MEW) in resonance Raman spectroscopy. This approach takes advantage of Raman band intensity variations across the Resonance Raman spectra obtained from two or more excitation wavelengths. Amplitude variations occur between corresponding Raman bands in Resonance Raman spectra due to complex interplay of resonant enhancement, self-absorption and laser penetration depth. We have developed a very sensitive algorithm to estimate concentration of an analyte from spectra obtained using the MEW technique. The algorithm uses correlations and least-square minimization approach to calculate an estimate for the concentration. For two or more excitation wavelengths, measured spectra were stacked in a two dimensional matrix. In a simple realization of the algorithm, we approximated peaks in the ideal library spectra as triangles. In this work, we present the performance of the algorithm with measurements obtained from a dual-excitation-wavelength Resonance Raman sensor. The novel sensor, developed at WVHTCF, detects explosives from a standoff distance. The algorithm was able to detect explosives with very high sensitivity even at signal-to-noise ratios as low as ~1.6. Receiver operating characteristics calculated using the algorithm showed a clear benefit in using the dual-excitation-wavelength technique over single-excitation-wavelength techniques. Variants of the algorithm that add more weight to amplitude variation information showed improved specificity to closely resembling spectra.

Yellampalle, Balakishore; Wu, Hai-Shan; McCormick, William; Sluch, Mikhail; Martin, Robert; Ice, Robert; Lemoff, Brian E.

2014-05-01

442

Repetitive resonant railgun power supply  

DOEpatents

A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Nunnally, William C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

443

Eigenproblems in Resonant MEMS Design  

E-print Network

Eigenproblems in Resonant MEMS Design David Bindel UC Berkeley, CS Division Eigenproblems inResonant MEMS Design ­ p.1/21 #12;What are MEMS? Eigenproblems inResonant MEMS Design ­ p.2/21 #12;RF MEMS (better cell phones) Sensing elements (e.g. chemical sensors) Really high-pitch guitars Eigenproblems in

Bai, Zhaojun

444

Magnetic Resonance Facility (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet provides information about Magnetic Resonance Facility capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center. Liquid and solid-state analysis capability for a variety of biomass, photovoltaic, and materials characterization applications across NREL. NREL scientists analyze solid and liquid samples on three nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers as well as an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer.

Not Available

2012-03-01

445

Arnold Flames Resonance Surface Folds*  

E-print Network

Arnold Flames and Resonance Surface Folds* Richard P. McGehee School of Mathematics University parameter plane bifurcation diagrams are "(Arnold) resonance horns" emanating from zero forcing ampli- tude families by Arnold [1983] and Hall [1984] indi- cate the presence of (Arnold) resonance horns emanating

Peckham, Bruce B.

446

Ultra-fast Imaging of Two-Phase Flow in Structured Monolith Reactors; Techniques and Data Analysis  

E-print Network

This thesis will address the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to probe the “monolith reactor”, which consists of a structured catalyst over which reactions may occur. This reactor has emerged...

Heras, Jonathan Jaime

447

Acoustic near field technique for characterization of liquids bitumen and cement setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conical resonator using the acoustic near-field technique has been designed and developed. This resonator design is sensitive to the density and viscosity of liquids, as well as to the modification, without discontinuity, of the rheological properties of viscoelastic media. The experimental measurements agree with the results expected from the modelling of the resonator.

Ramdani, A.; Cros, B.; Sidki, M.; Ferrandis, J.-Y.

2001-07-01

448

Resolving multiple peaks using a sub-transit-linewidth cross-correlation resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper [L. Feng et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 233006 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.233006], we demonstrated a sub-transit-linewidth resonance based on cross correlation between optical fields in an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) system. Here, we investigate the ability of such resonance to resolve multiple resonance peaks. We first report the implementation of the cross-correlation resonance in a hyperfine EIT system, with a linewidth of about 1/16 of the transit EIT width. Then, a magnetic field is applied to create multipeak EIT resonance with tunable spacing. Cross-correlation resonance with multipeaks is observed and the line shape agrees qualitatively with our numerical simulations. We find that the multipeak correlation resonance has better contrast than the corresponding EIT resonance, but with a lower signal to noise. Furthermore, this correlation resonance cannot resolve peaks with spacing close to or less than the intrinsic width, like any other resonance techniques. We analyze the origin of this limitation and make connections to the Ramsey-type subnatural spectroscopy technique. This work shows potential applications of the correlation resonance in atomic frequency standard and laser spectroscopy.

Li, Pengxiong; Feng, Lei; Xiao, Yanhong

2014-04-01

449

Materials analysis using sputter initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) is a sensitive and selective ionization technique capable of single atom detection. This technique has been applied to the trace element analysis of solids in a process called Sputter Initiated Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (SIRIS). Here we briefly review RIS and SIRIS. Recent results are presented for measurements of boron concentrations down to the ppm level in standard steel and silicon samples. Some preliminary results are also presented for uranium and uranium compounds. A detection efficiency for SIRIS is reported which will make possible a sensitivity of 2 ppb.

Parks, J. E.; Beekman, D. W.; Schmitt, H. W.; Taylor, E. H.

1985-05-01

450

Magnetic resonance imaging: Implication in acute ischemic stroke management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimodality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted\\u000a imaging (PWI), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T2 susceptibility imaging, and magnetic resonance angiography\\u000a (MRA), quickly provide accurate information about ischemic penumbra (DWI\\/PWI mismatch), tissue perfusion, and vascular localization\\u000a in acute stroke setting. These techniques help physicians to select the proper candidates for thrombolysis and\\/or neuroprotective\\u000a treatment to salvage tissue

Oraporn Sitburana; Walter J. Koroshetz

2005-01-01

451

Pygmy dipole resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) is a low-energy debris of the 1hslash? El-strength which is pushed by an isovector residual interaction to higher energies to form the giant dipole resonance. It exhausts about 1% of the EWSR below the particle threshold. High energy resolution experiments performed during the last decade reveal fine structure of the PDR in many nuclei. We report on the studies of the PDR fine structure performed within the Quasiparticle-Phonon model. Excited states are described by a wave function which includes one-, two-, and three-phonon configurations, i.e. the configuration space in calculations below the threshold is almost complete. We discuss also some particular features of the PDR excitation in different nuclear reactions.

Ponomarev, Vladimir

2014-09-01