Science.gov

Sample records for resource economic implications

  1. Natural resource economic implications of geothermal area use

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, d'E Charles

    1993-01-28

    Large-scale use of geothermal energy is likely to result in depletion of natural resources that support both biodiversity and other human uses. Most of the problems could be averted with competent planning and adherence to agreed conditions, but they commonly develop because they are not perceived to be directly geothermal in origin and hence are not taken into account adequately. Some of the implications of such issues are discussed below, with particular reference to countries where all or most resources are held under traditional principals of custom ownership.

  2. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    1999-10-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of each chapter, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems.

  3. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    2000-01-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

  4. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  5. Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl

    2014-05-01

    The MontanAqua project aims to study the water resources management in the region Sierre-Montana (Valais, Switzerland). Land use is known to have an influence on the water resources (soil moisture dynamic, soil sealing, surface runoff and deep percolation). Thus land use modelling is of importance for the water resources management. An actual land use map was produced using infrared imagery (Niklaus 2012, Fig.1). Land use changes are known to be mainly drived by socio-economic factors as well as climatic factors (Dolman et al. 2003). Potential future Land uses was separatly predicted according to 1-. socio-economic and 2-. climatic/abiotic drivers : 1. 4 socio-economic scenarios were developped with stakeholders (Schneider et al. 2013) between 2010 and 2012. We modeled those socio-economic scenarios into a GIS application using Python programming (ModelBuilder in ArcGIS 10) to get a cartographic transcription of the wishes of the stakeholders for their region in 2050. 2. Uncorrelated climatic and abiotic drivers were used in a BIOMOD2 (Georges et al. 2013) framework. 4 models were used: Maximum Entropy (MAXENT), Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) and the Flexible Discriminant Analysis (FDA) to predict grassland, alpine pasture, vineyards and forest in our study region. Climatic scenarios were then introduced into the models to predict potential land use in 2050 driven only by climatic and abiotic factors The comparison of all the outputs demonstrates that the socio-economic drivers will have a more important impact in the region than the climatic drivers (e.g. -70% grassland surface for the worst socio-economic scenario vs. -40% of grassland surface for the worst climatic models). Further analysis also brings out the sensitivity of the grassland/alpine pasture system to the climate change and to socio-economic changes. Future work will be to cross the different land use maps obtained by the two model types and to use

  6. Cultural Implications of Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiranpruk, Chaiskran

    A discussion of the cultural effects of economic and, by extension, human resource development in Southeast Asia looks at short- and long-term implications. It is suggested that in the short term, increased competition will affect distribution of wealth, which can promote materialism and corruption. The introduction of labor-saving technology may…

  7. Unemployment, measured and perceived decline of economic resources: contrasting three measures of recessionary hardships and their implications for adopting negative health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kalousova, Lucie; Burgard, Sarah A

    2014-04-01

    Economic downturns could have long-term impacts on population health if they promote changes in health behaviors, but the evidence for whether people are more or less likely to adopt negative health behaviors in economically challenging times has been mixed. This paper argues that researchers need to draw more careful distinctions amongst different types of recessionary hardships and the mechanisms that may underlie their associations with health behaviors. We focus on unemployment experience, measured decline in economic resources, and perceived decline in economic resources, all of which are likely to occur more often during recessions, and explore whether their associations with health behaviors are consistent or different. We use population-based longitudinal data collected by the Michigan Recession and Recovery Study in the wake of the Great Recession in the United States. We evaluate whether those who had experienced each of these three hardships were more likely to adopt new negative health behaviors, specifically cigarette smoking, harmful and hazardous alcohol consumption, or marijuana consumption. We find that, net of controls and the other two recessionary hardships, unemployment experience was associated with increased hazard of starting marijuana use. Measured decline in economic resources was associated with increased hazard of cigarette smoking and lower hazard of starting marijuana use. Perceived decline in economic resources was linked to taking up harmful and hazardous drinking. Our results suggest heterogeneity in the pathways that connect hardship experiences and different health behaviors. They also indicate that relying on only one measure of hardship, as many past studies have done, could lead to an incomplete understanding of the relationship between economic distress and health behaviors. PMID:24530614

  8. The economic implications of biosimilars.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surya C; Bagnato, Karen M

    2015-12-01

    Between 2013 and 2014, spending on specialty drugs, including biologics, increased 32.4%, while spending on small-molecule drugs increased just 6.8%. By 2016, 8 of the 10 top-selling drugs are expected to be biologics. While many biologics will be going off patent, there will likely be multiple prospective manufacturers of biosimilars, and a growing emphasis on regulatory guidelines to ensure their efficacy and safety, in the very near future. A strong factor and assumption surrounding biosimilar development and use is the potential for healthcare cost savings; the introduction of biosimilars is expected to reduce drug costs, although to a lesser degree than seen with small-molecule generic drugs. Managed care clinicians and providers must carefully consider the economic implications and potential cost-effectiveness of uptake of biosimilars for therapy in clinical practice. PMID:26788809

  9. Economic implications of chronic sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Gliklich, R E; Metson, R

    1998-03-01

    An approach to cost analysis useful in understanding the economic implications of surgical intervention on chronic sinusitis is break-even time analysis. The break-even time is the time until cost savings associated with improved health status after surgery equal the up-front costs of the operation itself. Data from 100 consecutive patients undergoing sinus operation were obtained by survey before surgery and at quarterly intervals for 1 year with statistically validated outcome measures (Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey, Chronic Sinusitis Survey). Direct and indirect costs were obtained or derived for this cohort. The cost of sinus medications, including over-the-counter remedies, nasal steroid sprays, and antibiotics, averaged $1220 per patient per year before surgery and $629 after surgery (p < 0.0001), which is a 48% reduction. Surgical costs averaged $6490 per patient. Economic modeling predicted a break-even time of approximately 7 years assuming a 3% surgical revision rate per year, a 3% decrease in sickness-related disability, and a 5% discount rate. The model was sensitive to changes in the total cost of operation, the surgical revision rate, and the anticipated disability benefit. We conclude that significant direct and indirect medical cost savings may be achieved after surgical intervention for chronic sinusitis and these savings eventually break even with the total cost of surgery itself. PMID:9527115

  10. Black Women Who Head Families: Economic Needs and Economic Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    Black women bear a heavy burden of family responsibilities, yet their economic position is marginal relative to other groups in American society. It is this imbalance between economic needs and economic resources which poses the greatest challenge to public policy. This paper examines some aspects of this imbalance. It describes the demographic…

  11. Wives' Economic Resources and Risk of Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Using longitudinal data covering 25 years from 1979 to 2004, the author examines the relationship between wives' economic resources and the risk of marital dissolution. The author considers the effects of labor force participation, income, and relative income while accounting for potential endogeneity of wives' economic resources. The extent to…

  12. The Economics of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Catherine M.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines from an economic perspective the ways in which Open Educational Resources (OER) can be linked to economic growth, equality of access to knowledge, and the improvement of teaching and learning. In leading economies, technology and knowledge are the critical factors of economic growth, which is a significant shift from the…

  13. Electronic Resources: Implications for Collection Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Genevieve S., Ed.

    This book shows librarians the strengths and weaknesses of electronic resources and the implications these resources have on collection management. It helps librarians incorporate electronic resources into their collections. The book examines the history of electronic resources in document collections and analyzes the gains and losses libraries…

  14. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

  15. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Ronald C.

    2012-09-01

    AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

  16. Comparative economics of space resource utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Andrew Hall

    1991-01-01

    Physical economic factors such as mass payback ratio, total payback ratio, and capital payback time are discussed and used to compare the economics of using resources from the Moon, Mars and its moons, and near Earth asteroids to serve certain near term markets such as propellant in low Earth orbit or launched mass reduction for lunar and Martian exploration. Methods for accounting for the time cost of money in simple figures of merit such as MPRs are explored and applied to comparisons such as those between lunar, Martian, and asteroidal resources. Methods for trading off capital and operating costs to compare schemes with substantially different capital to operating cost ratio are presented and discussed. Areas where further research or engineering would be extremely useful in reducing economic uncertainty are identified, as are areas where economic merit is highly sensitive to engineering performance - as well as areas where such sensitivity is surprisingly low.

  17. Unconventional gas outlook: resources, economics, and technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Drazga, B.

    2006-08-15

    The report explains the current and potential of the unconventional gas market including country profiles, major project case studies, and new technology research. It identifies the major players in the market and reports their current and forecasted projects, as well as current volume and anticipated output for specific projects. Contents are: Overview of unconventional gas; Global natural gas market; Drivers of unconventional gas sources; Forecast; Types of unconventional gas; Major producing regions Overall market trends; Production technology research; Economics of unconventional gas production; Barriers and challenges; Key regions: Australia, Canada, China, Russia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States; Major Projects; Industry Initiatives; Major players. Uneconomic or marginally economic resources such as tight (low permeability) sandstones, shale gas, and coalbed methane are considered unconventional. However, due to continued research and favorable gas prices, many previously uneconomic or marginally economic gas resources are now economically viable, and may not be considered unconventional by some companies. Unconventional gas resources are geologically distinct in that conventional gas resources are buoyancy-driven deposits, occurring as discrete accumulations in structural or stratigraphic traps, whereas unconventional gas resources are generally not buoyancy-driven deposits. The unconventional natural gas category (CAM, gas shales, tight sands, and landfill) is expected to continue at double-digit growth levels in the near term. Until 2008, demand for unconventional natural gas is likely to increase at an AAR corresponding to 10.7% from 2003, aided by prioritized research and development efforts. 1 app.

  18. Animal Genetic Resource Trade Flows: Economic Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout human history, livestock producers have relied on a vibrant international exchange of genetic resources to achieve improvements in the quality and productivity of their animals. In recent years, however, some observers have argued that changes in the legal, technological, and economic env...

  19. Oil Prices, Exhaustible Resources, and Economic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    This talk explores details behind the phenomenal increase in global crude oil production over the last century and a half and the implications if that trend should be reversed. I document that a key feature of the growth in production has been exploitation of new geographic areas rather than application of better technology to existing sources, and suggest that the end of that era could come soon. The economic dislocations that historically followed temporary oil supply disruptions are reviewed, and the possible implications of that experience for what the transition era could look like are explored.nnual crude oil production (in thousands of barrels per year) from the states of Pennsylvania and New York combined, 1860-2010. ashed line: actual value for real GDP, 2007-2009. Red line: dynamic conditional forecast as of 2007:Q3 (1- to 5-quarters ahead) based on oil prices using equation (3.8) in Hamilton (2003)

  20. Widening economic & social disparities: implications for India.

    PubMed

    Kurian, N J

    2007-10-01

    India is often characterized as an emerging economic super power. The huge demographic dividend, the high quality engineering and management talent, the powerful Indian diaspora and the emerging Indian transnational--kneeling the optimism. In contrast, there is another profile of India which is rather gloomy. This is the country with the largest number of the poor, illiterates and unemployed in the world. High infant mortality, morbidity and widespread anaemia among women and children continue. India suffers from acute economic and social disparities. This article addresses four dimensions of such disparities, viz. regional, rural-urban, social, and gender. There is empirical evidence to indicate that during the last two decades all these disparities have been increasing. As a result of economic reforms, the southern and western States experienced accelerated economic and social development as compared to northern and eastern States. This has led to widening gap in income, poverty and other indicators of development between the two regions. Rural-urban divide also widened in the wake of reforms. While large and medium cities experience unprecedented economic prosperity, the rural areas experience economic stagnation. As a result, there is widespread agrarian distress which results in farmers' suicide and rural unrest. Socially backward sections, especially scheduled castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have gained little from the new prosperity which rewards disproportionately those with assets, skills and higher education. STs have often been victims of development as a result of displacement. The gender gap in social and economic status, traditionally more in India as compared to other societies; has further widened by the economic reforms and globalization. The approach paper to the Eleventh Plan stresses the importance of more inclusive economic growth. It emphasizes the need for bridging the divides discussed in this article. Unless these are achieved in a time

  1. Recouple: Natural Resource Strategies for Rural Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret G.

    This source book provides guidance and technical assistance material on utilizing forest, agricultural, and scenic and wildlife resources for rural economic development. The document focuses on the uniqueness of existing rural resources for new enterprise opportunities. Natural resource-based economic development strategies are a means to…

  2. Natural Resource Economics. Teacher's Guide to World Resources. Comprehensive Coursework on the Global Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Sarah A.

    This teacher's guide presents teaching suggestions and presentation materials about natural resources as economic assets contributing to national economic productivity. The term "natural resource accounting" or "green accounting" is introduced for valuing natural resources as capital in economic systems. The lesson is divided into five parts and…

  3. Teaching Economics in Business Law: Resources and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzer, John P.

    1984-01-01

    Teachers of business law have many opportunities to integrate basic economic principles into their business law classes and therefore contribute to students' economic as well as legal literacy. Discusses a number of specific learning activities resources. (JOW)

  4. Resources, environment and economic development in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okpala, A O

    1995-06-01

    It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities. PMID:12347030

  5. Economic gas resources remain in western Canada Triassic plays

    SciTech Connect

    Dallaire, S.M.; Waghmare, R.R.; Roux, L.; Conn, R.F. )

    1994-12-12

    This article reviews the estimates of economic potential of the undiscovered natural gas resources estimated to exist in the Triassic System of the interior plains region of the Western Canada sedimentary basin. This work was recently released as Part 2 of Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) Bulletin 483. It is the second in a series of multidisciplinary studies reviewing the petroleum geology, discovered and undiscovered gas resources, and economic potential of natural gas in the Western Canada basin. Economic potential measures the portion of the undiscovered resource which can be expected to provide economic investment opportunities over the long term. By taking costs and other economic constraints into account, a more realistic estimate of the resources of commercial interest to industry is provided. Estimates of economic potential are also relevant in supply/demand forecasting, in the resource management mandates of governments and regulatory bodies, and in the strategic planning of transportation systems.

  6. Economic and policy implications of improving longevity.

    PubMed

    Vladeck, Bruce C

    2005-09-01

    With all the rhetoric surrounding the impending "entitlement crisis" produced by the "graying of America," there has been surprisingly little serious analysis of the social and economic implications of increased longevity and the doubling of the number of elderly people that will occur in this country over the next 30 years. This article identifies five critical areas in which the effect of demographic change will be significant. First, patterns of work life and labor-force participation will almost inevitably change. Second, government expenditures now financed largely by payroll and federal income taxes will increase, whereas those financed by state and local property taxes will fall, at least proportionately. Third, the post-World War II pattern of suburbanized, automobile-dependent communities will pose special challenges to serving an aging population, and new adaptations will need to be developed. Fourth, intrafamily caregiving patterns will necessarily change. Fifth, the level of disability and dependence of older people, for which the rate of change is inherently unpredictable, will have a major effect on all these and other phenomena. Whether one views the net effect of all these changes as a positive or a negative, it is necessary to begin thinking a lot harder and more systematically about all of them. PMID:16131358

  7. Changing Roles of Parental Economic Resources in Children's Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Yunju; Huang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the relationship between parents' economic resources and children's educational attainment had changed over time by comparing two cohorts from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using probit regressions and Chow tests, they examined multiple measures of economic resources, including income, net worth, liquid…

  8. Developing Resourceful Humans. Adult Education within the Economic Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Lynn Elen, Ed.

    This book, which explores the shifting paradigm from human resource development to developing resourceful humans, establishes the historical position of adult education within the economic context, discusses human capital propositions, and examines the learning dimensions of economic and educational change. The following chapters are included:…

  9. Interurban Systems and Regional Economic Development, Resource Paper No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohr, Walter B.

    This resource paper on economic geography is part of a series designed to supplement undergraduate geography courses. It interprets regional economic development in terms of geographic spatial patterns of production, income, and physical or economic distance. Chapter two outlines some selected characteristics of spatial disparities of economic…

  10. Economic and Human Resource Development: Challenges of the 90s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Nolen M.

    A discussion is presented of the roles of economic and human resource development in a changing economy and society. Introductory material considers the economic changes taking place in society and argues that strategies for economic redevelopment and revitalization must explicitly incorporate strategies for partnership building related to work…

  11. Economics, Kindergarten-Grade 6. A Curriculum Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Council for Economic Education, Houston.

    This resource guide results from a joint project of the Texas Council on Economic Education and the Texas Education Agency. For each of the elementary school grades, the guide presents interdisciplinary lessons that feature an integrated approach to the teaching of economics. The lessons are devoted to a number of basic economics concepts. The…

  12. Extended Resource Management Using Client Classification and Economic Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Püschel, Tim; Borissov, Nikolay; Neumann, Dirk; Macías, Mario; Guitart, Jordi; Torres, Jordi

    Commercialization of computing resources will become more and more important as the transition from Grid computing in academic environments to commercial services based on concepts such as utility or Cloud computing progresses. This results in the necessity to not only base components on technical aspects, but also to include economical aspects in their design. This paper presents a framework that links technical and economical aspects to the management of computational resources. Economic enhancements like dynamic pricing and client classification are introduced based on a technical resource management environment and positioned within this resulting in a proposed architecture for an Economically Enhanced Resource Manager (EERM). The introduced approach is evaluated considering various economic design criteria and example scenarios.

  13. Lunar magnetic fields: Implications for resource utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1992-09-01

    It is well known that solar-wind-implanted hydrogen and helium-3 in lunar soils are potentially usable resources for future manned activities. For economical mining of these implanted gases, it is desirable that relative concentrations exceed that of typical soils. It has previously been noted that the monthly variation of solar wind flux on the surface due to lunar immersion in the geomagnetic tail may have measurable consequences for resource utilization. It is pointed out that, for a constant external flux, locally strong lunar crustal magnetic fields will exert the dominant influence on solar wind volatile implantation rates. In particular, the strongest lunar crustal magnetic fields will both deflect and focus incident ions in local regions leading to local enhancements of the incident ion flux. Thus, the most economical sites for extraction of solar-wind-implanted volatiles may be within or adjacent to strong crustal magnetic fields. In addition, solar wind ion deflection by crustal magnetic fields must be considered in evaluating the issue of whether remnant cometary ice or water-bearing minerals have survived in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles. This is because sputter erosion of water ice by solar wind ions has been suggested to be an important ice loss mechanism within permanently shadowed regions. Thus, permanently shadowed regions that are also shielded from the solar wind by locally strong crustal fields could be the most promising locations for the survival of cometary ice. Additional numerical simulations are employed to show that solar wind ion deflection by strong lunar magnetic anomalies can produce local increases in the implantation rate of solar wind gases such as hydrogen.

  14. Lunar Magnetic Fields: Implications for Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that solar-wind-implanted hydrogen and helium-3 in lunar soils are potentially usable resources for future manned activities. For economical mining of these implanted gases, it is desirable that relative concentrations exceed that of typical soils. It has previously been noted that the monthly variation of solar wind flux on the surface due to lunar immersion in the geomagnetic tail may have measurable consequences for resource utilization. It is pointed out that, for a constant external flux, locally strong lunar crustal magnetic fields will exert the dominant influence on solar wind volatile implantation rates. In particular, the strongest lunar crustal magnetic fields will both deflect and focus incident ions in local regions leading to local enhancements of the incident ion flux. Thus, the most economical sites for extraction of solar-wind-implanted volatiles may be within or adjacent to strong crustal magnetic fields. In addition, solar wind ion deflection by crustal magnetic fields must be considered in evaluating the issue of whether remnant cometary ice or water-bearing minerals have survived in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles. This is because sputter erosion of water ice by solar wind ions has been suggested to be an important ice loss mechanism within permanently shadowed regions. Thus, permanently shadowed regions that are also shielded from the solar wind by locally strong crustal fields could be the most promising locations for the survival of cometary ice. Additional numerical simulations are employed to show that solar wind ion deflection by strong lunar magnetic anomalies can produce local increases in the implantation rate of solar wind gases such as hydrogen.

  15. Extraterrestrial resources: Implications from terrestrial experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuck, David L.; Gillett, Stephen L.

    Terrestrial mining experience indicates that the overwhelming criterion of a potentially economic deposit is its recoverable concentration of the desired mineral or element. Recovery can be based on contrast in physical and/or chemical properties, but processes based on physical properties are typically less expensive. As several processes generally are used in sequence, they have a profound effect on extraction costs. These criteria will also apply to extraterrestrial resources. Although the extreme cost of access to space makes even ordinary materials extremely valuable, this inaccessibility also makes capital and maintenance costs extremely high. The following four development stages will apply, especially with the additional unknowns of an extraterrestrial environment: (1) Exploration for the highest grade of the mineral or element desired (because the extraction plant must be simple, cheap, and rugged to minimize capital and maintenance costs, high grade is extremely important); (2) Laboratory testing of various physical and/or chemical separation techniques on the possible ore to determine if the material can indeed be recovered economically; (3) a pilot plant test, in which a large sample is dug from the deposit to determine excavation rates, power requirements, and equipment wear. (This sample is then run through a pilot mill designed on the basis of the laboratory testing. Pilot plant testing must be carried out at increasing scales, but several trials are generally necessary at each scale before the size of operations can be increased. Moreover, pilot testing is necessary for each new mineral deposit); and (4) Last is the full-scale mine and plant start-up. (New problems invariably occur at this point, but they can be kept to a minimum if the pilot plant tests were realistic). If such a development plan is followed rigorously, major cost overruns, with their potentially disastrous effects on resource developments, can be avoided.

  16. Mineral Resources, Economic Growth, and World Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, David B.; Andrews, P. W.

    1974-01-01

    World mineral supply and demand is discussed. The economics of future mineral availability in terms of effects on pollution, land use, energy consumption, human settlements, and the international distribution of income are emphasized. (DT)

  17. The economic value of water use: implications for implementing the Water Framework Directive in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Moran, Dominic; Dann, Sabrina

    2008-05-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) enshrines several economic principles in pursuit of 'good ecological status' for Europe's waters and rationalising water use in society. The implicit principle of maximising the social value from use of a scarce resource is reminiscent of the debate about treating water as an economic good, which has competing uses in society. This paper locates the debate about the economic value of water in the requirements of WFD. Specifically, we consider the implications of national reporting requirements for the economic characterisation report that stress the identification of relative value derived from use. As part of the Scottish contribution to the UK reporting exercise, we use a range of secondary data sources to derive economic values for water on a sector basis. We suggest whether the implications of different water values can be followed through in the WFD. PMID:17561329

  18. Economic and environmental implications of sensor-based N management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active-light reflectance sensors are currently being studied as a tool to guide inseason “reactive” N application. A recent study evaluated the potential economic benefit and environmental implications for sensor-based N application in corn. Economic benefits and N savings were found for most fields...

  19. Economic Hard Times and Electronic Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogg, Jill E.

    2009-01-01

    Library school courses focusing on management and budgeting are as important as ever, as are continuing education opportunities for librarians who may not have encountered a severe economic recession. The journal crisis of the 1990s is still a fresh and unpleasant memory for many. However, for other librarians who may have graduated from library…

  20. Advanced Placement Economics. Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, John S.

    This book, in conjunction with the student activities books for macroeconomics and microeconomics, is designed for teaching the Advanced Placement Economics course. The book contains five units for the microeconomic portion and six units for the macroeconomic portion of the text. Along with the many activities are sample multiple-choice questions,…

  1. The Economic Resource Receipt of New Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Laura; Elman, Cheryl; Feltey, Kathryn M.

    2006-01-01

    U.S. federal policies do not provide a universal social safety net of economic support for women during pregnancy or the immediate postpartum period but assume that employment and/or marriage will protect families from poverty. Yet even mothers with considerable human and marital capital may experience disruptions in employment, earnings, and…

  2. EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF RESOURCE CONSERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The forces that determine prices of non-renewable natural resources are an important consideration in an evaluation of the social desirability of conservation through recycling. If prevailing market prices accord conservation benefits a value less than their true value to society...

  3. Natural Resource Information for Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herfindahl, Orris C.

    This study is concerned with the problem of collecting information on natural resources. It analyses the cost of effectiveness of various kinds of surveys and related techniques (for example, aerial photography, geological and soil studies, and forest surveys) under various conditions, distinguishing between "time-bound" information and…

  4. Integrating Economics into Water Resources Systems Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howitt, R.

    2012-12-01

    The need to integrate economic and hydro-engineering models has been long recognized and is the subject of several articles and literature surveys. However difficulties of obtaining sufficient precision of economic data to span the significant differences in both spatial and temporal scales presents challenges, and opportunities for the use of new technologies. Most hydrologic models run on a daily time step, or at a minimum, monthly, whereas many economic models, particularly of agriculture, are estimated on an annual time step. The asymmetry in difficulty of downscaling versus aggregating is briefly reviewed, and an example of down-scaling irrigation water value functions to a monthly time step, using information from crop water use models is presented. Similarly, the spatial cell resolution of hydro-engineering models is usually much finer than economic models, which are usually aggregated at the level that prices or production quantities are reported. A method of downscaling regional measures of crop production and water use to the field level using the additional information from remote sensing measurements is demonstrated in the context of agricultural production in California's central valley. A problem that arises is that for spatial crop production the available data from Landsat measurements processed by NAAS in pixel form is very noisy when overlaid onto a field level boundary GIS layer. For complex cropping systems such as those found in California, it is not uncommon to have three different categories of pixel identification in the same field. The approach discussed uses a cross-entropy approach and additional data from locally measured sources, to estimate the most likely uniform crop in any given field. In addition, constraints on the combination of different sized fields and the total regional acreage measured by local county commissioners provides additional information and structure on the estimates. Initial results show significant noise in the

  5. Using STELLA Simulation Models to Teach Natural Resource Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissanayake, Sahan T. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how graphical simulation models created using STELLA software can be used to present natural resource systems in an intuitive way in undergraduate natural resource economics classes based on his experiences at a leading research university, a state university, and a leading liberal arts college in the United…

  6. Quantitative analysis of the economically recoverable resource

    SciTech Connect

    Pulle, C.V.; Seskus, A.P.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain estimates of the economically recoverable gas in the Appalachian Basin. The estimates were obtained in terms of a probability distribution, which quantifies the inherent uncertainty associated with estimates where geologic and production uncertainties prevail. It is established that well productivity on a county and regional basis is lognormally distributed, and the total recoverable gas is Normally distributed. The expected (mean), total economically recoverable gas is 20.2 trillion cubic feet (TCF) with a standard deviation of 1.6 TCF, conditional on the use of shooting technology on 160-acre well-spacing. From properties of the Normal distribution, it is seen that a 95 percent probability exists for the total recoverable gas to lie between 17.06 and 23.34 TCF. The estimates are sensitive to well spacings and the technology applied to a particular geologic environment. It is observed that with smaller well spacings - for example, at 80 acres - the estimate is substantially increased, and that advanced technology, such as foam fracturing, has the potential of significantly increasing gas recovery. However, the threshold and optimum conditions governing advanced exploitation technology, based on well spacing and other parameters, were not analyzed in this study. Their technological impact on gas recovery is mentioned in the text where relevant; and on the basis of a rough projection an additional 10 TCF could be expected with the use of foam fracturing on wells with initial open flows lower than 300 MCFD. From the exploration point of view, the lognormal distribution of well productivity suggests that even in smaller areas, such as a county basis, intense exploration might be appropriate. This is evident from the small tail probabilities of the lognormal distribution, which represent the small number of wells with relatively very high productivity.

  7. Family economic resources in the post-reform era.

    PubMed

    Zedlewski, Sheila Rafferty

    2002-01-01

    Aided by the longest economic expansion in U.S. history and other policy changes designed to make work pay, federal welfare reform legislation has spurred mothers to leave welfare at an unprecedented rate. The majority of mothers who left welfare are working, but most have jobs with low pay and limited benefits. This article discusses the relationship between economic resources and child well-being, and how family economic resources have changed under welfare reform. A survey of the research conducted since reform indicates the following: Families' economic resources clearly matter to child well-being, but the connections are complex and vary by the age of the child. Without the benefit of supports designed to "make work pay," many families working full time at the minimum wage have resources beneath the poverty line, and the poverty line itself falls substantially short of the needs of most working families. Although poverty overall has declined under welfare reform, a significant segment of families are worse off--in part because after leaving welfare, many families do not receive other government supports designed to help them. Most states are still struggling to design more effective systems for delivering supports to help low-income working families move out of poverty. The author cautions that the evolving story of welfare reform will need to be monitored carefully to achieve long-term positive impacts on family economic resources and child well-being. PMID:11980033

  8. Changing role of economics in efficient uses of resources

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, W.U.

    1986-01-01

    Sustainable economics analyzes issues complicated by politics, ideology, and nationalism. It tries to ascertain what works to make resource use more efficient. It seeks to answer such questions as how does a country's economic system alter its prospects for survival and how do people behave in relation to their natural resources. The beginnings of an answer can be formed by measuring national performance in food security, energy efficiency, environmental pollution, and equity. The effects of the efficient use of energy in modern societies are discussed.

  9. The Public Health Implications of Resource Wars

    PubMed Central

    Klare, Michael T.; Sidel, Victor W.

    2011-01-01

    Competition for resources between or within nations is likely to become an increasingly common cause of armed conflict. Competition for petroleum is especially likely to trigger armed conflict because petroleum is a highly valuable resource whose supply is destined to contract. Wars fought over petroleum and other resources can create public health concerns by causing morbidity and mortality, damaging societal infrastructure, diverting resources, uprooting people, and violating human rights. Public health workers and the organizations with which they are affiliated can help prevent resource wars and minimize their consequences by (1) promoting renewable energy and conservation, (2) documenting the impact of past and potential future resource wars, (3) protecting the human rights of affected noncombatant civilian populations during armed conflict, and (4) developing and advocating for policies that promote peaceful dispute resolution. PMID:21778501

  10. Adverse implications for university teaching concealed in economically driven policies

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1998-01-01

    Modern universities represent large economic operations fueled by funds that are increasingly derived from student tuition as government subsidies shrink. Student recruitment and retention are now mainly driven by the need for the dollars that students pay into the system. Policy that is responsive to these pressing economic realities, promulgated at all institutional levels, promotes professional behavior that encourages student retention while allowing this to occur through subtle sacrifice of the traditional essence of the university. A multiphase analysis relates the institution's economically driven policies on retention to their classroom implications and to other effects on the behavior of the teaching faculty. PMID:22478313

  11. Using Cultural Diversity in Teaching Economics: Global Business Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitry, Darryl J.

    2008-01-01

    Globalization and increasing cross-cultural interactivity have implications for education in general and may also present valuable pedagogical opportunities in the practice of teaching economics for business students. Therefore, the author investigated this proposition and offers some empirical observations from research and teaching experiments.…

  12. Population Explosion in Africa and its Implications for Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinbode, Ade

    1977-01-01

    Analyzes patterns of population growth in Africa, accounts for the population explosion in certain parts of the continent, and discusses implications of the population growth for economic development. Seven tables and two maps are included in the article. (Author/DB)

  13. Starting Point: Pedagogic Resources for Teaching and Learning Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Mark H.; McGoldrick, KimMarie; Simkins, Scott P.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes Starting Point: Teaching and Learning Economics, a Web-based portal that makes innovative pedagogic resources and effective teaching practices easily accessible to economists. Starting Point introduces economists to teaching innovations through 16 online modules, each containing a general description of a specific pedagogic…

  14. Land Resources for Crop Production. Agricultural Economic Report Number 572.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hexem, Roger; Krupa, Kenneth S.

    About 35 million acres not being cultivated have high potential for crop use and 117 million more have medium potential, according to the 1982 National Resources Inventory (NRI) conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA committees evaluated the economic potential for converting land based on physical characteristics of the soil; size…

  15. Survey of resource opportunities and critical evaluation of economic requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    1991-01-01

    A series of mission analyses were performed to evaluate human mission to Mars and the moon with and without the aid of planetary resource utilization. The types of trade studies that are considered include the use of resources to manufacture propellant, food, habitat atmospheric gases, and lander habitat structure. Also, the potential for export of resources from the moon, Mars, Phobos, Deimos, and selected asteroids is also examined. In all cases, mass leveraging is evaluated. For certain cases, economic factors are evaluated as well. It is concluded that some uses are highly leveraging on the mission, whereas others have lesser impact and, therefore, should be afforded lesser priority in resource utilization studies. This survey is made with a consistent set of scaling laws for spacecraft propulsion and habitation systems and subsystems, and therefore, provides a rational basis for comparing different resource locations and use strategies.

  16. Natural resource protection on buffer lands: integrating resource evaluation and economics

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Environmental managers are faced with the wise management, sustainability, and stewardship of their land for natural resource values. This task requires the integration of ecological evaluation with economics. Using the Department of Energy (DOE) as a case study, we examine the why, who, what, where, when, and how questions about assessment and natural resource protection of buffer lands. We suggest that managers evaluate natural resources for a variety of reasons that revolve around land use, remediation/restoration, protection of natural environments, and natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). While DOE is the manager of its lands, and thus its natural resources, a range of natural resource trustees and public officials have co-responsibility. We distinguish four types of natural resource evaluations: (1) the resources themselves (to the ecosystem), (2) the value of specific resources to people (e.g. hunting/fishing/bird-watching/herbal medicines), (3) the value of ecological resources to services for communities (e.g. clean air/water), and (4) the value of the intact ecosystems (e.g. forests or estuaries). Resource evaluations should occur initially to provide information about the status of those resources, and continued evaluation is required to provide trends data. Additional natural resource evaluation is required before, during and immediately following changes in land use, and remediation or restoration. Afterwards, additional monitoring and evaluations are required to evaluate the effects of the land use change or the efficacy of remediation/restoration. There are a wide range of economic methods available to evaluate natural resources, but the methods chosen depend upon the nature of the resource being evaluated, the purpose of the evaluation, and the needs of the agencies, natural resource trustees, public officials, and the public. We discuss the uses, and the advantages and disadvantages of different evaluation methods for natural resources. PMID

  17. Natural resource protection on buffer lands: integrating resource evaluation and economics.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Environmental managers are faced with the wise management, sustainability, and stewardship of their land for natural resource values. This task requires the integration of ecological evaluation with economics. Using the Department of Energy (DOE) as a case study, we examine the why, who, what, where, when, and how questions about assessment and natural resource protection of buffer lands. We suggest that managers evaluate natural resources for a variety of reasons that revolve around land use, remediation/restoration, protection of natural environments, and natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). While DOE is the manager of its lands, and thus its natural resources, a range of natural resource trustees and public officials have co-responsibility. We distinguish four types of natural resource evaluations: (1) the resources themselves (to the ecosystem), (2) the value of specific resources to people (e.g. hunting/fishing/bird-watching/herbal medicines), (3) the value of ecological resources to services for communities (e.g. clean air/water), and (4) the value of the intact ecosystems (e.g. forests or estuaries). Resource evaluations should occur initially to provide information about the status of those resources, and continued evaluation is required to provide trends data. Additional natural resource evaluation is required before, during and immediately following changes in land use, and remediation or restoration. Afterwards, additional monitoring and evaluations are required to evaluate the effects of the land use change or the efficacy of remediation/restoration. There are a wide range of economic methods available to evaluate natural resources, but the methods chosen depend upon the nature of the resource being evaluated, the purpose of the evaluation, and the needs of the agencies, natural resource trustees, public officials, and the public. We discuss the uses, and the advantages and disadvantages of different evaluation methods for natural resources. PMID

  18. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2016-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  19. Realism and resources: Towards more explanatory economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rob; Hardwick, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    To be successfully and sustainably adopted, policy-makers, service managers and practitioners want public programmes to be affordable and cost-effective, as well as effective. While the realist evaluation question is often summarised as what works for whom, under what circumstances, we believe the approach can be as salient to answering questions about resource use, costs and cost-effectiveness – the traditional domain of economic evaluation methods. This paper first describes the key similarities and differences between economic evaluation and realist evaluation. It summarises what health economists see as the challenges of evaluating complex interventions, and their suggested solutions. We then use examples of programme theory from a recent realist review of shared care for chronic conditions to illustrate two ways in which realist evaluations might better capture the resource requirements and resource consequences of programmes, and thereby produce explanations of how they are linked to outcomes (i.e. explanations of cost-effectiveness). PMID:27478402

  20. Flow of natural versus economic capital in industrial supply networks and its implications to sustainability.

    PubMed

    Ukidwe, Nandan U; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2005-12-15

    Appreciating the reliance of industrial networks on natural capital is a necessary step toward their sustainable design and operation. However, most contemporary accounting techniques, including engineering economics, life cycle assessment, and full cost accounting, fail in this regard, as they take natural capital for granted and concentrate mainly on the economic aspects and emissions. The recently developed "thermodynamic input-output analysis" (TIOA) includes the contribution of ecological goods, ecosystem services, human resources, and impact of emissions in an economic input-output model. This paper uses TIOA to determine the throughputs of natural and economic capitals along industrial supply networks. The ratios of natural to economic capitals of economic sectors reveals a hierarchical organization of the U.S. economy wherein basic infrastructure industries are at the bottom and specialized value-added industries constitute the top. These results provide novel insight into the reliance of specific industrial sectors and supply chains on natural capital and the corresponding economic throughput. Such insight is useful for understanding the implications of corporate restructuring on industrial sustainability metrics and of outsourcing of business activities on outsourcer, outsourcee, and global sustainability. These implications are discussed from the standpoints of weak and strong sustainability paradigms. The calculated ratios can also be used for hybrid thermodynamic life cycle assessment. PMID:16475364

  1. Version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type. The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. Version 3.0 of the EMINERS program is available as this USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344. Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques. The release notes included with this report give more details on changes in EMINERS over the years. EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer personal computers. It does not work on Macintosh computers. For help in using the program in this report, see the "Quick-Start Guide for Version 3.0 of EMINERS-Economic Mineral Resource Simulator" (W.J. Bawiec and G.T. Spanski, 2012, USGS Open-File Report 2009-1057, linked at right). It demonstrates how to execute EMINERS software

  2. [Inventories of the Earth. Mineral resource appraisals and the rise of resource economics].

    PubMed

    Westermann, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    How do the earth sciences mediate between the natural and social world? This paper explores the question by focusing on the history of nonfuel mineral resource appraisal from the late nineteenth to the mid twentieth century. It argues that earth sciences early on embraced social scientific knowledge, i.e. economic knowledge, in particular, when it came to determining or deposits and estimating the magnitude of mineral reserves. After 1900, assessing national and global mineral reserves and their "life span" or years of supply became ever more important, scaling up and complementing traditional appraisal practices on the level of individual mines or mining and trading companies. As a consequence, economic methods gained new weight for mineral resource estimation. Natural resource economics as an own field of research grew out of these efforts. By way of example, the mineral resource appraisal assigned to the U.S. Materials Policy Commission by President Harry S. Truman in 1951 is analyzed in more detail. Natural resource economics and environmental economics might be interpreted as a strategy to bring down the vast and holistically conceived object of geological and ecological research, the earth, to human scale, and assimilate it into social matters. PMID:24988755

  3. South Africa's Economic Development Trajectory: Implications for Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Marina J.; Altman, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that skills development in South Africa must be aligned to the economic and political imperatives of reducing unemployment and poverty, while fostering growth and international competitiveness. The legacy of a resource-based economy, overlaid by apartheid policies, has resulted in widespread poverty, inequality and unemployment…

  4. Economic uses of forest plant resources in western Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Dangol, Dharma R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses economic uses of forest plant resources documented from 117 forest plots and neighboring areas of western Chitwan, Nepal. The paper lists information on the plant species (1) that provide valuable food, vegetable and medicinal products that maintain human health and general well-being of the households; (2) that are economically valuable to farmers such as high-grade fodder, useful plants for crop management (e.g., pesticide, compost, green manure); (3) that are used as piscicide (harvest fish from rivers and streams), (4) that provide materials for use in household construction (e.g. building materials, thatch) and tool making; and (5) that have aesthetic value. The access to forest resources is important for many households, especially those living in remote and poor agricultural areas such as Western Chitwan. This paper also highlights the availability of the species wherever possible based upon the field data. PMID:23066332

  5. Southern New Mexico low temperature geothermal resource economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, C.L.; Whittier, J.; Witcher, J.C.; Schoenmackers, R.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents an overview of geothermal resource development for three-low temperature (i.e, <200{degree}F) sites in southern New Mexico: the Lower Animas Valley, the Las Cruces East Mesa, and Truth or Consequences. This report is intended to provide potential geothermal developers with detailed information on each site for planning and decision making purposes. Included in the overview for each site is both a full site characterization and an economic analysis of development costs associated with the construction and operation of both geothermal and fresh water systems at each of the three locations. The economic analysis focuses on providing utility services to a commercial greenhouse because greenhouse operations are among the most likely candidates for use of the resource base. 9 tabs., 8 figs.

  6. Economic review of the geopressured-geothermal resource with recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M.M.; Negus-de Wys, J.; Faulder, D.D.; Lunis, B.C.

    1989-11-01

    This report presents the results of an economic study conducted by the INEL under DOE Contract No. AC07-76ID01570 to evaluate the breakeven price to market energy from a geopressured-geothermal resource. A breakeven price is a minimum, per unit charge required for the developer to recover all direct and indirect costs and a rate of return sufficient to compensate the developer for depreciation, the time value of money, and the risk of failure. The DOE Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program and the DOE well testing and operations at three locations in the Gulf Coast region provide the bulk of resource and economic characteristics for this study. A menu-driven model was developed in LOTUS-123 to calculate the breakeven price to market gas and electricity from a geopressured-geothermal resource. This model was developed using the present value methodology and conservative assumptions. Assuming present well constraints and current off-the-shelf conversion technology, the breakeven price for electricity is about $0.26/kWh using only the thermal energy from a Hulin-type resource. Assuming identical resource and technology constraints, the breakeven price is reduced to about $0.15/kWh when using all available energy forms (methane, hydraulic, and thermal). Assuming the use of available advanced technologies, the breakeven price is reduced to about $0.10/kWh. Assuming the higher quality resource (with higher temperature and gas content) in the South Texas cases, the breakeven cost is about $0.095/kWh. Using advanced technology, this cost is further reduced to about $0.05/kWh. Both costs are within program goals. The results of this study suggest that the future direction of the Geopressured-Geothermal Program emphasize (a) selection of higher quality resource, (b) advanced energy conversion technology, and (c) total energy utilization.

  7. An Economics Scrapbook: A Catalog of Resources for Graduate Students in the Department of Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshimura, Miles, Comp.; Gang, Ira, Comp.

    This catalog of resources entails, by definition, an incomplete listing of available materials in the Rutgers University Department of Economics, Alexander Library at Rutgers, data centers throughout Rutgers, and the Internet. Because of the changing nature of the field, this scrapbook is constantly being revised. This scrapbook contains seven…

  8. Estimation of economic parameters of U.S. hydropower resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas G.; Hunt, Richard T.; Reeves, Kelly S.; Carroll, Greg R.

    2003-06-01

    Tools for estimating the cost of developing and operating and maintaining hydropower resources in the form of regression curves were developed based on historical plant data. Development costs that were addressed included: licensing, construction, and five types of environmental mitigation. It was found that the data for each type of cost correlated well with plant capacity. A tool for estimating the annual and monthly electric generation of hydropower resources was also developed. Additional tools were developed to estimate the cost of upgrading a turbine or a generator. The development and operation and maintenance cost estimating tools, and the generation estimating tool were applied to 2,155 U.S. hydropower sites representing a total potential capacity of 43,036 MW. The sites included totally undeveloped sites, dams without a hydroelectric plant, and hydroelectric plants that could be expanded to achieve greater capacity. Site characteristics and estimated costs and generation for each site were assembled in a database in Excel format that is also included within the EERE Library under the title, “Estimation of Economic Parameters of U.S. Hydropower Resources - INL Hydropower Resource Economics Database.”

  9. Natural resource damages: A legal, economic and policy overview

    SciTech Connect

    Connaughton, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Natural resource damages liability is a major development in environmental law. Government authorities are increasingly seeking damage claims for injury to natural resources, invoking the natural resource damages (NRD) provisions of the federal Superfund statute and the Oil Pollution Act. The number of Claims asserted is increasing, and the amounts sought range to hundreds of millions of dollars, with some claims exceeding $1 billion. Some assert that the federal NRD program is an awakening sleeping giant that could threaten to rival the Superfund cleanup program in cost and the potential for imposing far-reaching liabilities on a wide range of businesses as well as the federal government. Lawyers, economists, and other experts on NRD have become fully engaged in comprehensive analyses of the legal, economic and policy issues presented by NRD claims, including a full review of the NRD litigating record. Many critics find that existing NRD law and practice is flawed; produces excessive liability claims, skewed incentives and economic waste; and urgently needs reform. Changes have been recommended to improve the law and refocus the NRD program on achieving cost-effective restoration of injured natural resources. These analytical endeavors are especially timely because Congress is currently considering significant changes in NRD law. This overview will provide a brief background summary of the NRD program and highlight some of the central legal and scientific issues facing government policy makers and litigants in NRD cases.

  10. Effective Organizational Vision: Implications for Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Rex D.; Akdere, Mesut

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the existing literature related to organizational vision and discusses its potential implications for human resource development (HRD). Furthermore, the paper aims to provide a forum for debate on the utility and effectiveness of organizational vision and how it is related to HRD and strategic…

  11. Animal biotechnology: applications and economic implications in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Madan, M L

    2005-04-01

    In most developing countries, biotechnological applications relating to livestock need to be suitable for animal owners who are resource-poor small-scale operators who own little or no land and few animals. Livestock is becoming increasingly important to economic growth in developing countries and the application of biotechnology is largely dictated by commercial considerations and socio-economic goals. Using technology to support livestock production is an integral part of viable agriculture in multi-enterprise systems. Livestock are part of a fragile ecosystem and a rich source of animal biodiversity, as local species and breeds possess genes and traits of excellence. Molecular markers are increasingly being used to identify and select the particular genes that lead to these desirable traits and it is now possible to select superior germ plasm and disseminate it using artificial insemination, embryo transfer and other assisted reproductive technologies. These technologies have been used in the genetic improvement of livestock, particularly in cattle and buffaloes, and the economic returns are significant. However, morbidity and mortality among animals produced using assisted reproductive technologies lead to high economic losses, so the principal application of animal biotechnology at present is in the production of cheap and dependable diagnostic kits and vaccines. Several obstacles limit the application of biotechnology at present: there is a lack of infrastructure and insufficient manpower, so funding is needed if resource-poor farmers are to benefit from biotechnology. PMID:16110883

  12. 31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Economic development of resources... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.302 Economic development of resources located in Burma. (a) The term economic development of resources located in Burma means activities pursuant to a contract the subject...

  13. 31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economic development of resources... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.302 Economic development of resources located in Burma. (a) The term economic development of resources located in Burma means activities pursuant to a contract the subject...

  14. 31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Economic development of resources... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.302 Economic development of resources located in Burma. (a) The term economic development of resources located in Burma means activities pursuant to a contract the subject...

  15. 31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Economic development of resources... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.302 Economic development of resources located in Burma. (a) The term economic development of resources located in Burma means activities pursuant to a contract the subject...

  16. 31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Economic development of resources... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.302 Economic development of resources located in Burma. (a) The term economic development of resources located in Burma means activities pursuant to a contract the subject...

  17. Climate Change Technology Scenarios: Energy, Emissions, and Economic Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Placet, Marylynn; Humphreys, Kenneth K.; Mahasenan, N Maha

    2004-08-15

    This report describes three advanced technology scenarios and various illustrative cases developed by staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program. These scenarios and illustrative cases explore the energy, emissions and economic implications of using advanced energy technologies and other climate change related technologies to reduce future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The cases were modeled using the Mini Climate Assessment Model (MiniCAM) developed by PNNL. The report describes the scenarios, the specifications for the cases, and the results. The report also provides background information on current emissions of GHGs and issues associated with stabilizing GHG concentrations.

  18. Smart grid: Carbon and economic implications for Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Rebecca M.

    Smart grid, a mechanism to provide bidirectional communication and control between electricity providers and consumers, is the subject of great public interest as a means to enable a more efficient and renewably powered electricity grid infrastructure. Considerable public and private investment in smart grid is driven, in part, by the belief that it will provide significant environmental benefits, including CO2 emissions reductions. Previous studies of the environmental benefits of smart grid have focused on hypothesized changes in CO2 at the national level and have not addressed economic considerations. Because there are regional differences in electricity system characteristics and because significant electricity regulatory decisions are made by the states, there is a need to understand the CO2 and economic implications of smart grid at the state level. This dissertation developed a methodology by which to evaluate the interrelationships between the CO2 and economic implications of smart grid at the state level. The foundation of the methodology is a static, mixed integer linear program which estimates the direction and magnitude of potential changes in CO2 and economics due to coupling of smart gird with demand response, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The research hypotheses of this dissertation are: (1) smart grid CO 2 reductions and economic benefits are not aligned given current electricity regulatory policies, and (2) given insufficient CO2 incentives or the wrong set of economic incentives, smart grid could fail to achieve attainable CO2 reductions. The methodology was applied to a case study of Colorado which suggests that in 2006 smart grid could have contributed to incremental reductions in electricity sector CO2 emissions of up to 23% or incremental reductions in cost of up to 8%, but not via the same smart grid deployment strategy. As such, the research confirmed the hypothesis that CO2 reductions and

  19. Economic and fiscal implications of aging for subnational American governments.

    PubMed

    Serow, W J

    2001-01-01

    This article begins with a brief review of the extensive literature dealing with the macroeconomic consequences of population aging in industrialized societies and places the question in the context of the political and economic framework of the United States. Next, we move to the fiscal ramifications of population aging for subnational units of government. The varying demographic sources of aging are then introduced and their economic implications are reviewed. The role of population aging within the context of subnational fiscal impacts is first examined by reviewing patterns of change in demand for state-government-provided public goods and services associated with an older population. These include primarily health care and income security. These considerations on the expenditure side are then extended to substate government, where primary and secondary education are easily the largest component of public budgets. Finally, the implications of demographic change on the revenue side of state and local public finances are considered, including potential impacts on sales, property, and income tax receipts. PMID:11799914

  20. Essays on Applied Resource Economics Using Bioeconomic Optimization Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affuso, Ermanno

    With rising demographic growth, there is increasing interest in analytical studies that assess alternative policies to provide an optimal allocation of scarce natural resources while ensuring environmental sustainability. This dissertation consists of three essays in applied resource economics that are interconnected methodologically within the agricultural production sector of Economics. The first chapter examines the sustainability of biofuels by simulating and evaluating an agricultural voluntary program that aims to increase the land use efficiency in the production of biofuels of first generation in the state of Alabama. The results show that participatory decisions may increase the net energy value of biofuels by 208% and reduce emissions by 26%; significantly contributing to the state energy goals. The second chapter tests the hypothesis of overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in U.S. peanut farming with respect to other inputs and address genetic research to reduce the use of the most overused chemical input. The findings suggest that peanut producers overuse fungicide with respect to any other input and that fungi resistant genetically engineered peanuts may increase the producer welfare up to 36.2%. The third chapter implements a bioeconomic model, which consists of a biophysical model and a stochastic dynamic recursive model that is used to measure potential economic and environmental welfare of cotton farmers derived from a rotation scheme that uses peanut as a complementary crop. The results show that the rotation scenario would lower farming costs by 14% due to nitrogen credits from prior peanut land use and reduce non-point source pollution from nitrogen runoff by 6.13% compared to continuous cotton farming.

  1. The ethical implications of health sciences library economics.

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, G D

    1991-01-01

    The intersection of ethics and economics is rarely discussed in the library literature or at conferences. This may be due, in part, to what economists describe as a romantic value system, that is, the belief that resources are or should be unlimited and available for exploitation by every individual with a need. But recent changes in the national economy for libraries are forcing a realization that individualistic codes of ethics and value systems do not always result in socially desirable consequences. The problems of information management and access cannot be solved by ethical individuals acting alone. Instead, a new consensus is needed on collective ethical behaviors to ensure that health information resources are managed for the common good. PMID:1958911

  2. Utilization review. Health economics and cost-effective resource management.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, A H

    1991-01-01

    In an effort to reduce their health care burden, health care payors have turned to utilization controls and restructured health care payment systems to control health care costs. While health care payors are interested in economic restraints, health care providers are being placed at increasing levels of financial risk, and they struggle to maintain high quality services. Quality of care must remain our number one priority, but it is essential to achieve this goal in a cost-efficient manner. Cost-efficiencies are gained through the development of a comprehensive physician education program that encourages information exchange, physician input, and the implementation of positive alternatives that lead to efficiencies in resource management. PMID:1824449

  3. DIY-Bio - economic, epistemological and ethical implications and ambivalences.

    PubMed

    Keulartz, Jozef; van den Belt, Henk

    2016-12-01

    Since 2008, we witness the emergence of the Do-It-Yourself Biology movement, a global movement spreading the use of biotechnology beyond traditional academic and industrial institutions and into the lay public. Practitioners include a broad mix of amateurs, enthusiasts, students, and trained scientists. At this moment, the movement counts nearly 50 local groups, mostly in America and Europe, but also increasingly in Asia. Do-It-Yourself Bio represents a direct translation of hacking culture and practicesfrom the realm of computers and software into the realm of genes and cells. Although the movement is still in its infancy, and it is even unclear whether it will ever reach maturity, the contours of a new paradigm of knowledge production are already becoming visible. We will subsequently sketch the economic, the epistemological and the ethical profile of Do-It-Yourself Bio, and discuss its implications and also its ambivalences. PMID:27237829

  4. 31 CFR 537.410 - Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... economic development of resources in Burma. 537.410 Section 537.410 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.410 Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic... that includes the economic development of resources located in Burma. With respect to entry into...

  5. Human Resources and Economic Growth, an International Annotated Bibliography on the Role of Education and Training in Economic and Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Frutschi, Marian Crites, Ed.

    In this publication, one of a series dealing with economic and social development, references to the literature on human resource development have been organized under nine major subject headings: human resources in economic development, economics of human resources, manpower requirements, rational utilization of human resources, the strategies of…

  6. Evaluation of water resource economics within the Pasco Basin, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Leaming, G F

    1981-09-30

    The Columbia River basalt beneath the Hanford Site in south-central Washington is being considered for possible use as a terminal repository medium for high-level nuclear waste. Such underground storage would require that the facility be contiguous to at least a portion of the ambient groundwater system of the Pasco Basin. This report attempts to evaluate the economic factors and conditions related to the water resources of the Pasco Basin and the probable economic effects associated with selected hypothetical changes in local water demand and supply as a basis for eventual selection of credible water supply alternatives and more detailed analyses of the consequences of such alternative selection. It is most likely that total demand for water for consumptive uses in the Pasco Basin will increase from nearly 2.0 million acre-feet per year in 1980 to almost 2.8 million acre-feet in 2010, with total demand slightly more than 3.6 million acre-feet per year in 2080. The Columbia River and other surface streams constitute the source of more than 99 percent of the water available each year for all uses, both consumptive and non-consumptive, in the Pasco Basin. It is estimated that pumped groundwater accounted for 3 percent of the value of all water supplied to consumers of water in the Pasco Basin in 1980. Groundwater's share of the total cost is proportionately higher than groundwater's share of total use because it is generally more costly to acquire than is surface water and the value of water is considered equivalent to its cost of acquisition. Because groundwater represents such a small part of the total water supply and demand within the Pasco Basin, it is concluded that if the development of a nuclear waste repository on the Hanford Site were to result in changes in the groundwater supply during the next 100 years, the economic impact on the overall water supply picture for the entire basin would be insignificant.

  7. [Utilizable value of wild economic plant resource--acron kernel].

    PubMed

    He, R; Wang, K; Wang, Y; Xiong, T

    2000-04-01

    Peking whites breeding hens were selected. Using true metabolizable energy method (TME) to evaluate the available nutritive value of acorn kernel, while maize and rice were used as control. The results showed that the contents of gross energy (GE), apparent metabolizable energy (AME), true metabolizable energy (TME) and crude protein (CP) in the acorn kernel were 16.53 mg/kg-1, 11.13 mg.kg-1, 11.66 mg.kg-1 and 10.63%, respectively. The apparent availability and true availability of crude protein were 45.55% and 49.83%. The gross content of 17 amino acids, essential amino acids and semiessential amino acids were 9.23% and 4.84%. The true availability of amino acid and the content of true available amino acid were 60.85% and 6.09%. The contents of tannin and hydrocyanic acid were 4.55% and 0.98% in acorn kernel. The available nutritive value of acorn kernel is similar to maize or slightly lower, but slightly higher than that of rice. Acorn kernel is a wild economic plant resource to exploit and utilize but it contains higher tannin and hydrocyanic acid. PMID:11767593

  8. Economic Recession, Teacher-Reported Cuts to School Resources, and Children's Economic and Psychiatric Problems in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huurre, Taina; Santalahti, Päivi; Kiviruusu, Olli; Solantaus, Tytti

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated whether cuts to school resources made during economic recession contribute to children's psychiatric and economic problems in early adulthood. The cohort consisted of 817 Finnish children. Data was gathered from teachers during a recession (child age 12) and from national registers on children's post-recession use of…

  9. Health and economic implications of a tobacco-free society.

    PubMed

    Warner, K E

    1987-10-16

    Cigarette smoking causes more premature deaths than do all the following together: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, cocaine, heroin, alcohol, fire, automobile accidents, homicide, and suicide. Attainment of a tobacco-free society ultimately would produce a national life-expectancy gain comparable with that that would accompany the complete elimination of all cancers not caused by tobacco use. In particular, each year 350,000 individuals who would have experienced tobacco-related deaths would realize a life-expectancy gain of 15 years. Reflecting their higher smoking prevalence and rates of smoking-related diseases, blacks would benefit more than whites. By altering the mix of morbid conditions and fatal diseases, the end of tobacco-related diseases would shift the need for particular medical specialties and health care facilities. The tobacco industry implies that the demise of tobacco consumption would wreak havoc with the economy. By contrast, some antitobacco activists suggest that the end of tobacco use would yield a multibillion dollar fiscal dividend. Each argument is fundamentally flawed. The economic impacts of a tobacco-free society would be modest and of far less consequence than the principal implication: a significantly enriched quality and quantity of life. PMID:3656624

  10. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    One implication of the economic filter results for undiscovered copper resources is that global copper supply will continue to be dominated by production from a small number of giant deposits. This domination of resource supply by a small number of producers may increase in the future, because an increasing proportion of new deposit discoveries are likely to occur in remote areas and be concealed deep beneath covering rock and sediments. Extensive mineral exploration activity will be required to meet future resource demand, because these deposits will be harder to find and more costly to mine than near-surface deposits located in more accessible areas. Relatively few of the new deposit discoveries in these high-cost settings will have sufficient tonnage and grade characteristics to assure positive economic returns on development and exploration costs.

  11. World Wide Web Resources for Teaching and Learning Economics. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanFossen, Phillip J.

    Technological resources abound for teachers of all subject areas, but for many reasons, such instructional technology seems to lend itself well to the social studies including economics. To help teachers efficiently use the latest economics resources available on the World Wide Web, this Digest identifies four sites that offer knowledge of…

  12. Assessing climate change and socio-economic uncertainties in long term management of water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanshahi, Golnaz; Dawson, Richard; Walsh, Claire; Birkinshaw, Stephen; Glenis, Vassilis

    2015-04-01

    Long term management of water resources is challenging for decision makers given the range of uncertainties that exist. Such uncertainties are a function of long term drivers of change, such as climate, environmental loadings, demography, land use and other socio economic drivers. Impacts of climate change on frequency of extreme events such as drought make it a serious threat to water resources and water security. The release of probabilistic climate information, such as the UKCP09 scenarios, provides improved understanding of some uncertainties in climate models. This has motivated a more rigorous approach to dealing with other uncertainties in order to understand the sensitivity of investment decisions to future uncertainty and identify adaptation options that are as far as possible robust. We have developed and coupled a system of models that includes a weather generator, simulations of catchment hydrology, demand for water and the water resource system. This integrated model has been applied in the Thames catchment which supplies the city of London, UK. This region is one of the driest in the UK and hence sensitive to water availability. In addition, it is one of the fastest growing parts of the UK and plays an important economic role. Key uncertainties in long term water resources in the Thames catchment, many of which result from earth system processes, are identified and quantified. The implications of these uncertainties are explored using a combination of uncertainty analysis and sensitivity testing. The analysis shows considerable uncertainty in future rainfall, river flow and consequently water resource. For example, results indicate that by the 2050s, low flow (Q95) in the Thames catchment will range from -44 to +9% compared with the control scenario (1970s). Consequently, by the 2050s the average number of drought days are expected to increase 4-6 times relative to the 1970s. Uncertainties associated with urban growth increase these risks further

  13. Complications of facial fillers: resource implications for NHS hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hachach-Haram, Nadine; Gregori, Marco; Kirkpatrick, Niall; Young, Richard; Collier, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation seeks to reverse the negative sequelae of multiple factors but most importantly of genetic predisposition, sun damage and smoking. With the advent of the so-called ‘non-surgical’ techniques, and perhaps fuelled by these austere times, volumetric facial augmentation using dermal fillers has soared in popularity among both patients and practitioners. However, legislation has yet to keep pace with the change in clinical practices leaving patients poorly informed and with no protection against unscrupulous suppliers and unregulated practitioners. When things go wrong, patients often turn to the National Health Service (NHS) to rectify both the acute and chronic sequelae resulting in potentially difficult ethical and resource implications. Here, we report one of an increasing number of cases presenting to our NHS craniofacial service with acute filler-related complications. PMID:23362071

  14. Social and Economic Implications of Noncommunicable diseases in India

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, JS; Prinja, Shankar; Garg, Charu C; Mendis, Shanthi; Menabde, Nata

    2011-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become a major public health problem in India accounting for 62% of the total burden of foregone DALYs and 53% of total deaths. In this paper, we review the social and economic impact of NCDs in India. We outline this impact at household, health system and the macroeconomic level. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) figure at the top among the leading ten causes of adult (25–69 years) deaths in India. The effects of NCDs are inequitable with evidence of reversal in social gradient of risk factors and greater financial implications for the poorer households in India. Out-of-pocket expenditure associated with the acute and long-term effects of NCDs is high resulting in catastrophic health expenditure for the households. Study in India showed that about 25% of families with a member with CVD and 50% with cancer experience catastrophic expenditure and 10% and 25%, respectively, are driven to poverty. The odds of incurring catastrophic hospitalization expenditure were nearly 160% higher with cancer than the odds of incurring catastrophic spending when hospitalization was due to a communicable disease. These high numbers also pose significant challenge for the health system for providing treatment, care and support. The proportion of hospitalizations and outpatient consultations as a result of NCDs rose from 32% to 40% and 22% to 35%, respectively, within a decade from 1995 to 2004. In macroeconomic term, most of the estimates suggest that the NCDs in India account for an economic burden in the range of 5–10% of GDP, which is significant and slowing down GDP thus hampering development. While India is simultaneously experiencing several disease burdens due to old and new infections, nutritional deficiencies, chronic diseases, and injuries, individual interventions for clinical care are unlikely to be affordable on a large scale. While it is clear that “treating our way out” of the NCDs may not be the efficient way, it has to be

  15. Neoclassical and Institutional Economics as Foundations for Human Resource Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Greg G.; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to more comprehensively understand economics as a foundation of human resource development (HRD), this article reviews economic theories and models pertinent to HRD research and theory building. By examining neoclassical and neoinstitutional schools of contemporary economics, especially the screening model and the internal labor…

  16. Surviving Unemployment: Economic Resources and Job Loss Duration in Blue Collar Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Esther

    1995-01-01

    Examines the economic resources of displaced blue-collar workers (n=324) coping with job loss for varying lengths of time. Data revealed the pivotal role of unemployment benefits in maintaining a household's economic viability. Findings suggest that the service needs of unemployed workers may become much greater as their economic plight deepens.…

  17. 31 CFR 537.410 - Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... economic development of resources in Burma. 537.410 Section 537.410 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.410 Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic... supervision and guarantee of another person's performance of a contract that includes the economic...

  18. Methods to evaluate nutritional and economic implications of Ascaris infection.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, L S

    1984-01-01

    Ascaris infection has important economic implications for human populations, due to its negative effects on growth of undernourished children and its less common role in causing intestinal obstruction. The deleterious effects of Ascaris infection on growth of undernourished children have been demonstrated in studies conducted in India, Kenya and Tanzania; deworming has resulted in improved weight gains of 20-35% compared with uninfected children. However other studies in Ethiopia, Bangladesh and Guatemala have not found statistically significant improvements in growth of children after treatment for Ascaris infection, most likely due to inadequacies in choice of population, sample size, experimental design, data analysis and/or relative failure of drug treatment. Field studies which attempt to measure the magnitude of growth deficits due to Ascaris must take the following into account: (1) rapidly growing preschool age children from communities with a high prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition are the most important group to study. (2) A longitudinal design, preferably using randomly allocated treatment and placebo groups, is highly desirable. (3) A sufficient period of time for growth improvement must be allowed between the beginning of the intervention and final measurements. (4) The sample sizes necessary to test hypotheses adequately should be calculated in advance. (5) The drug chosen for treatment of Ascaris should produce high cure rates and reinfection rates should be determined. Possible effects of the drug on other diseases prevalent in the population should be considered in the data analysis. (6) Evaluation of worm loads are very important in interpretation of results. (7) The data analysis must be appropriate for the individual study and must be designed to consider confounding factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6441259

  19. Wastewater reuse potential analysis: implications for China's water resources management.

    PubMed

    Chu, Junying; Chen, Jining; Wang, Can; Fu, Ping

    2004-06-01

    It has been recognized that wastewater reuse or reclamation serves as an efficient and valuable way to cope with the scarcity of water resources and severity of water pollution. This paper presents the systematic framework of wastewater reuse potential estimation. Based on the regional disparities in China, a linear programming optimization model is developed to explore the potential wastewater reuse quantities, under physical and economic constraints. Sensitivity analysis and Robust Counterpart (RC) optimization are performed to discuss the influences of key parameters and the reuse quantity's decision making under uncertainty. Based on the model, effectiveness of different policy scenarios of water price changes are simulated and evaluated, providing information regarding China's water and wastewater management. PMID:15207605

  20. Economic Perspectives on Investments in Teacher Quality: Lessons Learned and Implications for Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plecki, Margaret L.

    This article reviews the contributions and limitations of economic analyses of resource allocation policies aimed at improving teacher quality. Two analytic frameworks taken from the study of the economics of education are employed: productivity theory and human capital theory. The article first summarizes results of various economic analyses of…

  1. Uranium resources and their implications for fission breeder and fusion hybrid development

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C.E.

    1984-05-15

    Present estimates of uranium resources and reserves in the US and the non-Communist world are reviewed. The resulting implications are considered for two proposed breeder technologies: the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) and the fusion hybrid reactor. Using both simple arguments and detailed scenarios from the published literature, conditions are explored under which the LMFBR and fusion hybrid could respectively have the most impact, considering both fuel-supply and economic factors. The conclusions emphasize strong potential advantages of the fusion hybrid, due to its inherently large breeding rate. A discussion is presented of proposed US development strategies for the fusion hybrid, which at present is far behind the LMFBR in its practical application and maturity.

  2. Economic vulnerability of timber resources to forest fires.

    PubMed

    y Silva, Francisco Rodríguez; Molina, Juan Ramón; González-Cabán, Armando; Machuca, Miguel Ángel Herrera

    2012-06-15

    The temporal-spatial planning of activities for a territorial fire management program requires knowing the value of forest ecosystems. In this paper we extend to and apply the economic valuation principle to the concept of economic vulnerability and present a methodology for the economic valuation of the forest production ecosystems. The forest vulnerability is analyzed from criteria intrinsically associated to the forest characterization, and to the potential behavior of surface fires. Integrating a mapping process of fire potential and analytical valuation algorithms facilitates the implementation of fire prevention planning. The availability of cartography of economic vulnerability of the forest ecosystems is fundamental for budget optimization, and to help in the decision making process. PMID:22343614

  3. Gender Equity Issues in CTE and STEM Education: Economic and Social Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toglia, Thomas V.

    2013-01-01

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an…

  4. Economic Value of Groundwater Protection: Implications for Drought Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    In many arid regions, including parts of California, a common pattern of groundwater use is to cultivate crops needing high levels of irrigation annually and accept unsustainable drawdown of groundwater levels in the near term. Reducing current pumping rates to create a protected reserve of groundwater could produce an economic benefit by mitigating the high cost of future droughts. The objective of our investigation is to quantify the economic benefits of reducing current pumping rates to protect groundwater as a backup irrigation source for long-term conditions. We describe the development and use of an integrated model of aquifer pumping, surface-water use, and economic conditions to identify economic values of groundwater protection as a drought mitigation measure. An optimization framework is developed using GAMS software to investigate conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater and to solve an integrated economic model of crop irrigation and production. Data requirements for the analysis include precipitation, aquifer recharge, crop water requirements, size of groundwater reserve, surface water supplies, and economic factors such as crop prices, pumping costs and efficiency, and yields for selected crops. Our results indicate that economic values of groundwater reserve protection increase with future higher prices of crops and reduced costs of production. These economic values also increase with potential reductions in streamflows from future drought and climate variability that could raise the cost of irrigated agriculture. Results from the integrated GAMS optimization model are comparable to those obtained from simulations of the same conditions performed with MODFLOW-GWM software.

  5. Alternative futures for health economics: implications for nursing management.

    PubMed

    Mannion, Russell; Small, Neil; Thompson, Carl

    2005-09-01

    As nursing has been subject to successive waves of 'managerialism' there has been a drive on the part of government and elements within the profession to enhance the science base and promote cost-effective health care interventions. This has generated new interest in the 'economics of nursing' as efficiency and 'value for money' are viewed as necessary precondition for the provision of a high quality nursing service. As an academic subject health economics has brought an elegant set of theories to bear on the topic of health and health care. However, mainstream health economics is premised on a series of simplifying assumptions that, if applied uncritically, can induce a range of unintended and adverse consequences. This paper asks how ideas developed in one sphere (health economics) can be become influential in another (nursing management and practice) and it seeks explanations in the theories of Michel Foucault, specifically in his exploration of the reciprocal relationship between power and knowledge. How are our assumptions about what is possible and desirable shaped, how far do mechanisms of surveillance and self-subjugation extend? A range of alternative economic approaches have been developed which challenge many mainstream health economics assumptions. Some of these are better suited to the complex social environment present within health care. Nurses, nurse managers and researchers should question the assumptions of dominant economic models and explore a range of economic frameworks when planning services and evaluating their practice. PMID:16108775

  6. Economics, Work, and Mental Health: Implications for Primary Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Janet

    Recent research on the impact of economics on mental and physical health has raised fundamental questions about structural elements in the macro-economy and their role in creating stress. This paper reviews and integrates these sometimes conflicting findings into a cohesive model. Structural elements of our current economic system are identified…

  7. Legal and Economic Implications of Truancy. Truancy Prevention in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smink, Jay; Heilbrunn, Joanna Zorn

    2006-01-01

    The myriad legal and economic issues that surround truancy are intertwined and interdependent. The first section describes school attendance laws, how they are applied, and the most commonly used methods of curbing truancy. Sections two and three discuss legal issues and economic issues, respectively. They address issues facing schools, truant…

  8. Sustaining the natural and economical resources of the Lac Courte Oreilles, Leslie Isham; Jason Weaver

    SciTech Connect

    Isham, Leslie; Weaver, Jason

    2013-09-30

    The Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, located in northwest Wisconsin has developed a project, entitled Sustaining the Natural and Economic Resources of the LCO Ojibwe. This technical report is a summary of the project.

  9. A review of the health and economic implications of patent protection, with a specific focus on Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although it has been two decades since the Thai Patent Act was amended to comply with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), there has been little emphasis given to assessing the implications of this amendment. The purpose of this review is to summarize the health and economic impact of patent protection, with a focus on the experience of Thailand. Methods A review of national and international empirical evidence on the health and economic implications of patents from 1980 to 2009 was undertaken. Results The findings illustrate the role of patent protection in four areas: price, present access, future access, and international trade and investment. Forty-three empirical studies were found, three of which were from Thai databases. Patenting does increase price, although the size of effect differs according to the methodology and country. Although weakening patent rights could increase present access, evidence suggests that strengthening patenting may benefit future access; although this is based on complex assumptions and estimations. Moreover, while patent protection appears to have a positive impact on trade flow, the implication for foreign direct investment (FDI) is equivocal. Conclusions Empirical studies in Thailand, and other similar countries, are rare, compromising the robustness and generalizability of conclusions. However, evidence does suggest that patenting presents a significant inter-temporal challenge in balancing aspects of current versus future access to technologies. This underlines the urgent need to prioritize health research resources to assess the wider implications of patent protection. PMID:22849392

  10. Economics and the 1995 National Assessment of U.S. oil and gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the economic component of the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 National Assessment of oil and gas resources for the US onshore areas and State waters. This area accounts for 80 percent of US hydrocarbon production and 85 percent of US proved reserves. The Minerals Management Service has released a parallel study for Federal offshore areas (1996). Estimates are as of January 1994. The economic evaluation uses mean values of the technically recoverable resources assessed by geologists.

  11. Early organic evolution: Implications for mineral and energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Schidlowski, M.

    1992-01-01

    Early Organic Evolution is the proceedings of the ninth Alfred Wegener Conference, the final meeting of IGCP Project 157 held in Germany in 1988. Over the past 15 years, Project 157 has promoted the blending of organic geochemistry, economic geology, and evolutionary biology. This IGCP publication covers a diverse set of topics and truly reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field of early organic evolution. In the second and largest section, seventeen papers on organic matter in ancient sediments discuss the chemical analysis of early sediments, gas, and oil. The reader is treated to a review of carbon isotope chemistry and a [delta][sup 13]C walk through the past 3.8 billion years, and even deeper yet into the mantle. Following this is a series of papers carefully describing elemental, isotopic, and organic geochemical (particularly biomarker) data from ancient sediments found throughout the earth. This section ends very strongly with the paper by Fowler on the influence of a single alga on Ordovician oils and rocks from Canada. He first gives a detailed account of the considerable chemical and microscopic evidence showing that minimally reworked Gloeocapsomorpha prisca is the main contributor of organic matter to the oil and rock and then goes on to discuss the nature of the organism. In general, this book reviews information presented in other places, but still serves as a good resource for those interested in the evolution of the Earth.

  12. Resource regulation by a twig-girdling beetle has implications for desertification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Resource regulation by insects is the phenomenon by which herbivory enhances resources for the progeny of the herbivore. This report provides an example of resource regulation with implications for desertification in the Chihuahuan Desert of North America. 2. Female Oncideres rhodosticta beetles...

  13. Global Economics: A Multi-Media Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potoker, Elaine S.; Taylor, H. Gene

    This document contains instructional materials to illustrate economic perspectives relating to issues such as: (1) why nations trade; (2) challenges of the developing world; (3) north-south relations; (4) cross cultural awareness; (5) global integration of markets and products; and (6) trade barriers, controversy and consequences. The items are…

  14. Project Galaxy - Sustianable Resource Supply and Environmental Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Mark; Wimmer, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Understanding what it takes to move from a corn-based liquid fuels industry to one that is cellulosic-based requires a complex transition over time. This transition implies, among other things, a shift from annual cropping systems considered under United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) policy as commodity crops, to perennial lignocellulosic crops that are herbaceous and wood-based. Because of changes in land use as well as biomass and other crop supplies, land-based environmental amenities such as water quality, soil health and tilth, air quality, and animal and avian species populations and their diversity change also. Environmental effects are measured as magnitudes (how much they are impacted), and direction of the impact (either positive or negative). By developing a series of quantitative and qualitative metrics, the larger issue of defining relative sustainability may be addressed, and this can be done at a finer detail of regional (scale) and environmental amenity-specific impacts. Although much literature exists about research relevant to specific environmental variables, there is no published, documented, nor research literature on direct application of environmental over-compliance with regards a 'biorefinery.' Our three goals were to (1) understand and quantify bioenergy sustainability and some key environmental effects in a generic set of examples; (2) explain the effort and means to define and quantify specific qualitative environmental measures, and to determine a way to understand changes in these measures over time and what their implications might be; and (3) use these outcomes to evaluate potential sites in any geographic area. This would permit assessment of candidate locations, combined with an understanding of co-production of fuels, chemicals, and electric power, to interpret sustainability measures and the relationship between environmental sustainability and economic sustainability. The process of determining environmental

  15. 31 CFR 537.410 - Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... supervision and guarantee of another person's performance of a contract that includes the economic development... economic development of resources in Burma. 537.410 Section 537.410 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.410 Contracts and subcontracts regarding...

  16. Alternative Resources for Curriculum Balance in Nutrition, Economics, Energy, Environmental, Consumer & Citizenship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harty, Sheila, Comp.

    This annotated directory lists selected informational and educational resources in the subject areas predominant in corporate education efforts. Organized by categories of nutrition, economics, energy, environmental consumer and citizenship education, this list is intended to help provide a balance of resources and perspectives for the classroom…

  17. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources... Quality. ACTION: Draft guidelines with request for comments. SUMMARY: Section 2031 of the Water Resources.../initiatives/PandG . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Catherine Shuman, Council on Environmental Quality...

  18. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies; Final AGENCY: Council on Environmental Quality. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Final... Quality at (202) 395-5750. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development...

  19. Energy Implications of Economizer Use in California Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Ganguly, Srirupa; Traber, Kim; Price, Hillary; Horvath, Arpad; Nazaroff, William W.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2008-08-01

    In the US, data center operations currently account for about 61 billion kWh/y of electricity consumption, which is more than 1.5percent of total demand. Data center energy consumption is rising rapidly, having doubled in the last five years. A substantial portion of data-center energy use is dedicated to removing the heat generated by the computer equipment. Data-center cooling load might be met with substantially reduced energy consumption with the use of air-side economizers. This energy saving measure, however, has been shown to expose servers to an order-of-magnitude increase in indoor particle concentrations with an unquantified increase in the risk of equipment failure. An alternative energy saving option is the use of water-side economizers, which do not affect the indoor particle concentration but require additional mechanical equipment and tend to be less beneficial in high humidity areas. Published research has only presented qualitative benefits of economizer use, providing industry with inadequate information on which to base their design decisions. Energy savings depend on local climate and the specific building-design characteristics. In this paper, based on building energy models, we report energy savings for air-side and water-side economizer use in data centers in several climate zones in California. Results show that in terms of energy savings, air-side economizers consistently outperform water-side economizers, though the performance difference varies by location. Model results also show that conventional humidity restrictions must by relaxed or removed to gain the energy benefits of air-side economizers.

  20. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Core. Module III-A-3: Community Resources for Economically Depressed Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on community resources for economically depressed areas is the third in a set of four core modules on teaching home economics in economically depressed areas. (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and…

  1. Health, Economic Resources and the Work Decisions of Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Bound, John; Stinebrickner, Todd; Waidmann, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    We specify a dynamic programming model that addresses the interplay among health, financial resources, and the labor market behavior of men late in their working lives. We model health as a latent variable, for which self reported disability status is an indicator, and allow self-reported disability to be endogenous to labor market behavior. We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study. While we find large impacts of health on behavior, they are substantially smaller than in models that treat self-reports as exogenous. We also simulate the impacts of several potential reforms to the Social Security program. PMID:27158180

  2. Environmental-Population Issues: Implications for Secondary Home Economics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangold, Lana Paramore; Whatley, Alice Elrod

    1975-01-01

    Selected problems identified by the experts in the environmental-population field could be addressed to the home and family life area of home economics education. The article suggests ways in which eco-system concepts and population and family planning education can be incorporated into the curriculum. Selected references follow the article.…

  3. Economic Competency: Implications for Programs for the Educable Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Ronald F.; Kokaska, Charles

    1975-01-01

    One of the major objectives of programing for the educable mentally retarded is the development of the individual's economic competency or efficiency. In order to reinforce this objective it is necessary that classroom activities employ real money and that some type of work experience be provided so that students learn to manage a given amount of…

  4. Economic implications of alternative potato cropping systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable cropping systems and management practices are needed to improve agricultural viability and rural economic vitality in Maine and the surrounding region. Research is being conducted to 1) identify the constraints to potato system sustainability and 2) develop practices and management strat...

  5. Racial Preferences and Scarce Resources: Implications of the Bakke Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Erwin N.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A statement, three commentaries, and a panel discussion address the legal implications of results of the Bakke case concerning racial preference in college admission. Implications in areas other than education are examined. Available from Wash. Univ. School of Law, St. Louis, MO 63130. (MSE)

  6. Voices of impoverished Brazilian women: health implications of roles and resources.

    PubMed

    Messias, D K; Hall, J M; Meleis, A I

    1996-01-01

    This qualitative study was based on individual interviews with 75 Brazilian women in an impoverished peri-urban squatter community (favela) in southeastern Brazil. The purposes of the study were to describe women's role involvement in domestic and employment contexts; identify stresses and satisfactions of maternal, spousal, and employment roles; and assess personal and environmental role constraints and resources from the perspective of women's health. The analytic approach to the interview data was qualitative content analysis, through which thematic categories of maternal, spousal, and employment role satisfactions and stresses were identified by the researchers. Women's unrelenting work in the face of harsh social and economic environments was a broad theme woven throughout the women's descriptions of their lives. The confluence of role constraints affecting the participants' lives included poverty, marginalization, abuse, and lack of support and recognition by partners and society. In order to overcome great adversity and meet heavy role demands, these women relied on self, faith in God, family, and health resources. Implications for women's health promotion are discussed. PMID:8883368

  7. Bilateral vestibular deficiency: quality of life and economic implications

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Daniel Q.; Ward, Bryan K.; Semenov, Yevgeniy R.; Carey, John P.; Della Santina, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Bilateral vestibular deficiency (BVD) causes chronic imbalance, unsteady vision, and greatly increases the risk of falls; however, its effects on quality of life (QOL) and economic impact are not well defined. Objective Quantify disease-specific and health-related quality of life, health care utilization and economic impact suffered by individuals with BVD in comparison to those with unilateral vestibular deficiency (UVD) Design Cross-sectional survey study of BVD, UVD, and healthy individuals Setting Academic medical center Participants Fifteen BVD, 22 UVD and 23 healthy individuals. Vestibular dysfunction was diagnosed by caloric nystagmography Intervention Survey questionnaire Main Outcomes and Measures Health status was measured using the Dizziness Handicap Index (DHI) and Health Utility Index Mark 3 (HUI3). Economic burden was estimated using participant responses to questions on disease-specific health care utilization and lost productivity. Results In comparison to UVD and normal controls, BVD patients had significantly worse DHI and HUI3 scores. Multivariate regression analysis showed UVD, BVD, increasing number of dizziness-related emergency department (ED) visits, and increasing dizziness-related work-place absenteeism were associated with worse HUI3 scores. BVD and UVD patients incurred annual economic burdens of $13,019 and $3,531 per patient, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance BVD significantly decreases quality of life and imposes substantial economic burdens on individuals and society. These results underscore the limits of adaptation and compensation in BVD. Furthermore, they quantify the potential benefits of prosthetic restoration of vestibular function both to these individuals and to society. PMID:24763518

  8. Workplace Democracy: A Review of Literature and Implications for Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim

    2007-01-01

    A review of workplace democracy revealed that both practice and research need updating. The results are discussed in terms of history, theory, research and practice. Implications for human resource development research and practice are also included. (Contains 2 tables.)

  9. Health capabilities and diabetes self-management: the impact of economic, social, and cultural resources.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Robert R; Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh; Goodman, William M

    2014-02-01

    While the "social determinants of health" view compels us to explore how social structures shape health outcomes, it often ignores the role individual agency plays. In contrast, approaches that focus on individual choice and personal responsibility for health often overlook the influence of social structures. Amartya Sen's "capabilities" framework and its derivative the "health capabilities" (HC) approach attempts to accommodate both points of view, acknowledging that individuals function under social conditions over which they have little control, while also acting as agents in their own health and well-being. This paper explores how economic, social, and cultural resources shape the health capability of people with diabetes, focusing specifically on dietary practices. Health capability and agency are central to dietary practices, while also being shaped by immediate and broader social conditions that can generate habits and a lifestyle that constrain dietary behaviors. From January 2011 to December 2012, we interviewed 45 people with diabetes from a primary care clinic in Ontario (Canada) to examine how their economic, social, and cultural resources combine to influence dietary practices relative to their condition. We classified respondents into low, medium, and high resource groups based on economic circumstances, and compared how economic resources, social relationships, health-related knowledge and values combine to enhance or weaken health capability and dietary management. Economic, social, and cultural resources conspired to undermine dietary management among most in the low resource group, whereas social influences significantly influenced diet among many in the medium group. High resource respondents appeared most motivated to maintain a healthy diet, and also had the social and cultural resources to enable them to do so. Understanding the influence of all three types of resources is critical for constructing ways to enhance health capability, chronic

  10. Climate Change Implications For Western U.s. Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, A.; Christensen, N.; van Rheenen, N. T.; Payne, J. T.; Hamlet, A. F.; Palmer, R. N.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    Implications of climate change through the year 2098 for the hydrology of the west- ern U.S. were assessed using three ensembles from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Cli- mate Model (PCM) for a business-as-usual (BAU) global emissions scenario. The study area included three river basins, the Columbia (CRB), Sacramento-San Joaquin (SSJB) and Colorado (CORB). The archived PCM simulation outputs (monthly total precipitation and average temperature at T42 grid resolution) were first bias-corrected, disaggregated from a monthly to daily time step and then downscaled to 1/8 or 1/4 de- gree spatial resolution using the Variable Infiltration Capacity macroscale hydrology model. The hydrology model simulated streamflow at selected locations within the study domains, for three ensembles, each of length 103 years. Water resource simula- tion models in the CRB and SSJB were then used to predict, on a monthly time-step, the effects of the climate change scenarios on streamflow timing and volume. By the 2080s, the scenarios predict a warming of about 2 degrees Celsius in the PNW and CORB, and slightly higher in California. Based on the transient hydrologic simula- tions, the key results were: a) CRB hydrology was more robust to the types of changes envisioned by the scenarios than SSJB hydrology, where streamflow volumes were severely diminished during parts of the evaluation period; b) decadal-scale variations in precipitation were as large a driver of hydrologic effects as the mild increase in tem- perature; c) the temperature-driven seasonality changes found in prior climate change studies - a decline in summer streamflow and/or an increase in winter runoff - were corroborated for the SSJB, but were present to a lesser extent for the CRB and CORB; d) the climate simulations exhibit decadal-scale variability in temperature of compara- ble magnitude to the eventual warming; the compounding of the two dynamics (trend and variability) complicates understanding of hydrologic vulnerability

  11. A Social, Economic, and Cultural Study of the Crow Reservation: Implications for Energy Development. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow Impact Study Office, MT.

    Crow people want their resource decisions to benefit and strengthen the tribe socially and economically and to minimize damage to the tribal way of life, culture, and reservation environment. Based on a survey of 1016 reservation and non-reservation Crow families, conducted as part of a study of the impact of resource development on the…

  12. Advanced fission and fossil plant economics-implications for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.

    1994-09-01

    In order for fusion energy to be a viable option for electric power generation, it must either directly compete with future alternatives or serve as a reasonable backup if the alternatives become unacceptable. This paper discusses projected costs for the most likely competitors with fusion power for baseload electric capacity and what these costs imply for fusion economics. The competitors examined include advanced nuclear fission and advanced fossil-fired plants. The projected costs and their basis are discussed. The estimates for these technologies are compared with cost estimates for magnetic and inertial confinement fusion plants. The conclusion of the analysis is that fusion faces formidable economic competition. Although the cost level for fusion appears greater than that for fission or fossil, the costs are not so high as to preclude fusion`s potential competitiveness.

  13. Age-Related Changes in Children's Associations of Economic Resources and Race.

    PubMed

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in children's associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5-6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10-11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African-American (n = 93), European-American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian-American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African-American and European-American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children's associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African-American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European-American targets. Finally, children associated African-American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European-American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants' own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children's associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981

  14. Age-Related Changes in Children’s Associations of Economic Resources and Race

    PubMed Central

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in children’s associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5–6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10–11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African–American (n = 93), European–American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian–American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African–American and European–American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children’s associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African–American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European–American targets. Finally, children associated African–American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European–American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants’ own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children’s associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981

  15. Essays on environmental, energy, and natural resource economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan

    My dissertation focuses on examining the interrelationship among the environment, energy and economic development. In the first essay, I explore the effects of increased uncertainty over future output prices, input costs and productivity levels on intertemporal emission permits trading. In a dynamic programming setting, a permit price is a convex function of each of these three sources of uncertainty. Increased uncertainty about future market conditions increases the expected permit price and causes risk-neutral firms to reduce ex ante emissions to smooth marginal abatement costs over time. Empirical analysis shows that increased price volatility induced by electricity market restructuring could explain 8-11% of the allowances banked during Phase I of the U.S. sulfur dioxide trading program. Numerical simulation suggests that high uncertainty may generate substantial initial compliance costs, thereby deterring new entrants and reducing efficiency; sharp emission spikes are also more likely to occur under industry-wide uncertainty shocks. In the second essay, I examine whether electricity restructuring improves the efficiency of U.S. nuclear power generation. Based on the full sample of 73 investor-owned nuclear plants in the United States from 1992 to 1998, I estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal efficiency changes associated with restructuring, at the plant level. Various modeling strategies are presented to deal with the policy endogeneity bias that high cost plants are more likely to be restructured. Overall, I find a strikingly positive relationship between the multiple steps of restructuring and plant operating efficiency. In the third essay, I estimate the economic impact of China's national land conversion program on local farm-dependent economies. The impact of the program on 14 industrial sectors in Gansu provinces are investigated using an input-output model. Due to regulatory restrictions, the agricultural sector cannot automatically expand or shrink

  16. Economics and coal resource appraisal: strippable coal in the Illinois Basin ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Green, E.K.

    1981-01-01

    Because coal is expected to provide an increasing part of U.S. energy supply, it is crucial for long term planning that coal-resource appraisals convey sufficient information regarding the degree of economic resource scarcity as coal consumption increases. Argues that coal-resource estimates, as they are now made, will not give warning of future supply difficulties. A method for incorporating an economic dimension into appraisals of strippable coal resources is presented and applied to a major producing region, the Illinois part of the Illinois basin? In particular, a long-run incremental cost function (that is unit costs vs. cumulative reserves extracted) is estimated for strippable coal in Illinois. -from Authors

  17. Implications and management of resource constraints: a community model for international development

    SciTech Connect

    Laitner, S.

    1985-01-01

    In the current economic climate and for the foreseeable future, resource policy (especially with respect to energy consumption) has the potential to make a profound impact upon the economic life of our communities. Energy and economic policies should be viewed as catalysts that can help a community - and ultimately a state, or even a nation - achieve larger societal goals such as enhanced employment opportunities. To achieve this potential, we must divorce ourselves from unproductive past concepts and understand the inherent constraints associated with resource utilization to better work them to the advantage of the community. The key element here is to ensure that community economic goals shape the policymaking process. Without such considerations neither communities nor their respective nations will be able to offset fully the growing economic burden imposed by restrictions arising from a ''business-as-usual'' approach to resource utilization.

  18. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  19. Bio-economics of a renewable resource subjected to strong Allee effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasu, P. D. N.; Kiran Kumar, G.

    2014-06-01

    In this article bio-economics of a renewable resource that is subjected to strong Allee effect (multiplicative Allee effect) is investigated from sole owner perspective. The considered optimal harvesting problem has been solved using Pontryagin maximum principle. The control problem admits multiple singular equilibrium solutions in contrast to the case where the growth of the resource is of compensatory nature. Thus the choice of optimal singular solution and the nature of associated approach paths make the problem pertinent and interesting.

  20. In Retirement Migration, Who Counts? A Methodological Question with Economic Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, William H., III; Bradley, Don E.; Longino, Charles F., Jr.; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Serow, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We examine the methodological and economic policy implications of three operationalizations of retirement migration. Design and Methods: We compared the traditional age-based definition of retirement migration and two retirement-based definitions, based on degree of labor-force participation and retirement income, by using the 2000 U.S.…

  1. Women Education and Economic Development in Kenya: Implications for Curriculum Development and Implementation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…

  2. Awareness of the Social Implications of Clothing in Relation to Fashion Awareness and Clothing Economic Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horridge, Patricia; Richards, Mary Lynne

    1986-01-01

    The Sproles Consumer Interests and Priorities questionnaire was administered to 3,036 home economists. Awareness of social implications of clothing, correlated positively with fashion awareness and clothing economic practices. Results suggest that persons exhibiting substantial awareness of social importance of clothing also tend to evidence…

  3. Interactions of Economics of Science and Science Education: Investigating the Implications for Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erduran, Sibel; Mugaloglu, Ebru Z.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been upsurge of interest in the applications of interdisciplinary perspectives on science in science education. Within this framework, the implications of the so-called "economics of science" is virtually an uncharted territory. In this paper, we trace a set of arguments that provide a dialectic engagement with…

  4. Resources and development: Natural resource policies and economic development in an interdependent world

    SciTech Connect

    Dorner, P.; El-Shafie, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides an integration of the studies and discussions of the seminar that OAPEC cosponsored at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1977-78. The authors offer a multidisciplinary perspective of the economic, legal, social, political, and technological issues inherent in this complex and controversial subject.

  5. The Linked Systems Project: Its Implications for Resource Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avram, Henriette D.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews history of events leading to the Linked Systems Project and describes two major components: communications facility and applications programs. The initial application--sharing of authority data based on the Library of Congress Name Authority Cooperative Project--is discussed, and future applications and their implications are briefly…

  6. Energy and economic implications of magnetically-levitated vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Maglev systems, if implemented as ''spokes'' around the nation's major hub airports, have the potential to significantly reduce air traffic congestion. Maglev systems could improve the capacity of existing airports, obviating the need to build major new airports at a time when there is widespread public opposition to both airport expansion and new construction. Because of maglev's high speed (250-300 mph), the maglev has a logical market niche of trips between 100 and 600 miles. These short distance flights are the most energy intensive for the airlines; consequently, maglevs provide the opportunity to save 10 to 15% of the energy used by the scheduled airlines, through substitution of more efficient transport and reduced delays. Integrated into airline service, rather than competing with airlines, the economics of maglev systems is substantially enhanced. Indeed, a substantial portion of a national maglev system (3000 miles) around several major hub airports could be built over the next twenty years with a portion of the costs that the Federal Aviation Administration calculates are incurred by the airlines and the passengers---nearly $5 billion in 1986. Further, maglevs are the most promising large-scale application for the new class of high temperature superconductors, because of the relatively low threshold design requirements of the magnets compared to other potential applications. In addition, the new superconductors will improve maglev system reliability and may reduce capital and operating costs by as much as 10%. 2 figs.

  7. Peer Outreach Work as Economic Activity: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers’ economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers’ relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers. PMID:25775122

  8. The role of carbon in fungal nutrient uptake and transport: implications for resource exchange in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Fellbaum, Carl R; Mensah, Jerry A; Pfeffer, Philip E; Kiers, E Toby; Bücking, Heike

    2012-11-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, which forms between plant hosts and ubiquitous soil fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota, plays a key role for the nutrient uptake of the majority of land plants, including many economically important crop species. AM fungi take up nutrients from the soil and exchange them for photosynthetically fixed carbon from the host. While our understanding of the exact mechanisms controlling carbon and nutrient exchange is still limited, we recently demonstrated that (i) carbon acts as an important trigger for fungal N uptake and transport, (ii) the fungus changes its strategy in response to an exogenous supply of carbon, and that (iii) both plants and fungi reciprocally reward resources to those partners providing more benefit. Here, we summarize recent research findings and discuss the implications of these results for fungal and plant control of resource exchange in the AM symbiosis. PMID:22990447

  9. Economic models for management of resources in peer-to-peer and grid computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyya, Rajkumar; Stockinger, Heinz; Giddy, Jonathan; Abramson, David

    2001-07-01

    The accelerated development in Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and Grid computing has positioned them as promising next generation computing platforms. They enable the creation of Virtual Enterprises (VE) for sharing resources distributed across the world. However, resource management, application development and usage models in these environments is a complex undertaking. This is due to the geographic distribution of resources that are owned by different organizations or peers. The resource owners of each of these resources have different usage or access policies and cost models, and varying loads and availability. In order to address complex resource management issues, we have proposed a computational economy framework for resource allocation and for regulating supply and demand in Grid computing environments. The framework provides mechanisms for optimizing resource provider and consumer objective functions through trading and brokering services. In a real world market, there exist various economic models for setting the price for goods based on supply-and-demand and their value to the user. They include commodity market, posted price, tenders and auctions. In this paper, we discuss the use of these models for interaction between Grid components in deciding resource value and the necessary infrastructure to realize them. In addition to normal services offered by Grid computing systems, we need an infrastructure to support interaction protocols, allocation mechanisms, currency, secure banking, and enforcement services. Furthermore, we demonstrate the usage of some of these economic models in resource brokering through Nimrod/G deadline and cost-based scheduling for two different optimization strategies on the World Wide Grid (WWG) testbed that contains peer-to-peer resources located on five continents: Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.

  10. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - ...

  11. A Resource File for Social Studies in Utah. Level 10-12: Economics/Free Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This resource file contains information for Utah high school teachers to help their students meet the state's instructional objectives in the elective economics/free enterprise course. Each activity includes an instructional objective along with a title, topic, time segment, procedures, materials, evaluation, and adaptation. Sample objectives…

  12. Labor Resources in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Four Corners Agricultural and Development Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    One of five reports developed to summarize research efforts conducted as part of an Agricultural-Forestry Development Project, this report presents the results of an inventory of human resources used in the agricultural and forestry industries in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Explored are such aspects of labor as: (1) employment…

  13. 31 CFR 537.410 - Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma. 537.410 Section 537.410 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  14. Promoting Economic Growth in the U.S. Grade Twelve. [Resource Unit II.] Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This is the second unit of seven resource units for a twelfth grade course on value conflicts and policy decisions. The topic for this unit is promoting economic growth in the United States. The objectives are listed as to generalizations, skills, and values. The double-page format relates objectives to pertinent content, teaching procedures, and…

  15. A Guide to Free Resources for Teachers of Economics and Commerce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brierley, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    Lists 52 organizations in Britain which provide free economics materials to secondary students or are places students can visit. Address, specific resources (booklets, games, mobile units), and author's comments are elaborated for each entry. For journal availability, see SO 505 393. (AV)

  16. 78 FR 31521 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Principles and Requirements into agency missions and programs. Per the March 27, 2013 notice, at 78 FR 18562... QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources... Environmental Quality. ACTION: Extension of comment period. SUMMARY: Section 2031 of the Water...

  17. Communities Around the World. Our Community: Economic Aspects. Teacher's Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Teaching strategies for the study of the economic aspects of the student's own community are emphasized in this resource unit developed from materials produced by the Project Social Studies Curriculum Center. This unit should make progress toward teaching children the following: 1) concepts: consumer, producer, capital goods, durable goods,…

  18. Resourceful Thinking about Printing and Related Industries: Economic Considerations and Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikina, Suanu Bliss; Thompson, Cynthia Carlton; Blackwell, Elinor

    2010-01-01

    Increasing population, total economic volume, and human consumption levels have resulted in problems of resource shortages, climate change, ozone layer depletion, land regression, and deteriorating environmental pollution. Printing and related industries constitute one of the major sources of environmental pollution due to heavy energy and…

  19. Implications of Postharvest Food Loss/Waste Prevention to Energy and Resources Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Shafiee-Jood, M.

    2015-12-01

    World's growing demand for food is driven by population and income growth, dietary changes, and the ever-increasing competition between food, feed and bioenergy challenges food security; meanwhile agricultural expansion and intensification threats the environment by the various detrimental impacts. Researchers have attempted to explore strategies to overcome this grand challenge. One of the promising solutions that have attracted considerable attention recently is to increase the efficiency of food supply chain by reducing food loss and waste (FLW). According to recent studies conducted by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nation, almost one third of the food produced for human consumption globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. This amount of food discarded manifests a missing, yet potential, opportunity to sustainably enhance both food security and environmental sustainability. However, implementing the strategies and technologies for tackling FLW does not come up as an easy solution since it requires economic incentives, benefit and cost analysis, infrastructure development, and appropriate market mechanism. In this presentation I will provide a synthesis of knowledge on the implications of postharvest food loss/waste prevention to energy and resource conservation, environmental protection, as well as food security. I will also discuss how traditional civil and environmental engineering can contribute to the reduction of postharvest food loss, an important issue of sustainable agriculture.

  20. Threshold concepts: implications for the management of natural resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Gross, John

    2014-01-01

    Threshold concepts can have broad relevance in natural resource management. However, the concept of ecological thresholds has not been widely incorporated or adopted in management goals. This largely stems from the uncertainty revolving around threshold levels and the post hoc analyses that have generally been used to identify them. Natural resource managers have a need for new tools and approaches that will help them assess the existence and detection of conditions that demand management actions. Recognition of additional threshold concepts include: utility thresholds (which are based on human values about ecological systems) and decision thresholds (which reflect management objectives and values and include ecological knowledge about a system) as well as ecological thresholds. All of these concepts provide a framework for considering the use of threshold concepts in natural resource decision making.

  1. Beyond income: Material resources among drug users in economically-disadvantaged New York City neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Ompad, Danielle C.; Nandi, Vijay; Cerdá, Magdalena; Crawford, Natalie; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about material resources among drug users beyond income. Income measures can be insensitive to variation among the poor, do not account for variation in cost-of-living, and are subject to non-response bias and underreporting. Further, most do not include illegal income sources that may be relevant to drug-using populations. Methods We explored the reliability and validity of an 18-item material resource scale and describe correlates of adequate resources among 1593 current, former and non-drug users recruited in New York City. Reliability was determined using coefficient α, ωh, and factor analysis. Criterion validity was explored by comparing item and mean scores by income and income source using ANOVA; content validity analyses compared scores by drug use. Multiple linear regression was used to describe correlates of adequate resources. Results The coefficient α and ωh for the overall scale were 0.91 and 0.68, respectively, suggesting reliability was at least adequate. Legal income >$5000 (vs. ≤ $5000) and formal (vs. informal) income sources were associated with more resources, supporting criterion validity. We observed decreasing resources with increasing drug use severity, supporting construct validity. Three factors were identified: basic needs, economic resources and services. Many did not have their basic needs met and few had adequate economic resources. Correlates of adequate material resources included race/ethnicity, income, income source, and homelessness. Conclusions The 18-item material resource scale demonstrated reliability and validity among drug users. These data provide a different view of poverty, one that details specific challenges faced by low-income communities. PMID:21835561

  2. The interaction of economic rewards and moral convictions in predicting attitudes toward resource use.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Brock; Zhang, Airong; Moffat, Kieren

    2015-01-01

    When people are morally convicted regarding a specific issue, these convictions exert a powerful influence on their attitudes and behavior. In the current research we examined whether there are boundary conditions to the influence of this effect. Specifically, whether in the context of salient economic rewards, moral convictions may become weaker predictors of attitudes regarding resource use. Focusing on the issue of mining we gathered large-scale samples across three different continents (Australia, Chile, and China). We found that moral convictions against mining were related to a reduced acceptance of mining in each country, while perceived economic rewards from mining increased acceptance. These two motivations interacted, however, such that when perceived economic benefit from mining was high, the influence of moral conviction was weaker. The results highlight the importance of understanding the roles of both moral conviction and financial gain in motivating attitudes towards resource use. PMID:26267904

  3. Linguistic confusion in economics: utility, causality, product differentiation, and the supply of natural resources.

    PubMed

    Simon, J L

    1982-01-01

    Lack of careful attention to the language used in the discussion of economic concepts has resulted in considerable confusion and error. 2 frequent sources of confusion include tautology and the absence of operational definitions of concepts. This paper outlines a more effective scientific practice through reference to 2 economic examples: 1) the concept of utility, where it is demonstrated that choice of an operational definition of the concept facilitates interpersonal comparisons; and 2) causality, where a multidimensional operational definition is needed to discriminate among the various meanings of the term in theoretical, empirical, and policy contexts. The paper further discusses the example of natural resource scarcity, where application of the term "finite" reveals that there is no empirical evidence of physical limits to growth in the use of resources. A more appropriate measure of scarcity is the economic concept of price. PMID:12265949

  4. The Interaction of Economic Rewards and Moral Convictions in Predicting Attitudes toward Resource Use

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, Brock; Zhang, Airong; Moffat, Kieren

    2015-01-01

    When people are morally convicted regarding a specific issue, these convictions exert a powerful influence on their attitudes and behavior. In the current research we examined whether there are boundary conditions to the influence of this effect. Specifically, whether in the context of salient economic rewards, moral convictions may become weaker predictors of attitudes regarding resource use. Focusing on the issue of mining we gathered large-scale samples across three different continents (Australia, Chile, and China). We found that moral convictions against mining were related to a reduced acceptance of mining in each country, while perceived economic rewards from mining increased acceptance. These two motivations interacted, however, such that when perceived economic benefit from mining was high, the influence of moral conviction was weaker. The results highlight the importance of understanding the roles of both moral conviction and financial gain in motivating attitudes towards resource use. PMID:26267904

  5. Hydroclimatic variability across Mongolia's breadbasket and implications for water resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leland, C.; Pederson, N.; Nachin, B.; Hessl, A. E.; Davi, N. K.; Bell, A.; Martin-Benito, D.; Saladyga, T.; Brown, P. M.; Suran, B.

    2012-12-01

    Meteorological records from Mongolia suggest that precipitation is highly variable across the landscape and that recent hydroclimatic trends differ spatially. New developments in agriculture, mining, and other economic sectors demanding water resources in Mongolia will require a better understanding of how hydroclimate varies in time and space. Using a rotated principal components analysis (RPCA) with an annually-resolved network of tree-ring data, we have identified four distinct hydroclimatic regions from 1790-1994 across north-central Mongolia. Thus far, these regions have been represented in three streamflow reconstructions: the Kherlen, Selenge, and Yerru River reconstructions. The Selenge and Yeruu streamflow reconstructions encompass the "breadbasket" region of Mongolia, which has seen a recent influx of agricultural practices. The Yeruu River reconstruction is the most recently developed and consists of six drought-sensitive chronologies within the breadbasket region while accounting for 60.8% of the instrumental streamflow variability during the calibration period (1959-1987). The Selenge and Yeruu streamflow reconstructions, representing the western and eastern portions of the breadbasket respectively, are similar in that they share some historical drought and pluvial periods. Further, both reconstructions suggest that the 20th century is wetter than prior centuries. However, the Selenge and Yeruu are also markedly different in that Yeruu streamflow has a more stable distribution of hydroclimate over time, whereas Selenge streamflow has more prominent and extreme shifts in hydroclimatic regimes over the past several centuries. These findings have important implications for managing water resources in the future by suggesting that a) recent droughts in Mongolia, though severe, were not as severe as some droughts in the past, but might appear more extreme due to preceding wet conditions during the early-to-mid 20th century, and b) hydroclimatic stability

  6. Resource assessment and economic analysis: A study of mineral resources in the Altay Mountains area, Xinjiang, China

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.L.; Dorian, J.P.; Otto, J.M.; Johnson, C.J.; Bozich, L.G. ); Songguan, Chen; Jian, Zhao; Yongquan, Dong; Jianguo, Dai )

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an integrated resource assessment-development planning study conducted on the Altay Mountains area of Xinjiang Autonomous Uygur Region, China. The project was initiated by local Chinese government officials in order to more effectively plan future minerals exploration and development activities in this remote part of China. The study is comprised of four basic components: an initial resource assessment to estimate the type, quality, and quantity of mineral deposits that may occur in the area; a preliminary financial analysis based on the resource assessment estimates to determine which of the predicted deposits would be economic to develop if discovered and developed; a market analysis of the estimated commodities to assess which commodities would be desirable to develop for local, national, and international markets; and an integration of all these data into a comprehensive long-term development plan. The final results indicated that although the Altay Mountains area is richly endowed in synorogenic-synvolcanic nickel, felsic-intermediate massive sulfide, skarn, and stratiform lead-zinc deposits, only two of these deposit types may be economic to develop due to the lack of infrastructure and high capital investment and transportation costs.

  7. Declining reliance on marine resources in remote South Pacific societies: ecological versus socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, R. A.; Cakacaka, A.; Graham, N. A. J.; Polunin, N. V. C.; Pratchett, M. S.; Stead, S. M.; Wilson, S. K.

    2007-12-01

    Degraded coral reef ecosystems yield limited goods and services, which is expected to have significant socio-economic impacts on isolated tropical island communities with strong reliance on coral reefs. This study investigates socio-economic changes, specifically in fresh fish consumption and fishing activities, associated with environmental degradation at five fishing grounds ( qoliqoli) in the Lau Islands (Fiji). Semi-structured interviews with fishers and senior household members revealed that the importance of fishing was low relative to other occupations, and consumption of fresh fish has declined over the last decade. Reduced fishing and choice of fresh fish is largely attributable to an increased need to derive income as well as new income-generating opportunities. A possible consequence of reduced reliance on marine resources was limited awareness of recent environmental degradation caused by climate-induced coral bleaching and outbreaks of coral-feeding crown-of-thorns starfish. Limited use and reduced awareness of the local marine environment in the short term may erode social memory and local ecological knowledge, reducing opportunities to fall back on marine resources. This may also compromise long-term economic and social stability. Conversely, low reliance on marine resources may confer greater flexibility to adapt to future ecological change in the marine environment. Importantly, changes in fish consumption and exploitation of marine resources were linked to socio-economic factors rather than a consequence of recent degradation of marine environments. Greater knowledge of the dynamics driving change in marine resource use is necessary to understand how societies respond to ecological and socio-economic change, and to identify opportunities for adaptive sustainable ecosystem management.

  8. Intradistrict Resource Allocation: Key Findings and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houck, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    The focus on school-level performance brought about by the No Child Left Behind Act--as well as recent court cases challenging the use of race in student assignment policies--has brought greater attention to the need to for careful study of the allocation of resources within school districts. This paper describes the policy context, reviews key…

  9. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - resources Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources ...

  10. Global water resources modeling with an integrated model of the social-economic-environmental system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Evan G. R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2011-06-01

    Awareness of increasing water scarcity has driven efforts to model global water resources for improved insight into water resources infrastructure and management strategies. Most water resources models focus explicitly on water systems and represent socio-economic and environmental change as external drivers. In contrast, the system dynamics-based integrated assessment model employed here, ANEMI, incorporates dynamic representations of these systems, so that their broader changes affect and are affected by water resources systems through feedbacks. Sectors in ANEMI therefore include the global climate system, carbon cycle, economy, population, land use and agriculture, and novel versions of the hydrological cycle, global water use and water quality. Since the model focus is on their interconnections through explicit nonlinear feedbacks, simulations with ANEMI provide insight into the nature and structure of connections between water resources and socio-economic and environmental change. Of particular interest to water resources researchers and modelers will be the simulated effects of a new water stress definition that incorporates both water quality and water quantity effects into the measurement of water scarcity. Five simulation runs demonstrate the value of wastewater treatment and reuse programs and the feedback-effects of irrigated agriculture and greater consumption of animal products.

  11. The implications of health sector reform for human resources development.

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Ala'; Hornby, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The authors argue that "health for all" is not achievable in most countries without health sector reform that incorporates a process of coordinated health and human resources development. They examine the situation in countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization. Though advances have been made, further progress is inhibited by the limited adaptation of traditional health service structures and processes in many of these countries. National reform strategies are needed. These require the active participation of health professional associations and academic training institutions as well as health service managers. The paper indicates some of the initiatives required and suggests that the starting point for many countries should be a rigorous appraisal of the current state of human resources development in health. PMID:11884974

  12. Some Implications of Space Tourism for Extraterrestrial Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, T. F.

    1999-01-01

    The Purpose and Scope of the Roundtable "to bring together people with ideas about what will be useful products in the space environment with those who know how to produce materials on Earth." When considering extraterrestrial resources in the context of their use in support of general public space tourism it is important to broaden this definition of Scope in certain ways. The first stages of extraterrestrial space tourism will probably take place in the Earth's lower atmosphere - far from the Moon or the planets, and even well below Earth orbit. Sophisticated aircraft could take tourists up to altitudes approaching 20 miles for short periods. And the earliest of fully reusable space transportation vehicles should be able to reach some 50 miles in altitude for short trips. Later, Earth multi-orbit trips could be offered, to be followed by stays in residence in LEO hotels for days. In time, trips could take place to/from the Moon, eventually with stays there. It should be appreciated that there are two most important extraterrestrial resources immediately available for space tourism use. They are not "materials" or "products," but are two vital space "resource intangibles."

  13. Hydro-economic modeling of the role of forests on water resources production in Andalusia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beguería, Santiago; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Álvarez-Palomino, Alejandro; Campos, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The development of more refined information tools is a pre-requisite for supporting decision making in the context of integrated water resources management. Among these tools, hydro-economic models are favoured because they allow integrating the ecological, hydrological, infrastructure and economic aspects into a coherent, scientifically-informed framework. We present a case study that assesses physically the water resources of forest lands of the Andalusia region in Spain and conducts an economic environmental income and asset valuation of the forest surface water yield. We show how, based on available hydrologic and economic data, we can develop a comprehensive water account for all the forest lands at the regional scale. This forest water environmental valuation is part of the larger RECAMAN project, which aims at providing a robust and easily replicable accounting tool to evaluate yearly the total income an capital generated by the forest land, encompassing all measurable sources of private and public incomes (timber and cork production, auto-consumption, recreational activities, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, water production, etc.). Only a comprehensive integrated tool such as the one built within the RECAMAN project may serve as a basis for the development of integrated policies such as those internationally agreed and recommended for the management of water resources.

  14. Spatial analysis on future housing markets: economic development and housing implications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Lizhe

    2014-01-01

    A coupled projection method combining formal modelling and other statistical techniques was developed to delineate the relationship between economic and social drivers for net new housing allocations. Using the example of employment growth in Tyne and Wear, UK, until 2016, the empirical analysis yields housing projections at the macro- and microspatial levels (e.g., region to subregion to elected ward levels). The results have important implications for the strategic planning of locations for housing and employment, demonstrating both intuitively and quantitatively how local economic developments affect housing demand. PMID:24892097

  15. Economics and the 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the economic component of the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey for onshore and State offshore areas of the United States. Province and regional incremental cost functions for conventional undiscovered oil and gas fields, and selected unconventional oil and gas accumulations, allowing the ranking of areas by the incremental costs finding, developing, and producing these resources. Regional projections of additions to reserves from previously discovered fields to 2015 are also presented.

  16. New attempts on increasing economic gains in the development of geothermal resources in Beijing, China

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, K.

    1997-12-31

    The development of geothermal resources in the city of Beijing and its surrounding suburbs has been made possible by investments from companies in the surrounding Provinces of China. The development of these geothermal deposits has created a market for hot spring real estate. The real estate has been developed into comprehensive projects for recreation and vacation resorts, in addition to, heath care centers and greenhouse farming. This new attempt to develop these geothermal resources has increased the economic growth of the area and interest in geothermal expansion.

  17. Geothermal resource, engineering and economic feasibility study for the City of Ouray, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

    1982-07-31

    A geothermal energy feasibility study has been performed for the City of Ouray, Colorado, to determine the potential economic development opportunities to the City. The resource assessment indicates the resource to be associated with the Ouray fault zone, the Leadville limestone formation, the high thermal gradient in the area of the San Juan mountains, and the recharge from precipitation in the adjacent mountains. Four engineering designs of alternative sizes, costs, applications, and years of start-up have been defined to offer the City a range of development scales. Life cycle cost analyses have been conducted for cases of both public and private ownership. All systems are found to be feasible on both economic and technical grounds. 49 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Economic accounting system should include natural resources and environment, Panel recommends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Five years after the U.S. Congress ordered the Department of Commerce (DOC) to stop developing a method of accounting that tracks natural resources and environmental conditions as a part of the total national economic picture, a panel established by Congress and sponsored by DOC has unanimously concluded that the department was on the right track. The National Research Council Panel on Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting said in a report released on July 15 that the department should be encouraged to continue developing comprehensive sets of statistics about nonmarket activities for use in national accounting efforts, and that “the development of environmental and natural-resource accounts is an essential investment for the nation.”

  19. Theory Development and Convergence of Human Resource Fields: Implications for Human Performance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Yoon, Seung Won

    2010-01-01

    This study examines major theory developments in human resource (HR) fields and discusses implications for human performance technology (HPT). Differentiated HR fields are converging to improve organizational performance through knowledge-based innovations. Ruona and Gibson (2004) made a similar observation and analyzed the historical evolution…

  20. Interactions of Economics of Science and Science Education: Investigating the Implications for Science Teaching and Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erduran, Sibel; Mugaloglu, Ebru Z.

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, there has been upsurge of interest in the applications of interdisciplinary perspectives on science in science education. Within this framework, the implications of the so-called "economics of science" is virtually an uncharted territory. In this paper, we trace a set of arguments that provide a dialectic engagement with two conflicting agendas: (a) the broadening of science education to include the contextual positioning of science including economical dimensions of science, and (b) the guarding of the proliferation and reinforcement of those aspects of economics of science such as commodification of scientific knowledge that embraces inequity and restricted access to the products of the scientific enterprise. Our aim is broadly to engage, as science education researchers, in the debates in economics of science so as to investigate the reciprocal interactions that might exist with science education. In so doing, we draw out some recommendations whereby the goals of science education might provide as much input into the intellectual debates within philosophy of science on issues related to the commercialisation and commodification of scientific knowledge. We explore some implications of commodification of science in the context of modelling and argumentation in science education.

  1. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  2. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ``market barriers`` to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland`s attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  3. Dispositional optimism: a psychological resource for Mexican-origin mothers experiencing economic stress.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Zoe E; Widaman, Keith F; Robins, Richard W; Jochem, Rachel; Early, Dawnte R; Conger, Rand D

    2012-02-01

    Dispositional optimism is believed to be an important psychological resource that buffers families against the deleterious consequences of economic adversity. Using data from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin families (N = 674), we tested a family stress model specifying that maternal dispositional optimism and economic pressure affect maternal internalizing symptoms, which, in turn, affects parenting behaviors and children's social adjustment. As predicted, maternal optimism and economic pressure had both independent and interactive effects on maternal internalizing symptoms, and the effects of these variables on changes over time in child social adjustment were mediated by nurturant and involved parenting. The findings replicate and extend previous research on single-parent African American families (Taylor, Larsen-Rife, Conger, Widaman, & Cutrona, 2010), and demonstrate the generalizability of the positive benefits of dispositional optimism in another ethnic group and type of family structure. PMID:22201249

  4. CIM-EARTH: Community integrated model of economic and resource trajectories for humankind.

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.; Foster, I.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E.; Munson, T.; Univ. of Chicago; Hoover Inst.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is a global problem with local climatic and economic impacts. Mitigation policies can be applied on large geographic scales, such as a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S., on medium geographic scales, such as the NOx program for the northeastern U.S., or on smaller scales, such as statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes. To enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of mitigation policies, we are developing dynamic general equilibrium models capable of incorporating important climate impacts. This report describes the economic framework we have developed and the current Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind (CIM-EARTH) instance.

  5. Socio-economic resources and first-union formation in Finland, cohorts born 1969-81.

    PubMed

    Jalovaara, Marika

    2012-03-01

    Social scientists generally agree that better individual economic prospects enhance the probability of marriage for men, whereas there are conflicting views with regard to women. Moreover, it is argued that cohabitation does not require as strong an economic foundation as marriage. The aim of this study, which was based on Finnish register data, was to find out how the socio-economic resources of young adults affect first-union formation, and whether the effects vary by sex or union type. The results show that high education, labour-force participation, and high income seem to promote union formation. The findings are similar for women and men, which is plausible given the comparatively gender-egalitarian societal context. Similar factors encourage entry into both union types, although the union-promoting effects of university-level education and stable employment are stronger in the marriage models, suggesting that long-term prospects are more important when marriage is contemplated. PMID:22239474

  6. Household economic resources, labour-market advantage and health problems - a study on causal relationships using prospective register data.

    PubMed

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2012-10-01

    Our aim was to find out whether the associations between health and both individual and household economic position reflected a causal effect on health of household affluence and consumption potential. We attempted to separate this effect from health-selection effects, in other words the potential effect of health on economic position, and from various effects related to occupational position and prestige that might correlate with the economic indicators. We made a distinction between individual labour-market advantage and household economic resources in order to reflect these theoretical definitions. Our aim was to test and compare two hypotheses: 1) low household economic resources lead to an increase in health problems later on, and 2) health problems are disadvantageous on the labour market, and consequently decrease the level of economic resources. We used prospective register data obtained from the databases of Statistics Finland and constituting an 11-per-cent random sample of the Finnish population in 1993-2006. Health problems were measured in terms of sickness allowance paid by the Finnish Social Insurance Institution, household economic resources in terms of household-equivalent disposable income and taxable wealth, and labour-market advantage in terms of individual taxable income and months of unemployment. We used structural equation models (n = 211,639) to examine the hypothesised causal pathways. Low household economic resources predicted future health problems, and health problems predicted future deterioration in labour-market advantage. The effect of economic resources on health problems was somewhat stronger. These results suggest that accumulated exposure to low economic resources leads to increasing health problems, and that this causal mechanism is a more significant source of persistent health inequalities than health problems that bring about a permanent decrease in economic resources. PMID:22727652

  7. Economic resources consumption structure in severe hypoglycemia episodes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Michał; Rdzanek, Elżbieta; Niewada, Maciej; Czech, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with severe hypoglycemia events (SHEs) that vary in severity and resource consumption. Here we perform a systematic review in Medline of studies evaluating SHE-related health resource use. Eligible studies investigated patients with DM and included ≥10 SHEs. We also assessed studies identified in another systematic review, and through references from the included studies. We identified 14 relevant studies and used data from 11 (encompassing 6075 patients). Study results were interpreted to fit our definitions, which sometimes required assumptions. SHE type structure was synthesized using Bayesian modeling. Estimating Type 1 & 2 DM separately revealed only small differences; therefore, we used joint results. Of the analyzed SHEs, 9.97% were hospital-treated, 22.3% medical professional-treated, and 67.73% family-treated. These meta-analysis results help in understanding the structure of resource consumption following SHE and can be used in economic studies. PMID:26289736

  8. Assessment of the regional economic impacts of catastrophic events: CGE analysis of resource loss and behavioral effects of an RDD attack scenario.

    PubMed

    Giesecke, J A; Burns, W J; Barrett, A; Bayrak, E; Rose, A; Slovic, P; Suher, M

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the regional economic consequences of a hypothetical catastrophic event-attack via radiological dispersal device (RDD)-centered on the downtown Los Angeles area. We distinguish two routes via which such an event might affect regional economic activity: (i) reduction in effective resource supply (the resource loss effect) and (ii) shifts in the perceptions of economic agents (the behavioral effect). The resource loss effect relates to the physical destructiveness of the event, while the behavioral effect relates to changes in fear and risk perception. Both affect the size of the regional economy. RDD detonation causes little capital damage and few casualties, but generates substantial short-run resource loss via business interruption. Changes in fear and risk perception increase the supply cost of resources to the affected region, while simultaneously reducing demand for goods produced in the region. We use results from a nationwide survey, tailored to our RDD scenario, to inform our model values for behavioral effects. Survey results, supplemented by findings from previous research on stigmatized asset values, suggest that in the region affected by the RDD, households may require higher wages, investors may require higher returns, and customers may require price discounts. We show that because behavioral effects may have lingering long-term deleterious impacts on both the supply-cost of resources to a region and willingness to pay for regional output, they can generate changes in regional gross domestic product (GDP) much greater than those generated by resource loss effects. Implications for policies that have the potential to mitigate these effects are discussed. PMID:21232064

  9. Economic Promises and Challenges of Productive Resources: A Study of Man's Use of Productive Resources over the Ages (From the Stone Age to the Space Age).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourbonnais, Mary Kathryn

    Research and study of economic discoveries, inventions, improvements, and man's use of natural and human resources and capital goods from the Stone Age to the present helped fifth graders understand and appreciate the foundation and structure of the U.S. economic system and today's standards of living. The year-long study, which was integrated…

  10. Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining

    SciTech Connect

    Frändegård, Per Krook, Joakim; Svensson, Niclas

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We compare two remediation scenarios; one with resource recovery and one without. • Economic analysis includes relevant direct costs and revenues for the landfill owner. • High degrees of metal and/or combustible contents are important economic factors. • Landfill tax and the access to a CHP can have a large impact on the result. • Combining landfill mining and remediation may decrease the project cost. - Abstract: This article analyzes the economic potential of integrating material separation and resource recovery into a landfill remediation project, and discusses the result and the largest impact factors. The analysis is done using a direct costs/revenues approach and the stochastic uncertainties are handled using Monte Carlo simulation. Two remediation scenarios are applied to a hypothetical landfill. One scenario includes only remediation, while the second scenario adds resource recovery to the remediation project. Moreover, the second scenario is divided into two cases, case A and B. In case A, the landfill tax needs to be paid for re-deposited material and the landfill holder does not own a combined heat and power plant (CHP), which leads to disposal costs in the form of gate fees. In case B, the landfill tax is waived on the re-deposited material and the landfill holder owns its own CHP. Results show that the remediation project in the first scenario costs about €23/ton. Adding resource recovery as in case A worsens the result to −€36/ton, while for case B the result improves to −€14/ton. This shows the importance of landfill tax and the access to a CHP. Other important factors for the result are the material composition in the landfill, the efficiency of the separation technology used, and the price of the saleable material.

  11. Autoshaped choice in artificial neural networks: implications for behavioral economics and neuroeconomics.

    PubMed

    Burgos, José E; García-Leal, Óscar

    2015-05-01

    An existing neural network model of conditioning was used to simulate autoshaped choice. In this phenomenon, pigeons first receive an autoshaping procedure with two keylight stimuli X and Y separately paired with food in a forward-delay manner, intermittently for X and continuously for Y. Then pigeons receive unreinforced choice test trials of X and Y concurrently present. Most pigeons choose Y. This preference for a more valuable response alternative is a form of economic behavior that makes the phenomenon relevant to behavioral economics. The phenomenon also suggests a role for Pavlovian contingencies in economic behavior. The model used, in contrast to others, predicts autoshaping and automaintenance, so it is uniquely positioned to predict autoshaped choice. The model also contemplates neural substrates of economic behavior in neuroeconomics, such as dopaminergic and hippocampal systems. A feedforward neural network architecture was designed to simulate a neuroanatomical differentiation between two environment-behavior relations X-R1 and Y-R2, [corrected] where R1 and R2 denote two different emitted responses (not unconditionally elicited by the reward). Networks with this architecture received a training protocol that simulated an autoshaped-choice procedure. Most networks simulated the phenomenon. Implications for behavioral economics and neuroeconomics, limitations, and the issue of model appraisal are discussed. PMID:25662745

  12. An economic analysis of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources in the state of Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Juan S.

    Anaerobic digestion is a process that is a common part of organic waste management systems and is used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The process produces biogas, which contains methane, and it can be burned to generate electricity. Previous reports have indicated that based on the availability of feedstocks there is a large potential for biogas production and use for electricity generation in the state of Indiana. However, these reports varied in their consideration of important factors that affect the technical and economic feasibility of being able to develop the resources available. The goal of this thesis is to make a more targeted assessment of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills in Indiana. A capital budgeting model is used to estimate the net present value (NPV) of biogas electricity projects at facilities that are identified as technically suitable. A statewide estimate of the potential generation capacity is made by estimating the number of facilities that could profitably undertake a biogas electricity project. In addition this thesis explored the impact that different incentive policies would have on the economic viability of these projects. The results indicated that the electricity generation potential is much smaller when technical and economic factors are taken into account in addition to feedstock availability. In particular it was found that projects at hog farms are unlikely to be economically feasible in the present even when financial incentives are considered. In total, 47.94 MW of potential generating capacity is estimated from biogas production at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills. Though results indicated that 37.10 MW of capacity are economically feasible under current operating conditions, sensitivity analysis reveals that these projects are very sensitive to capital cost assumptions

  13. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Pouzols, Federico Montesino; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Kotiaho, Janne S; Strandman, Harri; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-09-15

    Resource allocation to multiple alternative conservation actions is a complex task. A common trade-off occurs between protection of smaller, expensive, high-quality areas versus larger, cheaper, partially degraded areas. We investigate optimal allocation into three actions in boreal forest: current standard forest management rules, setting aside of mature stands, or setting aside of clear-cuts. We first estimated how habitat availability for focal indicator species and economic returns from timber harvesting develop through time as a function of forest type and action chosen. We then developed an optimal resource allocation by accounting for budget size and habitat availability of indicator species in different forest types. We also accounted for the perspective adopted towards sustainability, modeled via temporal preference and economic and ecological time discounting. Controversially, we found that in boreal forest set-aside followed by protection of clear-cuts can become a winning cost-effective strategy when accounting for habitat requirements of multiple species, long planning horizon, and limited budget. It is particularly effective when adopting a long-term sustainability perspective, and accounting for present revenues from timber harvesting. The present analysis assesses the cost-effective conditions to allocate resources into an inexpensive conservation strategy that nevertheless has potential to produce high ecological values in the future. PMID:27262031

  14. Managing resources in NHS dentistry: using health economics to inform commissioning decisions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to develop, apply and evaluate an economics-based framework to assist commissioners in their management of finite resources for local dental services. In April 2006, Primary Care Trusts in England were charged with managing finite dental budgets for the first time, yet several independent reports have since criticised the variability in commissioning skills within these organisations. The study will explore the views of stakeholders (dentists, patients and commissioners) regarding priority setting and the criteria used for decision-making and resource allocation. Two inter-related case studies will explore the dental commissioning and resource allocation processes through the application of a pragmatic economics-based framework known as Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis. Methods/Design The study will adopt an action research approach. Qualitative methods including semi-structured interviews, focus groups, field notes and document analysis will record the views of participants and their involvement in the research process. The first case study will be based within a Primary Care Trust where mixed methods will record the views of dentists, patients and dental commissioners on issues, priorities and processes associated with managing local dental services. A Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis framework will be applied to determine the potential value of economic principles to the decision-making process. A further case study will be conducted in a secondary care dental teaching hospital using the same approach. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic analysis and managed using a framework approach. Discussion The recent announcement by government regarding the proposed abolition of Primary Care Trusts may pose challenges for the research team regarding their engagement with the research study. However, whichever commissioning organisations are responsible for resource allocation for dental services in the

  15. Energy, economic and environmental implications of production of grasses as biomass feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; McLaughlin, S.; Walsh, M.

    1995-08-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  16. Economic Impacts of Climate Variability in South Africa and Development of Resource Prediction Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of food and water supplies and economic growth in South Africa leads to the realization that climate variability plays a major role. Summer rainfall in the period of 1980-99 is closely associated (variance = 48%) with year-to-year changes in the gross domestic product (GDP). Given the strong links between climate and resources, statistical models are formulated to predict maize yield, river flows, and GDP directly. The most influential predictor is cloud depth (outgoing longwave radiation) in the tropical Indian Ocean in the preceding spring (September-November). Reduced monsoon convection is related to enhanced rainfall over South Africa in the following summer and greater economic prosperity during the subsequent year. Methodologies are outlined and risk-reduction strategies are reviewed. It is estimated that over U.S.$1 billion could be saved annually through uptake of timely and reliable long-range forecasts.

  17. Sexual economics: sex as female resource for social exchange in heterosexual interactions.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Roy F; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2004-01-01

    A heterosexual community can be analyzed as a marketplace in which men seek to acquire sex from women by offering other resources in exchange. Societies will therefore define gender roles as if women are sellers and men buyers of sex. Societies will endow female sexuality, but not male sexuality, with value (as in virginity, fidelity, chastity). The sexual activities of different couples are loosely interrelated by a marketplace, instead of being fully separate or private, and each couple's decisions may be influenced by market conditions. Economic principles suggest that the price of sex will depend on supply and demand, competition among sellers, variations in product, collusion among sellers, and other factors. Research findings show gender asymmetries (reflecting the complementary economic roles) in prostitution, courtship, infidelity and divorce, female competition, the sexual revolution and changing norms, unequal status between partners, cultural suppression of female sexuality, abusive relationships, rape, and sexual attitudes. PMID:15582858

  18. Economic impact of public resource supply constraints in northeast Oregon. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, E.C.; Holland, D.W.; Haynes, R.W.; Quigley, T.M.

    1997-04-01

    Traditional, fixed-price (input-output) economic models provide a useful framework for conceptualizing links in a regional economy. Apparent shortcomings in these models, however, severely restrict our ability to deduce valid prescriptions for public policy and economic development. A more efficient approach using regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) models as well as a brief survey of relevant literature is presented. Computable general equilibrium results under several different resource policy scenarios are examined and contrasted with a fixed-price analysis. In the most severe CGE scenario, elimination of Federal range programs caused the loss of 1,371 jobs (2.3 percent of regional employment) and $29 million (1.6 percent) of house income; and an 80-percent reduction in Federal log supplies resulted in the loss of 3,329 jobs (5.5 percent of regional employment), and $76 millin (4.2 percent) of household income. These results do not include positive economic impacts associated with improvement in salmon runs. Economic counter scenarios indicate that increases in tourism and high-technology manufacturing and growth in the population of retirees can largely offset total employment and income losses.

  19. Young Stroke Mortality in Fiji Islands: An Economic Analysis of National Human Capital Resource Loss

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, Jagdish C.; Reddy, Mahendra

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The objective of this study was to perform an economic analysis in terms of annual national human capital resource loss from young stroke mortality in Fiji. The official retirement age is 55 years in Fiji. Method. Stroke mortality data, for working-age group 15–55 years, obtained from the Ministry of Health and per capita national income figure for the same year was utilised to calculate the total output loss for the economy. The formula of output loss from the economy was used. Results. There were 273 stroke deaths of which 53.8% were of working-age group. The annual national human capital loss from stroke mortality for Fiji for the year was calculated to be F$8.85 million (US$5.31 million). The highest percentage loss from stroke mortality was from persons in their forties; that is, they still had more then 10 years to retirement. Discussion. This loss equates to one percent of national government revenue and 9.7% of Ministry of Health budget for the same year. The annual national human capital loss from stroke mortality is an important dimension in the overall economic equation of total economic burden of stroke. Conclusion. This study demonstrates a high economic burden for Fiji from stroke mortality of young adults in terms of annual national human capital loss. PMID:22778993

  20. Shale Gas Boom or Bust? Estimating US and Global Economically Recoverable Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecha, R. J.; Hilaire, J.; Bauer, N.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most disruptive energy system technological developments of the past few decades is the rapid expansion of shale gas production in the United States. Because the changes have been so rapid there are great uncertainties as to the impacts of shale production for medium- and long-term energy and climate change mitigation policies. A necessary starting point for incorporating shale resources into modeling efforts is to understand the size of the resource, how much is technically recoverable (TRR), and finally, how much is economically recoverable (ERR) at a given cost. To assess production costs of shale gas, we combine top-down data with detailed bottom-up information. Studies solely based on top-down approaches do not adequately account for the heterogeneity of shale gas deposits and are unlikely to appropriately estimate extraction costs. We design an expedient bottom-up method based on publicly available US data to compute the levelized costs of shale gas extraction. Our results indicate the existence of economically attractive areas but also reveal a dramatic cost increase as lower-quality reservoirs are exploited. Extrapolating results for the US to the global level, our best estimate suggests that, at a cost of 6 US$/GJ, only 39% of the technically recoverable resources reported in top-down studies should be considered economically recoverable. This estimate increases to about 77% when considering optimistic TRR and estimated ultimate recovery parameters but could be lower than 12% for more pessimistic parameters. The current lack of information on the heterogeneity of shale gas deposits as well as on the development of future production technologies leads to significant uncertainties regarding recovery rates and production costs. Much of this uncertainty may be inherent, but for energy system planning purposes, with or without climate change mitigation policies, it is crucial to recognize the full ranges of recoverable quantities and costs.

  1. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 4: Forestry, wildlife and rangeland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J.; Stevenson, P.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of ERS information in the resource management area of extensive use of living resources, forestry, wildlife, and rangeland, is determined. Timber and forage resources are quantitatively evaluated. It is shown that these resources have economic value in the tens of billions of dollars, but the economic benefits of improved management of the forests and rangelands are not limited to efficiency in the production of these commercial resources. Multiple-use values including watershed, wildlife, and recreation are also involved.

  2. Economics of large-scale thorium oxide production: assessment of domestic resources

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.; Enderlin, W.I.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Drost, M.K.; Weakley, S.A.

    1980-02-01

    The supply curve illustrates that sufficient amounts of thorium exist supply a domestic thorium-reactor economy. Most likely costs of production range from $3 to $60/lb ThO/sub 2/. Near-term thorium oxide resources include the stockpiles in Ohio, Maryland, and Tennessee and the thorite deposits at Hall Mountain, Idaho. Costs are under $10/lb thorium oxide. Longer term economic deposits include Wet Mountain, Colorado; Lemhi Pass, Idaho; and Palmer, Michigan. Most likely costs are under $20/lb thorium oxide. Long-term deposits include Bald Mountain, Wyoming; Bear Lodge, Wyoming; and Conway, New Hampshire. Costs approximately equal or exceed $50/lb thorium oxide.

  3. Economic Analysis in the Pacific Northwest Land Resources Project: Theoretical Considerations and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, D. R. A.; Sahlberg, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resources Inventory Demonstration Project i s an a ttempt to combine a whole spectrum of heterogeneous geographic, institutional and applications elements in a synergistic approach to the evaluation of remote sensing techniques. This diversity is the prime motivating factor behind a theoretical investigation of alternative economic analysis procedures. For a multitude of reasons--simplicity, ease of understanding, financial constraints and credibility, among others--cost-effectiveness emerges as the most practical tool for conducting such evaluation determinatIons in the Pacific Northwest. Preliminary findings in two water resource application areas suggest, in conformity with most published studies, that Lands at-aided data collection methods enjoy substantial cost advantages over alternative techniques. The pntential for sensitivity analysis based on cost/accuracy tradeoffs is considered on a theoretical plane in the absence of current accuracy figures concerning the Landsat-aided approach.

  4. Ecological Network Analysis for Economic Systems: Growth and Development and Implications for Sustainable Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input–output (I-O) tables for 1985–2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985–2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects. PMID:24979465

  5. Sources and implications of lead ammunition and fishing tackle on natural resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.; Sheffield, S.R.; Goddard, C.I.; Leonard, N.J.; Stang, D.; Wingate, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    A technical review of lead sources that originate from hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities was undertaken by the American Fisheries Society and The Wildlife Society. The report addresses (1) sources of lead that originate from hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities, (2) the hazard and risk that lead from these activities pose to natural resources, and (3) the management implications for fish and wildlife professionals and policy makers.

  6. Neuroscience Evidence for Economic Humanism in Management Science: Organizational Implications and Strategy.

    PubMed

    Lattanzi, Nicola; Menicagli, Dario; Dal Maso, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Globalization phenomena and Information Communication Technology (ICT) are producing deep changes worldwide. The economic environment and society where firms both cooperate and compete with each other are rapidly changing leading firms towards recognizing the role of intangible resources as a source of fresh competitive advantage. Experience, innovation and the ability to create new knowledge completely arise from the act of human resources inviting firms to focus on how to generate and shape knowledge. Therefore, the future of firms depends greatly on how managers are able to explore and exploit human resources. However, without a clear understanding of the nature of human beings and the complexity behind human interactions, we cannot understand the theory of organizational knowledge creation. Thus, how can firms discover, manage and valorize this "human advantage"? Neuroscience can increase the understanding of how cognitive and emotional processes work; in doing so, we may be able to better understand how individuals involved in a business organization make decisions and how external factors influence their behavior, especially in terms of commitment activation and engagement level. In this respect, a neuroscientific approach to business can support managers in decision-making processes. In a scenario where economic humanism plays a central role in the process of fostering firms' competitiveness and emerging strategies, we believe that a neuroscience approach in a business organization could be a valid source of value and inspiration for manager decision-making processes. PMID:27548097

  7. Use of Online Information Resources by RMIT University Economics, Finance, and Marketing Students Participating in a Cooperative Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the use of online information resources by Economics, Finance, and Marketing 3rd year students in a cooperative education program and explores some possible factors and issues that influence how students use these resources. The nature of Work Integrated Learning (WIL) programs, the business information environment, and the…

  8. The water-energy-food-climate-economics nexus: solving hunger and resource scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, U.

    2011-12-01

    A nexus refers to the core or to interconnectivity across issues. Addressing the boundary interactions of traditional sectors in an interconnected world as human activities change the physical boundaries of land and climate is an emerging academic and governance discourse. Through contrasting examples from the US and India, I shed light on the descriptive aspects of these connections and feedbacks that define potential impacts or traps for societies, and ponder whether a massive conceptual or numerical Earth System Model can help inform outcomes, or whether there are dominant links at particular scales (physical, social, economic or biological) that characterize the emergent dynamics and define critical equilibrium or transient solutions in certain places. However, the real question is what next given the definition of the nexus? Here, I argue that given the current valuation and management structure of different resource sectors and the associated information flows and sensitivities, the interlinked energy-climate issues can emerge as useful drivers of improved productivity in water-food systems, thus promoting resource and environmental sustainability while promoting economic development. Thus, levers can be found that help steer the course of these complex interacting systems towards desirable sectoral outcomes.

  9. Quality of life, resource utilisation and health economics assessment in advanced neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chau, I; Casciano, R; Willet, J; Wang, X; Yao, J C

    2013-11-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are often diagnosed at an advanced stage when the prognosis is poor for patients, who often experience diminished quality of life (QoL). As new treatments for NET become available, it is important to characterise the associated outcomes, costs and QoL. A comprehensive search was performed to systematically review available data in advanced NET regarding cost of illness/resource utilisation, economic studies/health technology assessment and QoL. Four rounds of sequential review narrowed the search results to 22 relevant studies. Most focused on surgical procedures and diagnostic tools and contained limited information on the costs and consequences of medical therapies. Multiple tools are used to assess health-related QoL in NET, but few analyses have been conducted to assess the comparative impact of available treatment alternatives on QoL. Limitations include English language and the focus on advanced NET; ongoing terminology and classification changes prevented pooled statistical analyses. This systematic review suggests a lack of comparative economic and outcomes data associated with NET treatments. Further research on disease costs, resource utilisation and QoL for patients with advanced NET is warranted. PMID:23895457

  10. Quality of life, resource utilisation and health economics assessment in advanced neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chau, I; Casciano, R; Willet, J; Wang, X; Yao, JC

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are often diagnosed at an advanced stage when the prognosis is poor for patients, who often experience diminished quality of life (QoL). As new treatments for NET become available, it is important to characterise the associated outcomes, costs and QoL. A comprehensive search was performed to systematically review available data in advanced NET regarding cost of illness/resource utilisation, economic studies/health technology assessment and QoL. Four rounds of sequential review narrowed the search results to 22 relevant studies. Most focused on surgical procedures and diagnostic tools and contained limited information on the costs and consequences of medical therapies. Multiple tools are used to assess health-related QoL in NET, but few analyses have been conducted to assess the comparative impact of available treatment alternatives on QoL. Limitations include English language and the focus on advanced NET; ongoing terminology and classification changes prevented pooled statistical analyses. This systematic review suggests a lack of comparative economic and outcomes data associated with NET treatments. Further research on disease costs, resource utilisation and QoL for patients with advanced NET is warranted. PMID:23895457

  11. Quick-start guide for version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bawiec, Walter J.; Spanski, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type (Singer and Menzie, 2010). The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. It is based upon a simulation program developed by Root and others (1992), who discussed many of the methods and algorithms of the program. Various versions of the original program (called "MARK3" and developed by David H. Root, William A. Scott, and Lawrence J. Drew of the USGS) have been published (Root, Scott, and Selner, 1996; Duval, 2000, 2012). The current version (3.0) of the EMINERS program is available as USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344 (Duval, 2012). Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques included in Camm (1991). EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer

  12. Climate variability and El Niño Southern Oscillation: implications for natural coastal resources and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatje, Sven; Heilmayer, Olaf; Laudien, Jürgen

    2008-03-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) significantly influences marine ecosystems and the sustained exploitation of marine resources in the coastal zone of the Humboldt Current upwelling system. Both its warm (El Niño: EN) and cold (La Niña: LN) phase have drastic implications for the ecology, socio-economy and infrastructure along most of Pacific South America. Local artisanal fisheries, which especially suffer from the effects of EN, represent a major part for the domestic economy of Chile and Peru and in consequence a huge amount of published and unpublished studies exists aiming at identifying effects of EN and LN. However, most processes and underlying mechanisms fostering the ecology of organisms along Pacific South America have not been analyzed yet and for the marine realm most knowledge is traditionally based on rather descriptive approaches. We herein advocate that small-scale comparative and interdisciplinary process studies work as one possible solution to understand better the variability observed in EN/LN effects at local scale. We propose that differences in small-scale impacts of ENSO along the coast rather than the macro-ecological and oceanographic view are essential for the sustainable management of costal ecosystems and the livelihood of the people depending on it. Based on this, we summarize the conceptual approach from the EU-funded International Science and Technology Cooperation (INCO) project “Climate variability and El Niño Southern Oscillation: Implications for Natural Coastal Resources and Management (CENSOR)” that aims at enhancing the detection, compilation, and understanding of EN and LN effects on the coastal zone and its natural resources. We promote a multidisciplinary avenue within present international funding schemes, with the intention to bridge the traditional gap between basic and applied coastal research. The long-term aim is an increased mitigation of harm caused by EN as well as a better use of beneficial effects

  13. Socio-economic development with regard to the availability of resources in Benin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbarek, R.; Behle, C.; Doevenspeck, M.; Mulindabigwi, V.; Schopp, M.; Singer, U.; Henrichsmeyer, W.; Janssens, M.; Schug, W.

    2003-04-01

    The socio-economic part within the IMPETUS-Project analyses interdependencies between resource availability and socio-economic development in Benin. The results of various research activities of natural and social sciences are integrated in a modelling system, in order to calculate development scenarios of resource utilisation and food security in Benin for the next two decades. Missing data concerning water usage and economic parameters are collected in field surveys, in co-operation with other disciplines and stakeholders on site, investigating the upper Ouémé-catchment in particular. The demand of water is analysed by water frequency observation, household analysis and interviews with experts and shows the effects of changing socio-economic parameters on demand growth. The analysis of water availability investigates the question, how the gap between water demand and water availability, due to demographic, social and natural conditions, may be closed by improved management systems and improved technical equipment. A further field of interest is to measure the influence of land use systems and rain variability on carbon balance and food security. Rain variability associated with inadequate land use systems has become the most important factor for determining food insecurity and emission of (global )greenhouse gases in Benin. Therefore, farmers in Benin need efficient water management systems, otherwise they are obliged to extend their agricultural areas or to migrate towards less occupied regions. The results of the above mentioned research activities are introduced in the modelling system BenIMPACT (Benin Integrated Modelling System for Policy Analysis, Climate and Technology Change). It consists of an agricultural sector model (spatial, synthetic, non-linear), a tool to calculate water balances and a basic data system, which provides data and results in a mapping tool (BenMap). Establishing BenIMPACT as a decision support system in corresponding institutions

  14. Review of economic and energy sector implications of adopting global climate change policies

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, M.H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes a number of studies examining potential economic impacts of global climate change policies. Implications for the United States as a whole, the U.S. energy sector, the U.S. economy, businesses and consumers, and world economies are considered. Impact assessments are performed of U.S. carbon emissions, carbon taxes, and carbon restrictions by comparing estimates from various organizations. The following conclusions were made from the economic studies: (1) the economic cost of carbon abatement is expensive; (2) the cost of unilateral action is very expensive with little quantifiable evidence that global emissions are reduced; (3) multilateral actions of developed countries are also very expensive, but there is quantifiable evidence of global emissions reductions; and (4) global actions have only been theoretically addressed. Paralleling these findings, the energy analyses show that the U.S. is technologically unprepared to give up fossil fuels. As a result: (1) carbon is not stabilized without a high tax, (2) stabilization of carbon is elusive, (3) technology is the only long-term answer, and (4) targeted programs may be appropriate to force technology development. 8 tabs.

  15. Economics of resource supplementation: the development of an ethanol fuel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Technological supplementation is introduced into the intertemporal resource allocation problem. Supplementation allows a renewable resource to be partially substituted for a nonrenewable resource in a fixed production. The reduced input quantity of the nonrenewable in the end product increases its uselife. There is an inverse relationship between the supplementation date and uselife. Using the ethanol fuel industry as an example, supplementation benefits take three forms: (1) the uselife of petroleum to produce gasoline is increased; (2) when petroleum's exponentially growing price exceeds ethanol's constant price, refiners earn an economic profit by pricing fuel at petroleum's opportunity cost; and (3) a harmful externality is reduced as ethanol replaces lead in gasoline. The private switch point occurs when a relative price advantage exists. However, this may not be the optimal switch point. Supplementation prior to the private switch will require a subsidy equal to the input price differential. A unique level of production capacity is required for the optimal switch point. Capacity development requires identification of an investment path. Attempts to compress the investment interval will increase total capacity cost per unit, the final price of ethanol, and hence, the total subsidy cost for any switch point.

  16. Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining.

    PubMed

    Frändegård, Per; Krook, Joakim; Svensson, Niclas

    2015-08-01

    This article analyzes the economic potential of integrating material separation and resource recovery into a landfill remediation project, and discusses the result and the largest impact factors. The analysis is done using a direct costs/revenues approach and the stochastic uncertainties are handled using Monte Carlo simulation. Two remediation scenarios are applied to a hypothetical landfill. One scenario includes only remediation, while the second scenario adds resource recovery to the remediation project. Moreover, the second scenario is divided into two cases, case A and B. In case A, the landfill tax needs to be paid for re-deposited material and the landfill holder does not own a combined heat and power plant (CHP), which leads to disposal costs in the form of gate fees. In case B, the landfill tax is waived on the re-deposited material and the landfill holder owns its own CHP. Results show that the remediation project in the first scenario costs about €23/ton. Adding resource recovery as in case A worsens the result to -€36/ton, while for case B the result improves to -€14/ton. This shows the importance of landfill tax and the access to a CHP. Other important factors for the result are the material composition in the landfill, the efficiency of the separation technology used, and the price of the saleable material. PMID:25962826

  17. The integral indicator of socio-economic assessment in regard to resource-oriented territories development in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Petrosyan, M. O.

    2016-04-01

    Economic peculiarity of Russian resource-oriented territories are based on a focal type of industrial complex, differentiation of economies within a principle of mining and processing of natural resources. To improve the economic condition and integrate into the world innovative process is essential to solve the problem of eliminating the prevalence of resourse focus in the industrial economic structure that could ensure the overcoming of the existing spa- cial dissociation and market mechanisms development in innovative promotion. The monitoring system, involving the integral indicator of socioeconomic and territorial potential assessment, has suggested by the authors. The integral indicator could guarantee the objective evaluation of economic condition within a territory that is vital for the governmental authorities to design strategies providing the economic development of administrative territories.

  18. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 5: Inland water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzler, E.; Peterson, W.; Putnam, M.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of an ERTS system in the area of inland water resources management is investigated. Benefits are attributed to new capabilities for managing inland water resources in the field of power generation, agriculture, and urban water supply. These benefits are obtained in the area of equal capability (cost savings) and increased capability (equal budget), and are estimated by applying conservative assumptions to Federal budgeting information, Congressional appropriation hearings, and ERTS technical capabilities.

  19. Scale Issues in Modeling the Water Resources Sector in National Economic Models: A Case study of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzepek, K. M.; Kirshen, P.; Yohe, G.

    2001-05-01

    The fundamental theme of this research was to investigate tradeoffs in model resolution for modeling water resources in the context of national economic development and capital investment decisions.. Based on a case study of China, the research team has developed water resource models at relatively fine scales, then investigated how they can be aggregated to regional or national scales and for use in national level planning decisions or global scale integrated assessment models of food and/or environmental change issues. The team has developed regional water supply and water demand functions.. Simplifying and aggregating the supply and demand functions will allow reduced form functions of the water sector for inclusion in large scale national economic models. Water Supply Cost functions were developed looking at both surface and groundwater supplies. Surface Water: Long time series of flows at the mouths of the 36 major river sub-basins in China are used in conjunction with different basin reservoir storage quantities to obtain storage-yield curves. These are then combined with reservoir and transmission cost data to obtain yield-cost or surface water demand curves. The methodology to obtain the long time series of flows for each basin is to fit a simple abcd water balance model to each basin. The costs of reservoir storage have been estimated by using a methodology developed in the USA that relates marginal storage costs to existing storage, slope and geological conditions. USA costs functions have then been adjusted to Chinese costs. The costs of some actual dams in China were used to "ground-truth" the methodology. Groundwater: The purpose of the groundwater work is to estimate the recharge in each basin, and the depths and quality of water of aquifers. A byproduct of the application of the abcd water balance model is the recharge. Depths and quality of aquifers are being taken from many separate reports on groundwater in different parts of China; we have been

  20. Allocation of resources in the Soviet Union and China - 1985. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Economic Resources, Competitiveness, and Security Economics of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 19, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Part II of the hearing record covers a March 19 Executive session, with statements by Douglas MacEachin of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), submissions for the record by MacEachin and Admiral Robert Schmitt, and supporting documentation. The purpose of the hearings was to examine economic indicators of the Soviet Union and China in the context of military and national security interests. The study and report represent a cooperative effort on the part of the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency. The report focuses on Gorbachev's modernization program, its potential for success, and the military implications if it should fail. The witnesses felt that unlike the Soviets, the Chinese probably understate military expenditures; and the military triangle involving the US, Soviet Union, and China has benefited both the US and China. Submissions for the record make up most of the document.

  1. Carbon mitigation with biomass: An engineering, economic and policy assessment of opportunities and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, James S., III

    2007-12-01

    C"), equivalent to roughly 3% of U.S. GHG emissions. In the medium or longer term, integration of carbon capture and storage technologies with advanced bio-energy conversion technologies ("biomass-CCS"), in both liquid fuels production and electric sector applications, will likely be feasible. These systems are capable of generating useful energy products with negative net atmospheric carbon emissions at carbon prices between 100 and 200 per tC. Negative emissions from biomass-CCS could be applied to offset emissions sources that are difficult or expensive to abate directly. Such indirect mitigation may prove cost competitive and provide important flexibility in achieving stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations at desirable levels. With increasing deployments, alternate bio-energy systems will eventually compete for limited biomass resources and inputs to agricultural production--particularly land. In this context, resource allocation decisions will likely turn on the relative economic performance of alternate bio-energy systems in their respective energy markets. The relatively large uncertainty in forecasts of energy futures confounds reliable prediction of economically efficient uses for available biomass resources. High oil prices or large valuation of energy security benefits will likely enable bio-fuels production to dominate electric-sector options. In contrast, low oil prices and low valuation of energy security benefits will likely enable electric-sector applications to dominate. In the latter scenario, indirect mitigation of transportation-sector emissions via emissions offsets from electric-sector biomass-CCS could prove more efficient than direct fuel substitution with biofuels, both economically and in terms of the transportation-sector mitigation of available biomass resources [tC tbiomass-1]. The policy environment surrounding industrial bio-energy development is systematically examined. Specifically, the policy objectives that may be advanced with bio

  2. Exploring the association between women's access to economic resources and intimate partner violence in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Seema; Jansen, Henrica Afm; Heise, Lori; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between women's access to economic resources, e.g. employment or access to micro-credit, and experience of intimate partner violence is complex. Empirical evidence documents that in some settings women's employment is associated with higher risk of partner violence but in other settings with lower risk. Evidence also shows that these conflicting associations exist not only between countries but also within different country settings. Using two population-based data sets gathered in 2002 in contrasting Tanzania settings-Dar es Salaam and Mbeya-, we used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between women's access to economic resources and partner violence. Two indicators of economic resources were examined: whether women earned money and whether women owned a business either with someone or exclusively. In Dar es Salaam we found evidence of a higher risk association among women who earned money and who owned a business exclusively by themselves and a lower risk association among women who owned a business with someone. We found no relationship between either indicator of economic resources and partner violence in Mbeya. Other factors were similarly associated with partner violence in both settings and the strongest associations found were related to the respondents' partners: refusal to give money; alcohol use and relationships with other women. The findings support the assertion that women's access to economic resources operate differently in different country settings, thus highlighting the need for targeted prevention efforts that are relevant for the context. PMID:26494417

  3. Resource limits and conversion efficiency with implications for climate change and California's energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    There are two commonly-used approaches to modeling the future supply of mineral resources. One is to estimate reserves and compare the result to extraction rates, and the other is to project from historical time series of extraction rates. Perceptions of abundant oil supplies in the Middle East and abundant coal supplies in the United States are based on the former approach. In both of these cases, an approach based on historical production series results in a much smaller resource estimate than aggregate reserve numbers. This difference is not systematic; natural gas production in the United States shows a strong increasing trend even though modest reserve estimates have resulted in three decades of worry about the gas supply. The implication of a future decline in Middle East oil production is that the market for transportation fuels is facing major changes, and that alternative fuels should be analyzed in this light. Because the U.S. holds very large coal reserves, synthesizing liquid hydrocarbons from coal has been suggested as an alternative fuel supply. To assess the potential of this process, one has to look at both the resource base and the net efficiency. The three states with the largest coal production declines in the 1996 to 2006 period are among the top 5 coal reserve holders, suggesting that gross coal reserves are a poor indicator of future production. Of the three categories of coal reserves reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, reserves at existing mines is the narrowest category and is approximately the equivalent of proved developed oil reserves. By this measure, Wyoming has the largest coal reserves in the U.S., and it accounted for all of U.S. coal production growth over the 1996 to 2006 time period. In Chapter 2, multi-cycle Hubbert curve analysis of historical data of coal production from 1850 to 2007 demonstrates that U.S. anthracite and bituminous coal are past their production peak. This result contradicts estimates based

  4. North Carolina's Water Supply Watershed Protection Act: History and economic and land use implications

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, D.H.; Watts, K.; Purdy, R.; Gray, J.

    1992-11-01

    The report consists of a series of papers that address a common theme; namely, the economic and land use implications of regulations to protect watersheds that drain to public water supplies in North Carolina. Public concern about protection of these supplies has been increasing for the past 15 years, peaking in the vigorous debate over regulations formulated by the North Carolina Environmental Management Commission (EMC) to implement House Bill 156 passed by the General Assembly of North Carolina in 1989. That debate occurred over a period of nearly three years from March 1989 until February 1992. Several of the papers included in the report were shared in draft form with the EMC and staff of the Division of Environmental Management (DEM) during the course of that debate.

  5. A Hydro-Economic Approach to Representing Water Resources Impacts in Integrated Assessment Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kirshen, Paul H.; Strzepek, Kenneth, M.

    2004-01-14

    Grant Number DE-FG02-98ER62665 Office of Energy Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Abstract Many Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) divide the world into a small number of highly aggregated regions. Non-OECD countries are aggregated geographically into continental and multiple-continental regions or economically by development level. Current research suggests that these large scale aggregations cannot accurately represent potential water resources-related climate change impacts. In addition, IAMs do not explicitly model the flow regulation impacts of reservoir and ground water systems, the economics of water supply, or the demand for water in economic activities. Using the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) model of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) as a case study, this research implemented a set of methodologies to provide accurate representation of water resource climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models. There were also detailed examinations of key issues related to aggregated modeling including: modeling water consumption versus water withdrawals; ground and surface water interactions; development of reservoir cost curves; modeling of surface areas of aggregated reservoirs for estimating evaporation losses; and evaluating the importance of spatial scale in river basin modeling. The major findings include: - Continental or national or even large scale river basin aggregation of water supplies and demands do not accurately capture the impacts of climate change in the water and agricultural sector in IAMs. - Fortunately, there now exist gridden approaches (0.5 X 0.5 degrees) to model streamflows in a global analysis. The gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with national boundaries. This combined with GIS tools, high speed computers, and the growing availability of socio-economic gridded data bases allows assignment of

  6. Identification of two distinct fire regimes in Southern California: implications for economic impact and future change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yufang; Goulden, Michael L.; Faivre, Nicolas; Veraverbeke, Sander; Sun, Fengpeng; Hall, Alex; Hand, Michael S.; Hook, Simon; Randerson, James T.

    2015-09-01

    The area burned by Southern California wildfires has increased in recent decades, with implications for human health, infrastructure, and ecosystem management. Meteorology and fuel structure are universally recognized controllers of wildfire, but their relative importance, and hence the efficacy of abatement and suppression efforts, remains controversial. Southern California’s wildfires can be partitioned by meteorology: fires typically occur either during Santa Ana winds (SA fires) in October through April, or warm and dry periods in June through September (non-SA fires). Previous work has not quantitatively distinguished between these fire regimes when assessing economic impacts or climate change influence. Here we separate five decades of fire perimeters into those coinciding with and without SA winds. The two fire types contributed almost equally to burned area, yet SA fires were responsible for 80% of cumulative 1990-2009 economic losses (3.1 Billion). The damage disparity was driven by fire characteristics: SA fires spread three times faster, occurred closer to urban areas, and burned into areas with greater housing values. Non-SA fires were comparatively more sensitive to age-dependent fuels, often occurred in higher elevation forests, lasted for extended periods, and accounted for 70% of total suppression costs. An improved distinction of fire type has implications for future projections and management. The area burned in non-SA fires is projected to increase 77% (±43%) by the mid-21st century with warmer and drier summers, and the SA area burned is projected to increase 64% (±76%), underscoring the need to evaluate the allocation and effectiveness of suppression investments.

  7. Quantification of spatially differentiated resource footprints for products and services through a macro-economic and thermodynamic approach.

    PubMed

    Huysman, Sofie; Schaubroeck, Thomas; Dewulf, Jo

    2014-08-19

    Although natural resources form the basis of our economy, they are not always used in a sustainable way. To achieve a more sustainable economic growth, resource consumption needs to be measured. Therefore, resource footprint frameworks (RFF) are being developed. To easily provide results, these RFF integrate inventory methodologies, at macrolevel mostly input-output (IO) models, with resource accounting methodologies, of which the Ecological Footprint is probably the best known one. The objective of this work is the development of a new RFF, in which a world IO-model (Exiobase), providing a global perspective, is integrated with the CEENE methodology (Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment), offering a more complete resource range: fossil fuels, metals, minerals, nuclear resources, water resources, land resources, abiotic renewable resources, and atmospheric resources. This RFF, called IO-CEENE, allows one to calculate resource footprints for products or services consumed in different countries as the exergy extracted from nature. The way the framework is constructed makes it possible to show which resources and countries contribute to the total footprint. This was illustrated by a case study, presenting the benefits of the framework's worldwide perspective. Additionally, a software file is provided to easily calculate results. PMID:25025341

  8. The hidden costs of cancer care: an overview with implications and referral resources for oncology nurses.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Lisa; Lacey, Margaret D

    2004-06-01

    Since the 1970s, remarkable advances have been made in the early diagnosis, treatment, and survival rates of patients with cancer. This has coincided with rapid changes in the healthcare industry. As cancer has been transformed into a chronic disease that generally is treated in the outpatient setting, the financial burden on patients with cancer and their families has grown. Insurance premiums, deductibles, copayments, transportation, lost income, and miscellaneous out-of-pocket expenses are just some of the hidden, nonreimbursable costs that significantly affect the financial stability of families over time. In addition, certain populations are at greater risk of financial burden, which may affect compliance with treatment as well as patient outcomes. This article presents an overview of these hidden costs, with implications and referral resources for oncology nurses. Healthcare providers have a responsibility to assess their patients for financial need and assist them in accessing resources. PMID:15208822

  9. Engineering and Economics of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; White, Loring P.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File report contains illustrative materials, in the form of PowerPoint slides, used for an oral presentation given at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth of petroleum resources held on March 10-11, 2008. The presentation focused on engineering and economic aspects of the Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) project, with a special emphasis on the costs related to the development of hypothetical oil and gas fields of different sizes and reservoir characteristics in the North Danmarkshavn Basin off the northeast coast of Greenland. The individual PowerPoint slides highlight the topics being addressed in an abbreviated format; they are discussed below, and are amplified with additional text as appropriate. Also included in this report are the summary results of a typical ?run? to generate the necessary capital and operating costs for the development of an offshore oil field off the northeast coast of Greenland; the data are displayed in MS Excel format generated using Questor software (IHS Energy, Inc.). U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acknowledges that this report includes data supplied by IHS Energy, Inc.; Copyright (2008) all rights reserved. IHS Energy has granted USGS the permission to publish this report.

  10. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

    SciTech Connect

    Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. ); Dauben, D.L. )

    1991-10-01

    NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

  11. Modeling pandemic preparedness scenarios: health economic implications of enhanced pandemic vaccine supply.

    PubMed

    Medema, Jeroen K; Zoellner, York F; Ryan, James; Palache, Abraham M

    2004-07-01

    Influenza pandemic planning is a complex, multifactorial process, which involves public health authorities, regulatory authorities, academia and industry. It is further complicated by the unpredictability of the time of emergence and severity of the next pandemic and the effectiveness of influenza epidemic interventions. The complexity and uncertainties surrounding pandemic preparedness have so far kept the various stakeholders from joining forces and tackling the problem from its roots. We developed a mathematical model, which shows the tangible consequences of conceptual plans by linking possible pandemic scenarios to health economic outcomes of possible intervention strategies. This model helps to structure the discussion on pandemic preparedness and facilitates the translation of pandemic planning concepts to concrete plans. The case study for which the model has been used shows the current level of global pandemic preparedness in an assumed pandemic scenario, the health economic implications of enhanced pandemic vaccine supply and the importance of cell culture-based influenza vaccine manufacturing technologies as a tool for pandemic control. PMID:15163482

  12. Life cycle economic and environmental implications of using nanocomposites in automobiles.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Shannon M; Lave, Lester B

    2003-08-01

    By reducing the energy and materials required to provide goods and services, nanotechnology has the potential to provide more appealing products while improving environmental performance and sustainability. Whether and how soon this potential could be realized depends on phrasing the right research and development (R&D) questions and pursuing commercialization intelligently. A sufficiently broad perspective at the outset is required to understand economic and technical feasibility, estimate life cycle environmental implications, and minimize unanticipated negative impacts. The rapid rise in federally funded nanotechnology R&D dictates that consideration of societal benefits will have a large role in setting the R&D agenda. We estimate potential selected economic and environmental impacts associated with the use of nanotechnology in the automotive industry. In particular, we project the material processing and fuel economy benefits associated with using a clay-polypropylene nanocomposite instead of steel or aluminum in light-duty vehicle body panels. Although the manufacturing cost is currently higher, a life cycle analysis shows potential benefits in reducing energy use and environment discharges by using a nanocomposite design. PMID:12966996

  13. Resource limits and conversion efficiency with implications for climate change and California's energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    There are two commonly-used approaches to modeling the future supply of mineral resources. One is to estimate reserves and compare the result to extraction rates, and the other is to project from historical time series of extraction rates. Perceptions of abundant oil supplies in the Middle East and abundant coal supplies in the United States are based on the former approach. In both of these cases, an approach based on historical production series results in a much smaller resource estimate than aggregate reserve numbers. This difference is not systematic; natural gas production in the United States shows a strong increasing trend even though modest reserve estimates have resulted in three decades of worry about the gas supply. The implication of a future decline in Middle East oil production is that the market for transportation fuels is facing major changes, and that alternative fuels should be analyzed in this light. Because the U.S. holds very large coal reserves, synthesizing liquid hydrocarbons from coal has been suggested as an alternative fuel supply. To assess the potential of this process, one has to look at both the resource base and the net efficiency. The three states with the largest coal production declines in the 1996 to 2006 period are among the top 5 coal reserve holders, suggesting that gross coal reserves are a poor indicator of future production. Of the three categories of coal reserves reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, reserves at existing mines is the narrowest category and is approximately the equivalent of proved developed oil reserves. By this measure, Wyoming has the largest coal reserves in the U.S., and it accounted for all of U.S. coal production growth over the 1996 to 2006 time period. In Chapter 2, multi-cycle Hubbert curve analysis of historical data of coal production from 1850 to 2007 demonstrates that U.S. anthracite and bituminous coal are past their production peak. This result contradicts estimates based

  14. Deprivation and mortality: the implications of spatial autocorrelation for health resources allocation.

    PubMed

    Lorant, V; Thomas, I; Deliège, D; Tonglet, R

    2001-12-01

    This paper aims at investigating whether the relationship between mortality and socio-economic deprivation is affected by the spatial autocorrelation of ecological data. A simple model is used in which mortality (all-ages and premature) is the dependent variable, and deprivation, morbidity and other socio-economic indicators are the explanatory variables. Deprivation is measured by the Townsend index; the other socio-economic variables are the median income, unequal income distribution (Gini coefficient) and population density. Morbidity is estimated on the basis of hospital admission rates and overweight prevalence. Spatial autocorrelation is measured by the Moran's I coefficient. All mortality and morbidity variables have significant, positive, and moderate-to-high spatial autocorrelation. Two multivariate models are explored: a weighted least-squares model ignoring spatial autocorrelation and a simultaneous autoregressive model. The paper concludes that spatial autocorrelation has a significant impact on the relationship between mortality and socio-economic variables. Future ecological models intended to inform health resources allocation need to pay greater attention to the spatial dimension of the data used. PMID:11762895

  15. Examining Extension's Capacity in Community Resource and Economic Development: Viewpoints of Extension Administrators on the Role of Community Resource and Economic Development in the Extension Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbanowitz, Seth C.; Wilcox, Michael D., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The survey-based research reported here offers insights on community, resource, and economic development (CRED) Extension programming at the national and regional level. The results present a national picture of CRED programming, research, and potential future programming opportunities that Extension could capitalize on. The research shows that…

  16. Review article: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease--the health economic implications.

    PubMed

    Mason, J; Hungin, A P S

    2005-08-01

    For the vast majority of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease appropriate care involves the management of symptoms with lifestyle advice and drugs. However, there is dissension about the appropriate use of endoscopy, whether drugs should be stepped up or down according to potency, how long drugs should be used for, the role of lifestyle advice, and, related to this, the role of patients' lifestyle choices. This exploration of the economics of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease reviews its cost burden to the UK, assesses published economic models for their strengths and weaknesses and examines current recommendations for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease management from a socioeconomic perspective. Drugs prescribed predominantly for dyspepsia cost the UK National Health Service a projected pound sterling 625 million in 2004, 7% of the primary care prescribing budget. When general practitioners consultations, endoscopies, over-the-counter sales and sickness absences are included the UK cost rises to pound sterling 1.5 billion: approximately half of this cost can be ascribed to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Emphasis upon regular review and stepping down treatment (while maintaining adequate symptom relief) is both clinically appropriate and resource efficient. Other cost-effectiveness issues largely lack objective answers because investment in treatment for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease depends upon how much more, at the margin, society wishes to invest for further but diminishing symptom relief. PMID:16042656

  17. The economics of water reuse and implications for joint water quality-quantity management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally, economists have treated the management of water quality and water quantity as separate problems. However, there are some water management issues for which economic analysis requires the simultaneous consideration of water quality and quantity policies and outcomes. Water reuse, which has expanded significantly over the last several decades, is one of these issues. Analyzing the cost effectiveness and social welfare outcomes of adopting water reuse requires a joint water quality-quantity optimization framework because, at its most basic level, water reuse requires decision makers to consider (a) its potential for alleviating water scarcity, (b) the quality to which the water should be treated prior to reuse, and (c) the benefits of discharging less wastewater into the environment. In this project, we develop a theoretical model of water reuse management to illustrate how the availability of water reuse technologies and practices can lead to a departure from established rules in the water resource economics literature for the optimal allocation of freshwater and water pollution abatement. We also conduct an econometric analysis of a unique dataset of county-level water reuse from the state of Florida over the seventeen-year period between 1996 and 2012 in order to determine whether water quality or scarcity concerns drive greater adoption of water reuse practices.

  18. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China's 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure), health services utilization (process), and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity. PMID:26895881

  19. Economic Insights into Providing Access to Improved Groundwater Sources in Remote, Low-Resource Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, A.; Lazarovitch, N.; Adar, E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is often the most or only feasible drinking water source in remote, low-resource areas. Yet the economics of its development have not been systematically outlined. We applied CBARWI (Cost-Benefit Analysis for Remote Water Improvements), a recently developed Decision Support System, to investigate the economic, physical and management factors related to the costs and benefits of non-networked groundwater supply in remote areas. Synthetic profiles of community water services (n = 17,962), defined across 14 parameters' values and ranges relevant to remote areas, were imputed into the decision framework, and the parameter effects on economic outcomes were investigated through regression analysis (Table 1). Several approaches were included for financing the improvements, after Abramson et al, 2011: willingness-to -pay (WTP), -borrow (WTB) and -work (WTW) in community irrigation (';water-for-work'). We found that low-cost groundwater development approaches are almost 7 times more cost-effective than conventional boreholes fitted with handpumps. The costs of electric, submersible borehole pumps are comparable only when providing expanded water supplies, and off-grid communities pay significantly more for such expansions. In our model, new source construction is less cost-effective than improvement of existing wells, but necessary for expanding access to isolated households. The financing approach significantly impacts the feasibility of demand-driven cost recovery; in our investigation, benefit exceeds cost in 16, 32 and 48% of water service configurations financed by WTP, WTB and WTW, respectively. Regressions of total cost (R2 = 0.723) and net benefit under WTW (R2 = 0.829) along with analysis of output distributions indicate that parameters determining the profitability of irrigation are different from those determining costs and other measures of net benefit. These findings suggest that the cost-benefit outcomes associated with groundwater-based water

  20. A Profile of Oregon Counties: Human Resources, Educational, and Economic Indicators Associated with Young Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Student Services Section.

    This profile of counties in Oregon covers factors that may predispose youth to grow up at risk of dropping out of high school or not acquiring the skills needed for adult life. The profile presents data on human resources and educational and economic indicators that were collected from state agencies and organizations. For the state as a whole,…

  1. The Economic, repository and proliferation implications of advanced nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Deinert, Mark; Cady, K B

    2011-09-04

    The goal of this project was to compare the effects of recycling actinides using fast burner reactors, with recycle that would be done using inert matrix fuel burned in conventional light water reactors. In the fast reactor option, actinides from both spent light water and fast reactor fuel would be recycled. In the inert matrix fuel option, actinides from spent light water fuel would be recycled, but the spent inert matrix fuel would not be reprocessed. The comparison was done over a limited 100-year time horizon. The economic, repository and proliferation implications of these options all hinge on the composition of isotopic byproducts of power production. We took the perspective that back-end economics would be affected by the cost of spent fuel reprocessing (whether conventional uranium dioxide fuel, or fast reactor fuel), fuel manufacture, and ultimate disposal of high level waste in a Yucca Mountain like geological repository. Central to understanding these costs was determining the overall amount of reprocessing needed to implement a fast burner, or inert matrix fuel, recycle program. The total quantity of high level waste requiring geological disposal (along with its thermal output), and the cost of reprocessing were also analyzed. A major advantage of the inert matrix fuel option is that it could in principle be implemented using the existing fleet of commercial power reactors. A central finding of this project was that recycling actinides using an inert matrix fuel could achieve reductions in overall actinide production that are nearly very close to those that could be achieved by recycling the actinides using a fast burner reactor.

  2. Can we do better? Economic analysis of human resource investment to improve home care service for the elderly in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Mihic, Marko M; Todorovic, Marija Lj; Obradovic, Vladimir Lj; Mitrovic, Zorica M

    2016-01-01

    Background Social services aimed at the elderly are facing great challenges caused by progressive aging of the global population but also by the constant pressure to spend funds in a rational manner. Purpose This paper focuses on analyzing the investments into human resources aimed at enhancing home care for the elderly since many countries have recorded progress in the area over the past years. The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of performing an economic analysis of the investment. Methods This paper combines statistical analysis methods such as correlation and regression analysis, methods of economic analysis, and scenario method. Results The economic analysis of investing in human resources for home care service in Serbia showed that the both scenarios of investing in either additional home care hours or more beneficiaries are cost-efficient. However, the optimal solution with the positive (and the highest) value of economic net present value criterion is to invest in human resources to boost the number of home care hours from 6 to 8 hours per week and increase the number of the beneficiaries to 33%. Conclusion This paper shows how the statistical and economic analysis results can be used to evaluate different scenarios and enable quality decision-making based on exact data in order to improve health and quality of life of the elderly and spend funds in a rational manner. PMID:26869778

  3. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants: evolutionary implications, applications and future prospects from untapped marine resource.

    PubMed

    Kiran, George Seghal; Ninawe, Arun Shivanth; Lipton, Anuj Nishanth; Pandian, Vijayalakshmi; Selvin, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Rhamnolipid-biosurfactants are known to be produced by the genus Pseudomonas, however recent literature reported that rhamnolipids (RLs) are distributed among diverse microbial genera. To integrate the evolutionary implications of rhamnosyl transferase among various groups of microorganisms, a comprehensive comparative motif analysis was performed amongst bacterial producers. Findings on new RL-producing microorganism is helpful from a biotechnological perspective and to replace infective P. aeruginosa strains which ultimately ensure industrially safe production of RLs. Halotolerant biosurfactants are required for efficient bioremediation of marine oil spills. An insight on the exploitation of marine microbes as the potential source of RL biosurfactants is highlighted in the present review. An economic production process, solid-state fermentation using agro-industrial and industrial waste would increase the scope of biosurfactants commercialization. Potential and prospective applications of RL-biosurfactants including hydrocarbon bioremediation, heavy metal removal, antibiofilm activity/biofilm disruption and greener synthesis of nanoparticles are highlighted in this review. PMID:25641324

  4. Carbon mitigation with biomass: An engineering, economic and policy assessment of opportunities and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, James S., III

    2007-12-01

    C"), equivalent to roughly 3% of U.S. GHG emissions. In the medium or longer term, integration of carbon capture and storage technologies with advanced bio-energy conversion technologies ("biomass-CCS"), in both liquid fuels production and electric sector applications, will likely be feasible. These systems are capable of generating useful energy products with negative net atmospheric carbon emissions at carbon prices between 100 and 200 per tC. Negative emissions from biomass-CCS could be applied to offset emissions sources that are difficult or expensive to abate directly. Such indirect mitigation may prove cost competitive and provide important flexibility in achieving stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations at desirable levels. With increasing deployments, alternate bio-energy systems will eventually compete for limited biomass resources and inputs to agricultural production--particularly land. In this context, resource allocation decisions will likely turn on the relative economic performance of alternate bio-energy systems in their respective energy markets. The relatively large uncertainty in forecasts of energy futures confounds reliable prediction of economically efficient uses for available biomass resources. High oil prices or large valuation of energy security benefits will likely enable bio-fuels production to dominate electric-sector options. In contrast, low oil prices and low valuation of energy security benefits will likely enable electric-sector applications to dominate. In the latter scenario, indirect mitigation of transportation-sector emissions via emissions offsets from electric-sector biomass-CCS could prove more efficient than direct fuel substitution with biofuels, both economically and in terms of the transportation-sector mitigation of available biomass resources [tC tbiomass-1]. The policy environment surrounding industrial bio-energy development is systematically examined. Specifically, the policy objectives that may be advanced with bio

  5. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:27620113

  6. Biofuels and Their Co-Products as Livestock Feed: Global Economic and Environmental Implications.

    PubMed

    Popp, József; Harangi-Rákos, Mónika; Gabnai, Zoltán; Balogh, Péter; Antal, Gabriella; Bai, Attila

    2016-01-01

    This review studies biofuel expansion in terms of competition between conventional and advanced biofuels based on bioenergy potential. Production of advanced biofuels is generally more expensive than current biofuels because products are not yet cost competitive. What is overlooked in the discussion about biofuel is the contribution the industry makes to the global animal feed supply and land use for cultivation of feedstocks. The global ethanol industry produces 44 million metric tonnes of high-quality feed, however, the co-products of biodiesel production have a moderate impact on the feed market contributing to just 8-9 million tonnes of protein meal output a year. By economically displacing traditional feed ingredients co-products from biofuel production are an important and valuable component of the biofuels sector and the global feed market. The return of co-products to the feed market has agricultural land use (and GHG emissions) implications as well. The use of co-products generated from grains and oilseeds can reduce net land use by 11% to 40%. The proportion of global cropland used for biofuels is currently some 2% (30-35 million hectares). By adding co-products substituted for grains and oilseeds the land required for cultivation of feedstocks declines to 1.5% of the global crop area. PMID:26938514

  7. Economic implications of end-of-life care in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Nita; Curtis, J. Randall

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Advance care planning and palliative care interventions can improve the quality of end-of-life care by reducing unwanted high intensity care at the end of life. This may have important economic implications and may reduce financial burden of patients' families. We review the literature to examine the impact advance care planning and palliative care have on ICU utilization, specifically ICU admissions and ICU LOS, to provide insight into ways to reduce costs and financial burden of care while simultaneously improving quality of care. Recent findings We identified 3 studies assessing the impact of palliative care consultation on ICU admissions for patients with life-limiting illness; all 3 demonstrate reduced ICU admissions for patients receiving palliative care consultation. Among 16 studies evaluating ICU LOS as an outcome, 5 report no change and 11 report decrease in LOS for patients receiving advance care planning or palliative care. These studies are heterogeneous in design and target population; however, a trend towards reduced ICU utilization exists. Summary Advance care planning and palliative care can reduce ICU utilization at the end of life. The degree to which reducing ICU utilization decreases emotional and financial burden of end-of-life care for patients and families is unknown. PMID:25222642

  8. The economic implications of greater global trade in livestock and livestock products.

    PubMed

    Leslie, J; Upton, M

    1999-08-01

    The Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established the World Trade Organization to supervise the reduction of barriers to, and liberalisation of, world trade. The application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures will be standardised to avoid use for protectionist purposes by countries or regional trade blocks. Harmonisation of animal disease control measures within regional blocks is essential if benefits to freer trade are to occur, but this harmonisation must be balanced against potential disease risks and costs associated with disease outbreaks. World trade in livestock products is concentrated among developed countries, although developing countries are responsible for approximately a third of poultry meat imports and exports. Despite liberalisation, the share of global trade by developing countries is unlikely to increase greatly in the short term. The benefits of trade and of freer trade are emphasised. Examples are given of the impacts of trade barriers on developing countries and of the harmonisation of European Union animal health standards. Economic implications for the future of greater global trade are assessed. PMID:10472678

  9. Dynamic economic analysis on invasive species management: some policy implications of catchability.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Koji; Kakinaka, Makoto; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2009-07-01

    The problem of controlling invasive species has emerged as a global issue. In response to invasive species threats, governments often propose eradication. This article challenges the eradication view by studying optimal strategies for controlling invasive species in a simple dynamic model. The analysis mainly focuses on deriving policy implications of catchability in a situation where a series of controlling actions incurs operational costs that derive from the fact that catchability depends on the current stock size of invasive species. We analytically demonstrate that the optimal policy changes drastically, depending on the sensitivity of catchability in response to a change in the stock size, as well as on the initial stock. If the sensitivity of catchability is sufficiently high, the constant escapement policy with some interior target level is optimal. In contrast, if the sensitivity of catchability is sufficiently low, there could exist a threshold of the initial stock which differentiates the optimal action between immediate eradication and giving-up without any control. In the intermediate range, immediate eradication, giving-up without any control, or more complex policies may be optimal. Numerical analysis is employed to present economic intuitions and insights in both analytically tractable and intractable cases. PMID:19376137

  10. Crowding out effect of tobacco expenditure and its implications on household resource allocation in India.

    PubMed

    John, Rijo M

    2008-03-01

    This paper examines whether spending on tobacco crowds out expenditure on basic needs and whether it has implications on nutrition intake and household resource allocation in India. The paper uses a household sample survey from India for the year 1999--2000. A system of quadratic conditional Engel curves was estimated for a set of 10 broad groups of commodities. The results suggest that tobacco consuming households had lower consumption of certain commodities such as milk, education, clean fuels and entertainment which may have more direct bearing on women and children in the household than on men suggesting possible 'gender effects' and biases in the allocation of goods and services within the household. Tobacco spending was also found to have negative effects on per capita nutrition intake. The nature of crowding out was found to be similar in low- and high-income households. PMID:18187245