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Sample records for resonant third-integer extraction

  1. Tracking Simulation of Third-Integer Resonant Extraction for Fermilab's Mu2e Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Chong Shik; Amundson, James; Michelotti, Leo

    2015-02-13

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab requires acceleration and transport of intense proton beams in order to deliver stable, uniform particle spills to the production target. To meet the experimental requirement, particles will be extracted slowly from the Delivery Ring to the external beamline. Using Synergia2, we have performed multi-particle tracking simulations of third-integer resonant extraction in the Delivery Ring, including space charge effects, physical beamline elements, and apertures. A piecewise linear ramp profile of tune quadrupoles was used to maintain a constant averaged spill rate throughout extraction. To study and minimize beam losses, we implemented and introduced a number of features, beamline element apertures, and septum plane alignments. Additionally, the RF Knockout (RFKO) technique, which excites particles transversely, is employed for spill regulation. Combined with a feedback system, it assists in fine-tuning spill uniformity. Simulation studies were carried out to optimize the RFKO feedback scheme, which will be helpful in designing the final spill regulation system.

  2. AGS RESONANT EXTRACTION WITH HIGH INTENSITY BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    AHRENS,L.; BROWN,K.; GLENN,J.W.; ROSER,T.; TSOUPAS,N.; VANASSELT,W.

    1999-03-29

    The Brookhaven AGS third integer resonant extraction system allows the AGS to provide high quality, high intensity 25.5 GeV/c proton beams simultaneously to four target stations and as many as 8 experiments. With the increasing intensities (over 7 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse) and associated longer spill periods (2.4 to 3 seconds long), we continue to run with low losses and high quality low modulation continuous current beams.[1] Learning to extract and transport these higher intensity beams has required a process of careful modeling and experimentation. We have had to learn how to correct for various instabilities and how to better match extraction and the transport lines to the higher emittance beams being accelerated in the AGS. Techniques employed include ''RF'' methods to smooth out momentum distributions and fine structure. We will present results of detailed multi-particle tracking modeling studies which enabled us to develop a clear understanding of beam loss mechanisms in the transport and extraction process. We will report on our status, experiences, and the present understanding of the intensity limitations imposed by resonant extraction and transport to fixed target stations.

  3. Third interger resonance slow extraction schemem for a mu->e experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaslaev, V.; Amundson, J.; Johnstone, J.; Michelotti, L.; Park, C.S.; Werkema, S.; Syphers, M.; /Michigan State U.

    2010-09-01

    The current design of beam preparation for a proposed mu->e conversion experiment at Fermilab is based on slow resonant extraction of protons from the Debuncher. The Debuncher ring will have to operate with beam intensities of 3 x 10{sup 12} particles, approximately four orders of magnitude larger than its current value. The most challenging requirements on the beam quality are the spill uniformity and low losses in the presence of large space charge and momentum spread. We present results from simulations of third integer resonance extraction assisted by RF knock-out (RFKO), a technique developed for medical accelerators. Tune spreads up to 0.05 have been considered.

  4. DESIGN OF A RESONANT EXTRACTION SYSTEM FOR THE AGS BOOSTER.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,K.; CULLEN,J.; GLENN,J.W.; LEE,Y.Y.; MCNERNEY,A.; NIEDERER,J.; ROSER,T,; SOUKAS,A.; TUOZZOLO,J.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The Booster Application Facility (BAF) will employ heavy ion beams of many different ion species and at beam energies ranging from 0.04 to 3.07 GeV/nucleon. Resonant extraction is required in order to deliver a continuous stream of particles. In this report we describe the beam requirements and the system design. The basic design is a third integer resonant extraction process which employs a single thin magnetic septum and a thick septum ejector magnet The expected extraction efficiency is about 85%, based on the thin septum thickness and the predicted step size of the resonant beam at the septum. This is more than sufficient for the low intensity low energy heavy ion beams needed for the BAF. In this report we will present a detailed discussion of the design of the various elements and a discussion of the detailed modeling of resonant extraction from the AGS Booster. The extraction process was modeled using a BNL version of MAD which allowed us to interactively observe detailed particle tracking of the process. This was a key tool to have in hand which permitted us to pose and answer various questions in a very short period of time.

  5. Preliminaries toward studying resonant extraction from the Debuncher

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, Leo; Johnstone, John; /Fermilab

    2009-06-01

    A recent proposal to detect {mu} {yields} e direct conversion at Fermilab asks for slow extraction of protons from the antiproton source, specifically from the Debuncher. [1] A third-integer resonance originally was considered for this, partly because of the Debuncher's three-fold symmetry and partly because its operational horizontal tune, {nu}{sub x} {approx} 9.765, is already within 0.1 of {nu}{sub x} = 29/3. Using a half integer resonance, {nu}{sub x} = 19/2, though not part of the original proposal, has been suggested more recently because (a) Fermilab has had a good deal of experience with half-integer extraction from the Tevatron, the Main Injector and the erstwhile Main Ring, and (b) for reasons we shall examine later, it depopulates the entire bunch without an abort at the end. This memo presents considerations preliminary to studying both possibilities. It is meant only as a starting point for investigations to be carried out in the future. The working constraints and assumptions have oscillated between two extremes: (1) making minimal changes in the antiproton source to minimize cost and (2) building another machine in the same tunnel. In this memo we adopt an attitude aligned more toward the first. The assumed parameters are listed in Table 1. A few are not (easily) subject to change, such as those related to the beam's momentum and revolution frequency and the acceptance of the debuncher. Two resonance exemplars are presented in the next section, with an explanation of the analytic and semi-analytic calculations that can be done for each. Section 3 contains preliminary numerical work that was done to validate the exemplars within the context of extraction from the Debuncher. A final section contains a summary. Following the bibliography, appendices contain (a) a qualitative, conceptual discussion of extraction for the novice, (b) a telegraphic review of the perturbative incantations used to filter the exemplars as principal resonances of quadrupole

  6. Space charge effect of the high intensity proton beam during the resonance extraction for the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Chong Shik; Amundson, James; Johnstone, John; Michelotti, Leo; Nagaslaev, Vladimir; Werkema, Steve; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The proposed Mu2e experiment to search for direct {mu} {yields} e conversion at Fermilab plans slow, resonant extraction of a beam with 3 x 10{sup 12} protons from the Debuncher ring. Space charge of this high intensity beam is a critical factor, since it induces significant betatron tune spread and consequently affects resonance extraction processes, such as spill uniformity and beam losses. This study shows the multi-particle simulation results in the early stages of resonance extraction and spill uniformity in the presence of 2D and 3D space charge effects. We have presented the results of the third-integer resonance extraction in early stage for the Mu2e experiment in the presence of space charge effects. In order to track particles and to calculate self-consistent space charge effects, Synergia2 was used, which is capable of parallel computing. The space charge tune shift was computed and was reasonable value compared with the analytical calculation. Locations of the septum and Lambertson were chosen so that particles are kicked and extracted efficiently. The spill rates for with and without space charge effects were uniform, but should be improved for the early stage after the sextupole field ramping.

  7. Resonance extraction from the SAID analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, Ron; Švarc, Alfred

    2016-05-01

    Resonances are extracted from a number of energy-dependent and single-energy fits to scattering data. The influence of recent, precise EPECUR data is investigated. Results for the single-energy fits are derived using the Laurent+Pietarinen (L+P) method of analysis and are compared to those obtained using contour integration applied to the global energy-dependent fits.

  8. From Extraction of Nucleon Resonances to LQCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.-S. H.; Wu, Jia-jun; Kamano, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The intrinsic difficulties in extracting the hadron resonances from reaction data are illustrated by using several exactly soluble π π scattering models. The finite-volume Hamiltonian method is applied to predict spectra using two meson-exchange Hamiltonians of π N reactions. Within a three-channel model with π N , π {Δ} and σ N channels, we show the advantage of the finite-volume Hamiltonian method over the approach using the Lüscher formula to test Lattice QCD calculations aimed at predicting nucleon resonances. We discuss the necessary steps for using the ANL-Osaka eight-channel Hamiltonian to predict the spectra for testing the LQCD calculations for determining the excited nucleon states up to invariant mass W= 2 GeV.

  9. CONTINUOUS EXTRACTED BEAM IN THE AGS FAST EXTERNAL BEAM LINE.

    SciTech Connect

    GLENN,J.W.; TSOUPAS,N.; BROWN,K.A.; BIRYUKOV,V.M.

    2001-06-18

    A method to split off a few percent of the 6 x 10{sup 13} AGS beam delivered to the Slow External Beam (SEB) lines and send it down the Fast External Beam line (FEB) has been developed. The mission is to feed a counter experiment off the FEB that directly measures the neutrino mass using the muon storage ring. The use of normal thin septum splitters would have an excessive loss overhead and been optically difficult. The AGS Slow Extraction uses a third integer resonance with sextuple strength so the resonance width is a few percent of the beam width. This results in a low density tail which will be clipped by a bent crystal and deflected into the FEB channel. This clipping off of the tail should reduce losses in the SEB transport line. Details of modeled orbits, particle distribution and extraction trajectories into and out off the crystal will be given.

  10. STATUS OF SLOW EXTRACTION OF HIGH INTENSITY PROTONS FROM BROOKHAVEN'S AGS.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,K.A.AHRENS,L.BRENNAN,J.M.GLENN,J.W.ROSER,T.RUSSO,T.TSOUPAS,N.SMITH,K.ZENO,K.

    2003-05-12

    The Brookhaven AGS third integer resonant extraction system allows the AGS to provide high quality, high intensity 25.5 GeV/c proton beams simultaneously to four target stations and as many as 8 experiments. With the increasing intensities (over 7 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse) and associated longer spill periods (2.4 to 3 seconds long), we continue to run with low losses and high quality low modulation continuous current beams. We have an active program of high energy physics experiments, including the high precision measurement of the muons magnetic moment [1] and the discovery of the rare Kaon decay, K+ {yields} {pi} + {nu}{bar {nu}} [2]. This program is continuing into the future with the rare symmetry violating process experiments [3] currently being designed to operate at the AGS. In this paper, we will present results from operation of high intensity slow extraction, the problems we encounter, and our solutions to those problems.

  11. Extraction of resonant component from spin-polarization observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Mitsutaka; Tagishi, Y.; Aoki, Y.; Yamato, Y.; Nagatomo, T.; Iizuka, T.; Yoshimaru, N.; Shinba, T.; Katabuchi, T.; Tanifugi, M.

    Recently, some groups studied about 6 Li(d,α) reaction near zero energy for astrophysical inter- ests. The reaction is affected by an 2+ resonant level below the reaction threshold. In this work, we measured the analyzing powers for this reaction at an very low incident energy and extracted 2+ component.

  12. Extracting Neutron Structure Functions in the Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    Yonatan Kahn

    2009-07-01

    A new iterative method is presented for extracting neutron structure functions from inclusive structure functions of nuclei, focusing specifically on the resonance region. Unlike earlier approaches, this method is applicable to both spin-averaged and spin-dependent structure functions. We show that in numerical tests, this method is able to reproduce known input functions of nearly arbitrary shape after only 5–10 iterations. We illustrate the method on extractions of F2n and g1,2n from data, and discuss the treatment of systematic errors from this extraction procedure.

  13. Comments on extracting the resonance strength parameter from yield data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Stephen; Favalli, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The F(α,n) reaction is the focus of on-going research in part because it is an important source of neutrons in the nuclear fuel cycle which can be exploited to assay nuclear materials, especially uranium in the form of UF6 [1,2]. At the present time there remains some considerable uncertainty (of the order of ±20%) in the thick target integrated over angle (α,n) yield from 19F (100% natural abundance) and its compounds as discussed in [3,4]. An important thin target cross-section measurement is that of Wrean and Kavanagh [5] who explore the region from below threshold (2.36 MeV) to approximately 3.1 MeV with fine energy resolution. Integration of their cross-section data over the slowing down history of a stopping α-particle allows the thick target yield to be calculated for incident energies up to 3.1 MeV. This trend can then be combined with data from other sources to obtain a thick target yield curve over the wider range of interest to the fuel cycle (roughly threshold to 10 MeV to include all relevant α-emitters). To estimate the thickness of the CaF2 target they used, Wrean and Kavanagh separately measured the integrated yield of the 6.129 MeV γ-rays from the resonance at 340.5 keV (laboratory α-particle kinetic energy) in the 19F(p,αγ) reaction. To interpret the data they adopted a resonance strength parameter of (22.3±0.8) eV based on a determination by Becker et al [6]. The value and its uncertainty directly affects the thickness estimate and the extracted (α,n) cross-section values. In their citation to Becker et al's work, Wrean and Kavanagh comment that they did not make use of an alternative value of (23.7±1.0) eV reported by Croft [7] because they were unable to reproduce the value from the data given in that paper. The value they calculated for the resonance strength from the thick target yield given by Croft was 21.4 eV. The purpose of this communication is to revisit the paper by Croft published in this journal and specifically to

  14. Resonant slow extraction in synchrotrons using anti-symmetric sextupole fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ye; Tang, Jingyu; Yang, Jianquan

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for resonant slow extraction in synchrotrons by using special anti-symmetric sextupole fields, which can be produced by a special magnet structure. The method has potential in applications demanding very stable slow extraction from synchrotrons. Our studies show that slow extraction at the half-integer resonance by using an anti-symmetric sextupole field has some advantages compared to the standard sextupole field, which is widely used in the slow extraction method. One advantage is that it can work at a more distant tune from the resonance, so that it can reduce significantly the intensity variation of the extracted beam which is mainly caused by the ripples of magnet power supplies. Studies by both the Hamiltonian theory and numerical simulations show that the stable region near the half-integer resonance by anti-symmetric sextupole field is much smaller and flatter than the one by standard sextupole field at the third-order resonance. The particles outside the region will be driven out in two possible directions in quite a short transit time but with spiral steps similar to the third-order resonant extraction. By gradually increasing the field strength, the beam can be extracted with intensity more homogeneous than by the usual third-order resonant method, because of both smaller intensity variation and spike in the beginning spill. With the same field strength and tune distance to the resonance, the change in the stable region area due to the working point variation in the case of the anti-symmetric sextupole is about 1/14 of the one for the standard sextupole. Detailed studies including beam dynamic behaviors near other resonances, expression of the field in polynomial expansion, influence of 2-D field error, half-integer stop-band, and resonant slow extraction using a quadrupole field are also presented.

  15. Antioxidant activity of grape skin aqueous extracts from pressurized hot water extraction combined with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sťavíková, Lenka; Polovka, Martin; Hohnová, Barbora; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2011-09-30

    Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) was employed to prepare extracts from dried grape skin of two wine grape varieties (St. Laurent and Alibernet) at various temperatures (from 40 up to 120°C) and amounts of sample (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g). To assess the antioxidant activity of the extracts, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was applied involving DPPH and ABTS(+) assays. Other extract characteristics including HPLC profile of anthocyanins and total phenolic compound content were obtained as well. PHWE has also been compared with earlier results of extractions of the same grape skin samples with compressed methanol and compressed ethanol under the conditions of pressurized fluid extraction (PFE). From this comparison, PHWE emerges as the more benign and efficient extraction method to recover valuable phenolic antioxidants from grape skins for the prospective use in functional food supplements. PMID:21872083

  16. Extraction of Meson Resonances from Three-pions Photo-production Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    S. X. Nakamura, H. Kamano, T.-S. H. Lee, T. Sato

    2012-12-01

    We have investigated the model dependence of meson resonance properties extracted from the Dalitz-plot analysis of the three-pions photoproduction reactions on the nucleon. Within a unitary model developed in Phys. Rev. D 84, 114019 (2011), we generate Dalitz-plot distributions as data to perform an isobar model fit that is similar to most of the previous analyses of three-pion production reactions. It is found that the resonance positions from the two models agree well when both fit the data accurately, except for the resonance poles near branch points. The residues of the resonant amplitudes extracted from the two models and by the usual Breit-Wigner procedure agree well only for the isolated resonances with narrow widths. For overlapping resonances, most of the extracted residues could be drastically different. Our results suggest that even with high precision data, the resonance extraction should be based on models within which the amplitude parametrization is constrained by three-particle unitarity condition.

  17. Extraction of P11 Resonance from pi-N Data and Its Stability

    SciTech Connect

    S. X. Nakamura, H. Kamano, T.-S. H. Lee, T. Sato

    2011-09-01

    An important question about resonance extraction is how much resonance poles and residues extracted from data depend on a model used for the extraction, and on the precision of data. We address this question with the dynamical coupled-channel (DCC) model developed in Excited Baryon Analysis Center (EBAC) at JLab. We focus on the P11 pi-N scattering. We examine the model-dependence of the poles by varying parameters to a large extent within the EBAC-DCC model. We find that two poles associated with the Roper resonance are fairly stable against the variation. We also develop a model with a bare nucleon, thereby examining the stability of the Roper poles against different analytic structure of the P11 amplitude below pi-N threshold. We again find a good stability of the Roper poles.

  18. Radio frequency spectral characterization and model parameters extraction of high Q optical resonators.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Zeina; Boucher, Yann G; Fernandez, Arnaud; Balac, Stéphane; Llopis, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    A microwave domain characterization approach is proposed to determine the properties of high quality factor optical resonators. This approach features a very high precision in frequency and aims to acquire a full knowledge of the complex transfer function (amplitude and phase) characterizing an optical resonator using a microwave vector network analyzer. It is able to discriminate between the different coupling regimes, from the under-coupling to the selective amplification, and it is used together with a model from which the main resonator parameters are extracted, i.e. coupling factor, intrinsic losses, phase slope, intrinsic and external quality factor. PMID:27251460

  19. Radio frequency spectral characterization and model parameters extraction of high Q optical resonators

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Zeina; Boucher, Yann G.; Fernandez, Arnaud; Balac, Stéphane; Llopis, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    A microwave domain characterization approach is proposed to determine the properties of high quality factor optical resonators. This approach features a very high precision in frequency and aims to acquire a full knowledge of the complex transfer function (amplitude and phase) characterizing an optical resonator using a microwave vector network analyzer. It is able to discriminate between the different coupling regimes, from the under-coupling to the selective amplification, and it is used together with a model from which the main resonator parameters are extracted, i.e. coupling factor, intrinsic losses, phase slope, intrinsic and external quality factor. PMID:27251460

  20. Radio frequency spectral characterization and model parameters extraction of high Q optical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Zeina; Boucher, Yann G.; Fernandez, Arnaud; Balac, Stéphane; Llopis, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    A microwave domain characterization approach is proposed to determine the properties of high quality factor optical resonators. This approach features a very high precision in frequency and aims to acquire a full knowledge of the complex transfer function (amplitude and phase) characterizing an optical resonator using a microwave vector network analyzer. It is able to discriminate between the different coupling regimes, from the under-coupling to the selective amplification, and it is used together with a model from which the main resonator parameters are extracted, i.e. coupling factor, intrinsic losses, phase slope, intrinsic and external quality factor.

  1. Extraction of Electromagnetic Transition Form Factors for Nucleon Resonances within a Dynamical Coupled-Channels Model

    SciTech Connect

    N. Suzuki, T. Sato, T.-S. H. Lee

    2010-10-01

    We explain the application of a recently developed analytic continuation method to extract the electromagnetic transition form factors for the nucleon resonances ($N^*$) within a dynamical coupled-channel model of meson-baryon reactions.Illustrative results of the obtained $N^*\\rightarrow \\gamma N$ transition form factors, defined at the resonance pole positions on the complex energy plane, for the well isolated $P_{33}$ and $D_{13}$, and the complicated $P_{11}$ resonances are presented. A formula has been developed to give an unified representation of the effects due to the first two $P_{11}$ poles, which are near the $\\pi\\Delta$ threshold, but are on different Riemann sheets. We also find that a simple formula, with its parameters determined in the Laurent expansions of $\\pi N \\rightarrow \\pi N$ and $\\gamma N \\rightarrow\\pi N$ amplitudes, can reproduce to a very large extent the exact solutions of the considered model at energies near the real parts of the extracted resonance positions. We indicate the differences between our results and those extracted from the approaches using the Breit-Wigner parametrization of resonant amplitudes to fit the data.

  2. Development of ion transportation, extraction and neutralization systems for atomic beam resonance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagae, Daisuke; Asahi, Koichiro; Miyoshi, Hisanori; Shimada, Kenzi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Ueno, Hideki; Murata, Jiro; Uchida, Makoto; Kameda, Daisuke; Kato, Go; Emori, Shoken; Kijima, Go; Oshima, Sachiko; Takemura, Makoto; Arai, Takemasa; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Haseyama, Tomohito; Schmidt-Ott, W. D.

    2005-11-01

    A device that produces a low-energy and largely spin polarized RI beam based on the atomic beam resonance method (RIABR) has been developed. We have performed measurements of stopping and drifting an incoming RI ion beam in a gas chamber, extraction of the ions into a vacuum region, and neutralization of the extracted low-energy ion beam. The drift efficiency of RI ions in a gas and the extraction efficiency at a Laval-type glass nozzle were found to be 0.72±0.04 and 0.033, respectively. The result of the experiment for the neutralization is also discussed.

  3. The Need for Polarization for Extracting Baryon Resonances and the NSTAR Program at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Philip L.

    2007-10-26

    We report on the NSTAR program in Hall B of JLab on using polarization observables to extract parameters of baryon resonances. The scientific purpose of the program is to improve the understanding of the underlying quark degrees of freedom, especially in the higher resonance regions, where we expect to uncover many of missing baryon resonances that mainly decay through multi-meson channels. With the high-quality beam of circularly- and linearly-polarized photons onto unpolarized and polarized proton and deteurium targets, and coupled with the nearly complete solid angle coverage of CLAS, we will extract the differential cross sections and associated polarization observables obtained by the photoproduction of vector mesons and kaons at center of mass energies of 1.7 to 2.2 GeV. The paper will primarily present the photon beam aspects of the excited baryon program.

  4. The Need for Polarization for Extracting Baryon Resonances and the NSTAR Program at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    P.L. Cole

    2007-10-01

    We report on the NSTAR program in Hall B of JLab on using polarization observables to extract parameters of baryon resonances. The scientific purpose of the program is to improve the understanding of the underlying quark degrees of freedom, especially in the higher resonance regions, where we expect to uncover many of missing baryon resonances that mainly decay through multi-meson channels. With the high-quality beam of circularly- and linearly-polarized photons onto unpolarized and polarized proton and deteurium targets, and coupled with the nearly complete solid angle coverage of CLAS, we will extract the differential cross sections and associated polarization observables obtained by the photoproduction of vector mesons and kaons at center of mass energies of 1.7 to 2.2 GeV. The paper will primarily present the photon beam aspects of the excited baryon program.

  5. On the extraction of P11 resonances from πN data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hiroyuki Kamano; Nakamura, Satoshi X.; Lee, Tsung -Shung; Sato, Toru

    2010-06-22

    With the accuracy of the available P11 amplitudes of πΔ scattering, we show that two resonance poles near the pi Delta threshold, obtained in several analyses, are stable against large variations of parameters within a dynamical coupled-channels analysis. The number of poles in the 1.5 GeV < W < 2 GeV region could be more than one, depending on how the structure of the single-energy solution of SAID is fitted. Lastly, our results indicate the need of more accurate πN scattering data in the W > 1.6 GeV region for high precision resonance extractions.

  6. Multiaperture ion beam extraction from gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance source of multicharged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorov, A.; Dorf, M.; Zorin, V.; Bokhanov, A.; Izotov, I.; Razin, S.; Skalyga, V.; Rossbach, J.; Spaedtke, P.; Balabaev, A.

    2008-02-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source with quasi-gas-dynamic regime of plasma confinement (ReGIS), constructed at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia, provides opportunities for extracting intense and high-brightness multicharged ion beams. Despite the short plasma lifetime in a magnetic trap of a ReGIS, the degree of multiple ionization may be significantly enhanced by the increase in power and frequency of the applied microwave radiation. The present work is focused on studying the intense beam quality of this source by the pepper-pot method. A single beamlet emittance measured by the pepper-pot method was found to be {approx}70 {pi} mm mrad, and the total extracted beam current obtained at 14 kV extraction voltage was {approx}25 mA. The results of the numerical simulations of ion beam extraction are found to be in good agreement with experimental data.

  7. Extraction of $P_{11}$ Resonance from piN Data and Its Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Satoshi Nakamura

    2011-10-01

    We address a question about how much resonance poles and residues extracted from data depend on a model used for the extraction, and on the precision of data. We focus on the P{sub 11} {pi}-N scattering and use the dynamical coupled-channel (DCC) model developed in Excited Baryon Analysis Center (EBAC) at JLab. We examine the model-dependence of the poles by varying parameters largely within the EBAC-DCC model. We find that two poles associated with the Roper resonance are fairly stable against the variation. We also study the stability of the Roper poles against different analytic structure of the P{sub 11} amplitude below {pi}-N threshold by using a bare nucleon model. We again find a good stability of the Roper poles.

  8. A proposed U.S./China theoretical/experimental collaborative effort on baryon resonance extraction

    SciTech Connect

    P.L. Cole

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we discuss the reasons for our work towards establishing a new collaboration between Jefferson Lab (JLab) and the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) in Beijing. We seek to combine experimentalists and theorists into a dedicated group focused on better understanding the current and future data from JLab and from the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). Recent JLab results on the extraction of single- and double-polarization observables in both the 1{pi}- and 2{pi}-channel show their high sensitivity to small production amplitudes and therefore their importance for the extraction of resonance parameters. The Beijing Electron Spectrometer (BES) at the BEPC has collected high statistics data on J/{Psi} production. Its decay into baryon-antibaryon channels offers a unique and complementary way of probing nucleon resonances. The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, CLAS, has access to N* form factors at high Q{sup 2}, which is advantageous for the study of dynamical properties of nucleon resonances, while the low-background BES results will be able to provide guidance for the search for less-dominant excited states at JLab. Moreover, with the recently approved experimental proposal Nucleon Resonance Studies with CLAS12 and the high-quality data streaming from BES-III and CLAS, the time has come for forging a new Trans-Pacific collaboration of theorists and experimentalists on NSTAR physics.

  9. Electron cyclotron resonance 140 mA D(+) beam extraction optimization for IFMIF EVEDA accelerator.

    PubMed

    Delferrière, O; De Menezes, D; Gobin, R; Harrault, F; Tuske, O

    2008-02-01

    Based on the experience of the SILHI electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for the IPHI accelerator, which produces routinely 100-120 mA H(+) beam, the CEA-Saclay is in charge of the design and realization of the 140 mA cw deuteron source for the IFMIF project (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility). IFMIF is an accelerator-based neutron irradiation facility consisting of two accelerators of 125 mA D(+) beam at 40 MeV that hit in parallel a lithium target. IFMIF utilizes the deuteron-lithium (d-Li) neutron, producing a reaction to simulate the 14 MeV neutron environment in deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactors. In the framework of the IFMIF EVEDA phase (Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities), we are studying a cw ECR ion source with a new extraction system to allow high current extraction while keeping a low divergence as well as a small emittance. Starting from SILHI five-electrode system with H(+) ions, the extracted beam characteristics as well as electric field conditions are compared with the cases of four- and three-electrode extraction systems. Experimental results made on the SILHI source with H(+) ions are briefly discussed. Extensive experimental results on the new source test bench BETSI are expected as soon as the design and fabrication of a dedicated extraction system with a new set of electrodes will be finished. PMID:18315214

  10. An Analysis Method for Superconducting Resonator Parameter Extraction with Complex Baseline Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    A new semi-empirical model is proposed for extracting the quality (Q) factors of arrays of superconducting microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). The determination of the total internal and coupling Q factors enables the computation of the loss in the superconducting transmission lines. The method used allows the simultaneous analysis of multiple interacting discrete resonators with the presence of a complex spectral baseline arising from reflections in the system. The baseline removal allows an unbiased estimate of the device response as measured in a cryogenic instrumentation setting.

  11. Model for the description of ion beam extraction from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Spaedtke, P.

    2010-02-15

    The finite difference method trajectory code KOBRA3-INP has been developed now for 25 years to perform the simulation of ion beam extraction in three dimensions. Meanwhile, the code has been validated for different applications: high current ion beam extraction from plasma sources for ion implantation technology, neutral gas heating in fusion devices, or ion thrusters for space propulsion. One major issue of the development of this code was to improve the flexibility of the applied model for the simulation of different types of particle sources. Fixed emitter sources might be simulated with that code as well as laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs), or H{sup -} sources, which require the simulation of negative ions, negative electrons, and positive charges simultaneously. The model which has been developed for ECRIS has now been used to explore the conditions for the ion beam extraction from a still nonexisting ion source, a so called ARC-ECRIS [P. Suominen and F. Wenander, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A305 (2008)]. It has to be shown whether the plasma generator has similar properties like regular ECRIS. However, the emittance of the extracted beam seems to be much better compared to an ECRIS equipped with a hexapole.

  12. Dynamical coupled-channels model of K-p reactions. II. Extraction of Λ* and Σ* hyperon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamano, H.; Nakamura, S. X.; Lee, T.-S. H.; Sato, T.

    2015-08-01

    Resonance parameters (pole masses and residues) associated with the excited states of hyperons, Λ* and Σ*, are extracted within a dynamical coupled-channels model developed recently by us [Phys. Rev. C 90, 065204 (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.90.065204 through a comprehensive partial-wave analysis of the K-p →K ¯N ,π Σ ,π Λ ,η Λ ,K Ξ data up to invariant mass W =2.1 GeV. We confirm the existence of resonances corresponding to most, if not all, of the four-star resonances rated by the Particle Data Group. We also find several new resonances, and in particular propose a possible existence of a new narrow JP=3 /2+ Λ resonance that couples strongly to the η Λ channel. The JP=1 /2- Λ resonances located below the K ¯N threshold are also discussed. Comparing our extracted pole masses with the ones from a recent analysis by the Kent State University group, some significant differences in the extracted resonance parameters are found, suggesting the need of more extensive and accurate data of K-p reactions including polarization observables to eliminate such an analysis dependence of the resonance parameters. In addition, the determined large branching ratios of the decays of high-mass resonances to the π Σ* and K¯*N channels also suggest the importance of the data of 2 →3 reactions such as K-p →π π Λ and K-p →π K ¯N . Experiments on measuring cross sections and polarization observables of these fundamental reactions are highly desirable at hadron beam facilities such as J-PARC for establishing the Λ* and Σ* spectrum.

  13. Investigations on the structure of the extracted ion beam from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Spaedtke, P.; Lang, R.; Maeder, J.; Rossbach, J.; Tinschert, K.; Maimone, F.

    2012-02-15

    Using improved beam diagnostic tools, the structure of an ion beam extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) becomes visible. Especially viewing targets to display the beam profile and pepper pot devices for emittance measurements turned out to be very useful. On the contrary, diagnostic tools integrating over one space coordinate like wire harps for profile measurements or slit-slit devices, respectively slit-grid devices to measure the emittance might be applicable for beam transport investigations in a quadrupole channel, but are not very meaningful for investigations regarding the given ECRIS symmetry. Here we try to reproduce the experimentally found structure on the ion beam by simulation. For the simulation, a certain model has to be used to reproduce the experimental results. The model is also described in this paper.

  14. Natural resonance extraction and annihilation filtering methods for radar target identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Timothy J.

    1990-09-01

    This thesis represents an initial attempt to demonstrate aspect independent target identification of complex radar targets using annihilation filters based on the natural resonances of the targets. The Cadzow-Solomon signal processing algorithm is tested to determine its suitability for the task of extracting the poles from complex targets to a degree of accuracy required for successful implementation of an annihilation filtering target identification system. This testing was conducted through the use of noise polluted synthetic data as well as measured transient scattering data from thin-wire and silver coated scale model aircraft targets. The testing revealed that the Cadzow-Solomon algorithm can return pole clusters at false pole locations when processing the scattered returns from complex targets. Properties of annihilation filters which may affect their ability to discriminate complex targets are examined.

  15. Beam extraction and high stability operation of high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, P. Mishra, L.; Kewlani, H.; Mittal, K. C.; Patil, D. S.

    2014-03-15

    A high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source is designed and developed for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The plasma discharge in the ion source is stabilized by minimizing the reflected microwave power using four stub auto tuner and magnetic field. The optimization of extraction geometry is performed using PBGUNS code by varying the aperture, shape, accelerating gap, and the potential on the electrodes. While operating the source, it was found that the two layered microwave window (6 mm quartz plate and 2 mm boron nitride plate) was damaged (a fine hole was drilled) by the back-streaming electrons after continuous operation of the source for 3 h at beam current of 20–40 mA. The microwave window was then shifted from the line of sight of the back-streaming electrons and located after the water-cooled H-plane bend. In this configuration the stable operation of the high current ion source for several hours is achieved. The ion beam is extracted from the source by biasing plasma electrode, puller electrode, and ground electrode to +10 to +50 kV, −2 to −4 kV, and 0 kV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 30–40 mA is recorded on Faraday cup at 40 keV of beam energy at 600–1000 W of microwave power, 800–1000 G axial magnetic field and (1.2–3.9) × 10{sup −3} mbar of neutral hydrogen gas pressure in the plasma chamber. The dependence of beam current on extraction voltage, microwave power, and gas pressure is investigated in the range of operation of the ion source.

  16. Cerebral Glioma Grading Using Bayesian Network with Features Extracted from Multiple Modalities of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiting; Liu, Renyuan; Zhang, Xin; Li, Ming; Yang, Yongbo; Yan, Jing; Niu, Fengnan; Tian, Chuanshuai; Wang, Kun; Yu, Haiping; Chen, Weibo; Wan, Suiren; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Many modalities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been confirmed to be of great diagnostic value in glioma grading. Contrast enhanced T1-weighted imaging allows the recognition of blood-brain barrier breakdown. Perfusion weighted imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging enable the quantitative measurement of perfusion parameters and metabolic alterations respectively. These modalities can potentially improve the grading process in glioma if combined properly. In this study, Bayesian Network, which is a powerful and flexible method for probabilistic analysis under uncertainty, is used to combine features extracted from contrast enhanced T1-weighted imaging, perfusion weighted imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging. The networks were constructed using K2 algorithm along with manual determination and distribution parameters learned using maximum likelihood estimation. The grading performance was evaluated in a leave-one-out analysis, achieving an overall grading accuracy of 92.86% and an area under the curve of 0.9577 in the receiver operating characteristic analysis given all available features observed in the total 56 patients. Results and discussions show that Bayesian Network is promising in combining features from multiple modalities of MRI for improved grading performance. PMID:27077923

  17. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Separated via Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. R.; Fagan, J. A.; Hight Walker, A. R.

    2014-03-01

    We report Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) measurements of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) samples dispersed in aqueous solutions via surfactant wrapping and separated using aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) into chirality-enriched semiconducting and metallic SWCNT species. ATPE provides a rapid, robust, and remarkably tunable separation technique that allows isolation of high-purity, individual SWCNT chiralities via modification of the surfactant environment. We report RRS measurements of individual SWCNT species of various chiral index including, armchair and zigzag metals. Raman provides a powerful technique to quantify the metallic SWCNTs in ATPE fractions separated for metallicity. We measure Raman spectra over a wide range of excitation wavelengths from 457 nm to 850 nm using a series of discrete and continuously tunable laser sources coupled to a triple-grating spectrometer with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled detector. The spectra reveal Raman-active vibrational modes, including the low-frequency radial breathing mode (RBM) and higher-order modes. SWCNT chiral vectors are determined from the Raman spectra, specifically the RBM frequencies and corresponding energy excitation profiles, together with input from theoretical models.

  18. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Separated via Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. R.; Fagan, J. A.; Hight Walker, A. R.

    2015-03-01

    We report resonance Raman Spectroscopy measurements of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) samples dispersed in aqueous solutions via surfactant wrapping and separated using aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) into chirality-enriched semiconducting and metallic SWCNT species. ATPE provides a rapid, robust, and remarkably tunable separation technique that allows isolation of high-purity, individual SWCNT chiralities via modification of the surfactant environment. We report RRS measurements of individual SWCNT species of various chiral index including, semiconductors, armchair and zigzag metals. Raman provides a powerful technique to quantify the metallic SWCNTs in ATPE fractions separated for metallicity. We measure Raman spectra over a wide range of excitation wavelengths from (457 to 850) nm using a series of discrete and continuously tunable laser sources coupled to a triple-grating spectrometer. The spectra reveal Raman-active vibrational modes, including the low-frequency radial breathing mode (RBM) and higher-order modes. SWCNT chiral vectors are determined from Raman spectra, specifically the RBM frequencies and corresponding energy excitation profiles, together with input from theoretical models.

  19. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, V; Küchler, D

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work. PMID:26932095

  20. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toivanen, V.; Küchler, D.

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  1. Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perozzi, E.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A resonance in CELESTIAL MECHANICS occurs when some of the quantities characterizing the motion of two or more celestial bodies can be considered as commensurable, i.e. their ratio is close to an integer fraction. In a simplified form, this can be expressed as ...

  2. Molecular characterization of inhibiting biochar water-extractable substances using electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cameron R; Sleighter, Rachel L; Hatcher, Patrick G; Lee, James W

    2013-01-01

    Biochar has gained significant interest worldwide for its potential use as both a carbon sequestration technique and soil amendment. Recently, research has shown that pinewood-derived biochar water extracts inhibited the growth of aquatic photosynthetic microorganisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae, while chicken litter- and peanut shell-derived biochar water extracts showed no growth inhibition. With the use of electrodialysis, the pinewood-derived biochar water extract is separated into 3 fractions (anode-isolated, center chamber retained, and cathode-isolated substances) all with varying toxic effects. Because of its ultrahigh resolution and mass precision, electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) is utilized in this study to analyze biochar water extracts at a molecular level to enhance our understanding of the toxic nature of pinewood-derived biochar water extracts as compared to benign peanut shell-derived biochar water extracts. The molecular composition of pinewood-derived biochar water extracts shows unique carbohydrate ligneous components and sulfur containing condensed ligneous components that are both absent from the peanut shell water extracts and more prevalent in the anode-isolated substances. Using Kendrick mass defect analysis, we also determine that the most likely inhibitor species contain carboxyl and hydroxyl homologous series, both of which are characteristic functional groups hypothesized in our previous research for the inhibitor species. We have suggested that inhibition of aquatic photosynthetic microorganism growth is most likely due to degraded lignin-like species rich in oxygen containing functionalities. From the study conducted here, we show the potential of ultrahigh resolution FTICR-MS as a valuable analytical technique for determining whether certain biochars are safe and benign for use as carbon sequestration and soil amendment. PMID:24180747

  3. Power penalty measurement and frequency chirp extraction in silicon microdisk resonator modulators.

    SciTech Connect

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Zortman, William A.; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Watts, Michael R.

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate 5 Gbs and 10 Gbs error free operation of silicon photonic microdisk resonant modulators to a distance of 70 km, measure dispersion power penalties and compare the experimental results with theoretically derived values.

  4. P_11 Resonance Extracted from pi-N Data and Its Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Satoshi Nakamura

    2012-04-01

    We study the stability of resonance poles in {pi}N P{sub 11} partial wave, particularly the Roper resonance, by varying parameters significantly within the EBAC dynamical coupled-channels model, keeping a good fit to the empirical amplitude. We find that two Roper poles are stable against the variation. However, for higher energies, the number of poles can change depending on how the parameters are fitted within error bars. We also developed a model with a bare nucleon which forms the physical nucleon by being dressed by the meson-cloud. We still find a good stability of the Roper poles.

  5. Spatially resolved charge-state and current-density distributions at the extraction of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Panitzsch, Lauri; Peleikis, Thies; Stalder, Michael; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2011-09-15

    In this paper we present our measurements of charge-state and current-density distributions performed in very close vicinity (15 mm) of the extraction of our hexapole geometry electron cyclotron resonance ion source. We achieved a relatively high spatial resolution reducing the aperture of our 3D-movable extraction (puller) electrode to a diameter of only 0.5 mm. Thus, we are able to limit the source of the extracted ion beam to a very small region of the plasma electrode's hole (O = 4 mm) and therefore to a very small region of the neutral plasma sheath. The information about the charge-state distribution and the current density in the plane of the plasma electrode at each particular position is conserved in the ion beam. We determined the total current density distribution at a fixed coaxial distance of only 15 mm to the plasma electrode by remotely moving the small-aperture puller electrode which contained a dedicated Faraday cup (FC) across the aperture of the plasma electrode. In a second measurement we removed the FC and recorded m/q-spectra for the different positions using a sector magnet. From our results we can deduce that different ion charge-states can be grouped into bloated triangles of different sizes and same orientation at the extraction with the current density peaking at centre. This confirms observations from other groups based on simulations and emittance measurements. We present our measurements in detail and discuss possible systematic errors.

  6. Simultaneous slow resonant extractions from the SPS with horizontal tune-split

    SciTech Connect

    Gyr, M.; Kissler, K.H.; Pahud, J.D.; Peraire, S.

    1985-10-01

    With the upgrading of the West experimental area it became necessary to extract protons at 450 GeV/c simultaneously towards two experimental zones. However, the corresponding extraction systems are at locations which, when the normal periodicity is maintained, would not allow this procedure. During the time of extraction, the horizontal tune has therefore to be split unequally between two halves of the machine circumference such that the betatron phase difference between the electrostatic septa of the two extraction systems becomes a multiple of 2 . The separatrix then being the same at both septa entrances, the sharing ratio can easily be adjusted by changing the radial position of the circulating beam relative to the first septum with a compensated bump.

  7. Poles as the only true resonant-state signals extracted from a worldwide collection of partial-wave amplitudes using only one, well controlled pole-extraction method

    SciTech Connect

    Hadzimehmedovic, M.; Osmanovic, H.; Stahov, J.; Ceci, S.; Svarc, A.

    2011-09-15

    Each and every energy-dependent partial-wave analysis is parametrizing the pole positions in a procedure defined by the way the continuous energy dependence is implemented. These pole positions are, henceforth, inherently model dependent. To reduce this model dependence, we use only one, coupled-channel, unitary, fully analytic method based on the isobar approximation to extract the pole positions from each available member of the worldwide collection of partial-wave amplitudes, which are understood as nothing more but a good energy-dependent representation of genuine experimental numbers assembled in a form of partial-wave data. In that way, the model dependence related to the different assumptions on the analytic form of the partial-wave amplitudes is avoided, and the true confidence limit for the existence of a particular resonant state, at least in one model, is established. The way the method works and first results are demonstrated for the S{sub 11} partial wave.

  8. Automatic Mapping Extraction from Multiecho T2-Star Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images for Improving Morphological Evaluations in Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shaode; Xie, Yaoqin

    2013-01-01

    Mapping extraction is useful in medical image analysis. Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM) replaced signal response to time course in tissue similarity mapping with signal response to TE changes in multiecho T2-star weighted magnetic resonance imaging without contrast agent. Since different tissues are with different sensitivities to reference signals, a new algorithm is proposed by adding a sensitivity index to SCM. It generates two mappings. One measures relative signal strength (SSM) and the other depicts fluctuation magnitude (FMM). Meanwhile, the new method is adaptive to generate a proper reference signal by maximizing the sum of contrast index (CI) from SSM and FMM without manual delineation. Based on four groups of images from multiecho T2-star weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the capacity of SSM and FMM in enhancing image contrast and morphological evaluation is validated. Average contrast improvement index (CII) of SSM is 1.57, 1.38, 1.34, and 1.41. Average CII of FMM is 2.42, 2.30, 2.24, and 2.35. Visual analysis of regions of interest demonstrates that SSM and FMM show better morphological structures than original images, T2-star mapping and SCM. These extracted mappings can be further applied in information fusion, signal investigation, and tissue segmentation. PMID:24379892

  9. Key metabolites in tissue extracts of Elliptio complanata identified using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hurley-Sanders, Jennifer L.; Levine, Jay F.; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Law, J. M.; Showers, William J.; Stoskopf, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    We used 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to describe key metabolites of the polar metabolome of the freshwater mussel, Elliptio complanata. Principal components analysis documented variability across tissue types and river of origin in mussels collected from two rivers in North Carolina (USA). Muscle, digestive gland, mantle and gill tissues yielded identifiable but overlapping metabolic profiles. Variation in digestive gland metabolic profiles between the two mussel collection sites was characterized by differences in mono- and disaccharides. Variation in mantle tissue metabolomes appeared to be associated with sex. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a sensitive means to detect metabolites in the tissues of E. complanata and holds promise as a tool for the investigation of freshwater mussel health and physiology. PMID:27293708

  10. Non-classical nonlinear feature extraction from standard resonance vibration data for damage detection.

    PubMed

    Eiras, J N; Monzó, J; Payá, J; Kundu, T; Popovics, J S

    2014-02-01

    Dynamic non-classical nonlinear analyses show promise for improved damage diagnostics in materials that exhibit such structure at the mesoscale, such as concrete. In this study, nonlinear non-classical dynamic material behavior from standard vibration test data, using pristine and frost damaged cement mortar bar samples, is extracted and quantified. The procedure is robust and easy to apply. The results demonstrate that the extracted nonlinear non-classical parameters show expected sensitivity to internal damage and are more sensitive to changes owing to internal damage levels than standard linear vibration parameters. PMID:25234919

  11. High intensity beams from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources: A study of efficient extraction and transport system (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Andò, L.; Passarello, S.; Zhang, X. Zh.; Spädtke, P.; Winkler, M.

    2004-05-01

    A study of the design of extraction and transport system for high intensity beams that will be produced by the next generation electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) was carried out in the frame of a European collaboration devoted to the definition of the main parameters of third generation ECRIS. High intensity production tests carried out in the previous years at INFN-LNS have shown evidence for the need to review the main concepts of the beam analysis and transport when high currents of low energy highly charged ions are extracted from the source. The transport of such low energy beams becomes critical as soon as the total current exceeds a few mA. The study reported here is based on the calculated parameters for the GyroSERSE source and the computer simulations have been carried out to obtain low emittance beams. The design of the extraction system was carried out by means of the KOBRA (three dimensional) code. The study of the beam line has been carried out with the codes GIOS, GICO, and TRANSPORT by taking into account both the phase space growth due to space charge and to the aberrations inside the magnets. The description of some different beam line options will be also given.

  12. Upgrade of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, V; Bellodi, G; Dimov, V; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Maintrot, M

    2016-02-01

    Linac3 is the first accelerator in the heavy ion injector chain of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), providing multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The ion beams are produced with GTS-LHC, a 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, operated in afterglow mode. Improvement of the GTS-LHC beam formation and beam transport along Linac3 is part of the upgrade program of the injector chain in preparation for the future high luminosity LHC. A mismatch between the ion beam properties in the ion source extraction region and the acceptance of the following Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section has been identified as one of the factors limiting the Linac3 performance. The installation of a new focusing element, an einzel lens, into the GTS-LHC extraction region is foreseen as a part of the Linac3 upgrade, as well as a redesign of the first section of the LEBT. Details of the upgrade and results of a beam dynamics study of the extraction region and LEBT modifications will be presented. PMID:26932084

  13. Upgrade of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toivanen, V.; Bellodi, G.; Dimov, V.; Küchler, D.; Lombardi, A. M.; Maintrot, M.

    2016-02-01

    Linac3 is the first accelerator in the heavy ion injector chain of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), providing multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The ion beams are produced with GTS-LHC, a 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, operated in afterglow mode. Improvement of the GTS-LHC beam formation and beam transport along Linac3 is part of the upgrade program of the injector chain in preparation for the future high luminosity LHC. A mismatch between the ion beam properties in the ion source extraction region and the acceptance of the following Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section has been identified as one of the factors limiting the Linac3 performance. The installation of a new focusing element, an einzel lens, into the GTS-LHC extraction region is foreseen as a part of the Linac3 upgrade, as well as a redesign of the first section of the LEBT. Details of the upgrade and results of a beam dynamics study of the extraction region and LEBT modifications will be presented.

  14. Identification and quantitation of phosphorus metabolites in yeast neutral pH extracts by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Teleman, A; Richard, P; Toivari, M; Penttilä, M

    1999-07-15

    (31)P NMR spectroscopy offers a possibility to obtain a survey of all low-molecular-weight phosphorylated compounds in yeast. The yeast cells have been extracted using chloroform into a neutral aqueous phase. The use of high fields and the neutral pH extracts, which are suitable for NMR analysis, results in well-resolved (31)P NMR spectra. Two-dimensional NMR experiments, such as proton-detected heteronuclear single quantum ((1)H-(31)P HSQC) and (31)P correlation spectroscopy ((31)P COSY), have been used to assign the resonances. In the phosphomonoester region many of the signals could be assigned to known metabolites in the glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways, although some signals remain unidentified. Accumulation of ribulose 5-phosphate, xylulose 5-phosphate, and ribose 5-phosphate was observed in a strain lacking transketolase activity when grown in synthetic complete medium. No such accumulation occurred when the cells were grown in yeast-peptone-dextrose medium. Trimetaphosphate (intracellular concentration about 0.2 mM) was detected in both cold methanol-chloroform and perchloric acid extracts. PMID:10405295

  15. Automatic bone segmentation and bone-cartilage interface extraction for the shoulder joint from magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhengyi; Fripp, Jurgen; Chandra, Shekhar S.; Neubert, Aleš; Xia, Ying; Strudwick, Mark; Paproki, Anthony; Engstrom, Craig; Crozier, Stuart

    2015-02-01

    We present a statistical shape model approach for automated segmentation of the proximal humerus and scapula with subsequent bone-cartilage interface (BCI) extraction from 3D magnetic resonance (MR) images of the shoulder region. Manual and automated bone segmentations from shoulder MR examinations from 25 healthy subjects acquired using steady-state free precession sequences were compared with the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The mean DSC scores between the manual and automated segmentations of the humerus and scapula bone volumes surrounding the BCI region were 0.926  ±  0.050 and 0.837  ±  0.059, respectively. The mean DSC values obtained for BCI extraction were 0.806  ±  0.133 for the humerus and 0.795  ±  0.117 for the scapula. The current model-based approach successfully provided automated bone segmentation and BCI extraction from MR images of the shoulder. In future work, this framework appears to provide a promising avenue for automated segmentation and quantitative analysis of cartilage in the glenohumeral joint.

  16. Resolution of the multichannel anomaly in the extraction of S-matrix resonance-pole parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Ceci, Sasa; Stahov, Jugoslav; Svarc, Alfred; Zauner, Branimir; Watson, Shon

    2008-06-01

    Within the framework of a mathematically well-defined coupled-channel T-matrix model we have improved the existing multichannel pole-extraction procedure based on the numerical analytic continuation of the channel propagator, and for the first time we present the full set of pole parameters for already published amplitudes. Standard single-channel pole-extraction method (speed plot) was then applied to those amplitudes and resulting sets of T-matrix poles were inspected. The anomaly has been established that in some partial waves the pole values extracted using the standard single-channel methods differ not only from the values obtained using the analytic continuation method, but also change from one reaction to another. Inspired by this peculiarity, we have developed a new single-channel pole-extraction method based solely on the assumption of the partial wave analyticity. Since the speed plot turns out to be the lowest order term of the proposed method, the anomaly is understood and resolved.

  17. Results of Nucleon Resonance Extraction via Dynamical Coupled-Channels Analysis from Collaboration @ EBAC

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroyuki Kamano

    2012-04-01

    We review a global analysis of meson production reactions off the nucleons by a collaboration at Excited Baryon Analysis Center of Jefferson Lab. The analysis is pursued with a dynamical coupled-channels approach, within which the dynamics of multi-channel reaction processes are taken into account in a fully consistent way with the two-body as well as three-body unitarity of the S-matrix. With this approach, new features of nucleon excitations are revealed as resonant particles originating from the non-trivial multi-channel reaction dynamics, which cannot be addressed by static hadron models where the nucleon excitations are treated as stable particles.

  18. Note: resonant microwave compressor with two output ports for synchronous energy extraction.

    PubMed

    Avgustinovich, V A; Artemenko, S N; Kaminsky, V L; Novikov, S A; Yushkov, Yu G

    2011-04-01

    The brief theoretical analysis shows the resonant microwave compressor provides the output pulse power higher than the traveling wave power in the storage cavity. The experimental study was made with the model of the S-band microwave compressor. The power of pulses generated by the device reached the value three times as much as the value of the traveling wave power in the storage cavity at the maximum amplification 23 dB, peak power 400 MW, and pulse width 4-5 ns. PMID:21529048

  19. Extracting meson-baryon contributions to the electroexcitation of the N (1675)-5/2 nucleon resonance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aznauryan, Inna G.; Burkert, Volker D.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the determination of the electrocouplings for the transition from the proton to the N (1675)-5/2 resonance state using recent differential cross section data on ep → eπ+n by the CLAS collaboration at 1.8 ≤ Q² < 4.5GeV². The data have been analyzed using two different approaches, the unitary isobar model and fixed-t dispersion relations. The extracted γ*p → N (1675)-5/2 helicity amplitudes show considerable coupling through the AP1/2 amplitude, that is significantly larger than predicted three-quark contribution to this amplitude. The amplitude AP3/2 is much smaller. Both results are consistent with the predicted sizes of the meson-baryonmore » contributions at Q² ≥ 1.8 GeV² from the dynamical coupled-channel model.« less

  20. Extracting paramagnon excitations from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamsal, Jagat; Montfrooij, Wouter

    2016-06-01

    Resonant x-ray scattering experiments on high-temperature superconductors and related cuprates have revealed the presence of intense paramagnon scattering at high excitation energies, of the order of several hundred meV. The excitation energies appear to show very similar behavior across all compounds, ranging from magnetically ordered, via superconductors, to heavy fermion systems. However, we argue that this apparent behavior has been inferred from the data through model fitting which implicitly imposes such similarities. Using model fitting that is free from such restrictions, we show that the paramagnons are not nearly as well defined as has been asserted previously, and that some paramagnons might not represent propagating excitations at all. Our work indicates that the data published previously in the literature will need to be reanalyzed with proper models.

  1. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds in Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) wood . Part II. Hydrophilic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuopponen, M.; Willför, S.; Jääskeläinen, A.-S.; Vuorinen, T.

    2004-11-01

    Hydrophilic extracts of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) heartwood and sapwood and a solid Scots pine knotwood sample were studied by UV resonance Raman spectroscopy (UVRRS). In addition, UVRR spectra of two hydrophilic model compounds (pinosylvin and chrysin) were analysed. UV Raman spectra were collected using 244 and 257 nm excitation wavelengths. The chemical composition of the acetone:water (95:5 v/v) extracts were also determined by gas chromatography. The aromatic and oleophilic structures of pinosylvin and chrysin showed three intense resonance enhanced bands in the spectral region of 1649-1548 cm -1. Pinosylvin showed also a relatively intense band in the aromatic substitution region at 996 cm -1. The spectra of the heartwood acetone:water extract showed many bands typical of pinosylvin. In addition, the extract included bands distinctive for resin and fatty acids. The sapwood acetone:water extract showed bands due to oleophilic structures at 1655-1650 cm -1. The extract probably also contained oligomeric lignans because the UVRR spectra were in parts similar to that of guaiacyl lignin. The characteristic band of pinosylvin (996 cm -1) was detected in the UVRR spectrum of the resin rich knotwood. In addition, several other bands typical for wood resin were observed, which indicated that the wood resin in the knotwood was resonance enhanced even more than lignin.

  2. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood. Part II. Hydrophilic compounds.

    PubMed

    Nuopponen, M; Willför, S; Jääskeläinen, A-S; Vuorinen, T

    2004-11-01

    Hydrophilic extracts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) heartwood and sapwood and a solid Scots pine knotwood sample were studied by UV resonance Raman spectroscopy (UVRRS). In addition, UVRR spectra of two hydrophilic model compounds (pinosylvin and chrysin) were analysed. UV Raman spectra were collected using 244 and 257 nm excitation wavelengths. The chemical composition of the acetone:water (95:5 v/v) extracts were also determined by gas chromatography. The aromatic and oleophilic structures of pinosylvin and chrysin showed three intense resonance enhanced bands in the spectral region of 1649-1548 cm(-1). Pinosylvin showed also a relatively intense band in the aromatic substitution region at 996 cm(-1). The spectra of the heartwood acetone:water extract showed many bands typical of pinosylvin. In addition, the extract included bands distinctive for resin and fatty acids. The sapwood acetone:water extract showed bands due to oleophilic structures at 1655-1650 cm(-1). The extract probably also contained oligomeric lignans because the UVRR spectra were in parts similar to that of guaiacyl lignin. The characteristic band of pinosylvin (996 cm(-1)) was detected in the UVRR spectrum of the resin rich knotwood. In addition, several other bands typical for wood resin were observed, which indicated that the wood resin in the knotwood was resonance enhanced even more than lignin. PMID:15477131

  3. Sequential application of viscous opening and lower leveling for three-dimensional brain extraction on magnetic resonance imaging T1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendiola-Santibañez, Jorge Domingo; Gallegos-Duarte, Martín; Arias-Estrada, Miguel Octavio; Santillán-Méndez, Israel Marcos; Rodríguez-Reséndiz, Juvenal; Terol-Villalobos, Iván Ramón

    2014-05-01

    A composition of the viscous opening and the lower leveling is introduced to extract brain in magnetic resonance imaging T1. The innovative transformation disconnects chained components and has better control on the reconstruction process of the marker inside of the original image. However, the sequential operator requires setting several parameters, making its application difficult. Due to this situation, a simplification is carried out on it to obtain a more practical method. The proposed morphological transformations were tested with the Internet Brain Segmentation Repository (IBSR) database, which is used as a benchmark among the community. The results are compared using the Jaccard and Dice indices with respect to (i) manual segmentations obtained from the IBSR, (ii) mean indices reported in the current literature, and (iii) segmentations obtained from the Brain Extraction Tool, since this is one of the most popular algorithms used for brain segmentation. The average indices of Jaccard and Dice indicate that the reduced transformation produces similar results to the other methods reported in the literature while the sequential operator presents a better performance.

  4. Nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering: Methodology and extraction of vibrational properties of minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, M. Y.; Alp, E. E.; Bi, W.; Sturhahn, W.; Toellner, T. S.; Zhao, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) is a synchrotron radiation based experimental method [1]. Since its introduction almost 20 years ago [2], NRIXS has found an expanding range of applications of studying lattice dynamics in condensed matter physics, materials science, high-pressure research, geosciences, and biophysics. After the first high pressure application in geophysics of measuring sound velocity of iron up to 153 GPa [3], it has become a widely used method to investigate deep earth compositions through sound velocity measurements [4,5]. Thermodynamic properties are also explored, in particular Grueneisen parameters [6]. Later, it was realized that isotope fractionaton factors can be derived from NRIXS measurements [7,8]. Sum rules and moments of NRIXS is a critical part of this methodology [9,10]. We will discuss this and in general the data analysis of NRIXS which enables the above mentioned applications. [1] Alp et al. Hyperfine Interactions 144/145, 3 (2002) [2] Sturhahn et al., PRL 74, 3832 (1995) [3] Mao et al., Science 292, 914 (2001) [4] Hu et al., PRB 67, 094304 (2003) [5] Sturhahn & Jackson, GSA special paper 421 (2007) [6] Murphy et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L24306 (2011) [7] Polyakov, Science 323, 912 (2009) [8] Dauphas et al., Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 94, 254 (2012) [9] Lipkin, PRB 52, 10073 (1995) [10] Hu et al., PRB 87, 064301 (2013)

  5. Extracting the resonance parameters from experimental data on scattering of charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaandrager, P.; Rakityansky, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    A new parametrization of the multi-channel S-matrix is used to fit scattering data and then to locate the resonances as its poles. The S-matrix is written in terms of the corresponding “in” and “out” Jost matrices which are expanded in the Taylor series of the collision energy E around an appropriately chosen energy E0. In order to do this, the Jost matrices are written in a semi-analytic form where all the factors (involving the channel momenta and Sommerfeld parameters) responsible for their “bad behavior” (i.e., responsible for the multi-valuedness of the Jost matrices and for branching of the Riemann surface of the energy) are given explicitly. The remaining unknown factors in the Jost matrices are analytic and single-valued functions of the variable E and are defined on a simple energy plane. The expansion is done for these analytic functions and the expansion coefficients are used as the fitting parameters. The method is tested on a two-channel model, using a set of artificially generated data points with typical error bars and a typical random noise in the positions of the points.

  6. Automated Feature Extraction in Brain Tumor by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Gaussian Mixture Models

    PubMed Central

    Chaddad, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for Glioblastoma (GBM) feature extraction based on Gaussian mixture model (GMM) features using MRI. We addressed the task of the new features to identify GBM using T1 and T2 weighted images (T1-WI, T2-WI) and Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) MR images. A pathologic area was detected using multithresholding segmentation with morphological operations of MR images. Multiclassifier techniques were considered to evaluate the performance of the feature based scheme in terms of its capability to discriminate GBM and normal tissue. GMM features demonstrated the best performance by the comparative study using principal component analysis (PCA) and wavelet based features. For the T1-WI, the accuracy performance was 97.05% (AUC = 92.73%) with 0.00% missed detection and 2.95% false alarm. In the T2-WI, the same accuracy (97.05%, AUC = 91.70%) value was achieved with 2.95% missed detection and 0.00% false alarm. In FLAIR mode the accuracy decreased to 94.11% (AUC = 95.85%) with 0.00% missed detection and 5.89% false alarm. These experimental results are promising to enhance the characteristics of heterogeneity and hence early treatment of GBM. PMID:26136774

  7. Emittance balancing technique for the resonant slow extraction from a synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J. Y.; Liu, L.; Yang, Z.; Fang, S. X.; Guan, X. L.

    2009-05-01

    A new method is proposed to produce identical beam emittances in the transverse phase planes from a severely asymmetric beam extracted from a slow-cycling synchrotron. This is important to obtain a good beam distribution at the irradiation spot when the spot scanning method is used for the treatment in hadron therapy. The method makes use of the beam rotation effect either by a solenoid or by a rotational quadrupole section, referred to as rotator, to produce identical emittances in the two transverse phase planes. It is also helpful for the stabilization of the beam spot at the irradiation point. Simulation studies with an artificially generated beam have been carried out to prove the principle. The method is not only applicable to fixed treatment nozzles but also to rotational gantry nozzles. Both a solenoid and a section of quadrupole rotator can be used, with the former being ideal for proton gantries and the latter for fixed carbon nozzles. There is a practical limit in using room-temperature solenoid due to the high beam rigidity in the case of a carbon beam, for which a superconducting solenoid has to be used. The comparison with other methods and the practical applications of the method are also presented.

  8. Determination of trace uranium by resonance fluorescence method coupled with photo-catalytic technology and dual cloud point extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiekang; Li, Guirong; Han, Qian

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, two kinds of salophens (Sal) with different solubilities, Sal1 and Sal2, have been respectively synthesized, and they all can combine with uranyl to form stable complexes: [UO2(2+)-Sal1] and [UO2(2+)-Sal2]. Among them, [UO2(2+)-Sal1] was used as ligand to extract uranium in complex samples by dual cloud point extraction (dCPE), and [UO2(2+)-Sal2] was used as catalyst for the determination of uranium by photocatalytic resonance fluorescence (RF) method. The photocatalytic characteristic of [UO2(2+)-Sal2] on the oxidized pyronine Y (PRY) by potassium bromate which leads to the decrease of RF intensity of PRY were studied. The reduced value of RF intensity of reaction system (ΔF) is in proportional to the concentration of uranium (c), and a novel photo-catalytic RF method was developed for the determination of trace uranium (VI) after dCPE. The combination of photo-catalytic RF techniques and dCPE procedure endows the presented methods with enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. Under optimal conditions, the linear calibration curves range for 0.067 to 6.57ngmL(-1), the linear regression equation was ΔF=438.0 c (ngmL(-1))+175.6 with the correlation coefficient r=0.9981. The limit of detection was 0.066ngmL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied for the separation and determination of uranium in real samples with the recoveries of 95.0-103.5%. The mechanisms of the indicator reaction and dCPE are discussed. PMID:27380304

  9. Extracting S-matrix poles for resonances from numerical scattering data: Type-II Padé reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovski, D.; Akhmatskaya, E.; Sen, S. K.

    2011-02-01

    We present a FORTRAN 77 code for evaluation of resonance pole positions and residues of a numerical scattering matrix element in the complex energy (CE) as well as in the complex angular momentum (CAM) planes. Analytical continuation of the S-matrix element is performed by constructing a type-II Padé approximant from given physical values (Bessis et al. (1994) [42]; Vrinceanu et al. (2000) [24]; Sokolovski and Msezane (2004) [23]). The algorithm involves iterative 'preconditioning' of the numerical data by extracting its rapidly oscillating potential phase component. The code has the capability of adding non-analytical noise to the numerical data in order to select 'true' physical poles, investigate their stability and evaluate the accuracy of the reconstruction. It has an option of employing multiple-precision (MPFUN) package (Bailey (1993) [45]) developed by D.H. Bailey wherever double precision calculations fail due to a large number of input partial waves (energies) involved. The code has been successfully tested on several models, as well as the F + H 2 → HF + H, F + HD → HF + D, Cl + HCl → ClH + Cl and H + D 2 → HD + D reactions. Some detailed examples are given in the text. Program summaryProgram title: PADE II Catalogue identifier: AEHO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 19 959 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 158 380 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 Computer: Any computer equipped with a FORTRAN 90 compiler Operating system: UNIX, LINUX RAM: 256 Mb Classification: 16.8 External routines: NAG Program Library ( http://www.nag.co.uk/numeric/fl/FLdescription.asp) Nature of problem: The package extracts the positions and

  10. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) wood . Part I: Lipophilic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuopponen, M.; Willför, S.; Jääskeläinen, A.-S.; Sundberg, A.; Vuorinen, T.

    2004-11-01

    The wood resin in Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) stemwood and branch wood were studied using UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. UVRR spectra of the sapwood and heartwood hexane extracts, solid wood samples and model compounds (six resin acids, three fatty acids, a fatty acid ester, sitosterol and sitosterol acetate) were collected using excitation wavelengths of 229, 244 and 257 nm. In addition, visible Raman spectra of the fatty and resin acids were recorded. Resin compositions of heartwood and sapwood hexane extracts were determined using gas chromatography. Raman signals of both conjugated and isolated double bonds of all the model compounds were resonance enhanced by UV excitation. The oleophilic structures showed strong bands in the region of 1660-1630 cm -1. Distinct structures were enhanced depending on the excitation wavelength. The UVRR spectra of the hexane extracts showed characteristic bands for resin and fatty acids. It was possible to identify certain resin acids from the spectra. UV Raman spectra collected from the solid wood samples containing wood resin showed a band at ˜1650 cm -1 due to unsaturated resin components. The Raman signals from extractives in the resin rich branch wood sample gave even more strongly enhanced signals than the aromatic lignin.

  11. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood. Part I: lipophilic compounds.

    PubMed

    Nuopponen, M; Willför, S; Jääskeläinen, A-S; Sundberg, A; Vuorinen, T

    2004-11-01

    The wood resin in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stemwood and branch wood were studied using UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. UVRR spectra of the sapwood and heartwood hexane extracts, solid wood samples and model compounds (six resin acids, three fatty acids, a fatty acid ester, sitosterol and sitosterol acetate) were collected using excitation wavelengths of 229, 244 and 257 nm. In addition, visible Raman spectra of the fatty and resin acids were recorded. Resin compositions of heartwood and sapwood hexane extracts were determined using gas chromatography. Raman signals of both conjugated and isolated double bonds of all the model compounds were resonance enhanced by UV excitation. The oleophilic structures showed strong bands in the region of 1660-1630 cm(-1). Distinct structures were enhanced depending on the excitation wavelength. The UVRR spectra of the hexane extracts showed characteristic bands for resin and fatty acids. It was possible to identify certain resin acids from the spectra. UV Raman spectra collected from the solid wood samples containing wood resin showed a band at approximately 1650 cm(-1) due to unsaturated resin components. The Raman signals from extractives in the resin rich branch wood sample gave even more strongly enhanced signals than the aromatic lignin. PMID:15477130

  12. Preliminary results of the ion extraction simulations applied to the MONO1000 and SUPERSHyPIE electron cyclotron resonance ion sourcesa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierret, C.; Maunoury, L.; Biri, S.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Tuske, O.; Delferriere, O.

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this article is to present simulations on the extraction from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The aim of this work is to find out an extraction system, which allows one to reduce the emittances and to increase the current of the extracted ion beam at the focal point of the analyzing dipole. But first, we should locate the correct software which is able to reproduce the specific physics of an ion beam. To perform the simulations, the following softwares have been tested: SIMION 3D, AXCEL, CPO 3D, and especially, for the magnetic field calculation, MATHEMATICA coupled with the RADIA module. Emittance calculations have been done with two types of ECRIS: one with a hexapole and one without a hexapole, and the difference will be discussed.

  13. Preliminary results of the ion extraction simulations applied to the MONO1000 and SUPERSHyPIE electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Pierret, C; Maunoury, L; Biri, S; Pacquet, J Y; Tuske, O; Delferriere, O

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this article is to present simulations on the extraction from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The aim of this work is to find out an extraction system, which allows one to reduce the emittances and to increase the current of the extracted ion beam at the focal point of the analyzing dipole. But first, we should locate the correct software which is able to reproduce the specific physics of an ion beam. To perform the simulations, the following softwares have been tested: SIMION 3D, AXCEL, CPO 3D, and especially, for the magnetic field calculation, MATHEMATICA coupled with the RADIA module. Emittance calculations have been done with two types of ECRIS: one with a hexapole and one without a hexapole, and the difference will be discussed. PMID:18315194

  14. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    PubMed

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Yasuda, Y; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A; Kamakura, K

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP. PMID:24593475

  15. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Yorita, T. Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Ueda, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Morinobu, S.; Tamii, A.; Kamakura, K.

    2014-02-15

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  16. New opportunities of the application of natural herb and spice extracts in plant oils: application of electron paramagnetic resonance in examining the oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Szterk, Arkadiusz; Zawada, Katarzyna; Ząbkowski, Tomasz

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the applicability of natural water-ethanol extracts of herbs and spices in increasing the oxidative stability of plant oils and in the production of novel food. Different concentrations (0, 100, 300, 500, and 700 ppm) of spice extracts and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (100 ppm) were added to the studied oils. The antioxidant activity of spice extracts was determined with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay. The study showed that the extracts significantly increased the oxidative stability of the examined oils when compared to one of the strongest synthetic antioxidants--BHA. The applied simple production technology and addition of herb and spice extracts to plant oils enabled enhancement of their oxidative stability. The extracts are an alternative to the oils aromatized with an addition of fresh herbs, spices, and vegetables because it did not generate additional flavors thus enabling the maintenance of the characteristic ones. Moreover, it will increase the intake of natural substances in human diet, which are known to possess anticarcinogenic properties. PMID:22900972

  17. A study of coal extraction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Doetschman, D.C.; Mehlenbacher, R.C.; Ito, O.

    1993-09-01

    An electron spin and proton magnetic relaxation study is presented on the effects of the solvent extraction of coal on the macromoleculer network of the coal and on the mobile molecular species that are initially within the coal. The eight Argonne Premium coals were extracted at room temperature with a 1:1 (v/v) N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP)-CS2 solvent mixture under an inert atmosphere. As much solvent as possible was removed from extract and residue by treatment in a vacuum. The mobilization of molecular free radicals by the solvent and the exposure of free radicals in the macromoleculer matrix to solvent or to species dissolved in the solvent, results in a preferential survival of residue radicals of types that depend on the particular coal and results in the apparently fairly uniform loss of all types of radicals in bituminous coal extracts. The surviving extract and residue free radicals are more predominantly of the odd- alternate hydrocarbon free radical type. The spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) of these coal free radicals has previously been inferred (Doetschman and Dwyer, Energy Fuels, 1992, 6, 783) to be from the modulation of the intramolecular electron-nuclear dipole-interactions of the CH groups in a magnetic field by rocldng motions of the radical in the coal matrix. Such a modulation would depend not only on the rocking amplitude and frequency but also upon the electron spin density at the CH groups in the radical. The observed SLR rates decrease with coal rank in agreement with the smaller spin densities and the lower rocidng amplitudes that are expected for the larger polycondensed ring systems in coals of higher rank. The SLR rates are found to be generally faster in the extracts (than residues) where the molecular species would be expected to have a smaller polycondensed ring system than in the macromoleculer matrix of the residue.

  18. Direct assessment by electron spin resonance spectroscopy of the antioxidant effects of French maritime pine bark extract in the maxillofacial region of hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Ayaka; Yoshino, Fumihiko; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Nakamura, Takeshi; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-il

    2011-01-01

    Flavangenol, one of extract of French maritime pine bark, is a complex mixture of bioflavonoids with oligometric proanthocyanidins as the major constituents. These constituents, catechin and procyanidin B1, are water-soluble derivatives of flavangenol. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant effects of flavangenol on reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and singlet oxygen using electron spin resonance and spin trapping. The effect of flavangenol on oxidative stress in the skin from the maxillofacial region of hairless mice was investigated using an in vivo L-band electron spin resonance imaging system. Flavangenol attenuated oxidative stress in the maxillofacial skin by acting as a reactive oxygen species scavenger, as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo electron spin resonance imaging analysis. The absorption and metabolism of flavangenol were also examined. After oral administration of flavangenol in human and rat, most of the catechin in plasma was in the conjugated form, while 45% to 78% of procyanidin B1 was unconjugated, indicating that non-conjugated procyanidin B1 would be active in the circulation. The ability of flavangenol to reduce reactive oxygen species levels in the circulation of the maxillofacial region suggests that this extract may be beneficial for skin protection from exposure to ultraviolet irradiation. PMID:21980222

  19. On-Demand Single Photons with High Extraction Efficiency and Near-Unity Indistinguishability from a Resonantly Driven Quantum Dot in a Micropillar.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xing; He, Yu; Duan, Z-C; Gregersen, Niels; Chen, M-C; Unsleber, S; Maier, S; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-01-15

    Scalable photonic quantum technologies require on-demand single-photon sources with simultaneously high levels of purity, indistinguishability, and efficiency. These key features, however, have only been demonstrated separately in previous experiments. Here, by s-shell pulsed resonant excitation of a Purcell-enhanced quantum dot-micropillar system, we deterministically generate resonance fluorescence single photons which, at π pulse excitation, have an extraction efficiency of 66%, single-photon purity of 99.1%, and photon indistinguishability of 98.5%. Such a single-photon source for the first time combines the features of high efficiency and near-perfect levels of purity and indistinguishabilty, and thus opens the way to multiphoton experiments with semiconductor quantum dots. PMID:26824530

  20. Extracting the cross section angular distributions for 15C high-energy resonance excited via the (18O,16O) two-neutron transfer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, D.; Agodi, C.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Foti, A.; Linares, R.

    2016-05-01

    The 13C(18O,16O)15C reaction has been studied at 84 MeV incident energy. The ejectiles have been momentum analized by the MAGNEX spectrometer and 15C excitation energy spectra have been obtained up to about 20 MeV. In the region above the two-neutron separation energy, a bump has been observed at 13.7 MeV. The extracted cross section angular distribution for this structure, obtained by using different models for background, displays a clear oscillating pattern, typical of resonant state of the residual nucleus.

  1. pH recycling aqueous two-phase systems applied in extraction of Maitake β-Glucan and mechanism analysis using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Hou, Huiyun; Cao, Xuejun

    2015-07-31

    In this paper, a recycling aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) based on two pH-response copolymers PADB and PMDM were used in purification of β-Glucan from Grifola frondosa. The main parameters, such as polymer concentration, type and concentration of salt, extraction temperature and pH, were investigated to optimize partition conditions. The results demonstrated that β-Glucan was extracted into PADB-rich phase, while impurities were extracted into PMDM-rich phase. In this 2.5% PADB/2.5% PMDM ATPS, 7.489 partition coefficient and 96.92% extraction recovery for β-Glucan were obtained in the presence of 30mmol/L KBr, at pH 8.20, 30°C. The phase-forming copolymers could be recycled by adjusting pH, with recoveries of over 96.0%. Furthermore, the partition mechanism of Maitake β-Glucan in PADB/PMDM aqueous two-phase systems was studied. Fourier transform infrared spectra, ForteBio Octet system and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) were introduced for elucidating the partition mechanism of β-Glucan. Especially, LF-NMR was firstly used in the mechanism analysis in partition of aqueous two-phase systems. The change of transverse relaxation time (T2) in ATPS could reflect the interaction between polymers and β-Glucan. PMID:26094138

  2. Combined use of high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling and high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for investigation of antidiabetic principles in crude plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kongstad, Kenneth T; Özdemir, Ceylan; Barzak, Asmah; Wubshet, Sileshi G; Staerk, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting millions of people worldwide, and new drug leads or functional foods containing selective α-glucosidase inhibitors are needed. Crude extract of 24 plants were assessed for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Methanol extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark, Rheum rhabarbarum peel, and Rheum palmatum root and ethyl acetate extracts of C. zeylanicum bark, Allium ascalonicum peel, and R. palmatum root showed IC50 values below 20 μg/mL. Subsequently, high-resolution α-glucosidase profiling was used in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for identification of metabolites responsible for the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Quercetin (1) and its dimer (2), trimer (3), and tetramer (4) were identified as main α-glucosidase inhibitors in A. ascalonicum peel, whereas (E)-piceatannol 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), (E)-rhapontigenin 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), (E)-piceatannol (8), and emodin (12) were identified as main α-glucosidase inhibitors in R. palmatum root. PMID:25652946

  3. Measurements of e p →e'π+n at 1.6 extraction of nucleon resonance electrocouplings at CLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K.; Aznauryan, I. G.; Burkert, V. D.; Adhikari, K. P.; Amaryan, M. J.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Avakian, H.; Battaglieri, M.; Badui, R.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; Alaoui, A. El; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fassi, L. El; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Garillon, B.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Joo, H. S.; Goetz, J. T.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Martinez, D.; McKinnon, B.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, G. D.; Sparveris, N.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tian, Ye; Trivedi, A.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Differential cross sections of the exclusive process e p →e'π+n were measured with good precision in the range of the photon virtuality Q2=1.8 -4.5 GeV2 and the invariant mass range of the π+n final state W =1.6 -2.0 GeV using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Data were collected with nearly complete coverage in the azimuthal and polar angles of the n π+ center-of-mass system. More than 37 000 cross-section points were measured. The contributions of the isospin I =1/2 resonances N (1675 ) 5/2-,N (1680 ) 5/2+ , and N (1710 ) 1/2+ were extracted at different values of Q2 using a single-channel, energy-dependent resonance amplitude analysis. Two different approaches, the unitary isobar model and the fixed-t dispersion relations, were employed in the analysis. We observe significant strength of the N (1675 ) 5/2- in the A1 /2 amplitude, which is in strong disagreement with quark models that predict both transverse amplitudes to be strongly suppressed. For the N (1680 ) 5/2+ we observe a slow changeover from the dominance of the A3 /2 amplitude at the real photon point (Q2=0 ) to a Q2 where A1 /2 begins to dominate. The scalar amplitude S1 /2 drops rapidly with Q2 consistent with quark model prediction. For the N (1710 ) 1/2+ resonance our analysis shows significant strength for the A1 /2 amplitude at Q2<2.5 GeV2.

  4. Extracting partial decay rates of helium from complex rotation: autoionizing resonances of the one-dimensional configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Klaus; Lugan, Pierre; Jörder, Felix; Heitz, Nicolai; Schmidt, Maximilian; Bouri, Celsus; Rodriguez, Alberto; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Partial autoionization rates of doubly excited one-dimensional helium in the collinear Zee and eZe configuration are obtained by means of the complex rotation method. The approach presented here relies on a projection of back-rotated resonance wave functions onto singly ionized H{{e}+} channel wave functions and the computation of the corresponding particle fluxes. In spite of the long-range nature of the Coulomb potential between the electrons and the nucleus, an asymptotic region where the fluxes are stationary is clearly observed. Low-lying doubly excited states are found to decay predomintantly into the nearest single-ionization continuum. This approach paves the way for a systematic analysis of the decay rates observed in higher-dimensional models, and of the role of electronic correlations and atomic structure in recent photoionization experiments.

  5. Bayesian Extraction of Deep UV Resonance Raman Signature of Fibrillar Cross-β Sheet Core based on H-D Exchange Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashilov, V. A.; Lednev, I. K.

    2007-11-01

    Amyloid fibrils are associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. The application of conventional biophysical techniques including solution NMR and X-ray crystallography for structural characterization of fibrils is limited because they are neither crystalline nor soluble. The Bayesian approach was utilized for extracting the deep UV resonance Raman (DUVRR) spectrum of the lysozyme fibrillar β-sheet based on the hydrogen-deuterium exchange spectral data. The problem was shown to be unsolvable when using blind source separation or conventional chemometrics methods because of the 100% correlation of the concentration profiles of the species under study. Information about the mixing process was incorporated by forcing the columns of the concentration matrix to be proportional to the expected concentration profiles. The ill-conditioning of the matrix was removed by concatenating it to the diagonal matrix with entries corresponding to the known pure spectra (sources). Prior information about the spectral features and characteristic bands of the spectra was taken into account using the Bayesian signal dictionary approach. The extracted DUVRR spectrum of the cross-β sheet core exhibited sharp bands indicating the highly ordered structure. Well resolved sub-bands in Amide I and Amide III regions enabled us to assign the fibril core structure to anti-parallel β-sheet and estimate the amide group facial angle Ψ in the cross-β structure. The elaborated Bayesian approach was demonstrated to be applicable for studying correlated biochemical processes.

  6. Metabonomic analysis of water extracts from different angelica roots by ¹H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pui Hei; Zhang, Wendy L; Lau, Chung-Ho; Cheung, Chi Yuen; Keun, Hector C; Tsim, Karl W K; Lam, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Angelica Radix, the roots of the genus Angelica, has been used for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicine in Eastern Asia. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia records more than 100 herbal formulae containing Angelica roots. There are two common sources of Angelica roots, Angelica sinensis from China and A. gigas from Korea. The two species of Angelica roots differ in their chemical compositions, pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy. ¹H-NMR metabolic profiling has recently emerged as a promising quality control method for food and herbal chemistry. We explored the use of ¹H-NMR metabolic profiling for the quality control of Angelica Radix. Unlike previous work, we performed the metabolic profiling on hot water extracts, so as to mimic the clinically relevant preparation method. Unsupervised principle component analyses of both the full spectral profile and a selection of targeted molecules revealed a clear differentiation of three types of Angelica roots. In addition, the levels of 13 common metabolites were measured. Statistically significant differences in the levels of glucose, fructose and threonine were found between different sources of Angelica. Ferulic acid, a marker commonly used to evaluate Angelica root, was detected in our samples, but the difference in ferulic acid levels between the samples was not statistically significant. Overall, we successfully applied ¹H-NMR metabolic profiling with water extraction to discriminate all three sources of Angelica roots, and obtained quantitative information of many common metabolites. PMID:24658570

  7. Neuroimaging measures of error-processing: Extracting reliable signals from event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Steele, Vaughn R; Anderson, Nathaniel E; Claus, Eric D; Bernat, Edward M; Rao, Vikram; Assaf, Michal; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2016-05-15

    Error-related brain activity has become an increasingly important focus of cognitive neuroscience research utilizing both event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Given the significant time and resources required to collect these data, it is important for researchers to plan their experiments such that stable estimates of error-related processes can be achieved efficiently. Reliability of error-related brain measures will vary as a function of the number of error trials and the number of participants included in the averages. Unfortunately, systematic investigations of the number of events and participants required to achieve stability in error-related processing are sparse, and none have addressed variability in sample size. Our goal here is to provide data compiled from a large sample of healthy participants (n=180) performing a Go/NoGo task, resampled iteratively to demonstrate the relative stability of measures of error-related brain activity given a range of sample sizes and event numbers included in the averages. We examine ERP measures of error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) and error positivity (Pe), as well as event-related fMRI measures locked to False Alarms. We find that achieving stable estimates of ERP measures required four to six error trials and approximately 30 participants; fMRI measures required six to eight trials and approximately 40 participants. Fewer trials and participants were required for measures where additional data reduction techniques (i.e., principal component analysis and independent component analysis) were implemented. Ranges of reliability statistics for various sample sizes and numbers of trials are provided. We intend this to be a useful resource for those planning or evaluating ERP or fMRI investigations with tasks designed to measure error-processing. PMID:26908319

  8. Determination of oxygen extraction fraction using magnetic resonance imaging in canine models with internal carotid artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Fei-Yan; Xiao, Jiang-Xi; Xie, Sheng; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Zhen-Xia; Wang, Wu; Luo, Jie; Zhang, Zhong-Ping; Guo, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Perfusion of the penumbra tissue below the flow threshold for functional disturbance but above that for the maintenance of morphological integrity is the target for therapy in acute ischaemic stroke. The measurement of the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) may provide a direct assessment of tissue viability, so that irreversible tissue damage and penumbra can be reliably identified. By using an asymmetric spin echo single-shot echo planar imaging (ASE-SSEPI) sequence, the quantitative OEF was obtained in the ischaemic brain tissues of canine models with internal carotid artery occlusion. TTC staining, which delineated the regions of infarct and penumbra, was used for defining the corresponding regions on OEF maps. The threshold of the OEF to discriminate the infarct cores and penumbral tissues was then determined according to the OEF values at different times. With repeated-measures ANOVA, the OEF of the infarcted regions was found to be time dependent. An OEF greater than 0.48 best predicted cortical infarction at 1.5 hr, with an area under the receiving operating characteristic curve of 0.968, a sensitivity of 97.5%, and a specificity of 92.5%. Our results may be helpful in the evaluation of tissue viability during stroke events. PMID:27443195

  9. Determination of oxygen extraction fraction using magnetic resonance imaging in canine models with internal carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fei-Yan; Xiao, Jiang-Xi; Xie, Sheng; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Zhen-Xia; Wang, Wu; Luo, Jie; Zhang, Zhong-Ping; Guo, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Perfusion of the penumbra tissue below the flow threshold for functional disturbance but above that for the maintenance of morphological integrity is the target for therapy in acute ischaemic stroke. The measurement of the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) may provide a direct assessment of tissue viability, so that irreversible tissue damage and penumbra can be reliably identified. By using an asymmetric spin echo single-shot echo planar imaging (ASE-SSEPI) sequence, the quantitative OEF was obtained in the ischaemic brain tissues of canine models with internal carotid artery occlusion. TTC staining, which delineated the regions of infarct and penumbra, was used for defining the corresponding regions on OEF maps. The threshold of the OEF to discriminate the infarct cores and penumbral tissues was then determined according to the OEF values at different times. With repeated-measures ANOVA, the OEF of the infarcted regions was found to be time dependent. An OEF greater than 0.48 best predicted cortical infarction at 1.5 hr, with an area under the receiving operating characteristic curve of 0.968, a sensitivity of 97.5%, and a specificity of 92.5%. Our results may be helpful in the evaluation of tissue viability during stroke events. PMID:27443195

  10. Direct proof by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance of semi-purified extract and isolation of ent-Catechin from leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Sayonara Mendes; Abe, Simone Yae; Bueno, Fernanda Giacomini; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Nakashima, Tomoe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. is native to Australia and acclimatized to Southern Brazil. Its aromatic leaves are used for ornamental purposes and have great potential for essential oil production, although reports of its use in folk medicine are few. Objective: This study evaluated the composition of E. cinerea leaves using the solid state 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and isolation of the compound from the semipurified extract (SE). Materials and Methods: The SE of E. cinerea leaves was evaluated in the solid state by 13C-NMR spectrum, and the SE was chromatographed on a Sephadex LH-20 column, followed by high-speed counter-current chromatography to isolate the compound. The SE was analyzed by 13C-NMR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight spectra. Results: Flavan-3-ol units were present, suggesting the presence of proanthocyanidins as well as a gallic acid unit. The uncommon ent-catechin was isolated. Conclusion: The presence of ent-catechin is reported for the first time in this genus and species. PMID:25210302

  11. Extracting meson-baryon contributions to the electroexcitation of the N (1675)-5/2 nucleon resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Aznauryan, Inna G.; Burkert, Volker D.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the determination of the electrocouplings for the transition from the proton to the N (1675)-5/2 resonance state using recent differential cross section data on ep → eπ+n by the CLAS collaboration at 1.8 ≤ Q² < 4.5GeV². The data have been analyzed using two different approaches, the unitary isobar model and fixed-t dispersion relations. The extracted γ*p → N (1675)-5/2 helicity amplitudes show considerable coupling through the AP1/2 amplitude, that is significantly larger than predicted three-quark contribution to this amplitude. The amplitude AP3/2 is much smaller. Both results are consistent with the predicted sizes of the meson-baryon contributions at Q² ≥ 1.8 GeV² from the dynamical coupled-channel model.

  12. Research efforts in support of resonance extraction studies. Volume 1: Improvement and validation of TWFD (Thin-Wire Frequency-Domain): A thin-wire frequency-domain scattering code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auton, J. R.; Larry, T. L.; Vanblaricum, M. L.

    1984-11-01

    The development of a thin-wire frequency-domain (TWFD) method of moments code was discussed in a previous report 1. Since that time this code has undergone further development and numerical testing. The purpose of the code is to provide a theoretical and numerical basis to aid in understanding the resonance region electromagnetic scattering from thin-wire stick models. This frequency domain code augments a time-domain code (TWTD) which calculates the scattered transient response for an impulsive incident field. The outputs from both of these codes have provided numerical predictions which have been indispensible in assessing our ability to extract resonance information from actual scattering range data.

  13. Resonances and resonance widths

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T.

    1986-05-01

    Two-dimensional betatron resonances are much more important than their simple one-dimensional counterparts and exhibit a strong dependence on the betatron phase advance per cell. A practical definition of ''width'' is expanded upon in order to display these relations in tables. A primarily pedagogical introduction is given to explain the tables, and also to encourage a wider capability for deriving resonance behavior and wider use of ''designer'' resonances.

  14. Slow extraction of LAMPF 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, E. P.

    Half integer resonant extraction are used to slowly extract the 45 GeV proton beam from the LAMPF II main ring during a time spread of 1/6 sec. High extraction efficiency is obtained by performing the extraction in a high beta long straight section and by utilizing an electrostatic wire septum and iron septum.

  15. Slow extraction at LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1985-10-01

    Half-integer resonant extraction will be used to slow extract the 45 GeV proton beam from the LAMPF II main ring during a time spread of 1/6 sec. High extraction efficiency is obtained by performing the extraction in a high-beta long straight section and by utilizing an electrostatic wire septum and iron septum.

  16. A study on prevention of an electric discharge at an extraction electrode of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source for cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kishii, Y. Kawasaki, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Uchida, T.

    2014-02-15

    A compact ECR ion source has utilized for carbon radiotherapy. In order to increase beam intensity with higher electric field at the extraction electrode and be better ion supply stability for long periods, electric geometry and surface conditions of an extraction electrode have been studied. Focusing attention on black deposited substances on the extraction electrode, which were observed around the extraction electrode after long-term use, the relation between black deposited substances and the electrical insulation property is investigated. The black deposited substances were inspected for the thickness of deposit, surface roughness, structural arrangement examined using Raman spectroscopy, and characteristics of electric discharge in a test bench, which was set up to simulate the ECR ion source.

  17. 13C/15N‐Enriched l‐Dopa as a Triple‐Resonance NMR Probe to Monitor Neurotransmitter Dopamine in the Brain and Liver Extracts of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kameda, Tetsuro; Kimura, Yu; Imai, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Sando, Shinsuke; Toshimitsu, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In an attempt to monitor μm‐level trace constituents, we applied here 1H‐{13C‐15N} triple‐resonance nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to 13C/15N‐enriched l‐Dopa as the inevitable precursor of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. The perfect selectivity (to render endogenous components silent) and μm‐level sensitivity (700 MHz spectrometer equipped with a cryogenic probe) of triple‐resonance allowed the unambiguous and quantitative metabolic and pharmacokinetic analyses of administered l‐Dopa/dopamine in the brain and liver of mice. The level of dopamine generated in the brain (within the range 7–76 μm, which covers the typical stimulated level of ∼30 μm) could be clearly monitored ex vivo, but was slightly short of the detection limit of a 7 T MR machine for small animals. This work suggests that μm‐level trace constituents are potential targets of ex vivo monitoring as long as they contain N atom(s) and their appropriate 13C/15N‐enrichment is synthetically accessible. PMID:27308224

  18. Epitope extraction technique using a proteolytic magnetic reactor combined with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry as a tool for the screening of potential vaccine lead peptides.

    PubMed

    Bílková, Z; Stefanescu, R; Cecal, R; Korecká, L; Ouzká, S; Jezová, J; Viovy, J-L; Przybylski, M

    2005-01-01

    Epitope extraction technique is based on the specific digestion of a target protein followed by immunoaffinity isolation of a specific recognition peptide. This technique, in combination with mass spectrometry, has been efficiently used for epitope identification. The major goal of this work was to utilize newly developed enzyme and immunoaffinity magnetic reactors for the epitope extraction procedure and confirm the efficiency of this improved system for epitope screening of proteins. Alginic acid-coated magnetite microparticles with immobilized TPCK-trypsin provided high working efficiency with low non-specific adsorption, digestion time in minutes and low frequency of missed cleavages. The sensitivity and specificity of tryptic fragmentation of the beta-amyloid-peptide Abeta (1-40) as a model polypeptide was confirmed by Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry analysis. The Sepharose reactor or immunoaffinity magnetic reactors, both with anti-amyloid-beta monoclonal antibodies, were used for specific isolation and identification of target peptides. In this way, the epitope extraction technique combined with mass spectrometric analysis is shown to be an excellent base for molecular screening of potential vaccine lead proteins. PMID:16322655

  19. Slow extraction at LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Half-integer resonant extraction will be used to slow extract the 45 GeV proton beam from the LAMPF II main ring during a time spread of 1/6 sec. High extration efficiency is obtained by performing the extraction in a high-beta long straight section and by utilizing an electrostatic wire septum and iron septum. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Measurements of $ep \\to e^\\prime π^+n$ at W = 1.6 - 2.0 GeV and extraction of nucleon resonance electrocouplings at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kijun; Aznauryan, I. G.; Burkert, V. D.; Adhikari, K. P.; Amaryan, M. J.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Avakian, H.; Battaglieri, M.; Badui, R.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; Alaoui, A. El; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fassi, L. El; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Joo, H. S.; Goetz, J. T.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J.; Markov, N.; Martinez, D.; McKinnon, B.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabati??, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, G. D.; Sparveris, N.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tian, Ye; Trivedi, A.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2015-04-01

    Differential cross sections of the exclusive process $e p \\to e^\\prime \\pi^+ n$ were measured with good precision in the range of the photon virtuality $Q^2 = 1.8 - 4.5$ GeV$^2$, and the invariant mass range of the $\\pi^+ n$ final state W = 1.6 - 2.0 GeV using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Data were collected with nearly complete coverage in the azimuthal and polar angles of the $n\\pi^+$ center-of-mass system. More than 37,000 cross section points were measured. The contributions of the isospin $I = {1\\over 2}$ resonances $N(1675){5\\over 2}^-$, $N(1680){5\\over 2}^+$ and $N(1710){1\\over 2}^+$ were extracted at different values of $Q^2$ using a single-channel, energy-dependent resonance amplitude analysis. Two different approaches, the unitary isobar model and the fixed-$t$ dispersion relations, were employed in the analysis. We observe significant strength of the $N(1675){5\\over 2}^-$ in the $A_{1/2}$ amplitude, which is in strong disagreement with quark models that predict both transverse amplitudes to be strongly suppressed. For the $N(1680){5\\over 2}^+$ we observe a slow changeover from the dominance of the $A_{3/2}$ amplitude at the real photon point ($Q^2=0$) to a $Q^2$ where $A_{1/2}$ begins to dominate. The scalar amplitude $S_{1/2}$ drops rapidly with $Q^2$ consistent with quark model prediction. For the $N(1710){1\\over 2}^+$ resonance our analysis shows significant strength for the $A_{1/2}$ amplitude at $Q^2 < 2.5$ GeV$^2$.

  1. Measurements of $$ep \\to e^\\prime π^+n$$ at W = 1.6 - 2.0 GeV and extraction of nucleon resonance electrocouplings at CLAS

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Park, Kijun; Aznauryan, I. G.; Burkert, V. D.; Adhikari, K. P.; Amaryan, M. J.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Avakian, H.; Battaglieri, M.; Badui, R.; Bedlinskiy, I.; et al

    2015-04-01

    Differential cross sections of the exclusive processmore » $$e p \\to e^\\prime \\pi^+ n$$ were measured with good precision in the range of the photon virtuality $Q^2 = 1.8 - 4.5$ GeV$^2$, and the invariant mass range of the $$\\pi^+ n$$ final state W = 1.6 - 2.0 GeV using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Data were collected with nearly complete coverage in the azimuthal and polar angles of the $$n\\pi^+$$ center-of-mass system. More than 37,000 cross section points were measured. The contributions of the isospin $$I = {1\\over 2}$$ resonances $$N(1675){5\\over 2}^-$$, $$N(1680){5\\over 2}^+$$ and $$N(1710){1\\over 2}^+$$ were extracted at different values of $Q^2$ using a single-channel, energy-dependent resonance amplitude analysis. Two different approaches, the unitary isobar model and the fixed-$t$ dispersion relations, were employed in the analysis. We observe significant strength of the $$N(1675){5\\over 2}^-$$ in the $$A_{1/2}$$ amplitude, which is in strong disagreement with quark models that predict both transverse amplitudes to be strongly suppressed. For the $$N(1680){5\\over 2}^+$$ we observe a slow changeover from the dominance of the $$A_{3/2}$$ amplitude at the real photon point ($Q^2=0$) to a $Q^2$ where $$A_{1/2}$$ begins to dominate. The scalar amplitude $$S_{1/2}$$ drops rapidly with $Q^2$ consistent with quark model prediction. For the $$N(1710){1\\over 2}^+$$ resonance our analysis shows significant strength for the $$A_{1/2}$$ amplitude at $Q^2 < 2.5$ GeV$^2$.« less

  2. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Characterization of coal-derived materials by field desorption mass spectrometry, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, supercritical fluid extraction, and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Robins, W.H.

    1992-07-01

    Under contract from the DOE , and in association with CONSOL Inc., Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated four principal and several complementary techniques for the analysis of non-distillable direct coal liquefaction materials in support of process development. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods were examined for potential usefulness as techniques to elucidate the chemical structure of residual (nondistillable) direct coal liquefaction derived materials. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SFC/MS) were evaluated for effectiveness in compound-class separation and identification of residual materials. Liquid chromatography (including microcolumn) separation techniques, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and GC/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods were applied to supercritical fluid extracts. The full report authored by the PNL researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal liquefaction materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of CONSOL`s contract.

  3. Head-to-Head Comparison of Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection versus Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for the Quantitative Analysis of the Silymarin Complex in Silybum marianum Fruit Extracts.

    PubMed

    Cheilari, Antigoni; Sturm, Sonja; Intelmann, Daniel; Seger, Christoph; Stuppner, Hermann

    2016-02-24

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy is known as an excellent alternative to chromatography-based mixture analysis. NMR spectroscopy is a non-destructive method, needs only limited sample preparation, and can be readily automated. A head-to-head comparison of qNMR to an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (uHPLC-DAD)-based quantitative analysis of six flavonolignan congeners (silychristin, silydianin, silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, and isosilybin B) of the Silybum marianum silymarin complex is presented. Both assays showed similar performance characteristics (linear range, accuracy, precision, and limits of quantitation) with analysis times below 30 min/sample. The assays were applied to industrial S. marianum extracts (AC samples) and to extracts locally prepared from S. marianum fruits (PL samples). An assay comparison by Bland-Altman plots (relative method bias AC samples, -0.1%; 2SD range, ±5.1%; relative method bias PL samples, -0.3%; 2SD range, ±7.8%) and Passing-Bablok regression analysis (slope and intercept for AC and PL samples not significantly different from 1.00 and 0.00, respectively; Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation, >0.99) did show that qNMR and uHPLC-DAD can be used interchangeably to quantitate flavonolignans in the silymarin complex. PMID:26806429

  4. A comparative study of feature extraction and blind source separation of independent component analysis (ICA) on childhood brain tumour 1H magnetic resonance spectra.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jie; Zou, Xin; Wilson, Martin P; Davies, Nigel P; Sun, Yu; Peet, Andrew C; Arvanitis, Theodoros N

    2009-10-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has the potential of determining automatically the metabolite signals which make up MR spectra. However, the reliability with which this is accomplished and the optimal approach for investigating in vivo MRS have not been determined. Furthermore, the properties of ICA in brain tumour MRS with respect to dataset size and data quality have not been systematically explored. The two common techniques for applying ICA, blind source separation (BSS) and feature extraction (FE) were examined in this study using simulated data and the findings confirmed on patient data. Short echo time (TE 30 ms), low and high field (1.5 and 3 T) in vivo brain tumour MR spectra of childhood astrocytoma, ependymoma and medulloblastoma were generated by using a quantum mechanical simulator with ten metabolite and lipid components. Patient data (TE 30 ms, 1.5 T) were acquired from children with brain tumours. ICA of simulated data shows that individual metabolite components can be extracted from a set of MRS data. The BSS method generates independent components with a closer correlation to the original metabolite and lipid components than the FE method when the number of spectra in the dataset is small. The experiments also show that stable results are achieved with 300 MRS at an SNR equal to 10. The FE method is relatively insensitive to different ranges of full width at half maximum (FWHM) (from 0 to 3 Hz), whereas the BSS method degrades on increasing the range of FWHM. The peak frequency variations do not affect the results within the range of +/-0.08 ppm for the FE method, and +/-0.05 ppm for the BSS method. When the methods were applied to the patient dataset, results consistent with the synthesized experiments were obtained. PMID:19431141

  5. Detection of oligonucleotide hybridization at femtomolar level and sequence-specific gene analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf extract with an ultrasensitive surface plasmon resonance spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fayi; Zhou, Feimeng; Wang, Jun; Tao, Nongjian; Lin, Jianqiao; Vellanoweth, Robert L.; Morquecho, Yvonne; Wheeler-Laidman, Janel

    2002-01-01

    A flow-injection (FI) device is combined, through the use of a low-volume (4 µl) flow cell, with an ultrasensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectrometer equipped with a bi-cell photodiode detector. The application of this novel FI–SPR device for sequence-specific ultratrace analysis of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) and polydeoxynucleotides was demonstrated. Self-assembled monolayers of ODN probes are tethered onto Au films with a mercaptohexyl group at the 3′ ends. The FI–SPR provides a detection level (≤54 fM) 2–3 orders of magnitude lower than other SPR devices and compares well with several ultrasensitive detection methods for labeled DNA targets (e.g. fluorophore-tagged and radiolabeled DNA samples). The technique is also highly selective, since a 47mer ODN target with a single-base mismatch yielded a much smaller SPR signal, and a specific interaction was detected when the complementary target was present at 0.001% of the total DNA. The FI–SPR was extended to the measurement of two individual genes in a cDNA mixture transcribed from an Arabidopsis thaliana leaf mRNA pool. The greatly enhanced sensitivity not only obviates the necessity of DNA labeling, but also significantly reduces sample consumption, allowing direct quantification of low abundance mRNAs in cellular samples without amplification. PMID:12136120

  6. A derivatization strategy for the detection and identification of volatile trialkylphosphites using liquid chromatography-online solid phase extraction and offline nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Avik; Gutch, Pranav K; Dubey, Devendra K

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate herein the application of selective derivatization method that converts volatile and labile trialkylphosphites (TAPs) into virtually non-volatile, thermally stable, and UV absorbing derivatives. After simple sample preparation, purification/enrichment of the derivatives was achieved by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to on-line post column solid phase extraction (SPE) system. These derivatives were subjected to (31)P{(1)H} NMR and 1D-selTOCSY experiments. Conclusive identification was achieved on the basis of their HPLC retention time and NMR spectral signatures ( [Formula: see text] , (n)JH-H, and (3)JP-H). This method was tested for the unambiguous identification of a mixture containing low concentrations (∼10μgmL(-1)) of trimethylphosphite (TMP), triethylphosphite (TEP), triisopropylphosphite (TIP), and tributylphosphite (TBP) along with a high concentration of irrelevant background chemicals. It offered a high dynamic range and good detection limit and recovery (>75%) without the need for special NMR probe heads or exotic NMR experiments. PMID:25840658

  7. Damping of nanomechanical resonators.

    PubMed

    Unterreithmeier, Quirin P; Faust, Thomas; Kotthaus, Jörg P

    2010-07-01

    We study the transverse oscillatory modes of nanomechanical silicon nitride strings under high tensile stress as a function of geometry and mode index m≤9. Reproducing all observed resonance frequencies with classical elastic theory we extract the relevant elastic constants. Based on the oscillatory local strain we successfully predict the observed mode-dependent damping with a single frequency-independent fit parameter. Our model clarifies the role of tensile stress on damping and hints at the underlying microscopic mechanisms. PMID:20867737

  8. Optical resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention discloses a semi-ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) optical resonator structure comprising a medium including an edge forming a reflective facet and a waveguide within the medium, the waveguide having opposing ends formed by the reflective facet. The performance of the SRFP resonator can be further enhanced by including a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the waveguide on one side of the gain medium. The optical resonator can be employed in a variety of optical devices. Laser structures using at least one SRFP resonator are disclosed where the resonators are disposed on opposite sides of a gain medium. Other laser structures employing one or more resonators on one side of a gain region are also disclosed.

  9. Resonance scraping

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T.

    1986-06-01

    Protons lost in a ring leave at a few preferred locations, determined by some non-linear property of the dipoles. This paper suggests taking control of lost protons by beating the magnets at their own game - by means of a designed resonance used as a beam scraper. It is a study of suitable resonances, including estimates of the required multipole element strengths. The appropriate resonances are two-dimensional. A large number of figures is included.

  10. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based real-time polymerase chain reaction method without DNA extraction for the genotyping of F5, F2, F12, MTHFR, and HFE.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Serra, Jordi; Robles, Juan; Nicolàs, Antoni; Gutierrez, Antonio; Ros, Teresa; Amat, Juan Carlos; Alemany, Regina; Vögler, Oliver; Abelló, Aina; Noguera, Aina; Besalduch, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Blood samples are extensively used for the molecular diagnosis of many hematological diseases. The daily practice in a clinical laboratory of molecular diagnosis in hematology involves using a variety of techniques, based on the amplification of nucleic acids. Current methods for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) use purified genomic DNA, mostly isolated from total peripheral blood cells or white blood cells (WBC). In this paper we describe a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based method for genotyping directly from blood cells. Our strategy is based on an initial isolation of the WBCs, allowing the removal of PCR inhibitors, such as the heme group, present in the erythrocytes. Once the erythrocytes have been lysed, in the LightCycler(®) 2.0 Instrument, we perform a real-time PCR followed by a melting curve analysis for different genes (Factors 2, 5, 12, MTHFR, and HFE). After testing 34 samples comparing the real-time crossing point (CP) values between WBC (5×10(6) WBC/mL) and purified DNA (20 ng/μL), the results for F5 Leiden were as follows: CP mean value for WBC was 29.26±0.566 versus purified DNA 24.79±0.56. Thus, when PCR was performed from WBC (5×10(6) WBC/mL) instead of DNA (20 ng/μL), we observed a delay of about 4 cycles. These small differences in CP values were similar for all genes tested and did not significantly affect the subsequent analysis by melting curves. In both cases the fluorescence values were high enough, allowing a robust genotyping of all these genes without a previous DNA purification/extraction. PMID:25028568

  11. High-resolution PTP1B inhibition profiling combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Proof-of-concept and antidiabetic constituents in crude extract of Eremophila lucida.

    PubMed

    Tahtah, Yousof; Wubshet, Sileshi G; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Heskes, Allison Maree; Pateraki, Irini; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) constituted 90% of the global 387 million diabetes cases in 2014. The enzyme protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been recognized as a therapeutic target for treatment of T2D and its adverse complications. With the aim of accelerating the investigation of complex natural sources, such as crude plant extracts, for potential PTP1B inhibitors, we have developed a bio-analytical platform combining high-resolution PTP1B inhibition profiling and high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, i.e., HR-bioassay/HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. Human recombinant PTP1B enzyme was used for the microplate-based PTP1B inhibition assay, which was optimized for pH and substrate concentration to be compatible with rate measurements within the 10 min incubation time. Subsequently, analytical-scale HPLC-based microfractionation followed by colorimetric microplate-based PTP1B bioassaying enabled construction of a high-resolution inhibition profile corresponding to the HPLC profile. The high-resolution PTP1B inhibition profiling was validated using an artificial mixture of known PTP1B inhibitors and non-inhibiting compounds as negative controls. Finally, a proof-of-concept study with a real sample was performed using crude ethyl acetate extract of the phytochemically hitherto unexplored plant Eremophila lucida. This led to the identification of the first viscidane type diterpene, i.e., 5-hydroxyviscida-3,14-dien-20-oic acid (9) as PTP1B inhibitor with an IC50 value of 42.0 ± 5.9 μM. In addition, a series of flavonoids, i.e., luteolin (1), dinatin (3a), tricin (3b), 3,6-dimethoxyapigenin (4), jaceidin (5), and cirsimaritin (6) as well as a cembrene diterpene, (3Z, 7E, 11Z)-15-hydroxycembra-3,7,11-trien-19-oic acid (8), were also identified for the first time from E. lucida. PMID:26882973

  12. Discrete resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivaldi, Franco

    2015-12-01

    The concept of resonance has been instrumental to the study of Hamiltonian systems with divided phase space. One can also define such systems over discrete spaces, which have a finite or countable number of points, but in this new setting the notion of resonance must be re-considered from scratch. I review some recent developments in the area of arithmetic dynamics which outline some salient features of linear and nonlinear stable (elliptic) orbits over a discrete space, and also underline the difficulties that emerge in their analysis.

  13. Discrete resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivaldi, Franco

    The concept of resonance has been instrumental to the study of Hamiltonian systems with divided phase space. One can also define such systems over discrete spaces, which have a finite or countable number of points, but in this new setting the notion of resonance must be re-considered from scratch. I review some recent developments in the area of arithmetic dynamics which outline some salient features of linear and nonlinear stable (elliptic) orbits over a discrete space, and also underline the difficulties that emerge in their analysis.

  14. Laser Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, L. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An optical resonator cavity configuration has a unitary mirror with oppositely directed convex and concave reflective surfaces disposed into one fold and concertedly reversing both ends of a beam propagating from a laser rod disposed between two total internal reflection prisms. The optical components are rigidly positioned with perpendicularly crossed virtual rooflines by a compact optical bed. The rooflines of the internal reflection prisms, are arranged perpendicularly to the axis of the laser beam and to the optical axes of the optical resonator components.

  15. Hadron Resonances from QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudek, Jozef J.

    2016-03-01

    I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study ππ elastic scattering, including the ρ resonance, as well as coupled-channel πK, ηK scattering. The very recent extension to the case where an external current acts is also presented, considering the reaction πγ* → ππ, from which the unstable ρ → πγ transition form factor is extracted. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.

  16. Beam transfer and extraction at LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    Protons will be single-turn extracted from the LAMPF II synchrotron at 30 Hz. On alternate pulses they will be single-turn injected into a storage ring. Both processes utilize fast kickers and Lambertson septum magnets. Half-integer resonant extraction will be used to slow-extract the beam from the storage ring over a time spread of 1/15 s. The slow extraction occurs using electrostatic wire and iron septa.

  17. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  18. Resonant behavior of dielectric objects (electrostatic resonances).

    PubMed

    Fredkin, D R; Mayergoyz, I D

    2003-12-19

    Resonant behavior of dielectric objects occurs at certain frequencies for which the object permittivity is negative and the free-space wavelength is large in comparison with the object dimensions. Unique physical features of these resonances are studied and a novel technique for the calculation of resonance values of permittivity, and hence resonance frequencies, is proposed. Scale invariance of resonance frequencies, unusually strong orthogonality properties of resonance modes, and a two-dimensional phenomenon of "twin" spectra are reported. The paper concludes with brief discussions of optical controllability of these resonances in semiconductor nanoparticles and a plausible, electrostatic resonance based, mechanism for nucleation and formation of ball lightning. PMID:14754117

  19. Disentangling the Dynamical Origin of P11 Nucleon Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Nobuhiko Suzuki, Bruno Julia Diaz, Hiroyuki Kamano, Tsung-Shung Lee, Akihiko Matsuyama, Toru Sato

    2010-01-01

    The dynamical origins of the two poles associated with the Roper resonance are examined. Both of them together with the next higher resonance in the P11 partial wave are found to have the same originating bare state, indicating that the coupling to the meson-baryon continuum induces multiple observed resonances from the same bare state. Concerning other partial waves, the resonance poles extracted within the same multi-channels multi-resonances model of pi N reactions are compared to those listed by the Particle Data Group (PDG). Within our reaction model, all the identified resonances consist of a core state and meson-baryon components.

  20. If It's Resonance, What is Resonating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon under the name "resonance," which, is based on the mathematical analogy between mechanical resonance and the behavior of wave functions in quantum mechanical exchange phenomena was described. The resonating system does not have a structure intermediate between those involved in the resonance, but instead a structure which is further…

  1. Accurate Extraction of Nanometer Distances in Multimers by Pulse EPR

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Silvia; Ackermann, Katrin; Pliotas, Christos; Huang, Hexian; Naismith, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is gaining increasing importance in structural biology. The PELDOR (pulsed electron–electron double resonance) method allows extracting distance information on the nanometer scale. Here, we demonstrate the efficient extraction of distances from multimeric systems such as membrane‐embedded ion channels where data analysis is commonly hindered by multi‐spin effects. PMID:26865468

  2. Direct measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of a resonant state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobos, Zachary; Reed, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We have applied inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) techniques to a resonantly-coupled system to determine quantitative differences in resonant versus non-resonant IETS. We use as a model system a set of GaAs-AlGaAs resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs)(footnote: with different barrier widths to tune resonant state linewidths and transmission coefficients. Modulation-broadening studies confirm theoretical predictions; however, the thermal dependence is markedly different than expected from classical IETS theory. An analysis of resonance shut-off reveals that the thermal dependence reflects the thermal broadening of the injector and resonant state density of states. Using this analysis, we show that one can extract both the transmission coefficient and the intrinsic linewidth of the resonant state. This is compared for RTDs of different tunneling barrier widths, and we observe the expected increase in resonance width for thinner barriers. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation.

  3. Slow extraction from the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Craig D. Moore et al.

    2001-07-20

    Slow resonant extraction from the Fermilab Main Injector through the extraction channel was achieved in February, 2000, with a spill length of 0.3 sec. Beam losses were small. Excellent wire chamber profiles were obtained and analyzed. The duty factor was not very good and needs to be improved.

  4. Resonances in pi-K scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, David J.

    2014-06-23

    We have obtained clear signals of resonances in coupled-channel pi K - eta K scattering. Using distillation and a large basis of operators we are able to extract a precise spectrum of energy levels using the variational method. These energies are analysed using inelastic extensions of the Luescher method to obtain scattering amplitudes that clearly describe S, P and D wave resonances, corresponding to the physical K_0^*(1430), the K^*(892) and the K_2^*(1430).

  5. Microwave energy storage in resonant cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, R.A.

    1983-02-01

    One method of generating short, high-power microwave pulses is to store rf energy in a resonant cavity over a relatively long fill time and extract is rapidly. A power gain roughly equal to the ratio of fill time to extraction time can be obtained. During the filling of a resonant cavity some of the energy is lost in heating the cavity walls, and some will generally be reflected at the input coupling of the cavity. In this paper we discuss the time dependence of the stored energy and related quantities and the way in which it depends on the coupling of the source to the cavity.

  6. Probabilistic interpretation of compositeness relation for resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhi-Hui; Oller, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    Bound, antibound and resonance states are associated to poles in the on-shell partial wave amplitudes. We show here that from the residues of the pole a rank 1 projection operator associated with any of these states can be extracted, in terms of which a sum rule related to the composition of the state can be derived. Although typically it involves complex coefficients for the compositeness and elementariness, except for the bound state case, we demonstrate that one can formulate a meaningful compositeness relation with only positive coefficients for resonances whose associated Laurent series in the variable s converges in a region of the physical axis around Re sP , with sP the pole position of the resonance. It is also shown that this result can be considered as an analytical extrapolation in sP of the clear narrow resonance case. We exemplify this formalism to study the two-body components of several resonances of interest.

  7. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    DOEpatents

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  8. MARS Tracking Simulations for the Mu2e Slow Extracted Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaslaev, Vladimir; Rakhno, Igor

    2015-06-01

    Particle tracking taking into account interactions with fields and materials is necessary for proper evaluation of the resonant extraction losses and geometry optimization for the extraction beam line. This paper describes the tracking simulations for the Mu2e Resonant Extraction and discusses the geometry choices made based on these simulations.

  9. Measuring frequency response of surface-micromachined resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, William D.; Bright, Victor M.; Dalton, George C.

    1997-09-01

    Resonator structures offer a unique mechanism for characterizing MEMS materials, but measuring the resonant frequency of microstructures is challenging. In this effort a network analyzer system was used to electrically characterize surface-micromachined resonator structures in a carefully controlled pressure and temperature environment.A microscope laser interferometer was used to confirm actual device deflections.Cantilever, comb, and piston resonators fabricated in the DARPA-sponsored MUMPs process were extensively tested. Measured resonator frequency results show reasonable agreement with analytic predictions computed using manufacturer measured film thickness and residual material stress. Alternatively the measured resonant frequency data can be used to extract materials data. Tuning of resonant frequency with DC bias was also investigated. Because the tested devices vary widely in complexity, form a simple cantilever beam to a comb resonator, the data collected is especially well suited for validation testing of MEMS modeling codes.

  10. A combination strategy for extraction and isolation of multi-component natural products by systematic two-phase solvent extraction-(13)C nuclear magnetic resonance pattern recognition and following conical counter-current chromatography separation: Podophyllotoxins and flavonoids from Dysosma versipellis (Hance) as examples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Youqian; Wu, Shihua

    2016-01-29

    Despite of substantial developments of extraction and separation techniques, isolation of natural products from natural resources is still a challenging task. In this work, an efficient strategy for extraction and isolation of multi-component natural products has been successfully developed by combination of systematic two-phase liquid-liquid extraction-(13)C NMR pattern recognition and following conical counter-current chromatography separation. A small-scale crude sample was first distributed into 9 systematic hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (HEMWat) two-phase solvent systems for determination of the optimum extraction solvents and partition coefficients of the prominent components. Then, the optimized solvent systems were used in succession to enrich the hydrophilic and lipophilic components from the large-scale crude sample. At last, the enriched components samples were further purified by a new conical counter-current chromatography (CCC). Due to the use of (13)C NMR pattern recognition, the kinds and structures of major components in the solvent extracts could be predicted. Therefore, the method could collect simultaneously the partition coefficients and the structural information of components in the selected two-phase solvents. As an example, a cytotoxic extract of podophyllotoxins and flavonoids from Dysosma versipellis (Hance) was selected. After the systematic HEMWat system solvent extraction and (13)C NMR pattern recognition analyses, the crude extract of D. versipellis was first degreased by the upper phase of HEMWat system (9:1:9:1, v/v), and then distributed in the two phases of the system of HEMWat (2:8:2:8, v/v) to obtain the hydrophilic lower phase extract and lipophilic upper phase extract, respectively. These extracts were further separated by conical CCC with the HEMWat systems (1:9:1:9 and 4:6:4:6, v/v). As results, total 17 cytotoxic compounds were isolated and identified. In general, whole results suggested that the strategy was very

  11. Detection of kestoses and kestose-related oligosaccharides in extracts of Festuca arundinacea, Dactylis glomerate L. , and Asparagus officinalis L. root cultures and invertase by sup 13 C and sup 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, K.L.; Feather, M.S.; Gracz, H.; Wong, T.C. )

    1990-04-01

    Previous studies show that {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to detect and identify mixtures of 1-kestose and neokestose after conversion to the acetate derivatives. In this study, unequivocal assignments are made for the anomeric carbon and proton signals for the above two trisaccharide acetates as well as for 6-kestose hendecaacetate and for nystose tetradecaacetate (a 1-kestose-derived tetrasaccharide). A number of oligosaccharide fractions were isolated from several plant species, converted to the acetates, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra obtained. Using the above reference data, the following information was obtained. The trisaccharide fraction from Dactylis gomerata L. stem tissue and Asparagus officinalis L. roots contain both 1-kestose and neokestose, and the tetrasaccharide fractions contain three components, one of which is nystose. Penta- and hexasaccharide acetates were also isolated from A. officinalis L. roots and were found to contain, respectively, four and at least five components. All components of both of the above species appear to contain a kestose residue and to be produced by the sequential addition of fructofuranosyl units to these. The trisaccharide fraction from Festuca arundinacea is complex, and contains at least five different components, two of which appear to be 1-kestose and neokestose.

  12. Automated protein NMR resonance assignments.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiang; Xu, Dong; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Lin, Guohui

    2003-01-01

    NMR resonance peak assignment is one of the key steps in solving an NMR protein structure. The assignment process links resonance peaks to individual residues of the target protein sequence, providing the prerequisite for establishing intra- and inter-residue spatial relationships between atoms. The assignment process is tedious and time-consuming, which could take many weeks. Though there exist a number of computer programs to assist the assignment process, many NMR labs are still doing the assignments manually to ensure quality. This paper presents (1) a new scoring system for mapping spin systems to residues, (2) an automated adjacency information extraction procedure from NMR spectra, and (3) a very fast assignment algorithm based on our previous proposed greedy filtering method and a maximum matching algorithm to automate the assignment process. The computational tests on 70 instances of (pseudo) experimental NMR data of 14 proteins demonstrate that the new score scheme has much better discerning power with the aid of adjacency information between spin systems simulated across various NMR spectra. Typically, with automated extraction of adjacency information, our method achieves nearly complete assignments for most of the proteins. The experiment shows very promising perspective that the fast automated assignment algorithm together with the new score scheme and automated adjacency extraction may be ready for practical use. PMID:16452794

  13. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  14. Bevalac extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill.

  15. Cavity- and waveguide-resonators in electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Webb, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Cavity resonators are widely used in electron paramagnetic resonance, very high field magnetic resonance microimaging and also in high field human imaging. The basic principles and designs of different forms of cavity resonators including rectangular, cylindrical, re-entrant, cavity magnetrons, toroidal cavities and dielectric resonators are reviewed. Applications in EPR and MRI are summarized, and finally the topic of traveling wave MRI using the magnet bore as a waveguide is discussed. PMID:25456314

  16. Magnetic resonance of slotted circular cylinder resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Junjie; Liu, Shiyang; Lin, Zhifang; Chui, S. T.

    2008-07-01

    By a rigorous full-wave approach, a systemic study is made on the magnetic resonance of slotted circular cylinder resonators (SCCRs) made of a perfect conductor for the lossless case. This is a two-dimensional analog of the split-ring resonator and may serve as an alternative type of essential constituent of electromagnetic metamaterials. It is found that the resonance frequency can be modulated by changing the geometrical parameters and the dielectrics filling in the cavity and the slot. An approximate empirical expression is presented for magnetic resonance frequency of SCCRs from the viewpoint of an L-C circuit system. Finally, it is demonstrated that the SCCR structure can be miniaturized to less than 1/150 resonant wavelength in size with the dielectrics available currently.

  17. Narrowband feedback for narrowband control of resonant and non-resonant vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Myeong; Brennan, Michael J.; Abreu, Gustavo L. C. M.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a simple feedback methodology that uses second order filters to control narrowband resonant and non-resonant vibration of a structural system. In particular, a single degree-of-freedom system is studied throughout the paper. The idea of the methodology is based on the fact that direct feedback is effective for in-phase vibration control. Thus, the position, velocity and acceleration are respectively fed back to control the low, resonant and high frequency vibration of the system. Each of these is passed through a band pass filter of second order that is inserted to extract and feed back the in-phase signal component only. This is called narrowband feedback. It is demonstrated with experiments that narrowband feedback is useful for narrowband control of resonant and non-resonant vibration.

  18. High-Field Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Density Functional Theory Study of Stable Organic Radicals in Lignin: Influence of the Extraction Process, Botanical Origin, and Protonation Reactions on the Radical g Tensor.

    PubMed

    Bährle, Christian; Nick, Thomas U; Bennati, Marina; Jeschke, Gunnar; Vogel, Frédéric

    2015-06-18

    The radical concentrations and g factors of stable organic radicals in different lignin preparations were determined by X-band EPR at 9 GHz. We observed that the g factors of these radicals are largely determined by the extraction process and not by the botanical origin of the lignin. The parameter mostly influencing the g factor is the pH value during lignin extraction. This effect was studied in depth using high-field EPR spectroscopy at 263 GHz. We were able to determine the gxx, gyy, and gzz components of the g tensor of the stable organic radicals in lignin. With the enhanced resolution of high-field EPR, distinct radical species could be found in this complex polymer. The radical species are assigned to substituted o-semiquinone radicals and can exist in different protonation states SH3+, SH2, SH1-, and S2-. The proposed model structures are supported by DFT calculations. The g principal values of the proposed structure were all in reasonable agreement with the experiments. PMID:25978006

  19. Two-color resonant filamentation in gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doussot, J.; Béjot, P.; Faucher, O.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, it is shown that two-photon resonance involving a fundamental field and one of its odd harmonic strongly influences the filamentation process, i.e., the nonlinear propagation of an ultrashort and ultraintense laser field. This particular situation happens, for instance, when a 400 nm fundamental field propagates together with its third harmonic in krypton. Using three-dimensional ab initio calculations, the optical response of krypton is evaluated and the underlying nonlinear refractive indices are extracted. It is found that the resonance also exacerbates higher-order nonlinear processes. Injecting the retrieved higher-order Kerr indices in a nonlinear propagation solver, it is found that the resonance leads to an enhanced defocusing cross-phase modulation that strongly participates to the filament stabilization. This work sheds a light on the mechanism of filamentation, in particular, in the ultraviolet range, where two-color two-photon resonances are expected to occur in many atomic gases.

  20. Simple method for locking birefringent resonators.

    PubMed

    Libson, Adam; Brown, Nicolas; Buikema, Aaron; López, Camilo Cela; Dordevic, Tamara; Heising, Matthew; Evans, Matthew

    2015-02-01

    We report on a simple method of locking a laser to a birefringent cavity using polarization spectroscopy. The birefringence of the resonator permits the simple extraction of an error signal by using one polarization state as a phase reference for another state. No modulation of the light or the resonator is required, reducing the complexity of the laser locking setup. This method of producing an error signal can be used on most birefringent optical resonators, even if the details of birefringence and eigenpolarizations are not known. This technique is particularly well suited for fiber ring resonators due to the inherent birefringence of the fiber and the unknown nature of that birefringence. We present an experimental demonstration of this technique using a fiber ring. PMID:25836232

  1. Unstable resonators with excited converging wave

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, N. ); Weber, H. )

    1990-04-01

    This paper reports the properties of unstable resonators with an additional mirror inside or outside the resonator investigated, both experimentally and theoretically. The additional mirror excites the converging wave, and by this, output coupling is decreased without affecting beam quality. Experiments were performed with a pulsed Nd:YAG system. The theoretical model was based on the coupled Kirchhoff integrals and solved numerically. Agreement between theory and experiments indicates that this kind of resonator provides high focusability and maximum extraction efficiency simultaneously, even with low-gain media. This enables one to apply unstable resonators to solid-state lasers with low small-signal gain, like alexandrite or CW-pumped Nd:YAG.

  2. Extractant composition

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  3. Integral resonator gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses an inertial sensor having an integral resonator. A typical sensor comprises a planar mechanical resonator for sensing motion of the inertial sensor and a case for housing the resonator. The resonator and a wall of the case are defined through an etching process. A typical method of producing the resonator includes etching a baseplate, bonding a wafer to the etched baseplate, through etching the wafer to form a planar mechanical resonator and the wall of the case and bonding an end cap wafer to the wall to complete the case.

  4. Resonant cortical dynamics of speech perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    What is the neural representation of a speech code as it evolves in time? How do listeners integrate temporally distributed phonemic information into coherent representations of syllables and words? How does the brain extract invariant properties of variable-rate speech? This talk describes a neural model that suggests answers to these questions, while quantitatively simulating speech and word recognition data. The conscious speech and word recognition code is suggested to be a resonant wave, and a percept of silence a temporal discontinuity in the rate that resonance evolves. A resonant wave emerges when sequential activation and storage of phonemic items in working memory provides bottom-up input to list chunks that group together sequences of items of variable length. The list chunks compete and winning chunks activate top-down expectations that amplify and focus attention on consistent working memory items, while suppressing inconsistent ones. The ensuing resonance boosts activation levels of selected items and chunks. Because resonance occurs after working memory activation, it can incorporate information presented after intervening silence intervals, so future sounds can influence how we hear past sounds. The model suggests that resonant dynamics enable the brain to learn quickly without suffering catastrophic forgetting, as described within Adaptive Resonance Theory.

  5. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  6. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Nanomechanical resonance detector

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-10-29

    An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

  8. Analysis and calibration techniques for superconducting resonators.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Wollack, Edward J; Barrentine, Emily M; Brown, Ari D; Moseley, S Harvey; U-Yen, Kongpop

    2015-01-01

    A method is proposed and experimentally explored for in-situ calibration of complex transmission data for superconducting microwave resonators. This cryogenic calibration method accounts for the instrumental transmission response between the vector network analyzer reference plane and the device calibration plane. Once calibrated, the observed resonator response is analyzed in detail by two approaches. The first, a phenomenological model based on physically realizable rational functions, enables the extraction of multiple resonance frequencies and widths for coupled resonators without explicit specification of the circuit network. In the second, an ABCD-matrix representation for the distributed transmission line circuit is used to model the observed response from the characteristic impedance and propagation constant. When used in conjunction with electromagnetic simulations, the kinetic inductance fraction can be determined with this method with an accuracy of 2%. Datasets for superconducting microstrip and coplanar-waveguide resonator devices were investigated and a recovery within 1% of the observed complex transmission amplitude was achieved with both analysis approaches. The experimental configuration used in microwave characterization of the devices and self-consistent constraints for the electromagnetic constitutive relations for parameter extraction are also presented. PMID:25638068

  9. Analysis and calibration techniques for superconducting resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Wollack, Edward J.; Barrentine, Emily M.; Brown, Ari D.; Moseley, S. Harvey; U-Yen, Kongpop

    2015-01-01

    A method is proposed and experimentally explored for in-situ calibration of complex transmission data for superconducting microwave resonators. This cryogenic calibration method accounts for the instrumental transmission response between the vector network analyzer reference plane and the device calibration plane. Once calibrated, the observed resonator response is analyzed in detail by two approaches. The first, a phenomenological model based on physically realizable rational functions, enables the extraction of multiple resonance frequencies and widths for coupled resonators without explicit specification of the circuit network. In the second, an ABCD-matrix representation for the distributed transmission line circuit is used to model the observed response from the characteristic impedance and propagation constant. When used in conjunction with electromagnetic simulations, the kinetic inductance fraction can be determined with this method with an accuracy of 2%. Datasets for superconducting microstrip and coplanar-waveguide resonator devices were investigated and a recovery within 1% of the observed complex transmission amplitude was achieved with both analysis approaches. The experimental configuration used in microwave characterization of the devices and self-consistent constraints for the electromagnetic constitutive relations for parameter extraction are also presented.

  10. An Inexpensive Resonance Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of resonance is applicable to almost every branch of physics. Without resonance, there wouldn't be televisions or stereos, or even swings on the playground. However, resonance also has undesirable side effects such as irritating noises in the car and the catastrophic events such as helicopters flying apart. In this article, the…

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) KidsHealth > For Teens > Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Print A A A Text Size What's ... Exam Safety Getting Your Results What Is MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of safe, painless testing ...

  12. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, E. R.

    2009-06-01

    Author's preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Basic theory; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Measurement of nuclear properties and general physical applications; 5. Nuclear magnetic resonance in liquids and gases; 6. Nuclear magnetic resonance in non-metallic solids; 7. Nuclear magnetic resonance in metals; 8. Quadrupole effects; Appendices 1-6; Glossary of symbols; Bibliography and author index; Subject index.

  13. Photoacoustic resonance spectroscopy for biological tissue characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2014-06-01

    By "listening to photons," photoacoustics allows the probing of chromosomes in depth beyond the optical diffusion limit. Here we report the photoacoustic resonance effect induced by multiburst modulated laser illumination, which is theoretically modeled as a damped mass-string oscillator and a resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit. Through sweeping the frequency of multiburst modulated laser, the photoacoustic resonance effect is observed experimentally on phantoms and porcine tissues. Experimental results demonstrate different spectra for each phantom and tissue sample to show significant potential for spectroscopic analysis, fusing optical absorption and mechanical vibration properties. Unique RLC circuit parameters are extracted to quantitatively characterize phantom and biological tissues.

  14. Photoacoustic resonance spectroscopy for biological tissue characterization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2014-06-01

    By "listening to photons," photoacoustics allows the probing of chromosomes in depth beyond the optical diffusion limit. Here we report the photoacoustic resonance effect induced by multiburst modulated laser illumination, which is theoretically modeled as a damped mass-string oscillator and a resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit. Through sweeping the frequency of multiburst modulated laser, the photoacoustic resonance effect is observed experimentally on phantoms and porcine tissues. Experimental results demonstrate different spectra for each phantom and tissue sample to show significant potential for spectroscopic analysis, fusing optical absorption and mechanical vibration properties. Unique RLC circuit parameters are extracted to quantitatively characterize phantom and biological tissues. PMID:24928154

  15. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  16. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang

    2014-03-11

    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  17. Optical Helmholtz resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Paul; Bouchon, Patrick; Haïdar, Riad; Pardo, Fabrice

    2014-08-01

    Helmholtz resonators are widely used acoustic components able to select a single frequency. Here, based on an analogy between acoustics and electromagnetism wave equations, we present an electromagnetic 2D Helmholtz resonator made of a metallic slit-box structure. At the resonance, the light is funneled in the λ/800 apertures, and is subsequently absorbed in the cavity. As in acoustics, there is no higher order of resonance, which is an appealing feature for applications such as photodetection or thermal emission. Eventually, we demonstrate that the slit is of capacitive nature while the box behaves inductively. We derive an analytical formula for the resonance wavelength, which does not rely on wave propagation and therefore does not depend on the permittivity of the material filling the box. Besides, in contrast with half-wavelength resonators, the resonance wavelength can be engineered by both the slit aspect ratio and the box area.

  18. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.…

  19. Magnetic resonance energy and topological resonance energy.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Jun-Ichi

    2016-04-28

    Ring-current diamagnetism of a polycyclic π-system is closely associated with thermodynamic stability due to the individual circuits. Magnetic resonance energy (MRE), derived from the ring-current diamagnetic susceptibility, was explored in conjunction with graph-theoretically defined topological resonance energy (TRE). For many aromatic molecules, MRE is highly correlative with TRE with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. For all π-systems studied, MRE has the same sign as TRE. The only trouble with MRE may be that some antiaromatic and non-alternant species exhibit unusually large MRE-to-TRE ratios. This kind of difficulty can in principle be overcome by prior geometry-optimisation or by changing spin multiplicity. Apart from the semi-empirical resonance-theory resonance energy, MRE is considered as the first aromatic stabilisation energy (ASE) defined without referring to any hypothetical polyene reference. PMID:26878709

  20. Resonance splitting in gyrotropic ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Jalas, Dirk; Petrov, Alexander; Krause, Michael; Hampe, Jan; Eich, Manfred

    2010-10-15

    We present the theoretical concept of an optical isolator based on resonance splitting in a silicon ring resonator covered with a magneto-optical polymer cladding. For this task, a perturbation method is derived for the modes in the cylindrical coordinate system. A polymer magneto-optical cladding causing a 0.01 amplitude of the off-diagonal element of the dielectric tensor is assumed. It is shown that the derived resonance splitting of the clockwise and counterclockwise modes increases for smaller ring radii. For the ring with a radius of approximately 1.5μm, a 29GHz splitting is demonstrated. An integrated optical isolator with a 10μm geometrical footprint is proposed based on a critically coupled ring resonator. PMID:20967092

  1. Optical Fano resonance of an individual semiconductor nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Fan, Pengyu; Yu, Zongfu; Fan, Shanhui; Brongersma, Mark L

    2014-05-01

    Fano resonances with a characteristic asymmetric line shape can be observed in light scattering, transmission and reflection spectra of resonant optical systems. They result from interference between direct and indirect, resonance-assisted pathways. In the nanophotonics field, Fano effects have been observed in a wide variety of systems, including metallic nanoparticle assemblies, metamaterials and photonic crystals. Their unique properties find extensive use in applications, including optical filtering, polarization selectors, sensing, lasers, modulators and nonlinear optics. We report on the observation of a Fano resonance in a single semiconductor nanostructure, opening up opportunities for their use in active photonic devices. We also show that Fano-resonant semiconductor nanostructures afford the intriguing opportunity to simultaneously measure the far-field scattering response and the near-field energy storage by extracting photogenerated charge. Together they can provide a complete experimental characterization of this type of resonance. PMID:24747781

  2. Characterization of energy trapping in a bulk acoustic wave resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkonen, Kimmo; Meltaus, Johanna; Pensala, Tuomas; Kaivola, Matti

    2010-12-01

    Acoustic wave fields both within the active electrode area of a solidly mounted 1.8 GHz bulk acoustic wave resonator, and around it in the surrounding region, are measured using a heterodyne laser interferometer. Plate-wave dispersion diagrams for both regions are extracted from the measurement data. The experimental dispersion data reveal the cutoff frequencies of the acoustic vibration modes in the region surrounding the resonator, and, therefore, the energy trapping range of the resonator can readily be determined. The measured dispersion properties of the surrounding region, together with the abruptly diminishing amplitude of the dispersion curves in the resonator, signal the onset of acoustic leakage from the resonator. This information is important for verifying and further developing the simulation tools used for the design of the resonators. Experimental wave field images, dispersion diagrams for both regions, and the threshold for energy leakage are discussed.

  3. Resonator response to Non-Newtonian fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.J.; Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C.; Cernosek, R.W.; Senturia, S.D.

    1994-06-01

    The thickness-shear mode (TSM) resonator typically consists of a thin disk of AT-cut quartz with circular electrodes patterned on both sides. An RF voltage applied between these electrodes excites a shear mode mechanical resonance when the excitation frequency matches the crystal resonant frequency. When the TSM resonator is operated in contact with a liquid, the shear motion of the surface generates motion in the contacting liquid. The liquid velocity field, v{sub x}(y), can be determined by solving the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation. Newtonian fluids cause an equal increase in resonator motional resistance and reactance, R{sub 2}{sup (N)} = X{sub 2}{sup (N)}, with the response depending only on the liquid density-viscosity product ({rho}{eta}). Non-Newtonian fluids, as illustrated by the simple example of a Maxwell fluid, can cause unequal increases in motional resistance and reactance. For the Maxwell fluid, R{sub 2}{sup (M)} > X{sub 2}{sup (M)}, with relaxation time {tau} proportional to the difference between R{sub 2}{sup (M)}and X{sub 2}{sup (M)}. Early results indicate that a TSM resonator can be used to extract properties of non-Newtonian fluids.

  4. Unstable resonator with reduced output coupling.

    PubMed

    Pargmann, Carsten; Hall, Thomas; Duschek, Frank; Grünewald, Karin Maria; Handke, Jürgen

    2012-06-20

    The properties of a laser beam coupled out of a standard unstable laser resonator are heavily dependent on the chosen resonator magnification. A higher magnification results in a higher output coupling and a better beam quality. But in some configurations, an unstable resonator with a low output coupling in combination with a good beam quality is desirable. In order to reduce the output coupling for a particular resonator, magnification fractions of the outcoupled radiation are reflected back into the cavity. In the confocal case, the output mirror consists of a spherical inner section with a high reflectivity and a flat outer section with a partial reflectivity coating. With the application of the unstable resonator with reduced output coupling (URROC), magnification and output coupling can be adjusted independently from each other and it is possible to get a good beam quality and a high power extraction for lasers with a large low gain medium. The feasibility of this resonator design is examined numerically and experimentally with the help of a chemical oxygen iodine laser. PMID:22722301

  5. Extracting excited mesons from the finite volume

    SciTech Connect

    Doring, Michael

    2014-12-01

    As quark masses come closer to their physical values in lattice simulations, finite volume effects dominate the level spectrum. Methods to extract excited mesons from the finite volume are discussed, like moving frames in the presence of coupled channels. Effective field theory can be used to stabilize the determination of the resonance spectrum.

  6. Acoustic wave flow sensor using quartz thickness shear mode resonator.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lifeng; Zeng, Zijing; Cheng, Hongbin; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2009-09-01

    A quartz thickness shear mode (TSM) bulk acoustic wave resonator was used for in situ and real-time detection of liquid flow rate in this study. A special flow chamber made of 2 parallel acrylic plates was designed for flow measurement. The flow chamber has a rectangular flow channel, 2 flow reservoirs for stabilizing the fluid flow, a sensor mounting port for resonator holding, one inlet port, and one outlet port for pipe connection. A 5-MHz TSM quartz resonator was edge-bonded to the sensor mounting port with one side exposed to the flowing liquid and other side exposed to air. The electrical impedance spectra of the quartz resonator at different volumetric flow rate conditions were measured by an impedance analyzer for the extraction of the resonant frequency through a data-fitting method. The fundamental, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th resonant frequency shifts were found to be around 920, 3572, 5947, 8228, and 10,300 Hz for flow rate variation from 0 to 3000 mL/min, which had a corresponding Reynolds number change from 0 to 822. The resonant frequency shifts of different modes are found to be quadratic with flow rate, which is attributed to the nonlinear effect of quartz resonator due to the effective normal pressure imposing on the resonator sensor by the flowing fluid. The results indicate that quartz TSM resonators can be used for flow sensors with characteristics of simplicity, fast response, and good repeatability. PMID:19811997

  7. Excitonic surface lattice resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, A. D.; Gentile, M. J.; Barnes, W. L.

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic resonances are important in controlling light at the nanoscale. The most studied such resonance is the surface plasmon resonance that is associated with metallic nanostructures. Here we explore an alternative resonance, the surface exciton-polariton resonance, one based on excitonic molecular materials. Our study is based on analytical and numerical modelling. We show that periodic arrays of suitable molecular nanoparticles may support surface lattice resonances that arise as a result of coherent interactions between the particles. Our results demonstrate that excitonic molecular materials are an interesting alternative to metals for nanophotonics; they offer the prospect of both fabrication based on supramolecular chemistry and optical functionality arising from the way the properties of such materials may be controlled with light.

  8. Large mode radius resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Resonator configurations permitting operation with large mode radius while maintaining good transverse mode discrimination are considered. Stable resonators incorporating an intracavity telescope and unstable resonator geometries utilizing an output coupler with a Gaussian reflectivity profile are shown to enable large radius single mode laser operation. Results of heterodyne studies of pulsed CO2 lasers with large (11mm e sup-2 radius) fundamental mode sizes are presented demonstrating minimal frequency sweeping in accordance with the theory of laser-induced medium perturbations.

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting Resonators.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Barrentine, Emily M; Brown, Ari D; Moseley, Samuel H; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting microwave resonators are of interest for a wide range of applications, including for their use as microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) for the detection of faint astrophysical signatures, as well as for quantum computing applications and materials characterization. In this paper, procedures are presented for the fabrication and characterization of thin-film superconducting microwave resonators. The fabrication methodology allows for the realization of superconducting transmission-line resonators with features on both sides of an atomically smooth single-crystal silicon dielectric. This work describes the procedure for the installation of resonator devices into a cryogenic microwave testbed and for cool-down below the superconducting transition temperature. The set-up of the cryogenic microwave testbed allows one to do careful measurements of the complex microwave transmission of these resonator devices, enabling the extraction of the properties of the superconducting lines and dielectric substrate (e.g., internal quality factors, loss and kinetic inductance fractions), which are important for device design and performance. PMID:27284966

  10. The resonator handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jerry D.; Zhou, Shiliang

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to extend resonator theory into the region in which the planar mirror is quite small. Results of the theoretical description are then extended to resonator design and experimental arrangements as discussed in further sections of this work. Finally, a discussion of dielectric measurements for small samples is included as a specific application of this work.

  11. Resonances in heavy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental situation for the study of resonances in heavy-ion collisions is reviewed, with emphasis on the heaviest systems. New data are presented which show some of the systematics of this phenomenon. The narrow resonance structures are established as a feature of the nuclear structure of the composite system rather than a purely entrance channel effect.

  12. The Concept of Resonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truhlar, Donald G.

    2007-01-01

    A general example of a delocalization system associated with a higher energy than the localized one, which suggests that it is wrong to consider delocalization as equivalent to resonance stabilization, is presented. The meaning of resonance energy as it appears in valence bond theory is described as the lowering of the calculated ground-state…

  13. Unstable optical resonators.

    PubMed

    Kahn, W K

    1966-03-01

    A technique, firmly based on a development from ray optics, is presented for calculating the loss due to the finite sizes of curved mirrors when these form an unstable optical resonator. If paraxial rays launched within such a resonator are confined near the resonator axis, the resonator is termed stable; otherwise it is termed unstable, and is known to have high losses. Siegman has recently presented a geometrical method, brilliantly constructed ad hoc, for calculating these losses in unstable resonators, and indicated where these might be advantageous in laser application. The ray optical theory presented here, which employs the concept of ray modes in an equivalent beam waveguide, is shown to yield results equivalent to those of Siegman for all cases considered by him. However, being derived from conventional ray optics, the validity of the formulas is independently established, and these formulas are immediately applicable to re-entrant resonators and resonators containing inhomogeneous media. The fractional loss per resonator pass is equal to 1-|lambda(2)|, where |lambda(2)| < this 1 is an eigenvalue of the transfer matrix T, representing the corresponding ray transformation. PMID:20048863

  14. Resonant snubber inverter

    DOEpatents

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Chen, D.; Scudiere, M.B.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; White, C.P.; McKeever, J.W.

    1997-06-24

    A resonant, snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the main inverter switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 14 figs.

  15. Narrowband resonant transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P.; Simpson, Marcus L.; Simpson, John T.

    2004-06-29

    A transverse-longitudinal integrated optical resonator (TLIR) is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide. The PBG is positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings. An electro-optic waveguide material may be used to permit tuning the TLIR and to permit the TLIR to perform signal modulation and switching. The TLIR may be positioned on a bulk substrate die with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a TLIR including fabricating a broadband reflective grating is disclosed. A method for tuning the TLIR's transmission resonance wavelength is also disclosed.

  16. Resonant snubber inverter

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Young, Sr., Robert W.; Chen, Daoshen; Scudiere, Matthew B.; Ott, Jr., George W.; White, Clifford P.; McKeever, John W.

    1997-01-01

    A resonant, snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the main inverter switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

  17. LABCOM resonator Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Keres, L.J.

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop quartz crystal resonator designs, production processes, and test capabilities for 5-MHz, 6.2-MHz, and 10-MHz resonators for Tactical Miniature Crystal Oscillator (TMXO) applications. GE Neutron Devices (GEND) established and demonstrated the capability to produce and test quartz crystal resonators for use in the TMXO developed by the US Army ERADCOM (now LABCOM). The goals in this project were based on the ERADCOM statement of work. The scope of work indicated that the resonator production facilities for this project would not be completely independent, but that they would be supported in part by equipment and processes in place at GEND used in US Department of Energy (DOE) work. In addition, provisions for production test equipment or or eventual technology transfer costs to a commercial supplier were clearly excluded from the scope of work. The demonstrated technical capability of the deep-etched blank design is feasible and practical. It can be manufactured in quantity with reasonable yield, and its performance is readily predictable. The ceramic flatpack is a very strong package with excellent hermeticity. The four-point mount supports the crystal to reasonable shock levels and does not perturb the resonator's natural frequency-temperature behavior. The package can be sealed with excellent yields. The high-temperature, high-vacuum processing developed for the TMXO resonator, including bonding the piezoid to its mount with conductive polyimide adhesive, is consistent with precision resonator fabrication. 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  18. Modelling resonant planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'yanenko, V.

    2012-09-01

    Many discovered multi-planet systems are in meanmotion resonances. The aim of this work is to study dynamical processes leading to the formation of resonant configurations on the basis of a unified model described earlier [1]. The model includes gravitational interactions of planets and migration of planets due to the presence of a gas disc. For the observed systems 24 Sex, HD 37124, HD 73526, HD 82943, HD 128311, HD 160691, Kepler 9, NN Ser with planets moving in the 2:1 resonance, it is shown that the capture in this resonance occurs at very wide ranges of parameters of both type I and type II migration. Conditions of migration leading to the formation of the resonant systems HD 45364 и HD 200964 (3:2 and 4:3, respectively) are obtained. Formation scenarios are studied for the systems HD 102272, HD 108874, HD 181433, HD 202206 with planets in high order resonances. We discuss also how gravitational interactions of planets and planetesimal discs lead to the breakup of resonant configurations and the formation of systems similar to the 47 UMa system.

  19. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  20. Spin resonance strength calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Courant,E.D.

    2008-10-06

    In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

  1. Tunable multiwalled nanotube resonator

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alex K.; Jensen, Kenneth J.; Girit, Caglar; Mickelson, William E.; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2011-03-29

    A tunable nanoscale resonator has potential applications in precise mass, force, position, and frequency measurement. One embodiment of this device consists of a specially prepared multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) suspended between a metal electrode and a mobile, piezoelectrically controlled contact. By harnessing a unique telescoping ability of MWNTs, one may controllably slide an inner nanotube core from its outer nanotube casing, effectively changing its length and thereby changing the tuning of its resonance frequency. Resonant energy transfer may be used with a nanoresonator to detect molecules at a specific target oscillation frequency, without the use of a chemical label, to provide label-free chemical species detection.

  2. Tunable multiwalled nanotube resonator

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Kenneth J; Girit, Caglar O; Mickelson, William E; Zettl, Alexander K; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-11-05

    A tunable nanoscale resonator has potential applications in precise mass, force, position, and frequency measurement. One embodiment of this device consists of a specially prepared multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) suspended between a metal electrode and a mobile, piezoelectrically controlled contact. By harnessing a unique telescoping ability of MWNTs, one may controllably slide an inner nanotube core from its outer nanotube casing, effectively changing its length and thereby changing the tuning of its resonance frequency. Resonant energy transfer may be used with a nanoresonator to detect molecules at a specific target oscillation frequency, without the use of a chemical label, to provide label-free chemical species detection.

  3. Unfolding the Second Riemann sheet with Pade Approximants: hunting resonance poles

    SciTech Connect

    Masjuan, Pere

    2011-05-23

    Based on Pade Theory, a new procedure for extracting the pole mass and width of resonances is proposed. The method is systematic and provides a model-independent treatment for the prediction and the errors of the approximation.

  4. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1993-03-30

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  5. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, Ned A.; Koehler, Dale R.; Liang, Alan Y.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1993-01-01

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  6. Resonances in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Matthias F. M.; Lange, Jens Sören; Pennington, Michael; Bettoni, Diego; Brambilla, Nora; Crede, Volker; Eidelman, Simon; Gillitzer, Albrecht; Gradl, Wolfgang; Lang, Christian B.; Metag, Volker; Nakano, Takashi; Nieves, Juan; Neubert, Sebastian; Oka, Makoto; Olsen, Stephen L.; Pappagallo, Marco; Paul, Stephan; Pelizäus, Marc; Pilloni, Alessandro; Prencipe, Elisabetta; Ritman, Jim; Ryan, Sinead; Thoma, Ulrike; Uwer, Ulrich; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    We report on the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting 'Resonances in QCD', which took place at GSI October 12-14, 2015. A group of 26 people met to discuss the physics of resonances in QCD. The aim of the meeting was defined by the following three key questions: What is needed to understand the physics of resonances in QCD? Where does QCD lead us to expect resonances with exotic quantum numbers? What experimental efforts are required to arrive at a coherent picture? For light mesons and baryons only those with up, down and strange quark content were considered. For heavy-light and heavy-heavy meson systems, those with charm quarks were the focus. This document summarizes the discussions by the participants, which in turn led to the coherent conclusions we present here.

  7. Resonances in Positronium Hydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiRienzi, Joseph; Drachman, Richard J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We re-examine the problem of calculating the positions and widths of the lowest-lying resonances in the Ps + H scattering system which consists of two electrons, one positron and one proton. The first of these resonances, for L=0, was found by the methods of complex rotation and stabilization, and later described as a Feshbach resonance lying close to a bound state in the closed-channel e (+) + H (-) system. Recently, results for the L=1 and 2 scattering states were published, and it was found, surprisingly, that there is a larae shift in the positions of these resonances. In this work we repeat the analysis for L=1 and find an unexpected explanation for the shift.

  8. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert

    1991-01-01

    A resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method provides a unique characterization of an object for use in distinguishing similar objects having physical differences greater than a predetermined tolerance. A resonant response spectrum is obtained for a reference object by placing excitation and detection transducers at any accessible location on the object. The spectrum is analyzed to determine the number of resonant response peaks in a predetermined frequency interval. The distribution of the resonance frequencies is then characterized in a manner effective to form a unique signature of the object. In one characterization, a small frequency interval is defined and stepped though the spectrum frequency range. Subsequent objects are similarly characterized where the characterizations serve as signatures effective to distinguish objects that differ from the reference object by more than the predetermined tolerance.

  9. Cylindrical laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Casperson, Lee W.

    1976-02-24

    The properties of an improved class of lasers is presented. In one configuration of these lasers the radiation propagates radially within the amplifying medium, resulting in high fields and symmetric illumination at the resonator axis. Thus there is a strong focusing of energy at the axis of the resonator. In a second configuration the radiation propagates back and forth in a tubular region of space.

  10. Injector with integrated resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; York, William David; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2014-07-29

    The system may include a turbine engine. The turbine engine may include a fuel nozzle. The fuel nozzle may include an air path. The fuel nozzle may also include a fuel path such that the fuel nozzle is in communication with a combustion zone of the turbine engine. Furthermore, the fuel nozzle may include a resonator. The resonator may be disposed in the fuel nozzle directly adjacent to the combustion zone.

  11. Hexagonal quartz resonator

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A generally flat, relatively thin AT-cut piezoelectric resonator element structured to minimize the force-frequency effect when mounted and energized in a housing. The resonator is in the form of an equilateral hexagon with the X crystallographic axis of the crystal passing through one set of opposing corners with mounting being effected at an adjacent set of corners respectively .+-.60.degree. away from the X axis which thereby results in a substantially zero frequency shift of the operating frequency.

  12. Resonant dielectric metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Loui, Hung; Carroll, James; Clem, Paul G; Sinclair, Michael B

    2014-12-02

    A resonant dielectric metamaterial comprises a first and a second set of dielectric scattering particles (e.g., spheres) having different permittivities arranged in a cubic array. The array can be an ordered or randomized array of particles. The resonant dielectric metamaterials are low-loss 3D isotropic materials with negative permittivity and permeability. Such isotropic double negative materials offer polarization and direction independent electromagnetic wave propagation.

  13. Plasmofluidic Disk Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Min-Suk; Ku, Bonwoo; Kim, Yonghan

    2016-01-01

    Waveguide-coupled silicon ring or disk resonators have been used for optical signal processing and sensing. Large-scale integration of optical devices demands continuous reduction in their footprints, and ultimately they need to be replaced by silicon-based plasmonic resonators. However, few waveguide-coupled silicon-based plasmonic resonators have been realized until now. Moreover, fluid cannot interact effectively with them since their resonance modes are strongly confined in solid regions. To solve this problem, this paper reports realized plasmofluidic disk resonators (PDRs). The PDR consists of a submicrometer radius silicon disk and metal laterally surrounding the disk with a 30-nm-wide channel in between. The channel is filled with fluid, and the resonance mode of the PDR is strongly confined in the fluid. The PDR coupled to a metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal waveguide is implemented by using standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. If the refractive index of the fluid increases by 0.141, the transmission spectrum of the waveguide coupled to the PDR of radius 0.9 μm red-shifts by 30 nm. The PDR can be used as a refractive index sensor requiring a very small amount of analyte. Plus, the PDR filled with liquid crystal may be an ultracompact intensity modulator which is effectively controlled by small driving voltage. PMID:26979929

  14. Plasmofluidic Disk Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Min-Suk; Ku, Bonwoo; Kim, Yonghan

    2016-03-01

    Waveguide-coupled silicon ring or disk resonators have been used for optical signal processing and sensing. Large-scale integration of optical devices demands continuous reduction in their footprints, and ultimately they need to be replaced by silicon-based plasmonic resonators. However, few waveguide-coupled silicon-based plasmonic resonators have been realized until now. Moreover, fluid cannot interact effectively with them since their resonance modes are strongly confined in solid regions. To solve this problem, this paper reports realized plasmofluidic disk resonators (PDRs). The PDR consists of a submicrometer radius silicon disk and metal laterally surrounding the disk with a 30-nm-wide channel in between. The channel is filled with fluid, and the resonance mode of the PDR is strongly confined in the fluid. The PDR coupled to a metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal waveguide is implemented by using standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. If the refractive index of the fluid increases by 0.141, the transmission spectrum of the waveguide coupled to the PDR of radius 0.9 μm red-shifts by 30 nm. The PDR can be used as a refractive index sensor requiring a very small amount of analyte. Plus, the PDR filled with liquid crystal may be an ultracompact intensity modulator which is effectively controlled by small driving voltage.

  15. Resonant nonlinear ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Paul A.; TenCate, James A.; Guyer, Robert A.; Van Den Abeele, Koen E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Components with defects are identified from the response to strains applied at acoustic and ultrasound frequencies. The relative resonance frequency shift .vertline..DELTA..function./.function..sub.0.vertline., is determined as a function of applied strain amplitude for an acceptable component, where .function..sub.0 is the frequency of the resonance peak at the lowest amplitude of applied strain and .DELTA..function. is the frequency shift of the resonance peak of a selected mode to determine a reference relationship. Then, the relative resonance frequency shift .vertline..DELTA..function./.function..sub.0 is determined as a function of applied strain for a component under test, where fo .function..sub.0 the frequency of the resonance peak at the lowest amplitude of applied strain and .DELTA..function. is the frequency shift of the resonance peak to determine a quality test relationship. The reference relationship is compared with the quality test relationship to determine the presence of defects in the component under test.

  16. Neutral Pion Electroproduction in the Delta Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    Villano, Anthony

    2007-11-01

    The electroproduction of baryon resonances at high Q2 is examined. Analysis focuses on the Delta(1232) resonance via exclusive pseudoscalar meson production of À0 particles. Differential cross sections are extracted for exclusive À0 electroproduction. In the central invariant mass (W) region the cross sections are used to extract resonant multipole amplitudes. In particular, the ratio of the electric quadrupole to magnetic dipole amplitudes (E2/M1) will be discussed for the Delta(1232) resonance. The transition to pQCD is discussed in terms of E2/M1 and other multipoles. The helicity amplitude A3/2 can be used as a baryon helicity conservation meter in this context and will be discussed. The fast shrinking of the resonant contribution in the Delta region is observed at this high momentum transfer. Apart from the observables related to pQCD scaling, the transition form factor G M is extracted along with the scalar to magnetic dipole ratio C2/M1.

  17. Spectral correlation of wideband target resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabio, Vincent

    1995-07-01

    The potential for automatic target recognition (ATR) processing of foliage-penetrating (FOPEN) synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery requires very high bandwidth occupancies to achieve sufficient range resolution for the ATR task. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) ultra-wideband (UWB) FOPEN SAR -- with greater than 95 percent bandwidth occupancy -- provides a suitable testbed for evaluation of resonance-based ATR approaches. Current resonance-extraction techniques (e.g., SEM) typically have poor performance in the presence of noise, and are often computationally intensive. Recently developed at ARL, the `spectral correlation method' uses linear transforms -- such as Fourier and wavelets -- to resolve resonant components; these transforms are generally quite fast, and have straightforward implementations. Creating a synthetic version of the ringdown and projecting onto the desired transform basis provides a set of expected spectral coefficients (the `spectral template'). The spectral template is correlated with the spectral coefficients acquired from the projection of the focused image data onto the same basis function set; the correlation coefficient is then passed through a simple threshold detector. This yields a fast, efficient scheme for recognition of target resonance effects in UWB imagery. Recent advances in this area include a reduction in false-alarm rate by two orders of magnitude, a reduction in processing time by three orders of magnitude, and recognition of a tactical target.

  18. Resonance-assisted decay of nondispersive wave packets.

    PubMed

    Wimberger, Sandro; Schlagheck, Peter; Eltschka, Christopher; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2006-07-28

    We present a quantitative semiclassical theory for the decay of nondispersive electronic wave packets in driven, ionizing Rydberg systems. Statistically robust quantities are extracted combining resonance-assisted tunneling with subsequent transport across chaotic phase space and a final ionization step. PMID:16907569

  19. Tunable Resonant Scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagu, Jean I.

    1987-01-01

    The most attractive features of resonant scanners are high reliability and eternal life as well as extremely low wobble and jitter. Power consumption is also low, electronic drive is simple, and the device is capable of handling large beams. All of these features are delivered at a low cost in a small package. The resonant scanner's use in numerous high precision applications, however, has been limited because of the difficulty in controlling its phase and resonant frequency. This paper introduces the concept of tunable/controllable resonant scanners, discusses their features, and offers a number of tuning techniques. It describes two angular scanner designs and presents data on tunable range and life tests. It also reviews applications for these new tunable resonant scanners that preserve the desirable features of earlier models while removing the old problems with synchronization or time base flexibility. The three major types of raster scanning applications where the tunable resonant scanner may be of benefit are: 1. In systems with multiple time bases such as multiple scanner networks or with scanners keyed to a common clock (the line frequency or data source) or a machine with multiple resonant scanners. A typical application is image and text transmission, also a printer with a large data base where a buffer is uneconomical. 2. In systems sharing data processing or laser equipment for reasons of cost or capacity, typically multiple work station manufacturing processes or graphic processes. 3. In systems with extremely precise time bases where the frequency stability of conventional scanners cannot be relied upon.

  20. Rho resonance parameters from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dehua; Alexandru, Andrei; Molina, Raquel; Döring, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We perform a high-precision calculation of the phase shifts for π -π scattering in the I =1 , J =1 channel in the elastic region using elongated lattices with two mass-degenerate quark flavors (Nf=2 ). We extract the ρ resonance parameters using a Breit-Wigner fit at two different quark masses, corresponding to mπ=226 MeV and mπ=315 MeV , and perform an extrapolation to the physical point. The extrapolation is based on a unitarized chiral perturbation theory model that describes well the phase shifts around the resonance for both quark masses. We find that the extrapolated value, mρ=720 (1 )(15 ) MeV , is significantly lower that the physical rho mass and we argue that this shift could be due to the absence of the strange quark in our calculation.

  1. Chaotic spectra: How to extract dynamic information

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, H.S.; Gomez Llorente, J.M.; Zakrzewski, J.; Kulander, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    Nonlinear dynamics is applied to chaotic unassignable atomic and molecular spectra with the aim of extracting detailed information about regular dynamic motions that exist over short intervals of time. It is shown how this motion can be extracted from high resolution spectra by doing low resolution studies or by Fourier transforming limited regions of the spectrum. These motions mimic those of periodic orbits (PO) and are inserts into the dominant chaotic motion. Considering these inserts and the PO as a dynamically decoupled region of space, resonant scattering theory and stabilization methods enable us to compute ladders of resonant states which interact with the chaotic quasi-continuum computed in principle from basis sets placed off the PO. The interaction of the resonances with the quasicontinuum explains the low resolution spectra seen in such experiments. It also allows one to associate low resolution features with a particular PO. The motion on the PO thereby supplies the molecular movements whose quantization causes the low resolution spectra. Characteristic properties of the periodic orbit based resonances are discussed. The method is illustrated on the photoabsorption spectrum of the hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field and on the photodissociation spectrum of H/sub 3//sup +/. Other molecular systems which are currently under investigation using this formalism are also mentioned. 53 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. RF voltage modulation at discrete frequencies with applications to crystal channeling extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gabella, W.; Rosenzweig, J. . Dept. of Physics); Kick, R. ); Peggs, S. )

    1992-05-01

    RF voltage modulation at a finite number of discrete frequencies is described in a Hamiltonian resonance framework. The theory is applied to the problem of parasitic extraction of a fixed target beam from a high energy proton collider, using a bent crystal as a thin septum'' within an effective width of about one micron. Three modes of employment of discrete resonances are proposed.First, a single relatively strong static drive'' resonance may be used to excite a test proton so that it will penetrate deeply into the channeling crystal. Second, a moderately strong feed'' resonance with a ramped modulation tune may be used to adiabatically trap protons near the edge of the beam core, and transport them to the drive resonance. Third, several weak resonances may be overlapped to create a chaotic amplitude band, either to transport protons to the drive resonance, or to provide a pulse stretching'' buffer between a feed resonance and the drive resonance. Extraction efficiency is semi- quantitatively described in terms of characteristic penetration,'' depletion,'' and repetition'' times. simulations are used to quantitatively confirm the fundamental results of the theory, and to show that a prototypical extraction scheme using all three modes promises good extraction performance.

  3. Resonant ultrasound spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert; Visscher, William M.; Fisk, Zachary

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

  4. MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

    2010-01-23

    New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

  5. Resonances in Positronium Hydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recently, Ho and his colleagues have calculated the positions and widths of a series of resonances in the Ps+H scattering system, using the complex -rotation method and have compared them with estimates that I made many years ago using a quite different technique. I assumed that the resonance mechanism was the existence in the rearrangement channel [e+ + H-] of an infinite series of perturbed Coulomb bound states. Although these must be broadened and shifted by coupling with the open scattering channel, I expected them to lie very close to the actual resonance positions. To verify this, I did a model calculation for S-waves, including the coupling, and found that the first two resonances were not shifted very far from their unperturbed position. The new, detailed calculation agrees with this result, but when the P-wave was examined it was found, surprisingly, that the lowest resonance indeed moved up in energy by a large amount. With the help of Joseph DiRienzi of the College of Notre Dame of Maryland I am now extending the old calculation to P- and D-waves, in an attempt to understand this unexpected energy shift. Results will be presented at the Workshop.

  6. Hadron scattering and resonances in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudek, Jozef J.

    2016-05-01

    I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study ππ elastic scattering, including the ρ resonance, as well as coupled-channel π >K, ηK scattering. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.

  7. Review: Magnetic resonance imaging techniques in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Imaging the eye with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved difficult due to the eye’s propensity to move involuntarily over typical imaging timescales, obscuring the fine structure in the eye due to the resulting motion artifacts. However, advances in MRI technology help to mitigate such drawbacks, enabling the acquisition of high spatiotemporal resolution images with a variety of contrast mechanisms. This review aims to classify the MRI techniques used to date in clinical and preclinical ophthalmologic studies, describing the qualitative and quantitative information that may be extracted and how this may inform on ocular pathophysiology. PMID:23112569

  8. Collider Signal I :. Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Tim M. P.

    2010-08-01

    These TASI lectures were part of the summer school in 2008 and cover the collider signal associated with resonances in models of physics beyond the Standard Model. I begin with a review of the Z boson, one of the best-studied resonances in particle physics, and review how the Breit-Wigner form of the propagator emerges in perturbation theory and discuss the narrow width approximation. I review how the LEP and SLAC experiments could use the kinematics of Z events to learn about fermion couplings to the Z. I then make a brief survey of models of physics beyond the Standard Model which predict resonances, and discuss some of the LHC observables which we can use to discover and identify the nature of the BSM physics. I finish up with a discussion of the linear moose that one can use for an effective theory description of a massive color octet vector particle.

  9. Three-pion resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcilazo, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    1994-03-01

    We investigate the continuum three-pion problem within a relativistic three-body model that takes into account the ππ S and P waves. The dynamical input of the two-body subsystem is given by separable potentials, which yield a good fit to the ππ scattering data and resonance parameters up to a two-body invariant mass of 900MeV. We introduce a parameter ν expressing the ambiguity in the reduction of a fully relativistic theory to a three-dimensional one. The masses and widths of the ω, a 1(1260), and π(1300) mesons, which decay predominantly into three pions, are reasonably well described by our model. The h 1(1170) meson, however, which also decays into three pions, cannot be explained as a three-pion resonance. Some πρ Argand diagrams are shown in those channels where resonances exist.

  10. Quartz resonator processing system

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

  11. Magnetostrictive resonance excitation

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, Ricardo B.; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani

    1992-01-01

    The resonance frequency spectrum of a magnetostrictive sample is remotely determined by exciting the magnetostrictive property with an oscillating magnetic field. The permeability of a magnetostrictive material and concomitant coupling with a detection coil varies with the strain in the material whereby resonance responses of the sample can be readily detected. A suitable sample may be a magnetostrictive material or some other material having at least one side coated with a magnetostrictive material. When the sample is a suitable shape, i.e., a cube, rectangular parallelepiped, solid sphere or spherical shell, the elastic moduli or the material can be analytically determined from the measured resonance frequency spectrum. No mechanical transducers are required and the sample excitation is obtained without contact with the sample, leading to highly reproducible results and a measurement capability over a wide temperature range, e.g. from liquid nitrogen temperature to the Curie temperature of the magnetostrictive material.

  12. Resonance absorption of magnetohydrodynamic surface waves Physical discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown how the phenomenon of MHD surface wave resonance absorption can be described in simple terms, both physically and mathematically, by applying the 'thin flux tube equations' to the finite-thickness transition layer which supports the surface wave. The thin flux tubes support incompressible slow-mode waves that are driven by fluctuations in the total pressure which exist due to the presence of the surface wave. It is shown that the equations for the slow-mode waves can be reduced to a simple equation, equivalent to a driven harmonic oscillator. Certain field lines within the transition layer are equivalent to a harmonic oscillator driven at resonance, and neighboring field lines are effectively driven at resonance as long as a given condition is satisfied. Thus, a layer which secularly extracts energy from the surface wave develops. The analysis indicates that nonlinear effects may destroy the resonance which is crucial to the whole effect.

  13. Physics of Sports: Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, David

    2000-04-01

    When force is applied by an athlete to sports equipment resonances can occur. Just a few examples are: the ringing of a spiked volleyball, the strumming of a golf club shaft during a swing, and multiple modes induced in an aluminum baseball bat when striking a ball. Resonances produce acoustic waves which, if conditions are favorable, can be detected off the playing field. This can provide a means to evaluate athletic performance during game conditions. Results are given from the use of a simple hand-held acoustic detector - by a spectator sitting in the stands - to determine how hard volleyballs were spiked during college and high school games.

  14. Method for resonant measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Dixon, R.D.

    1996-03-05

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson`s ratio ({sigma}) and shear modulus ({mu}) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson`s ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson`s ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson`s ratio. 1 fig.

  15. Magnetic resonance annual, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kressel, H.Y.

    1987-01-01

    This book features reviews of high-resolution MRI of the knee, MRI of the normal and ischmeic hip, MRI of the heart, and temporomandibular joint imaging, as well as thorough discussion on artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging. Contributors consider the clinical applications of gadolinium-DTPA in magnetic resonance imaging and the clinical use of partial saturation and saturation recovery sequences. Timely reports assess the current status of rapid MRI and describe a new rapid gated cine MRI technique. Also included is an analysis of cerebrospinal fluid flow effects during MRI of the central nervous system.

  16. Pygmy resonances and nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoneva, Nadia; Lenske, Horst

    2015-05-01

    A microscopic theoretical approach based on a self-consistent density functional theory for the nuclear ground state and QRPA formalism extended with multi-phonon degrees of freedom for the nuclear excited states is implemented in investigations of new low-energy modes called pygmy resonances. Advantage of the method is the unified description of low-energy multiphonon excitations, pygmy resonances and core polarization effects. This is found of crucial importance for the understanding of the fine structure of nuclear response functions at low energies. Aspects of the precise knowledge of nuclear response functions around the neutron threshold are discussed in a connection to nucleosynthesis.

  17. Method for resonant measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, George W.; Migliori, Albert; Dixon, Raymond D.

    1996-01-01

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson's ratio (.sigma.) and shear modulus (.mu.) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson's ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson's ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio.

  18. Field resonance propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion concept was developed based on a proposed resonance between coherent, pulsed electromagnetic wave forms, and gravitational wave forms (or space-time metrics). Using this concept a spacecraft propulsion system potentially capable of galactic and intergalactic travel without prohibitive travel times was designed. The propulsion system utilizes recent research associated with magnetic field line merging, hydromagnetic wave effects, free-electron lasers, laser generation of megagauss fields, and special structural and containment metals. The research required to determine potential, field resonance characteristics and to evaluate various aspects of the spacecraft propulsion design is described.

  19. Hexagonal quartz resonator

    DOEpatents

    Peters, R.D.M.

    1982-11-02

    A generally flat, relatively thin AT-cut piezoelectric resonator element structured to minimize the force-frequency effect when mounted and energized in a housing. The resonator is in the form of an equilateral hexagon with the X crystallographic axis of the crystal passing through one set of opposing corners with mounting being effected at an adjacent set of corners respectively [+-]60[degree] away from the X axis which thereby results in a substantially zero frequency shift of the operating frequency. 3 figs.

  20. Resonant optical gun.

    PubMed

    Maslov, A V; Bakunov, M I

    2014-05-01

    We propose a concept of a structure-a resonant optical gun-to realize an efficient propulsion of dielectric microparticles by light forces. The structure is based on a waveguide in which a reversal of the electromagnetic momentum flow of the incident mode is realized by exciting a whispering gallery resonance in the microparticle. The propelling force can reach the value up to the theoretical maximum of twice the momentum flow of the initial wave. The force density oscillates along the particle periphery and has very large amplitude. PMID:24784113

  1. Azimuthally unstable resonators for high-power CO[sub 2] lasers with annular gain media

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlichmann, D.; Habich, U.; Plum, H.D.; Loosen, P.; Herziger, G. )

    1994-06-01

    Stable-unstable resonators have proved suitable for the extraction of a high-quality beam from a gain area that consists of a rectangular slab. Such gain areas have two substantially different transverse dimensions, and the resonators are stable in the small dimension while unstable in the larger one. Using off-axis unstable resonators avoids a central beam obscuration and improves beam quality. The adaptation of stable-unstable resonators to annular gain areas is described in this paper. The resulting resonators are stable in the radial direction and unstable in the azimuthal direction. Different unstable resonators, wound to match the annular geometry, are presented. The resonator modes are calculated numerically using a 3D-diffraction code that considers gain and misalignment. Resonator design parameters are obtained from a geometrical description of the resonator. Experimental results from a diffusion-cooled CO[sub 2] laser confirm theoretical predictions and show that the resonators are capable of extracting beams that are nearly diffraction-limited with high efficiency from an annular gain medium. Output powers of 2 kW have been obtained from a gain length of 1.8 m.

  2. Extraction of electromagnetic properties of the {Delta}(1232) excitation from pion photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbois, T.; Wilhelm, P.; Arenhoevel, H.

    1998-01-01

    Several methods for the treatment of pion photoproduction in the region of the {Delta}(1232) resonance are discussed, in particular the effective Lagrangian approach and the speed plot analysis are compared to a dynamical treatment. As a main topic, we discuss the extraction of the genuine resonance parts of the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole multipoles of the electromagnetic excitation of the resonance. To this end, we try to relate the various values for the ratio R{sub EM} of the E2 to M1 multipole excitation strengths for the {Delta}(1232) resonance as extracted by the different methods to corresponding ratios of a dynamical model. Moreover, it is confirmed that all methods for extracting resonance properties suffer from an unitary ambiguity which is due to some phenomenological contributions entering the models. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Quantify Resonance Inspection with Finite Element-Based Modal Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Canhai; Sun, Xin; Dasch, Cameron; Harmon, George; Jones, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Resonance inspection uses the natural acoustic resonances of a part to identify anomalous parts. Modern instrumentation can measure the many resonant frequencies rapidly and accurately. Sophisticated sorting algorithms trained on sets of good and anomalous parts can rapidly and reliably inspect and sort parts. This paper aims at using finite-element-based modal analysis to put resonance inspection on a more quantitative basis. A production-level automotive steering knuckle is used as the example part for our study. First, the resonance frequency spectra for the knuckle are measured with two different experimental techniques. Next, scanning laser vibrometry is used to determine the mode shape corresponding to each resonance. The material properties including anisotropy are next measured to high accuracy using resonance spectroscopy on cuboids cut from the part. Then, finite element model (FEM) of the knuckle is generated by meshing the actual part geometry obtained with computed tomography (CT). The resonance frequencies and mode shapes are next predicted with a natural frequency extraction analysis after extensive mesh size sensitivity study. The good comparison between the predicted and the experimentally measured resonance spectra indicate that finite-element-based modal analyses have the potential to be a powerful tool in shortening the training process and improving the accuracy of the resonance inspection process for a complex, production level part. The finite element based analysis can also provide a means to computationally test the sensitivity of the frequencies to various possible defects such as porosity or oxide inclusions especially in the high stress regions that the part will experience in service.

  4. Quantify Resonance Inspection with Finite Element-Based Modal Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Lai, Canhai; Dasch, Cameron

    2010-11-10

    Resonance inspection uses the natural acoustic resonances of a part to identify anomalous parts. Modern instrumentation can measure the many resonant frequencies rapidly and accurately. Sophisticated sorting algorithms trained on sets of good and anomalous parts can rapidly and reliably inspect and sort parts. This paper aims at using finite-element-based modal analysis to put resonance inspection on a more quantitative basis. A production-level automotive steering knuckle is used as the example part for our study. First, the resonance frequency spectra for the knuckle are measured with two different experimental techniques. Next, scanning laser vibrometry is used to determine the mode shape corresponding to each resonance. The material properties including anisotropy are next measured to high accuracy using resonance spectroscopy on cuboids cut from the part. Then, finite element model (FEM) of the knuckle is generated by meshing the actual part geometry obtained with computed tomography (CT). The resonance frequencies and mode shapes are next predicted with a natural frequency extraction analysis after extensive mesh size sensitivity study. The good comparison between the predicted and the experimentally measured resonance spectra indicate that finite-element-based modal analyses have the potential to be a powerful tool in shortening the training process and improving the accuracy of the resonance inspection process for a complex, production level part. The finite element based analysis can also provide a means to computationally test the sensitivity of the frequencies to various possible defects such as porosity or oxide inclusions especially in the high stress regions that the part will experience in service.

  5. Extraction and characterization of montmorency (Prunus cerasus L.) sour cherry pit oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil was extracted and characterized by various methods including: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorime...

  6. Analysis of transmission lines loaded with pairs of coupled resonant elements and application to sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqui, J.; Su, L.; Mata, J.; Martín, F.

    2015-06-01

    This paper is focused on the analysis of transmission lines loaded with pairs of magnetically coupled resonators. We have considered two different structures: (i) a microstrip line loaded with pairs of stepped impedance resonators (SIRs), and (ii) a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line loaded with pairs of split ring resonators (SRRs). In both cases, the line exhibits a single resonance frequency (transmission zero) if the resonators are identical (symmetric structure with regard to the line axis), and this resonance is different to the one of the line loaded with a single resonator due to inter-resonator coupling. If the structures are asymmetric, inter-resonator coupling enhances the distance between the two split resonance frequencies that arise. In spite that the considered lines and loading resonators are very different and are described by different lumped element equivalent circuit models, the phenomenology associated to the effects of coupling is exactly the same, and the resonance frequencies are given by identical expressions. The reported lumped element circuit models of both structures are validated by comparing the circuit simulations with extracted parameters with both electromagnetic simulations and experimental data. These structures can be useful for the implementation of microwave sensors based on symmetry properties.

  7. Extraction of carboxylic acids by amine extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Tamada, Janet Ayako; King, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    This work examines the chemistry of solvent extraction by long-chain amines for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution. Long-chain amines act as complexing agents with the acid, which facilitates distribution of the acid into the organic phase. The complexation is reversible, allowing for recovery of the acid from the organic phase and regeneration of the extractant. Batch extraction experiments were performed to study the complexation of acetic, lactic, succinic, malonic, fumaric, and maleic acids with Alamine 336, an aliphatic, tertiary amine extractant, dissolved in various diluents. Results were interpreted by a ''chemical'' model, in which stoichiometric ratios of acid and amine molecules are assumed to form complexes in the solvent phase. From fitting of the extraction data, the stoichiometry of complexes formed and the corresponding equilibrium constants were obtained. The results of the model were combined with infrared spectroscopic experiments and results of past studies to analyze the chemical interactions that are responsible for extraction behavior. The information from the equilibrium studies was used to develop guidelines for large-scale staged extraction and regeneration schemes. A novel scheme, in which the diluent composition is shifted between extraction and regeneration, was developed which could achieve both high solute recovery and high product concentration. 169 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Micromachined double resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, Roman (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A micromachined resonator mountable to an external support structure has a proof mass coupled to a base structure by a first spring structure, the base structure having a plurality of electrodes, and a second spring structure coupling the base structure to the external support structure.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a review of magnetic resonance imaging. Many topics are explored from instrumentation, spectroscopy, blood flow and sodium imaging to detailed clinical applications such as the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or adrenal adenoma. The emphasis throughout is on descriptions of normal multiplanar anatomy and pathology as displayed by MRI.

  10. Proton resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shriner, J.F. Jr.

    1991-11-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Complete Level Scheme for {sup 30}P; A Search for Resonances Suitable for Tests of Detailed-Balance Violation; The Fourier Transform as a Tool for Detecting Chaos; Entrance Channel Correlations in p + {sup 27}Al; The Parity Dependence of Level Densities in {sup 49}V; and A Computer Program for the Calculation of Angular Momentum Coupling.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Annual, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Kressel, H.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The inaugural volume of Magnetic Resonance Annual includes reviews of MRI of the posterior fossa, cerebral neoplasms, and the cardiovascular and genitourinary systems. A chapter on contrast materials outlines the mechanisms of paramagnetic contrast enhancement and highlights several promising contrast agents.

  12. Double resonator cantilever accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, Dale R.

    1984-01-01

    A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

  13. Double resonator cantilever accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, D.R.

    1982-09-23

    A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

  14. Single spin magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution.

  15. Magnetoelectric resonance engine

    SciTech Connect

    Moscrip, W.M.

    1992-09-15

    This patent describes a magnetoelectric resonance thermal machine. It comprises a reciprocating, multiple-piston, Alpha-type Stirling-cycle mechanical assembly; an electronic quadrature phase-lock circuit; an ancillary external energy and mass transfer subsystem; and a master microcomputer control system.

  16. Single spin magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution. PMID:27378060

  17. Resonance Ionization, Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, J. P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is an analytical technique that uses photons from lasers to resonantly excite an electron from some initial state of a gaseous atom through various excited states of the atom or molecule. Described are the apparatus, some analytical applications, and the precision and accuracy of the technique. Lists 26 references. (CW)

  18. RESONANT CAVITY EXCITATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-01

    A cavity excitation circuit is described for rapidly building up and maintaining high-level oscillations in a resonant cavity. The circuit overcomes oscillation buildup slowing effects such as ion locking in the cavity by providing for the selective application of an amplified accelerating drive signal to the main cavity exciting oscillator during oscillation buildup and a direct drive signal to the oscillator thereafter.

  19. RESONATOR PARTICLE SEPARATOR

    DOEpatents

    Blewett, J.P.; Kiesling, J.D.

    1963-06-11

    A wave-guide resonator structure is designed for use in separating particles of equal momentum but differing in mass, having energies exceeding one billion eiectron volts. The particles referred to are those of sub-atomic size and are generally produced as a result of the bombardment of a target by a beam such as protons produced in a high energy accelerator. In the resonator a travelling electric wave is produced which travels at the same rate of speed as the unwanted particle which is thus deflected continuously over the length of the resonator. The wanted particle is slightly out of phase with the travelling wave so that over the whole length of the resonator it has a net deflection of substantially zero. The travelling wave is established in a wave guide of rectangular cross section in which stubs are provided to store magnetic wave energy leaving the electric wave energy in the main structure to obtain the desired travelling wave and deflection. The stubs are of such shape and spacing to establish a critical mathemitical relationship. (AEC)

  20. Screening Resonances In Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, P.

    1998-12-01

    When it was suggested that a new recombination mechanism (Resonant Radiative Recombination (RRR)) which, based on very general physical arguments, should happen in dense plasmas and promises to provide useful information for the local temperature and density diagnostics of plasmas, they assumed the existence of screening resonances. For model potentials the existence of screening resonances has been demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt in a number of calculations. The key question, how well those potentials describe the dominant effects of a real plasma remains open. The relation of theoretical predictions to experimentally measurable effects is an important issue at the present stage of their research. In particular, RRR is expected to account for enhanced recombination rates of low energetic electrons with their ions, since the first stage is the resonant capture of a slow electron by an atom or ion. The mechanism that traps an electron is a combination of complicated many-body interactions of the ions and electrons. For clarity they start here, however, with a discussion in terms of local potential traps the shapes of which are determined predominantly and in an average way by two factors: the degree of screening present at the ionic site and the degree of short-range order in the immediate neighborhood of this ion.

  1. Width of nonlinear resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuma, S.

    1984-03-01

    Two approximations are made, one essential and the other not so essential but convenient to keep the analytical treatment manageable: (1) Only one nonlinear resonance is considered at a time so that the treatment is best suited when the tune is close to one resonance only. To improve this approximation, one must go to the next order which involves a canonical transformation of dynamical variables. Analytical treatment of more than one resonance is not possible for general cases. (2) In the formalism using the action-angle variables, the Hamiltonian can have terms which are independent of the angle variables. These terms are called phase-independent terms or shear terms. The tune is then a function of the oscillation amplitudes. In the lowest-order treatment, the (4N)-pole components but not the (4N + 2)-pole components contribute to this dependence. In deriving the resonance width analytically, one ignores these terms in the Hamiltonian for the sake of simplicity. If these are retained, one needs at least three extra parameters and the analytical treatment becomes rather unwieldy.

  2. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  3. Improved ultraviolet resonance lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, A. M.

    1970-01-01

    Removal of the seal area from the path of the lamp discharge eliminates the gradual deterioration of lithium fluoride window surfaces from condensation of products formed by interaction of a resonant rare-gas discharge with window sealing materials. The discharge is confined to the inner tube.

  4. Experiment study of an electron cyclotron resonant ion source based on a tapered resonance cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Juan; Shi, Feng; Jin, Yizhou; Wang, Yunmin; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2013-12-15

    Electron cyclotron resonant plasma is one type of magnetised plasma generated by continuous microwave energy. It has the property of high degree of ionization and large volume at low gas pressure, which makes it useful for space propulsion and material processing. This article presents the experiment study of the plasma properties and ion beam extraction from an electron cyclotron resonant ion source based on a tapered resonance cavity. Optical emission spectroscopy based on a simple collisional radiation model was used for plasma diagnosis. Experiment results show that, at microwave power setting ranging from 7.06 to 17.40 W and mass flow rate ranging from 1 to 10 sccm, argon gas can be ionized. Ion beam of 109.1 mA from the ion source can be extracted at microwave power of 30 W, mass flow rate of 10 sccm, and accel voltage of 800 V. The diagnosed plasma temperature and density are 2.4–5.2 eV and 2 × 10{sup 16}–4.8 × 10{sup 17} m{sup −3}, respectively.

  5. Experiment study of an electron cyclotron resonant ion source based on a tapered resonance cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Juan; Shi, Feng; Jin, Yizhou; Wang, Yunmin; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2013-12-01

    Electron cyclotron resonant plasma is one type of magnetised plasma generated by continuous microwave energy. It has the property of high degree of ionization and large volume at low gas pressure, which makes it useful for space propulsion and material processing. This article presents the experiment study of the plasma properties and ion beam extraction from an electron cyclotron resonant ion source based on a tapered resonance cavity. Optical emission spectroscopy based on a simple collisional radiation model was used for plasma diagnosis. Experiment results show that, at microwave power setting ranging from 7.06 to 17.40 W and mass flow rate ranging from 1 to 10 sccm, argon gas can be ionized. Ion beam of 109.1 mA from the ion source can be extracted at microwave power of 30 W, mass flow rate of 10 sccm, and accel voltage of 800 V. The diagnosed plasma temperature and density are 2.4-5.2 eV and 2 × 1016-4.8 × 1017 m-3, respectively.

  6. Energy saver prototype accelerating resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, Q.; May, M.; Miller, H.W.; Reid, J.; Turkot, F.; Webber, R.; Wildman, D.

    1981-06-01

    A fixed frequency rf accelerating resonator has been built and tested for the Fermilab Energy Saver. The design parameters and prototype resonator test results are given. The resonator features a high permeability nickel alloy resistor which damps unwanted modes and corona rolls designed with the aid of the computer code SUPERFISH. In bench measurements, the prototype resonator has achieved peak accelerating voltages of 500 kV for a 1% duty cycle and cw operation at 360 kV. 4 refs.

  7. Microwave Resonators Containing Diamond Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Maleki, Lutfollah; Wang, Rabi T.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic diamond dielectric bodies proposed for use in cylindrical resonators helping to stabilize frequencies of some microwave oscillators. Acting in conjunction with metal resonator cavities in which mounted, such dielectric bodies support "whispering-gallery" waveguide modes characterized by desired frequencies of resonance and by electro-magnetic-field configurations limiting dissipation of power on metal surfaces outside dielectric bodies. Performances at room temperature might exceed those of liquid-nitrogen-cooled sapphire-based resonators.

  8. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This fundamental work illustrates for the first time the possibility of exhaustive extraction of peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) under low system-current conditions (<50 μA). Bradykinin acetate, angiotensin II antipeptide, angiotensin II acetate, neurotensin, angiotensin I trifluoroacetate, and leu-enkephalin were extracted from 600 μL of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.5), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate (DEHP) dissolved in an organic solvent, and into 600 μL of an acidified aqueous acceptor solution using a thin flat membrane-based EME device. Mass transfer of peptides across the SLM was enhanced by complex formation with the negatively charged DEHP. The composition of the SLM and the extraction voltage were important factors influencing recoveries and current with the EME system. 1-nonanol diluted with 2-decanone (1:1 v/v) containing 15% (v/v) DEHP was selected as a suitable SLM for exhaustive extraction of peptides under low system-current conditions. Interestingly, increasing the SLM volume from 5 to 10 μL was found to be beneficial for stable and efficient EME. The pH of the sample strongly affected the EME process, and pH 3.5 was found to be optimal. The EME efficiency was also dependent on the acceptor solution composition, and the extraction time was found to be an important element for exhaustive extraction. When EME was carried out for 25 min with an extraction voltage of 15 V, the system-current across the SLM was less than 50 μA, and extraction recoveries for the model peptides were in the range of 77-94%, with RSD values less than 10%. PMID:25467476

  9. Update on beam extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, L.P.

    1983-08-26

    At the time of the 1981 Workshop on Experimental Use of the SLC, we published an extraction scheme for the MINIQUAD final focus (FF) optics. Since then a different FF optics design has been selected. With the same achromat section and outboard telescope, it allows a number of options for the inboard telescope. This note describes the new extraction system and briefly considers electron-electron extraction and the consequences of an extraction kicker malfunction. 4 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  10. Method of infusion extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  11. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  12. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  13. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Facility (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Magnetic Resonance Facility capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center. Liquid and solid-state analysis capability for a variety of biomass, photovoltaic, and materials characterization applications across NREL. NREL scientists analyze solid and liquid samples on three nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers as well as an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer.

  15. Electromagnetic Transition Form Factors of Nucleon Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Burkert, Volker D.

    2008-10-13

    Recent measurements of nucleon resonance transition form factors with CLAS at Jefferson Lab are discussed. The new data resolve a long-standing puzzle of the nature of the Roper resonance, and confirm the assertion of the symmetric constituent quark model of the Roper as the first radial excitation of the nucleon. The data on high Q{sup 2} n{pi}{sup +} production confirm the slow fall off of the S{sub 11}(1535) transition form factor with Q{sup 2}, and better constrain the branching ratios {beta}{sub N{pi}} = 0.50 and {beta}{sub N{eta}} = 0.45. For the first time, the longitudinal transition amplitude to the S{sub 11}(1535) was extracted from the n{pi}{sup +} data. Also, new results on the transition amplitudes for the D{sub 13}(1520) resonance are presented showing a rapid transition from helicity 3/2 dominance seen at the real photon point to helicty 1/2 dominance at higher Q{sup 2}.

  16. Electromagnetic excitation of the Delta(1232) resonance

    SciTech Connect

    V. Pascalutsa; M. Vanderhaeghen; Shin Nan Yang

    2006-09-05

    We review the description of the lowest-energy nucleon excitation--the Delta(1232)-resonance. Much of the recent effort has been focused on the precision measurements of the nucleon to Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes. We review the results of those measurements and confront them with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, and QCD-inspired models. Some of the theoretical approaches are reviewed in detail. In particular, we describe the chiral EFT of QCD in the energy domain of the Delta-resonance, and its applications to the electromagnetic nucleon-to-Delta transition (gamma N Delta). We also describe the recent dynamical and unitary-isobar models of pion electroproduction which are extensively used in the extraction of the gamma* N Delta form factors from experiment. Furthermore, we discuss the link of the gamma* N Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs), as well as the predictions of perturbative QCD for these transition form factors. The present status of understanding the Delta-resonance properties and the nature of its excitation is summarized.

  17. Precolumn for extract concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, V. J.; Bloom, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    AUDRI requires test sample separation into organic compound families for subsequent insertion into several parallel chromatographs. Sample is first extracted by selective organic solvents. Solvent is then removed from extract to increase extract-to-solvent ratio, increasing system sensitivity. Backflushing of precolumn serves as cleanser.

  18. Information extraction system

    DOEpatents

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  19. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  20. On the resonances and polarizabilities of split ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, J.; Martín, F.; Baena, J. D.; Marqués, R.; Jelinek, L.

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, the behavior at resonance of split ring resonators (SRRs) and other related topologies, such as the nonbianisotropic SRR and the broadside-coupled SRR, are studied. It is shown that these structures exhibit a fundamental resonant mode (the quasistatic resonance) and other higher-order modes which are related to dynamic processes. The excitation of these modes by means of a properly polarized time varying magnetic and/or electric fields is discussed on the basis of resonator symmetries. To verify the electromagnetic properties of these resonators, simulations based on resonance excitation by nonuniform and uniform external fields have been performed. Inspection of the currents at resonances, inferred from particle symmetries and full-wave electromagnetic simulations, allows us to predict the first-order dipolar moments induced at the different resonators and to develop a classification of the resonances based on this concept. The experimental data, obtained in SRR-loaded waveguides, are in agreement with the theory and point out the rich phenomenology associated with these planar resonant structures.

  1. Resonance characteristics of waveguide-coupled polyimide microring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hak-Phil; Park, Jong-Jin; Ryoo, Hyun-Ho; Gol Lee, Seung; Beom Hoan, O.; Lee, El-Hang

    2003-01-01

    We report for the first time on the resonance characteristics of a polyimide-based micro-ring resonator model. The resonator consists of a microring coupled to a pair of waveguides. Using the finite-difference time-domain method, we were able to obtain resonance peaks, from which the resonance wavelength could be identified. For a resonator with a microring of 10 μm diameter, known as the minimum for a lossless microring, we found the free spectral range of 46.65 nm, and quality factor of 588. These are excellent values strongly supporting the outstanding utility and quality of the microring resonators for wavelength-division multiplexing filter applications.

  2. Entanglement generation by dissipation in or beyond dark resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiangming

    2015-08-01

    For dark resonance, one of the most remarkable coherent effects in light-matter interactions, it has commonly been expected that squeezing and entanglement, if existent, are formed via coherent evolutions against dissipation. Contrary to the expectations, here we show that dissipation generates entanglement between two cavity fields and between two dark-state-based spins. The latter correspond also to the atomic ground-state spin squeezing in a limited parameter domain. The dissipation effects, which are hidden deeply behind the coherence-induced nonlinearities, are extracted by probing into the dressed atom-photon interactions, and are widely applicable for the coherently prepared systems in dark resonances or beyond.

  3. Low latitude geomagnetic field line resonance: Experiment and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, C.L.; Menk, F.W.; Fraser, B.J.

    1994-09-01

    The authors describe work to detect field line resonances, or the observation of Pc 3-5 geomagnetic pulsation events, at low latitude sites. These signals are extracted from ground based magnetometer arrays. The authors found one field line resonance structure in 5 weeks of data at L=1.8. At L=2.8 they were able to observe up to 4 harmonics concurrently. They compare these frequency spectra with the results of two different models of the plasma density in the lower ionosphere.

  4. Resonance widths in open microwave cavities studied by harmonic inversion.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, U; Höhmann, R; Main, J; Stöckmann, H-J

    2008-06-27

    From the measurement of a reflection spectrum of an open microwave cavity, the poles of the scattering matrix in the complex plane have been determined. The resonances have been extracted by means of the harmonic inversion method. By this, it became possible to resolve the resonances in a regime where the linewidths exceed the mean level spacing up to a factor of 10, a value inaccessible in experiments up to now. The obtained experimental distributions of linewidths were found to be in perfect agreement with predictions from random matrix theory when wall absorption and fluctuations caused by couplings to additional channels are considered. PMID:18643662

  5. Isolated post resonator mesogyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, Dorian; Peay, Chris; Wellman, Joanne; Shcheglov, Kirill; Hayworth, Ken; Wiberg, Dean; Yee, Karl; Sipppola, Clayton

    2004-01-01

    A new symmetric vibratory gyroscope principle has been devised in which a central post proof mass is counter-rocked against an outer sensing plate such that the motion is isolated from the gyroscope case. Prototype gyroscopes have been designed and fabricated with micromachined silicon at mesoscale (20-cm resonator width), vs. microscale (e.g., 2-mm resonator width) to achieve higher sensitivity and machined precision. This novel mesogyro design arose out of an ongoing technical cooperation between JPL and Boeing begun in 1997 to advance the design of micro-inertial sensors for low-cost space applications. This paper describes the theory of operation of the mesogyro and relationships with other vibratory gyroscopes, the mechanical design, closed loop electronics design, bulk silicon fabrication and packaged gyroscope assembly and test methods. The initial packaged prototype test results are reported for what is believed to be the first silicon mesogyroscope.

  6. Resonant SIMP dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Soo-Min; Lee, Hyun Min

    2016-07-01

    We consider a resonant SIMP dark matter in models with two singlet complex scalar fields charged under a local dark U(1)D. After the U(1)D is broken down to a Z5 discrete subgroup, the lighter scalar field becomes a SIMP dark matter which has the enhanced 3 → 2 annihilation cross section near the resonance of the heavier scalar field. Bounds on the SIMP self-scattering cross section and the relic density can be fulfilled at the same time for perturbative couplings of SIMP. A small gauge kinetic mixing between the SM hypercharge and dark gauge bosons can be used to make SIMP dark matter in kinetic equilibrium with the SM during freeze-out.

  7. [Magnetic resonance, an introduction].

    PubMed

    Cabrera Rueda, D J; Fernández Herrerías, G

    2000-09-01

    What would you explain to a patient if he/she had to undergo a magnetic resonance imagery session? Do you know if a person wearing a pacemaker can undergo an MRI? These and many other questions are answered in the following article since magnetic resonance imagery is a very useful diagnostic medium; however, it is one which not everyone has been able to get to know and use. The authors shed light on this diagnostic technique for nurses starting with its physical foundations; since knowing these aids professionals to correctly plan our treatments and improves the attention provided to patients who undergo this test. The authors also list the specific components in this device, the possible biological effects, the detractions and some basic recommendations. PMID:11111673

  8. Resonant Cascaded Downconversion

    SciTech Connect

    Weedbrook, Christian; Parrett, Ben; Kheruntsyan, Karen; Drummond, Peter; Pooser, Raphael C; Pfister, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    We analyze an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) in which cascaded down-conversion occurs inside a cavity resonant for all modes but the initial pump. Due to the resonant cascade design, the OPO presents two {chi}{sup (2)}-level oscillation thresholds that are therefore much lower than for a {chi}{sup (3)} OPO. This is promising for reaching the regime of an effective third-order nonlinearity well above both thresholds. Such a {chi}{sup (2)} cascaded device also has potential applications in frequency conversion to far-infrared regimes. But, most importantly, it can generate novel multipartite quantum correlations in the output radiation, which represent a step beyond squeezed or entangled light. The output can be highly non-Gaussian and therefore not describable by any semiclassical model. In this paper, we derive quantum stochastic equations in the positive-P representation and undertake an analysis of steady-state and dynamical properties of this system.

  9. Photorefractivity in WGM resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Ilchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute

    2006-01-01

    We report on observation of photorefractive effects in whispering gallery mode resonators made of as-grown and magnesium doped lithium niobate and lithium tantalate in the near as well as far infrared. The effects manifested themselves as dynamic modification of the spectra as well as quality factors of the resonators coupled to the laser radiation. We have observed a significant (exceeding 10-4) change of the ordinary index of refraction of all the materials exposed with 780 nm light. Photorefractive effects have also been detected at 1550 nm. Our experiments support the conclusion that the photorefractivity does not have a distinct red boundary. We show that the maximum saturated refractive index change in the infrared is of the same order of magnitude as in the visible light.

  10. Auger resonant Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, Y.; LeBrun, T.; MacDonald, M.; Southworth, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    As noted above, traditional spectroscopy of the electronic structure of the inner shells of atoms, molecules, and solids is limited by the lifetime broadening of the core-excited states. This limitation can also be avoided with the non-radiative analog of X-ray Raman scattering - resonant Auger Raman spectroscopy. We have used this technique to study the K-shell excitation spectrum of argon as the photon energy is continuously scanned across threshold.

  11. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, Ian J.; Wendt, Joel R.

    1994-01-01

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

  12. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  13. Resonant diphoton phenomenology simplified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panico, Giuliano; Vecchi, Luca; Wulzer, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    A framework is proposed to describe resonant diphoton phenomenology at hadron colliders in full generality. It can be employed for a comprehensive model-independent interpretation of the experimental data. Within the general framework, few benchmark scenarios are defined as representative of the various phenomenological options and/or of motivated new physics scenarios. Their usage is illustrated by performing a characterization of the 750 GeV excess, based on a recast of available experimental results.

  14. Resonant non-gaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Flauger, Raphael; Pajer, Enrico E-mail: ep295@cornell.edu

    2011-01-01

    We provide a derivation from first principles of the primordial bispectrum of scalar perturbations produced during inflation driven by a canonically normalized scalar field whose potential exhibits small sinusoidal modulations. A potential of this type has been derived in a class of string theory models of inflation based on axion monodromy. We use this model as a concrete example, but we present our derivations and results for a general slow-roll potential with superimposed modulations. We show analytically that a resonance between the oscillations of the background and the oscillations of the fluctuations is responsible for the production of an observably large non-Gaussian signal. We provide an explicit expression for the shape of this resonant non-Gaussianity. We show that there is essentially no overlap between this shape and the local, equilateral, and orthogonal shapes, and we stress that resonant non-Gaussianity is not captured by the simplest version of the effective field theory of inflation. We hope our analytic expression will be useful to further observationally constrain this class of models.

  15. Undulator induced resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.; Morton, P.; Spencer, J.; Winick, H.

    1983-08-01

    Undulators appear to be nearly ideal radiation sources for use in storage rings because of their high brightness and small perturbation on stored beam characteristics. We consider the effects of higher-order magnetic field errors and show how they increase beam size and may lead to unstable growth of betatron oscillations. We have observed such effects in SPEAR at betatron tunes satisfying the equations: 3nu/sub x/ + nu/sub y/ = 21 and nu/sub x/ + 3nu/sub y/ = 21. The widths of these resonances were measured to be GAMMA = 0.008 +- 0.004. They are clearly visible on the synchrotron light monitors with a very dynamic and characteristic beam blow-up pattern (reminiscent of a Miller beer label). A model is developed which predicts the locations of resonances, their widths and the projected shapes observed on the light monitors. By inducing such high-order coupling resonances one could study such things as the beam distribution in electron rings or possibly turbulent motion in proton rings.

  16. RESONATOR PARTICLE SEPARATOR

    DOEpatents

    Blewett, J.P.

    1962-01-01

    A wave guide resonator structure is described for use in separating particles of equal momentum but differing in mass and having energies exceeding one billion electron volts. The particles are those of sub-atomic size and are generally produced as a result of the bombardment of a target by a beam such as protons produced in a high-energy accelerator. In this wave guide construction, the particles undergo preferential deflection as a result of the presence of an electric field. The boundary conditions established in the resonator are such as to eliminate an interfering magnetic component, and to otherwise phase the electric field to obtain a traveling wave such as one which moves at the same speed as the unwanted particle. The latter undergoes continuous deflection over the whole length of the device and is, therefore, eliminated while the wanted particle is deflected in opposite directions over the length of the resonator and is thus able to enter an exit aperture. (AEC)

  17. Feshbach resonances in ultracold gases

    SciTech Connect

    Chin Cheng; Grimm, Rudolf; Julienne, Paul; Tiesinga, Eite

    2010-04-15

    Feshbach resonances are the essential tool to control the interaction between atoms in ultracold quantum gases. They have found numerous experimental applications, opening up the way to important breakthroughs. This review broadly covers the phenomenon of Feshbach resonances in ultracold gases and their main applications. This includes the theoretical background and models for the description of Feshbach resonances, the experimental methods to find and characterize the resonances, a discussion of the main properties of resonances in various atomic species and mixed atomic species systems, and an overview of key experiments with atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and ultracold molecules.

  18. Hyperbolic resonances of metasurface cavities.

    PubMed

    Keene, D; Durach, M

    2015-07-13

    We propose a new class of optical resonator structures featuring one or two metasurface reflectors or metacavities and predict that such resonators support novel hyperbolic resonances. As an example of such resonances we introduce hyperbolic Tamm plasmons (HTPs) and hyperbolic Fabry-Perot resonances (HFPs). The hyperbolic optical modes feature low-loss incident power re-distribution over TM and TE polarization output channels, clover-leaf anisotropic dispersion, and other unique properties which are tunable and are useful for multiple applications. PMID:26191916

  19. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  20. Aberration correction of unstable resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Construction of aspheric reflectors for unstable resonator lasers to provide an arbitrary laser mode inside the resonator to correct aberrations of an output beam by the construction of the shape of an end reflector opposite the output reflector of the resonator cavity, such as aberrations resulting from refraction of a beam exiting the solid of the resonator having an index of refraction greater than 1 or to produce an aberration in the output beam that will precisely compensate for the aberration of an optical train into which the resonator beam is coupled.

  1. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality.

  2. METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1957-11-01

    An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

  3. Persistence, resistance, resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsadka, Maayan

    Sound cannot travel in a vacuum, physically or socially. The ways in which sound operates are a result of acoustic properties, and the ways by which it is considered to be music are a result of social constructions. Therefore, music is always political, regardless of its content: the way it is performed and composed; the choice of instrumentation, notation, tuning; the medium of its distribution; its inherent hierarchy and power dynamics, and more. My compositional praxis makes me less interested in defining a relationship between music and politics than I am in erasing---or at least blurring---the borders between them. In this paper I discuss the aesthetics of resonance and echo in their metaphorical, physical, social, and musical manifestations. Also discussed is a political aesthetic of resonance, manifested through protest chants. I transcribe and analyze common protest chants from around the world, categorizing and unifying them as universal crowd-mobilizing rhythms. These ideas are explored musically in three pieces. Sumud: Rhetoric of Resistance in Three Movements, for two pianos and two percussion players, is a musical interpretation of the political/social concept of sumud, an Arabic word that literally means "steadfastness" and represents Palestinian non-violent resistance. The piece is based on common protest rhythms and uses the acoustic properties inherent to the instruments. The second piece, Three Piano Studies, extends some of the musical ideas and techniques used in Sumud, and explores the acoustic properties and resonance of the piano. The final set of pieces is part of my Critical Mess Music Project. These are site-specific musical works that attempt to blur the boundaries between audience, performers and composer, in part by including people without traditional musical training in the process of music making. These pieces use the natural structure and resonance of an environment, in this case, locations on the UCSC campus, and offer an active

  4. Vector and scalar charmonium resonances with lattice QCD

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lang, C. B.; Leskovec, Luka; Mohler, Daniel; Prelovsek, Sasa

    2015-09-15

    We perform an exploratory lattice QCD simulation of DD¯ scattering, aimed at determining the masses as well as the decay widths of charmonium resonances above open charm threshold. Neglecting coupling to other channels, the resulting phase shift for DD¯scattering in p-wave yields the well-known vector resonance ψ(3770). For m π = 156 MeV, the extracted resonance mass and the decay width agree with experiment within large statistical uncertainty. The scalar charmonium resonances present a puzzle, since only the ground state χ c0(1P ) is well understood, while there is no commonly accepted candidate for its first excitation. We then simulatemore » DD¯scattering in s-wave in order to shed light on this puzzle. The resulting phase shift supports the existence of a yet-unobserved narrow resonance with a mass slightly below 4 GeV. A scenario with this narrow resonance and a pole at χ c0(1P), we found, agrees with the energy-dependence of our phase shift. Further lattice QCD simulations and experimental efforts are needed to resolve the puzzle of the excited scalar charmonia.« less

  5. Vector and scalar charmonium resonances with lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, C. B.; Leskovec, Luka; Mohler, Daniel; Prelovsek, Sasa

    2015-09-15

    We perform an exploratory lattice QCD simulation of DD¯ scattering, aimed at determining the masses as well as the decay widths of charmonium resonances above open charm threshold. Neglecting coupling to other channels, the resulting phase shift for DD¯scattering in p-wave yields the well-known vector resonance ψ(3770). For m π = 156 MeV, the extracted resonance mass and the decay width agree with experiment within large statistical uncertainty. The scalar charmonium resonances present a puzzle, since only the ground state χ c0(1P ) is well understood, while there is no commonly accepted candidate for its first excitation. We then simulate DD¯scattering in s-wave in order to shed light on this puzzle. The resulting phase shift supports the existence of a yet-unobserved narrow resonance with a mass slightly below 4 GeV. A scenario with this narrow resonance and a pole at χ c0(1P), we found, agrees with the energy-dependence of our phase shift. Further lattice QCD simulations and experimental efforts are needed to resolve the puzzle of the excited scalar charmonia.

  6. Nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahigir, A.; Dastmalchi, P.; Shin, W.; Fan, S.; Veronis, G.

    2015-02-01

    Waveguide-resonator systems are particularly useful for the development of several integrated photonic devices, such as tunable filters, optical switches, channel drop filters, reflectors, and impedance matching elements. In this paper, we introduce nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators. In particular, we investigate threedimensional nanostructures consisting of plasmonic coaxial stub resonators side-coupled to a plasmonic coaxial waveguide. We use coaxial waveguides with square cross sections, which can be fabricated using lithography-based techniques. The waveguides are placed on top of a silicon substrate, and the space between inner and outer coaxial metals is filled with silica. We use silver as the metal. We investigate structures consisting of a single plasmonic coaxial resonator, which is terminated either in a short or an open circuit, side-coupled to a coaxial waveguide. We show that the incident waveguide mode is almost completely reflected on resonance, while far from the resonance the waveguide mode is almost completely transmitted. We also show that the properties of the waveguide systems can be accurately described using a single-mode scattering matrix theory. The transmission and reflection coefficients at waveguide junctions are either calculated using the concept of the characteristic impedance or are directly numerically extracted using full-wave three-dimensional finite-difference frequency-domain simulations.

  7. Tunable resonant and non-resonant interactions between a phase qubit and LC resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allman, Michael Shane; Whittaker, Jed D.; Castellanos-Beltran, Manuel; Cicak, Katarina; da Silva, Fabio; Defeo, Michael; Lecocq, Florent; Sirois, Adam; Teufel, John; Aumentado, Jose; Simmonds, Raymond W.

    2014-03-01

    We use a flux-biased radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (rf SQUID) with an embedded flux-biased direct current (dc) SQUID to generate strong resonant and non-resonant tunable interactions between a phase qubit and a lumped-element resonator. The rf-SQUID creates a tunable magnetic susceptibility between the qubit and resonator providing resonant coupling rates from zero to near the ultra-strong coupling regime. By modulating the magnetic susceptibility, non-resonant parametric coupling achieves rates > 100 MHz . Nonlinearity of the magnetic susceptibility also leads to parametric coupling at subharmonics of the qubit-resonator detuning. Controllable coupling is generically important for constructing coupled-mode systems ubiquitous in physics, useful for both, quantum information architectures and quantum simulators. This work supported by NIST and NSA grant EAO140639.

  8. Nonlinear wave-particle resonant interaction in the radiation belts: Landau resonance vs. fundamental cyclotron resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnoselskikh, V.; Artemyev, A.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mourenas, D.

    2013-12-01

    We present selected THEMIS observations of highly-oblique and large amplitude chorus waves at medium latitudes. The major part of observed waves propagates at nearly-electrostatic mode with normal angles close to resonance cone. We use test particle simulations and analytical theory to estimate efficiency of nonlinear particle acceleration by these waves via Landau and fundamental cyclotron resonances. We show that trapping into the Landau resonance corresponds to a decrease of electron equatorial pitch-angles, while trapping into the first cyclotron resonance increases electron equatorial pitch-angles. For 100 keV electrons, the energy gain is larger for the trapping due to Landau resonance. Moreover, trapping into the Landau resonance is accessible for a wider range of initial pitch-angles in comparison with the fundamental resonance.

  9. Resonance frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajiv K; Padmanabhan, Thallam V

    2011-01-01

    Initial stability at the placement and development of osseointegration are two major issues for implant survival. Implant stability is a mechanical phenomenon which is related to the local bone quality and quantity, type of implant, and placement technique used. The application of a simple, clinically applicable, non-invasive test to assess implant stability and osseointegration is considered highly desirable. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is one of such techniques which is most frequently used now days. The aim of this paper was to review and analyze critically the current available literature in the field of RFA, and to also discuss based on scientific evidence, the prognostic value of RFA to detect implants at risk of failure. A search was made using the PubMed database to find all the literature published on "Resonance frequency analysis for implant stability" till date. Articles discussed in vivo or in vitro studies comparing RFA with other methods of implant stability measurement and articles discussing its reliability were thoroughly reviewed and discussed. A limited number of clinical reports were found. Various studies have demonstrated the feasibility and predictability of the technique. However, most of these articles are based on retrospective data or uncontrolled cases. Randomized, prospective, parallel-armed longitudinal human trials are based on short-term results and long-term follow up are still scarce in this field. Nonetheless, from available literature, it may be concluded that RFA technique evaluates implant stability as a function of stiffness of the implant bone interface and is influenced by factors such as bone type, exposed implant height above the alveolar crest. Resonance frequency analysis could serve as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for detecting the implant stability of dental implants during the healing stages and in subsequent routine follow up care after treatment. Future studies, preferably randomized, prospective

  10. Electroexcitation of nucleon resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Inna Aznauryan, Volker D. Burkert

    2012-01-01

    We review recent progress in the investigation of the electroexcitation of nucleon resonances, both in experiment and in theory. The most accurate results have been obtained for the electroexcitation amplitudes of the four lowest excited states, which have been measured in a range of Q2 up to 8 and 4.5 GeV2 for the Delta(1232)P33, N(1535)S11 and N(1440)P11, N(1520)D13, respectively. These results have been confronted with calculations based on lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD (pQCD), and QCD-inspired models. The amplitudes for the Delta(1232) indicate large pion-cloud contributions at low Q2 and don't show any sign of approaching the pQCD regime for Q2<7 GeV2. Measured for the first time, the electroexcitation amplitudes of the Roper resonance, N(1440)P11, provide strong evidence for this state as a predominantly radial excitation of a three-quark (3q) ground state, with additional non-3-quark contributions needed to describe the low Q2 behavior of the amplitudes. The longitudinal transition amplitude for the N(1535)S11 was determined and has become a challenge for quark models. Explanations may require large meson-cloud contributions or alternative representations of this state. The N(1520)D13 clearly shows the rapid changeover from helicity-3/2 dominance at the real photon point to helicity-1/2 dominance at Q2 > 0.5 GeV2, confirming a long-standing prediction of the constituent quark model. The interpretation of the moments of resonance transition form factors in terms of transition transverse charge distributions in infinite momentum frame is presented.

  11. Seismic Resonant Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, V. A.

    2007-12-01

    There are several classes of underground objects which can produce resonant emission after being hit by incident seismic waves. Those objects include tunnels, pipes, buried containers, ground-filled excavations, unexploded ordinances, fluid-filled fractures, mine shafts, and the like. Being high contrast scatterers, these objects are capable of generating strong scattered waves where primary PP, PS, SS waves carry away most of the energy which was brought by incident waves. For both high- and low- velocity objects the primary scattered waves have the same order of magnitude as incident waves. The main difference between these groups of objects is in later arrivals of multiple scattered waves. While high-velocity objects effectively radiate most of the energy soon after impact, the low-velocity objects trap some fraction of incident wave energy in the form of circumferential waves which propagate rotating along the interface between the object and the embedding medium. Circumferential waves include surface Rayleigh-type waves (propagating mostly in the embedding medium), Stoneley waves (propagating mostly in the fluid, if present), and Frantz waves (body waves trapped in the object because of its curvature). Strong impedance contrast ensures small radiation loss for circumferential waves and they slowly decay in amplitude while rotating inside/around the object. Some circumferential waves exist in the high-velocity objects but their amplitudes decay very fast because of strong radiation in outer medium. Most of the secondary (multiply reflected from an object's boundaries or multiply circled around the object) resonant-scattered energy radiates in the embedding medium as shear waves. The possibility of neglecting P- waves in late scattering arrivals simplifies imaging as is demonstrated for the field and modeled data of the example. Resonant emission phenomenon provides an effective tool for active monitoring for a number of applications such as tunnel detection

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    NMR is remarkable in the number of innovations that have appeared and become established within the past five years. This thoroughly up-to-date account of the field explains fundamentals and applications of the NMR phenomenon from the viewpoint of a physical chemist. Beginning with descriptions of basic concepts involved in continuous wave operation, the book goes on to cover spectral analysis, relaxation phenomena, the effects of pulses, the Fourier transform model, double resonance and the effects of chemical exchange and quadrupolar interactions. The book also includes the new techniques for work on solids and for complicated pulse sequences, plus abundant figures and illustrative spectra.

  13. Ellipsometric surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Wei-Liang; Lee, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2009-03-01

    We develop a new multifunctional optical biochip system that integrates an ellipsometer with a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) feature. This newly developed biochip biosensor, which we call ESPR for an ellipsometric SPR, provides us with a system to retrieve detailed information such as the optical properties of immobilized biomolecular monolayers, surface concentration variations of biomedical reactions, and kinetic affinity between biomolecules required for further biotech analysis. Our ESPR can also serve as both a research and development tool and a manufacturing tool for various biomedical applications.

  14. Nanotube resonator devices

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Kenneth J; Zettl, Alexander K; Weldon, Jeffrey A

    2014-05-06

    A fully-functional radio receiver fabricated from a single nanotube is being disclosed. Simultaneously, a single nanotube can perform the functions of all major components of a radio: antenna, tunable band-pass filter, amplifier, and demodulator. A DC voltage source, as supplied by a battery, can power the radio. Using carrier waves in the commercially relevant 40-400 MHz range and both frequency and amplitude modulation techniques, successful music and voice reception has been demonstrated. Also disclosed are a radio transmitter and a mass sensor using a nanotube resonator device.

  15. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael

    2011-05-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation is currently in phase 4 of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. The micro-NMRG technology is pushing the boundaries of size, weight, power, and performance allowing new small platform applications of navigation grade Inertial Navigation System (INS) technology. Information on the historical development of the technology, basics of operation, task performance goals, application opportunities, and a phase 2 sample of earth rate measurement data will be presented. Funding Provided by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

  16. Resonance test system

    DOEpatents

    Musial, Walter; White, Darris

    2011-05-31

    An apparatus (10) for applying at least one load to a specimen (12) according to one embodiment of the invention may comprise a mass (18). An actuator (20) mounted to the specimen (12) and operatively associated with the mass (18) moves the mass (18) along a linear displacement path (22) that is perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the specimen (12). A control system (26) operatively associated with the actuator (20) operates the actuator (20) to reciprocate the mass (18) along the linear displacement path (22) at a reciprocating frequency, the reciprocating frequency being about equal to a resonance frequency of the specimen (12) in a test configuration.

  17. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Elster, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging is comprehensive, well structured, and well written. The material is current and well referenced. The illustrations are good and complement the text well. The overall quality of publication is above average. The greatest attribute of the book is its readability. The author demonstrates ample skill in making complex subjects, such as MR physics and imaging of cerebral hemorrhage, easy to understand. The book closes with a detailed atlas on the anatomic appearance of the brain on MR images in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes.

  18. Fabrication of a microtoroidal resonator with picometer precise resonant wavelength.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Fei; Lei, Fuchuan; Gao, Ming; Yang, Xu; Qin, Guo-Qing; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-08-01

    Fabricating an optical microresonator with precise resonant wavelength is of significant importance for fundamental research and practical applications. Here, we develop an effective method to fabricate ultra-high Q microtoroid with picometer-precise resonant wavelength. Our method adds a tuning reflow process, using low-power CO2 laser pulses, to the traditional fabrication process. It can tailor resonant wavelength to a red or blue direction by choosing a proper laser power. Also, this shift can be controlled by the exposure time. Meanwhile, quality factor remains nearly unchanged during this tailoring process. Our method can greatly reduce the difficulties of experiments where precise resonances are required. PMID:27472629

  19. High Temperature Superconducting RF Resonators for Resonator Stabilized Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goettee, Jeffrey David

    Electromagnetic resonators made of superconducting materials show unusually sharp resonances because resistive losses are minimized. The availability of high quality thin films of YB_2CU_3 O_{7-delta} (YBCO) with superconducting transitions at 92K has aroused interest in thin film resonators at microwave frequencies for use in filters and oscillators in communication and radar systems. I have investigated the design and radio frequency (rf) properties of superconducting resonators in microstrip geometries (in which the resonant element and a single ground plane are on opposite faces of the LaAlO_3 substrates). This monolithic approach minimizes vibration sensitivity, but exposes the resonators to interactions with the packaging structure. I used niobium (Nb) superconducting 2 GHz resonators at 4.2K to investigate the geometry dependence of the quality factor Q and the high frequency phase noise S_ {y}(f). Q's in excess of 250,000 and S_{y}(1 Hz) = -227 were achieved. Desirable geometries were then fabricated in YBCO thin films produced by coevaporation or sputtering. They typically showed Q's that are a factor of four lower than the comparable Nb resonator, but retained their usefulness to substantially higher temperatures ( ~60K). One of these YBCO resonators was successfully operated to stabilize an oscillator operating at 2 GHz with overall single-sideband phase noise }(1 Hz) = -30 dBc/Hz comparable to the best available competing technologies.

  20. Pressure dependent resonant frequency of micromechanical drumhead resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, D. R.; Craighead, H. G.; Parpia, J. M.

    2009-05-25

    We examine the relationship between squeeze film effects and resonance frequency in drum-type resonators. We find that the resonance frequency increases linearly with pressure as a result of the additional restoring force contribution from compression of gas within the drum cavity. We demonstrate trapping of the gas by squeeze film effects and geometry. The pressure sensitivity is shown to scale inversely with cavity height and sound radiation is found to be the predominant loss mechanism near and above atmospheric pressure. Drum resonators exhibit linearity and sensitivity suitable to barometry from below 10 Torr up to several atmospheres.

  1. Surface-resistance measurements using superconducting stripline resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Hafner, Daniel; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc

    2014-01-15

    We present a method to measure the absolute surface resistance of conductive samples at a set of GHz frequencies with superconducting lead stripline resonators at temperatures 1–6 K. The stripline structure can easily be applied for bulk samples and allows direct calculation of the surface resistance without the requirement of additional calibration measurements or sample reference points. We further describe a correction method to reduce experimental background on high-Q resonance modes by exploiting TEM-properties of the external cabling. We then show applications of this method to the reference materials gold, tantalum, and tin, which include the anomalous skin effect and conventional superconductivity. Furthermore, we extract the complex optical conductivity for an all-lead stripline resonator to find a coherence peak and the superconducting gap of lead.

  2. Electromagnetic Meson Production in the Nucleon Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    Volker Burkert; T.-S. H. Lee

    2004-10-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical advances in investigating electromagnetic meson production reactions in the nucleon resonance region are reviewed. The article gives a description of current experimental facilities with electron and photon beams and presents a unified derivation of most of the phenomenological approaches being used to extract the resonance parameters from the data. The analyses of {pi} and {eta} production data and the resulting transition form factors for the {Delta}(1232)P{sub 33}, N(1535)S{sub 11}, N(1440)P{sub 11}, and N(1520)D{sub 13} resonances are discussed in detail. The status of our understanding of the reactions with production of two pions, kaons, and vector mesons is also reviewed.

  3. Broad Feshbach resonances in collisions of Dy atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julienne, P.; Jachymski, K.; Maier, T.; Ferrier-Barbut, I.; Karan, H.; Schmitt, M.; Wenzel, M.; Wink, C.; Pfau, T.

    2016-05-01

    RF spectroscopy of weakly bound dimers of ultra cold bosonic Dy atoms gives evidence for the emergence of a universal s-wave halo state in a background of chaotic background resonance states. The halo state is associated with a broad magnetic Feshbach resonance. Using a coupled channels theory taking into account the short ranged van dear Waals interaction and a correction due to the strong dipole moment of Dy, we are able to extract the scattering length as a function of magnetic field tuning near two such broad resonances. These results offer prospects for tuning the interactions of Dy atoms in a regime where three-body losses are not too strong. Supported in part by the DFG, the Foundation for Polish Science International Ph. D Projects Programme, and an AFOSR MURI.

  4. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  5. Solvent extraction of diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.

    1984-07-24

    There is provided a method of extracting hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore. The particle size of the ore is first reduced to form a processed ore. The processed ore is then mixed with a substantially irregular granular material to form an unstratified ore mixture having increased permeability to an extracting solvent. The unstratified ore mixture is then permeated with an extracting solvent to obtain a hydrocarbon-solvent stream from which hydrocarbons are subsequently separated. The irregular granular material may be sand.

  6. Texture Coding in the Rat Whisker System: Slip-Stick Versus Differential Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jason; Hill, Dan N; Pahlavan, Sohrab; Drew, Patrick J; Kleinfeld, David; Feldman, Daniel E

    2008-01-01

    Rats discriminate surface textures using their whiskers (vibrissae), but how whiskers extract texture information, and how this information is encoded by the brain, are not known. In the resonance model, whisker motion across different textures excites mechanical resonance in distinct subsets of whiskers, due to variation across whiskers in resonance frequency, which varies with whisker length. Texture information is therefore encoded by the spatial pattern of activated whiskers. In the competing kinetic signature model, different textures excite resonance equally across whiskers, and instead, texture is encoded by characteristic, nonuniform temporal patterns of whisker motion. We tested these models by measuring whisker motion in awake, behaving rats whisking in air and onto sandpaper surfaces. Resonant motion was prominent during whisking in air, with fundamental frequencies ranging from approximately 35 Hz for the long Delta whisker to approximately 110 Hz for the shorter D3 whisker. Resonant vibrations also occurred while whisking against textures, but the amplitude of resonance within single whiskers was independent of texture, contradicting the resonance model. Rather, whiskers resonated transiently during discrete, high-velocity, and high-acceleration slip-stick events, which occurred prominently during whisking on surfaces. The rate and magnitude of slip-stick events varied systematically with texture. These results suggest that texture is encoded not by differential resonant motion across whiskers, but by the magnitude and temporal pattern of slip-stick motion. These findings predict a temporal code for texture in neural spike trains. PMID:18752354

  7. Endovascular extraction techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction We report our experience with lead extraction in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and discuss the indications for extraction in these patients. Patients Eighteen patients with an ICD (mean age 58±12 years) were referred for lead extraction: two patients with infection and 16 with lead dysfunction. Methods Lead extraction was performed with a laser sheath (Excimer) if traction with a locking device was insufficient. New leads were implanted during the same procedure, if applicable. Results Shock leads were successfully extracted in 16 patients and additional pace-sense leads in seven patients. In two patients, the shock conductor was considered unaffected and only a pace-sense lead was exchanged or an additional pace-sense lead inserted. After extraction, new shock leads were implanted in 14 patients. Major complications occurred in one patient: a pericardial tamponade after perforation of the superior caval vein necessitating acute surgery. Conclusion Lead extraction with a laser sheath is effective in ICD patients, but major complications can occur. Our current policy with malfunctioning leads is to extract all leads in which insulation defects cannot be ruled out to avoid interference, but to abandon leads that are without insulation defects and properly insulated. In case of infection, extraction remains the primary treatment of choice. PMID:25696709

  8. Coronary Sinus Lead Extraction.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Edmond M; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2015-12-01

    Expanded indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy and the increasing incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device infection have led to an increased need for coronary sinus (CS) lead extraction. The CS presents unique anatomical obstacles to successful lead extraction. Training and facility requirements for CS lead extraction should mirror those for other leads. Here we review the indications, technique, and results of CS lead extraction. Published success rates and complications are similar to those reported for other leads, although multiple techniques may be required. Re-implantation options may be limited, which should be incorporated into pre-procedural decision making. PMID:26596810

  9. Optical resonator and laser applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention discloses a semi-ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) optical resonator structure comprising a medium including an edge forming a reflective facet and a waveguide within the medium, the waveguide having opposing ends formed by the reflective facet. The performance of the SRFP resonator can be further enhanced by including a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the waveguide on one side of the gain medium. The optical resonator can be employed in a variety of optical devices. Laser structures using at least one SRFP resonator are disclosed where the resonators are disposed on opposite sides of a gain medium. Other laser structures employing one or more resonators on one side of a gain region are also disclosed.

  10. Geometry-invariant resonant cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberal, I.; Mahmoud, A. M.; Engheta, N.

    2016-03-01

    Resonant cavities are one of the basic building blocks in various disciplines of science and technology, with numerous applications ranging from abstract theoretical modelling to everyday life devices. The eigenfrequencies of conventional cavities are a function of their geometry, and, thus, the size and shape of a resonant cavity is selected to operate at a specific frequency. Here we demonstrate theoretically the existence of geometry-invariant resonant cavities, that is, resonators whose eigenfrequencies are invariant with respect to geometrical deformations of their external boundaries. This effect is obtained by exploiting the unusual properties of zero-index metamaterials, such as epsilon-near-zero media, which enable decoupling of the temporal and spatial field variations in the lossless limit. This new class of resonators may inspire alternative design concepts, and it might lead to the first generation of deformable resonant devices.

  11. Geometry-invariant resonant cavities

    PubMed Central

    Liberal, I.; Mahmoud, A. M.; Engheta, N.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant cavities are one of the basic building blocks in various disciplines of science and technology, with numerous applications ranging from abstract theoretical modelling to everyday life devices. The eigenfrequencies of conventional cavities are a function of their geometry, and, thus, the size and shape of a resonant cavity is selected to operate at a specific frequency. Here we demonstrate theoretically the existence of geometry-invariant resonant cavities, that is, resonators whose eigenfrequencies are invariant with respect to geometrical deformations of their external boundaries. This effect is obtained by exploiting the unusual properties of zero-index metamaterials, such as epsilon-near-zero media, which enable decoupling of the temporal and spatial field variations in the lossless limit. This new class of resonators may inspire alternative design concepts, and it might lead to the first generation of deformable resonant devices. PMID:27010103

  12. DISSIPATIVE DIVERGENCE OF RESONANT ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Konstantin; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    A considerable fraction of multi-planet systems discovered by the observational surveys of extrasolar planets reside in mild proximity to first-order mean-motion resonances. However, the relative remoteness of such systems from nominal resonant period ratios (e.g., 2:1, 3:2, and 4:3) has been interpreted as evidence for lack of resonant interactions. Here, we show that a slow divergence away from exact commensurability is a natural outcome of dissipative evolution and demonstrate that libration of critical angles can be maintained tens of percent away from nominal resonance. We construct an analytical theory for the long-term dynamical evolution of dissipated resonant planetary pairs and confirm our calculations numerically. Collectively, our results suggest that a significant fraction of the near-commensurate extrasolar planets are in fact resonant and have undergone significant dissipative evolution.

  13. Micromachined magnetoflexoelastic resonator based magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatipoglu, Gokhan; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the performance of a magnetoflexoelastic magnetometer consisting of a micromachined ultra-thin (7.5 μm) quartz bulk acoustic resonator on which 500 nm thick magnetostrictive Metglas® (Fe85B5Si10) film is deposited. The resonance frequency of the unimorph resonator structure is sensitively affected by the magnetostrictively induced flexoelastic effect in quartz and is exploited to detect low frequency (<100 Hz) and nanoTesla magnetic fields. The resonance frequency shift is measured by tracking the at-resonance admittance of the resonator as a function of the applied magnetic field. The frequency shifts are linearly correlated to the magnetic field strength. A minimum detectable magnetic flux density of ˜79 nT has been measured for 10 Hz modulated magnetic field input signals which corresponds to a frequency sensitivity of 0.883 Hz/μT.

  14. Fermi resonance in optical microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Chang-Hwan; Yu, Hyeon-Hye; Lee, Ji-Won; Kim, Chil-Min

    2015-04-01

    Fermi resonance is a phenomenon of quantum mechanical superposition, which most often occurs between normal and overtone modes in molecular systems that are nearly coincident in energy. We find that scarred resonances in deformed dielectric microcavities are the very phenomenon of Fermi resonance, that is, a pair of quasinormal modes interact with each other due to coupling and a pair of resonances are generated through an avoided resonance crossing. Then the quantum number difference of a pair of quasinormal modes, which is a consequence of quantum mechanical superposition, equals periodic orbits, whereby the resonances are localized on the periodic orbits. We derive the relation between the quantum number difference and the periodic orbits and confirm it in an elliptic, a rectangular, and a stadium-shaped dielectric microcavity.

  15. Quantum Phase Extraction in Isospectral Electronic Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Christopher

    2010-04-28

    Quantum phase is not a direct observable and is usually determined by interferometric methods. We present a method to map complete electron wave functions, including internal quantum phase information, from measured single-state probability densities. We harness the mathematical discovery of drum-like manifolds bearing different shapes but identical resonances, and construct quantum isospectral nanostructures possessing matching electronic structure but divergent physical structure. Quantum measurement (scanning tunneling microscopy) of these 'quantum drums' [degenerate two-dimensional electron states on the Cu(111) surface confined by individually positioned CO molecules] reveals that isospectrality provides an extra topological degree of freedom enabling robust quantum state transplantation and phase extraction.

  16. Optoelectronic characterization of carrier extraction in a hot carrier photovoltaic cell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimmock, James A. R.; Kauer, Matthias; Smith, Katherine; Liu, Huiyun; Stavrinou, Paul N.; Ekins-Daukes, Nicholas J.

    2016-07-01

    A hot carrier photovoltaic cell requires extraction of electrons on a timescale faster than they can lose energy to the lattice. We optically and optoelectronically characterize two resonant tunneling structures, showing their compatability with hot carrier photovoltaic operation, demonstrating structural and carrier extraction properties necessary for such a device. In particular we use time resolved and temperature dependent photoluminescence to determine extraction timescales and energy levels in the structures and demonstrate fast carrier extraction by tunneling. We also show that such devices are capable of extracting photo-generated electrons at high carrier densities, with an open circuit voltage in excess of 1 V.

  17. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Bulatowicz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This presentation will describe the operational principles, design basics, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  18. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James

    2012-06-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation is concluding the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, and design basics of the NMRG including an overview of the NSD designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program. General performance results from phases 3 and 4 will also be presented.

  19. Tunable superconducting microstrip resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamyan, A. A.; Kubatkin, S. E.; Danilov, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    We report on a simple yet versatile design for a tunable superconducting microstrip resonator. Niobium nitride is employed as the superconducting material and aluminum oxide, produced by atomic layer deposition, as the dielectric layer. We show that the high quality of the dielectric material allows to reach the internal quality factors in the order of Qi˜104 in the single photon regime. Qi rapidly increases with the number of photons in the resonator N and exceeds 105 for N ˜10 -50 . A straightforward modification of the basic microstrip design allows to pass a current bias through the strip and to control its kinetic inductance. We achieve a frequency tuning δf =62 MHz around f0=2.4 GHz for a fundamental mode and δf =164 MHz for a third harmonic. This translates into a tuning parameter Qiδf /f0=150 . The presented design can be incorporated into essentially any superconducting circuitry operating at temperatures below 2.5 K.

  20. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOEpatents

    Weller, R.R.

    1995-02-14

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell is disclosed having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions. 5 figs.

  1. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOEpatents

    Weller, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions.

  2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, design, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  3. A mirrorless spinwave resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinel, Olivier; Everett, Jesse L.; Hosseini, Mahdi; Campbell, Geoff T.; Buchler, Ben C.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2015-12-01

    Optical resonance is central to a wide range of optical devices and techniques. In an optical cavity, the round-trip length and mirror reflectivity can be chosen to optimize the circulating optical power, linewidth, and free-spectral range (FSR) for a given application. In this paper we show how an atomic spinwave system, with no physical mirrors, can behave in a manner that is analogous to an optical cavity. We demonstrate this similarity by characterising the build-up and decay of the resonance in the time domain, and measuring the effective optical linewidth and FSR in the frequency domain. Our spinwave is generated in a 20 cm long Rb gas cell, yet it facilitates an effective FSR of 83 kHz, which would require a round-trip path of 3.6 km in a free-space optical cavity. Furthermore, the spinwave coupling is controllable enabling dynamic tuning of the effective cavity parameters.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Litwiller, Daniel V.; Mariappan, Yogesh K.; Ehman, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Often compared to the practice of manual palpation, magnetic resonance elastography is an emerging technology for quantitatively assessing the mechanical properties of tissue as a basis for characterizing disease. The potential of MRE as a diagnostic tool is rooted in the fact that normal and diseased tissues often differ significantly in terms of their intrinsic mechanical properties. MRE uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with the application of mechanical shear waves to probe tissue mechanics. This process can be broken down into three essential steps: inducing shear waves in the tissue,imaging the propagating shear waves with MRI, andanalyzing the wave data to generate quantitative images of tissue stiffness MRE has emerged as a safe, reliable and noninvasive method for staging hepatic liver fibrosis, and is now used in some locations as an alternative to biopsy. MRE is also being used in the ongoing investigations of numerous other organs and tissues, including, for example, the spleen, kidney, pancreas, brain, heart, breast, skeletal muscle, prostate, vasculature, lung, spinal cord, eye, bone, and cartilage. In the article that follows, some fundamental techniques and applications of MRE are summarized. PMID:26361467

  5. A mirrorless spinwave resonator

    PubMed Central

    Pinel, Olivier; Everett, Jesse L.; Hosseini, Mahdi; Campbell, Geoff T.; Buchler, Ben C.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2015-01-01

    Optical resonance is central to a wide range of optical devices and techniques. In an optical cavity, the round-trip length and mirror reflectivity can be chosen to optimize the circulating optical power, linewidth, and free-spectral range (FSR) for a given application. In this paper we show how an atomic spinwave system, with no physical mirrors, can behave in a manner that is analogous to an optical cavity. We demonstrate this similarity by characterising the build-up and decay of the resonance in the time domain, and measuring the effective optical linewidth and FSR in the frequency domain. Our spinwave is generated in a 20 cm long Rb gas cell, yet it facilitates an effective FSR of 83 kHz, which would require a round-trip path of 3.6 km in a free-space optical cavity. Furthermore, the spinwave coupling is controllable enabling dynamic tuning of the effective cavity parameters. PMID:26655839

  6. GAUSSIAN BEAM LASER RESONATOR PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    In designing a laser cavity, the laser engineer is frequently concerned with more than the stability of the resonator. Other considerations include the size of the beam at various optical surfaces within the resonator or the performance of intracavity line-narrowing or other optical elements. Laser resonators obey the laws of Gaussian beam propagation, not geometric optics. The Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators using Gaussian ray trace techniques. It can be used to determine the propagation of radiation through laser resonators. The algorithm used in the Gaussian Beam Resonator program has three major components. First, the ray transfer matrix for the laser resonator must be calculated. Next calculations of the initial beam parameters, specifically, the beam stability, the beam waist size and location for the resonator input element, and the wavefront curvature and beam radius at the input surface to the first resonator element are performed. Finally the propagation of the beam through the optical elements is computed. The optical elements can be modeled as parallel plates, lenses, mirrors, dummy surfaces, or Gradient Index (GRIN) lenses. A Gradient Index lens is a good approximation of a laser rod operating under a thermal load. The optical system may contain up to 50 elements. In addition to the internal beam elements the optical system may contain elements external to the resonator. The Gaussian Beam Resonator program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01). It was developed for the IBM PS/2 80-071 microcomputer and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under MS DOS 3.21. The program was developed in 1988 and requires approximately 95K bytes to operate.

  7. Dispersive tristability in microring resonators.

    PubMed

    Dumeige, Yannick; Féron, Patrice

    2005-12-01

    Combining a transfer matrix analysis and slowly varying envelope approximation, we propose a simple method to describe steady states associated with dispersive multistability in coupled microring resonators. This approach allows us to consider nonlinear interactions between independent forward and backward propagative fields. We applied this simple formalism first to decrease the tristability intensity threshold in linearly coupled resonators and second to optically control the tristable behavior in a single microring resonator. PMID:16486080

  8. Resonance capture at arbitrary inclination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namouni, F.; Morais, M. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Resonance capture is studied numerically in the three-body problem for arbitrary inclinations. Massless particles are set to drift from outside the 1:5 resonance with a Jupiter-mass planet thereby encountering the web of the planet's diverse mean motion resonances. Randomly constructed samples explore parameter space for inclinations from 0 to 180° with 5° increments totalling nearly 6 × 105 numerical simulations. 30 resonances internal and external to the planet's location are monitored. We find that retrograde resonances are unexpectedly more efficient at capture than prograde resonances and that resonance order is not necessarily a good indicator of capture efficiency at arbitrary inclination. Capture probability drops significantly at moderate sample eccentricity for initial inclinations in the range [10°,110°]. Orbit inversion is possible for initially circular orbits with inclinations in the range [60°,130°]. Capture in the 1:1 co-orbital resonance occurs with great likelihood at large retrograde inclinations. The planet's orbital eccentricity, if larger than 0.1, reduces the capture probabilities through the action of the eccentric Kozai-Lidov mechanism. A capture asymmetry appears between inner and outer resonances as prograde orbits are preferentially trapped in inner resonances. The relative capture efficiency of retrograde resonance suggests that the dynamical lifetimes of Damocloids and Centaurs on retrograde orbits must be significantly larger than those on prograde orbits implying that the recently identified asteroids in retrograde resonance, 2006 BZ8, 2008 SO218, 2009 QY6 and 1999 LE31 may be among the oldest small bodies that wander between the outer giant planets.

  9. Resonance capture and Saturn's rings

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, C.W.

    1986-05-01

    We have assigned the resonances apparently responsible for the stabilization of the Saturn's shepherd satellites and for the substructure seen in the F-ring and the ringlets in the C-ring. We show that Saturn's narrow ringlets have a substructure determined by three-body resonances with Saturn's ringmoons and the sun. We believe such resonances have important implications to satellite formation. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Dynamic coupling of plasmonic resonators

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suyeon; Park, Q-Han

    2016-01-01

    We clarify the nature of dynamic coupling in plasmonic resonators and determine the dynamic coupling coefficient using a simple analytic model. We show that plasmonic resonators, such as subwavelength holes in a metal film which can be treated as bound charge oscillators, couple to each other through the retarded interaction of oscillating screened charges. Our dynamic coupling model offers, for the first time, a quantitative analytic description of the fundamental symmetric and anti-symmetric modes of coupled resonators which agrees with experimental results. Our model also reveals that plasmonic electromagnetically induced transparency arises in any coupled resonators of slightly unequal lengths, as confirmed by a rigorous numerical calculation and experiments. PMID:26911786

  11. Electromagnetic production of hyperon resonances

    SciTech Connect

    K. Hicks, D. Keller, W. Tang

    2011-10-01

    The study of hyperon resonances has entered a new era of precision with advent of high-statistics photoproduction data from the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. These data have multi-particle final states, allowing clean identification of exclusive reactions associated with strange mesons and baryons. Examples of physics results are: evidence for isospin interference in the decay of the {Lambda}(1405) resonance; a strong suggestion of meson cloud effects in the structure of the {Sigma}(1385) resonance; data from K* photoproduction that will test the existence of the purported K{sub 0}(800)$ meson. Properties of other hyperon resonances will also be studied in the near future.

  12. Resonant torus-assisted tunneling.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chang-Hwan; Yu, Hyeon-Hye; Kim, Chil-Min

    2016-01-01

    We report a new type of dynamical tunneling, which is mediated by a resonant torus, i.e., a nonisolated periodic orbit. To elucidate the phenomenon, we take an open elliptic cavity and show that a pair of resonances localized on two classically disconnected tori tunnel through a resonant torus when they interact with each other. This so-called resonant torus-assisted tunneling is verified by using Husimi functions, corresponding actions, Husimi function distributions, and the standard deviations of the actions. PMID:26871067

  13. Fano resonances in nanoscale structures

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Flach, Sergej; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2010-07-15

    Modern nanotechnology allows one to scale down various important devices (sensors, chips, fibers, etc.) and thus opens up new horizons for their applications. The efficiency of most of them is based on fundamental physical phenomena, such as transport of wave excitations and resonances. Short propagation distances make phase-coherent processes of waves important. Often the scattering of waves involves propagation along different paths and, as a consequence, results in interference phenomena, where constructive interference corresponds to resonant enhancement and destructive interference to resonant suppression of the transmission. Recently, a variety of experimental and theoretical work has revealed such patterns in different physical settings. The purpose of this review is to relate resonant scattering to Fano resonances, known from atomic physics. One of the main features of the Fano resonance is its asymmetric line profile. The asymmetry originates from a close coexistence of resonant transmission and resonant reflection and can be reduced to the interaction of a discrete (localized) state with a continuum of propagation modes. The basic concepts of Fano resonances are introduced, their geometrical and/or dynamical origin are explained, and theoretical and experimental studies of light propagation in photonic devices, charge transport through quantum dots, plasmon scattering in Josephson-junction networks, and matter-wave scattering in ultracold atom systems, among others are reviewed.

  14. Hyperon Resonance Photoproduction at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    K. Hicks, D. Keller, W. Tang

    2011-02-01

    The study of hyperon resonances has entered a new era of precision with advent of high-statistics photoproduction data from the CLAS detector at Jeffersonnext term Lab. These data have multi-particle final states, allowing clean identification of exclusive reactions associated with strange mesons and baryons. Examples of physics results are: evidence for isospin interference in the decay of the Λ(1405) resonance; a strong suggestion of meson cloud effects in the structure of the Sigma (1385) resonance; data from Klow asterisk photoproduction that will test the existence of the purported K0(800) meson. Properties of other hyperon resonances will also be studied in the near future.

  15. Electromagnetic production of hyperon resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, K.; Keller, D.; Tang, W.

    2011-10-24

    The study of hyperon resonances has entered a new era of precision with advent of high-statistics photoproduction data from the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. These data have multi-particle final states, allowing clean identification of exclusive reactions associated with strange mesons and baryons. Examples of physics results are: evidence for isospin interference in the decay of the {Lambda}(1405) resonance; a strong suggestion of meson cloud effects in the structure of the {Sigma}(1385) resonance; data from K* photoproduction that will test the existence of the purported K{sub 0}(800) meson. Properties of other hyperon resonances will also be studied in the near future.

  16. Properties of resonance wave functions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    More, R. M.; Gerjuoy, E.

    1973-01-01

    Construction and study of resonance wave functions corresponding to poles of the Green's function for several illustrative models of theoretical interest. Resonance wave functions obtained from the Siegert and Kapur-Peierls definitions of the resonance energies are compared. The comparison especially clarifies the meaning of the normalization constant of the resonance wave functions. It is shown that the wave functions may be considered renormalized in a sense analogous to that of quantum field theory. However, this renormalization is entirely automatic, and the theory has neither ad hoc procedures nor infinite quantities.

  17. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    PubMed

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here. PMID:25768747

  18. RF cavity resonator and split-resonator designs.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, P; McJury, M; Glover, P; Clemence, M

    1991-01-01

    A simple high-pass cavity resonator has been constructed for NMR imaging use at 500 MHz. A capacitative circuit arrangement is used to drive the device. A novel split-coil or half-resonator design is also introduced for lower-frequency operation with applications in whole-body medical imaging. PMID:2067387

  19. Tunable, continuous-wave single-resonant optical parametric oscillator with output coupling for resonant wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong-Hua, Zheng; Bao-Fu, Zhang; Zhong-Xing, Jiao; Biao, Wang

    2016-01-01

    We present a continuous-wave singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator with 1.5% output coupling of the resonant signal wave, based on an angle-polished MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN), pumped by a commercial Nd:YVO4 laser at 1064 nm. The output-coupled optical parametric oscillator delivers a maximum total output power of 4.19 W with 42.8% extraction efficiency, across a tuning range of 1717 nm in the near- and mid-infrared region. This indicates improvements of 1.87 W in output power, 19.1% in extraction efficiency and 213 nm in tuning range extension in comparison with the optical parametric oscillator with no output coupling, while at the expense of increasing the oscillation threshold by a factor of ˜ 2. Moreover, it is confirmed that the finite output coupling also contributes to the reduction of the thermal effects in crystal. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61308056, 11204044, 11232015, and 11072271), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20120171110005 and 20130171130003), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 14lgpy07), and the Opening Project of Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory, China (Grant No. ZHD201203).

  20. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Butler, J.P.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of neptuniunn from dissolver solutions by solvent extraction. The neptunium containing solution should be about 5N, in nitric acid.and about 0.1 M in ferrous ion. The organic extracting agent is tributyl phosphate, and the neptuniunn is recovered from the organic solvent phase by washing with water.

  1. Extractive distillation method

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Sh.; Miyamoto, M.

    1984-05-08

    A method is disclosed for separating a hydrocarbon mixture into relatively difficulty soluble hydrocarbons and relatively easily soluble hydrocarbons by extractive distillation using a polar solvent. The method comprises feeding the starting hydrocarbon mixture to at least two evaporators, an extractive distillation column, a stripping column and a rectifying column; the improvement wherein (1) the polar solvent discharged at a high temperature from the bottom of the stripping column is recycled to the extractive distillation column after it has been cooled to a suitable temperature by giving up heat to a reboiler of the extractive distillation column, a reboiler of the rectifying column and successively to the two or more evaporators, and (2) the starting hydrocarbon mixture is divided into two or more streams and heated in two or more evaporators, one stream being evaporated in a first evaporator to a pressure necessary for introduction into the extractive distillation column and then fed to the extractive distillation column, and the other stream, after evaporation in a second and subsequent evaporators, being pressurized to a pressure required for introduction into the extractive distillation column by means of a compressor and then fed into the extractive distillation column.

  2. Effect of three-pion unitarity on resonance poles from heavy meson decays

    SciTech Connect

    Satoshi X. Nakamura

    2011-10-01

    We study the final state interaction in 3-pion decay of meson resonances at the Excited Baryon Analysis Center (EBAC) of JLab. We apply the dynamical coupled-channels formulation which has been extensively used by EBAC to extract N* information. The formulation satisfies the 3-pion unitarity condition which has been missed in the existing works with the isobar models. We report the effect of the 3-pion unitarity on the meson resonance pole positions and Dalitz plot.

  3. Resonance lock and planetary dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghighipour, Nader

    1999-11-01

    The main purpose of this study is to utilize the method of partial averaging in order to analyze the dynamics of a planetary system while captured in resonance. A restricted planar circular three-body system, consisting of a star and two planets, is studied as a simple model for a planetary system. The mass of the inner planet is considered to be larger and the system is assumed to be moving in a freely rotating uniform interplanetary medium with constant density. Numerical integrations of this system indicate a resonance capture when the dynamical friction of the interplanetary medium is taken into account. As a result of this resonance trapping, the ratio of orbital periods of the two planets becomes nearly commensurable and the eccentricity and semimajor axis of the osculating orbit of the outer planet and also its angular momentum and total energy become constant. It appears from the numerical work that the resulting commensurability and also the resonant values of the orbital elements of the outer planet are essentially independent of the initial relative positions of the two bodies. In order to analytically explain this resonance phenomenon, the method of partial averaging near a resonance is utilized and the dynamics of the partially averaged system at resonance is studied. The finding that resonance lock occurs for all initial relative positions of the two planets is confirmed by analyzing the dynamics of the first order partially averaged system at resonance. It is also shown in this study that the first- order partially averaged system at resonance does not provide a complete picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the system and the similarity between the dynamical behavior of the averaged system and the main planetary system holds only for short time intervals. To overcome these limitations, the method of partial averaging near a resonance is extended to the second order of perturbation and a complete picture of the dynamical behavior of the system at

  4. Hidden variables: the resonance factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Juliana H. J.

    2009-08-01

    In 1900 Max Karl Planck performed his famous black-body radiation work which sparked the quantum revolution. Re-examination of that work has revealed hidden variables, consistent with Einstein's famous sentiment that quantum mechanics is incomplete due to the existence of "hidden variables". The recent discovery of these previously hidden variables, which have been missing from foundational equations for more than one hundred years, has important implications for theoretical, experimental and applied sciences and technologies. Planck attempted to integrate the new "resonant Hertzian (electromagnetic) waves", with existing Helmholtz theories on energy and thermodynamics. In his famous January 1901, paper on black-body radiation, Planck described two significant hypotheses - his well known Quantum Hypothesis, and his more obscure Resonance Hypothesis. Few scientists today are aware that Planck hypothesized resonant electromagnetic energy as a form of non-thermal energy available to perform work on a molecular basis, and that Planck's Resonance Hypothesis bridged the gap between classical Helmholtz energy state dynamics of the bulk macrostate, and energy state dynamics of the molecular microstate. Since the black-body experimental data involved only a thermal effect and not a resonant effect, Planck excluded the resonant state in his black-body derivation. He calculated Boltzmann's constant "kB" using completely thermal/entropic data, arriving at a value of 1.38 ×10-23 J K-1 per molecule, representing the internal energy of a molecule under completely thermal conditions. He further hypothesized, however, that if resonant energy was present in a system, the resonant energy would be "free to be converted into work". Planck seems to have been caught up in the events of the quantum revolution and never returned to his Resonance Hypothesis. As a result, a mathematical foundation for resonance dynamics was never completed. Boltzmann's constant was adopted into

  5. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance petrophysics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Boqin; Dunn, Keh-Jim

    2005-02-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) opens a wide area for exploration in petrophysics and has significant impact to petroleum logging technology. When there are multiple fluids with different diffusion coefficients saturated in a porous medium, this information can be extracted and clearly delineated from CPMG measurements of such a system either using regular pulsing sequences or modified two window sequences. The 2D NMR plot with independent variables of T2 relaxation time and diffusion coefficient allows clear separation of oil and water signals in the rocks. This 2D concept can be extended to general studies of fluid-saturated porous media involving other combinations of two or more independent variables, such as chemical shift and T1/T2 relaxation time (reflecting pore size), proton population and diffusion contrast, etc. PMID:15833623

  6. Proton Spin Structure in the Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    F. R. Wesselmann; K. Slifer; S. Tajima; A. Aghalaryan; A. Ahmidouch; R. Asaturyan; F. Bloch; W. Boeglin; P. Bosted; C. Carasco; R. Carlini; J. Cha; J. P. Chen; M. E. Christy; L. Cole; L. Coman; D. Crabb; S. Danagoulian; D. Day; J. Dunne; M. Elaasar; R. Ent; H. Fenker; E. Frlez; L. Gan; D. Gaskell; J. Gomez; B. Hu; M. K. Jones; J. Jourdan; C. Keith; C. E. Keppel; M. Khandaker; A. Klein; L. Kramer; Y. Liang; J. Lichtenstadt; R. Lindgren; D. Mack; P. McKee; D. McNulty; D. Meekins; H. Mkrtchyan; R. Nasseripour; I. Niculescu; K. Normand; B. Norum; D. Pocanic; Y. Prok; B. Raue; J. Reinhold; J. Roche; D. Rohe; O. A. Rondon; N. Savvinov; B. Sawatzky; M. Seely; I. Sick; C. Smith; G. Smith; S. Stepanyan; L. Tang; G. Testa; W. Vulcan; K. Wang; G. Warren; S. Wood; C. Yan; L. Yuan; Junho Yun; Markus Zeier; Hong Guo Zhu

    2006-10-11

    The RSS collaboration has measured the spin structure functions g{sub 1} and g{sub 2} of the proton at Jefferson Lab using the lab's polarized electron beam, the Hall C HMS spectrometer and the UVa polarized solid target. The asymmetries A{sub parallel} and A{sub perp} were measured at the elastic peak and in the region of the nucleon resonances (1.085 GeV < W < 1.910 GeV) at an average four momentum transfer of Q{sup 2} = 1.3 GeV{sup 2}. The extracted spin structure functions and their kinematic dependence make a significant contribution in the study of higher-twist effects and polarized duality tests.

  7. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and homogeneity in polycrystals.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Gunes; Darling, T W; McCall, K R

    2009-01-01

    Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is capable of determining the bulk elastic properties of a solid from its characteristic vibration frequencies, given the dimensions, density and shape of the sample. The model used for extracting values of the elastic constants assumes perfect homogeneity, which can be approximated by average-isotropic polycrystals. This approximation is excellent in the small grain regime assumed for most averaging procedures, but for real samples with indeterminate grain size distributions, it is not clear where the approximation breaks down. RUS measurements were made on pure copper samples where the grain size distribution was changed by progressive heat treatments in order to find a quantitative limit for the loss of homogeneity. It is found that when a measure of the largest grains is 15% of the sample's smallest dimension, the deviation in RUS fits indicates elastic inhomogeneity. PMID:18804831

  8. Virtual magnetic resonance colonography

    PubMed Central

    Debatin, J; Lauenstein, T

    2003-01-01

    Colorectal cancer screening has vast potential. Beyond considerations for cost and diagnostic accuracy, the effectiveness of any colorectal screening strategy will be dependent on the degree of patient acceptance. Magnetic resonance (MR) colonography has been shown to be accurate regarding the detection of clinically relevant colonic polyps exceeding 10 mm in size, with reported sensitivity and specificity values exceeding 95%. To further increase patient acceptance, strategies for fecal tagging have recently been developed. By modulating the signal of fecal material to be identical to the signal characteristics of the enema applied to distend the colon, fecal tagging in conjunction with MR colonography obviates the need for bowel cleansing. The review will describe the techniques underlying MR colonography and describe early clinical experience with fecal tagging techniques. PMID:12746264

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Duodenoscope.

    PubMed

    Syms, Richard R A; Young, Ian R; Wadsworth, Christopher A; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; Rea, Marc

    2013-12-01

    A side-viewing duodenoscope capable of both optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The instrument is constructed from MR-compatible materials and combines a coherent fiber bundle for optical imaging, an irrigation channel and a side-opening biopsy channel for the passage of catheter tools with a tip saddle coil for radio-frequency signal reception. The receiver coil is magnetically coupled to an internal pickup coil to provide intrinsic safety. Impedance matching is achieved using a mechanically variable mutual inductance, and active decoupling by PIN-diode switching. (1)H MRI of phantoms and ex vivo porcine liver specimens was carried out at 1.5 T. An MRI field-of-view appropriate for use during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was obtained, with limited artefacts, and a signal-to-noise ratio advantage over a surface array coil was demonstrated. PMID:23807423

  10. On carbon nanotube resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruntu, Dumitru I.; Salinas Trevino, Cone S.

    2011-04-01

    This paper deals with electrostatically actuated Carbon NanoTubes (CNT) cantilevers for sensor applications. There are three kinds of forces acting on the CNT cantilever: electrostatic, elastostatic, and van der Waals. The van der Waals forces are significant for values of 50 nm or lower of the gap between the CNT and the ground plate. As both forces, electrostatic and van der Waals, are nonlinear, and the CNT electrostatic actuation is given by AC voltage, the CNT dynamics is nonlinear parametric. The method of multiple scales is used to investigate the system under soft excitations and/or weakly nonlinearities. The frequency-amplitude and frequency-phase behavior are found in the case of primary resonance.

  11. Nonlinearity of Helmholtz resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirignano, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of the nonlinear damping of pressure oscillations by means of acoustic liners consisting of a perforated plate communicating with a volume or of individual Helmholtz resonators. A nonlinear analysis leads to a modified first-order theory; in particular, some second-order damping effects (due to the formation of jets through the orifices) are considered, while other less important damping effects (of second order) are neglected. The effect of the vena contracta in the orifice flow is also taken into account, and the conditions of maximum damping are discussed. A determination is made of the orifice velocity, the cavity pressure, the admittance coefficient, the resistance, and the reactance, and good agreement is found between the theoretically determined resistance and orifice velocity and the pertinent experimental data.

  12. Unstable resonator diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.L.

    1988-04-19

    In a semiconductor diode laser, a structure is described comprising: a generally planar active layer, across which a forward bias voltage is applied, cladding layers adjacent to the active layer, to confine light in a direction perpendicular to the active layer, and first and second facets; in which the first facet is curved to present a concave part-cylindrical reflective surface toward the active layer, and in which the second facet includes a curved portion presenting a convex part-cylindrical reflective surface toward the active layer and a planar portion that is non-reflective. The curvatures of the two curved surfaces have axes of curvature that are approximately perpendicular to the active layer, the curvatures being selected to form an unstable resonator, in which light is confined in a particular sense by the cladding layers and from which energy is out-coupled through the planar portion of the second facet.

  13. Subinertial canyon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Allan J.; Van Gorder, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Near the bottom of a narrow canyon currents that oscillate back and forth along the bottom slope hx in a stratified ocean of buoyancy frequency N do so with a natural internal gravitational frequency Nhx. From May 2012 to May 2013 Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler measurements were made at 715 m depth in the deep narrow part of the DeSoto Canyon south of Pensacola, Florida, in water with 2π/Nhx ≈ 2.5 days. Above the canyon the flow follows the large-scale isobaths, but beneath the canyon rim the current oscillates along the canyon axis with 2-3 day periodicity, and is much stronger than and uncorrelated with the overlying flow. A simple theoretical model explains the resonant response. Published observations from the Hudson and Gully canyons suggest that the strong subinertial current oscillations observed in these canyons occur close to the relevant local frequency Nhx, consistent with the proposed simple model physics.

  14. Cascaded resonant bridge converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A converter for converting a low voltage direct current power source to a higher voltage, high frequency alternating current output for use in an electrical system where it is desired to use low weight cables and other circuit elements. The converter has a first stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which converts the direct current power source to an alternating current by means of switching elements that are operated by a variable frequency voltage regulator, a transformer to step up the voltage of the alternating current, and a rectifier bridge to convert the alternating current to a direct current first stage output. The converter further has a second stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which is connected in series to the first stage converter to receive its direct current output and convert it to a second stage high frequency alternating current output by means of switching elements that are operated by a fixed frequency oscillator. The voltage of the second stage output is controlled at a relatively constant value by controlling the first stage output voltage, which is accomplished by controlling the frequency of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller in response to second stage voltage. Fault tolerance in the event of a load short circuit is provided by making the operation of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller responsive to first and second stage current limiting devices. The second stage output is connected to a rectifier bridge whose output is connected to the input of the second stage to provide good regulation of output voltage wave form at low system loads.

  15. Baryon Spectroscopy and Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Edwards

    2011-12-01

    A short review of current efforts to determine the highly excited state spectrum of QCD, and in particular baryons, using lattice QCD techniques is presented. The determination of the highly excited spectrum of QCD is a major theoretical and experimental challenge. The experimental investigation of the excited baryon spectrum has been a long-standing element of the hadronic-physics program, an important component of which is the search for so-called 'missing resonances', baryonic states predicted by the quark model based on three constituent quarks but which have not yet been observed experimentally. Should such states not be found, it may indicate that the baryon spectrum can be modeled with fewer effective degrees of freedom, such as in quark-diquark models. In the past decade, there has been an extensive program to collect data on electromagnetic production of one and two mesons at Jefferson Lab, MIT-Bates, LEGS, MAMI, ELSA, and GRAAL. To analyze these data, and thereby refine our knowledge of the baryon spectrum, a variety of physics analysis models have been developed at Bonn, George Washington University, Jefferson Laboratory and Mainz. To provide a theoretical determination and interpretation of the spectrum, ab initio computations within lattice QCD have been used. Historically, the calculation of the masses of the lowest-lying states, for both baryons and mesons, has been a benchmark calculation of this discretized, finite-volume computational approach, where the aim is well-understood control over the various systematic errors that enter into a calculation; for a recent review. However, there is now increasing effort aimed at calculating the excited states of the theory, with several groups presenting investigations of the low-lying excited baryon spectrum, using a variety of discretizations, numbers of quark flavors, interpolating operators, and fitting methodologies. Some aspects of these calculations remain unresolved and are the subject of intense

  16. Superposition of Inductive and Capacitive Coupling in Superconducting LC Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladchenko, Sergiy; Khalil, Moe; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.; Osborn, Kevin D.

    2011-06-01

    We present an experimental investigation of lumped-element superconducting LC resonators designed to provide different types of coupling to a transmission line. We have designed four resonator geometries including dipole and quadrupole configured inductors connected in parallel with low loss SiNx dielectric parallel-plate capacitors. The design of the resonator allows a small change in the symmetry of the inductor or grounding of the capacitor to allow LC resonators with: 1) inductive coupling, 2) capacitive coupling, 3) both types of coupling, or 4) greatly reduced coupling. We measured all four designs at a temperature of 30mK at different values of power. We compare the extracted data from the four resonator types and find that both capacitive and inductive coupling can be included and that when left off, only a minor change in the circuit design is necessary. We also find a variation in the measured loss tangent of less than a few percent, which is a test of the systematic precision of the measurement technique.

  17. Passive linearization of nonlinear resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, G.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the addition of properly tuned nonlinearities to a nonlinear system can increase the range over which a specific resonance responds linearly. Specifically, we seek to enforce two important properties of linear systems, namely, the force-displacement proportionality and the invariance of resonance frequencies. Numerical simulations and experiments are used to validate the theoretical findings.

  18. Whispering Gallery Mode Optomechanical Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aveline, David C.; Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Yu, Nan; Yee, Karl Y.

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been made in both micromechanical resonators and micro-optical resonators over the past decade, and a new field has recently emerged combining these mechanical and optical systems. In such optomechanical systems, the two resonators are strongly coupled with one influencing the other, and their interaction can yield detectable optical signals that are highly sensitive to the mechanical motion. A particularly high-Q optical system is the whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator, which has many applications ranging from stable oscillators to inertial sensor devices. There is, however, limited coupling between the optical mode and the resonator s external environment. In order to overcome this limitation, a novel type of optomechanical sensor has been developed, offering great potential for measurements of displacement, acceleration, and mass sensitivity. The proposed hybrid device combines the advantages of all-solid optical WGM resonators with high-quality micro-machined cantilevers. For direct access to the WGM inside the resonator, the idea is to radially cut precise gaps into the perimeter, fabricating a mechanical resonator within the WGM. Also, a strategy to reduce losses has been developed with optimized design of the cantilever geometry and positions of gap surfaces.

  19. Resonance parameter measurements and analysis of gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Leinweber, G.; Barry, D. P.; Trbovich, M. J.; Burke, J. A.; Drindak, N. J.; Knox, H. D.; Ballad, R. V.; Block, R. C.; Danon, Y.; Severnyak, L. I.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of the present work is to measure the neutron cross sections of gadolinium accurately. Gd has the highest thermal absorption cross section of any natural element. Therefore it is an important element for thermal reactor applications Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-of-flight technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst. (RPI) LINAC facility using metallic and liquid Gd samples. The liquid samples were isotopically-enriched in either {sup 155}Gd or {sup 157}Gd. The capture measurements were made at the 25-m flight station with a sodium iodide detector, and the transmission measurements were performed at 15- and 25-m flight stations with {sup 6}Li glass scintillation detectors. The multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY was used to extract resonance parameters. The results of the thermal region analysis are significant. Resonance parameters for the low energy doublet, at 0.025 and 0.032 eV, are presented. The thermal (2200 m/s) capture cross section of {sup 157}Gd has been measured to be 11% smaller than that calculated from ENDF/B-VI updated through release 8. Thermal capture cross sections and capture resonance integrals for each isotope as well as elemental gadolinium are presented. In the epithermal region, natural metal samples were measured in capture and transmission. Neutron interaction data up to 300 eV have been analyzed. Substantial improvement to the understanding of gadolinium cross sections is presented, particularly above 180 eV where the ENDF resolved region for {sup 155}Gd ends. (authors)

  20. Tune space manipulations in jumping depolarizing resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, L.G.; Ahrens, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    In February 1986, the AGS polarized beam reached a momentum of 22 GeV/c with a 45% polarization and an intensity of 1 to 2 x 10/sup 10/ polarized protons per pulse at a repetition rate of 2.1 seconds. In order to achieve this, one had to overcome the effect of some 40 depolarizing resonances. In our first commissioning run in 1984, we had reached 16.5 GeV/c using, with suitable modifications, the conventional techniques first used at the Argonne ZGS. This worked well, but we found that the fast tune shifts required to cross the intrinsic depolarizing resonances were causing an increase in beam emittance which led to the need for stronger corrections later in the cycle and to diminished extraction efficiency. For the 1986 run, we were prepared to minimize this emittance growth by the application of slow quadrupole pulses to change the region in tune space in which we operated the first tune quads. In this paper we give a brief description of the conventional corrections, but our main emphasis is on the descriptions of tune space manipulations.

  1. Mercury's resonant rotation from secular orbital elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Hussmann, Hauke

    2015-11-01

    We used recently produced Solar System ephemerides, which incorporate 2 years of ranging observations to the MESSENGER spacecraft, to extract the secular orbital elements for Mercury and associated uncertainties. As Mercury is in a stable 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, these values constitute an important reference for the planet's measured rotational parameters, which in turn strongly bear on physical interpretation of Mercury's interior structure. In particular, we derive a mean orbital period of (87.96934962 ± 0.00000037) days and (assuming a perfect resonance) a spin rate of (6.138506839± 0.000000028)°/day. The difference between this rotation rate and the currently adopted rotation rate (Archinal et al. in Celest Mech Dyn Astron 109(2):101-135, 2011. doi:10.1007/s10569-010-9320-4), corresponds to a longitudinal displacement of approx. 67 m per year at the equator. Moreover, we present a basic approach for the calculation of the orientation of the instantaneous Laplace and Cassini planes of Mercury. The analysis allows us to assess the uncertainties in physical parameters of the planet, when derived from observations of Mercury's rotation.

  2. Electronic resonances in broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Batignani, G.; Pontecorvo, E.; Giovannetti, G.; Ferrante, C.; Fumero, G.; Scopigno, T.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy is a formidable tool to probe molecular vibrations. Under electronic resonance conditions, the cross section can be selectively enhanced enabling structural sensitivity to specific chromophores and reaction centers. The addition of an ultrashort, broadband femtosecond pulse to the excitation field allows for coherent stimulation of diverse molecular vibrations. Within such a scheme, vibrational spectra are engraved onto a highly directional field, and can be heterodyne detected overwhelming fluorescence and other incoherent signals. At variance with spontaneous resonance Raman, however, interpreting the spectral information is not straightforward, due to the manifold of field interactions concurring to the third order nonlinear response. Taking as an example vibrational spectra of heme proteins excited in the Soret band, we introduce a general approach to extract the stimulated Raman excitation profiles from complex spectral lineshapes. Specifically, by a quantum treatment of the matter through density matrix description of the third order nonlinear polarization, we identify the contributions which generate the Raman bands, by taking into account for the cross section of each process. PMID:26728791

  3. Resonance Parameter Adjustment Based on Integral Experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sobes, Vladimir; Leal, Luiz; Arbanas, Goran; Forget, Benoit

    2016-06-02

    Our project seeks to allow coupling of differential and integral data evaluation in a continuous-energy framework and to use the generalized linear least-squares (GLLS) methodology in the TSURFER module of the SCALE code package to update the parameters of a resolved resonance region evaluation. We recognize that the GLLS methodology in TSURFER is identical to the mathematical description of a Bayesian update in SAMMY, the SAMINT code was created to use the mathematical machinery of SAMMY to update resolved resonance parameters based on integral data. Traditionally, SAMMY used differential experimental data to adjust nuclear data parameters. Integral experimental data, suchmore » as in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments Project, remain a tool for validation of completed nuclear data evaluations. SAMINT extracts information from integral benchmarks to aid the nuclear data evaluation process. Later, integral data can be used to resolve any remaining ambiguity between differential data sets, highlight troublesome energy regions, determine key nuclear data parameters for integral benchmark calculations, and improve the nuclear data covariance matrix evaluation. Moreover, SAMINT is not intended to bias nuclear data toward specific integral experiments but should be used to supplement the evaluation of differential experimental data. Using GLLS ensures proper weight is given to the differential data.« less

  4. Electronic resonances in broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batignani, G.; Pontecorvo, E.; Giovannetti, G.; Ferrante, C.; Fumero, G.; Scopigno, T.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy is a formidable tool to probe molecular vibrations. Under electronic resonance conditions, the cross section can be selectively enhanced enabling structural sensitivity to specific chromophores and reaction centers. The addition of an ultrashort, broadband femtosecond pulse to the excitation field allows for coherent stimulation of diverse molecular vibrations. Within such a scheme, vibrational spectra are engraved onto a highly directional field, and can be heterodyne detected overwhelming fluorescence and other incoherent signals. At variance with spontaneous resonance Raman, however, interpreting the spectral information is not straightforward, due to the manifold of field interactions concurring to the third order nonlinear response. Taking as an example vibrational spectra of heme proteins excited in the Soret band, we introduce a general approach to extract the stimulated Raman excitation profiles from complex spectral lineshapes. Specifically, by a quantum treatment of the matter through density matrix description of the third order nonlinear polarization, we identify the contributions which generate the Raman bands, by taking into account for the cross section of each process.

  5. Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Landis, Clark R.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a set of simple, inexpensive, classical demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles that illustrate the resonance condition associated with magnetic dipoles and the dependence of the resonance frequency on environment. (WRM)

  6. Transverse-longitudinal integrated resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, Donald P; Simpson, Marcus L; Simpson, John T

    2003-03-11

    A transverse-longitudinal integrated optical resonator (TLIR) is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide. The PBG is positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings. An electro-optic waveguide material may be used to permit tuning the TLIR and to permit the TLIR to perform signal modulation and switching. The TLIR may be positioned on a bulk substrate die with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a TLIR including fabricating a broadband reflective grating is disclosed. A method for tuning the TLIR's transmission resonance wavelength is also disclosed.

  7. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lai, J.S.; Peng, F.Z.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Ott, G.W. Jr.

    1998-01-20

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 36 figs.

  8. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Peng, Fang Zheng; Young, Sr., Robert W.; Ott, Jr., George W.

    1998-01-01

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

  9. Electromembrane extraction of peptides.

    PubMed

    Balchen, Marte; Reubsaet, Léon; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2008-06-20

    Rapid extraction of eight different peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) was demonstrated for the first time. During an extraction time of 5 min, the model peptides migrated from a 500 microL aqueous acidic sample solution, through a thin supported liquid membrane (SLM) of an organic liquid sustained in the pores in the wall of a porous hollow fiber, and into a 25 microL aqueous acidic acceptor solution present inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The driving force of the extraction was a 50 V potential sustained across the SLM, with the positive electrode in the sample and the negative electrode in the acceptor solution. The nature and the composition of the SLM were highly important for the EME process, and a mixture of 1-octanol and 15% di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate was found to work properly. Using 1mM HCl as background electrolyte in the sample and 100 mM HCl in the acceptor solution, and agitation at 1050 rpm, enrichment up to 11 times was achieved. Recoveries were found to be dependent on the structure of the peptide, indicating that the polarity and the number of ionized groups were important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. The experimental findings suggested that electromembrane extraction of peptides is possible and may be a valuable tool for future extraction of peptides. PMID:18479691

  10. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  11. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  12. Cavities for electron spin resonance: predicting the resonant frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, John; Miller, Kyle; Meehan, Michael; Spencer, Ross

    Microwave cavities are used in electron spin resonance to enhance magnetic fields. Dielectric resonators (DRs), pieces of high dielectric material, can be used to tailor the resonant frequency of a cavity. However, designing cavities with DRs to obtain desired frequencies is challenging and in general can only be done numerically with expensive software packages. We present a new method for calculating the resonant frequencies and corresponding field modes for cylindrically symmetric cavities and apply it to a cavity with vertically stacked DRs. The modes of an arbitrary cavity are expressed as an expansion of empty cavity modes. The wave equation for D gives rise to an eigenvalue equation whose eigenvalues are the resonant frequencies and whose eigenvectors yield the electric and magnetic fields of the mode. A test against theory for an infinitely long dielectric cylinder inside an infinite cavity yields an accuracy better than 0.4% for nearly all modes. Calculated resonant frequencies are also compared against experiment for quasi-TE011 modes in resonant cavities with ten different configurations of DRs; experimental results agree with predicted values with an accuracy better than 1.0%. MATLAB code is provided at http://www.physics.byu.edu/research/coltonlab/cavityresonance.

  13. What is the γγ resonance at 750 GeV?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschini, Roberto; Giudice, Gian F.; Kamenik, Jernej F.; McCullough, Matthew; Pomarol, Alex; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Redi, Michele; Riva, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Torre, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Run 2 LHC data show hints of a new resonance in the diphoton distribution at an invariant mass of 750 GeV. We analyse the data in terms of a new boson, extracting information on its properties and exploring theoretical interpretations. Scenarios covered include a narrow resonance and, as preliminary indications suggest, a wider resonance. If the width indications persist, the new particle is likely to belong to a strongly-interacting sector. We also show how compatibility between Run 1 and Run 2 data is improved by postulating the existence of an additional heavy particle, whose decays are possibly related to dark matter.

  14. Oilseed extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D. A.

    1985-05-07

    A process is provided for the recovery of a separate lecithin/phosphatide-rich product during the extraction of soybeans with an isopropanol-based solvent. The invention comprises steps for contacting soybeans with solvent to obtain an extracted seed meal and a solvent extract of seedoils and lecithin and related phosphatides, cooling miscella to a temperature in the range from about 30/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/ F., phase separating the cooled miscella, recovering from the phase separation an upper solvent-rich phase, an intermediate lecithin/phosphatide-rich phase and a lower crude oil phase, and directly recycling the solvent-rich phase to the extractor.

  15. Solvent extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Woodle, R.A.

    1982-01-19

    A solvent refining process is disclosed utilizing n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent in which primary extract from the extraction zone is cooled to form a secondary raffinate and secondary extract and the secondary and primary raffinates are blended to produce an increased yield of product of desired quality. In a preferred embodiment of the process, the lubricating oil feedstock to the process is first contacted with a stripping medium previously used in the process for the recovery of solvent from at least one of the product streams whereby solvent contained in said stripping medium is recovered therefrom.

  16. An analysis method for asymmetric resonator transmission applied to superconducting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, M. S.; Stoutimore, M. J. A.; Wellstood, F. C.; Osborn, K. D.

    2012-03-01

    We examine the transmission through nonideal microwave resonant circuits. The general analytical resonance line shape is derived for both inductive and capacitive coupling with mismatched input and output transmission impedances, and it is found that, for certain non-ideal conditions, the line shape is asymmetric. We describe an analysis method for extracting an accurate internal quality factor (Qi), the diameter correction method (DCM), and compare it to the conventional method used for millikelvin resonator measurements, the φ rotation method (φRM). We analytically find that the φRM deterministically overestimates Qi when the asymmetry of the resonance line shape is high, and that this error is eliminated with the DCM. A consistent discrepancy between the two methods is observed when they are used to analyze both simulations from a numerical linear solver and data from asymmetric coplanar superconducting thin-film resonators.

  17. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Three Axis Vector Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James

    2012-06-01

    The Northrop Grumman Corporation is leveraging the technology developed for the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) to build a combined Electron Paramagnetic Resonance -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (EPR-NMR) magnetometer. The EPR-NMR approach provides a high bandwidth and high sensitivity simultaneous measurement of all three vector components of the magnetic field averaged over the small volume of the sensor's one vapor cell. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, and design basics of the EPR-NMR magnetometer including an overview of the NSD designs developed and demonstrated to date. General performance results will also be presented.

  18. Nonlinear optical whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators comprising nonlinear optical materials, where the nonlinear optical material of a WGM resonator includes a plurality of sectors within the optical resonator and nonlinear coefficients of two adjacent sectors are oppositely poled.

  19. Quartz crystal and superconductive resonators and oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Besson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A general overview of piezoelectric resonators is given with emphasis on evolution of the resonator design. Superconducting cavities and crystals at low temperature and the use of resonant frequencies are also discussed.

  20. Electron extraction mechanisms of a micro-ECR neutralizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takao, Yoshinori; Hiramoto, Kenta; Nakagawa, Yuichi; Kasagi, Yusuke; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional particle simulations have been conducted to analyze the mechanisms of electron extraction through the orifices of a 4.2 GHz microwave discharge microneutralizer, using a xenon electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The dimensions of the neutralizer are 20 × 20 × 4 mm3, and a ring-shaped microwave antenna and permanent magnets are employed for its discharges. The numerical model is composed of a particle-in-cell simulation with a Monte Carlo collision algorithm for charged particle motions, a finite-difference time-domain method for microwaves, and a finite element analysis for magnetostatic fields. The simulation results have shown that the electrostatic field inside the plasma source has a dominant effect on electron extraction. The extracted electrons move along the magnetic field line to the orifice entrances and the E × B drift at the orifice edge induces electron extraction.

  1. Extraction of cyanobacterial endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, John; Linke, Thomas A; Kapralos, Con; Nicholson, Brenton C; Steffensen, Dennis A

    2004-02-01

    To simplify our efforts in acquiring toxicological information on endotoxins produced by cyanobacteria, a method development study was undertaken to identify relatively hazard-free and efficient procedures for their extraction. One article sourced and two novel methods were evaluated for their ability to extract lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) or endotoxins from cyanobacteria. The Limulus polyphemus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay was employed to compare the performance of a novel method utilizing a 1-butanol-water (HBW) solvent system to that of Westphal's (1965) phenol-water system (HPW) for the extraction of endotoxin from various cyanobacteria. The traditional HPW method extracted from 3- to 12-fold more endotoxin from six different cyanobacterial blooms and culture materials than did the novel HBW method. In direct contrast, the novel HBW method extracted ninefold more endotoxin from a non-microcystin producing Microcystis aeruginosa culture as compared to the HPW method. A solvent system utilizing N,N'-dimethylformamide-water (HDW) was compared to both the HPW and HBW methods for the extraction of endotoxin from natural samples of Anabaena circinalis, Microcystis flos-aquae, and a 1:1 mixture of Microcystis aeruginosa/Microcystisflos-aquae. The LAL activities of these extracts showed that the novel HDW method extracted two- and threefold more endotoxin from the Anabaena sample that did the HBW and HPW methods, respectively. The HDW method also extracted approximately 1.5-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae sample as compared to both the HBW and HPW methods. On the other hand, the HBW method extracted 2- and 14-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae/Microcystis aeruginosa mixture than did the HPW and HDW methods, respectively. Results of this study demonstrate that significant disparities exist between the physicochemical properties of the cell wall constituents not only of different cyanobacterial species but also of different strains of

  2. Tunable Micro- and Nanomechanical Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Ming; Hu, Kai-Ming; Peng, Zhi-Ke; Meng, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Advances in micro- and nanofabrication technologies have enabled the development of novel micro- and nanomechanical resonators which have attracted significant attention due to their fascinating physical properties and growing potential applications. In this review, we have presented a brief overview of the resonance behavior and frequency tuning principles by varying either the mass or the stiffness of resonators. The progress in micro- and nanomechanical resonators using the tuning electrode, tuning fork, and suspended channel structures and made of graphene have been reviewed. We have also highlighted some major influencing factors such as large-amplitude effect, surface effect and fluid effect on the performances of resonators. More specifically, we have addressed the effects of axial stress/strain, residual surface stress and adsorption-induced surface stress on the sensing and detection applications and discussed the current challenges. We have significantly focused on the active and passive frequency tuning methods and techniques for micro- and nanomechanical resonator applications. On one hand, we have comprehensively evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of each strategy, including active methods such as electrothermal, electrostatic, piezoelectrical, dielectric, magnetomotive, photothermal, mode-coupling as well as tension-based tuning mechanisms, and passive techniques such as post-fabrication and post-packaging tuning processes. On the other hand, the tuning capability and challenges to integrate reliable and customizable frequency tuning methods have been addressed. We have additionally concluded with a discussion of important future directions for further tunable micro- and nanomechanical resonators. PMID:26501294

  3. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  4. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  5. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  6. Functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Bradley R

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) maps the spatiotemporal distribution of neural activity in the brain under varying cognitive conditions. Since its inception in 1991, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has rapidly become a vital methodology in basic and applied neuroscience research. In the clinical realm, it has become an established tool for presurgical functional brain mapping. This chapter has three principal aims. First, we review key physiologic, biophysical, and methodologic principles that underlie BOLD fMRI, regardless of its particular area of application. These principles inform a nuanced interpretation of the BOLD fMRI signal, along with its neurophysiologic significance and pitfalls. Second, we illustrate the clinical application of task-based fMRI to presurgical motor, language, and memory mapping in patients with lesions near eloquent brain areas. Integration of BOLD fMRI and diffusion tensor white-matter tractography provides a road map for presurgical planning and intraoperative navigation that helps to maximize the extent of lesion resection while minimizing the risk of postoperative neurologic deficits. Finally, we highlight several basic principles of resting-state fMRI and its emerging translational clinical applications. Resting-state fMRI represents an important paradigm shift, focusing attention on functional connectivity within intrinsic cognitive networks. PMID:27432660

  7. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Mirijanian, James; Pavell, James

    2015-05-01

    The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) is being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC). Cold and hot atom interferometer based gyroscopes have suffered from Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) challenges and limits in bandwidth, scale factor stability, dead time, high rotation rate, vibration, and acceleration. NMRG utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as a reference for determining rotation, providing continuous measurement, high bandwidth, stable scale factor, high rotation rate measurement, and low sensitivity to vibration and acceleration in a low SWaP package. The sensitivity to vibration has been partially tested and demonstrates no measured sensitivity within error bars. Real time closed loop implementation of the sensor significantly decreases environmental and systematic sensitivities and supports a compact and low power digital signal processing and control system. Therefore, the NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost SWaP package. The poster will describe the history, operation, and design of the NMRG. General performance results will also be presented along with recent vibration test results.

  8. Accessible magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, L; Arakawa, M; Hale, J; Rothschild, P; Carlson, J; Hake, K; Kramer, D; Lu, W; Van Heteren, J

    1989-10-01

    The cost of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is driven by magnetic field strength. Misperceptions as to the impact of field strength on performance have led to systems that are more expensive than they need to be. Careful analysis of all the factors that affect diagnostic quality lead to the conclusion that field strength per se is not a strong determinant of system performance. Freed from the constraints imposed by high-field operation, it is possible to exploit a varied set of opportunities afforded by low-field operation. In addition to lower costs and easier siting, we can take advantage of shortened T1 times, higher contrast, reduced sensitivity to motion, and reduced radiofrequency power deposition. These conceptual advantages can be made to coalesce onto practical imaging systems. We describe a low-cost MRI system that utilizes a permanent magnet of open design. Careful optimization of receiving antennas and acquisition sequences permit performance levels consistent with those needed for an effective diagnostic unit. Ancillary advantages include easy access to the patient, reduced claustrophobia, quiet and comfortable operation, and absence of a missile effect. The system can be sited in 350 sq ft and consumes a modest amount of electricity. MRI equipment of this kind can widen the population base than can access this powerful and beneficial diagnostic modality. PMID:2640910

  9. Shedding light on diphoton resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Nathaniel; Draper, Patrick; Kilic, Can; Thomas, Scott

    2016-06-01

    The experimental and theoretical implications of heavy digauge boson resonances that couple to, or are comprised of, new charged and strongly interacting matter are investigated. Observation and measurement of ratios of the resonant digauge boson channels W W , Z Z , γ γ , Z γ , and g g in the form of dijets provide a rather direct—and for some ratios a rather robust—probe of the gauge representations of the new matter. For a spin-zero resonance with the quantum numbers of the vacuum, the ratios of resonant W W and Z Z to γ γ channels, as well as the longitudinal vs transverse polarization fractions in the W W and Z Z channels, provide probes for possible mixing with the Higgs boson, while di-Higgs and ditop resonant channels, h h and t t , provide somewhat less sensitivity. We present a survey of possible underlying models for digauge boson resonances by considering various limits for the mass of the new charged and strongly interacting matter fields as well as the confinement scale of new hypergauge interactions under which they may also be charged. In these limits, resonances may be included as elementary weakly coupled spin-zero states or can correspond to hyperglueballs, hyperonia, or pseudoscalar hypermesons. For each of these cases, we make predictions for additional states that could be resonantly or pair produced and observed at the Large Hadron Collider or in future collider experiments. Heavy digauge boson resonances can provide a unified explanation for a number of small discrepancies and excesses in reported data from the Large Hadron Collider.

  10. Single-resonator double-negative metamaterial

    DOEpatents

    Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Johnson, William A.; Ihlefeld, Jon; Ginn, III, James C.; Clem, Paul G.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2016-06-21

    Resonances can be tuned in dielectric resonators in order to construct single-resonator, negative-index metamaterials. For example, high-contrast inclusions in the form of metallic dipoles can be used to shift the first electric resonance down (in frequency) to the first magnetic resonance, or alternatively, air splits can be used to shift the first magnetic resonance up (in frequency) near the first electric resonance. Degenerate dielectric designs become especially useful in infrared- or visible-frequency applications where the resonator sizes associated with the lack of high-permittivity materials can become of sufficient size to enable propagation of higher-order lattice modes in the resulting medium.

  11. Stepped Impedance Resonators for High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Akgun, Can E.; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J.; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) multi-element transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections referred to as stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) is investigated. Single element simulation results in free space and in a phantom at 7 tesla (298 MHz) demonstrate the rationale and feasibility of the SIR design strategy. Simulation and image results at 7 tesla in a phantom and human head illustrate the improvements in transmit magnetic field, as well as, RF efficiency (transmit magnetic field versus SAR) when two different SIR designs are incorporated in 8-element volume coil configurations and compared to a volume coil consisting of microstrip elements. PMID:23508243

  12. Apparatus for investigating resonance with application to magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Sytil; Jones, Dyan L.; Gross, Josh; Zollman, Dean

    2015-11-01

    Resonance is typically studied in the context of either a pendulum or a mass on a spring. We have developed an apparatus that enables beginning students to investigate resonant behavior of changing magnetic fields, in addition to the properties of the magnetic field due to a wire and the superposition of magnetic fields. In this resonant system, a compass oscillates at a frequency determined by the compass's physical properties and an external magnetic field. While the analysis is mathematically similar to that of the pendulum, this apparatus has an advantage that the magnetic field is easily controlled, while it is difficult to control the strength of gravity. This apparatus has been incorporated into a teaching module on magnetic resonance imaging.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Paul H.; Brainard, James R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  15. Conditions for sustained resonance. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kath, W. L.

    1983-06-01

    A generalized form of Kerkorian's (1974, 1978) model of sustained reentry roll resonance, which occurs when a slightly asymmetric ballistic spacecraft reenters the earth's atmosphere, is examined using a method proposed by Haberman (1983). This method determines the width of the energy band in which solutions are entrained into sustained resonance, thereby enabling a sufficient condition for entrainment to and continuation of sustained resonance to be given. Both the width of the energy band and the sufficient condition are calculated in terms of the slowly varying pitching and yawing frequency, which is assumed to be known.

  16. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  17. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  18. Designing dielectric resonators on substrates: combining magnetic and electric resonances.

    PubMed

    van de Groep, J; Polman, A

    2013-11-01

    High-performance integrated optics, solar cells, and sensors require nanoscale optical components at the surface of the device, in order to manipulate, redirect and concentrate light. High-index dielectric resonators provide the possibility to do this efficiently with low absorption losses. The resonances supported by dielectric resonators are both magnetic and electric in nature. Combined scattering from these two can be used for directional scattering. Most applications require strong coupling between the particles and the substrate in order to enhance the absorption in the substrate. However, the coupling with the substrate strongly influences the resonant behavior of the particles. Here, we systematically study the influence of particle geometry and dielectric environment on the resonant behavior of dielectric resonators in the visible to near-IR spectral range. We show the key role of retardation in the excitation of the magnetic dipole (MD) mode, as well as the limit where no MD mode is supported. Furthermore, we study the influence of particle diameter, shape and substrate index on the spectral position, width and overlap of the electric dipole (ED) and MD modes. Also, we show that the ED and MD mode can selectively be enhanced or suppressed using multi-layer substrates. And, by comparing dipole excitation and plane wave excitation, we study the influence of driving field on the scattering properties. Finally, we show that the directional radiation profiles of the ED and MD modes in resonators on a substrate are similar to those of point-dipoles close to a substrate. Altogether, this work is a guideline how to tune magnetic and electric resonances for specific applications. PMID:24216852

  19. Extraction processes for bioproduct separation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartl, J.; Marr, R.

    1993-01-01

    The three-phase extraction process, a modification of reactive extraction, was investigated for its applicability in the separation of organic acids from fermentation broth. It was compared with reactive extraction, liquid membrane permeation, and supercritical fluid extraction. These processes are based on the use of amine extractants, which have to be dissolved in nonpolar solvents, for the extraction of carboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, and aminocarboxylic acids. This paper considers the comparison of the above-mentioned processes. Furthermore, the extractability of acids from synthetic aqueous solutions and fermented broths was compared. Principal consideration was paid to the extraction of lactic acid, gluconic acid, citric acid, and L-leucine.

  20. Resonance IR: a coherent multidimensional analogue of resonance Raman.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Erin S; Neff-Mallon, Nathan A; Handali, Jonathan D; Wright, John C

    2014-05-01

    This work demonstrates the use of triply resonant sum frequency (TRSF) spectroscopy as a "resonance IR" analogue to resonance Raman spectroscopy. TRSF is a four-wave-mixing process where three lasers with independent frequencies interact coherently with a sample to generate an output at their triple summation frequency. The first two lasers are in the infrared and result in two vibrational excitations, while the third laser is visible and induces a two-quantum anti-Stokes resonance Raman transition. The signal intensity grows when the laser frequencies are all in resonance with coupled vibrational and electronic states. The method therefore provides electronic enhancement of IR-active vibrational modes. These modes may be buried beneath solvent in the IR spectrum and also be Raman-inactive and therefore inaccessible by other techniques. The method is presented on the centrosymmetric complex copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate. In this study, the two vibrational frequencies were scanned across ring-breathing modes, while the visible frequency was left in resonance with the copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate Q band, resulting in a two-dimensional infrared plot that also reveals coupling between vibrational states. TRSF has the potential to be a very useful probe of structurally similar biological motifs such as hemes, as well as synthetic transition-metal complexes. PMID:24707979

  1. Cyclotron resonance in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, Erik Alfred

    We present a study of cyclotron resonance in graphene. Graphene is a novel two-dimensional system consisting of a single sheet of atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, and exhibits a unique, linear low-energy dispersion. Bilayer graphene, two sheets stacked together, is an equally interesting system displaying a second unique, but hyperbolic, dispersion. In this work, we study the quantized Landau levels of these systems in strong magnetic fields, via Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. We have fabricated large area single layer and bilayer graphene devices on infrared-transparent Si/SiO2 substrates, using standard electron beam lithography and thin-film liftoff techniques. At cryogenic temperatures and high magnetic fields, we measure the infrared transmission through these devices as a function of the back gate voltage, which changes the Fermi level and hence the carrier density. We analyze the normalized transmission traces, assigning the observed minima to the cyclotron resonance wherein carriers are excited between Landau levels. In single layer graphene, we study Landau level transitions near the charge neutral Dirac point, and find a set of particle-hole symmetric transitions, both within the conduction and valence band, and between the bands. These experiments confirm the unusual B- and n -dependencies of the LL energies, where B is the magnetic field and n the LL index. The CR selection rule is determined to be Delta n = |nfinal| -- |n initial| = +/-1. The ratio of the observed interband and intraband transitions exceeds the expected value by 5%, and this excess is interpreted as an additional contribution to the transition energy from many-particle effects. We explore several higher LL transitions for both electron and hole doping of single layer graphene. The data are consistent with a renormalization of the carrier band velocity near the Dirac point, and suggest that impurity scattering strengthens at low energies. We also study the CR at the

  2. Calligraphic Poling for WGM Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohageg, Makan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Ilchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute

    2007-01-01

    By engineering the geometry of a nonlinear optical crystal, the effective efficiency of all nonlinear optical oscillations can be increased dramatically. Specifically, sphere and disk shaped crystal resonators have been used to demonstrate nonlinear optical oscillations at sub-milliwatt input power when cs light propagates in a Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) of such a resonant cavity. in terms of both device production and experimentation in quantum optics, some nonlinear optical effects with naturally high efficiency can occult the desired nonlinear scattering process. the structure to the crystal resonator. In this paper, I will discuss a new method for generating poling structures in ferroelectric crystal resonators called calligraphic poling. The details of the poling apparatus, experimental results and speculation on future applications will be discussed.

  3. Resonance Trapping in Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour, Nader H.

    1998-09-01

    We study dynamics of a planetary system that consists of a star and two planets taking into account dynamical friction. Numerical integrations of a restricted planar circular three body model of this system indicate resonance capture. The main purpose of this paper is to present the results of an extensive numerical experiment performed on this model and also to present analytical arguments for the observed resonance trapping and its consequences. The equations of motion are written in terms of Delaunay variables and the recently developed method of partial averaging near resonance* is employed in order to account for the behavior of the system at resonance. * C.Chicone, B.Mashhoon and D.Retzloff, Ann.Inst.Henri Poincare, Vol.64, no 1, 1996, p.87-125.

  4. Morphological resonances for multicomponent immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, W. B.; Shapiro, M. J.; Ramsey, J. M.; Bronk, B. V.

    1995-06-01

    An immunoassay technique capable of detecting and identifying a number of species of microorganisms in a single analysis is described. The method uses optical-resonance size discrimination of microspheres to identify antibodies to which stained microorganisms are bound.

  5. Dynamical generation of pseudoscalar resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Albaladejo, M.; Oller, J. A.; Roca, L.

    2010-11-01

    We study the interactions between the f{sub 0}(980) and a{sub 0}(980) scalar resonances and the lightest pseudoscalar mesons. We first obtain the elementary interaction amplitudes, or interacting kernels, without including any ad hoc free parameter. This is achieved by using previous results on the nature of the lightest scalar resonances as dynamically generated from the rescattering of S-wave two-meson pairs. Afterwards, the interaction kernels are unitarized and the final S-wave amplitudes result. We find that these interactions are very rich and generate a large amount of pseudoscalar resonances that could be associated with the K(1460), {pi}(1300), {pi}(1800), {eta}(1475), and X(1835). We also consider the exotic channels with isospin 3/2 and 1, the latter having positive G-parity. The former could also be resonant in agreement with a previous prediction.

  6. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, M. J.; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Perock, B.; Heeck, K.; de Man, S.; Bouwmeester, D.

    2016-01-01

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si3N4 with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.

  7. Solvent extraction studies of holmium with acidic extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Gaikwad, A.G.; Damodaran, A.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction studies of holmium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, naphthenic, and Versatic 10 acids have been carried out. The nature of the extracted species and the extraction equilibrium constants of these systems have been determined from aqueous nitrate solution. The extraction mechanism and complexation models have been proposed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Resonance-filtered beam spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brugger, R.M.; Taylor, A.D.; Olsen, C.E.; Goldstone, J.A.; Soper, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    A new inelastic neutron scattering spectrometer which operates in the range 1 eV to 15 eV has been developed at the Los Alamos pulsed spallation source WNR. Based on a nuclear resonance filtering the beam, the concept has been tested in direct, inverted and sample geometries. A number of resonance filters have been tested to determine their effectiveness. The spectrometer is described and examples of data are presented.

  9. Lasing from active optomechanical resonators.

    PubMed

    Czerniuk, T; Brüggemann, C; Tepper, J; Brodbeck, S; Schneider, C; Kamp, M; Höfling, S; Glavin, B A; Yakovlev, D R; Akimov, A V; Bayer, M

    2014-01-01

    Planar microcavities with distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) host, besides confined optical modes, also mechanical resonances due to stop bands in the phonon dispersion relation of the DBRs. These resonances have frequencies in the 10- to 100-GHz range, depending on the resonator's optical wavelength, with quality factors exceeding 1,000. The interaction of photons and phonons in such optomechanical systems can be drastically enhanced, opening a new route towards the manipulation of light. Here we implemented active semiconducting layers into the microcavity to obtain a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Thereby, three resonant excitations--photons, phonons and electrons--can interact strongly with each other providing modulation of the VCSEL laser emission: a picosecond strain pulse injected into the VCSEL excites long-living mechanical resonances therein. As a result, modulation of the lasing intensity at frequencies up to 40 GHz is observed. From these findings, prospective applications of active optomechanical resonators integrated into nanophotonic circuits may emerge. PMID:25008784

  10. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, D.R.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Bivens, H.M.; Wessendorf, K.O.

    1994-08-16

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a telemetered sensor beacon'' that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20--100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available. 21 figs.

  11. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, Dale R.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Bivens, Hugh M.; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    1994-01-01

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.

  12. Universal formalism of Fano resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Luo, Hong-Gang; Grebogi, Celso

    2015-01-15

    The phenomenon of Fano resonance is ubiquitous in a large variety of wave scattering systems, where the resonance profile is typically asymmetric. Whether the parameter characterizing the asymmetry should be complex or real is an issue of great experimental interest. Using coherent quantum transport as a paradigm and taking into account of the collective contribution from all available scattering channels, we derive a universal formula for the Fano-resonance profile. We show that our formula bridges naturally the traditional Fano formulas with complex and real asymmetry parameters, indicating that the two types of formulas are fundamentally equivalent (except for an offset). The connection also reveals a clear footprint for the conductance resonance during a dephasing process. Therefore, the emergence of complex asymmetric parameter when fitting with experimental data needs to be properly interpreted. Furthermore, we have provided a theory for the width of the resonance, which relates explicitly the width to the degree of localization of the close-by eigenstates and the corresponding coupling matrices or the self-energies caused by the leads. Our work not only resolves the issue about the nature of the asymmetry parameter, but also provides deeper physical insights into the origin of Fano resonance. Since the only assumption in our treatment is that the transport can be described by the Green’s function formalism, our results are also valid for broad disciplines including scattering problems of electromagnetic waves, acoustics, and seismology.

  13. Astrophysics of resonant orbits in the Kerr metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-04-01

    band of space-based gravitational wave detectors such as eLISA. When interpreted within the context of the supermassive black hole at the Galactic center, Sgr A*, this implies that characteristic length scales of 41 μ as and 55 μ as and time scales of 50 min and 79 min respectively should be associated with resonant effects if Sgr A* is nonspinning, while spin decreases these values by up to ˜32 % and ˜28 %. These length scales are potentially resolvable with radio very-long-baseline interferometry measurements using the Event Horizon Telescope. We find that all low-order resonances are localized to the strong field region. In particular, for distances r >50 Rs from the black hole, the order of the resonances is sufficiently large that resonant effects of generic perturbations are not expected to lead to drastic changes in the dynamics. This fact guarantees the validity of using approximations based on averaging to model the orbital trajectory and frequency evolution of a test object in this region. Observing orbital motion in the intermediate region 50 Rsextracting the multipole moments of the central object by observing the orbit of a pulsar—since the object is close enough to be sensitive to the quadruple moment of the central object but far enough away not to be subjected to resonant effects.

  14. White Light Emission from Vegetable Extracts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikram; Mishra, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    A mixture of extracts from two common vegetables, red pomegranate and turmeric, when photoexcited at 380 nm, produced almost pure white light emission (WLE) with Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity index (0.35, 0.33) in acidic ethanol. It was also possible to obtain WLE in polyvinyl alcohol film (0.32, 0.25), and in gelatin gel (0.26, 0.33) using the same extract mixture. The colour temperature of the WLE was conveniently tunable by simply adjusting the concentrations of the component emitters. The primary emitting pigments responsible for contributing to WLE were polyphenols and anthocyanins from pomegranate, and curcumin from turmeric. It was observed that a cascade of Forster resonance energy transfer involving polyphenolics, curcumin and anthocyanins played a crucial role in obtaining a CIE index close to pure white light. The optimized methods of extraction of the two primary emitting pigments from their corresponding plant sources are simple, cheap and fairly green. PMID:26083264

  15. White Light Emission from Vegetable Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikram; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2015-01-01

    A mixture of extracts from two common vegetables, red pomegranate and turmeric, when photoexcited at 380 nm, produced almost pure white light emission (WLE) with Commission Internationale d’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity index (0.35, 0.33) in acidic ethanol. It was also possible to obtain WLE in polyvinyl alcohol film (0.32, 0.25), and in gelatin gel (0.26, 0.33) using the same extract mixture. The colour temperature of the WLE was conveniently tunable by simply adjusting the concentrations of the component emitters. The primary emitting pigments responsible for contributing to WLE were polyphenols and anthocyanins from pomegranate, and curcumin from turmeric. It was observed that a cascade of Forster resonance energy transfer involving polyphenolics, curcumin and anthocyanins played a crucial role in obtaining a CIE index close to pure white light. The optimized methods of extraction of the two primary emitting pigments from their corresponding plant sources are simple, cheap and fairly green. PMID:26083264

  16. White Light Emission from Vegetable Extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vikram; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2015-06-01

    A mixture of extracts from two common vegetables, red pomegranate and turmeric, when photoexcited at 380 nm, produced almost pure white light emission (WLE) with Commission Internationale d’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity index (0.35, 0.33) in acidic ethanol. It was also possible to obtain WLE in polyvinyl alcohol film (0.32, 0.25), and in gelatin gel (0.26, 0.33) using the same extract mixture. The colour temperature of the WLE was conveniently tunable by simply adjusting the concentrations of the component emitters. The primary emitting pigments responsible for contributing to WLE were polyphenols and anthocyanins from pomegranate, and curcumin from turmeric. It was observed that a cascade of Forster resonance energy transfer involving polyphenolics, curcumin and anthocyanins played a crucial role in obtaining a CIE index close to pure white light. The optimized methods of extraction of the two primary emitting pigments from their corresponding plant sources are simple, cheap and fairly green.

  17. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using medicinal Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi Maria, Babu; Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

    2015-08-01

    In the present paper, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract is reported. Z. xylopyrus bark extract is efficiently used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance peaks in the range 413-420 nm confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. Different factors affecting the synthesis of silver nanoparticles like methodology for the preparation of extract, concentration of silver nitrate solution used for biosynthesis and initial pH of the reaction mixture were studied. The extract prepared with 10 mM AgNO3 solution by reflux extraction method at optimum initial pH of 11, resulted in higher conversion of silver ions to silver nanoparticles as compared with those prepared by open heating or ultrasonication. SEM analysis showed that the biosynthesized nanoparticles are spherical in nature and ranged from 60 to 70 nm in size. EDX suggested that the silver nanoparticles must be capped by the organic components present in the plant extract. This simple process for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Z. xylopyrus is a green technology without the usage of hazardous and toxic solvents and chemicals and hence is environment friendly. The process has several advantages with reference to cost, compatibility for its application in medical and drug delivery, as well as for large-scale commercial production.

  18. Beam current enhancement of microwave plasma ion source utilizing double-port rectangular cavity resonator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuna; Park, Yeong-Shin; Jo, Jong-Gab; Yang, J J; Hwang, Y S

    2012-02-01

    Microwave plasma ion source with rectangular cavity resonator has been examined to improve ion beam current by changing wave launcher type from single-port to double-port. The cavity resonators with double-port and single-port wave launchers are designed to get resonance effect at TE-103 mode and TE-102 mode, respectively. In order to confirm that the cavities are acting as resonator, the microwave power for breakdown is measured and compared with the E-field strength estimated from the HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) simulation. Langmuir probe measurements show that double-port cavity enhances central density of plasma ion source by modifying non-uniform plasma density profile of the single-port cavity. Correspondingly, beam current from the plasma ion source utilizing the double-port resonator is measured to be higher than that utilizing single-port resonator. Moreover, the enhancement in plasma density and ion beam current utilizing the double-port resonator is more pronounced as higher microwave power applied to the plasma ion source. Therefore, the rectangular cavity resonator utilizing the double-port is expected to enhance the performance of plasma ion source in terms of ion beam extraction. PMID:22380295

  19. Beam current enhancement of microwave plasma ion source utilizing double-port rectangular cavity resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yuna; Park, Yeong-Shin; Jo, Jong-Gab; Yang, J. J.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2012-02-15

    Microwave plasma ion source with rectangular cavity resonator has been examined to improve ion beam current by changing wave launcher type from single-port to double-port. The cavity resonators with double-port and single-port wave launchers are designed to get resonance effect at TE-103 mode and TE-102 mode, respectively. In order to confirm that the cavities are acting as resonator, the microwave power for breakdown is measured and compared with the E-field strength estimated from the HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) simulation. Langmuir probe measurements show that double-port cavity enhances central density of plasma ion source by modifying non-uniform plasma density profile of the single-port cavity. Correspondingly, beam current from the plasma ion source utilizing the double-port resonator is measured to be higher than that utilizing single-port resonator. Moreover, the enhancement in plasma density and ion beam current utilizing the double-port resonator is more pronounced as higher microwave power applied to the plasma ion source. Therefore, the rectangular cavity resonator utilizing the double-port is expected to enhance the performance of plasma ion source in terms of ion beam extraction.

  20. A numerical study of non-collinear wave mixing and generated resonant components.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhenghao; Li, Fucai; Li, Hongguang

    2016-09-01

    Interaction of two non-collinear nonlinear ultrasonic waves in an elastic half-space with quadratic nonlinearity is investigated in this paper. A hyperbolic system of conservation laws is applied here and a semi-discrete central scheme is used to solve the numerical problem. The numerical results validate that the model can be used as an effective method to generate and evaluate a resonant wave when two primary waves mix together under certain resonant conditions. Features of the resonant wave are analyzed both in the time and frequency domains, and variation trends of the resonant waves together with second harmonics along the propagation path are analyzed. Applied with the pulse-inversion technique, components of resonant waves and second harmonics can be independently extracted and observed without distinguishing times of flight. The results show that under the circumstance of non-collinear wave mixing, both sum and difference resonant components can be clearly obtained especially in the tangential direction of their propagation. For several rays of observation points around the interaction zone, the further it is away from the excitation sources, generally the earlier the maximum of amplitude arises. From the parametric analysis of the phased array, it is found that both the length of array and the density of element have impact on the maximum of amplitude of the resonant waves. The spatial distribution of resonant waves will provide necessary information for the related experiments. PMID:27403643

  1. Magma energy extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Ortega, A.; Hickox, C.E.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P.; Boehm, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The rate at which energy can be extracted from crustal magma bodies has an important influence on the economic viability of the magma energy concept. Open heat exchanger systems where fluid is circulated through solidified magma offer the promise of high energy extraction rates. This concept was successfully demonstrated during experiments in the molten zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake. Ongoing research is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of open systems in a crustal magma body. These studies show that magma solidifying around a cooled borehole will be extensively fractured and form a permeable medium through which fluid can be circulated. Numerical modeling of the complete magma energy extraction process predicts that high quality thermal energy can be delivered to the wellhead at rates that will produce from 25 to 30 MW electric.

  2. Magma Energy Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Ortega, A.; Hickox, C.E.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P.; Boehm, R.F.

    1987-01-20

    The rate at which energy can be extracted from crustal magma bodies has an important influence on the economic viability of the magma energy concept. Open heat exchanger systems where fluid is circulated through solidified magma offer the promise of high energy extraction rates. This concept was successfully demonstrated during experiments in the molten zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake. Ongoing research is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of open systems in a crustal magma body. These studies show that magma solidifying around a cooled borehole will be extensively fractured and form a permeable medium through which fluid can be circulated. Numerical modeling of the complete magma energy extraction process predicts that high quality thermal energy can be delivered to the wellhead at rates that will produce from 25 to 30 MW electric. 10 figs., 10 refs.

  3. [Femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx)].

    PubMed

    Blum, M; Sekundo, W

    2010-10-01

    Starting in 2006 a new "all femto" method of refractive correction for myopia and myopic astigmatism was introduced. This new method was originally introduced as femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) and further developed with a small incision into SMILE (small incision lenticule extraction). To simplify the terminology the manufacturer brought this onto the market in April 2010 as ReLEx (refractive lenticule extraction). In this procedure a lenticule of intrastromal corneal tissue and a flap-like access cut are subsequently cut utilizing the VisuMax® femtosecond system (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany). The lenticule is then manually removed and the flap repositioned (only by FLEx). In approximately 1,000 successful surgical operations only few side effects were found. The number of eyes treated is currently being expanded in order to further standardize this new clinical procedure. PMID:20694728

  4. Extraction for ISABELLE

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, J.; Foelsche, H.

    1981-01-01

    The design specifications for ISABELLE, a superconducting proton storage ring facility under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory call for circulating beam intensities of up to 6 x 10/sup 14/ protons at 400 GeV energy in each ring. The energy stored in the beam is 41 Megajoules, an order of magnitude more than what has been dealt with in the past. This beam energy cannot be safely disposed of within the confines of the ISABELLE lattice if damage to the dump or quenching of the superconducting magnets is to be avoided. Therefore the full intensity beam must be extracted from the storage rings under all circumstances of emergency or routine beam disposal. Beam losses in excess of 10/sup -3/ of the full beam can jeoardize the extraction components and lead to magnet quenching as well. In this note a conceptual design of the extraction system is summarized and the major constraints which lead to the parameters chosen are discussed.

  5. Graded-index whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode optical resonators which have spatially-graded refractive indices. In one implementation, the refractive index spatially increases with a distance from an exterior surface of such a resonator towards an interior of the resonator to produce substantially equal spectral separations for different whispering gallery modes. An optical coupler may be used with such a resonator to provide proper optical coupling.

  6. Resonant Raman scattering in nanoscale pentacene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui; Dujovne, Irene; Chen, Liwei; Miao, Qian; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.; Pinczuk, Aron; Nuckolls, Colin; Kloc, Christian; Ron, Arza

    2004-02-01

    Resonant Raman scattering intensities from nanoscale films of pentacene display large resonant enhancements that enable observation of vibrational modes in monolayer cluster films. The resonant enhancements occur when the outgoing photon energy overlaps the free exciton optical transitions observed in luminescence. The results point to the significant potential of resonant Raman methods in the characterization of nanoscale structures of organic molecular semiconductors.

  7. Ambient resonance of rock arches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Alison Margaret

    Resonant frequencies of structural elements are related to fundamental material properties of mass and stiffness, and monitoring over time can thus serve as an indirect indictor of internal mechanical change. Until now, however, this methodology has not been applied to natural rock structures such as arches and towers. We evaluated the resonance characteristics of four rock arches in southeastern Utah, combining in-situ ambient vibration measurements with numerical modal analysis. At each location, we measured the spectral and polarization attributes of ambient vibrations using up to two broadband seismometers. Ambient vibration spectra measured on the arches showed clear peaks at distinct frequencies (typically between 1-10 Hz), which we interpret as resonant frequencies, as opposed to the relatively flat spectra recorded on nearby bedrock. Polarization analysis helped us identify the orientations of vibration and explore resonant mode shapes. We then verified the measured resonant frequencies through 3D finite-element numerical modal analysis, and in most cases we were able to match the fundamental along with several higher-order modes. Repeat occupation and short-term continuous ambient vibration monitoring were aimed at assessing daily and seasonal changes in resonant frequencies, which in turn may provide evidence of internal mechanical change; Mesa Arch in Canyonlands National Park served as the main focus for our repeat measurements. Results revealed that minor, reversible changes in resonant frequencies can be created by thermal effects, i.e., changes in bulk material stiffness as the arch expands and contracts on daily and seasonal time scales. No irreversible change in the resonant frequency of Mesa Arch was detected over the period of this study. Our research provides the first step towards monitoring the long-term structural health of natural rock arches as they change through time or in the wake of a damaging event. We have shown that the resonance

  8. Ferromagnetic resonance in ϵ-Co magnetic composites.

    PubMed

    Chalapat, Khattiya; Timonen, Jaakko V I; Huuppola, Maija; Koponen, Lari; Johans, Christoffer; Ras, Robin H A; Ikkala, Olli; Oksanen, Markku A; Seppälä, Eira; Paraoanu, G S

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic properties of assemblies of nanoscale ϵ-cobalt crystals with size range between 5 to 35 nm, embedded in a polystyrene matrix, at microwave (1-12 GHz) frequencies. We investigate the samples by transmission electron microscopy imaging, demonstrating that the particles aggregate and form chains and clusters. By using a broadband coaxial-line method, we extract the magnetic permeability in the frequency range from 1 to 12 GHz, and we study the shift of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) with respect to an externally applied magnetic field. We find that the zero-magnetic field ferromagnetic resonant peak shifts towards higher frequencies at finite magnetic fields, and the magnitude of complex permeability is reduced. At fields larger than 2.5 kOe the resonant frequency changes linearly with the applied magnetic field, demonstrating the transition to a state in which the nanoparticles become dynamically decoupled. In this regime, the particles inside clusters can be treated as non-interacting, and the peak position can be predicted from Kittel's FMR theory for non-interacting uniaxial spherical particles combined with the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. In contrast, at low magnetic fields this magnetic order breaks down and the resonant frequency in zero magnetic field reaches a saturation value reflecting the interparticle interactions as resulting from aggregation. Our results show that the electromagnetic properties of these composite materials can be tuned by external magnetic fields and by changes in the aggregation structure. PMID:25397945

  9. Statistics of chaotic resonances in an optical microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Lippolis, Domenico; Li, Ze-Yang; Jiang, Xue-Feng; Gong, Qihuang; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2016-04-01

    Distributions of eigenmodes are widely concerned in both bounded and open systems. In the realm of chaos, counting resonances can characterize the underlying dynamics (regular vs chaotic), and is often instrumental to identify classical-to-quantum correspondence. Here, we study, both theoretically and experimentally, the statistics of chaotic resonances in an optical microcavity with a mixed phase space of both regular and chaotic dynamics. Information on the number of chaotic modes is extracted by counting regular modes, which couple to the former via dynamical tunneling. The experimental data are in agreement with a known semiclassical prediction for the dependence of the number of chaotic resonances on the number of open channels, while they deviate significantly from a purely random-matrix-theory-based treatment, in general. We ascribe this result to the ballistic decay of the rays, which occurs within Ehrenfest time, and importantly, within the time scale of transient chaos. The present approach may provide a general tool for the statistical analysis of chaotic resonances in open systems.

  10. Surface Plasmon Resonance Evaluation of Colloidal Metal Aerogel Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Sibille, Laurent; Cronise, Raymond J.; Noever, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance imaging has in the past been applied to the characterization of thin films. In this study we apply the surface plasmon technique not to determine macroscopic spatial variations but rather to determine average microscopic information. Specifically, we deduce the dielectric properties of the surrounding gel matrix and information concerning the dynamics of the gelation process from the visible absorption characteristics of colloidal metal nanoparticles contained in aerogel pores. We have fabricated aerogels containing gold and silver nanoparticles. Because the dielectric constant of the metal particles is linked to that of the host matrix at the surface plasmon resonance, any change 'in the dielectric constant of the material surrounding the metal nanoparticles results in a shift in the surface plasmon wavelength. During gelation the surface plasmon resonance shifts to the red as the average or effective dielectric constant of the matrix increases. Conversely, formation of an aerogel or xerogel through supercritical extraction or evaporation of the solvent produces a blue shift in the resonance indicating a decrease in the dielectric constant of the matrix. From the magnitude of this shift we deduce the average fraction of air and of silica in contact with the metal particles. The surface area of metal available for catalytic gas reaction may thus be determined.

  11. Evolution of the pygmy dipole resonance in Sn isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toft, H. K.; Larsen, A. C.; Bürger, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Görgen, A.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrøm, T.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear level density and γ-ray strength functions of Sn121,122 below the neutron separation energy are extracted with the Oslo method using the (He3,He3'γ) and (He3,αγ) reactions. The level densities of Sn121,122 display steplike structures, interpreted as signatures of neutron pair breaking. An enhancement in both strength functions, compared to standard models for radiative strength, is observed in our measurements for Eγ≳5.2 MeV. This enhancement is compatible with pygmy resonances centered at ≈8.4(1) and ≈8.6(2) MeV, respectively, and with integrated strengths corresponding to ≈1.8-5+1% of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Similar resonances were also seen in Sn116-119. Experimental neutron-capture cross reactions are well reproduced by our pygmy resonance predictions, while standard strength models are less successful. The evolution as a function of neutron number of the pygmy resonance in Sn116-122 is described as a clear increase of centroid energy from 8.0(1) to 8.6(2) MeV, but with no observable difference in integrated strengths.

  12. Nucleon resonances in exclusive reactions of photo- and electroproduction of mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Skorodumina, Iu. A.; Burkert, V. D.; Golovach, E. N.; Gothe, R. W.; Isupov, E. L.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Mokeev, V. I.; Fedotov, G. V.

    2015-11-01

    Methods for extracting nucleon resonance parameters from experimental data are reviewed. The formalism for the description of exclusive reactions of meson photo- and electroproduction off nucleons is discussed. Recent experimental data on exclusive meson production in the scattering of electrons and photons off protons are analyzed.

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  14. EXTRACTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Schmieding, E.G.; Ruehle, A.E.

    1961-04-11

    A method is given for extracting metal values from an aqueous feed wherein the aqueous feed is passed countercurrent to an organic extractant through a plurality of decanting zones and a portion of the mixture contained in each decanting zone is recycled through a mixing zone associated therewith. The improvement consists of passing more solvent from the top of one decanting zone to the bottom of the preceding decanting zone than can rise to the top thereof and recycling that portion of the solvent that does not rise to the top back to the first named decanting zone through its associated mixing zone.

  15. Microelectromechanical resonator and method for fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2009-11-10

    A method is disclosed for the robust fabrication of a microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator. In this method, a pattern of holes is formed in the resonator mass with the position, size and number of holes in the pattern being optimized to minimize an uncertainty .DELTA.f in the resonant frequency f.sub.0 of the MEM resonator due to manufacturing process variations (e.g. edge bias). A number of different types of MEM resonators are disclosed which can be formed using this method, including capacitively transduced Lame, wineglass and extensional resonators, and piezoelectric length-extensional resonators.

  16. Microelectromechanical resonator and method for fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2010-01-26

    A method is disclosed for the robust fabrication of a microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator. In this method, a pattern of holes is formed in the resonator mass with the position, size and number of holes in the pattern being optimized to minimize an uncertainty .DELTA.f in the resonant frequency f.sub.0 of the MEM resonator due to manufacturing process variations (e.g. edge bias). A number of different types of MEM resonators are disclosed which can be formed using this method, including capacitively transduced Lame, wineglass and extensional resonators, and piezoelectric length-extensional resonators.

  17. Fano Resonance in an Electrically Driven Plasmonic Device.

    PubMed

    Vardi, Yuval; Cohen-Hoshen, Eyal; Shalem, Guy; Bar-Joseph, Israel

    2016-01-13

    We present an electrically driven plasmonic device consisting of a gold nanoparticle trapped in a gap between two electrodes. The tunneling current in the device generates plasmons, which decay radiatively. The emitted spectrum extends up to an energy that depends on the applied voltage. Characterization of the electrical conductance at low temperatures allows us to extract the voltage drop on each tunnel barrier and the corresponding emitted spectrum. In several devices we find a pronounced sharp asymmetrical dip in the spectrum, which we identify as a Fano resonance. Finite-difference time-domain calculations reveal that this resonance is due to interference between the nanoparticle and electrodes dipolar fields and can be conveniently controlled by the structural parameters. PMID:26717292

  18. Nonlinear acoustic resonances to probe a threaded interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, Jacques; Renaud, Guillaume; Haupert, Sylvain; Talmant, Maryline; Laugier, Pascal; Johnson, Paul A.

    2010-06-01

    We evaluate the sensitivity of multimodal nonlinear resonance spectroscopy to torque changes in a threaded interface. Our system is comprised of a bolt progressively tightened in an aluminum plate. Different modes of the system are studied in the range 1-25 kHz, which correspond primarily to bending modes of the plate. Nonlinear parameters expressing the importance of resonance frequency and damping variations are extracted and compared to linear ones. The influence of each mode shape on the sensitivity of nonlinear parameters is discussed. Results suggest that a multimodal measurement is an appropriate and sensitive method for monitoring bolt tightening. Further, we show that the nonlinear components provide new information regarding the interface, which can be linked to different friction theories. This work has import to study of friction and to nondestructive evaluation of interfaces for widespread application and basic research.

  19. Sound resonance in pipes with discrete Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljalal, Abdulaziz M.

    2015-09-01

    Sound resonance in pipes is investigated using a readily available setup consisting of a pipe, loudspeaker, microphone, and laptop. Discrete Fourier transform is used to extract the amplitude and phase spectra from the recorded sound enabling determination of locations and shapes of resonance peaks accurately. Either white noise signal or sharp pulse signal is used as an excited input sound signal. Both have broad frequency spectra and the difference between them is explored. The shapes of the amplitude and phase spectra are found to be well fitted to the predicted shapes. The pipe is either closed at both ends, closed at only one end, or open at both ends. The speed of sound and the effective location of reflection at the open end are in excellent agreement with theory.

  20. Atraumatic extractions: a biomechanical rationale.

    PubMed

    Misch, Carl E; Perez, Helena M

    2008-08-01

    Biomechanical aspects of force have been applied to tooth extraction for centuries. However, the mechanical advantages available to extract the teeth were primarily applied to hold the crown of the tooth, rather than help extract it. An extraction device (Physics Forceps) has been developed to apply a biomechanical rationale to the extraction process of a tooth using a class 1 lever, creep, and shear components of force. PMID:18717405

  1. Approximate resonance states in the semigroup decomposition of resonance evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, Y.; Horwitz, L. P.; Volovick, A.

    2006-12-15

    The semigroup decomposition formalism makes use of the functional model for C{sub {center_dot}}{sub 0} class contractive semigroups for the description of the time evolution of resonances. For a given scattering problem the formalism allows for the association of a definite Hilbert space state with a scattering resonance. This state defines a decomposition of matrix elements of the evolution into a term evolving according to a semigroup law and a background term. We discuss the case of multiple resonances and give a bound on the size of the background term. As an example we treat a simple problem of scattering from a square barrier potential on the half-line.

  2. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy hazardous contaminants, but is a means of separating those contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous material that must be treated. enerally it is used as one in a series of unit operations an...

  3. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy wastes, but is a means of separating hazardous contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous waste that must be treated. enerally it is used as one ina series of unit operations, and can reduce th...

  4. Pneumomediastinum after Tooth Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Ocakcioglu, Ilhan; Koyuncu, Serhat; Kupeli, Mustafa; Bol, Oguzhan

    2016-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is defined as the presence of air in mediastinum. Pneumomediastinum can sometimes occur after surgery. Pneumomediastinum seen after dental procedures is rare. We presented the case of subcutaneous emphysema developed in the neck and upper chest after tooth extraction and discussed the possible mechanisms of pneumomediastinum. PMID:26989552

  5. URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.

    1959-09-01

    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  6. Pneumomediastinum after Tooth Extraction.

    PubMed

    Ocakcioglu, Ilhan; Koyuncu, Serhat; Kupeli, Mustafa; Bol, Oguzhan

    2016-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is defined as the presence of air in mediastinum. Pneumomediastinum can sometimes occur after surgery. Pneumomediastinum seen after dental procedures is rare. We presented the case of subcutaneous emphysema developed in the neck and upper chest after tooth extraction and discussed the possible mechanisms of pneumomediastinum. PMID:26989552

  7. Dπ scattering and D meson resonances from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohler, Daniel; Prelovsek, Sasa; Woloshyn, R. M.

    2013-02-01

    A first exploratory lattice QCD simulation is presented, aimed at extracting the masses and widths of the broad scalar D0*(2400) and the axial D1(2430) charm-light resonances. For that purpose Dπ and D*π scattering are simulated, and the resonance parameters are extracted using a Breit-Wigner fit of the resulting phase shifts. We use a single two-flavor dynamical ensemble with mπ≈266MeV, a≃0.124fm and a rather small volume V=163×32. The resulting D0*(2400) mass is 351±21MeV above the spin average (1)/(4)(mD+3mD*), in agreement with the experimental value of 347±29MeV above. The resulting D0*→Dπ coupling, glat=2.55±0.21GeV, is close to the experimental value gexp⁡≤1.92±0.14GeV, where g parametrizes the width Γ≡g2p*/s. The resonance parameters for the broad D1(2430) are also found close to the experimental values; these are obtained by appealing to the heavy quark limit, where the neighboring resonance D1(2420) is narrow. The calculated I=1/2 scattering lengths are a0=0.81±0.14fm for Dπ and a0=0.81±0.17fm for D*π scattering. The simulation of the scattering in these channels incorporates quark-antiquark as well as multihadron interpolators, and the distillation method is used for contractions. In addition, the ground and several excited charm-light and charmonium states with various JP are calculated using standard quark-antiquark interpolators.

  8. Lasing from active optomechanical resonators

    PubMed Central

    Czerniuk, T.; Brüggemann, C.; Tepper, J.; Brodbeck, S.; Schneider, C.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Glavin, B. A.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Akimov, A. V.; Bayer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Planar microcavities with distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) host, besides confined optical modes, also mechanical resonances due to stop bands in the phonon dispersion relation of the DBRs. These resonances have frequencies in the 10- to 100-GHz range, depending on the resonator’s optical wavelength, with quality factors exceeding 1,000. The interaction of photons and phonons in such optomechanical systems can be drastically enhanced, opening a new route towards the manipulation of light. Here we implemented active semiconducting layers into the microcavity to obtain a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Thereby, three resonant excitations—photons, phonons and electrons—can interact strongly with each other providing modulation of the VCSEL laser emission: a picosecond strain pulse injected into the VCSEL excites long-living mechanical resonances therein. As a result, modulation of the lasing intensity at frequencies up to 40 GHz is observed. From these findings, prospective applications of active optomechanical resonators integrated into nanophotonic circuits may emerge. PMID:25008784

  9. Anti-resonance mixing filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Paul S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    In a closed loop control system that governs the movement of an actuator a filter is provided that attenuates the oscillations generated by the actuator when the actuator is at a resonant frequency. The filter is preferably coded into the control system and includes the following steps. Sensing the position of the actuator with an LVDT and sensing the motor position where motor drives the actuator through a gear train. When the actuator is at a resonant frequency, a lag is applied to the LVDT signal and then combined with the motor position signal to form a combined signal in which the oscillation generated by the actuator are attenuated. The control system then controls ion this combined signal. This arrangement prevents the amplified resonance present on the LVDT signal, from causing control instability, while retaining the steady state accuracy associated with the LVDT signal. It is also a characteristic of this arrangement that the signal attenuation will always coincide with the load resonance frequency of the system so that variations in the resonance frequency will not effectuate the effectiveness of the filter.

  10. Unbound Resonances in Light Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havens, Elizabeth; Finck, Joseph; Gueye, Paul; Thoennessen, Michael; MoNA Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Currently there has been no comprehensive study undertaken to compile experimental results from neutron unbound spectroscopy using invariant mass measurements, gamma resolutions, and half-lives. At Central Michigan University, Hampton University, and the NSCL, a project was initiated to catalog all unbound resonances in light nuclei (Z = 1-12). Unbound resonances were characterized by having a confirmed neutron decay branch and/or an energy level greater than the neutron binding energy listed for that isotope according to either the National Nuclear Data Center's Evaluated Nuclear Structure Files or Experimental Unevaluated Nuclear Data List and the referred journals therein. Unbound resonances will be presented for twelve elements: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, Fl, Ne, Na, and Mg. The isotopes in which unbound resonances occur will be identified, along with unbound energy levels for these isotopes. If known, each unbound resonance's gamma resolution, half-life, method of production and journal reference were also determined and a selection of these will be presented.

  11. Bimodal loop-gap resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasecki, W.; Froncisz, W.; Hyde, James S.

    1996-05-01

    A bimodal loop-gap resonator for use in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at S band is described. It consists of two identical one-loop-one-gap resonators in coaxial juxtaposition. In one mode, the currents in the two loops are parallel and in the other antiparallel. By introducing additional capacitors between the loops, the frequencies of the two modes can be made to coincide. Details are given concerning variable coupling to each mode, tuning of the resonant frequency of one mode to that of the other, and adjustment of the isolation between modes. An equivalent circuit is given and network analysis carried out both experimentally and theoretically. EPR applications are described including (a) probing of the field distributions with DPPH, (b) continuous wave (cw) EPR with a spin-label line sample, (c) cw electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR), (d) modulation of saturation, and (e) saturation-recovery (SR) EPR. Bloch induction experiments can be performed when the sample extends half way through the structure, but microwave signals induced by Mx and My components of magnetization cancel when it extends completely through. This latter situation is particularly favorable for SR, modulation of saturation, and ELDOR experiments, which depend on observing Mz indirectly using a second weak observing microwave source.

  12. Source Wavelet Phase Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghadeh, Diako Hariri; Morley, Christopher Keith

    2016-06-01

    Extraction of propagation wavelet phase from seismic data can be conducted using first, second, third and fourth-order statistics. Three new methods are introduced, which are: (1) Combination of different moments, (2) Windowed continuous wavelet transform and (3) Maximum correlation with cosine function. To compare different methods synthetic data with and without noise were chosen. Results show that first, second and third order statistics are not able to preserve wavelet phase. Kurtosis can preserve propagation wavelet phase but signal-to-noise ratio can affect the extracted phase using this method. So for data set with low signal-to-noise ratio, it will be unstable. Using a combination of different moments to extract the phase is more robust than applying kurtosis. The improvement occurs because zero phase wavelets with reverse polarities have equal maximum kurtosis values hence the correct wavelet polarity cannot be identified. Zero-phase wavelets with reverse polarities have minimum and maximum values for a combination of different-moments method. These properties enable the technique to handle a finite data segment and to choose the correct wavelet polarity. Also, the existence of different moments can decrease sensitivity to outliers. A windowed continuous wavelet transform is more sensitive to signal-to-noise ratio than the combination of different-moments method, also if the scale for the wavelet is incorrect it will encounter with more problems to extract phase. When the effects of frequency bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio and analyzing window length are considered, the results of extracting phase information from data without and with noise demonstrate that combination of different-moments is superior to the other methods introduced here.

  13. Fractal dimension of cerebral surfaces using magnetic resonance images

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Prasad, R.R.

    1988-11-01

    The calculation of the fractal dimension of the surface bounded by the grey matter in the normal human brain using axial, sagittal, and coronal cross-sectional magnetic resonance (MR) images is presented. The fractal dimension in this case is a measure of the convolutedness of this cerebral surface. It is proposed that the fractal dimension, a feature that may be extracted from MR images, may potentially be used for image analysis, quantitative tissue characterization, and as a feature to monitor and identify cerebral abnormalities and developmental changes.

  14. Deposition of diamondlike films by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, F. S.; Shing, Y. H.

    1990-01-01

    Hard a-C:H films have been deposited through electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasma decomposition of CH4 diluted with H2 gas. It has been found that hard diamondlike films could only be produced under a RF-induced negative self-bias of the substrate stage. Raman spectra indicate the deposition of two distinct film types: one film type exhibiting well-defined bands at 1360 and 1580/cm and another displaying a broad Raman peak centered at approximately 1500/cm. Variation of the mirror magnetic-field profile of the ECR system was examined, demonstrating the manipulation of film morphology through the extraction of different ion energies.

  15. Nonadiabatic dynamics of two strongly coupled nanomechanical resonator modes.

    PubMed

    Faust, Thomas; Rieger, Johannes; Seitner, Maximilian J; Krenn, Peter; Kotthaus, Jörg P; Weig, Eva M

    2012-07-20

    The Landau-Zener transition is a fundamental concept for dynamical quantum systems and has been studied in numerous fields of physics. Here, we present a classical mechanical model system exhibiting analogous behavior using two inversely tunable, strongly coupled modes of the same nanomechanical beam resonator. In the adiabatic limit, the anticrossing between the two modes is observed and the coupling strength extracted. Sweeping an initialized mode across the coupling region allows mapping of the progression from diabatic to adiabatic transitions as a function of the sweep rate. PMID:22861892

  16. Discussion of human resonant frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownjohn, James M. W.; Zheng, Xiahua

    2001-06-01

    Human bodies are often exposed to vertical vibrations when they are in the workplace or on vehicles. Prolonged exposure may cause undue stress and discomfort in the human body especially at its resonant frequency. By testing the response of the human body on a vibrating platform, many researchers found the human whole-body fundamental resonant frequency to be around 5 Hz. However, in recent years, an indirect method has been prosed which appears to increase the resonant frequency to approximately 10 Hz. To explain this discrepancy, experimental work was carried out in NTU. The study shows that the discrepancy lies in the vibration magnitude used in the tests. A definition of human natural frequency in terms of vibration magnitude is proposed.

  17. Optically detected magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, Aharon; Shapiro, Guy; Fischer, Ran; London, Paz; Gershoni, David

    2015-01-19

    Optically detected magnetic resonance provides ultrasensitive means to detect and image a small number of electron and nuclear spins, down to the single spin level with nanoscale resolution. Despite the significant recent progress in this field, it has never been combined with the power of pulsed magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Here, we demonstrate how these two methodologies can be integrated using short pulsed magnetic field gradients to spatially encode the sample. This result in what we denote as an 'optically detected magnetic resonance imaging' technique. It offers the advantage that the image is acquired in parallel from all parts of the sample, with well-defined three-dimensional point-spread function, and without any loss of spectroscopic information. In addition, this approach may be used in the future for parallel but yet spatially selective efficient addressing and manipulation of the spins in the sample. Such capabilities are of fundamental importance in the field of quantum spin-based devices and sensors.

  18. Viscoelastic coupling of nanoelectromechanical resonators.

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, Robert Joseph; Staton, Alan W.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes work to date on a new collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to utilize nanoelectromechanical resonators designed at Caltech as platforms to measure the mechanical properties of polymeric materials at length scales on the order of 10-50 nm. Caltech has succeeded in reproducibly building cantilever resonators having major dimensions on the order of 2-5 microns. These devices are fabricated in pairs, with free ends separated by reproducible gaps having dimensions on the order of 10-50 nm. By controlled placement of materials that bridge the very small gap between resonators, the mechanical devices become coupled through the test material, and the transmission of energy between the devices can be monitored. This should allow for measurements of viscoelastic properties of polymeric materials at high frequency over short distances. Our work to date has been directed toward establishing this measurement capability at Sandia.

  19. Hadronic resonances enhanced by thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caramés, T. F.; Valcarce, A.

    2016-07-01

    We present a neat example of a meson-baryon system where the vicinity of two different thresholds enhances the binding of a hadronic resonance, a pentaquark. As a consequence the pattern of states may change when moving among different flavor sectors, what poses a warning on naive extrapolations to heavy flavor sectors based on systematic expansions. For this purpose we simultaneously analyze the N D bar and NB two-hadron systems looking for possible bound states or resonances. When a resonance is controlled by a coupled-channel effect, going to a different flavor sector may enhance or diminish the binding. This effect may, for example, generate significant differences between the charmonium and bottomonium spectra above open-flavor thresholds or pentaquark states in the open-charm and open-bottom sectors.

  20. Photoproduction of exotic baryon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karliner, Marek; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    We point out that the new exotic resonances recently reported by LHCb in the J / ψ p channel are excellent candidates for photoproduction off a proton target. This test is crucial to confirming the resonant nature of such states, as opposed to their being kinematical effects. We specialize to an interpretation of the heavier narrow state as a molecule composed of Σc and Dbar*, and estimate its production cross section using vector dominance. The relevant photon energies and fluxes are well within the capabilities of the GlueX and CLAS12 detectors at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB). A corresponding calculation is also performed for photoproduction of an analogous resonance which is predicted to exist in the ϒp channel.

  1. Resonance properties in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ehehalt, W.; Cassing, W.; Engel, A.; Mosel, U.; Wolf, G. )

    1993-06-01

    We analyze the formation and decay properties of nucleon resonances formed in heavy-ion collisions at 1--2 GeV/[ital u] within a microscopic transport approach. In case of Au+Au reactions the density of [Delta] resonances reaches 0.15 fm[sup [minus]3] in the central cell for a time period of the order of 10 fm/[ital c] such that one can legitimately speak about [ital resonance] [ital matter]. The lifetime of the [Delta]'s is found to be shortened at high density by only 20% due to the in-medium channel [Delta]+[ital N][r arrow][ital N]+[ital N].

  2. Coupling of a locally implanted rare-earth ion ensemble to a superconducting micro-resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Wisby, I. Tzalenchuk, A. Ya.; Graaf, S. E. de; Adamyan, A.; Kubatkin, S. E.; Gwilliam, R.; Meeson, P. J.; Lindström, T.

    2014-09-08

    We demonstrate the coupling of rare-earth ions locally implanted in a substrate (Gd{sup 3+} in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to a superconducting NbN lumped-element micro-resonator. The hybrid device is fabricated by a controlled ion implantation of rare-earth ions in well-defined micron-sized areas, aligned to lithographically defined micro-resonators. The technique does not degrade the internal quality factor of the resonators which remain above 10{sup 5}. Using microwave absorption spectroscopy, we observe electron-spin resonances in good agreement with numerical modelling and extract corresponding coupling rates of the order of 1 MHz and spin linewidths of 50–65 MHz.

  3. Green's function method for single-particle resonant states in relativistic mean field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, T. T.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, J. N.; Meng, J.

    2014-11-01

    Relativistic mean field theory is formulated with the Green's function method in coordinate space to investigate the single-particle bound states and resonant states on the same footing. Taking the density of states for free particles as a reference, the energies and widths of single-particle resonant states are extracted from the density of states without any ambiguity. As an example, the energies and widths for single-neutron resonant states in 120Sn are compared with those obtained by the scattering phase-shift method, the analytic continuation in the coupling constant approach, the real stabilization method, and the complex scaling method. Excellent agreements with these methods are found for the energies and widths of single-neutron resonant states.

  4. Doubly rotated contoured quartz resonators.

    PubMed

    Sinha, B K

    2001-09-01

    Doubly rotated contoured quartz resonators are used in the design of temperature-compensated stable clocks and dual-mode sensors for simultaneous measurements of pressure and temperature. The design of these devices is facilitated by models that can predict frequency spectra associated with the three thickness modes and temperature and stress-induced frequency changes as a function of crystalline orientation. The Stevens-Tiersten technique for the analysis of the C-mode of a doubly rotated contoured quartz resonator is extended to include the other two thickness modes. Computational results for harmonic and anharmonic overtones of all three thickness modes of such resonators help in optimizing the radius of curvature of the contour and electrode shape for suppression of unwanted modes and prevention of activity dips. The temperature and stress-induced changes in thickness-mode resonator frequencies are calculated from a perturbation technique for small dynamic fields superposed on a static bias. The static bias refers to either a temperature or stress-induced static deformation of the resonator plate. Phenomenological models are also used for calculating the temperature and stress-induced changes in resonant frequencies as a function of crystalline orientation. Results for the SBTC-cut quartz plate with a spherical convex contour of 260 mm indicate that normal trapping occurs for the third (n = 3) and fifth (n = 5) harmonic of the A-mode, the fundamental (n = 1) and third (n = 3) harmonic of the B-mode, and the fundamental (n = 1) and fifth (n = 5) harmonic of the C-mode. PMID:11570746

  5. Extensive screening for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant properties

    PubMed Central

    Niwano, Yoshimi; Saito, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Kohno, Masahiro; Ozawa, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes our research for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity obtained from a large scale screening based on superoxide radical (O2•−) scavenging activity followed by characterization of antioxidant properties. Firstly, scavenging activity against O2•− was extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method, and we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to scavenge O2•−. They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit). These extracts were further examined to determine if they also scavenge hydroxyl radical (•OH), by applying the ESR spin-trapping method, and if they have heat resistance as a desirable characteristic feature. Experiments with the Fenton reaction and photolysis of H2O2 induced by UV irradiation demonstrated that all four extracts have potent ability to directly scavenge •OH. Furthermore, the scavenging activities against O2•− and •OH of the extracts of P. granatum (peel), M. indica (kernel) and P. emblica (fruit) proved to be heat-resistant. The results of the review might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff. For instance, the four herbal extracts chosen from extensive screening possess desirable antioxidant properties. In particular, the extracts of the aforementioned three herbs are expected to be suitable for food processing in which thermal devices are used, because of their heat resistance. PMID:21297917

  6. Resonance vibrations of aircraft propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebers, Fritz

    1932-01-01

    On the basis of the consideration of various possible kinds of propeller vibrations, the resonance vibrations caused by unequal impacts of the propeller blades appear to be the most important. Their theoretical investigation is made by separate analysis of torsional and bending vibrations. This method is justified by the very great difference in the two natural frequencies of aircraft propeller blades. The calculated data are illustrated by practical examples. Thereby the observed vibration phenomenon in the given examples is explained by a bending resonance, for which the bending frequency of the propeller is equal to twice the revolution speed.

  7. Resonance in a head massager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2015-04-01

    Mechanical structures such as pendula, bridges, or buildings always exhibit one (or more) natural oscillation frequency.1 If that structure is subjected to oscillatory forces of this same frequency, resonance occurs, with consequent increase of the structure oscillation amplitude. There is no shortage of simple experiments for demonstrating resonance in high school classes using a variety of materials, such as saw blades,2 guitars,3 pendulums,4 wine glasses,5 bottles,6 Ping-Pong balls,7 and pearl strings.8 We present here an experimental demonstration using only an inexpensive head (or scalp) massager, which can be purchased for less than a dollar.

  8. Resonance nature of the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Ya. L.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach toward an understanding of the nature of low frequency e.m. waves ( f≪,resonance instability mechanism. The oscillations considered exist at any time both in quiet (QC) and disturbed (DC) conditions. Their spectra possess a line structure. The background is composed of resonance oscillations, and weaker oscillations caused by noise. The resonance oscillations may occur in the entire magnetosphere or in its parts. In the frequency range examined 12, 20-25, and more resonance frequencies fs,res were accordingly found in the spectra of the NP and SP observation points ( L≃13) and in the Tuckerton and Point Arena ( L≃2.6) data. The higher-order resonance maxima are overlapped by the noise oscillations. All these oscillations can be set swinging, producing strong non-repetitive wave packets with durations τ0≈20-300 s and longer. The conditions for producing the swinging background can be impulse/shock excitations of the magnetospheric plasma, a gyro-resonance instability, etc. Thus, the well-known multiple manifestations of hydromagnetic wave packets observed in our research in the magnetosphere at f<0.25 Hz are considered to be the result of a single physical phenomenon: the fundamental resonance e.m. oscillatory nature of the background magnetospheric plasma environment. It is shown that the observed waves and the spectral

  9. Cavity-resonator-integrated guided-mode resonance filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ura, Shogo; Kintaka, Kenji; Inoue, Junichi; Nishio, Kenzo; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro

    2013-03-01

    A cavity-resonator-integrated guided-mode-resonance filter (CRIGF) consisting of a grating coupler (GC) and a pair of distributed-Bragg-reflectors (DBRs) on a thin-film dielectric waveguide is reviewed. The CRIGF has been recently proposed by the authors to provide a narrow-band reflection spectrum for an incident wave of a small beam width from the free space. A newly developed analysis model for device design with performance simulation is introduced. Curved gratings are utilized to construct a resonator for a small-aperture CRIGF. Design, fabrication and characterization of CRIGFs of 10 μm aperture are described with a resonance wavelength of 850 nm. A Ge:SiO2 guiding core layer was deposited on a SiO2 glass substrate, and GC and DBRs were formed by the electron-beam direct writing lithography. A normal polarization-dependent CRIGF is shown with a obtained narrowband reflection spectrum of 0.2 nm full width at half maximum. A crossed-CRIGF is also discussed to eliminate the polarization dependence. It is successfully demonstrated that measured reflection spectra for TE and TM incident beams were well coincident with each other.

  10. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements in sub-nanometer Fe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Hayato; Moriyama, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masashi; Nagata, Masaki; Tanaka, Kensho; Koyama, Tomohiro; Chiba, Daichi; Ono, Teruo

    2015-07-01

    We show that our ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurement based on the rectification effect is sufficiently sensitive for characterizing various static and dynamic magnetic properties of a sub-nanometer ferromagnetic film where the interfacial effects dominate. The extracted properties, such as the Landé g-factor, the effective demagnetizing field, and the Gilbert damping parameter, are reasonably well scaled with the film thickness, indicating that our measurements clearly capture the interfacial properties of the sub-nanometer-thick film. In particular, the capability of the g-factor extraction in the ultrathin film will be very helpful for characterizing the various interfacial effects involved with interfacial orbit moments and spin-orbit interactions.

  11. Radar target classification by natural resonances: System analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Peter C.

    1990-09-01

    This thesis examines the system implementation considerations of a resonance based radar target classification system. The basis of the system is the aspect and excitation independent property of electromagnetic scattering from a conducting body. Such a system consists of two components: pole extraction and annihilation filtering. The algorithms investigated here for these purposes are the Cadzow-Solomon pole extraction algorithm and the K-Pulse annihilation filter. Additionally, an aspect-dependent annihilation filter based on an inverse autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model is introduced. The procedures are applied to noise polluted synthetic data, as well as scattering data collected for a thin-wire and silver coated 1/72 scale model aircraft.

  12. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Raymond; Rattray, Vaughn; Williams, Ruth; Denny, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:27034834

  13. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts.

    PubMed

    Goldson Barnaby, Andrea; Reid, Raymond; Rattray, Vaughn; Williams, Ruth; Denny, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:27034834

  14. Analysis of human muscle extracts by proton NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatasubramanian, P.N.; Barany, M.; Arus, C.

    1986-03-01

    Perchloric acid extracts were prepared from pooled human muscle biopsies from patients diagnosed with scoliosis (SCOL) and cerebral palsy (CP). After neutralization with KOH and removal of perchlorate, the extracts were concentrated by freeze drying and dissolved in /sup 2/H/sub 2/O to contain 120 O.D. units at 280 nm per 0.5 ml. /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy was performed with the 5 mm probe of a Varian XL300 instrument. Creatine, lactate, carnosine, and choline were the major resonances in the one-dimensional spectra of both extracts. With creatine as reference, 2.5-fold more lactate was found in SCOL than in CP, and a much smaller difference was also found in their carnosine content. Two-dimensional COSY comparison revealed several differences between the two extracts. Taurine, N-acetyl glutamate, glycerophosphoryl choline (or phosphoryl choline) and an unidentified spot were present only in the extract from SCOL but not in that from CP. On the other hand, aspartate, hydroxy-proline, carnitine and glycerophosphoryl ethanolamine were only present in CP but absent in SCOL. Alanine, cysteine, lysine and arginine appeared in both extracts without an apparent intensity difference.

  15. Resonance Effects in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Capece, V. R.; Ford, C. T.

    2003-01-01

    Investigations of unsteady pressure loadings on the blades of fans operating near the stall flutter boundary are carried out under simulated conditions in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade facility (TFC). It has been observed that for inlet Mach numbers of about 0.8, the cascade flowfield exhibits intense low-frequency pressure oscillations. The origins of these oscillations were not clear. It was speculated that this behavior was either caused by instabilities in the blade separated flow zone or that it was a tunnel resonance phenomenon. It has now been determined that the strong low-frequency oscillations, observed in the TFC facility, are not a cascade phenomenon contributing to blade flutter, but that they are solely caused by the tunnel resonance characteristics. Most likely, the self-induced oscillations originate in the system of exit duct resonators. For sure, the self-induced oscillations can be significantly suppressed for a narrow range of inlet Mach numbers by tuning one of the resonators. A considerable amount of flutter simulation data has been acquired in this facility to date, and therefore it is of interest to know how much this tunnel self-induced flow oscillation influences the experimental data at high subsonic Mach numbers since this facility is being used to simulate flutter in transonic fans. In short, can this body of experimental data still be used reliably to verify computer codes for blade flutter and blade life predictions? To answer this question a study on resonance effects in the NASA TFC facility was carried out. The results, based on spectral and ensemble averaging analysis of the cascade data, showed that the interaction between self-induced oscillations and forced blade motion oscillations is very weak and can generally be neglected. The forced motion data acquired with the mistuned tunnel, when strong self-induced oscillations were present, can be used as reliable forced pressure fluctuations provided that they are extracted

  16. Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator - MSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Rabi T.; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    A room temperature sapphire acoustics resonator incorporated into an oscillator represents a possible opportunity to improve on quartz ultrastable oscillator (USO) performance, which has been a staple for NASA missions since the inception of spaceflight. Where quartz technology is very mature and shows a performance improvement of perhaps 1 dB/decade, these sapphire acoustic resonators when integrated with matured quartz electronics could achieve a frequency stability improvement of 10 dB or more. As quartz oscillators are an essential element of nearly all types of frequency standards and reference systems, the success of MSAR would advance the development of frequency standards and systems for both groundbased and flight-based projects. Current quartz oscillator technology is limited by quartz mechanical Q. With a possible improvement of more than x 10 Q with sapphire acoustic modes, the stability limit of current quartz oscillators may be improved tenfold, to 10(exp -14) at 1 second. The electromagnetic modes of sapphire that were previously developed at JPL require cryogenic temperatures to achieve the high Q levels needed to achieve this stability level. However sapphire fs acoustic modes, which have not been used before in a high-stability oscillator, indicate the required Q values (as high as Q = 10(exp 8)) may be achieved at room temperature in the kHz range. Even though sapphire is not piezoelectric, such a high Q should allow electrostatic excitation of the acoustic modes with a combination of DC and AC voltages across a small sapphire disk (approximately equal to l mm thick). The first evaluations under this task will test predictions of an estimated input impedance of 10 kilohms at Q = 10(exp 8), and explore the Q values that can be realized in a smaller resonator, which has not been previously tested for acoustic modes. This initial Q measurement and excitation demonstration can be viewed similar to a transducer converting electrical energy to

  17. Extracting concentrated guided light.

    PubMed

    Ries, H; Segal, A; Karni, J

    1997-05-01

    The maximum concentration of radiation is proportional to the square of the refractive index of the medium in which it propagates. A medium with a high refractive index can also serve as a lightguide for concentrated radiation. However, if concentrated radiation is extracted from one medium, with a high refractive index, to another, whose index is lower (e.g., from fused silica into air), part of the radiation may be lost because of the total internal reflection at the interface. We present polygonal shapes suitable for efficient extraction of the concentrated radiation in a controllable way, without increasing the cross-section area (or diameter) of the lightguide. It is shown analytically and experimentally that the use of a secondary concentrator, followed by such a light extractor, both having a high refractive index, can provide considerably more power to a solar receiver with a specific aperture. PMID:18253285

  18. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1958-12-16

    A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

  19. [Skeleton extractions and applications].

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

  20. Solid phase extraction membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Kurt C; Langer, Roger L

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  1. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  2. SNAKE DEPLORIZING RESONANCE STUDY IN RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; CAMERON, P.; LUCCIO, A.; HUANG, H.; PITISYN, V.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    Snake depolarizing resonances due to the imperfect cancellation of the accumulated perturbations on the spin precession between snakes were observed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). During the RHIC 2005 and 2006 polarized proton runs, we mapped out the spectrum of odd order snake resonance at Q{sub y} = 7/10. Here, Q, is the beam vertical betatron tune. We also studied the beam polarization after crossing the 7/10th resonance as a function of resonance crossing rate. This paper reports the measured resonance spectrum as well as the results of resonance crossing.

  3. Wavelength-tunable optical ring resonators

    DOEpatents

    Watts, Michael R.; Trotter, Douglas C.; Young, Ralph W.; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2009-11-10

    Optical ring resonator devices are disclosed that can be used for optical filtering, modulation or switching, or for use as photodetectors or sensors. These devices can be formed as microdisk ring resonators, or as open-ring resonators with an optical waveguide having a width that varies adiabatically. Electrical and mechanical connections to the open-ring resonators are made near a maximum width of the optical waveguide to minimize losses and thereby provide a high resonator Q. The ring resonators can be tuned using an integral electrical heater, or an integral semiconductor junction.

  4. Wavelength-tunable optical ring resonators

    DOEpatents

    Watts, Michael R.; Trotter, Douglas C.; Young, Ralph W.; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2011-07-19

    Optical ring resonator devices are disclosed that can be used for optical filtering, modulation or switching, or for use as photodetectors or sensors. These devices can be formed as microdisk ring resonators, or as open-ring resonators with an optical waveguide having a width that varies adiabatically. Electrical and mechanical connections to the open-ring resonators are made near a maximum width of the optical waveguide to minimize losses and thereby provide a high resonator Q. The ring resonators can be tuned using an integral electrical heater, or an integral semiconductor junction.

  5. Microwave Frequency Discriminator With Sapphire Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, David G.; Dick, G. John

    1994-01-01

    Cooled sapphire resonator provides ultralow phase noise. Apparatus comprises microwave oscillator operating at nominal frequency of about 8.1 GHz, plus frequency-discriminator circuit measuring phase fluctuations of oscillator output. One outstanding feature of frequency discriminator is sapphire resonator serving as phase reference. Sapphire resonator is dielectric ring resonator operating in "whispering-gallery" mode. Functions at room temperature, but for better performance, typically cooled to operating temperature of about 80 K. Similar resonator described in "Sapphire Ring Resonator for Microwave Oscillator" (NPO-18082).

  6. Antiferromagnetic resonance excitation by terahertz magnetic field resonantly enhanced with split ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, Y.; Hirori, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kageyama, H.; Tanaka, K.

    2014-07-14

    Excitation of antiferromagnetic resonance (AFMR) in a HoFeO{sub 3} crystal combined with a split ring resonator (SRR) is studied using terahertz (THz) electromagnetic pulses. The magnetic field in the vicinity of the SRR is induced by the incident THz electric field component and excites spin oscillations that correspond to the AFMR, which are directly probed by the Faraday rotation of the polarization of a near-infrared probe pulse. The good agreement of the temperature-dependent magnetization dynamics with the calculation using the two-lattice Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation confirms that the AFMR is excited by the THz magnetic field, which is enhanced at the SRR resonance frequency by a factor of 20 compared to the incident magnetic field.

  7. Mode coupling in superconducting parallel plate resonator in a cavity with outer conductive enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F.; Klein, M.V.; Kruse, J.; Feng, M.

    1996-06-01

    The authors have carefully studied the mode coupling effect from analysis of the measured microwave scattering parameters of superconducting films using a parallel-plate-resonator technique. Due to its high resolution and simplicity, this technique has been widely employed to identify the quality of high-{Tc} superconducting films by measuring the resonance bandwidth, from which the microwave surface resistance is directly derived. To minimize the radiation loss, the resonator is usually housed in a conductive cavity. Using this method, they observe that a number of strong ``cavity`` modes due to the test enclosure fall around the lowest TM mode of the superconducting resonator and that a strong interaction between these two types of resonant modes occurs when their eigenfrequencies are close, causing a significant distortion or a strong antiresonance for the resonator mode. To describe this effect, a coupled harmonic-oscillator model is proposed. They suggest that the interaction arises from a phase interference or a linear coupling among the individual oscillators. The model fits very well the observed Fano-type asymmetric or antiresonant features, and thus can be used to extract the intrinsic Q of the superconducting resonator.

  8. Microbead-assisted high resolution microwave planar ring resonator for organic-vapor sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarifi, Mohammad H.; Fayaz, Mohammadreza; Goldthorp, Jordan; Abdolrazzaghi, Mohammad; Hashisho, Zaher; Daneshmand, Mojgan

    2015-02-01

    A microbead-assisted planar microwave resonator for organic vapor sensing applications is presented. The core of this sensor is a planar microstrip split-ring resonator, integrated with an active feedback loop to enhance the initial quality factor from 200 to ˜1 M at an operational resonance frequency of 1.42 GHz. Two different types of microbeads, beaded activated carbon (BAC) and polymer based (V503) beads, are investigated in non-contact mode for use as gas adsorbents in the gas sensing device. 2-Butoxyethanol (BE) is used in various concentrations as the target gas, and the transmitted power (S21) of the two port resonator is measured. The two main microwave parameters of resonance frequency and quality factor are extracted from S21 since these parameters are less susceptible to environmental and instrumental noise than the amplitude. Measured results demonstrate a minimum resonance frequency shift of 10 kHz for a 35 ppm concentration of BE exposure to carbon beads and 160 kHz for the polymer based adsorbent at the same concentration. The quality factor of the resonator also changed for different concentrations, but a distinguishable variation is observed for the BAC adsorbents. The high quality factor of the sensor provides the opportunity of real time monitoring of the adsorbent behaviors in remote sensing mode with very high resolution.

  9. MRS reveals additional hexose N-acetyl resonances in the brain of a mouse model for Sandhoff disease.

    PubMed

    Lowe, J P; Stuckey, D J; Awan, F R; Jeyakumar, M; Neville, D C A; Platt, F M; Griffin, J L; Styles, P; Blamire, A M; Sibson, N R

    2005-12-01

    Sandhoff disease, one of several related lysosomal storage disorders, results from the build up of N-acetyl-containing glycosphingolipids in the brain and is caused by mutations in the genes encoding the hexosaminidase beta-subunit. Affected individuals undergo progressive neurodegeneration in response to the glycosphingolipid storage. (1)H magnetic resonance spectra of perchloric acid extracts of Sandhoff mouse brain exhibited several resonances ca 2.07 ppm that were not present in the corresponding spectra from extracts of wild-type mouse brain. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of the Sandhoff extracts post-MRS identified the presence of N-acetylhexosamine-containing oligosaccharides, which are the likely cause of the additional MRS resonances. MRS of intact brain tissue with magic angle spinning also showed additional resonances at ca 2.07 ppm in the Sandhoff case. These resonances appeared to increase with disease progression and probably arise, for the most part, from the stored glycosphingolipids, which are absent in the aqueous extracts. Hence in vivo MRS may be a useful tool for detecting early-stage Sandhoff disease and response to treatment. PMID:16206131

  10. Nucleon Resonances from FLIC Fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Derek Leinweber; J. Hedditch; Wally Melnitchouk; Anthony Williams

    2003-01-01

    The Fat Link Irrelevant Glover (FL1C) fermion action and its associated phenomenology is described. The scaling analysis indicates FLIC fermions provide a new form of nonperturbative O(a) improvement where near-continuum results are obtained at finite lattice spacing spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 , even and odd parity nucleon resonances are investigated.

  11. Spin Motion Near Snake Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, D. P.; Vogt, M.

    2007-06-13

    We give a brief account of on-going work on the loss of polarisation during acceleration close to so-called snake resonances in proton storage rings. We show that within the model studied here the polarisation can be preserved if the rate of acceleration is low enough.

  12. N+CPT clock resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Crescimanno, M.; Hohensee, M.

    2008-12-15

    In a typical compact atomic time standard a current modulated semiconductor laser is used to create the optical fields that interrogate the atomic hyperfine transition. A pair of optical sidebands created by modulating the diode laser become the coherent population trapping (CPT) fields. At the same time, other pairs of optical sidebands may contribute to other multiphoton resonances, such as three-photon N-resonance [Phys. Rev. A 65, 043817 (2002)]. We analyze the resulting joint CPT and N-resonance (hereafter N+CPT) analytically and numerically. Analytically we solve a four-level quantum optics model for this joint resonance and perturbatively include the leading ac Stark effects from the five largest optical fields in the laser's modulation comb. Numerically we use a truncated Floquet solving routine that first symbolically develops the optical Bloch equations to a prescribed order of perturbation theory before evaluating. This numerical approach has, as input, the complete physical details of the first two excited-state manifolds of {sup 87}Rb. We test these theoretical approaches with experiments by characterizing the optimal clock operating regimes.

  13. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  14. Electroweak-scale resonant leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pilaftsis, Apostolos; Underwood, Thomas E.J.

    2005-12-01

    We study minimal scenarios of resonant leptogenesis near the electroweak phase transition. These models offer a number of testable phenomenological signatures for low-energy experiments and future high-energy colliders. Our study extends previous analyses of the relevant network of Boltzmann equations, consistently taking into account effects from out of equilibrium sphalerons and single lepton flavors. We show that the effects from single lepton flavors become very important in variants of resonant leptogenesis, where the observed baryon asymmetry in the Universe is created by lepton-to-baryon conversion of an individual lepton number, for example, that of the {tau}-lepton. The predictions of such resonant {tau}-leptogenesis models for the final baryon asymmetry are almost independent of the initial lepton-number and heavy neutrino abundances. These models accommodate the current neutrino data and have a number of testable phenomenological implications. They contain electroweak-scale heavy Majorana neutrinos with appreciable couplings to electrons and muons, which can be probed at future e{sup +}e{sup -} and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} high-energy colliders. In particular, resonant {tau}-leptogenesis models predict sizable 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay, as well as e- and {mu}-number-violating processes, such as {mu}{yields}e{gamma} and {mu}{yields}e conversion in nuclei, with rates that are within reach of the experiments proposed by the MEG and MECO collaborations.

  15. Stochastic resonance on a circle

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenfeld, K. ); Pierson, D.; Pantazelou, E.; Dames, C.; Moss, F. )

    1994-04-04

    We describe a new realization of stochastic resonance, applicable to a broad class of systems, based on an underlying excitable dynamics with deterministic reinjection. A simple but general theory of such single-trigger'' systems is compared with analog simulations of the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, as well as experimental data obtained from stimulated sensory neurons in the crayfish.

  16. Duffing's Equation and Nonlinear Resonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of nonlinear resonance (sometimes called the "jump phenomenon") is examined and second-order van der Pol plane analysis is employed to indicate that this phenomenon is not a feature of the equation, but rather the result of accumulated round-off error, truncation error and algorithm error that distorts the true bounded solution onto…

  17. INVESTIGATION OF RESONANT OPTOACOUSTIC CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A theory describing the optoacoustic signal is presented; dependence on both cell and gas parameters are given and the advantage of operating at a resonant frequency is discussed. Three elliptical cells with major axes 5.8, 12.7, and 15.2 cm (corresponding minor axes 5.5, 11.0; a...

  18. Biosensing by WGM Microspherical Resonators.

    PubMed

    Righini, Giancarlo C; Soria, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode (WGM) microresonators, thanks to their unique properties, have allowed researchers to achieve important results in both fundamental research and engineering applications. Among the various geometries, microspheres are the simplest 3D WGM resonators; the total optical loss in such resonators can be extremely low, and the resulting extraordinarily high Q values of 10⁸-10⁸ lead to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. They can also be coated in order to better control their properties or to increase their functionality. Their very high sensitivity to changes in the surrounding medium has been exploited for several sensing applications: protein adsorption, trace gas detection, impurity detection in liquids, structural health monitoring of composite materials, detection of electric fields, pressure sensing, and so on. In the present paper, after a general introduction to WGM resonators, attention is focused on spherical microresonators, either in bulk or in bubble format, to their fabrication, characterization and functionalization. The state of the art in the area of biosensing is presented, and the perspectives of further developments are discussed. PMID:27322282

  19. Biosensing by WGM Microspherical Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Righini, Giancarlo C.; Soria, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode (WGM) microresonators, thanks to their unique properties, have allowed researchers to achieve important results in both fundamental research and engineering applications. Among the various geometries, microspheres are the simplest 3D WGM resonators; the total optical loss in such resonators can be extremely low, and the resulting extraordinarily high Q values of 108–109 lead to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. They can also be coated in order to better control their properties or to increase their functionality. Their very high sensitivity to changes in the surrounding medium has been exploited for several sensing applications: protein adsorption, trace gas detection, impurity detection in liquids, structural health monitoring of composite materials, detection of electric fields, pressure sensing, and so on. In the present paper, after a general introduction to WGM resonators, attention is focused on spherical microresonators, either in bulk or in bubble format, to their fabrication, characterization and functionalization. The state of the art in the area of biosensing is presented, and the perspectives of further developments are discussed. PMID:27322282

  20. Asteroid Secular Resonant Proper Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    1993-09-01

    A practical algorithm for the computation of the dynamic evolution of asteroids which are inside or close to a secular resonance has been developed. The results are checked with many numerical simulations of both real and fictitious objects. These tests prove that the algorithm is able to identify the dynamic nature of resonant objects and distinguish between future planet crossers and regular bodies. The short CPU time necessary for its execution makes it a useful tool for studying the mechanisms of meteorite transport to the inner Solar System. For this purpose, the sets of initial conditions which lead to large eccentricity in the v6 secular resonance are identified. Finally, the dynamic behavior of 44 numbered asteroids very close to the v6 resonance is analyzed. Only 4 of these asteroids are found in regions dangerous for their stability. A few others become temporary Mars crossers. The rest of them, as 6 Hebe, have a moderate eccentricity during all their quasi-periodic dynamic evolution.