This article reviews the most important aspects of antibiotic treatment failure in respiratory tract infection which may occur with empirical as well as under target antibiotic therapy. Potential risk factors leading or predisposing to treatment failure exist in hospital acquired infections which cover polymicrobial aetiology with high multidrug resistance bacteria, changed conditions of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters of antibiotics, bioavailability, drug interactions and inactivation. Microbial determinants of treatment failure includes bacterial physiology in laboratory cultures and inside the host, inadequate drug choice, lack of knowledge of PK/PD parameters with insufficient antibiotic level in target tissue. Differences between microbial in vitro tests and clinical outcome can be caused by varied CFU concentration, growing phase, nutritional, pH and redox conditions. Many factors of treatment failure are focused on bacterial biofilm structure and phenomenon of small-colony variants (SCVs) which both display reduced susceptibility to antimicrobial agents protected by matrix feature, enhanced production of PIA and by slow multiplication of biofilm forming cells. PMID:21675146
A 77-year-old man underwent thoracic surgery. He had a history of two previous operations: parapharyngeal tumor removal with temporal tracheotomy 14 years ago and, two years later, a sinus surgery when, according to our anesthesia registry, intubation was extremely difficult due to stricture of the trachea underneath the tracheotomy scar. Pathology was not fully elucidated. Preoperative examinations including chest x-ray, spirogram and CT were not remarkable. The scar above the suprasternal notch was visibly sunken and retracted with respiration. Stridor was auscultated but breathing was not labored. The patient was anesthetized with propofol and intubation was smooth. During surgery anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, remifentanil and rocuronium. However, extubation was followed by desperate gasping and severe respiratory distress. The tracheotomy scar caved in and the airway collapsed. Continuous airway pressure via a facemask restored airway patency and improved breathing. After overnight respiratory support with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), patient was weaned from ventilator. Airway collapse and the two episodes of respiratory failures while under general anesthesia were attributed to post-tracheotomy tracheomalacia. PMID:24601110
Igarashi, Ayuko; Sato, Masayoshi; Seino, Keiko
Interstitial lung diseases belong to a group of diseases that typically exhibit a subacute or chronic progression but that may cause acute respiratory failure. The male patient, who was 37 years of age and undergoing therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, was admitted with cough, fever, dyspnea and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Mechanical ventilation and antibiotic therapy were initiated but were associated with unfavorable progression. Thoracic computed tomography showed bilateral pulmonary "ground glass" opacities. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy was initiated with satisfactory response because the patient had used three drugs related to organizing pneumonia (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and rituximab), and the clinical and radiological symptoms were suggestive. Organizing pneumonia may be idiopathic or linked to collagen diseases, drugs and cancer and usually responds to corticosteroid therapy. The diagnosis was anatomopathological, but the patient's clinical condition precluded performing a lung biopsy. Organizing pneumonia should be a differential diagnosis in patients with apparent pneumonia and a progression that is unfavorable to antimicrobial treatment.
Santana, Adriell Ramalho; Amorim, Fabio Ferreira; Soares, Paulo Henrique Alves; de Moura, Edmilson Bastos; Maia, Marcelo de Oliveira
A syndrome of pulmonary alveolar septal calcinosis, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum, leading to rapidly progressive acute respiratory insufficiency and death was observed in 2 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Primary clinical and radiological considerations in these patients were pulmonary edema and infection, and the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar septal calcification was established only at autopsy. One patient, a 15-year-old girl, was found also to have parathyroid hyperplasia typical of familial hyperparathyroidism. The other, a 16-month-old girl, showed osteitis fibrosa of the bones and parathyroid hyperplasia of secondary type, suggesting that the pulmonary calcinosis resulted from hypercalcemia caused by a parathormone or prostaglandin-secreting tumor. The cause of pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum may have been rupture of calcified alveolar septa induced by high PEEP during ventilation of these patients. Other possible mechanisms contributing to hypercalcemia and pulmonary calcinosis in children with acute leukemia include bone resorption due to marrow infiltration, immobilization syndrome, renal failure, and administration of calcium, phosphate, or bicarbonate. This complication of acute leukemia in childhood is rare (2 patients in 430 autopsied over the period 1961-1982 at Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles). How often the process can be reversed if diagnosed before severe respiratory insufficiency is present is not known. PMID:3473456
Sinniah, D; Landing, B H; Siegel, S E; Laug, W E; Gwinn, J L
Late diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) may result in the development of severe acute respiratory failure. High mortality rates with conventional ventilation have been reported. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may represent an effective alternative treatment. We report a case of complicated pulmonary TB in a man who successfully underwent 3 months of ECMO. PMID:24902570
Cogliandro, V; Lapadula, G; Bandera, A; Muscatello, A; Marcolin, R; Abbruzzese, C; Rona, R; Gori, A
In the regions where goitre is endemic, onset of the disease with acute respiratory insufficiency caused by thyroid compression is an uncommon situation requiring a rapid diagnosis and urgent surgical treatment. From January 1997 to December 2000 we observed 81 patients with thyroid pathologies, (69 males and 12 females; mean age 64 years). We found colloid-cystic goitre in 39 cases, adenomatous goitre in 26, carcinoma in 12, Hürthle's cell tumours in 3 and inflammatory disease in 1. All patients underwent thyroidectomy. Nine patients (11%) presented acute respiratory insufficiency caused by thyroid compression, with various associated phonesis disorders; in these cases we performed emergency surgery with postoperative maintenance of tracheal intubation or tracheotomy or the possible positioning of a self-expanding tracheal stent. In these 9 patients there were 4 deaths (44%), 3 in the immediate postoperative period and one after 10 months. We also observed one hydropneumothorax. Functional recovery was achieved in the remaining 5 patients. The treatment of this clinical picture requires urgent tracheal intubation, before the use of diagnostic tools, and it is important to maintain it after the surgical procedure for as long as is necessary for the tracheal wall to be reconstituted. In the severest cases a temporary tracheotomy is needed or the positioning of a tracheal stent, which offers a valid and effective alternative. PMID:12613328
Carditello, Antonio; Milone, Antonino; Stilo, Francesco; Mollo, Francesco; Basile, Maurizio
We report a case of nephropleural fistula causing empyema and respiratory failure in a 68-year-old gentleman with a long history of urological problems including recurrent nephrolithiasis and urinary tract infections. He was admitted with sepsis, a productive cough, pyuria, and reduced breath sounds over the left hemithorax. Radiological imaging revealed a fistulous connection between a left-sided perinephric abscess and the pleural space. He was commenced on broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics but developed progressive respiratory failure requiring intensive care admission. Urinary and pleural aspirates cultured facultative anaerobic pathogens with identical resistance patterns. Drainage of thoracic and perinephric collections was carried out, allowing him to be extubated after 24 hours and discharged home after 18 days on an extended course of oral antibiotics. Left nephrectomy is now planned after a period of convalescence. Empyema developing in patients with known urolithiasis should alert the treating physician to the possibility that a pathological communication has formed especially if typical urinary tract pathogens are cultured from respiratory sampling. PMID:23198240
Jones, G H; Kalaher, H R; Misra, N; Curtis, J; Parker, R J
We report a case of nephropleural fistula causing empyema and respiratory failure in a 68-year-old gentleman with a long history of urological problems including recurrent nephrolithiasis and urinary tract infections. He was admitted with sepsis, a productive cough, pyuria, and reduced breath sounds over the left hemithorax. Radiological imaging revealed a fistulous connection between a left-sided perinephric abscess and the pleural space. He was commenced on broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics but developed progressive respiratory failure requiring intensive care admission. Urinary and pleural aspirates cultured facultative anaerobic pathogens with identical resistance patterns. Drainage of thoracic and perinephric collections was carried out, allowing him to be extubated after 24 hours and discharged home after 18 days on an extended course of oral antibiotics. Left nephrectomy is now planned after a period of convalescence. Empyema developing in patients with known urolithiasis should alert the treating physician to the possibility that a pathological communication has formed especially if typical urinary tract pathogens are cultured from respiratory sampling.
Jones, G. H.; Kalaher, H. R.; Misra, N.; Curtis, J.; Parker, R. J.
STK40 is a putative serine/threonine kinase and was shown to induce extraembryonic endoderm differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells. However, little is known about its physiological function in vivo. Here, we generate Stk40 knock-out mice and demonstrate that loss of the Stk40 gene causes neonatal lethality at birth. Further examination reveals that the respiratory distress and atelectasis occur in the homozygous mutants. The maturation of lung and alveolar epithelium is delayed in the mutant, as indicated by narrowed air spaces, thickened interstitial septa, and increased glycogen content in the lungs of Stk40(-/-) mice. The reduction in levels of T1-?, SP-B, and SP-C indicates delayed maturation of both type I and type II respiratory epithelial cells in Stk40(-/-) lungs. Moreover, Stk40 is found to be most highly expressed in lungs of both fetal and adult mice among all organs tested. Mechanistically, a genome-wide RNA microarray analysis reveals significantly altered expression of multiple genes known to participate in lung development. The expression of some genes involved in lipid metabolism, immune response, and glycogen metabolism is also disrupted in the lung of Stk40(-/-) mice. Protein affinity purification identifies RCN2, an activator of ERK/MAPK signaling, as an STK40-associated protein. Consistently, Stk40 deficiency attenuates the ERK/MAPK activation, and inhibition of ERK/MAPK activities reduces surfactant protein gene expression in lung epithelial cells. Collectively, this study uncovers an important role of STK40 for lung maturation and neonatal survival. STK40 may associate with RCN2 to activate ERK/MAPK signaling and control the expression of multiple key regulators of lung development. PMID:23293024
Yu, Hongyao; He, Ke; Li, Lingjie; Sun, Lei; Tang, Fan; Li, Ruizhen; Ning, Wen; Jin, Ying
STK40 is a putative serine/threonine kinase and was shown to induce extraembryonic endoderm differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells. However, little is known about its physiological function in vivo. Here, we generate Stk40 knock-out mice and demonstrate that loss of the Stk40 gene causes neonatal lethality at birth. Further examination reveals that the respiratory distress and atelectasis occur in the homozygous mutants. The maturation of lung and alveolar epithelium is delayed in the mutant, as indicated by narrowed air spaces, thickened interstitial septa, and increased glycogen content in the lungs of Stk40?/? mice. The reduction in levels of T1-?, SP-B, and SP-C indicates delayed maturation of both type I and type II respiratory epithelial cells in Stk40?/? lungs. Moreover, Stk40 is found to be most highly expressed in lungs of both fetal and adult mice among all organs tested. Mechanistically, a genome-wide RNA microarray analysis reveals significantly altered expression of multiple genes known to participate in lung development. The expression of some genes involved in lipid metabolism, immune response, and glycogen metabolism is also disrupted in the lung of Stk40?/? mice. Protein affinity purification identifies RCN2, an activator of ERK/MAPK signaling, as an STK40-associated protein. Consistently, Stk40 deficiency attenuates the ERK/MAPK activation, and inhibition of ERK/MAPK activities reduces surfactant protein gene expression in lung epithelial cells. Collectively, this study uncovers an important role of STK40 for lung maturation and neonatal survival. STK40 may associate with RCN2 to activate ERK/MAPK signaling and control the expression of multiple key regulators of lung development.
Yu, Hongyao; He, Ke; Li, Lingjie; Sun, Lei; Tang, Fan; Li, Ruizhen; Ning, Wen; Jin, Ying
Introduction Although previous studies have reported etiologies, diagnostic strategies, and outcomes of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in cancer patients, few studies investigated ARF in cancer patients presenting with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. Methods This was a retrospective observational study of 214 consecutive cancer patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography admitted to the oncology medical intensive care unit for acute respiratory failure between July 2009 and June 2011. Results After diagnostic investigations including bronchoalveolar lavage in 160 (75%) patients, transbronchial lung biopsy in 75 (35%), and surgical lung biopsy in 6 (3%), the etiologies of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates causing ARF were identified in 187 (87%) patients. The most common etiology was infection (138, 64%), followed by drug-induced pneumonitis (13, 6%) and metastasis (12, 6%). Based on the etiologic diagnoses, therapies for diffuse pulmonary infiltrates were subsequently modified in 99 (46%) patients. Diagnostic yield (46%, 62%, 85%, and 100%; P for trend < 0.001) and frequency of therapeutic modifications (14%, 37%, 52%, and 100%; P for trend < 0.001) were significantly increased with additional invasive tests. Patients with therapeutic modification had a 34% lower in-hospital mortality rate than patients without therapeutic modification (38% versus 58%, P = 0.004) and a similar difference in mortality rate was observed up to 90 days (55% versus 73%, Log-rank P = 0.004). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, therapeutic modification was still significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 0.509, 95% CI 0.281-0.920). Conclusions Invasive diagnostic tests, including lung biopsy, increased diagnostic yield and caused therapeutic modification that was significantly associated with better outcomes for diffuse pulmonary infiltrates causing ARF in cancer patients.
Neuromuscular diseases (NMD) can affect all major respiratory muscles, leading to the development of respiratory failure, which is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients affected by those conditions. Based on the clinical onset of acute respiratory failure (ARF), NMD can be classified into two main categories: 1) slowly progressive NMD with acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory failure, and 2) rapidly progressive NMD with acute episodes of respiratory failure. The most common slowly progressive NMDs, such as motor neuron diseases and inherited myopathies, account for the majority of NMD patients developing chronic neuromuscular respiratory failure at risk of acute exacerbations. Conversely, rapidly progressive NMDs, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and myasthenic crises, are characterized by a sudden onset of ARF, usually in patients with previously normal respiratory function. The patho-physiological mechanisms responsible for ARF in NMD and the variety and complexity of specific challenges presented by the two main categories of NMD will be analyzed in this review, with the aim of providing clinically relevant suggestions for adequate respiratory management of these patients. PMID:20125073
Racca, F; Del Sorbo, L; Mongini, T; Vianello, A; Ranieri, V M
Respiratory viruses (RVs) are ubiquitous pathogens that represent a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia and chronic pulmonary diseases exacerbations. However, their contribution to acute respiratory failure events requiring intensive care unit admission in the era of rapid multiplex molecular assay deserves further evaluation. This study investigated the burden of viral infections in non immunocompromised patients admitted to the intensive care unit for acute respiratory failure using a multiplex molecular assay. Patients were investigated for RVs using immunofluoresence testing and a commercial multiplex molecular assay, and for bacteria using conventional culture. Half the patients (34/70, 49%) had a documented RVs infection. No other pathogen was found in 24 (71%) patients. Viral infection was detected more frequently in patients with obstructive respiratory diseases (64% vs. 29%; P?=?0.0075). Multiplex molecular assay should be considered as an usefull diagnostic tool in patients admitted to the intensive care unit with acute respiratory failure, especially those with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. PMID:24108695
Schnell, David; Gits-Muselli, Maud; Canet, Emmanuel; Lemiale, Virginie; Schlemmer, Benoît; Simon, François; Azoulay, Elie; Legoff, Jérôme
Introduction Patients with influenza A (H1N1)v infection have developed rapidly progressive lower respiratory tract disease resulting in respiratory failure. We describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of the first 32 persons reported to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to influenza A (H1N1)v infection in Spain. Methods We used medical chart reviews to collect data on ICU adult patients reported in a standardized form. Influenza A (H1N1)v infection was confirmed in specimens using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT PCR) assay. Results Illness onset of the 32 patients occurred between 23 June and 31 July, 2009. The median age was 36 years (IQR = 31 - 52). Ten (31.2%) were obese, 2 (6.3%) pregnant and 16 (50%) had pre-existing medical complications. Twenty-nine (90.6%) had primary viral pneumonitis, 2 (6.3%) exacerbation of structural respiratory disease and 1 (3.1%) secondary bacterial pneumonia. Twenty-four patients (75.0%) developed multiorgan dysfunction, 7 (21.9%) received renal replacement techniques and 24 (75.0%) required mechanical ventilation. Six patients died within 28 days, with two additional late deaths. Oseltamivir administration delay ranged from 2 to 8 days after illness onset, 31.2% received high-dose (300 mg/day), and treatment duration ranged from 5 to 10 days (mean 8.0 ± 3.3). Conclusions Over a 5-week period, influenza A (H1N1)v infection led to ICU admission in 32 adult patients, with frequently observed severe hypoxemia and a relatively high case-fatality rate. Clinicians should be aware of pulmonary complications of influenza A (H1N1)v infection, particularly in pregnant and young obese but previously healthy persons.
High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.
Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda
A 65 year old man presented with respiratory failure, pleural effusions, fine reticulonodular shadowing on a chest radiograph, and severe impairment of carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (transfer factor). Open lung biopsy showed only dilated pleural and subpleural lymphatic channels. Hypoplastic deep pulmonary lymphatics may have led to respiratory failure. Images
Moss, S F; Currie, D C; Sheffield, E A; Baxter, M; Corrin, B; Evans, T W
Respiratory failure is still an important complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hospitalisation with an acute episode being a poor prognostic marker. However, other comorbid conditions, especially cardiovascular disease, are equally powerful predictors of mortality. The physiological basis of acute respiratory failure in COPD is now clear. Significant ventilation\\/perfusion mismatching with a relative increase in the physiolo- gical
P. M. A. Calverley
Since its original description in 1956 the association between interstitial lung disease and polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) has become well established. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) can be a significant complication in rheumatic diseases (RDs). Although most patients with RD do not develop clinically evident ILD, these systemic autoimmune disorders are estimated to be responsible for approximately 25% of all ILD deaths and 2% of deaths due to all respiratory causes. Radiologic abnormalities in DM are characterized by a high incidence of airspace consolidation. Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP) is the most common form of lung disease, with a frequency in biopsies 4-fold greater than that of Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) in PM and a slightly smaller predominance in DM.We report a case of a female patient, 57 years old, no former smoker, whose clinical history was onset in November 2008 with asthenia with muscle and osteoarticular pain especially located in the upper limbs and then also expanded to the lower limbs. The EMG was compatible with dermatomyositis in the acute phase. The patient received therapy with steroids and tacrolimus, also making several rounds of treatment with immunoglobulin. Given the recurrence of myositis in association with signs of poorly controlled interstitial lung disease, immunosuppressive therapy with Rituximab was administered. The Computed Tomography (CT) scans showed "bronchiectasis and traction bronchiolectasis, hypodense areas consistent with the phenomena of air trapping. The pattern of interstitial lung disease with fibrotic evolution seems consistent with NSIP.The arterial blood gas analysis showed a pattern of hypoxic-hypercapnic respiratory failure (pH: 7,34, PaO2: 67 mmHg; PaCO2: 55 mmHg).As a result of an episode of marked desaturation unresponsive to supplemental oxygen at high flows we proceeded to noninvasive mechanical ventilation with Helmet for 24 hours/24. This ventilatory support was maintained for a week, with resolution of the respiratory failure.In this brief case report we want to highlight various pulmonary complications as a result of dermatomyositis. The progression of respiratory complications may also lead to a situation of respiratory failure, as in our patient, and require a noninvasive ventilatory treatment. PMID:23531196
Salimbene, Ivano; Leli, Ilaria; Valente, Salvatore
Patients with advanced COPD and acute or chronic respiratory failure are at high risk for death. Beyond pharmacological treatment, supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation are major treatment options. This review describes the physiological concepts underlying respiratory failure and its therapy, as well as important treatment outcomes. The rationale for the controlled supply of oxygen in acute hypoxic respiratory failure is undisputed. There is also a clear survival benefit from long-term oxygen therapy in patients with chronic hypoxia, while in mild, nocturnal, or exercise-induced hypoxemia such long-term benefits appear questionable. Furthermore, much evidence supports the use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. It application reduces intubation and mortality rates, and the duration of intensive care unit or hospital stays, particularly in the presence of mild to moderate respiratory acidosis. COPD with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure became a major indication for domiciliary mechanical ventilation, based on pathophysiological reasoning and on data regarding symptoms and quality of life. Still, however, its relevance for long-term survival has to be substantiated in prospective controlled studies. Such studies might preferentially recruit patients with repeated hypercapnic decompensation or a high risk for death, while ensuring effective ventilation and the patients’ adherence to therapy.
Budweiser, Stephan; Jorres, Rudolf A; Pfeifer, Michael
... feeling like you can't breathe in enough air). If the level of oxygen is very low, it also can cause a bluish color on the skin, lips, and fingernails. A high carbon dioxide level can cause rapid breathing and confusion. Some people who have respiratory failure ...
Abstract Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and carries a predisposition for metastasis to many different organs. Pulmonary dissemination is common, most often presenting as multiple discrete pulmonary nodules. While a variety of other intrathoracic patterns can occur, diffuse parenchymal infiltration causing acute respiratory failure is an extremely rare manifestation of metastatic disease. We present a case of an otherwise healthy man who developed rapidly progressive respiratory failure mimicking acute respiratory distress syndrome due to melanomatous infiltration of the lung parenchyma and airways.
The ingestion of poison hemlock, or Conium maculatum, is described in a 2-year-old boy. He had the onset of abdominal pain and weakness after being fed C. maculatum picked by his sister from the roadside 2 hours earlier. He had a rapidly progressive muscular weakness and was intubated for respiratory failure. His symptoms completely resolved within 24 hours of the ingestion. Conium maculatum is a common weed that causes toxicity by its primary toxin, coniine, which stimulates nicotinic receptors and causes a syndrome of rapidly progressive muscle weakness and paralysis. We describe the course of a benign-appearing plant ingestion resulting in respiratory failure. PMID:19915429
West, Patrick L; Horowitz, B Zane; Montanaro, Marc T; Lindsay, James N
One of the cornerstones of critical care medicine is support of the failing respiratory system. The 2 major components of managing respiratory failure are the acute intervention and the weaning process. Many of the studies to determine the optimal methods of ventilation and weaning have focused on non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation as an alternative to invasive ventilation, with various causes of acute respiratory failure. Non-invasive ventilation refers to the provision of ventilatory support to the lungs, without the use of an endotracheal airway. It has emerged as an important tool in the treatment of acute respiratory failure. Non-invasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. There is improvement in gas exchange, relief of respiratory muscle fatigue, and clinical outcome with reduced morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, contraindications and failures need to be identified early, as delaying endotracheal intubation is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, although it is common practice to give intubation and mechanical ventilation, complications can result from the intubation process (damage to local tissue) and during the course of ventilation (pneumonia and sinusitis associated with ventilators), prolonging stay in intensive care, length of hospital stay and mortality in selected patients. PMID:24760814
Singh, Gurmeet; Pitoyo, Ceva W
Pregnant and postpartum women are considered a population at increased risk of hospitalization of H1N1 infection. We report the case of a young postpartum woman, who developed evidence of respiratory failure reaching the point of requiring intubation due to an H1N1 influenza virus infection two days after a caesarean delivery. We emphasize the diagnosis, management, and the outcome focusing on the question “what the care providers, including obstetric health care workers, ought to know?” Diagnostic and management strategy for pregnant or postpartum women with novel influenza A (H1N1) viral infection and increased awareness amongst patients and health care professionals may result in improved survival.
Aloizos, Stavros; Aravosita, Paraskevi; Mystakelli, Christina; Kanna, Efthymia; Gourgiotis, Stavros
Summary Background: Toluene, formerly known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon that is widely used as an industrial feedstock and as a solvent. Like other solvents, toluene is sometimes also used as an inhalant drug for its intoxicating properties. It has potential to cause multiple effects in the body including death. Case Report: I report a case of a 27-year-old male, chronic spray paint sniffer, who presented with severe generalized muscle weakness and developed acute respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support. Toluene toxicity was confirmed with measurement of hippuric acid of 8.0 g/L (normal <5.0 g/L). Conclusions: Acute respiratory failure is a rare complication of chronic toluene exposure that may be lethal if it is not recognized immediately. To our knowledge, this is the second case of acute respiratory failure due to toluene exposure.
Peralta, Diego P.; Chang, Aymara Y.
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) for acute respiratory failure has gained much academic and clinical interest. Despite this, NIV is underutilized. The evidence strongly supports its use in patients presenting with an exacerbation of COPD and in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. As reviewed in this paper, there is now evidence supporting or not supporting the use of NIV in various other presentations of acute respiratory failure. It is important not only to know when to initiate NIV, but also when this therapy is failing. Whether NIV in the setting of acute respiratory failure can be managed appropriately outside the ICU setting is controversial. Although a variety of interfaces are available, the oronasal mask is the best initial interface in terms of leak prevention and patient comfort. Some critical care ventilators have NIV modes that compensate well for leaks, but as a group the ventilators that are designed specifically for NIV have better leak compensation. NIV should be part of the armamentarium of all clinicians caring from patients with acute respiratory failure. PMID:23709194
Hess, Dean R
Background: A variety of organisms produce potent toxins that impact human health through compromising respiratory function. Case report: We describe a rare case of abrupt respiratory failure afterNicotiana glaucaingestion in a previously healthy sixty years old female patient. She presented complaining for gait instability and malaise after ingestion of cooked leaves of the wild plant and two hours after the onset she developed respiratory failurefor which she was intubated and mechanically ventilated for two days. The patient fully recovered and was discharged from the hospital. Conclusion: Anabasine, the plant’s main active ingredient, can cause severe systemic intoxication due to its nicotinic receptor agonist action with respiratory muscle paralysis being the main effect.
Ntelios, D; Kargakis, M; Topalis, T; Drouzas, A; Potolidis, E
Sleep hypoxaemia in non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was examined in 20 patients with various neuromuscular disorders with reference to the relation between oxygen desaturation during sleep and daytime lung and respiratory muscle function. All the patients had all night sleep studies performed and maximum inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures (PI and Pemax), lung volumes, single breath transfer coefficient for carbon monoxide (KCO), and daytime arterial oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide tensions (PaCO2) determined. Vital capacity in the erect and supine posture was measured in 14 patients. Mean (SD) PI max at RV was low at 33 (19) cm H2O (32% predicted). Mean PE max at TLC was also low at 53 (24) cm H2O (28% predicted). Mean daytime PaO2 was 67 (16) mm Hg and PaCO2 52 (13) mm Hg (8.9 (2.1) and 6.9 (1.7) kPa). The mean lowest arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) was 83% (12%) during non-REM and 60% (23%) during REM sleep. Detailed electromyographic evidence in one patient with poliomyelitis showed that SaO2% during non-REM sleep was maintained by accessory respiratory muscle activity. There was a direct relation between the lowest SaO2 value during REM sleep and vital capacity, daytime PaO2, PaCO2, and percentage fall in vital capacity from the erect to the supine position (an index of diaphragm weakness). The simple measurement of vital capacity in the erect and supine positions and arterial blood gas tensions when the patient is awake provide a useful initial guide to the degree of respiratory failure occurring during sleep in patients with neuromuscular disorders. A sleep study is required to assess the extent of sleep induced respiratory failure accurately.
Bye, P T; Ellis, E R; Issa, F G; Donnelly, P M; Sullivan, C E
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to support adults with severe forms of respiratory failure. Fueling the explosive growth is a combination of technological improvements and accumulating, although controversial, evidence. Current use of ECMO extends beyond its most familiar role in the support of patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to treat patients with various forms of severe hypoxemic or hypercapnic respiratory failure, ranging from bridging patients to lung transplantation to managing pulmonary hypertensive crises.The role of ECMO used primarily for extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) in the support of patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure and less severe forms of ARDS is also evolving. Select patients with respiratory failure may be liberated from invasive mechanical ventilation altogether and some may undergo extensive physical therapy while receiving extracorporeal support. Current research may yield a true artificial lung with the potential to change the paradigm of treatment for adults with chronic respiratory failure. PMID:24625534
Agerstrand, Cara L; Bacchetta, Matthew D; Brodie, Daniel
A patient is described who presented with sudden collapse due to acute respiratory failure caused by tracheal compression from a thyroid cyst. He made a complete recovery and the cyst was electively excised two weeks later. PMID:8502979
Hinnie, J; Lafferty, M; Vasey, P; Milroy, R
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) without an established causative factor for the damage to the myocardium is termed “idiopathic\\u000a DCM,” and it is the cause of approximately one-fourth of the cases of congestive heart failure in the United States. Familial\\u000a occurrence accounts for 20% or more of idiopathic DCM, and recently a considerable number of genes associated with DCM have\\u000a been identified.
A case of massive right pleural effusion in a postoperative patient of percutaneous nephrolithotomy leading to severe respiratory distress is reported. A high degree of clinical suspicion and prompt intervention by insertion of an intercostal drainage tube prevented the patient from going in to respiratory failure. The development of arrhythmias confused the picture increasing the morbidity of the patient. However, the patient was managed in an intensive care unit with intercostal chest tube insertion and antiarrhythmic agents. After correction of the specific cause of the effusion the intercostal tube was removed on the 4(th) day without further recurrence of the effusion. PMID:24914262
Chandra, Alka; Pathak, Amrendra; Kapur, Anu; Russia, Neha; Bhasin, Nikhil
A case of massive right pleural effusion in a postoperative patient of percutaneous nephrolithotomy leading to severe respiratory distress is reported. A high degree of clinical suspicion and prompt intervention by insertion of an intercostal drainage tube prevented the patient from going in to respiratory failure. The development of arrhythmias confused the picture increasing the morbidity of the patient. However, the patient was managed in an intensive care unit with intercostal chest tube insertion and antiarrhythmic agents. After correction of the specific cause of the effusion the intercostal tube was removed on the 4th day without further recurrence of the effusion.
Chandra, Alka; Pathak, Amrendra; Kapur, Anu; Russia, Neha; Bhasin, Nikhil
Hypercapnic respiratory failure is common in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is usually treated by nasal ventilation. Not all patients requiring such ventilation can tolerate it, with anxiety and phobia influencing their reaction, along with treatment failure. We report the case histories of six patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure who were at risk of death due to refusal of nasal ventilation or its failure despite ongoing treatment. We report their improvement with oral modafinil 200 mg tablets used as a respiratory stimulant, which led to discharge, improved arterial blood gases, and offset further admissions with hypercapnic respiratory failure. This drug is licensed for narcolepsy and is said to stimulate the respiratory system via the central nervous system. Its use in respiratory failure is an unlicensed indication, and there are no case reports or studies of such use in the literature. Its respiratory stimulant effects appear better than those with protriptyline, which was a drug previously used until its production was discontinued. Our findings suggest that a study of modafinil in hypercapnic respiratory failure would be warranted, especially for patients with treatment failure or intolerance to nasal ventilation. This may offer a way of shortening hospital stay, improving outcome and quality of life, and reducing death and readmissions. PMID:24812505
Parnell, Helen; Quirke, Ginny; Farmer, Sally; Adeyemo, Sumbo; Varney, Veronica
Hypercapnic respiratory failure is common in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is usually treated by nasal ventilation. Not all patients requiring such ventilation can tolerate it, with anxiety and phobia influencing their reaction, along with treatment failure. We report the case histories of six patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure who were at risk of death due to refusal of nasal ventilation or its failure despite ongoing treatment. We report their improvement with oral modafinil 200 mg tablets used as a respiratory stimulant, which led to discharge, improved arterial blood gases, and offset further admissions with hypercapnic respiratory failure. This drug is licensed for narcolepsy and is said to stimulate the respiratory system via the central nervous system. Its use in respiratory failure is an unlicensed indication, and there are no case reports or studies of such use in the literature. Its respiratory stimulant effects appear better than those with protriptyline, which was a drug previously used until its production was discontinued. Our findings suggest that a study of modafinil in hypercapnic respiratory failure would be warranted, especially for patients with treatment failure or intolerance to nasal ventilation. This may offer a way of shortening hospital stay, improving outcome and quality of life, and reducing death and readmissions.
Parnell, Helen; Quirke, Ginny; Farmer, Sally; Adeyemo, Sumbo; Varney, Veronica
A 67-year-old man visited an urological clinic with a chief complaint of urination pain. Cystourethroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed a bladder tumor (cT3bN0M0). Marked leukocytosis and respiratory distress with pleural effusion appeared. Pulse steroid therapy improved the general condition partially. The patient was sent to our hospital for further examination. Serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were high and the pathological findings of bladder tumor obtained by transurethral resection (TUR) revealed an urothelial carcinoma that produced G-CSF and IL-6. Neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy was performed along with use of steroid and sivelestat, which ameliorated the respiratory distress. After three courses of systemic chemotherapy, serum G-CSF and IL-6 normalized and cystoprostatectomy was performed. The patient has been in good health at 20 months after the surgery with no evidence of recurrence. PMID:23945326
Matsuzaki, Kyosuke; Okumi, Masayoshi; Kishimoto, Nozomu; Yazawa, Koji; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Uchida, Kinya; Nonomura, Norio
The extension of a thyroid goiter into the mediastinum, commonly known as a substernal goiter, is commonly located in the anterior mediastinum. Substernal enlargement of a goiter can cause compression of several mediastinal structures including the trachea. Tracheal compression may rarely lead to acute respiratory failure. We present a patient with tracheal compression and respiratory failure due to a posterior mediastinal goiter in the light of the literature. PMID:17670208
Ket, Serap; Ozbudak, Omer; Ozdemir, Tulay; Dertsiz, Levent
Contents: Epidemiology and etiology of potential occupational cancer of the respiratory tract; Carcinogenicity studies of occupation-related agents purported to cause respiratory tract cancer; Prevention of potential occupational cancer of the respiratory...
Status asthmaticus is a life-threatening episode of asthma that is refractory to usual therapy. Recent studies report an increase in the severity and mortality associated with asthma. In the airways, inflammatory cell infiltration and activation and cytokine generation produce airway injury and edema, bronchoconstriction and mucus plugging. The key pathophysiological consequence of severe airflow obstruction is dynamic hyperinflation. The resulting hypoxemia, tachypnea together with increased metabolic demands on the muscles of respiration may lead to respiratory muscle failure. The management of status asthmaticus involves intensive pharmacological therapy particularly with beta-adrenoceptor agonists (beta-agonists) and corticosteroids. Albuterol (salbutamol) is the most commonly used beta2-selective inhaled bronchodilator in the US. Epinephrine (adrenaline) or terbutaline, administered subcutaneously, have not been shown to provide greater bronchodilatation compared with inhaled beta-agonists. Corticosteroids such as methylprednisolone should be administered early. Aerosolized corticosteroids are not recommended for patients with status asthmaticus. Inhaled anticholinergic agents may be useful in patients refractory to inhaled beta-agonists and corticosteroids. In patients requiring mechanical ventilation, the strategy aims to avoid dynamic hyperinflation by enhancing expiratory time to allow complete exhalation. Complications of dynamic inflation are hypotension and barotrauma. Sedation with opioids, benzodiazepines or propofol is required to facilitate ventilator synchrony but neuromuscular blockade should be avoided as myopathy has been a reported complication. Overall, in the management of patients with status asthmaticus, the challenge to the pulmonary/critical care clinician is to provide optimal pharmacological and ventilatory support and avoid the adverse consequences of dynamic hyperinflation. PMID:14720028
Shapiro, Janet M
We reported two patients with unilateral lateral medullary infarction involving severe, long-term respiratory failure. The first patient is an 86-year-old man presenting with gait disturbance, hoarseness and dysphagia. A right lateral medullary infarction was revealed by brain MRI. On the fifth hospitalized day, acute respiratory failure occurred. His condition failed to recover, and he was still attached to a ventilator 10 months after the onset. The second patient is an 83-year-old woman mainly presenting with dysphagia. A tiny infarction in the right lateral medulla was revealed by brain MRI. On the third day after the onset, acute respiratory failure occurred, which was not changed even at 8 months later. Although the symptoms and the lesion in the medulla were quite different between two patients, dysphagia and respiratory failure occurred in both patients. Therefore, it is postulated that the lesion that causes dyspnea may be approximate to the lesion that causes dysphagia. Many previously reported cases presenting respiratory failure seemed to suffer swallowing difficulty as well. We conclude that elderly patients suffering from unilateral lateral medullary infarction with dysphagia can present respiratory failure a few days after the onset, demonstrating the need to observe them under intensive attention. PMID:18540382
Arai, Noritoshi; Obuchi, Maiko; Matsuhisa, Akiyuki; Takahashi, Yuji; Takatsu, Masami
Treatment of chronic respiratory failure in kyphoscoliosis: oxygen or ventilation? B. Buyse, W. Meersseman, M. Demedts. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: Patients with kyphoscoliosis and chronic respiratory insufficiency are treated either with home oxygen therapy or ventilation. Kyphoscoliotic patients demon- strate impaired ventilatory mechanics, consequently ventilation seems to be the treatment of choice. Yet, no randomised controlled trials (CRT) exist
B. Buyse; W. Meersseman; M. Demedts
Young man suffering from mitochondrial myopathy was admitted to our Institute due to severe hypercapnic respiratory failure. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NWM) during sleep using nasal mask was instituted with positive results. Diurnal blood gases breathing air also ameliorated suggesting improvement of respiratory muscles function. PMID:10391964
Biele?, P; Sliwi?ski, P; Kami?ski, D; Zieli?ski, J
Common-cause failures (CCF) are simultaneous failures of multiple components within a system due to a common-cause or a shared root cause. CCF can contribute significantly to the overall system unreliability. Therefore, it is important to incorporate CCF into the system reliability analysis. Traditional CCF analyses have assumed that the occurrence of a common-cause results in the deterministic\\/guaranteed failure of components
Liudong Xing; Wendai Wang
Primary graft failure after lung transplantation is a serious complication with high mortality. We present 2 cases of critical respiratory failure after lung transplantation treated with surface cooling to 32° and 35°C, respectively, as an adjunct to conventional intensive care. Both patients were discharged from the hospital in good clinical condition. Surface cooling may be an effective mode of treatment
Leif T Eriksson; Stig Steen
Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) refers to the delivery of mechanical respiratory support without the use\\u000a of endotracheal intubation (ETI). The present review focused on the effectiveness of NPPV in children > 1 month of age with\\u000a acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to different conditions. ARF is the most common cause of cardiac arrest in children. Therefore,\\u000a prompt recognition and
Abolfazl Najaf-Zadeh; Francis Leclerc
Ten patients with severe respiratory failure secondary to extensive pulmonary tuberculosis and thoracoplasty have been treated with intermittent negative-pressure ventilation. All recovered and have been followed up for from six months to eight years. Two have died from unrelated causes and six have used some form of breathing aid at home. Negative-pressure ventilation, which is a non-invasive form of respiratory
E H Sawicka; M A Branthwaite; G T Spencer
Alveolar sarcoidosis is a less commonly seen pulmonary manifestation of the disease. An acute presentation of this radiological pattern with hypoxaemic respiratory failure has been documented only once, four decades ago. A 30-year-old man presented with acute onset of progressive and persistent dyspnoea over 20 days ago with hypoxaemic respiratory failure. Imaging demonstrated mediastinal lymphadenopathy and coalescent parenchymal alveolar opacities having ill-defined margins along with air bronchograms in the mid and lower zones bilaterally, suggestive of alveolar sarcoidosis. A restrictive pattern with a diffusion defect was seen on pulmonary function testing. Bronchoscopic evaluation revealed non-caseating granulomas on histopathology confirming pulmonary sarcoidosis. This was further supported by an elevated serum ACE level and negative Mantoux test. Oral prednisolone elicited a rapid clinical and radiological response. Alveolar sarcoidosis can rarely present acutely with hypoxaemic respiratory failure, which can respond remarkably and expeditiously to appropriate therapy. PMID:24789154
Gera, Kamal; Gupta, Nitesh; Ahuja, Anuradha; Shah, Ashok
Respiratory failure leads to tissue hypoxia and subsequent organ damage. The crocodile hemoglobin affinity for oxygen is significantly reduced in the presence of CO2, allowing crocodiles to stay under water for more than 1h. The crocodile bicarbonate effect can possibly be transplanted into the human hemoglobin by replacing only five and seven amino acid residues in the ?-globin and ?-globin chains, respectively. The resulting hybrid formed by these modified chains has been named Scuba hemoglobin. The in vitro production of Scuba hemoglobin by human hematopoietic stem cells and their reintroduction into the blood could be an interesting tool to improve tissue oxygenation in patients suffering from respiratory failure. PMID:24679667
Kamoun, Pierre P
The results of a survey of data on failures of aircraft electronic and electrical components that was conducted to identify problematic components are reported. The motivation for the work was to determine priorities for future work on the development of accident investigation techniques for aircraft electrical components. The primary source of data was the Airforce Mishap Database, which is maintained by the Directorate of Aerospace Safety at Norton Air Force Base. Published data from the Air Force Avionics Integrity Program (AVIP) and Hughes Aircraft were also reviewed. Statistical data from these three sources are presented. Two major conclusions are that problems with interconnections are major contributors to aircraft electrical equipment failures, and that environmental factors, especially corrosion, are significant contributors to connector problems.
Galler, Donald; Slenski, George
Factors that render patients with cardiovascular disease at high risk for heart failure remain incompletely defined. Recent insights into molecular genetic causes of myocardial diseases have highlighted the importance of single-gene defects in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Through analyses of the mechanisms by which a mutation selectively perturbs one component of cardiac physiology and triggers cell and molecular responses, studies of human gene mutations provide a window into the complex processes of cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Knowledge gleaned from these studies shows promise for defining novel therapeutic targets for genetic and acquired causes of heart failure.
Morita, Hiroyuki; Seidman, Jonathan; Seidman, Christine E.
A 46-year-old man developed central respiratory failure in the subacute phase of unilateral lateral medullary infarction. He complained of sudden headache and nausea at first. Neurological examination revealed Wallenberg's syndrome. Acute right lateral medullary infarction caused by the dissecting right vertebral artery was identified by magnetic resonance images. He was transferred to our hospital on the 3rd day after the onset. He was alert and conscious on admission, and became restless gradually later. He was intubated for sudden respiratory failure on the 9th day. Blood gas analysis showed hypercapnia and hypoxia. Central respiratory failure was indicated by the fact that various examinations showed no change of his infarction, no subarachnoid hemorrhage, or no worsening of pneumonia. Ventilatory support was required for a month because of repetitive CO2 narcosis. He was weaned from the ventilator on the 39th day. Only a few reports are available on central respiratory failure associated with the subacute phase of unilateral medullary infarction. Delayed central respiratory failure may be lethal. Careful observation is required on the subacute phase of Wallenberg's syndrome. PMID:24807272
Sugawara, Eriko; Saito, Asami; Okamoto, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Tatsuya
Aggregate nuclear plant failure data is used to produce generic common-cause factors that are specifically for use in the common-cause failure models of NUREG/CR-5485. Furthermore, the models presented in NUREG/CR-5485 are specifically designed to incorporate two significantly distinct assumptions about the methods of surveillance testing from whence this aggregate failure data came. What are the implications of using these NUREG generic factors to model the common-cause failures of aerospace systems? Herein, the implications of using the NUREG generic factors in the modeling of aerospace systems are investigated in detail and strong recommendations for modeling the common-cause failures of aerospace systems are given.
Stott, James E.; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert W.; Hark, Frank; Hatfield, G. Spencer
Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a relatively safe procedure. However, postoperative acute respiratory failure may be fatal. The authors report an 8-month-old patient with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to posterior fossa cyst, and Chiari malformation. After ETV he developed difficulty in breathing, and had to be reintubated and ventilated. The infant recovered fully after craniocervical decompression and insertion of cystoperitoneal shunt. We speculate that respiratory failure is related to relative expansion of the posterior fossa arachnoid cyst, causing significant compression on the brain stem. Supportive care with mechanical ventilation and brain stem decompression were the mainstay of treatment.
Elgamal, Essam A.; Aqil, Mansoor
Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a relatively safe procedure. However, postoperative acute respiratory failure may be fatal. The authors report an 8-month-old patient with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to posterior fossa cyst, and Chiari malformation. After ETV he developed difficulty in breathing, and had to be reintubated and ventilated. The infant recovered fully after craniocervical decompression and insertion of cystoperitoneal shunt. We speculate that respiratory failure is related to relative expansion of the posterior fossa arachnoid cyst, causing significant compression on the brain stem. Supportive care with mechanical ventilation and brain stem decompression were the mainstay of treatment. PMID:23493148
Elgamal, Essam A; Aqil, Mansoor
INTRODUCTION: Our objectives were to determine the causes of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in elderly patients and to assess the accuracy of the initial diagnosis by the emergency physician, and that of the prognosis. METHOD: In this prospective observational study, patients were included if they were admitted to our emergency department, aged 65 years or more with dyspnea, and fulfilled
Patrick Ray; Sophie Birolleau; Yannick Lefort; Marie-Hélène Becquemin; Catherine Beigelman; Richard Isnard; Antonio Teixeira; Martine Arthaud; Bruno Riou; Jacques Boddaert
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, along with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, convened a panel to develop recommendations for treatment, prevention, and research for respiratory failure from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and other newly emerging infections. The clinical and pathological features of acute lung injury (ALI) from SARS appear indistinguishable from ALI from other causes. The mainstay of treatments for ALI remains supportive. Patients with ALI from SARS who require mechanical ventilation should receive a lung protective, low tidal volume strategy. Adjuvant treatments recommended include prevention of venous thromboembolism, stress ulcer prophylaxis, and semirecumbent positioning during ventilation. Based on previous experience in Canada, infection control resources and protocols were recommended. Leadership structure, communication, training, and morale are an essential aspect of SARS management. A multicenter, placebo-controlled trial of corticosteroids for late SARS is justified because of widespread clinical use and uncertainties about relative risks and benefits. Studies of combined pathophysiologic endpoints were recommended, with mortality as a secondary endpoint. The group recommended preparation for studies, including protocols, ethical considerations, Web-based registries, and data entry systems. PMID:15591472
Levy, Mitchell M; Baylor, Melisse S; Bernard, Gordon R; Fowler, Rob; Franks, Teri J; Hayden, Frederick G; Helfand, Rita; Lapinsky, Stephen E; Martin, Thomas R; Niederman, Michael S; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Slutsky, Arthur S; Stewart, Thomas E; Styrt, Barbara A; Thompson, B Taylor; Harabin, Andrea L
An obese body habitus may interfere with diagnosis of potentially life?threatening conditions. This report describes an obese woman who presented with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and diffuse infiltrates. Her body habitus disguised her parturient abdomen and she could not provide a history because she was intubated and paralysed. Only after a urine pregnancy test was undertaken did it become apparent that she was pregnant and the diagnosis of pre?eclampsia with pulmonary oedema was considered. Urine pregnancy tests are part of the standard work?up for abdominal pain in women of childbearing age, but are not viewed as part of the work?up for respiratory distress or diffuse radiographic infiltrates. This case illustrates the value of obtaining a pregnancy test in all women, particularly those with obese body habitus, who present with respiratory failure of unclear aetiology.
Luks, Andrew M
Arachnoid cysts are the most common congenital cystic lesions in the brain occurring in the middle fossa, suprasellar region and occasionally in the posterior fossa. Conventionally all cysts are considered as benign and symptoms are attributed to expansion of cysts causing compression of adjacent neurological structures, bleeds within the cyst or due to the development of acute hydrocephalus. We are reporting this case of a 15-year-old female patient with non-progressive weakness in the limbs since the age of seven years who presented with acute onset syncopal attacks and respiratory failure. She was intubated and ventilated. An magnetic resonance imaging scan showed large posterior fossa cyst extending up to mid second cervical vertebra causing compression of the medulla and pons, with mild hydrocephalus. After a failed attempt to wean her from the ventilator a cysto peritoneal shunt surgery was performed following which she was weaned from the ventilator successfully. Weakness in the upper and lower limbs, which had increased in the preceding month, also improved following the surgery.
Pillai, Lalitha V.; Achari, Gopal; Desai, Sanjay; Patil, Vinayak
Arachnoid cysts are the most common congenital cystic lesions in the brain occurring in the middle fossa, suprasellar region and occasionally in the posterior fossa. Conventionally all cysts are considered as benign and symptoms are attributed to expansion of cysts causing compression of adjacent neurological structures, bleeds within the cyst or due to the development of acute hydrocephalus. We are reporting this case of a 15-year-old female patient with non-progressive weakness in the limbs since the age of seven years who presented with acute onset syncopal attacks and respiratory failure. She was intubated and ventilated. An magnetic resonance imaging scan showed large posterior fossa cyst extending up to mid second cervical vertebra causing compression of the medulla and pons, with mild hydrocephalus. After a failed attempt to wean her from the ventilator a cysto peritoneal shunt surgery was performed following which she was weaned from the ventilator successfully. Weakness in the upper and lower limbs, which had increased in the preceding month, also improved following the surgery. PMID:19826592
Pillai, Lalitha V; Achari, Gopal; Desai, Sanjay; Patil, Vinayak
Approximately 10%–15% of couples are infertile, and a male factor is involved in almost half of these cases. This observation is due in part to defects in spermatogenesis, and the underlying causes, including genetic abnormalities, remain largely unknown. Until recently, the only genetic tests used in the diagnosis of male infertility were aimed at detecting the presence of microdeletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome and/or chromosomal abnormalities. Various other single-gene or polygenic defects have been proposed to be involved in male fertility. However, their causative effects often remain unproven. The recent evolution in the development of whole-genome-based techniques and the large-scale analysis of mouse models might help in this process. Through knockout mouse models, at least 388 genes have been shown to be associated with spermatogenesis in mice. However, problems often arise when translating this information from mice to humans.
Massart, Annelien; Lissens, Willy; Tournaye, Herman; Stouffs, Katrien
Introduction Data on pulmonary complications in renal transplant recipients are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate acute respiratory failure (ARF) in renal transplant recipients. Methods We conducted a retrospective observational study in nine transplant centers of consecutive kidney transplant recipients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for ARF from 2000 to 2008. Results Of 6,819 kidney transplant recipients, 452 (6.6%) required ICU admission, including 200 admitted for ARF. Fifteen (7.5%) of these patients had combined kidney-pancreas transplantations. The most common causes of ARF were bacterial pneumonia (35.5%), cardiogenic pulmonary edema (24.5%) and extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (15.5%). Pneumocystis pneumonia occurred in 11.5% of patients. Mechanical ventilation was used in 93 patients (46.5%), vasopressors were used in 82 patients (41%) and dialysis was administered in 104 patients (52%). Both the in-hospital and 90-day mortality rates were 22.5%. Among the 155 day 90 survivors, 115 patients (74.2%) were dialysis-free, including 75 patients (65.2%) who recovered prior renal function. Factors independently associated with in-hospital mortality were shock at admission (odds ratio (OR) 8.70, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3.25 to 23.29), opportunistic fungal infection (OR 7.08, 95% CI 2.32 to 21.60) and bacterial infection (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.07 to 5.96). Five factors were independently associated with day 90 dialysis-free survival: renal Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score on day 1 (OR 0.68/SOFA point, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.88), bacterial infection (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.90), three or four quadrants involved on chest X-ray (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.91), time from hospital to ICU admission (OR 0.98/day, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99) and oxygen flow at admission (OR 0.93/liter, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions In kidney transplant recipients, ARF is associated with high mortality and graft loss rates. Increased Pneumocystis and bacterial prophylaxis might improve these outcomes. Early ICU admission might prevent graft loss.
Surveys by the Edison Electric Institute have identified power plant fans to be a significant cause of plant failures. This report contains the results of a study to identify fan problem areas, their causes and their effects. A data base of 743 fans was prepared from questionnaires distributed to US utilities and to the Tennessee Valley Authority. Additional information was
Surveys by the Edison Electric Institute have identified power plant fans to be a significant cause of plant failures. This report contains the results of a study to identify fan problem areas, their causes and their effects. A data base of 743 fans was p...
C. O. Wood
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was used in the treatment of 100 newborn infants with respiratory failure in three phases: Phase I (50 moribund patients to determine safety, efficacy, and risks); Phase II (30 high risk patients to compare ECMO to conventional ventilation); and Phase III (20 moderate to high risk patients, the current protocol). Seventy-two patients survived including 54% in Phase I, 90% in Phase II, and 90% in Phase III. The major complication was intracranial bleeding, which occurred in 89% of premature infants (less than 35 weeks) and 15% of full-term infants. Best survival results were in persistent fetal circulation (10, 10 survived), followed by congenital diaphragmatic hernia (9, 7 survived), meconium aspiration (44, 37 survived), respiratory distress syndrome (26, 13 survived), and sepsis (8, 3 survived). There were seven late deaths; in follow-up, 63% are normal or near normal, 17% had moderate to severe central nervous system dysfunction, and 8% had severe pulmonary dysfunction. ECMO is now used in several neonatal centers as the treatment of choice for full-term infants with respiratory failure that is unresponsive to conventional management. The success of this technique establishes prolonged extracorporeal circulation as a definitive means of treatment in reversible vital organ failure.
Bartlett, R H; Gazzaniga, A B; Toomasian, J; Coran, A G; Roloff, D; Rucker, R; Corwin, A G
Renal micropuncture studies have greatly changed our views on the pathophysiology of acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. Formerly, this type of renal insufficiency was attributed to a direct effect of the nephrotoxins on tubule epithelial permeability. According to that theory, glomerular filtration was not greatly diminished, the filtrate formed being absorbed almost quantitatively and nonselectively across damaged tubule epithelium. Studies in a wide variety of rat models have now shown glomerular filtration to be reduced to a level which will inevitably cause renal failure in and of itself. Passive backflow of filtrate across tubular epithelium is either of minor degree or nonexistent even in models where frank tubular necrosis has occurred. This failure of filtration cannot be attributed to tubular obstruction since proximal tubule pressure is distinctly subnormal in most models studied. Instead, filtration failure appears best attributed to intrarenal hemodynamic alterations. While certain facts tend to incriminate the renin-angiotensin system as the cause of the hemodynamic aberrations, others argue to the contrary. The issue is underactive investigation. Images FIGURE 7.
Oken, D E
Root causes of mission critical failures and major cost and schedule overruns in complex systems and programs are studied through the post-mortem analyses compiled for several examples, including the Hubble Space Telescope, the Challenger and Columbia Shuttle accidents, and the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. The roles of organizational complexity, cognitive biases in decision making, the display of quantitative data, and cost and schedule pressure are all considered. Recommendations for mitigating the risk of similar failures in future programs are also provided.
Thomas, David A.
Objectives The present study focused on respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis with respiratory failure. The aim of the study was to determine whether noninvasive ventilation reduces the need for endotracheal intubation or slows the clinical progression of acute respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis by reducing the incidence of infectious complications. Methods The present study was a retrospective cohort study. Cohort A was comprised of children who were admitted to the pediatric intensive and special care unit from 2003-2005 before starting noninvasive ventilation; cohort B was comprised of children who were admitted to the pediatric intensive and special care unit from 2006-2008 after starting noninvasive ventilation. With the exception of noninvasive ventilation, the therapeutic support was the same for the two groups. All children who were diagnosed with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis and respiratory failure between November 2003 and March 2008 were included in the cohort. Demographic, clinical and blood gas variables were analyzed. Results A total of 162 children were included; 75% of the subjects were less than 3 months old. Group A included 64 children, and group B included 98 children. In group B, 34 of the children required noninvasive ventilation. The distributions of the variables age, preterm birth, congenital heart disease, cerebral palsy and chronic lung disease were similar between the two groups. On admission, the data for blood gas analysis and the number of apneas were not significantly different between the groups. In group B, fewer children required invasive ventilation (group A: 12/64 versus group B: 7/98; p=0.02), and there was a reduction in the number of cases of bacterial pneumonia (group A: 19/64 versus group B: 12/98; p=0.008). There was no record of mortality in either of the groups. Conclusion By comparing children with the same disease both before and after noninvasive ventilation was used for ventilation support, we verified a reduction in infectious complications and cases requiring intubation.
Nizarali, Zahara; Cabral, Marta; Silvestre, Catarina; Abadesso, Clara; Nunes, Pedro; Loureiro, Helena; Almeida, Helena
Although pyrotechnics have successfully accomplished many critical mechanical spacecraft functions, such as ignition, severance, jettisoning and valving (excluding propulsion), failures continue to occur. Provided is a listing of 84 failures of pyrotechnic hardware with completed design over a 23-year period, compiled informally by experts from every NASA Center, as well as the Air Force Space Division and the Naval Surface Warfare Center. Analyses are presented as to when and where these failures occurred, their technical source or cause, followed by the reasons why and how these kinds of failures persist. The major contributor is a fundamental lack of understanding of the functional mechanisms of pyrotechnic devices and systems, followed by not recognizing pyrotechnics as an engineering technology, insufficient manpower with hands-on experience, too few test facilities, and inadequate guidelines and specifications for design, development, qualification and acceptance. Recommendations are made on both a managerial and technical basis to prevent failures, increase reliability, improve existing and future designs, and develop the technology to meet future requirements.
Bement, Laurence J.
Partial anomalous venous connection (PAPVC) is a congenital cardiovascular defect where one or more (but not all) of the pulmonary veins return anomalously back to the right atrium, either via a direct or indirect connection. It often occurs with other cardiac defects, most commonly a secundum atrial septal defect. Individuals with a large degree of shunting will present with dyspnea, fatigue, and, in some cases, heart failure. Clinical associations and variants of PAPVC include scimitar syndrome, pseudo-scimitar or meandering right pulmonary vein, sinous venosus defects, malposition of the septum primum, and Turner syndrome. The patient in this case, a previously healthy, 6-month-old, full-term male, presented to the emergency department for evaluation of respiratory distress and wheezing. The infant was first seen in his pediatrician's office, where he was noted to be tachypneic and wheezing. He was feeding without difficulty, voiding well, and was active and playful. The patient had passed critical congenital heart disease screening after his birth and prior to discharge, and the family history was negative for any respiratory or cardiac conditions. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is becoming the mode of choice for diagnosis of PAPVC. The definitive treatment is surgical correction, but surgery is not indicated in all cases, especially if the patient is asymptomatic and the degree of shunting is small. Patients with isolated PAPVC who undergo surgical correction have good long-term outcomes. In this case, the patient underwent the Warden procedure, which causes an increased risk of superior vena cava stenosis or obstruction to the right atrium. This patient will require lifelong follow-up to assess for new onset pulmonary venous obstruction. PMID:24877494
Rusciolelli, Colleen H; Hageman, Joseph R; Groner, Abraham
Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure and extensive myofibrillar lesions has been described in sporadic and familial cases and linked to various chromosomal regions. The mutated gene is unknown in most cases. We studied eight individuals, from three apparently unrelated families, with clinical and pathological features of hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure. The investigations included clinical examination, muscle histopathology and genetic analysis by whole exome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. All patients had adult onset muscle weakness in the pelvic girdle, neck flexors, respiratory and trunk muscles, and the majority had prominent calf hypertrophy. Examination of pulmonary function showed decreased vital capacity. No signs of cardiac muscle involvement were found. Muscle histopathological features included marked muscle fibre size variation, fibre splitting, numerous internal nuclei and fatty infiltration. Frequent groups of fibres showed eosinophilic inclusions and deposits. At the ultrastructural level, there were extensive myofibrillar lesions with marked Z-disc alterations. Whole exome sequencing in four individuals from one family revealed a missense mutation, g.274375T>C; p.Cys30071Arg, in the titin gene (TTN). The mutation, which changes a highly conserved residue in the myosin binding A-band titin, was demonstrated to segregate with the disease in all three families. High density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays covering the entire genome demonstrated sharing of a 6.99?Mb haplotype, located in chromosome region 2q31 including TTN, indicating common ancestry. Our results demonstrate a novel and the first disease-causing mutation in A-band titin associated with hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure. The typical histopathological features with prominent myofibrillar lesions and inclusions in muscle and respiratory failure early in the clinical course should be incentives for analysis of TTN mutations. PMID:22577218
Ohlsson, Monica; Hedberg, Carola; Brådvik, Björn; Lindberg, Christopher; Tajsharghi, Homa; Danielsson, Olof; Melberg, Atle; Udd, Bjarne; Martinsson, Tommy; Oldfors, Anders
A family of four was exposed to toxic levels of mercury vapor while attempting to extract silver from mercury amalgam. All four suffered respiratory failure and subsequent death despite chelation therapy with dimercaprol. Histologic findings at autopsy were similar in all four cases demonstrating a progression of acute lung injury that appeared related to postexposure day survival. There were no clinical signs of extrapulmonary manifestations despite toxic serum mercury levels. Although serum mercury levels decreased in response to the mercury chelating agent dimercaprol, serum levels remained in the toxic range and no clinical response was observed. Acute inhalational exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapor causes pneumonitis that can lead to respiratory failure and death. This continues to be a health hazard in both the workplace and the home environment. PMID:1984951
Rowens, B; Guerrero-Betancourt, D; Gottlieb, C A; Boyes, R J; Eichenhorn, M S
Males with methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) mutations may present with neonatal encephalopathy. We report on an infant with a MECP2 mutation who exhibited complex constellation of symptoms, including severe hypotonia, respiratory failure, and apneic episodes. In the neonatal period these symptoms are common to other disorders, including Ondine syndrome. Our observation confirms that the triad of severe hypotonia, apneic episodes, and respiratory failure may be caused by MECP2 mutations. Neonatologist and neuropediatricians must be alert to the presence of these symptoms to exclude this rare but severe disorder. Clinical suspicion and molecular confirmation of MECP2 mutation is of great importance for defining the diagnosis of this rare affection. PMID:22497713
Falsaperla, Raffaele; Pavone, Lorenzo; Fichera, Marco; Striano, Pasquale; Pavone, Piero
In 10 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), undergoing hemodialysis, we studied respiratory muscle strength and endurance. The data obtained was compared with those acquired from 10 age-, sex-, weight- and height-matched normal volunteers. Maximal static inspiratory pressures (PImax) measured at residual volume and maximal static expiratory pressure (PEmax) measured at total lung capacity were significantly lower in the CRF group, 58.2 +/- (SD)24.9 and 50.8 +/- (SD)24.2% of predicted, respectively (p less than 0.005, p less than 0.01). There was a significant correlation between PImax and PEmax (r = 0.827, p less than 0.001), indicating similar involvement of both inspiratory and expiratory muscle groups. Maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), although 84.4% of the predicted value in the CRF group, was significantly lower than in the control group, where it was 114% of predicted (p less than 0.001). MVV also correlated significantly with PImax and PEmax (r = 0.764, p less than 0.001 and r = 0.807, p less than 0.001, respectively). All but one CRF patient had elevated erum inorganic phosphorus levels, and a significant correlation was found between the serum inorganic phosphorus levels and PImax and PEmax (r = 0.718, p less than 0.001). These data indicate that there is an impairment of respiratory muscle strength and endurance in patients with CRF which may predispose the patient to respiratory muscle fatigue. PMID:3247515
Bark, H; Heimer, D; Chaimovitz, C; Mostoslovski, M
Hamman-Rich syndrome, also known as acute interstitial pneumonia, is a rare and fulminant form of idiopathic interstitial lung disease. It should be considered as a cause of idiopathic acute respiratory distress syndrome. Confirmatory diagnosis requires demonstration of diffuse alveolar damage on lung histopathology. The main treatment is supportive care. It is not clear if glucocorticoid therapy is effective in acute interstitial pneumonia. We report the case of a 77-year-old woman without pre-existing lung disease who initially presented with mild upper respiratory tract infection and then progressed to rapid onset of hypoxic respiratory failure similar to acute respiratory distress syndrome with unknown etiology. Despite glucocorticoid therapy, she did not achieve remission and expired after 35 days of hospitalization. The diagnosis of acute interstitial pneumonia was supported by the histopathologic findings on her lung biopsy.
Bruminhent, Jackrapong; Yassir, Shahla; Pippim, James
Objective : Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a relatively common disorder in infants and children. It maybe associated with severe\\u000a complications. The coexistence of GER and a wide range of respiratory symptoms has been reported. The purpose of our study\\u000a was to investigate the relationship between chronic respiratory symptoms and GERD as an underlying cause. To our knowledge,\\u000a there is not
Hamid Reza Foroutan; Masomeh Ghafari
Acute adult T-cellleukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a hematologic malignancy that usually entails a poor prognosis; median survival is only six months. Significant immunosuppression is commonly seen in these patients. Lung involvement in ATLL is usually documented either radiographically or as an autopsy finding. Few proven cases of ante mortem extensive lung infiltration have been described in the scientific literature. We present a fatal case of acute respiratory failure as a result of histologically proven lung infiltration by malignant lymphocytes in a patientwith acuteATLL. Although the most common cause of death i n patients with ATLL is respiratory failure in the setting of an infectious process, it should be kept in mind that patients with ATLL with acute respiratory failure may have malignant lung infiltration as a potential cause. PMID:24772829
Mutneja, Rahul; Shah, Mamta; Vyas, Dhwanil; Vyas, Anuja; Dasanu, Constantin A
Purpose Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a common life-threatening complication in morbidly obese patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). We aimed to identify the determinants of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) success or failure for this indication. Methods We prospectively included 76 consecutive patients with BMI>40 kg/m2 diagnosed with OHS and treated by NIV for ARF in a 15-bed ICU of a tertiary hospital. Results NIV failed to reverse ARF in only 13 patients. Factors associated with NIV failure included pneumonia (n?=?12/13, 92% vs n?=?9/63, 14%; p<0.0001), high SOFA (10 vs 5; p<0.0001) and SAPS2 score (63 vs 39; p<0.0001) at admission. These patients often experienced poor outcome despite early resort to endotracheal intubation (in-hospital mortality, 92.3% vs 17.5%; p<0.001). The only factor significantly associated with successful response to NIV was idiopathic decompensation of OHS (n?=?30, 48% vs n?=?0, 0%; p?=?0.001). In the NIV success group (n?=?63), 33 patients (53%) experienced a delayed response to NIV (with persistent hypercapnic acidosis during the first 6 hours). Conclusions Multiple organ failure and pneumonia were the main factors associated with NIV failure and death in morbidly obese patients in hypoxemic ARF. On the opposite, NIV was constantly successful and could be safely pushed further in case of severe hypercapnic acute respiratory decompensation of OHS.
Lemyze, Malcolm; Taufour, Pauline; Duhamel, Alain; Temime, Johanna; Nigeon, Olivier; Vangrunderbeeck, Nicolas; Barrailler, Stephanie; Gasan, Gaelle; Pepy, Florent; Thevenin, Didier; Mallat, Jihad
About 10 per cent of birds' eggs fail to hatch, but the incidence of failure can be much higher in endangered species. Most studies fail to distinguish between infertility (due to a lack of sperm) and embryo mortality as the cause of hatching failure, yet doing so is crucial in order to understand the underlying problem. Using newly validated techniques to visualize sperm and embryonic tissue, we assessed the fertility status of unhatched eggs of five endangered species, including both wild and captive birds. All eggs were classified as ‘infertile’ when collected, but most were actually fertile with numerous sperm on the ovum. Eggs of captive birds had fewer sperm and were more likely to be infertile than those of wild birds. Our findings raise important questions regarding the management of captive breeding programmes.
Hemmings, N.; West, M.; Birkhead, T. R.
The burden of acute respiratory failure (ARF) has become one of the greatest epidemiological challenges for the modern health systems. Consistently, the imbalance between the increasing prevalence of acutely de-compensated respiratory diseases and the shortage of high-daily cost ICU beds has stimulated new health cost-effective solutions. Respiratory High-Dependency Care Units (RHDCU) provide a specialised environment for patients who require an "intermediate" level of care between the ICU and the ward, where non-invasive monitoring and assisted ventilation techniques are preferentially applied. Since they are dedicated to the management of "mono-organ" decompensations, treatment of ARF patients in RHDCU avoids the dangerous "under-assistance" in the ward and unnecessary "over-assistance" in ICU. RHDCUs provide a specialised quality of care for ARF with health resources optimisation and their spread throughout health systems has been driven by their high-level of expertise in non-invasive ventilation (NIV), weaning from invasive ventilation, tracheostomy care, and discharging planning for ventilator-dependent patients. PMID:22560375
Context: In patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF), randomized studies have shown noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) to be associated with lower rates of endotracheal intubation. In these patients, predictors of NPPV failure are not well characterized. Objective: To investigate variables predictive of NPPV failure in patients with hypoxemic ARF. Design: Prospective, multicenter cohort study. Setting: Eight Intensive Care
M. Antonelli; G. Conti; M. Moro; A. Esquinas; G. Gonzalez-Diaz; M. Confalonieri; P. Pelaia; T. Principi; C. Gregoretti; F. Beltrame; M. Pennisi; A. Arcangeli; R. Proietti; M. Passariello; G. Meduri
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a technique for providing life support, in case the natural lungs are failing and are not able to maintain a sufficient oxygenation of the body's organ systems. ECMO technique was an adaptation of conventional cardiopulmonary bypass technique and introduced into treatment of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the 1970s. The intial reports of the use of ECMO in ARDS patients were quite enthusiastic, however, in the following years it became clear that ECMO was only of benefit in newborns with acute respiratory failure. In neonates treated with ECMO, survival rates of 80% could be achieved. In adult patients with ARDS, two large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in 1979 and 1994 failed to show an advantage of ECMO over convential treatment, survival rates were only 10% and 33%, respectively, in the ECMO groups. Since then, ECMO technology as well as conventional treatment of adult ARDS have undergone further improvements. In conventional treatment lung-protective ventilation strategies were introduced and ECMO was made safer by applying heparin-coated equipment, membranes and tubings. Many ECMO centres now use these advanced ECMO technology and report survival rates in excess of 50% in uncontrolled data collections. The question, however, of whether the improved ECMO can really challenge the advanced conventional treatment of adult ARDS is unanswered and will need evaluation by a future RCT.
Background and Purpose: A water decoction of the poisonous shrub Cleistanthus collinus is used for suicidal purposes. The mortality rate is 28%. The clinical profile includes distal renal tubular acidosis (DRTA) and respiratory failure. The mechanism of toxicity is unclear. Objectives: To demonstrate features of C. collinus toxicity in a rat model and to identify its mechanism(s) of action. Materials and Methods: Rats were anesthetized and the carotid artery was cannulated. Electrocardiogram and respiratory movements were recorded. Either aqueous extract of C. collinus or control solution was administered intraperitoneally. Serial measurements of blood gases, electrolytes and urinary pH were made. Isolated brush border and basolateral membranes from rat kidney were incubated with C. collinus extract and reduction in ATPase activity was assessed. Venous blood samples from human volunteers and rats were incubated with an acetone extract of C. collinus and plasma potassium was estimated as an assay for sodium–potassium pump activity. Results: The mortality was 100% in tests and 17% in controls. Terminal event in test animals was respiratory arrest. Controls had metabolic acidosis, respiratory compensation acidic urine and hyperkalemia. Test animals showed respiratory acidosis, alkaline urine and low blood potassium as compared to controls. C. collinus extract inhibited ATPase activity in rat kidney. Plasma K+ did not increase in human blood incubated with C. collinus extract. Conclusions and Implications: Active principles of C. collinus inhibit proton pumps in the renal brush border, resulting in type I DRTA in rats. There is no inhibition of sodium–potassium pump activity. Test animals develop respiratory acidosis, and the immediate cause of death is respiratory arrest.
Maneksh, Delinda; Sidharthan, Anita; Kettimuthu, Kavithapriya; Kanthakumar, Praghalathan; Lourthuraj, Amala A.; Ramachandran, Anup; Subramani, Sathya
Episodic medical home interventions in severe bedridden Chronic Respiratory Failure patients: a 4 year retrospective study. L. Barbano, E. Bertella, M. Vitacca. Background and Aim. Home care for respiratory pa- tients includes a complex array of services delivered in an uncontrolled setting. The role of a respiratory specialist inside the home healthcare team has been scarcely studied up to now.
L. Barbano; E. Bertella; M. Vitacca
In uncontrolled studies, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) was found useful in avoid- ing endotracheal intubation in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) caused by severe commu- nity-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We conducted a prospective, randomized study comparing stan- dard treatment plus NPPV delivered through a face mask to standard treatment alone in patients with severe CAP and ARF. Patients fitting
MARCO CONFALONIERI; ALFREDO POTENA; GIORGIO CARBONE; ROSSANA DELLA PORTA; ELIZABETH A. TOLLEY; G. UMBERTO MEDURI
Summary Background An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been reported in Hong Kong. We investigated the viral cause and clinical presentation among 50 patients. Methods We analysed case notes and microbiological findings for 50 patients with SARS, representing more than five separate epidemiologically linked transmission clusters. We defined the clinical presentation and risk factors associated with severe
JSM Peiris; ST Lai; LLM Poon; Y Guan; LYC Yam; W Lim; J Nicholls; WKS Yee; WW Yan; MT Cheung; VCC Cheng; KH Chan; DNC Tsang; RWH Yung; TK Ng; KY Yuen
Background: Hyper- pnea in chronic heart failure occurs even in the absence of consider- able impairment of lung function. It is caused by altered respiratory pattern with rapid shallow breathing and ventilation-perfusion mismatch, so far thought to be irreversible. Objectives: To test the underlying pathophysiologic disorders and the reversibility of this hyperpnea, i.e., the increased ventilatory response to exercise and
I. Reindl; F. X. Kleber
Background There is limited information on the causes of death in asthma patients. To determine the causes of death in hospitalized asthmatic patients and to compare with those observed in COPD patients and non-respiratory individuals, with a particular interest in associations with previous cardiovascular disease. Methods Retrospective case–control study which analyzed the deaths of all hospitalized patients admitted for any reason during January, April, July and October of 2008 in 13 Spanish centers. Medical records of deceased patients were reviewed, and demographic and clinical data were collected. Results A total of 2,826 deaths (mean age 75 years, 56% men) were included in the analysis, of which 82 (2.9%) were of patients with asthma and 283 (10%) with COPD. The most common causes of death in asthma patients were cardiovascular diseases (29.3%), malignancies (20.7%) and infections (14.6%); in COPD patients they were malignancies (26.5%), acute respiratory failure (25.8%) and cardiovascular diseases (21.6%). Asthma, compared to COPD patients, died significantly less frequently from acute respiratory failure and lung cancer. A multivariate logistic regression analysis failed to associate asthma with cardiovascular deaths. Conclusions Cardiovascular disease is the most frequent cause of death among hospitalized asthma patients. The specific causes of death differ between asthma and COPD patients.
Respiratory failure in HIV-infected patients is a relatively common presentation to ICU. The debate on ICU treatment of HIV-infected patients goes on despite an overall decline in mortality amongst these patients since the AIDS epidemic. Many intensive care physicians feel that ICU treatment of critically ill HIV patients is likely to be futile. This is mainly due to the unfavourable outcome of HIV patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia who need mechanical ventilation. However, the changing spectrum of respiratory illness in HIV-infected patients and improved outcome from critical illness remain under-recognised. Also, the awareness of certain factors that can affect their outcome remains low. As there are important ethical and practical implications for intensive care clinicians while making decisions to provide ICU support to HIV-infected patients, a review of literature was undertaken. It is notable that the respiratory illnesses that are not directly related to underlying HIV disease are now commonly encountered in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. The overall incidence of P. jirovecii as a cause of respiratory failure has declined since the AIDS epidemic and sepsis including bacterial pneumonia has emerged as a frequent cause of hospital and ICU admission amongst HIV patients. The improved overall outcome of HIV patients needing ICU admission is related to advancement in general ICU care, including adoption of improved ventilation strategies. An awareness of respiratory illnesses in HIV-infected patients along with an appropriate diagnostic and treatment strategy may obviate the need for invasive ventilation and improve outcome further. HIV-infected patients presenting with respiratory failure will benefit from early admission to critical care for treatment and support. There is evidence to suggest that continuing or starting HAART in critically ill HIV patients is beneficial and hence should be considered after multidisciplinary discussion. As a very high percentage (up to 40%) of HIV patients are not known to be HIV infected at the time of ICU admission, the clinicians should keep a low threshold for requesting HIV testing for patients with recurrent pneumonia.
Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) refers to the delivery of mechanical respiratory support without the use of endotracheal intubation (ETI). The present review focused on the effectiveness of NPPV in children > 1 month of age with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to different conditions. ARF is the most common cause of cardiac arrest in children. Therefore, prompt recognition and treatment of pediatric patients with pending respiratory failure can be lifesaving. Mechanical respiratory support is a critical intervention in many cases of ARF. In recent years, NPPV has been proposed as a valuable alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in this acute setting. Recent physiological studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of NPPV in children with ARF. Several pediatric clinical studies, the majority of which were noncontrolled or case series and of small size, have suggested the effectiveness of NPPV in the treatment of ARF due to acute airway (upper or lower) obstruction or certain primary parenchymal lung disease, and in specific circumstances, such as postoperative or postextubation ARF, immunocompromised patients with ARF, or as a means to facilitate extubation. NPPV was well tolerated with rare major complications and was associated with improved gas exchange, decreased work of breathing, and ETI avoidance in 22-100% of patients. High FiO2 needs or high PaCO2 level on admission or within the first hours after starting NPPV appeared to be the best independent predictive factors for the NPPV failure in children with ARF. However, many important issues, such as the identification of the patient, the right time for NPPV application, and the appropriate setting, are still lacking. Further randomized, controlled trials that address these issues in children with ARF are recommended.
A 70-year-old man presented with unilateral lateral medullary infarction, and then died of rapidly progressive respiratory failure within a day. The clinical manifestations were hiccups, hoarseness, dysarthria, nystagmus, left central facial paralysis, paralysis of the left soft palate, dysphagia, decreased superficial sensation over the right face and upper limb, and cerebellar ataxia in the left upper and lower limbs. The arterial blood gas analysis revealed mild hypoventilation. Soon thereafter, an apneic episode occurred during a sleep and advanced to ataxic respiration, and the patient died. Pathologically, there were fresh ischemic infarction localized to the left dorsolateral area of the upper medulla, caused by atherothrombotic occlusion of the left vertebral artery. These foci were in the areas including the medullary reticular formation, the solitary nucleus, the intramedullary fibers of the vagus nerve, and the nucleus ambiguus on the left side. We attributed the fatal acute progressive respiratory impairment in the present case to impairment of the automatic respiratory system (Ondine's curse) rather than the voluntary respiratory system. PMID:17903948
Terao, Shin-ichi; Miura, Naofumi; Osano, Yutaka; Noda, Aiji; Sobue, Gen
... uses for movement (skeletal muscles) and in heart (cardiac) muscle. Within muscle cells, titin is an essential component ... Edstrom myopathy MPRM myopathy, proximal, with early respiratory muscle involvement ... mutation ; protein ; proximal ; respiratory You ...
Surveys by the Edison Electric Institute have identified power plant fans to be a significant cause of plant failures. This report contains the results of a study to identify fan problem areas, their causes and their effects. A data base of 743 fans was prepared from questionnaires distributed to US utilities and to the Tennessee Valley Authority. Additional information was obtained from personal contacts with various power company personnel, station records and reports, and EPRI files. The great majority of fans studied were centrifugal units used in forced draft, induced draft, primary air, and gas recirculating applications. As controllable-pitch axial fans have seen service only recently in the United States, the number of such fans available for study is relatively small. Data analysis resulting clearly demonstrates problems with draft fan systems and their components which contribute to the unavailability of generating units. Seventeen specific problem components are identified for centrifugal fans; bearings, blades, and foundations account for more than 54% of the centrifugal fan problems. Nine specific problem components are identified in the case of axial fans; blade, shaft bearings, and blade thrust bearings account for over 52% of the axial fan problems. The indicated causes and effects are documented. Recommendations are made to improve the reliability of existing fans, and generic problems requiring future research and application of existing technologies are identified. It is also recommended that users place less emphasis on the initial costs of fans and more emphasis on those design features that improve reliability to encourage manufacturers to accelerate their efforts to improve the technology and correct critical problems. Implementation of the recommendations could substantially improve the availability of fans.
Corrosion is the leading cause of failures of subsea pipelines in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Third-party incidents, storms, and mud slides are additional principal causes of offshore pipeline failures. For small size lines, additionally, failures due to external corrosion were more frequent during the period studied than internal corrosion. In medium and large-size lines, failures due to internal corrosion
Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of exogenous surfactant on respiratory indices in term infants with respiratory failure. Methods Consecutive 18 mechanically ventilated term infants, who received a single dose of exogenous surfactant were retrospectively included into the study. The respiratory outcome of surfactant rescue therapy was evaluated by comparing respiratory indices before and six hours after surfactant administration. Findings Median oxygenation index (OI), mean alveolar pressure (MAP) and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) values were significantly decreased (P<0.001); median arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and PaO2/FiO2 values were significantly increased six hours after surfactant treatment (P<0.001). Conclusion Rescue therapy with surfactant was found to be effective in the improvement of early respiratory indices in term infants with respiratory failure.
Beken, Serdar; Turky?lmaz, Canan; Koc, Esin; Hirfanoglu, Ibrahim M.; Altuntas, Nilgun
Digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF) is an endogenous substance with natriuretic and diuretic activity. Elevated plasma levels of DLIF are found in various clinical states characterized by water and sodium retention. Chronic respiratory failure, particularly of an advanced stage, also is frequently associated with water and sodium retention. In order to determine whether elevated plasma levels of DLIF are present in chronic respiratory failure, we measured plasma DLIF levels in seven patients (four with COPD [two of whom had associated sleep apnea disturbance] and three with kyphoscoliosis) suffering from advanced chronic respiratory failure with severe hypoxemia and hypercapnia. We found that in these patients plasma levels of DLIF were significantly higher than in healthy control subjects. We conclude that patients with advanced chronic respiratory failure respond with increased levels of DLIF. This may represent an attempt at homeostasis of water and sodium metabolism which is frequently deranged in this clinical condition. PMID:1309496
Varsano, S; Shilo, L; Bruderman, I; Dolev, S; Shenkman, L
SUMMARY Background Military recruits receiving training are vulnerable to acute respiratory disease and a significant proportion of illness is due to unidentified pathogens. While some countries use surveillance programs to monitor such illness, few data exist for recruits of the British Armed Forces. Objectives Through active surveillance of approximately 1000 Royal Navy trainees during 2001, we sought to describe and determine the aetiology of acute respiratory illness. Methods Standard viral culture was used together with serology and a novel highly sensitive real-time PCR and molecular beacon probe assay for RSV detection. Results Among 54 Royal Navy recruits with respiratory symptoms adenovirus was identified in 35%, influenza viruses in 19% and RSV in 14% of this group. All of the recruits were absent from training for almost a week, most of whom were confined to the sickbay. Conclusions This study is the first to document adenovirus and RSV as important causes of acute respiratory illness among Royal Navy trainees. The study findings demonstrate the clinical significance and challenges of diagnosing RSV infection in young adults.
O'Shea, Matthew K.; Pipkin, Christopher; Cane, Patricia A.; Gray, Gregory C.
Background: Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) is known to reduce hypoventilation and improves respiratory and peripheral muscle endurance in patients with chronic respiratory failure (CRF) due to thoracic restriction. Objectives: To compare the effect of short-term NIV on endurance in patients with CRF due to thoracorestriction and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to evaluate differences in spiroergometric data during exercise
Bernd Schönhofer; Dominic Dellweg; Stefan Suchi; Dieter Köhler
\\u000a In some patients with hematological malignancies and acute respiratory failure, the clinical emphasis shifts toward palliation.\\u000a In the palliative care phase, the goals of care move from cure of disease to improvement of the patient’s experience of living\\u000a and of dying, and optimization of the patient’s quality of life. Dyspnea, which frequently accompanies respiratory failure,\\u000a is particularly prevalent and distressing
Amy P. Abernethy; Jane L. Wheeler; David C. Currow
A male fennec fox (Fennecus zerda) kit was examined for lethargy, inappetence, and weight loss. Clinical findings included respiratory distress, a gallop rhythm, and retinochoroiditis. Radiography indicated pleural effusion and cardiomegaly. Echocardiographic findings included left ventricular dilatation, low left ventricular ejection fraction, and atrioventricular valvular regurgitation. Necropsy findings were compatible with a diagnosis of congestive heart failure caused by myocarditis. Histopathology showed a disseminated infection with Toxoplasma gondii causing myocarditis, skeletal polymyositis, gastrointestinal myositis, and panuveitis. Toxoplasma-induced myocarditis should be included in the differential diagnosis of heart failure and retinochoroiditis in the fennec fox. PMID:15533972
Kottwitz, Jack J; Preziosi, Diane E; Miller, Margaret A; Ramos-Vara, Jose A; Maggs, David J; Bonagura, John D
Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure is a rare disease with muscle weakness and respiratory failure as early symptoms. Muscle pathology is characterized by the presence of multiple cytoplasmic bodies and other protein aggregates in muscle fibers. The disease is associated with mutations in the titin gene (TTN). All patients harbor mutations located in exon 343 in the TTN gene that codes for the fibronectin III domain 119 (FN3 119) in the 10th motif of the 11-element motif A-band super-repeat. We investigated how such disease-causing mutations affect the biochemical behavior of this titin domain. All five disease-causing amino acid changes analyzed by us (p.P30068R, p.C30071R, p.W30088R, p.W30088C and p.P30091L) resulted in impaired FN3 119 domain solubility. In contrast, amino acid changes associated with common SNPs (p.V30076I, p.R30107C and p.S30125F) did not have this effect. In silico analyses further support the notion that disease-causing mutations impair proper folding of the FN3 119 domain. The results suggest that hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure is caused by defective protein folding. PMID:24636144
Hedberg, Carola; Toledo, Alejandro Gomez; Gustafsson, Claes M; Larson, Göran; Oldfors, Anders; Macao, Bertil
Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization due to respiratory illness among infants and young children of industrialized countries. There is a lack of understanding of the severe disease mechanisms as well as limited treatment options, none of which are fully satisfactory. This is partly due to lack of a relevant animal model of perinatal RSV infection that mimics moderate to severe disease in infants. We and others have shown mild disease in perinatal lambs with either a bovine or a human A2 strain of RSV. The Memphis 37 clinical strain of human RSV has been used to produce mild to moderate upper respiratory disease in healthy adult volunteers. We hypothesized that the Memphis 37 strain of RSV would infect perinatal lambs and produce clinical disease similar to that in human infants. Perinatal (3- to 5-day-old) lambs were inoculated intranasally with 2?mL/nostril of 1×105 focus-forming units (FFU)/mL (n=2) or 2.1×108 FFU/mL (n=3) of RSV Memphis 37. Clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, and immune and inflammatory responses were assessed. Memphis 37 caused moderate to severe gross and histologic lesions along with increased mRNA expression of macrophage inflammatory protein. Clinically, four of the five infected lambs had a mild to severe increase in expiratory effort. Intranasally administered RSV strain Memphis 37 infects neonatal lambs with gross, histologic, and immune responses similar to those observed in human infants.
van Geelen, Albert; Gallup, Jack M.; Kienzle, Thomas; Shelly, Daniel A.; Cihlar, Tomas; King, Robert R.; Ackermann, Mark R.
Objectives: To review the outcome of acute ventilatory support in patients presenting acutely with respiratory failure, either with an established diagnosis of motor neurone disease (MND) or with a clinical event where the diagnosis of MND has not yet been established. Methods: Outcome was reviewed in 24 patients with respiratory failure due to MND who received endotracheal intubation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation either at presentation or as a result of the unexpected development of respiratory failure. Patients presenting to local hospitals with acute respiratory insufficiency and requiring tracheal intubation, ventilatory support, and admission to an intensive therapy unit (ITU) before transfer to a regional respiratory care unit were selected. Clinical features of presentation, management, and outcome were studied. Results: 24 patients with MND were identified, all being intubated and ventilated acutely within hours of presentation. 17 patients (71%) were admitted in respiratory failure before the diagnosis of MND had been made; the remaining seven patients (29%) were already known to have MND but deteriorated rapidly such that intubation and ventilation were initiated acutely. Seven patients (29%) died on ITU (between seven and 54 days after admission). 17 patients (71%) were discharged from ITU. 16 patients (67%) received long term respiratory support and one patient required no respiratory support following tracheal extubation. The daily duration of support that was required increased gradually with time. Conclusion: When a patient with MND is ventilated acutely, with or without an established diagnosis, independence from the ventilator is rarely achieved. Almost all of these patients need long term ventilatory support and the degree of respiratory support increases with time as the disease progresses. The aim of management should be weaning the patient to the minimum support compatible with symptomatic relief and comfort. Respiratory failure should be anticipated in patients with MND when the diagnosis has been established.
Bradley, M; Orrell, R; Clarke, J; Davidson, A; Williams, A; Kullmann, D; Hirsch, N; Howard, R
Respiratory allergy affects all age groups but the children are the worst affected by the respiratory allergy. Bioparticles from different biological sources are the main cause of allergy. Pollen grains, fungal spores, insect and other materials of biological origin form the most important allergen load in the air. For the efficient diagnosis of the allergy and its effective treatment it is very important to know about the prevalence, seasonal and annual variations of aeroallergens of the area. India being the climatically diversed country, there is diversity in the flora and fauna of different parts of the country. Atmospheric surveys carried out in different parts of India reveal that, Alanus nitida, Amarantus spinosus, Argemone mexicana Cocos nucifera, Betula utilis, Borasus flabellifer, Caraica papaya, Cedrus deodara, Cassia fistula, Parthenium, Chenopodium album, Dodonaea viscosa, Malotus phillipensis, Plantago ovata, Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Holoptelea intergifolia are the allergenically important pollens of the country. Among the fungal aeroallergens, Alternaria, Candida aibieans, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus japonicus, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Fusarium roseum, Ganoderma lucidum,Neurospora sitophila Helminthosporium, Ustilago trtici, Uromyses are important allergens. Dust mites D. farinae, D.pteronyssinus are also important source of inhalant allergens particularly in the coastal areas of the country. Cockroaches, beetles, weevils, mosquitoes, house flies also contribute towards the aeroallergen load and are allergenically implicated. Avoidance of the indoor and outdoor aeroallergens is recommended for better management of respiratory allergy. PMID:12003301
Singh, A B; Kumar, Pawan
High frequency oscillatory ventilation has been shown to improve oxygenation of patients with severe respiratory failure. This prospective study examined the potential benefits and risks of the latest generation high frequency oscillatory ventilator (R100, Metran, Saitama, Japan), initiated when the target oxygenation could not be achieved by conventional mechanical ventilation in adult patients with severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure. Thirty-six patients with severe respiratory failure treated with the R100 high frequency oscillatory ventilator were considered. Pneumonia and exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia were the main causes of respiratory failure. The median time on conventional mechanical ventilation or airway pressure release ventilation prior to high frequency oscillatory ventilation was 9.3 hours (interquartile range 4.8 to 25). PaO2/FiO2 at 24 hours after initiation of high frequency oscillatory ventilation was significantly better than the PaO2/FiO2 at baseline (151.2 +/- 61.2 vs. 99.5 +/- 50.0, P = 0.0001). Refractory hypoxaemia within 24 hours was associated with a high risk of mortality (P = 0.0092) and 23 patients (64%), including 11 patients with exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia, died by 30 days. Of the 36 patients included in the study (including one who had developed pneumothorax before high frequency oscillatory ventilation), 12 (33%) developed barotrauma during the course of their intensive care unit stay. In the multivariate analysis, only exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia was a significant risk factor for barotrauma. In summary, the latest generation high frequency oscillatory ventilator could improve oxygenation in adult patients with life-threatening hypoxaemic respiratory failure but the incidence of barotrauma was substantial. PMID:22165367
Niwa, T; Hasegawa, R; Ryuge, M; Kawase, M; Kondoh, Y; Taniguchi, H
Niemann-Pick diseases are hereditary neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorders, of which the rare type C2 almost uniformly presents with respiratory distress in early infancy. In the patient presented here, the NPC2 exon 4 frameshift mutation c.408_409delAA caused reduced NPC2 protein levels in serum and lung lavage fluid and the synthesis of an aberrant, larger sized protein of around 28 kDa. Protein expression was strongly reduced also in alveolar macrophages. The infant developed failure to thrive and tachypnea. Lung lavage, computer tomography, and histology showed typical signs of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis with an abnormal intraalveolar accumulation of surfactant as well as macrophages. An NPC2-hypomorph animal model also showed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and accumulation of macrophages in the lung, liver, and spleen long before the mice died. Due to the elevation of cholesterol, the surfactant had an abnormal composition and function. Despite the removal of large amounts of surfactant from the lungs by therapeutic lung lavages, this treatment was only temporarily successful and the infant died of respiratory failure. Our data indicate that respiratory distress in NPC2 disease is associated with a loss of normal NPC2 protein expression in alveolar macrophages and the accumulation of functionally inactive surfactant rich in cholesterol. PMID:20002450
Griese, M; Brasch, F; Aldana, V R; Cabrera, M M; Goelnitz, U; Ikonen, E; Karam, B J; Liebisch, G; Linder, M D; Lohse, P; Meyer, W; Schmitz, G; Pamir, A; Ripper, J; Rolfs, A; Schams, A; Lezana, F J
Rationale: Increasing use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for acute respiratory failure may increase resource requirements and hospital costs. Better prediction of survival in these patients may improve resource use, allow risk-adjusted comparison of center-specific outcomes, and help clinicians to target patients most likely to benefit from ECMO. Objectives: To create a model for predicting hospital survival at initiation of ECMO for respiratory failure. Methods: Adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure treated by ECMO from 2000 to 2012 were extracted from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) international registry. Multivariable logistic regression was used to create the Respiratory ECMO Survival Prediction (RESP) score using bootstrapping methodology with internal and external validation. Measurements and Main Results: Of the 2,355 patients included in the study, 1,338 patients (57%) were discharged alive from hospital. The RESP score was developed using pre-ECMO variables independently associated with hospital survival on logistic regression, which included age, immunocompromised status, duration of mechanical ventilation before ECMO, diagnosis, central nervous system dysfunction, acute associated nonpulmonary infection, neuromuscular blockade agents or nitric oxide use, bicarbonate infusion, cardiac arrest, PaCO2, and peak inspiratory pressure. The receiver operating characteristics curve analysis of the RESP score was c = 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.76). External validation, performed on 140 patients, exhibited excellent discrimination (c = 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.97). Conclusions: The RESP score is a relevant and validated tool to predict survival for patients receiving ECMO for respiratory failure. PMID:24693864
Schmidt, Matthieu; Bailey, Michael; Sheldrake, Jayne; Hodgson, Carol; Aubron, Cecile; Rycus, Peter T; Scheinkestel, Carlos; Cooper, D Jamie; Brodie, Daniel; Pellegrino, Vincent; Combes, Alain; Pilcher, David
Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is an artificial means of maintaining adequate oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination to enable injured lungs to recover from underlying disease. Technological advances have made ECLS devices smaller, less invasive, and easier to use. ECLS might, therefore, represent an important step towards improved management and outcomes of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Nevertheless, rigorous evidence of the ability of ECLS to improve short-term and long-term outcomes is needed before it can be widely implemented. Moreover, how to select patients and the timing and indications for ECLS in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome remain unclear. We describe the physiological principles, the putative risks and benefits, and the clinical evidence supporting the use of ECLS in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Additionally, we discuss controversies and future directions, such as novel technologies and indications, mechanical ventilation of the native lung during ECLS, and ethics considerations. PMID:24503270
Sorbo, Lorenzo Del; Cypel, Marcelo; Fan, Eddy
Corrosion is the leading cause of failures of subsea pipelines in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Third-party incidents, storms, and mud slides are additional principal causes of offshore pipeline failures. For small size lines, additionally, failures due to external corrosion were more frequent during the period studied than internal corrosion. In medium and large-size lines, failures due to internal corrosion were more frequent than those due to external corrosion. The study results presented provide an improved basis for assessment of safety of pipelines and for further improvements to current pipeline design, inspection, maintenance, and construction procedures.
Mandke, J.S. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (US))
This paper analyzes the failure of a particular brand of automobile seat belts. The failures described were part of what nearly became the most expensive and widespread automobile recall in U.S. history, affecting about 8.8 x 106 vehicles and with a potential total cost of U.S. $109 . The failures were caused by the degradation and fracture of the seat
J. M. Henshaw; V. Wood; A. C. Hall
Background: Over a 36-month study period, 10 nonconsecutive neuromuscular pediatric patients (6 infants, mean age 10.16 months, and 4 children, mean age 9.3 years) presenting with acute respiratory failure (ARF) were treated by noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV). All patients required immediate respiratory support and fulfilled our intubation criteria. Objective: The aim of the study was to verify if early
M. Piastra; M. Antonelli; E. Caresta; A. Chiaretti; G. Polidori; G. Conti
. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) has reemerged as an effective strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality\\u000a associated with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). During acute respiratory failure, dynamic\\u000a hyperinflation, intrinsic PEEP, and increased airway resistance result in a mechanical workload that exceeds inspiratory muscle\\u000a capacity. NPPV provides augmentation of alveolar ventilation and respiratory muscle rest. Observational,
H. E. Clark; P. G. Wilcox
Background Lung ultrasound has been shown to identify in real-time, various pathologies of the lung such as pneumonia, viral pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Lung ultrasound maybe a first-line alternative to chest X-ray and CT scan in critically ill patients with respiratory failure. We describe the use of lung ultrasound imaging and findings in two cases of severe respiratory failure from avian influenza A (H7N9) infection. Methods Serial lung ultrasound images and video from two cases of H7N9 respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a tertiary care intensive care unit were analyzed for characteristic lung ultrasound findings described previously for respiratory failure and infection. These findings were followed serially, correlated with clinical course and chest X-ray. Results In both patients, characteristic lung ultrasound findings have been observed as previously described in viral pulmonary infections: subpleural consolidations associated or not with local pleural effusion. In addition, numerous, confluent, or coalescing B-lines leading to ‘white lung’ with corresponding pleural line thickening are associated with ARDS. Extension or reduction of lesions observed with ultrasound was also correlated respectively with clinical worsening or improvement. Coexisting consolidated pneumonia with sonographic air bronchograms was noted in one patient who did not survive. Conclusions Clinicians with access to point-of-care ultrasonography may use these findings as an alternative to chest X-ray or CT scan. Lung ultrasound imaging may assist in the efficient allocation of intensive care for patients with respiratory failure from viral pulmonary infections, especially in resource scarce settings or situations such as future respiratory virus outbreaks or pandemics.
Cattle with Pasteurella bronchopneumonia usually have a fever, abnormal respiratory sounds in the cranioventral lung fields, consolidation, pleuritis and abscesses. Lungworms primarily affect 4- to 6-month-old calves, which become febrile and dyspneic, with moist rales. Diagnosis is by fecal examination using the Baermann technic. Proliferative pneumonia usually affects stabled adults, which develop severe dyspnea and tachypnea. Diagnosis is by the history, clinical signs and lung biopsy. Acute bovine pulmonary emphysema is caused by ingestion of large amounts of L-tryptophan in lush pasture. Affected cattle have severe, acute dyspnea, an expiratory grunt and froth around the muzzle. Diagnosis is by the history and clinical signs. Bronchiolitis obliterans narrows the airways of older animals to cause dyspnea. A positive response to corticosteroids aids diagnosis. Anaphylaxis occurs in cattle of all types and ages and is precipitated by various antigens in a type-I hypersensitivity reaction. Use of atropine aids diagnosis. Allergic or hypersensitivity pneumonia is caused by an allergy to insecticides, dead ascarid larvae or the mold, Micropolyspora faeni. Diagnosis is by a history of insect fogger use, finding M faeni in the forage, and typical histologic lesions in lung samples. Cattle with caudal vena caval thrombosis have dyspnea, a fever, froth around the muzzle, an expiratory groan and hypergammaglobulinemia. Malignant catarrhal fever is diagnosed by a history of previous exposure to sheep and finding swollen lymph nodes, fever, neutropenia and arteritis. PMID:6233484
Pearson, E G
In this study we describe the electrophysiological findings in botulism patients with neuromuscular respiratory failure from major botulism outbreaks in Thailand. High-rate repetitive nerve stimulation testing (RNST) of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle of 17 botulism patients with neuromuscular respiratory failure showed mostly incremental responses, especially in response to >20-HZ stimulation. In the most severe stage of neuromuscular respiratory failure, RNST failed to elicit a compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of the ADM muscle. In the moderately severe stage, the initial CMAPs were of very low amplitude, and a 3-HZ RNST elicited incremental or decremental responses. A 10-HZ RNST elicited mainly decremental responses. In the early recovery stage, the initial CMAP amplitudes of the ADM muscle improved, with initially low amplitudes and an incremental response to 3- and 10-HZ RNSTs. Improved electrophysiological patterns of the ADM muscle correlated with improved respiratory muscle function. Incremental responses to 20-HZ RNST were most useful for diagnosis. The initial electrodiagnostic sign of recovery following treatment of neuromuscular respiratory failure was an increased CMAP amplitude and an incremental response to 10-20-HZ RNST. Muscle Nerve 40: 271-278, 2009. PMID:19609915
Kongsaengdao, Subsai; Samintarapanya, Kanoksri; Rusmeechan, Siwarit; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Tanprawate, Surat
Objective To develop and validate a preoperative risk index for predicting postoperative respiratory failure (PRF). Summary Background Data Respiratory failure is an important postoperative complication. Method Based on a prospective cohort study, cases from 44 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (n = 81,719) were used to develop the models. Cases from 132 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (n = 99,390) were used as a validation sample. PRF was defined as mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours after surgery or reintubation and mechanical ventilation after postoperative extubation. Ventilator-dependent, comatose, do not resuscitate, and female patients were excluded. Results PRF developed in 2,746 patients (3.4%). The respiratory failure risk index was developed from a simplified logistic regression model and included abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, thoracic surgery, neurosurgery, upper abdominal surgery, peripheral vascular surgery, neck surgery, emergency surgery, albumin level less than 30 g/L, blood urea nitrogen level more than 30 mg/dL, dependent functional status, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and age. Conclusions The respiratory failure risk index is a validated model for identifying patients at risk for developing PRF and may be useful for guiding perioperative respiratory care.
Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Daley, Jennifer; Henderson, William G.; Khuri, Shukri F.
Arnold-Chiari malformation is an occipitocervical malformation where the cerebellar amygdales descend below the occipital foramen. Acute respiratory failure is an exceptional inaugural sign. We report two cases disclosed by alveolar hypoventilation associated with type I Arnold-Chiari malformation. The two patients age 51 and 52 years had an uneventful past history and presented with hypercapnic encephalopathy with acute respiratory failure requiring ventilatory assistance. Respiratory function tests, helicoidal thoracic computed tomographic angiography, electromyogram, cardiac echography, and thyroid and immunological tests were normal. Blood gases and polysomnography were in favor of central hypoventilation without sleep apnea. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated type I Arnold-Chiari malformation. The course was complicated by recurrent respiratory failure in both patients. Surgical decompression performed for the first patient provided no improvement. This patient died two months after surgery subsequent to aspiration pneumonia. The second patient was treated with continuous positive pressure noninvasive ventilatory assistance and had a good outcome at 25 months. These two cases illustrate the absence of any neurological sign, acute respiratory failure being the only sign of Arnold-Chiari malformation. PMID:18166935
Chaouch, N; Meraï, S; Cheikh Rouhou, S; Ben Romdhane, K; Ben Mrad, S; Besbes, M; Tritar, F
The causes of the collapse of airship shed, which was being taken down at Niediergorsdorf, are discussed. This shed, which was built of iron, was 184 m long, 28 m high, and 35 m wide. The demolition of the shed had been assigned to unskilled men who proceeded to remove certain key structural supports, leaving the structure in such a condition that relatively small eccentricities of the columns or spans or of lateral forces could easily have caused the columns or spans to break down. A small gust of wind would have perhaps sufficed to bring the building down. An analysis is also given of the suction effects on the roof of an air shed in Staaken. The damage to this shed, which occurred during a storm, was due to the fact that the shed had no opening in its top for equalizing the air pressure within and without. The location of the plates blown off the roof correspond to the point of greatest suction.
Sonntag, R; Hoff, W
This paper discusses the methodology used to model common cause failures of thrusters on the International Space Station (ISS) Visiting Vehicles. The ISS Visiting Vehicles each have as many as 32 thrusters, whose redundancy and similar design make them susceptible to common cause failures. The Global Alpha Model (as described in NUREG/CR-5485) can be used to represent the system common cause contribution, but NUREG/CR-5496 supplies global alpha parameters for groups only up to size six. Because of the large number of redundant thrusters on each vehicle, regression is used to determine parameter values for groups of size larger than six. An additional challenge is that Visiting Vehicle thruster failures must occur in specific combinations in order to fail the propulsion system; not all failure groups of a certain size are critical.
Haught, Megan; Duncan, Gary
BACKGROUND: Inpatients with restrictive thoracic disease, little is known about changes in sleep and breathing if the patient stops using nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Better understanding of those changes may affect NIV management and improve our understanding of the relationship of night-to-night variability of respiratory and sleep variables and morning gas exchange. METHODS: With 6 stable patients with restrictive chronic
Thierry Petitjean; Francois Philit; Michele Germain-Pastenne; Bruno Langevin; Claude Guerin
Uncertainties in common cause event observation, documentation and interpretation are taken into account by conditional probabilities and generalized impact vector weights that separate single and double events of a specific multiplicity in a single observation. Distributions and moments of common cause failure (CCF) rates of a system are obtained in terms of the weights by using probability generating functions, combining
J. K. Vaurio
Metabolisable energy intake, determined by bomb calorimetry of food, vomit, stool and urine, and resting metabolism, assessed by respiratory gas exchange, were studied in 21 infants with congenital heart disease and nine control infants. Weight for age, growth rates, and daily metabolisable energy intake per kg tended to be lower in infants with heart disease than in control infants. Resting oxygen consumption was high in those infants with pulmonary hypertension and persistent cardiac failure. Energy intake, as a percentage of that recommended for age, correlated with weight gain, and resting oxygen consumption correlated inversely with both percentage body mass index and relative fatness. Failure to thrive in infants with congenital heart disease may be due to a combination of low energy intakes and, in some cases, high energy requirements allowing insufficient energy for normal growth. Increasing the energy intakes of infants with congenital heart disease may be a way of improving their growth.
Menon, G; Poskitt, E M
Dramatic progress has occurred in neonatal intensive care in tertiary centers in mid-eastern China. We investigated the characteristics of neonatal respiratory failure (NRF) including the incidence, management, outcomes and costs in 14 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of Hebei, a province at an intermediate economic level in China. Over a period of 12 consecutive months in 2007–2008, perinatal data were
Li Ma; Cuiqing Liu; Yuqi Wang; Shufang Li; Shufen Zhai; Xiaofeng Gu; Fang Liu; Aixia Yan; Wei Guo; Yingyu Li; Min Xiao; Jianying Yin; Yanzhi Li; Xia Liu; Rong Wang; Haresh Kirpalani; Bo Sun
We report a 69-year-old man who developed paralytic poliomyelitis in childhood and then decades later suffered from fatal respiratory failure. Six months before this event, he had progressive weight loss and shortness of breath. He had severe muscular atrophy of the entire right leg as a sequela of the paralytic poliomyelitis. He showed mild weakness of the facial muscle and
Shin-ichi Terao; Naofumi Miura; Aiji Noda; Mari Yoshida; Yoshio Hashizume; Hiroshi Ikeda; Gen Sobue
The case history is presented of a patient with acute respiratory failure complicated by nasal obstruction resulting in intolerance of nasal ventilation. Urgent insertion of nasal stents permitted restoration of ventilation with resolution of breathlessness and stabilisation of arterial blood gases.??
Edenborough, F; Wildman, M; Morgan, D
Objective: During the course of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients may need invasive mechanical ventilation because of acute respiratory failure. We reviewed the charts of all patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis admitted to our ICU for mechanical ventilation to describe their ICU course and prognosis. Design and setting: Retrospective, observational case series, from December 1996 to March 2001, in an 18-bed
Thierry Fumeaux; Claudia Rothmeier; Philippe Jolliet
Designing robust clinical trials in critically ill, mechanically ventilated clinical practice is currently based on clinician experience and children requires an understanding of the epidemiology and course extrapolation from studies conducted in adults and newborns. of pediatric respiratory failure. As part of a clinical trial, we screened Designing robust clinical trials in critically ill children on all mechanically ventilated children
Adrienne G. Randolph; Kathleen L. Meert; Mary E. O'Neil; James H. Hanson; Peter M. Luckett; John H. Arnold; Rainer G. Gedeit; Peter N. Cox; Joan S. Roberts; Shekhar T. Venkataraman; Peter W. Forbes
Respiratory failure due to subglottic stenosis is a rare but serious condition. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED) with shortness of breath, stridor, and change in tone of voice. The patient did not complain of B-symptoms (fever, weight loss, and night sweats). In the week before this presentation, he was diagnosed with an upper respiratory tract infection with associated bronchospasm and discharged on oral antibiotics and inhaled salbutamol without effect. He developed hypercapnic respiratory failure in the ED after a coughing episode. A normal nasopharyngoscopic examination and a subtle mediastinal abnormality on chest radiograph lead to a working diagnosis of retrosternal subglottic obstruction. The complexities of his airway management and suggestions for multidisciplinary approach are discussed.
Keijzers, Gerben; Willis, Nicola Jane; Smith, Linda
The clinical, social and economical impact of failure in medicine [i. e., adverse health care events (AHCE)] is overwhelming. Respiratory and intensive care medicine are strongly relevant to AHCE, particularly in cases associated with respiratory failure, mechanical ventilation and pharmacotherapy. In spite of the obvious necessity to learn from AHCE, its realisation in health-care organisations is still rare. This conceptual review therefore aims to (i) clarify the most relevant terminology, (ii) identify obstacles related to this health-care topic, and (iii) present possible strategies for solving the problems, thereby enabling respiratory and intensive care medicine to systematically and effectively learn from failure. A review of the literature (effective as of June 2013) derived from the electronic databases Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, ERIC and Google Scholar identified the following relevant obstacles (ii): a so-called blame culture associated with concealing failure, missing system analyses (vs. individual breakdown), and (economically) misdirected incentives. Possible strategies to overcome these obstacles (iii) include acknowledging the importance of leadership, a safe environment, open reporting, an effective feedback culture, and detection (e. g., trigger-tools), analysis and discussion (e. g., double loop learning) of failure. The underlying reasons for the occurrence of AHCE are based on structural, organisational and human shortcomings, and affect all categories of caregivers. Approaches to solving the problem should therefore focus primarily on the entire system, rather than on the individual alone. PMID:23846430
Bleomycin, a chemotherapeutic agent, and oxygen at concentrations greater than 20%, induce acute pulmonary damage separately and when administered together. The interaction of 5 U/kg intratracheal bleomycin and 24 hours of exposure to 80% oxygen in hamsters produces delayed onset acute respiratory distress syndrome three days after treatment. As little as 12 hours of 80% O/sub 2/ exposure, after intratracheal bleomycin, induces severe pulmonary damage. Lung lesions are characterized as diffuse alveolar damage. Significantly pulmonary edema, measured by iodine-125-bovine serum albumin and technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate, occurs 72 hours after treatment. Lesions progress from focal mild alveolar interstitial and air-space macrophage and granulocyte infiltrates at 24 hours to marked infiltrates and severe interstitial and air space edema with hemorrhages and hyaline membranes at 96 hours. Significant changes measured by electron microscopy morphometry are increases in volume fractions of neutrophils, alveolar tissue and mononuclear leukocytes. Surfactant assay of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid shows a marked decrease in the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio at 72 hours. Proposed mechanisms of bleomycin and hyperoxia synergism include enhanced production of superoxide radicals either directly or indirectly by increasing neutrophil activity or numbers, or by alteration of cell mediators. The pulmonary edema, without evidence of severe morphological changes, may be secondary to alterations of transalveolar transport mechanisms.
While negative pressure ventilation using cuirass respirators or iron-lung machines was prevailing in the first part of the 20th century, the polio epidemic in Copenhagen 1952 marks the turning point at which positive pressure ventilation following tracheotomy was started. Furthermore, following the introduction of facial masks and starting 1985 in Germany non-invasive positive pressure ventilation has meanwhile been developed as a routine procedure for the long-term treatment of patients with chronic ventilatory failure today. The current article provides an overview of these developments and also outlines the role of two particular national societies: "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin (DGP) e.?V." (German Medical Association of Pneumology and Ventilatory Support) and "Deutsche Interdisziplinäre Gesellschaft für außerklinische Beatmung (DIGAB) e.?V." (German Interdisciplinary Society for Home Mechanical Ventilation). PMID:20827646
and they account for significant consumption of health care resour- ces. Although bacterial infections are the most common causes of AECOPD, viral infections and environmental stresses are also impli- cated. AECOPD episodes can be triggered or complicated by other comorbidities, such as heart disease, other lung diseases (e.g., pul- monary emboli, aspiration, pneumothorax), or systemic processes. Pharmacologic management includes bronchodilators,
Neil MacIntyre; Yuh Chin Huang
AIMS—To examine the haemodynamic effects of brief alteration in arterial oxygenation in preterm infants with respiratory failure.?METHODS—Eighteen preterm infants with respiratory failure, aged 9-76 hours, underwent detailed Doppler echocardiographic assessment at 86%, 96%, and 100% SaO2, achieved by altering the FIO2. Sixteen were receiving intermittent positive pressure ventilation, median FIO2 0.45 (0.20-0.65), median mean airway pressure 12 cm H2O (0-20). SaO2 was stable for 15 minutes at each stage. Four parameters of pulmonary arterial pressure were measured: peak velocity of tricuspid regurgitation and peak velocity of left to right ductal flow, TPV:RVET ratio and PEP:RVET ratio, measured at the pulmonary valve, along with flow velocity integrals at the aortic and pulmonary valves, and systemic arterial pressure. Ductal size was graded into closed, small, moderate, large with imaging, pulsed and continuous wave Doppler.?RESULTS—Between 86% and 96% SaO2, there were no consistent changes, but in three of the 12 with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) there was ductal constriction, with complete closure in one. Between 96% and 100% SaO2, peak ductal flow velocity rose significantly in four of eight with a PDA. Ductal constriction occurred in four infants; in three this was associated with a significant fall in aortic flow integral and a rise in aortic pressure (4-6 mm Hg). Overall, 11 infants went from 86% to 100% SaO2 and pulmonary arterial pressure fell significantly in seven.?CONCLUSION—A brief rise in SaO2 within the range maintained by most neonatal units can cause significant ductal constriction. The fall in pulmonary arterial pressure with 100% SaO2 seen in most infants was associated with a fall in pulmonary blood flow (or no change), rather than a rise, indicating that the dominant haemodynamic effect was ductal constriction rather than pulmonary vasodilation.??
Skinner, J.; Hunter, S.; Poets, C.; Milligan, D.; Southall, D.; Hey, E.
OBJECTIVE: The authors retrospectively reviewed their experience with extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in 100 adult patients with severe respiratory failure (ARF) to define techniques, characterize its efficacy and utilization, and determine predictors of outcome. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Extracorporeal life support maintains gas exchange during ARF, providing diseased lungs an optimal environment in which to heal. Extracorporeal life support has been successful in the treatment of respiratory failure in infants and children. In 1990, the authors instituted a standardized protocol for treatment of severe ARF in adults, which included ECLS when less invasive methods failed. METHODS: From January 1990 to July 1996, the authors used ECLS for 100 adults with severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (n = 94): paO2/FiO2 ratio of 55.7+/-15.9, transpulmonary shunt (Qs/Qt) of 52+/-22%, or acute hypercarbic respiratory failure (n = 6): paCO2 84.0+/-31.5 mmHg, despite and after maximal conventional ventilation. The technique included venovenous percutaneous access, lung "rest," transport on ECLS, minimal anticoagulation, hemofiltration, and optimal systemic oxygen delivery. RESULTS: Overall hospital survival was 54%. The duration of ECLS was 271.9+/-248.6 hours. Primary diagnoses included pneumonia (49 cases, 53% survived), adult respiratory distress syndrome (45 cases, 51 % survived), and airway support (6 cases, 83% survived). Multivariate logistic regression modeling identified the following pre-ECLS variables significant independent predictors of outcome: 1) pre-ECLS days of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.0003), 2) pre-ECLS paO2/FiO2 ratio (p = 0.002), and 3) age (years) (p = 0.005). Modeling of variables during ECLS showed that no mechanical complications were independent predictors of outcome, and the only patient-related complications associated with outcome were the presence of renal failure (p < 0.0001) and significant surgical site bleeding (p = 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Extracorporeal life support provides life support for ARF in adults, allowing time for injured lungs to recover. In 100 patients selected for high mortality risk despite and after optimal conventional treatment, 54% survived. Extracorporeal life support is extraordinary but reasonable treatment in severe adult respiratory failure. Predictors of survival exist that may be useful for patient prognostication and design of future prospective studies. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5.
Kolla, S; Awad, S S; Rich, P B; Schreiner, R J; Hirschl, R B; Bartlett, R H
Autopsy findings suggest that lung surfactant is damaged in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. In the present study 225 bronchoalveolar lavage specimens (78 from 36 patients, 1-78 yr old with respiratory failure, 135 from another 128 patients with other respiratory disease, and 12 from healthy controls) were assayed for the lung profile [lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio, saturated lecithin, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylglycerol]. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was further analyzed for phospholipids and for phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase, phospholipase A2, and phosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase activities. A lipid-protein complex was isolated and analyzed for surface activity, and plasma was measured for myoinositol. There were only small differences seen in the recovery of total phospholipid between respiratory failure patients and normal controls. However, in respiratory failure, phospholipids in bronchoalveolar lavage were qualitatively different from those recovered either from normal controls or from patients with other lung disease: the LO/S ratio, phosphatidylglycerol, and disaturated lecithin were low, whereas sphingomyelin and phosphatidylserine were prominent. These abnormalities were present early in respiratory failure and tended to normalize during recovery. Low L/S ratio (less than 2), and low phosphatidylglycerol (1% or less of glycerophospholipids) in bronchoalveolar lavage was always associated with respiratory failure. Abnormal lavage phospholipids were not due to plasma contamination. The phospholipase studies revealed little evidence of increased catabolism of phospholipids. In respiratory failure, the lipid-protein complexes from lung lavage were not surface active, whereas that from healthy controls had surface properties similar to lung surfactant. Phospholipids from patients with respiratory failure were similar to those from respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn. However, the latter condition is characterized by fast recovery of surfactant deficiency and by high plasma myoinositol that suppresses the synthesis of surfactant phosphatidylglycerol and increases phosphatidylinositol (Pediatr. Res. 1981. 15: 720). On the other hand, in adult respiratory distress syndrome, the abnormality in surfactant phospholipids may last for weeks and in most cases is associated with low phosphatidylinositol, low phosphatidylglycerol, and low plasma myoinositol.
Hallman, M; Spragg, R; Harrell, J H; Moser, K M; Gluck, L
Background The aim of this study was to verify the benefits and limitations of repeated bedside echocardiographic examinations in children during mechanical ventilation. For the purposes of this study, we selected the data of over a time period from 2006 to 2010. Methods A total of 235 children, average age 3.21 (SD 1.32) years were included into the study and divided into etiopathogenic groups. High-risk groups comprised: Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), return of spontaneous circulation after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ROSC), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), cardiomyopathy (CMP) and cardiopulmonary disease (CPD). Transthoracic echocardiography was carried out during mechanical ventilation. The following data were collated for statistical evaluation: right and left ventricle myocardial performance indices (RV MPI; LV MPI), left ventricle shortening fraction (SF), cardiac output (CO), and the mitral valve ratio of peak velocity of early wave (E) to the peak velocity of active wave (A) as E/A ratio. The data was processed after a period of recovery, i.e. one hour after the introduction of invasive lines (time-1) and after 72 hours of comprehensive treatment (time-2). The overall development of parameters over time was compared within groups and between groups using the distribution-free Wilcoxons and two-way ANOVA tests. Results A total of 870 echocardiographic examinations were performed. At time-1 higher average values of RV MPI (0.34, SD 0.01 vs. 0.21, SD 0.01; p < 0.001) were found in all groups compared with reference values. Left ventricular load in the high-risk groups was expressed by a higher LV MPI (0.39, SD 0.13 vs. 0.29, SD 0.02; p < 0.01) and lower E/A ratio (0.95, SD 0.36 vs. 1.36, SD 0.64; p < 0.001), SF (0.37, SD 0.11 vs. 0.47, SD 0.02; p < 0.01) and CO (1.95, SD 0.37 vs. 2.94, SD 1.03; p < 0.01). At time-2 RV MPI were lower (0.25, SD 0.02 vs. 0.34, SD 0.01; p < 0.001), but remained higher compared with reference values (0.25, SD 0.02 vs. 0.21, SD 0.01; p < 0.05). Other parameters in high-risk groups were improved, but remained insignificantly different compared with reference values. Conclusion Echocardiography complements standard monitoring of valuable information regarding cardiac load in real time. Chest excursion during mechanical ventilation does not reduce the quality of the acquired data.
Boiler tube failures are conditions that utilities have been battling since the day boilers were invented. They amount to millions of dollars of lost generation and anything done in this field to aid root cause and solution determination would be of great benefit to the utility industry. A computer software advisory system is being developed through a systematic approach to
H. Gonzalez; P. S. Chang
Suggested aetiological factors were evaluated in 244 consecutive children presenting with lower respiratory disease at Marondera Hospital, Zimbabwe. Data obtained from these children were compared with information obtained from 500 children seen at the local well baby clinic. There were no differences in the prevalence of malnutrition, breast feeding, overcrowding, poor housing conditions and poverty in these two groups of children. A significant association was identified between lower respiratory disease and exposure to atmospheric woodsmoke pollution in young children. Air sampling within the kitchens of 40 children revealed levels of atmospheric pollution far in excess of the WHO recommended exposure limit. Elevated carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations confirmed childhood smoke inhalation. We suggest that in many Third World communities a chemical pneumonitis resulting from the inhalation of noxious constituents of woodsmoke predisposes to lower respiratory disease in children. PMID:2284665
Collings, D A; Sithole, S D; Martin, K S
A 59-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of dyspnea, fever, and general erythema. He had hypoxemia on admission. Chest X-ray film showed diffuse reticulonodular shadows in both lungs. Chest CT showed a diffuse increase in density, predominantly in both lower lobes. The respiratory failure had rapidly progressed, and the patient died only 40 hours after admission. Autopsy revealed diffuse alveolar damage in the lung, and Aschoff's bodies in the cardiac muscle. Aschoff's bodies are specific for rheumatic fever, and consist of Aschoff's cells with owl-eye-like or caterpillar-like nuclei. We diagnosed this patient's condition as rheumatic fever because of the presence of Aschoff's bodies. Rheumatic fever is generally seen as a disease of younger people, and these patients rarely present with respiratory signs, but this case shows that we have to recognize the possibility of rheumatic fever in adults with respiratory signs and skin lesions. PMID:7666627
Tanaka, H; Kobayashi, H; Kano, S; Kawaguchi, S; Uwabe, Y; Nagata, N
A young lady with first-degree haemorrhoids was administered injection sclerotherapy with 5% phenol in almond oil. Soon after the injection, she developed syncope and later signs and symptoms of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). She was kept on ventilatory support for 4 days, made a smooth recovery and was successfully weaned off from the ventilator. PMID:16756787
Rashid, Muhammad Misbah; Murtaza, Badar; Gondal, Zafar Iqbal; Mehmood, Arshad; Shah, Shahzad Saleem; Abbasi, Muhammad Hanif; Tamimy, Muhammad Sarmad; Kazmi, Syed Tahawwar Mujtaba
Our current state of knowledge on noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) and technical aspects are discussed in the present review. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, NPPV can be considered a valid therapeutic option to prevent endotracheal intubation. Evidence suggests that, before eventual endotracheal intubation, NPPV should be considered as first-line intervention in the early phases of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Small randomized and non-randomized studies on the application of NPPV in patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure showed promising results, with reduction in complications such as sinusitis and ventilator-associated pneumonia, and in the duration of intensive care unit stay. The conventional use of NPPV in hypoxaemic acute respiratory failure still remains controversial, however. Large randomized studies are still needed before extensive clinical application in this condition.
Antonelli, Massimo; Conti, Giorgio
Summary The bioavailability and diuretic effect of furosemide 40 mg administered orally for at least 6 months have been compared in\\u000a patients with chronic respiratory failure and in healthy controls. The mean urinary recovery of unchanged drug was 11.5 mg\\u000a and 9.41 mg in 24 h after pre- and postprandial administration to 10 patients, whereas the recovery was 14.4 mg in
H. Ogata; Y. Kawatsu; Y. Maruyama; K. Machida; T. Haga
We examined a 27-year-old woman who developed rapidly progressive quadriplegia and acute respiratory failure that required mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit. It was unclear whether this was a presentation of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (A-CIDP). Remarkable features included multiple cranial nerve involvement, respiratory failure, dysautonomia, and skin manifestations. Several autoantibodies were elevated, including antinuclear (ANA), anticardiolipin (aCL), thyroid, and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) autoantibodies. The patient was initially diagnosed with GBS and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). After almost complete recovery, relapse with quadriplegia and respiratory failure was observed 12 weeks after motor symptom onset. She then received IVIg and steroid pulse therapy followed by maintenance oral methylprednisolone and plasma exchange. She recovered completely 4 months after the relapse. The further clinical and serological course was consistent with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-associated CIDP. Herein we evaluate the association between A-CIDP and some biological markers of autoimmunity. PMID:19918775
Hantson, Philippe; Kevers, Luc; Fabien, Nicole; Van Den Bergh, Peter
Background: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a new mode of ventilation (pressure-regulated volume control; PRVC) is associated with improvements in respiratory mechanics and outcome when compared with conventional volume control (VC) ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure. We conducted a randomised, prospective, open, cross over trial on 44 patients with acute respiratory failure in the general intensive care unit of a university hospital. After a stabilization period of 8 h, a cross over trial of 2 × 2 h was conducted. Apart from the PRVC/VC mode, ventilator settings were comparable. The following parameters were recorded for each patient: days on ventilator, failure in the assigned mode of ventilation (peak inspiratory pressure > 50 cmH2O) and survival. Results: In the crossover trial, peak inspiratory pressure was significantly lower using PRVC than with VC (20 cmH2O vs 24 cmH2O, P < 0.0001). No other statistically significant differences were found. Conclusions: Peak inspiratory pressure was significantly lower during PRVC ventilation than during VC ventilation, and thus PRVC may be superior to VC in certain patients. However, in this small group of patients, we could not demonstrate that PRVC improved outcome.
Guldager, Henrik; Nielsen, Soeren L; Carl, Peder; Soerensen, Mogens B
We conducted a clinical study of 137 patients with home-canned bamboo shoot botulism at Nan Hospital, northern Thailand. The median age of the patients was 44 years (range = 14-74 years) and 36.2% were male. The median incubation period was 2 days (range = 1-8 days). Forty-three patients (31.4%) developed respiratory failure, but there were no deaths. Patients who did not have either nausea or vomiting and did not have urinary retention that required Foley catheterization was less likely to develop respiratory failure. This clinical predictor rule had a sensitivity of 75.5% and a specificity of 90.7%. The clinical syndrome most predictive of respiratory failure was nausea or vomiting and any cranial neuropathy with urinary retention or difficulty swallowing. This clinical syndrome had a sensitivity of 69.8% and a specificity of 93.6%. These clinical characteristics could help triage large numbers of patient in the event of a future outbreak. PMID:17690419
Wongtanate, Manas; Sucharitchan, Niwatchai; Tantisiriwit, Kanit; Oranrigsupak, Petchdee; Chuesuwan, Aphinya; Toykeaw, Sukumal; Suputtamongkol, Yupin
Purpose. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is known to improve cardiorespiratory function and outcome in neonates with severe respiratory failure. We tested the hypothesis that VA-ECMO therapy improves the microcirculation in neonates with severe respiratory failure. Methods. This single-center prospective observational pilot study took place in an intensive care unit of a level III university children's hospital. Twenty-one-term neonates, who received VA-ECMO treatment, were included. The microcirculation was assessed in the buccal mucosa, using Orthogonal Polarization Spectral imaging, within 24 hours before (T1) and within the first 24 hours after initiation of ECMO treatment (T2). Data were compared to data of a ventilated control group (N = 7). Results. At baseline (T1), median functional capillary density (FCD), microvascular flow index (MFI), and heterogeneity index (HI) did not differ between the ECMO group and the control group. At T2 the median FCD was lower in the control group (median [range]: 2.4 [1.4–4.2] versus 4.3 [2.8–7.4]?cm/cm2; P value <0.001). For MFI and HI there were no differences at T2 between the two groups. Conclusion. The perfusion of the microcirculation does not change after initiation of VA-ECMO treatment in neonates with severe respiratory failure.
Top, Anke P. C.; Buijs, Erik A. B.; Schouwenberg, Patrick H. M.; van Dijk, Monique; Tibboel, Dick; Ince, Can
Currently, the risk analysis software SAPHIRE has implemented a common-cause failure (CCF) module to represent standard CCF methods such as alpha-factor and multiple Greek letter approaches. However, changes to SAPHIRE are required to support the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s 2007 “Risk Assessment Standardization Project” CCF analysis guidance for events assessment. This guidance provides an outline of how both the nominal CCF probabilities and conditional (e.g., after a redundant component has failed) CCF probabilities should be calculated. Based upon user-provided input and extending the limitations in the current version of SAPHIRE, the CCF module calculations will be made consistent with the new guidance. The CCF modifications will involve changes to (1) the SAPHIRE graphical user interface directing how end-users and modelers interface with PRA models and (2) algorithmic changes as required. Included in the modifications will be the possibility to treat CCF probability adjustments based upon failure types (e.g., independent versus dependent) and failure modes (e.g., failure-to-run versus failure-to-start). In general, SAPHIRE is being modified to allow the risk analyst to define a CCF object. This object is defined in terms of a basic event. For the CCF object, the analyst would need to specify a minimal set of information, including: - The number of redundant components - The failure criteria (how many component have to fail) - The CCF model type (alpha-factor, MGL, or beta-factor) - The parameters (e.g., the alpha-factors) associated with the model - Staggered or non-staggered testing assumption - Default level of detail (expanded, showing all of the specific failure combinations, or not) This paper will outline both the theory behind the probabilistic calculations and the resulting implementation in the SAPHIRE software.
Curtis L. Smith
The aim of this study was to study the clinical value of prethrombotic state and treatment with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in senile patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) combined with respiratory failure. Hemorheological markers (hematocrit, blood viscosity and plasma viscosity), fibrinogen (FIB), D-dimer and gas analysis were evaluated in 30 senile patients with AECOPD combined with respiratory failure and compared with those in 30 cases without respiratory failure. A total of 30 cases with AECOPD combined with respiratory failure were randomly divided into treatment and control groups. The two groups received conventional treatment. The treatment group also received LMWH injections every 12 h for 6 days and the clinical effect was observed. The levels of FIB, D-dimer, hematocrit, blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were significantly higher in the patients with AECOPD combined with respiratory failure compared with those in the patients without respiratory failure. The plasma D-dimer and FIB levels had significantly positive correlations with the partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) and negative correlations with the partial pressure of O2 (PaO2) in the patients with AECOPD combined with respiratory failure. The curative effect was improved in the treatment group, compared with that in the control group without side-effects. However, no significant changes in activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and international normalized ratio (INR) were observed between the treatment and control groups. The senile patients with AECOPD combined with respiratory failure suffered from hypercoagulation. Early detection and diagnosis of the prethrombotic state and timely treatment with LMWH may benefit these patients without side-effects.
SONG, YA-JUN; ZHOU, ZHE-HUI; LIU, YAO-KANG; RAO, SHI-MING; HUANG, YING-JUN
The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored development of a database of common cause failure events for use in commercial nuclear power plant risk and reliability analyses. This paper presents a summary of the results from analysis of the emergency diesel generator data from the database. The presentation is limited to the overall insights, the design and manufacturing cause and the instrumentation and control sub-system.
Mosleh, A. [Univ. of Maryland, MD (US); Rasmuson, D. [USNRC (US); Marshall, F.; Wierman, T. [INEEL (US)
Introduction This study aims at comparing the very short-term effects of conventional and noisy (variable) pressure support ventilation (PSV) in mechanically ventilated patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Methods Thirteen mechanically ventilated patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure were enrolled in this monocentric, randomized crossover study. Patients were mechanically ventilated with conventional and noisy PSV, for one hour each, in random sequence. Pressure support was titrated to reach tidal volumes approximately 8 mL/kg in both modes. The level of positive end-expiratory pressure and fraction of inspired oxygen were kept unchanged in both modes. The coefficient of variation of pressure support during noisy PSV was set at 30%. Gas exchange, hemodynamics, lung functional parameters, distribution of ventilation by electrical impedance tomography, breathing patterns and patient-ventilator synchrony were analyzed. Results Noisy PSV was not associated with any adverse event, and was well tolerated by all patients. Gas exchange, hemodynamics, respiratory mechanics and spatial distribution of ventilation did not differ significantly between conventional and noisy PSV. Noisy PSV increased the variability of tidal volume (24.4?±?7.8% vs. 13.7?±?9.1%, P?<0.05) and was associated with a reduced number of asynchrony events compared to conventional PSV (5 (0 to 15)/30 min vs. 10 (1 to 37)/30 min, P?<0.05). Conclusions In the very short term, noisy PSV proved safe and feasible in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Compared to conventional PSV, noisy PSV increased the variability of tidal volumes, and was associated with improved patient-ventilator synchrony, at comparable levels of gas exchange. Trial registration ClinicialTrials.gov, NCT00786292
In a 49 year old man with blast crisis and massive leukocytosis due to chronic myelogenous leukemia, severe hypoxic respiratory failure developed despite a normal chest film. Correction of hypoxemia was observed after reduction of the white blood cell count by hydroxy-urea therapy. A similar episode occurred prior to death, and necropsy examination revealed extensive plugging of the pulmonary vasculature by leukemic blast cells but no infection or pulmonary edema. An inverse linear correlation was demonstrated between the peripheral white blood cell count and the efficiency of oxygen transfer in the lung as determined by the arterial to alveolar oxygen tension ratio. We postulate that mechanical obstruction and/or leukocyte mediated capillary endothelial injury caused the severe leukocyte mediated capillary endothelial injury caused the severe hypoxemia. Abnormalities of pulmonary gas exchange may be common in leukemic patients with markedly increased leukocyte counts. PMID:291338
Bloom, R; Taveira Da Silva, A M; Bracey, A
Traumatic injury to the pharynx or esophagus in a newborn from intubation or tube suctioning may have various presentations. Difficulty passing a gastric tube or feeding problems may erroneously suggest the diagnosis of esophageal atresia. Associated respiratory distress may be caused by pneumothorax or pleural effusion if the pleural space is entered. We report the case of a full-term newborn presenting with severe respiratory distress caused by a large retropharyngeal air collection resulting from hypopharyngeal perforation from prior intubation and suctioning. Chest abnormality, sufficient to account for the degree of respiratory distress, was not demonstrated. PMID:12768256
Barlev, Dan M; Nagourney, Beth A; Saintonge, Ronald
We report a 49-year-old man with progressive bulbar palsy and respiratory failure. He was well until his 48 years of the age (December 1994) when he noted a difficulty in speaking in loud voice. In February, 1995, he noted regurgitation of foods to his nose and difficulty in his speech. He was admitted to our service in May 29, 1995. On admission, he was alert and oriented to all spheres and he was not demented. His higher cerebral functions were normal. In cranial nerves, he showed dysarthria and dysphagia; muscle atrophies were seen in the tongue, the bilateral sternocleidomastoid, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus muscles. Fasciculations were seen in these muscles. He showed no muscle weakness in his limbs except for the upper limb girdle muscles, no ataxia, no reflex abnormalities, nor sensory changes. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the affected muscles. MRI of the brain and the spinal cord was entirely normal. He was discharged for out patient follow-up, however, in October of 1995, he noted difficulty in swallowing solid foods. Gastrostomy was placed and he was discharged to his home. In February 11th of 1996, he was found unresponsive and brought into the ER of our hospital. On admission, he was comatose without spontaneous respiration. BP could not be obtained. He was immediately intubated and artificial ventilation was started. On the following morning, he became alert and he was not demented. He continued to show marked dysarthria and dysphagia; again no weakness was noted in the distal parts of the upper and lower extremities. Laboratory examination showed increase in serum CK to 2,173 IU/L and amylase to 2,032 IU/L. He was extubated on February 15th, however, his spontaneous respiration was not suffice to maintain his blood gas. According to his will, he was not placed on respirator and he died on February 24th, 1996. The patient was discussed in a neurological CPC and the chief discussant arrived at the conclusion that the patient had ALS. Although no upper neuron signs were observed clinically, it is not uncommon to see degeneration in the corticospinal tract in post-mortem examination. The question was what might have been the cause of increase in CK and amylase. Many participants thought that they were secondary to multiple organ failure due to prolonged hypoxic state at his last admission; other possibilities raised included acute myocardial infarction and acute bowel necrosis. Post-mortem examination revealed muscle atrophy in the facial, lingual, cervical, intercostal, and the upper limb girdle areas. The lungs were unremarkable except for old organized pneumonic foci in the right middle and lower lobes. Marked to moderate congestion was seen in many internal organs, however, no other gross abnormality was found. It was thought that respiratory palsy itself was the direct cause of his agonal event. In the spinal cord, the anterior horns showed various degree of neuronal loss and gliosis. No clear evidence of pyramidal tract degeneration was seen at the light microscope level. Lower brain stem motor neurons were markedly reduced. But no Bunina body was found. The substantia nigra showed moderate degree of neuronal loss and extraneuronal neuromelanins. The locus coeruleus showed similar but milder changes. The degree of nigral degeneration appeared to be well beyond those which could be seen in usual ALS patients. The question was whether or not this patient might have been in an early stage of the extended form of ALS. PMID:9493205
Motoi, Y; Satoh, K; Matsumine, H; Wakiya, M; Mori, H; Shirai, T; Kondo, T; Mizuno, Y
Neurological disorders frequently contribute to respiratory failure in critically ill patients. They may be the primary reason for the initiation of mechanical ventilation, or may develop later as a secondary complication. Disorders of the central nervous system leading to respiratory failure include metabolic encephalopathies, acute stroke, lesions of the motor cortex and brain-stem respiratory centres, and their descending pathways. Guillan-Barré syndrome, critical illness polyneuropathy and acute quadriplegic myopathy are the more common neuromuscular causes of respiratory failure. Clinical observations and pulmonary function tests are important in monitoring respiratory function. Respiratory electrophysiological studies are useful in the investigation and monitoring of respiratory failure. Transcortical and cervical magnetic stimulation can assess the central respiratory drive, and may be useful in determining the prognosis in ventilated patients, with cervical cord dysfunction. It is also helpful in the assessment of failure to wean, which is often caused by a combination of central and peripheral nervous system disorders. Phrenic nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography of the diaphragm and chest wall muscles are useful to characterize neuropathies and myopathies affecting the diaphragm. Repetitive phrenic nerve stimulation can assess neuromuscular transmission defects. It is important to identify patients at risk of respiratory failure. They should be carefully monitored and mechanical ventilation should be initiated before the development of severe hypoxaemia. PMID:9117072
Zifko, U; Chen, R
Rationale: Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) for acute respiratory failure has increased as a result of technological advancements and promising results from recent studies as compared with historical trials. Objectives: Systematically review the effect of ECLS compared with mechanical ventilation on mortality, length of stay, and adverse events in respiratory failure. Methods: Data sources included were MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL (through to October 2013). Any randomized controlled trial (RCT) or observational study comparing ECLS to mechanical ventilation in adults was used. Two authors independently abstracted the data. Our primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes included intensive care unit length of stay, hospital length of stay, and adverse events. A sensitivity analysis was performed restricted to RCTs and quasi-RCTs, and a number of predefined subgroups were identified to explore heterogeneity. Measurements and Main Results: Ten studies (four RCTs, six observational studies, 1,248 patients) were included. There was no significant difference in hospital mortality with ECLS as compared with mechanical ventilation (risk ratio [RR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-1.33; I(2) = 77%). When restricted to venovenous ECLS studies of randomized trials and quasi-randomized trials (three studies; 504 patients), there was a decrease in mortality with ECLS compared with mechanical ventilation (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.51-0.79; I(2) = 15%). There were insufficient study-level data to evaluate most secondary outcomes. Bleeding was significantly greater in the ECLS group (RR, 11.44; 95% CI, 3.11-42.06; I(2) = 0%). In the H1N1 subgroup (three studies; 364 patients), ECLS was associated with significantly lower hospital mortality (RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.45-0.8; I(2) = 25%). Conclusions: ECLS was not associated with a mortality benefit in patients with acute respiratory failure. However, a significant mortality benefit was seen when restricted to higher-quality studies of venovenous ECLS. Patients with H1N1-acute respiratory distress syndrome represent a subgroup that may benefit from ECLS. Future studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of ECLS as well as the optimal configuration, indications, and timing for adult patients with respiratory failure. PMID:24724902
Munshi, Laveena; Telesnicki, Teagan; Walkey, Allan; Fan, Eddy
In August of 1999, Boeing Corporation (Boeing) engineers began investigating failures of optical fiber being used on International Space Station flight hardware. Catastrophic failures of the fiber were linked to a defect in the glass fiber. Following several meetings of Boeing and NASA engineers and managers, Boeing created and led an investigation team, which examined the reliability of the cable installed in the U.S. Lab. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Components Technologies and Radiation Effects Branch (GSFC) led a team investigating the root cause of the failures. Information was gathered from: regular telecons and other communications with the investigation team, investigative trips to the cable distributor's plant, the cable manufacturing plant and the fiber manufacturing plant (including a review of build records), destructive and non-destructive testing, and expertise supplied by scientists from Dupont, and Lucent-Bell Laboratories. Several theories were established early on which were not able to completely address the destructive physical analysis and experiential evidence. Lucent suggested hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching of the glass and successfully duplicated the "rocket engine" defect. Strength testing coupled with examination of the low strength break sites linked features in the polyimide coating with latent defect sites. The information provided below explains what was learned about the susceptibility of the pre-cabled fiber to failure when cabled as it was for Space Station and the nature of the latent defects.
Leidecker, Henning; Plante, Jeannette
Background An 81 year old female patient diagnosed with a chronic low grade hypereosinophilic syndrome presented with angina and dyspnoea. Case presentation She was managed for a non-ST elevated myocardial infarction since her troponin levels were elevated. On day 5, she suffered an acute clinical deterioration with type I respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock, accompanied by deterioration in left ventricular systolic function demonstrated on echocardiography, and this coincided with a marked rise in eosinophil count. Secondary causes of eosinophilia were excluded permitting a diagnosis of Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (HES) to be made. Coronary angiography revealed unobstructed arteries. Supportive treatment for heart failure included diuretic and inotropes but she dramatically improved both clinically and echocardiographically upon commencement of high dose steroids and hydroxycarbamide. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) demonstrated diffuse, shallow endomyocardial enhancement with late gadolinium, consistent with a diagnosis of eosinophilic myocarditis. Conclusion Hypereosinophilic Syndrome can masquerade as a myocardial infarction causing decompensated heart failure. Early recognition and treatment with steroids can improve outcome.
Eosinophilic pneumonias are a group of heterogeneous disorders, rarely reported in children. We describe a case of a 12-year-old boy hospitalized for an acute febrile respiratory failure. Chest radiograph showed bilateral diffuse infiltrates. A pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration was confirmed by a major blood eosinophilia at 33,800/mm(3) associated with increased eosinophilic rate (90%) on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Outcome improved markedly with mechanical ventilation and corticosteroid therapy. Laboratory screenings for parasitic or allergic disease were negative. Bone marrow smear and medullar caryotype eliminated an acute leukemia. No further visceral eosinophilic injury were found. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia should be included in etiological investigation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) even in young subjects. PMID:18565719
Khémiri, M; Ouederni, M; Ben Mansour, F; Ben Jaballah, N; Barsaoui, S
Background and Purpose Population study on relationship between nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection and respiratory failure (RF) is limited. This study evaluated the RF risk, including acute respiratory failure (ARF), chronic respiratory failure (CRF) and ARF on CRF, in patients with NTM infection in Taiwan. Methods We used the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan to identify 3864 newly diagnosed NTM patients (NTM cohort) from 1999 to 2009, and 15456 non-NTM patients (non-NTM cohort), frequency matched by demographic status for comparison. Incidence and hazard of developing RF were measured by the end of 2010. Results The incidence rate of RF was 4.31-fold higher in the NTM cohort than in the non-NTM cohort (44.0 vs.10.2 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 3.11 (95% CI: 2.73–3.54). The cumulative proportional incidence of RF was 10% higher in the NTM cohort than in the non-NTM cohort (P<0.0001). The RF risk was much greater within 6 months after the diagnosis of NTM infection with a HR of 7.45 (95% CI?=?5.50–10.09). Age-specific comparison showed that the younger NTM patients had a higher HR of RF than the elderly NTM patients (HR: 4.42, 95% CI: 3.28–5.96 vs. HR: 2.52, 95% CI: 2.17–2.92). Comorbidity increased the risk of RF in both cohorts, particularly in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusion Our study suggests patients with NTM infection are at a high risk of RF. The risk appears much greater soon after patients diagnosed with NTM infection.
Yeh, Jun-Jun; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chou, Christine Yi-Ting; Yeh, Ting-Chun; Wu, Bing-Tsang
Objective Optimal care of adults with severe acute respiratory failure requires specific resources and expertise. We sought to measure geographic access to these centers in the United States. Design Cross-sectional analysis of geographic access to high capability severe acute respiratory failure centers in the United States. We defined high capability centers using two criteria: (1) provision of adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), based on either 2008–2013 Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reporting or provision of ECMO to 2010 Medicare beneficiaries; or (2) high annual hospital mechanical ventilation volume, based 2010 Medicare claims. Setting Nonfederal acute care hospitals in the United States. Measurements and Main Results We defined geographic access as the percentage of the state, region and national population with either direct or hospital-transferred access within one or two hours by air or ground transport. Of 4,822 acute care hospitals, 148 hospitals met our ECMO criteria and 447 hospitals met our mechanical ventilation criteria. Geographic access varied substantially across states and regions in the United States, depending on center criteria. Without interhospital transfer, an estimated 58.5% of the national adult population had geographic access to hospitals performing ECMO and 79.0% had geographic access to hospitals performing a high annual volume of mechanical ventilation. With interhospital transfer and under ideal circumstances, an estimated 96.4% of the national adult population had geographic access to hospitals performing ECMO and 98.6% had geographic access to hospitals performing a high annual volume of mechanical ventilation. However, this degree of geographic access required substantial interhospital transfer of patients, including up to two hours by air. Conclusions Geographic access to high capability severe acute respiratory failure centers varies widely across states and regions in the United States. Adequate referral center access in the case of disasters and pandemics will depend highly on local and regional care coordination across political boundaries.
Wallace, David J.; Angus, Derek C.; Seymour, Christopher W.; Yealy, Donald M.; Carr, Brendan G.; Kurland, Kristen; Boujoukos, Arthur; Kahn, Jeremy M.
Premature ovarian failure (POF) affects 1% of young women. This condition has significant psychological sequelae and major health implications. POF seriously interferes with fertility and family planning. Diverse etiologies are associated with POF. Literature review related to the causes and pathogenesis of POF, cited between the year 1900 and May 2010. POF may be either spontaneous or induced. The known causes include: Genetic disorders, which could involve the X chromosome or autosomes. However, the growing body of literature demonstrates a list of newly discovered mutations that may be responsible for causing POF. Most of these mutations are extremely rare, and most cases of POF are still considered to be idiopathic.Autoimmune causes; there is some evidence of an association of POF with lymphocytic oophoritis and other autoimmune disorders. Antiovarian antibodies are reported in POF, but their specificity and pathogenic role are obscure.Iatrogenic causes; chemotherapy, radiotherapy and pelvic surgery can lead to POF.Infectious Causes; some viral and microbial infections can be followed by POF.Environmental toxins, such as cigarette smoking are reported as risk factors of spontaneous POF.Idiopathic; in most cases, no identifiable etiology can be recognized after complete evaluation.
Ebrahimi, Mahbod; Akbari Asbagh, Firoozeh
Takayasu arteritis is a rare chronic inflammatory disease on unknown etiology. We report a 23-year old female who presented with fever, shortness of breath and abdominal pain. Shortly thereafter the patient developed hematuria, hemoptysis and seizure progressing to respiratory failure. She was found to have aortitis and alveolar hemorrhage. We discuss the clinical manifestations and the diagnostic work up of Takayasu arteritis. The patient's response to therapy and a discussion on treatment modalities of the disease are also included in the report. PMID:24003540
Yaqoob, M; El-Sameed, Y A
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a rescue therapy for patients with cardio-respiratory failure. Establishing, maintaining and weaning from ECMO may increase the risk for intracranial injury. We used a dual channel near infrared system to monitor cerebral and peripheral tissue oxygenation in 3 venoarterial (VA) and 1 venovenous (VV) ECMO patients undergoing manipulations in the ECMO circuit flows. Spectral analysis was performed on the oxyhaemoglobin data collected from these patients with the aim of comparing oscillations at range of frequencies appearing in the two measurement sites.
Papademetriou, Maria D.; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Leung, Terence S.; Elliott, Martin J.; Hoskote, Aparna; Elwell, Clare E.
Objective: The influence of hypoxaemia on the disposition of two common drugs has been examined in ten adults with stable chronic respiratory\\u000a failure. \\u000a \\u000a Methods:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a There were two experimental periods in this cross-over study: during these periods supplemental oxygen was either withheld\\u000a or administered to impose clinical hypoxaemia or maintain normoxaemia, respectively. Each participant received either oral\\u000a (40?mg) or intravenous (20?mg)
D. Rowett; K. Latimer; L. N. Sansom; R. E. Ruffin; F. May; G. Henderson; P. J. Hayball
BACKGROUNDThe rate of failure of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with acute respiratory insufficiency ranges from 5% to 40%. Most of the studies report an incidence of “late failure” (after >48 hours of NIMV) of about 10–20%. The recognition of this subset of patients is critical because prolonged application of NIMV may unduly
Maurizio Moretti; Carmela Cilione; Auro Tampieri; Claudio Fracchia; Alessandro Marchioni; Stefano Nava
Introduction We assessed rates and predictive factors of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) failure in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for non-hypercapnic acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF). Methods This is an observational cohort study using data prospectively collected over a three-year period in a medical ICU of a university hospital. Results Among 113 patients receiving NIV for AHRF, 82 had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and 31 had non-ARDS. Intubation rates significantly differed between ARDS and non-ARDS patients (61% versus 35%, P?=?0.015) and according to clinical severity of ARDS: 31% in mild, 62% in moderate, and 84% in severe ARDS (P?=?0.0016). In-ICU mortality rates were 13% in non-ARDS, and, respectively, 19%, 32% and 32% in mild, moderate and severe ARDS (P?=?0.22). Among patients with moderate ARDS, NIV failure was lower among those having a PaO2/FiO2 >150 mmHg (45% vs. 74%, p?=?0.04). NIV failure was associated with active cancer, shock, moderate/severe ARDS, lower Glasgow coma score and lower positive end-expiratory pressure level at NIV initiation. Among intubated patients, ICU mortality rate was 46% overall and did not differ according to the time to intubation. Conclusions With intubation rates below 35% in non-ARDS and mild ARDS, NIV stands as the first-line approach; NIV may be attempted in ARDS patients with a PaO2/FiO2?>?150. By contrast, 84% of severe ARDS required intubation and NIV did not appear beneficial in this subset of patients. However, the time to intubation had no influence on mortality.
Mechanical ventilation is the most common invasive treatment for acute respiratory failure in intensive care units. According to non-intensivist clinicians, ventilation could be considered as a therapy for blood gas exchange, even though positive pressure ventilation can be extremely dangerous for injured lung tissue. Despite constant advances in ventilation software and modalities, aimed at optimizing patient/ventilator adjustment, the scientific community has addressed major attention in new protective strategies to ventilate the lung, trying to prevent and reduce life-threatening iatrogenic injuries that may derive from inappropriate use of mechanical ventilation. In this review we describe the main ventilation techniques as well as new emerging methodologies. The physiological bases on which the acute respiratory distress syndrome network has significantly changed the strategy for ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome are also discussed. Non-invasive ventilation, including both continuous positive airway pressure and pressure support ventilation, is considered the gold standard for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. There is an increasing interest in the clinical use of non-invasive ventilation outside intensive care units. Although many studies have analyzed risks and benefits of non-invasive ventilation in the intensive care setting, feasibility and organization processes to perform this technique in the non-intensive wards, by preserving efficacy and safety, need to be debated. PMID:20380337
Colombo, Sergio; Zangrillo, Alberto
Study objectives Disseminated strongyloides is a rarely reported phenomenon and occurs in immuno-suppressed patients with chronic Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Typically, patients present with pulmonary symptoms but subsequently acquire Gram-negative sepsis. Several cases have been noted in Minnesota, and their presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. Design A retrospective chart review was conducted of complicated strongyloides infections from 1993 to 2002 in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN. Cases were identified by reviewing hospital microbiology databases. Setting Metropolitan hospitals with large immigrant populations. Results Nine patients, all of Southeast Asian heritage, were identified. Eight patients immigrated to the United States ? 3 years prior to acute presentation. All patients were receiving antecedent corticosteroids; in five patients, therapy was for presumed asthma. Absolute eosinophil counts > 500/?L occurred in only two patients prior to steroid initiation. Eight patients presented with respiratory distress, and Gram-negative sepsis developed in four patients. Four patients had evidence of right-heart strain on ECG or echocardiography at the time of presentation. Three patients died; all had eosinophil counts of < 400/?L. Conclusions Serious complications, including death, may occur in patients with chronic strongyloides infection treated with corticosteroids. Strongyloides hyperinfection usually presents as acute respiratory failure and may initially mimic an asthma exacerbation or pulmonary embolism. Southeast Asian patients presenting with new-onset “asthma,” acute respiratory distress, and/or Gram-negative sepsis should undergo evaluation to exclude strongyloides infection.
Newberry, Ashley M.; Williams, David N.; Stauffer, William M.; Boulware, David R.; Hendel-Paterson, Brett R.; Walker, Patricia F.
Background Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common lymphoid neoplasm, accounting for approximately 25% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Patients typically present with nodal enlargement, fever, weight loss, or night sweats. Extranodal extramedullary disease occurs in up to 40% of cases with the most common site of extranodal involvement being the gastrointestinal tract. However, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma can present in virtually any area, including the testes, bones, thyroid, salivary glands, tonsils, skin, liver, breasts, adrenals, kidneys, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, cervix, and central nervous system. Case Report We present a unique case of atrial fibrillation and respiratory failure as an initial presentation of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with cardiac and cavitary pulmonary involvement. Conclusion The recent advances in chemotherapeutic options allow for and reinforce the importance of tailoring the chemotherapy regimen to the individual patient's unique presentation. In our patient, presentation included extensive intracardiac involvement resulting in arrhythmias, cavitary pulmonary nodules, and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring ventilator support.
Background Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) improves gas-exchange and symptoms in selected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure. We hypothesized NIV reverses respiratory failure by one or all of increased ventilatory response to carbon-dioxide, reduced respiratory muscle fatigue, or improved pulmonary mechanics. Methods Nineteen stable COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in one second 35% predicted) were studied at baseline (D0), 5–8 days (D5) and 3 months (3M) after starting NIV. Results Ventilator use was 6.2 (3.7) hours per night at D5 and 3.4 (1.6) at 3M (p = 0.12). Mean (SD) daytime arterial carbon-dioxide tension (PaCO2) was reduced from 7.4 (1.2) kPa to 7.0 (1.1) kPa at D5 and 6.5 (1.1) kPa at 3M (p = 0.001). Total lung capacity decreased from 107 (28) % predicted to 103 (28) at D5 and 103 (27) % predicted at 3M (p = 0.035). At D5 there was an increase in the hypercapnic ventilatory response and some volitional measures of inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength, but not isolated diaphragmatic strength whether assessed by volitional or nonvolitional methods. Conclusion These findings suggest decreased gas trapping and increased ventilatory sensitivity to CO2 are the principal mechanism underlying improvements in gas-exchange in patients with COPD following NIV. Changes in some volitional but not nonvolitional muscle strength measures may reflect improved patient effort.
Nickol, Annabel H; Hart, Nicholas; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Hamnegard, Carl-Hugo; Moxham, John; Simonds, Anita; Polkey, Michael I
Recent studies suggest that noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) administered by nasal or oronasal mask avoids the need for endotracheal intubation, rapidly improves vital signs, gas exchange, and sense of dyspnea, and may reduce mortality in selected patients with acute respiratory failure, but few controlled trials have been done. The present study used a randomized prospective design to evaluate the possible benefits of NPPV plus standard therapy versus standard therapy alone in patients with acute respiratory failure. Patients to receive NPPV were comfortably fitted with a standard nasal mask connected to a BiPAP ventilatory assist device (Respironics, Inc., Murrysville, PA) in the patient flow-triggered/time-triggered (S/T) mode, and standard therapy consisted of all other treatments deemed necessary by the primary physician, including endotracheal intubation. The need for intubation was reduced from 73% in the standard therapy group (11 of 15 patients) to 31% in the NPPV group (5 of 16 patients, p < 0.05). Among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, the reduction was even more striking, with 8 of 12 (67%) control patients requiring intubation compared with 1 of 11 (9%) NPPV patients (p < 0.05). Heart and respiratory rates were significantly lower in the NPPV group than in control patients within 1 h, and PaO2 was significantly improved in the NPPV group for the first 6 h. Dyspnea scores and maximal inspiratory pressures were better in the NPPV than in control patients at 6 h, and nurses and therapists spent similar amounts of time at the bedside for both groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7767523
Kramer, N; Meyer, T J; Meharg, J; Cece, R D; Hill, N S
Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Long-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty_member_giacomini.htm. For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx. The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact. Objective The objective of this health technology assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of noninvasive ventilation for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Noninvasive ventilation is used for COPD patients with chronic respiratory failure. Chronic respiratory failure in COPD patients may be due to the inability of the pulmonary system to coordinate ventilation, leading to adverse arterial level
The epidemiology and clinical manifestations associated with hMPV have been found to be reminiscent of those of the hRSV,\\u000a with most severe RTI occuring in young infants, elderly subjects, and immunocompromised hosts. The seasonal distribution resembles\\u000a that of hRSV and influenza virus infections, with recurrent epidemics during the winter months. hMPV is the second most important\\u000a cause, after hRSV, of
Adilia Warris; Ronald de Groot
Respiratory stridor in patients with multiple system atrophy is a complication that occasionally causes nocturnal sudden death. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy has been proposed as an alternative to tracheostomy to treat nocturnal stridor associated with multiple system atrophy. However, some patients cannot tolerate CPAP therapy and experience sleep disturbances, even if the pressure is controlled; also, CPAP therapy can be less effective in patients with a narrow glottic opening during sleep. This report describes the effect of laser arytenoidectomy on respiratory stridor caused by multiple system atrophy. Citation: Chitose S; Kikuchi A; Ikezono K; Umeno H; Nakashima T. Effect of laser arytenoidectomy on respiratory stridor caused by multiple system atrophy. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(6):713-715.
Chitose, Shun-ichi; Kikuchi, Atsushi; Ikezono, Keiko; Umeno, Hirohito; Nakashima, Tadashi
Eight respiratory parameters which might affect the amount of carbon dioxide rebreathing were assessed in seven patients who\\u000a were breathing spontaneously from large-bore T tube system during the recovery phase from acute respiratory failure . p]With\\u000a multivariate regression analysis, the absolute amount of rebreathed CO2 at the connector of endotracheal tube (VINSPC02) were approximately estimated by using relatively small number
Hidenori Toyooka; Keisuke Amaha; Masayuki Nagase; Hisato Takahashi
This case-control study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of nega- tive pressure ventilation (NPV) versus conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) for the treatment of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) admitted to a respiratory intermediate intensive care unit (RIICU) and four general intensive care units (ICU). Twenty-six COPD patients in ARF admitted in 1994-95
A. Corrado; M. Gorini; R. Ginanni; C. Pelagatti; G. Villella; U. Buoncristiano; F. Guidi; E. Pagni; A. Peris; E. De Paola
Respiratory stridor in patients with multiple system atrophy is a complication that occasionally causes nocturnal sudden death. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy has been proposed as an alternative to tracheostomy to treat nocturnal stridor associated with multiple system atrophy. However, some patients cannot tolerate CPAP therapy and experience sleep disturbances, even if the pressure is controlled; also, CPAP therapy can be less effective in patients with a narrow glottic opening during sleep. This report describes the effect of laser arytenoidectomy on respiratory stridor caused by multiple system atrophy. PMID:23243406
Chitose, Shun-ichi; Kikuchi, Atsushi; Ikezono, Keiko; Umeno, Hirohito; Nakashima, Tadashi
Mutations in the human ABCA3 gene, encoding an ABC-transporter, are associated with respiratory failure in newborns and pediatric interstitial lung disease. In order to study disease mechanisms, a transgenic mouse model with a disrupted Abca3 gene was generated by targeting embryonic stem cells. While heterozygous animals developed normally and were fertile, individuals homozygous for the altered allele (Abca3-/-) died within one hour after birth from respiratory failure, ABCA3 protein being undetectable. Abca3-/- newborns showed atelectasis of the lung in comparison to a normal gas content in unaffected or heterozygous littermates. Electron microscopy demonstrated the absence of normal lamellar bodies in type II pneumocytes. Instead, condensed structures with apparent absence of lipid content were found. We conclude that ABCA3 is required for the formation of lamellar bodies and lung surfactant function. The phenotype of respiratory failure immediately after birth corresponds to the clinical course of severe ABCA3 mutations in human newborns.
Hammel, Markus [Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Lindwurmstrasse 4, 80337 Munich (Germany); Michel, Geert [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Experimental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Hoefer, Christina [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Experimental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Klaften, Matthias [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Experimental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Mueller-Hoecker, Josef [Institute of Pathology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Thalkirchner Strasse 36, 80337 Munich (Germany); Angelis, Martin Hrabe de [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Experimental Genetics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Holzinger, Andreas [Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Lindwurmstrasse 4, 80337 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: email@example.com
This paper describes an approach to establish effective mitigating strategies that can resolve potential common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems at nuclear power plants. A particular objective in the development of these strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria, is to address the unique characteristics of digital technology that can contribute to CCF concerns. The research approach employed to establish diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on diversity usage and experience from nuclear power and non-nuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of common practices, and assessment of the nature of CCFs and compensating diversity attributes. The resulting diversity strategies address considerations such as the effect of technology choices, the nature of CCF vulnerabilities, and the prospective impact of each diversity type. In particular, the impact of each attribute and criterion on the purpose, process, product, and performance aspects of diverse systems are considered.
Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL
We present two uncommon underlying causes of a sore throat which, if missed or delayed in diagnosis, can lead to disastrous consequences. Our first case is of Lemierre's syndrome diagnosed in a 21-year-old man presenting with a 5-day history of sore throat, fever, right-sided pleuritic chest pain and bilateral pulmonary nodules on CT imaging. Fusobacterium necrophorum cultured from peripheral blood and an occluded left internal jugular vein on ultrasound lead to an eventual diagnosis. Our second case presents a 29-year-old woman with a 5-day history of sore throat, fever and right-sided pleuritic chest pain. A left-sided quinsy was diagnosed and aspirated and the patient was discharged home. She represented shortly with worsening pleuritic pain and was found to have a right-sided pleural effusion with descending mediastinitis originating from the tonsillar abscess. Delayed diagnosis resulted in open thoracotomy, decortication and prolonged intravenous antibiotics. PMID:23632177
Wahab, Dalia; Bichard, Julia; Shah, Anand; Mann, Bhupinder
Defects of the NKX2-1 gene, encoding thyroid transcription factor-1, cause brain-thyroid-lung syndrome (MIM 610978), characterised by benign hereditary chorea, congenital hypothyroidism and respiratory disease. The case of a term infant with mild primary congenital hypothyroidism and neonatal persistent respiratory failure with fatal outcome at 10 months of age despite continuous ventilatory support is described. Congenital defects of genes known to disturb surfactant protein and lipid homeostasis (SFTPB, SFTPC, ABCA3) were excluded. Hypothyroidism prompted sequencing of NKX2-1, which revealed a heterozygous 29 bp deletion (c.278_306del29) disrupting the affected allele. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid demonstrated an abnormally low amount of surfactant protein C (SP-C) in relation to SP-B, and low levels of surfactant phospholipids, indicating disturbance of SP and lipid homeostasis as a consequence of NKX2-1 haploinsufficiency. NKX2-1 haploinsufficiency may lead to lethal respiratory failure of the newborn due to disruption of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis. NKX2-1 gene analysis should be considered when investigating irreversible respiratory insufficiency of the newborn. PMID:20584796
Kleinlein, Barbara; Griese, Matthias; Liebisch, Gerhard; Krude, Heiko; Lohse, Peter; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Schmitz, Gerd; Peters, Jochen; Holzinger, Andreas
1. The increasing burden of heart failure is a result of the aging population and improvements in cardiac care. It is estimated that 660,000 new cases of heart failure are diagnosed every year in the United States. 2. Heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) is part of a single entity of heart failure that includes also heart failure with
Marco Metra; Valerio Zaca; Savina Nodari; Livio Dei Cas
We described two patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and respiratory failure with or without mechanical ventilation. Case 1 was a 44-year-old man who treated as pneumonia under mechanical ventilation for a month and transferred to our hospital with unsuccessful weaning trials because of phrenic nerve palsy. Case 2 was a 74-year-old man who presented with aspiration pneumonia because of bulbar palsy. The present two cases with review of the Japanese literature showed that antecedent infection with initial symptoms within the most recent 5 to 46 days is a clinical clue to the diagnosis even in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome accompanied by respiratory failure.
Sohara, Erei; Saraya, Takeshi; Honda, Kojiro; Yamada, Atsuko; Inui, Toshiya; Ogawa, Yukari; Sada, Mitsuru; Tsujimoto, Naoki; Nakamura, Masuo; Tsuchiya, Akiko; Saito, Masaki; Oishi, Chizuko; Chiba, Atsuro; Takizawa, Hajime
In August of 1999, Boeing Corporation (Boeing) engineers began investigating failures of optical fiber being used on International Space Station flight hardware. Catastrophic failures of the fiber were linked to a defect in the glass fiber. Following seve...
H. Leidecker J. Plante
A sudden failure of implantable pulse generators used for spinal cord stimulation occurred in two patients. To identify the cause of this failure, an intensive destructive analysis of the explanted devices was carried out. A functional diagnosis was carried out by inspecting amplitude, pulse width and frequency on each output channel of the implantable pulse generators. Later, the titanium case of the pulse generators was opened by laser cutting to minimise any additional mechanical stress during the opening procedure. The functional test for both pulse generators showed faultless behaviour. Using light and electron microscopy, hairline cracks could be identified in the electrical connection between battery and electronic circuit. In both devices, the cracks spread through the whole bond wire in the connection to the plus pole of the battery and partially also to the minus pole. The analysis showed that both devices failed by broken bond wires. The electrical connection to the battery exists just by the spring characteristic of the wires. A push to the implant causes a short-term disconnection, resulting in a power on reset of the device. Manufacturing or design issues, allowing micromotion between battery and the hybrid part, may be the reason for this problem. PMID:17915998
Lanmüller, Hermann; Buchroithner, Johanna; Wernisch, Johann; Alesch, François
Alzheimer disease is a progressive neurodegenerative brain disorder that leads to major debilitating cognitive deficits. It is believed that the alterations capable of causing brain circuitry dysfunctions have a slow onset and that the full blown disease may take several years to develop. Therefore, it is important to understand the early, asymptomatic, and possible reversible states of the disease with the aim of proposing preventive and disease-modifying therapeutic strategies. It is largely unknown how amyloid ?-peptide (A?), a principal agent in Alzheimer disease, affects synapses in brain neurons. In this study, we found that similar to other pore-forming neurotoxins, A? induced a rapid increase in intracellular calcium and miniature currents, indicating an enhancement in vesicular transmitter release. Significantly, blockade of these effects by low extracellular calcium and a peptide known to act as an inhibitor of the A?-induced pore prevented the delayed failure, indicating that A? blocks neurotransmission by causing vesicular depletion. This new mechanism for A? synaptic toxicity should provide an alternative pathway to search for small molecules that can antagonize these effects of A?.
Parodi, Jorge; Sepulveda, Fernando J.; Roa, Jorge; Opazo, Carlos; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.; Aguayo, Luis G.
Postintubation stenosis is the most frequent cause of benign tracheal stenosis and may cause reintubation and delay in weaning of intensive care unit patients. This case study describes typical patients with tracheal stenosis and the management of these patients. Five patients requiring reintubation and mechanical ventilation due to early intubation-related stenosis are discussed. Stridor developed in three cases after extubation. In these cases, bronchoscopy revealed tracheal stenosis. Dilatation and silicone stent placement were performed using rigid bronchoscopy. The other two patients were on ventilators when they were admitted to the intensive care unit and their stenoses were also treated by rigid bronchoscopy. Hypercapnia and hypoxia resolved after intervention in three cases. Of the remaining two patients, one had the tracheostomy closed and in the other patient ventilation was stopped but the tracheostomy was maintained. Tracheal stenosis developing in the subglottic region after extubation, especially after exposure to cuff pressure, may lead to reintubation. A tracheostomy may hinder the diagnosis of progressive stenosis and may lead to unnecessary maintenance of ventilator treatment. Early intubation-related tracheal stenosis should therefore be considered in cases of weaning or extubation failure and prompt appropriate investigation and treatment. PMID:23362899
Dalar, L; Schuurmans, M M; Eryuksel, E; Karasulu, L; Kosar, A F; Altin, S
Chromosomal segmental deletion is a frequent cause of human diseases. A familial 1.1 Mb deletion of human chromosome Xq22.1 associates with epilepsy, cleft palate and developmental defects in heterozygous female patients. Here, we describe a mouse mutant with a targeted deletion of the syntenic segment of the mouse X chromosome that phenocopies the human syndrome. Male mice with a deletion of a 1.1 Mb Nxf2-Nxf3 X-chromosomal segment exhibit respiratory failure, neonatal lethality and cleft palate. In female mice, heterozygosity for the deletion manifests cleft palate, early postnatal lethality, postnatal growth delay and spontaneous seizures in surviving animals, apparently due to X-chromosome inactivation. Furthermore, loss of a 0.35 Mb subregion containing Armcx5, Gprasp1, Gprasp2 and Bhlhb9 is sufficient to cause the Xq22.1 syndrome phenotype. Our results support that the 1.1 Mb deletion of human Xq22.1 is the genetic cause of the associated syndrome. PMID:24569167
Zhou, Jian; Goldberg, Ethan M; Leu, N Adrian; Zhou, Lei; Coulter, Douglas A; Wang, P Jeremy
Objective\\u000a To determine the prevalence of patient–ventilator asynchrony in patients receiving non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for acute\\u000a respiratory failure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design\\u000a Prospective multicenter observation study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting\\u000a Intensive care units in three university hospitals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Patients consecutively admitted to ICU were included. NIV, performed with an ICU ventilator, was set by the clinician. Airway\\u000a pressure, flow, and surface diaphragmatic electromyography were recorded continuously for
Laurence Vignaux; Frédéric Vargas; Jean Roeseler; Didier Tassaux; Arnaud W. Thille; Michel P. Kossowsky; Laurent Brochard; Philippe Jolliet
This review evaluates noninvasive techniques for assessing cardiovascular performance in acute and chronic respiratory failure. Radiographic, radionuclide, and echocardiographic methods for determining ventricular volumes, right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) ejection fractions, and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) are emphasized. These methods include plain chest radiography, radionuclide angiocardiography, thallium-201 myocardial imaging, and M mode and 2-dimensional echocardiography, which have recently been applied in patients to detect pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH), right ventricular enlargement, and occult ventricular performance abnormalities at rest or exercise. Moreover, radionuclide angiocardiography has proven useful in combination with hemodynamic measurements, for evaluating the short-and long-term cardiovascular effects of therapeutic agents, such as oxygen, digitalis, theophylline, beta-adrenergic agents, and vasodilators.
Matthay, R.A.; Berger, H.J.
Introduction The occurrence of an intravascular lymphoma with severe pulmonary involvement mimicking pulmonary embolism is described. Case presentation A 38-year-old man was referred to our intensive care unit with acute respiratory failure and long lasting fever. Appropriate investigations failed to demonstrate any bacterial, viral, parasitic or mycobacterial infection. A chest computed tomography scan ruled out any proximal or sub-segmental pulmonary embolism but the ventilation/perfusion lung scan concluded that there was a high probability of pulmonary embolism. The cutaneous biopsy pathology diagnosed intravascular lymphoma. Conclusion Intravascular lymphoma is a rare disease characterized by exclusive or predominant growth of neoplastic cells within the lumina of small blood vessels. Lung involvement seems to be common, but predominant lung presentation of this disease is rare. In our patient, urgent chemotherapy, along with adequate supportive care allowed complete recovery.
Inhaled NO (iNO) has been shown to have beneficial effects on decreasing pulmonary inflammation, increasing function of surfactant and improving lung growth in prematurely born animal models. iNO has been gradually applied in the neonatal intensive care unit since its first use for persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) in the early 1990's. Although many research findings have shown the benefits of iNO for hypoxic respiratory failure (HRF) of preterm infants, there is no certain evidence to support the routine use of iNO in premature infants. According to recent literature, the mechanism of iNO therapy, treatment scheme, iNO effectiveness and safety in premature infants were reviewed in this article, so as to provide bases for the clinical use of this treatment. PMID:24342207
Li, Jin-Hui; Wu, Jin-Lin; Mu, De-Zhi
World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter Causes Respiratory Tract Hyperresponsiveness in Mice Stephen H. Gavett1, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Jerry W. Highfill1, Allen D. Ledbetter1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Jack R. Harkema3, James G. Wagner3, and Daniel L. Costa1....
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is currently used to support patients of all ages with acute severe respiratory failure non-responsive to conventional treatments, and although initial use was almost exclusively in neonates, use for this age group is decreasing while use in older children remains stable (300-500 cases annually) and support for adults is increasing. Recent advances in technology include: refinement of double lumen veno-venous (VV) cannulas to support a large range of patient size, pumps with lower prime volumes, more efficient oxygenators, changes in circuit configuration to decrease turbulent flow and hemolysis. Veno-arterial (VA) mode of support remains the predominant type used; however, VV support has lower risk of central nervous injury and mortality. Key to successful survival is implementation of ECMO before irreversible organ injury develops, unless support with ECMO is used as a bridge to transplant. Among pediatric patients treated with ECMO mortality varies by pulmonary diagnosis, underlying condition, other non-pulmonary organ dysfunction as well as patient age, but has remained relatively unchanged overall (43%) over the past several decades. Additional risk factors associated with death include prolonged use of mechanical ventilation (> 2 wk) prior to ECMO, use of VA ECMO, older patient age, prolonged ECMO support as well as complications during ECMO. Medical evidence regarding daily patient management specifically related to ECMO is scant, it usually mirrors care recommended for similar patients treated without ECMO. Linkage of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization dataset with other databases and collaborative research networks will be required to address this knowledge deficit as most centers treat only a few pediatric respiratory failure patients each year.
Maslach-Hubbard, Anna; Bratton, Susan L
Objective:While malnutrition, especially fat-free mass index (FFMI), is a predictor for mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), less information on prevalence and mechanisms is available in patients with chronic respiratory failure (CRF) due to restrictive thoracic diseases (RTD).Design and setting:Cross-sectional study of patients consecutively admitted to an in-patient primary pulmonary centre.Subjects:One hundred and thirty-two patients (30% RTD; 70% COPD)
S Budweiser; K Meyer; R A Jörres; F Heinemann; P J Wild; M Pfeifer
This report on the Common-Cause Failure Database and Analysis System presents an overview of common-cause failure analysis methods for use in the U.S. commercial nuclear power industry. Idaho National Laboratory staff identify equipment failures that cont...
A. Moseleh D. M. Rasmuson T. E. Wierman
Automatic failure-cause diagnosis is a key element in autonomous operation of space power systems such as Space Station's. A rule-based diagnostic system has been developed for determining the cause of degraded performance. The knowledge required for such diagnosis is elicited from the system engineering process by using traditional failure analysis techniques. Symptoms, failures, causes, and detector information are represented with structured data; and diagnostic procedural knowledge is represented with rules. Detected symptoms instantiate failure modes and possible causes consistent with currently held beliefs about the likelihood of the cause. A diagnosis concludes with an explanation of the observed symptoms in terms of a chain of possible causes and subcauses.
Dolce, James L.; Faymon, Karl A.
Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella spp. are common causes of atypical pneumonia; however, data about these atypical pathogens are limited in the refugee setting. Paired nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens were collected from patients with respiratory illness presenting to healthcare centers in two refugee camps in Kenya. The specimens were tested for C. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, and Legionella spp. as well as eight respiratory viruses. Atypical pathogens were detected in 5.5% of the specimens of which 54% were co-infected with at least one of the eight viruses tested. Patients positive for atypical bacteria co-infected with virus were significantly more likely to have severe acute respiratory illness than patients infected with only atypical bacteria (P = 0.04). While the percentage of atypical pathogens identified was lower than expected, we found a significant relationship between atypical bacterial-viral co-infection and severity of disease in this refugee population. PMID:21701900
Kim, Curi; Nyoka, Raymond; Ahmed, Jamal A; Winchell, Jonas M; Mitchell, Stephanie L; Kariuki Njenga, M; Auko, Erick; Burton, Wagacha; Breiman, Robert F; Eidex, Rachel B
Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. Exposure in endemic regions frequently occurs when spores in soil are disturbed and subsequently inhaled. Less commonly, primary cutaneous blastomycosis may follow after traumatic inoculation of the fungus into the skin. Most patients infected with blastomycosis are asymptomatic, but an unfortunate small number present with fulminant disease. Rarely, the infection can affect organs, such as the skin, bone, or genitourinary system. In a small percentage of cases, blastomycosis may cause acute respiratory distress syndrome, which is associated with a very high mortality rate. Increased survival rates have been shown when the clinician has a high index of suspicion and facilitates rapid evaluation and initiation of the appropriate therapy. We present a rare case of a patient presenting with primary cutaneous blastomycosis that progressed to disseminated disease causing acute respiratory distress syndrome. High clinical suspicion, prompt diagnostic testing, and therapy with amphotericin B, confirmed the diagnosis and resulted in a swift recovery.
Spear, Joel B.
Objective Increased incidence of adenovirus infection in children was noticed since September 2010 in Taiwan and severe cases requiring intensive care were noted later. We did this study to find the clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with severe adenovirus infection. Patients and Methods We collected cases of severe adenovirus infection between November 2010 and June 2011 to analyze their clinical characteristics in two medical centers in northern Taiwan. Severe adenovirus infection was defined as laboratory-confirmed adenovirus cases with required intensive care. Hexon gene sequencing was performed for molecular genotyping. Results 45 patients were included, 22 cases (49%) were infected with serotype 7, 19 (42%) with serotype 3, and 4 with serotype 2. The median age (range) was 2.75 years (0.08–15.43 years); 87% were below 5 years. Male to female ratio was 1.65 (28 to 17). Of these patients, 56% had underlying neurological diseases, 50% experienced fever higher than 40°C and 69% suffered fever longer than one week. The clinical diagnosis included pneumonia in 40 (89%) patients, bronchopneumonia in 5 (11%), and encephalitis in 7 (16%). At least 22 patients had pleural effusion. They had complications of respiratory failure (53%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (24%), hypotension (40%), and 6 (13%) patients needed extracorporeal membranous oxygenation. Ten (22%) patients died, all with underlying major systemic diseases and 7 (70%) infected with serotype 7. Conclusions Adenovirus serotype 7 and 3 can cause severe disease–even death–in children, especially those with underlying neurological diseases. Patients infected with adenovirus serotype 7 tended to have a higher case-fatality rate.
Lu, Chun-Yi; Lee, Ping-Ing; Shao, Pei-Lan; Wu, En-Ting; Wang, Ching-Chia; Tan, Boon-Fatt; Chang, Hsin-Yu; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Chang, Luan-Yin; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Huang, Li-Min
Aim To evaluate kyphoscoliosis patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure (CHRF) using the six minute walk test (6MWT) distance (6MWD) and cardio-pulmonary function tests. Method This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary training and research hospital in Turkey. Kyphoscoliosis patients with CHRF on home mechanical ventilation (HMV) followed in a respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) out-patient clinic were enrolled. Patients' demographics were recorded as well as transthoracic echocardiography (ECHO), 6MWD, spirometry, arterial blood gas (ABG) values and high resolution chest computed tomography. 6MWT results were compared with other parameters. Results Thirty four patients with kyphoscoliosis and chronic respiratory insufficiency admitted to our outpatient clinic were included in the study but 25 (17 M) patients underwent 6MWT (8 patients walked with oxygen supplement due to PaO2 < 60 mm Hg). The mean 6MWD was 274.4 ± 76.2 (median 270) m and median 6MWD predicted rate was 43.7% (inter quartile ratio, IQR, 37.6% to 47.7%). Median HMV use was 3 years (IQR 2-4). 6MWD predicted rate, body mass index (BMI), HMV duration were similar in male and female patients. 6MWD correlated well with age, BMI, dyspnea score for baseline 6MWT (r: - 0.59, p < 0.002, r: - 0.58, p < 0.003, r: - 0.55, p < 0.005 respectively) but modestly with forced expiratory volume in one second, pulse rate for baseline 6MWT, pulse saturation rate, fatigue and dyspnea score at end of 6MWT (r: - 0.44, p < 0.048; r: 0.44, p < 0.027; r: - 0.43, p < 0.031; r: - 0.42, p < 0.036; r: - 0.42, p < 0.034 respectively). 6MWD predicted rate was only correlated with dyspnea score at baseline (r: - 0.46, p < 0.022). The systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (PAPs) in 6 (24%) cases was more than 40 mmHg, in whom mean PaO2/FiO2 was 301.4 ± 55.4 compared to 280.9 ± 50.2 in those with normal PAPs (p > 0.40). Conclusion The 6MWT is an easy way to evaluate physical performance limitation in kyphoscoliosis patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure using home mechanical ventilation. Nearly 275 m was the mean distance walked in the 6MWT, but rather than distance in meters, the 6MWD predicted rate according to gender and body mass index equation might be a better way for deciding about physical performance of these patients. Dyspnea score at baseline before the 6MWT may be the most important point that affects 6MWD in this patient population.
Case report: A 44 year old woman with polymyositis who developed total gut failure requiring treatment with total parenteral nutrition is described. Results: The patient's polymyositis is now fully controlled biochemically, but her gastrointestinal symptoms persist.
Hughes, A; Ferguson, I; Rankin, E; Kane, K
A newborn infant presented with cardiac failure secondary to a peripheral cavernous haemangioma. She was successfully treated surgically but was later diagnosed as having GM1 gangliosidosis. PMID:3943936
Miall-Allen, V M; Morgan, B; Cooper, P; Shinebourne, E A
Background Infection-related exacerbations of respiratory diseases are a major health concern; thus understanding the mechanisms driving them is of paramount importance. Despite distinct inflammatory profiles and pathological differences, asthma and COPD share a common clinical facet: raised airway ATP levels. Furthermore, evidence is growing to suggest that infective agents can cause the release of extracellular vesicle (EVs) in vitro and in bodily fluids. ATP can evoke the P2X7/caspase 1 dependent release of IL-1?/IL-18 from EVs; these cytokines are associated with neutrophilia and are increased during exacerbations. Thus we hypothesized that respiratory infections causes the release of EVs in the airway and that the raised ATP levels, present in respiratory disease, triggers the release of IL-1?/IL-18, neutrophilia and subsequent disease exacerbations. Methods To begin to test this hypothesis we utilised human cell-based assays, ex vivo murine BALF, in vivo pre-clinical models and human samples to test this hypothesis. Results Data showed that in a murine model of COPD, known to have increased airway ATP levels, infective challenge causes exacerbated inflammation. Using cell-based systems, murine models and samples collected from challenged healthy subjects, we showed that infection can trigger the release of EVs. When exposed to ATP the EVs release IL-1?/IL-18 via a P2X7/caspase-dependent mechanism. Furthermore ATP challenge can cause a P2X7 dependent increase in LPS-driven neutrophilia. Conclusions This preliminary data suggests a possible mechanism for how infections could exacerbate respiratory diseases and may highlight a possible signalling pathway for drug discovery efforts in this area.
Eltom, Suffwan; Dale, Nicole; Raemdonck, Kristof R. G.; Stevenson, Christopher S.; Snelgrove, Robert J.; Sacitharan, Pradeep K.; Recchi, Chiara; Wavre-Shapton, Silene; McAuley, Daniel F.; O'Kane, Cecilia; Belvisi, Maria G.; Birrell, Mark A.
Heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations (mutations present only in a subset of cellular mtDNA copies) arise de novo during the normal ageing process or may be maternally inherited in pedigrees with mitochondrial disease syndromes. A pathogenic mtDNA mutation causes respiratory chain deficiency only if the fraction of mutated mtDNA exceeds a certain threshold level. These mutations often undergo apparently random
Eric Dufour; M. Terzioglu; F. H. Sterky; L. Sorensen; D. Galter; L. Olson; J. Wilbertz; N.-G. Larsson
A diving fatality at the extreme depth of 264 m fresh water is described. The diver was equipped with an underwater video camera which recorded events leading to his death. These events corroborated predictions about respiratory complications at extreme pressure made by early researchers. Review of the video and relevant literature resulted in the following physiological interpretation: an increase in respired gas density during descent caused a progressive increase in resistance to flow in both the airways and the breathing circuit. Initially, this was associated with a shift to ventilation at higher lung volumes, a relative degree of hypoventilation, and mild permissive hypercapnia. The promotion of turbulent airway flow by increasing gas density resulted in effort-independent expiratory flow at lower flow rates than usual. The consequent inability to match ventilation to the demands of physical work at the bottom precipitated a spiraling crisis of dyspnea, increasing PaCO2, and wasted respiratory effort, thus producing more CO2. Extreme hypercapnia eventually led to unconsciousness. This tragic case provides a timely and salient lesson to a growing population of deep "technical" divers that there are physiological limitations that must be understood and considered when planning extreme dives. PMID:17310877
Mitchell, Simon J; Cronjé, Frans J; Meintjes, W A Jack; Britz, Hermie C
Introduction Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is the main reason for intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in patients with hematologic malignancies (HMs). We report the first series of adult patients with ARF and HMs treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 14 patients with HMs (aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) n?=?5; highly aggressive NHL, that is acute lymphoblastic leukemia or Burkitt lymphoma, n?=?5; Hodgkin lymphoma, n?=?2; acute myeloid leukemia, n?=?1; multiple myeloma, n?=?1) receiving ECMO support because of ARF (all data as medians and interquartile ranges; age, 32 years (22 to 51 years); simplified acute physiology score II (SAPS II): 51 (42 to 65)). Etiology of ARF was pneumonia (n?=?10), thoracic manifestation of NHL (n?=?2), sepsis of nonpulmonary origin (n?=?1), and transfusion-related acute lung injury (n?=?1). Diagnosis of HM was established during ECMO in four patients, and five first received (immuno-) chemotherapy on ECMO. Results Before ECMO, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 60 (53 to 65), (3.3 to 3.7). Three patients received venoarterial ECMO because of acute circulatory failure in addition to ARF; all other patients received venovenous ECMO. All patients needed vasopressors, and five needed hemofiltration. Thrombocytopenia occurred in all patients (lowest platelet count was 20 (11 to 21) G/L). Five major bleeding events were noted. ECMO duration was 8.5 (4 to 16) days. ICU and hospital survival was 50%. All survivors were alive at follow-up (36 (10 to 58) months); five patients were in complete remission, one in partial remission, and one had relapsed. Conclusions ECMO therapy is feasible in selected patients with HMs and ARF and can be associated with long-term disease-free survival.
Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasis (CPL) is a rare condition in neonates characterized by abnormal dilatation of the lymphatics draining the interstitial and subpleural spaces of the lungs. Diagnosis is difficult in the neonatal period because respiratory features and radiological findings are not specific of the disease. Definitive diagnosis of CPL can be made only by pathologic examinations. We report a case of a male near-term neonate presenting with severe respiratory distress at birth. The initial chest X-ray showed frosted glass-like infiltrates with air bronchogram suggesting a maternofetal infection or respiratory distress syndrome. The infant required mechanical ventilation and chest tube insertion for right then bilateral pneumothorax. The child died 15 days later in spite of optimal high-frequency ventilation, bilateral pneumothorax drainage, and hemodynamic support. Autopsy revealed features consistent with the diagnosis of CPL. Although CPL is very rare, we should be aware that it is a possible cause of severe unexplained respiratory distress in neonates. PMID:22381667
Nouri-Merchaoui, S; Mahdhaoui, N; Yacoubi, M-T; Seboui, H
Background Although congestive heart failure (CHF) patients typically present with abnormal auscultatory findings on lung examination, respiratory sounds are not normally subjected to additional analysis. The aim of this pilot study was to examine respiratory sound patterns of CHF patients using acoustic-based imaging technology. Lung vibration energy was examined during acute exacerbation and after clinical improvement. Methods Respiratory sounds throughout the respiratory cycle were captured using an acoustic-based imaging technique. Twenty-three consecutive CHF patients were imaged at the time of presentation to the emergency department and after clinical improvement. Digital images were created (a larger image represents more homogeneously distributed vibration energy of respiratory sound). Geographical area of the images and respiratory sound patterns were quantitatively analyzed. Data from the CHF patients were also compared to healthy volunteers. Results The median (interquartile range) geographical areas of the vibration energy image of acute CHF patients without and with radiographically evident pulmonary edema were 66.9 (9.0) and 64.1(9.0) kilo-pixels, respectively (p < 0.05). After clinical improvement, the geographical area of the vibration energy image of CHF patients without and with radiographically evident pulmonary edema were increased by 18 ± 15% (p < 0.05) and 25 ± 16% (p < 0.05), respectively. Conclusions With clinical improvement of acute CHF exacerbations, there was more homogenous distribution of lung vibration energy, as demonstrated by the increased geographical area of the vibration energy image.
Purpose Postoperative respiratory failure is a major problem which can prolong the stay in the intensive care unit in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We measured the serum levels of the soluble isoform of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), and we studied its association with postoperative respiratory failure. Methods Eighty-seven patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were enrolled in this multicenter observational study in three university hospitals. Serum biomarker levels were measured perioperatively, and clinical data were collected for 7 days postoperatively. The duration of mechanical ventilation was studied for 28 days. Results Serum levels of sRAGE elevated immediately after surgery (median, 1751 pg/mL; interquartile range (IQR) 1080–3034 pg/mL) compared with the level after anesthetic induction (median, 884 pg/mL; IQR, 568–1462 pg/mL). Postoperative sRAGE levels in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (median, 1193 pg/mL; IQR 737–1869 pg/mL) were significantly lower than in patients undergoing aortic surgery (median, 1883 pg/mL; IQR, 1406–4456 pg/mL; p?=?0.0024) and valve surgery (median, 2302 pg/mL; IQR, 1447–3585 pg/mL; p?=?0.0005), and postoperative sRAGE correlated moderately with duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (rs?=?0.44, p<0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that postoperative sRAGE had a predictive performance with area under the curve of 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.71–0.88) for postoperative respiratory failure, defined as prolonged mechanical ventilation >3 days. The optimum cutoff value for prediction of respiratory failure was 3656 pg/mL, with sensitivity and specificity of 62% and 91%, respectively. Conclusions Serum sRAGE levels elevated immediately after cardiac surgery, and the range of elevation was associated with the morbidity of postoperative respiratory failure. Early postoperative sRAGE levels appear to be linked to cardiopulmonary bypass, and may have predictive performance for postoperative respiratory failure; however, large-scale validation studies are needed.
Uchida, Tokujiro; Ohno, Nagara; Asahara, Miho; Yamada, Yoshitsugu; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Tomita, Makoto; Makita, Koshi
A newly developed general expression for the mean time to failure of a parallel system of repairable identical units with warm standby and common-cause failures is presented. Generalized expressions for system reliability and variance of time to failure are also presented along with some special case model formulae
B. S. DHILLON; O. C. ANUDE
Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) is almost universally observed in the microstructure of adiabatic shear bands. It is usually admitted that DRX results from the large temperatures that develop in the band along with very high local strains. This paper reports the observation of dynamically recrystallized nanograins in Ti6Al4V alloy specimens that were impact loaded to only half the failure strain at which the adiabatic shear band develops. This observation shows that DRX not only precedes adiabatic shear failure but it is also likely to be a dominant micromechanical factor in the very generation of the band. This result means that adiabatic shear failure is not only a mechanical instability but also the outcome of strong microstructural evolutions leading to localized material softening prior to any thermal softening. PMID:18999683
Rittel, D; Landau, P; Venkert, A
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of the H5 and H7 subtypes primarily infect poultry but are occasionally transmitted to humans and other mammalian species, often causing severe disease. Previously we have shown that HPAIV H5N1 causes severe systemic disease in cats. In this study, we investigated whether HPAIV H7N7 isolated from a fatal human case is also able to cause disease in cats. Additionally, we compared the cell tropism of both viruses by immunohistochemistry and virus histochemistry. Three domestic cats were inoculated intratracheally with HPAIV H7N7. Virus excretion was restricted to the pharynx. At necropsy, 7 days post inoculation, lesions were restricted to the respiratory tract in all cats. Lesions consisted of diffuse alveolar damage and colocalized with virus antigen expression in type II pneumocytes and nonciliated bronchiolar cells. The attachment patterns of HPAIV H7N7 and H5N1 were similar: both viruses attached to nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial cells, type II pneumocytes, as well as alveolar macrophages. These data show for the first time that a non-H5 HPAIV is able to infect and cause respiratory disease in cats. The failure of HPAIV H7N7 to spread beyond the respiratory tract was not explained by differences in cell tropism compared to HPAIV H5N1. These findings suggest that HPAIV H5N1 possesses other characteristics that allow it to cause systemic disease in both humans and cats.
van Riel, Debby; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; van Amerongen, Geert; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Kuiken, Thijs
We saw a 34-year-old pregnant woman with acute promyelocytic leukemia, who developed acute respiratory failure from all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) syndrome. We applied noninvasive ventilation (NIV, continuous positive airway pressure plus pressure-support ventilation) to try to improve gas exchange, reduce the work of breathing, and prevent intubation. Initially we applied NIV continuously (24 hours a day), then gradually reduced the daily amount of time on NIV as her condition improved. She was discharged from the intensive care unit after 12 days. Three months after hospital discharge she gave vaginal birth to a healthy female baby. NIV was effective and safe for the mother and fetus, and NIV should be considered for respiratory failure in pregnant patients, especially if immunosuppressed. PMID:19558746
Bassani, Mariana A; de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz F; Oliveira Neto, Antonio F
Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) is a notable cause of respiratory distress in neonates, however it remains a diagnostic challenge due to inadequate facilities and low level of experience. The management of this condition also is a bigger challenge due to paucity of expertise and relatively non-existent well-equiped neonatal intensive care unit in this part of the world. Here we present the case of a 5- day old baby who presented at Lagoon Hospital, Apapa with history of severe respiratory distress since birth. CT scan of the chest confirmed an emphysematous left upper lobe with contralateral mediastinal shift. The baby had a left posterolateral thoracotomy with left upper lobectomy and thereafter was electively ventillated for forty eight hours in the neonatal intensive unit. He had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged from the hospital within one week forfollow-up in the clinic. PMID:24579507
Ogunleye, E O; Thomas, M O; Ojo, J; Olubanjo, E; Falayi, O; Osunkoya, A; Adebayo, A
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was a major cause of pediatric disease in the United Kingdom prior to the introduction of routine Hib immunization in 1992. An unexpected resurgence of cases of vaccine failure was observed with fully vaccinated children from 1999 onward. We investigated whether Hib isolates causing vaccine failures in the United Kingdom could have undergone a change
Belen Aracil; Mary Slack; Marõ ´ a Perez-Vazquez; Federico Roman; Mary Ramsay
The nature of common cause failures (CCFs) is explored in the context of existing analytical techniques. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is described as a means for accomplishing early risk assessment in the context of an existing analysis framework. Cause and coupling factor taxonomies are refined to fit the FMEA methodology. This modification allows consideration of CCF risks. Blending
Joseph A. Childs; Ali Mosleh
OBJECTIVE. We studied the causes of technical failure and enhancement variability encountered during CT arterial portography. MATERIALS AND METHODS. CT arterial portograms and digital artenograms were obtained via the superior mesenteric artery before partial liver resection in 43 patients with malignant tumors. These studies were reviewed for causes of technical failure and variable enhancement. RESULTS. Eleven (26%) of 43 procedures
Erik K. Paulson; Mark E. Baker; David J. Hilleren; William P. Jones; Mark H. Knelson; Scott N. NadeF; Richard A. Leder; William C. Meyers
Objective: To evaluate bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in estimating the nutritional status and outcome of patients with chronic\\u000a obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute respiratory failure (ARF) in comparison with measurements of anthropometric\\u000a parameters and plasma levels of visceral proteins Design: Retrospective study Setting: A ten-bed intensive care unit (ICU) in a university teaching hospital Patients: 51 COPD patients with
C. Faisy; A. Rabbat; B. Kouchakji; J.-P. Laaban
Pollutants originating from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City on 11 September 2001 have been reported to cause adverse respiratory responses in rescue workers and nearby residents. We examined whether WTC-derived fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5)] has detrimental respiratory effects in mice to contribute to the risk assessment of WTC-derived pollutants. Samples of WTC PM2.5 were derived from settled dust collected at several locations around Ground Zero on 12 and 13 September 2001. Aspirated samples of WTC PM2.5 induced mild to moderate degrees of pulmonary inflammation 1 day after exposure but only at a relatively high dose (100 microg). This response was not as great as that caused by 100 microg PM2.5 derived from residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or Washington, DC, ambient air PM [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649a]. However, this same dose of WTC PM2.5 caused airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine aerosol comparable to that from SRM 1649a and to a greater degree than that from ROFA. Mice exposed to lower doses by aspiration or inhalation exposure did not develop significant inflammation or hyperresponsiveness. These results show that exposure to high levels of WTC PM2.5 can promote mechanisms of airflow obstruction in mice. Airborne concentrations of WTC PM2.5 that would cause comparable doses in people are high (approximately 425 microg/m3 for 8 hr) but conceivable in the aftermath of the collapse of the towers when rescue and salvage efforts were in effect. We conclude that a high-level exposure to WTC PM2.5 could cause pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in people. The effects of chronic exposures to lower levels of WTC PM2.5, the persistence of any respiratory effects, and the effects of coarser WTC PM are unknown and were not examined in these studies. Degree of exposure and respiratory protection, individual differences in sensitivity to WTC PM2.5, and species differences in responses must be considered in assessing the risks of exposure to WTC PM2.5. PMID:12782502
Gavett, Stephen H; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Highfill, Jerry W; Ledbetter, Allen D; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Harkema, Jack R; Wagner, James G; Costa, Daniel L
Background Acute respiratory failure (ARF) and severe sepsis (SS) are possible complications in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The aim of the study was to evaluate prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and impact on mortality of hospitalized patients with CAP according to the presence of ARF and SS on admission. Methods This was a multicenter, observational, prospective study of consecutive CAP patients admitted to three hospitals in Italy, Spain, and Scotland between 2008 and 2010. Three groups of patients were identified: those with neither ARF nor SS (Group A), those with only ARF (Group B) and those with both ARF and SS (Group C) on admission. Results Among the 2,145 patients enrolled, 45% belonged to Group A, 36% to Group B and 20% to Group C. Patients in Group C were more severe than patients in Group B. Isolated ARF was correlated with age (p?0.001), COPD (p?0.001) and multilobar infiltrates (p?0.001). The contemporary occurrence of ARF and SS was associated with age (p?=?0.002), residency in nursing home (p?=?0.007), COPD (p?0.001), multilobar involvement (p?0.001) and renal disease (p?0.001). 4.2% of patients in Group A died, 9.3% in Group B and 26% in Group C, p?0.001. After adjustment, the presence of only ARF had an OR for in-hospital mortality of 1.85 (p?=?0.011) and the presence of both ARF and SS had an OR of 6.32 (p?0.001). Conclusions The identification of ARF and SS on hospital admission can help physicians in classifying CAP patients into three different clinical phenotypes.
Background Recent experience with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 highlighted the importance of global surveillance for severe respiratory disease to support pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. Improved surveillance in the southern hemisphere is needed to provide critical data on influenza epidemiology, disease burden, circulating strains and effectiveness of influenza prevention and control measures. Hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases was established in New Zealand on 30 April 2012. The aims were to measure incidence, prevalence, risk factors, clinical spectrum and outcomes for SARI and associated influenza and other respiratory pathogen cases as well as to understand influenza contribution to patients not meeting SARI case definition. Methods/Design All inpatients with suspected respiratory infections who were admitted overnight to the study hospitals were screened daily. If a patient met the World Health Organization’s SARI case definition, a respiratory specimen was tested for influenza and other respiratory pathogens. A case report form captured demographics, history of presenting illness, co-morbidities, disease course and outcome and risk factors. These data were supplemented from electronic clinical records and other linked data sources. Discussion Hospital-based SARI surveillance has been implemented and is fully functioning in New Zealand. Active, prospective, continuous, hospital-based SARI surveillance is useful in supporting pandemic preparedness for emerging influenza A(H7N9) virus infections and seasonal influenza prevention and control.
Baker, Michael; McArthur, Colin; Roberts, Sally; Williamson, Deborah; Grant, Cameron; Trenholme, Adrian; Wong, Conroy; Taylor, Susan; LeComte, Lyndsay; Mackereth, Graham; Bandaranayake, Don; Wood, Tim; Bissielo, Ange; Se, Ruth; Turner, Nikki; Pierse, Nevil; Thomas, Paul; Webby, Richard; Gross, Diane; Duque, Jazmin; Thompson, Mark; Widdowson, Marc-Alain
SummarySeepage has been suggested as an important factor in gully and river bank erosion. This study investigated the underlying mechanisms of instability by seepage in laboratory studies. A 25-cm tall, 50-cm wide, and 20-cm long soil block with a focused inflow reservoir was constructed to investigate seepage gradient forces and the three-dimensional nature of seepage particle mobilization (i.e., seepage erosion) and undercutting. Experiments included sand and loamy sand soil blocks packed at prescribed bulk densities (1.30-1.70 Mg m -3) and with an outflow face at various angles (90°, 75°, and 60°). Constant heads of 15, 25, and 35 cm were imposed on the soil to induce flow. A laser scanner was utilized to obtain the three-dimensional coordinates of the bank and undercut surfaces at approximately 15-30 s intervals. The bulk density of the two different soil types controlled which seepage failure mechanism occurred: (1) tension or "pop-out" failures due to the seepage force exceeding the soil shear strength which was being concurrently reduced by increased soil pore-water pressure, or (2) particle entrainment in the seepage flow, particle mobilization, bank undercutting, and bank collapse when the initial seepage force gradient was less than the resistance of the soil block. For cases experiencing particle mobilization and undercutting, seepage erosion initiated as unimodal (i.e., concentrated at one point) or as multimodal (i.e., initiating at several locations across the bank face), and this result was largely controlled by the bank angle. A five parameter Gaussian function was fitted to the measured three-dimensional undercut shapes to derive parameters for the maximum depth of undercutting, position of the center of the peak, and the vertical and lateral spreads of the undercut. The parameters of this distribution can be useful in the development of improved sediment transport functions and the incorporation of this failure mechanism into hillslope stability models.
Chu-Agor, M. L.; Fox, G. A.; Cancienne, R. M.; Wilson, G. V.
Hepatic encephalopathy is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with severe hepatic failure. This disease is clinically characterized by a large variety of symptoms including motor symptoms, cognitive deficits, as well as changes in the level of alertness up to hepatic coma. Carbon tetrachloride is frequently used in animals to produce an experimental model to study the mechanisms involved in the progression of hepatic disease and the impact of various drugs on this progression. The brain is highly dependent on ATP and most cell energy is obtained through oxidative phosphorylation, a process requiring the action of various respiratory enzyme complexes located in a special structure of the inner mitochondrial membrane. In this context, we evaluated the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the brain of rats submitted to acute administration of carbon tetrachloride and treated with NAC and DFX alone or in combination. Our results showed that complexes I, II and IV were inhibited after carbon tetrachloride administration and that NAC and DFX alone or in combination were able to prevent the inhibition of these enzymes. On the other hand, complex III was not affected. The participation of oxidative stress has been postulated in the hepatic encephalopathy and it is well known that the electron transport chain itself is vulnerable to damage by this species. Based on our findings, we suggest that oxidative stress may be involved in the inhibition of complexes from mitochondrial respiratory chain. PMID:19406217
Boer, Lyziane A; Panatto, Jordana P; Fagundes, Diego A; Bassani, Cintia; Jeremias, Isabela C; Daufenbach, Juliana F; Rezin, Gislaine T; Constantino, Larissa; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio L
We propose a method for comparing survival distributions when cause-of-failure information is missing for some individuals. We use multiple imputation to impute missing causes of failure, where the probability that a missing cause is that of interest may depend on auxiliary covariates, and combine log-rank statistics computed from several 'completed' datasets into a test statistic that achieves asymptotically the nominal
Anastasios A. Tsiatis
The effects of external common cause events on the reliability, availability and failure intenstity of operating m-out-of-n:G systems are modeled analytically in terms of general multiple failure rates (GMFR). The steady-state availability and the failure intensity are obtained for two repair strategies with arbitrary repair time distributions. The capacity factor, the mean idle time and the mean operating time between
Jussi K. Vaurio
Cracks in the welded joints on the bucket wheel (BW) body of the bucket wheel excavator (BWE) SRs 1300 were discovered after merely 1800h of operation. Investigations are carried out in order to detect the causes of cracks occurrence and thus prevent possible heavy damages to the machine.Working stresses in the BW body are defined by using FEM. Methods of
Miodrag Arsi?; Sr?an Bošnjak; Nenad Zrni?; Aleksandar Sedmak; Nebojša Gnjatovi?
Cheyne-Stokes respiration and cardiac arrhythmias are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Enhanced carotid body chemoreflex (CBC) sensitivity is associated with these abnormalities in CHF. Reduced carotid body (CB) nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) levels play an important role in the enhanced CBC. In other disease models, Simvastatin (statin) treatment increases endothelial NOS, in part, by increasing Krüppel-like Factor 2 expression. We hypothesized that statin treatment would ameliorate enhanced CBC sensitivity as well as increased respiratory variability, apnea/hypopnea index, and arrhythmia index, in a rodent model of CHF. Resting breathing pattern, cardiac rhythm, and the ventilatory and CB chemoreceptor afferent responses to hypoxia were assessed in rats with CHF induced by coronary ligation. CHF was associated with enhanced ventilatory and CB afferent responses to hypoxia as well as increased respiratory variability, apnea/hypopnea index, and arrhythmia index. Statin treatment prevented the increases in CBC sensitivity and the concomitant increases in respiratory variability, apnea/hypopnea index, and arrhythmia index. Krüppel-like Factor 2 and endothelial NOS protein were decreased in the CB and nucleus tractus solitarii of CHF animals, and statin treatment increased the expression of these proteins. Our findings demonstrate that the increased CBC sensitivity, respiratory instability, and cardiac arrhythmias observed in CHF are ameliorated by statin treatment and suggest that statins may be an effective treatment for Cheyne-Stokes respiration and arrhythmias in patient populations with high chemoreflex sensitivity. PMID:24516105
Haack, Karla K V; Marcus, Noah J; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Zucker, Irving H; Schultz, Harold D
We assessed the feasibility of telemedicine for home monitoring of 45 patients with chronic respiratory failure (CRF) discharged from hospital. The patients transmitted pulsed arterial saturation (pSat) data via a telephone modem to a receiving station where a nurse was available for a teleconsultation. A respiratory physician was also available. Scheduled and ad hoc appointments were conducted. Thirty-five patients were on home mechanical ventilation, 13 with invasive and 22 with non-invasive devices. The main diagnosis was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The follow-up period was 176 days (SD 69). In all, 376 calls for scheduled consultations were received and 83 ad hoc consultations were requested by the patients. The actions taken were: 55 therapy modifications, 19 hospitalizations in a respiratory department for decompensated CRF, three hospitalizations in an intensive care unit (ICU), 22 requests for further investigations, 25 contacts with the general practitioner (GP), 66 demands for respiratory consultations and 10 calls for the emergency department. The mean time recorded for the 459 calls was 16 min/patient/week. In 82% of calls, a pSat recording was received successfully. The nurse time required to train the users in the operation of the pSat instrument was high (mean time 30 min). However, the results showed that home monitoring was feasible, and useful for titration of oxygen, mechanical ventilation setting and stabilization of relapses. PMID:17059649
Vitacca, M; Assoni, G; Pizzocaro, P; Guerra, A; Marchina, L; Scalvini, S; Glisenti, F; Spanevello, A; Bianchi, L; Barbano, L; Giordano, A; Balbi, B
The use of herbal products has increased significantly in recent years. Because these products are not subject to regulation by the Food and Drug Administration and are often used without supervision by a healthcare provider, the indication for and consumption of these supplements is quite variable. Moreover, their use is generally regarded as safe and natural by the lay-public. Unfortunately, there has been an increase in the number of reported adverse events occurring with the use of herbal products. We present a case of acute impending liver failure in an adolescent male using a weight-loss product containing green tea extract. Our case adds to the growing concern surrounding the ingestion of green tea extract and serves to heighten healthcare provider awareness of a potential green tea extract hepatotoxicity. Despite the generally touted benefits of green tea as a whole, clinical concern regarding its use is emerging and has been linked to its concentration in multiple herbal supplements. Interestingly, the suspected harmful compounds are those previously proposed to be advantageous for weight-loss, cancer remedy, and anti-inflammatory purposes. Yet, we emphasize the need to be aware of not just green tea extract, but the importance of monitoring patient use of all dietary supplements and herbal products.
Patel, Shreena S; Beer, Stacey; Kearney, Debra L; Phillips, Garrett; Carter, Beth A
Background: Renovascular disease is a common cause of renal impairment and hypertension, particularly in the older population. Oligoanuric acute renal failure secondary to renal artery occlusion is not well recognized; however, it is potentially reversible if identified and treated. Methods: Five patients presented to our institution with oligoanuric acute renal failure. Each had evidence of vascular disease, and a prerenal
Karen M. Dwyer; John I. Vrazas; Robert S. Lodge; Timothy J. Humphery; Stephen M. Schlicht; Brendan F. Murphy; Peter J. Mossop; David J. Goodman
Star fruit intoxication is a rare cause of consciousness disturbance in patients with renal failure. Most cases in the literature are uremic patients on maintenance dialysis. We present a patient with chronic renal failure, who was not on dialysis program yet, suffered from star fruit intoxication with presentation of consciousness disturbance and successfully managed by a session of hemodialysis. PMID:12166706
Chang, Chin-Tung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Huang, Chiu-Ching
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are useful in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. However, acute renal failure (ARF) may occur in patients who are taking these drugs in situations associated with decreased glomerular filtration pressure, such as dehydration caused by acute diarrhea or diuretic therapy.Sixty-four patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit for ARF associated with
Alain Wynckel; Bertin Ebikili; Jean-Pierre Melin; Christine Randoux; Sylvie Lavaud; Jacques Chanard
In order to study the superficial and deep causes of public work quality accidents, we have collected 27 cases of construction quality accidents of public buildings publicized by the Japanese media. Statistic analysis is conducted by using the cause factor analysis method of failure study. We have discussed the superficial causes of construction quality accidents of public building, and deep
Inhibitory interactions between neurons of the respiratory network are involved in rhythm generation and pattern formation. Using a computational model of brainstem respiratory networks, we investigated the possible effects of suppressing glycinergic inhibition on the activity of different respiratory neuron types. Our study revealed that progressive suppression of glycinergic inhibition affected all neurons of the network and disturbed neural circuits involved in termination of inspiration. Causal was a dysfunction of postinspiratory inhibition targeting inspiratory neurons, which often led to irregular preterm reactivation of these neurons, producing double or multiple short-duration inspiratory bursts. An increasing blockade of glycinergic inhibition led to apneustic inspiratory activity. Similar disturbances of glycinergic inhibition also occur during hypoxia. A clear difference in prolonged hypoxia, however, is that the rhythm terminates in expiratory apnea. The critical function of glycinergic inhibition for normal respiratory rhythm generation and the consequences of its reduction, including in pathological conditions, are discussed.
Shevtsova, Natalia A.; Busselberg, Dietrich; Molkov, Yaroslav I.; Bischoff, Anne M.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Richter, Diethelm W.; Rybak, Ilya A.
Objectives: The respiratory compensation point (RCP) marks the onset of hyperventilation ("respiratory compensation") during incremental exercise. Its physiological meaning has not yet been definitely determined, but the most common explanation is a failure of the body's buffering mechanisms which leads to metabolic (lactic) acidosis. It was intended to test this experimentally. Methods: During a first ramp-like exercise test on a cycle ergometer, RCP (range: 2.51–3.73 l*min–1 oxygen uptake) was determined from gas exchange measurements in five healthy subjects (age 26–42; body mass index (BMI) 20.7–23.9 kg*m–2; VO2peak 51.3–62.1 ml*min–1*kg–1). On the basis of simultaneous determinations of blood pH and base excess, the necessary amount of bicarbonate to completely buffer the metabolic acidosis was calculated. This quantity was administered intravenously in small doses during a second, otherwise identical, exercise test. Results: In each subject sufficient compensation for the acidosis, that is, a pH value constantly above 7.37, was attained during the second test. A delay but no disappearance of the hyperventilation was present in all participants when compared with the first test. RCP occurred on average at a significantly (p = 0.043) higher oxygen uptake (+0.15 l*min–1) compared with the first test. Conclusions: For the first time it was directly demonstrated that exercise induced lactic acidosis is causally involved in the hyperventilation which starts at RCP. However, it does not represent the only additional stimulus of ventilation during intense exercise. Muscle afferents and other sensory inputs from exercising muscles are alternative triggering mechanisms.
Meyer, T; Faude, O; Scharhag, J; Urhausen, A; Kindermann, W
Here we report on an unusual cause of acute renal failure in a newborn: hydrometrocolpos due to imperforate hymen. Hymenotomy resolved all of the laboratory and clinical abnormalities of the patient and the baby was sent home healthy. PMID:16523263
Aygun, Canan; Ozkaya, Ozan; Ayyýldýz, Suat; Güngör, Olcay; Mutlu, Birgül; Küçüködük, Sükrü
Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the most prevalent human pathogens, and consist of 101 serotypes that are classified into groups A and B according to sequence variations. HRV infections cause a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe lower respiratory symptoms. Defining the role of specific strains in various HRV illnesses has been difficult because traditional serology, which requires viral culture and neutralization tests using 101 serotype-specific antisera, is insensitive and laborious. Methods and Findings To directly type HRVs in nasal secretions of infants with frequent respiratory illnesses, we developed a sensitive molecular typing assay based on phylogenetic comparisons of a 260-bp variable sequence in the 5' noncoding region with homologous sequences of the 101 known serotypes. Nasal samples from 26 infants were first tested with a multiplex PCR assay for respiratory viruses, and HRV was the most common virus found (108 of 181 samples). Typing was completed for 101 samples and 103 HRVs were identified. Surprisingly, 54 (52.4%) HRVs did not match any of the known serotypes and had 12–35% nucleotide divergence from the nearest reference HRVs. Of these novel viruses, 9 strains (17 HRVs) segregated from HRVA, HRVB and human enterovirus into a distinct genetic group (“C”). None of these new strains could be cultured in traditional cell lines. Conclusions By molecular analysis, over 50% of HRV detected in sick infants were previously unrecognized strains, including 9 strains that may represent a new HRV group. These findings indicate that the number of HRV strains is considerably larger than the 101 serotypes identified with traditional diagnostic techniques, and provide evidence of a new HRV group.
Lee, Wai-Ming; Kiesner, Christin; Pappas, Tressa; Lee, Iris; Grindle, Kris; Jartti, Tuomas; Jakiela, Bogdan; Lemanske, Robert F.; Shult, Peter A.; Gern, James E.
The respiratory epithelium is a significant target of inhaled, nano-sized particles, the biological reactivity of which will depend on its physicochemical properties. Surface-modified, 50 and 100 nm, polystyrene latex nanoparticles (NPs) were used as model particles to examine the effect of particle size and surface chemistry on transformed human alveolar epithelial type 1-like cells (TT1). Live images of TT1 exposed to amine-modified NPs taken by hopping probe ion conductance microscopy revealed severe damage and holes on cell membranes that were not observed with other types of NPs. This paralleled induction of cell detachment, cytotoxicity and apoptotic (caspase-3/7 and caspase-9) cell death, and increased release of CXCL8 (IL-8). In contrast, unmodified, carboxyl-modified 50 nm NPs and the 100 nm NPs did not cause membrane damage, and were less reactive. Thus, the susceptibility and membrane damage to respiratory epithelium following inhalation of NPs will depend on both surface chemistry (e.g., cationic) and nano-size. PMID:21352086
Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Novak, Pavel; Berhanu, Deborah; Thorley, Andrew J; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Gorelik, Julia; Korchev, Yuri E; Tetley, Teresa D
Members of the viral subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae establish latency from which they can be reactivated. Bovine herpesvirus 1 causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in cattle, as well as abortion and weak calves. Serological evidence of alphaherpesvirus infection has been reported for wild and semidomesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Norway. To address the possibility that reindeer alphaherpesvirus (cervid herpesvirus 2 [CvHV-2]) infection might affect the respiratory system and in part explain the relatively high mortality of reindeer calves during their first year, tissue samples were obtained from reindeer and reindeer fetuses at slaughterhouses in Finnmark County, Norway. A nested pan-alphaherpesvirus PCR amplification targeting the highly conserved UL27 gene (encoding glycoprotein B) was used. Sequencing of amplicons revealed the presence of CvHV-2 DNA. The detection of CvHV-2 DNA in trigeminal ganglia (27 of 143 samples), nasal swabs (5 of 75 samples), and fetal tissues (12 of 48 samples) indicates that CvHV-2 infection is endemic in this reindeer population. Moreover, the virus is transmitted horizontally by the respiratory route, establishing latency in the trigeminal ganglion, and vertically to the fetus through the placenta. Further studies should focus on the reproductive impact of CvHV-2 infection in reindeer.
das Neves, Carlos G.; Rimstad, Espen; Tryland, Morten
We present a 39-year-old man with repeated urinary tract infection and lower abdominal pain. Kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) and IVU film showed a huge 450-g elliptical pelvic calculus that was surgically removed with excellent results. Surgical intervention by cystolithotomy or endoscopic cystolithotripsy can achieve satisfactory results. Bladder outlet obstruction should be treated simultaneously. Bladder stone is a common disease, but it is rare for such a calculus to be so large as to cause bilateral hydronephrosis. Close follow-up, however, is mandatory because the recurrence of urolithiasis is high in those patients with voiding problems and recurrent urinary infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest bladder stone in a human male. PMID:20033143
Wei, Wuran; Wang, Jia
... your local Extension office or Respiratory Protection in Agriculture, Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 442-601. More Information ... Hetzel, and B. Stone. 2004. Respiratory Protection in Agriculture . Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 442-601, Virginia Tech, ...
Scrub typhus is an acute infectious illness, distributed throughout the Asia Pacific rim. In India, it has been reported from northern, eastern, and southern India. However, cases of scrub typhus have not been well-documented from Vidarbha, an eastern region of Maharashtra state in central India. We report two cases of complicated scrub typhus from Vidarbha region. These cases admitted in unconscious state with 8-10 days history of fever, body ache, cough, and progressive breathlessness. The diagnosis in both cases was based on presence of eschar, a positive Weil-Felix test, and a positive rapid diagnostic test (immunochromatographic assay). Both cases were complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiorgan failure. Both of them presented in their 2nd week of illness and died during the hospital course in spite of intensive supportive care. The main cause of mortality was delayed referral leading to delay in diagnosis and treatment.
Saxena, Amrish; Khiangte, Benjamine; Tiewsoh, Iadarilang
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and premature death from cardiovascular disease. These events are driven by oxidative stress inflammation and lipid disorders. ESRD-induced lipid abnormalities primarily stem from dysregulation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism, and oxidative modification of lipoproteins. In this context, production and plasma concentration of Apo-I and Apo-II are reduced, HDL maturation is impaired, HDL composition is altered, HDL antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions are depressed, clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their atherogenic remnants is impaired, their composition is altered, and their plasma concentration is elevated in ESRD. The associated defect in HDL maturation is largely caused by acquired lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency while its triglyceride enrichment is due to hepatic lipase deficiency. Hypertriglyceridemia, abnormal composition, and impaired clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants are mediated by down-regulation of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor, and LDL receptor-related protein, relative reduction in ApoC-II/ApoC-III ratio, up-regulation of acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase, and elevated plasma level of cholesterol ester-poor prebeta HDL. Impaired clearance and accumulation of oxidation-prone VLDL and chylomicron remnants and abnormal LDL composition in the face of oxidative stress and inflammation favors their uptake by macrophages and resident cells in the artery wall. The effect of heightened influx of lipids is compounded by impaired HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport leading to foam cell formation which is the central event in atherosclerosis plaque formation and subsequent plaque rupture, thrombosis, and tissue damage. PMID:20017835
Vaziri, Nosratola D
SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism.
Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.
Common cause fault rates for diesel generators in nuclear power plants are estimated, using Licensee Event Reports for the years 1976 through 1978. The binomial failure rate method, used for obtaining the estimates, is briefly explained. Issues discussed include correct classification of common cause events, grouping of the events into homogeneous data subsets, and dealing with plant-to-plant variation.
Steverson, J.A.; Atwood, C.L.
The clinical value of heart rate and blood pressure variation (HRV and BPV) spectra was assessed in 11 consecutive patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) on artificial ventilation. Their HRV and BPV spectra were compared with those from 28 control intensive care unit (ICU) patients without peripheral nerve disorders. ICU controls had low respiratory HRV during controlled ventilation. If present, it
Gustav Pfeiffer; Juliane Netzer
Hiatus hernia (HH) is a frequent condition and is asymptomatic most of the time. Common symptoms can include epigastric pain, postprandial fullness, and nausea. We report a case of postprandial acute right and left heart failure caused by an intrathoracic stomach in a previously asymptomatic woman. Clinical manifestations included acute pulmonary edema and severe hypotension after administration of vasodilators for treatment of acute left heart failure. Chest computed tomography images showed a pre- and afterload compromise caused by a large compressive HH with massive gastric distension. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first report of both acute right and left heart failure due to an HH. The prompt placement of a nasogastric tube was lifesaving. We believe that the diagnosis of HH ought to be taken into consideration by emergency physicians and included in the differential diagnosis for acute postprandial heart failure. PMID:22030202
Buss, Guillaume; Mosimann, Pascal J R; Moix, Paul-André; Hugli, Olivier
The m.8344A>G mutation in the mt-tRNA(Lys) gene, first described in myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers (MERRF), accounts for approximately 80% of mutations in individuals with MERRF syndrome. Although originally described in families with a classical syndrome of myoclonus, ataxia, epilepsy and ragged red fibers in muscle biopsy, the m.8344A>G mutation is increasingly recognised to exhibit marked phenotypic heterogeneity. This paper describes the clinical, morphological and laboratory features of an unusual phenotype in a patient harboring the m.8344A>G 'MERRF' mutation. We present the case of a middle-aged woman with distal weakness since childhood who also had ptosis and facial weakness and who developed mid-life respiratory insufficiency necessitating non-invasive nocturnal ventilator support. Neurophysiological and acetylcholine receptor antibody analyses excluded myasthenia gravis whilst molecular genetic testing excluded myotonic dystrophy, prompting a diagnostic needle muscle biopsy. Mitochondrial histochemical abnormalities including subsarcolemmal mitochondrial accumulation (ragged-red fibers) and in excess of 90% COX-deficient fibers, was seen leading to sequencing of the mitochondrial genome in muscle. This identified the m.8344A>G mutation commonly associated with the MERRF phenotype. This case extends the evolving phenotypic spectrum of the m.8344A>G mutation and emphasizes that it may cause indolent distal weakness with respiratory insufficiency, with marked histochemical defects in muscle. Our findings support consideration of screening of this gene in cases of indolent myopathy resembling distal limb-girdle muscular dystrophy in which screening of the common genes prove negative. PMID:24792523
Blakely, Emma L; Alston, Charlotte L; Lecky, Bryan; Chakrabarti, Biswajit; Falkous, Gavin; Turnbull, Douglass M; Taylor, Robert W; Gorman, Grainne S
The m.8344A > G mutation in the mt-tRNALys gene, first described in myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers (MERRF), accounts for approximately 80% of mutations in individuals with MERRF syndrome. Although originally described in families with a classical syndrome of myoclonus, ataxia, epilepsy and ragged red fibers in muscle biopsy, the m.8344A > G mutation is increasingly recognised to exhibit marked phenotypic heterogeneity. This paper describes the clinical, morphological and laboratory features of an unusual phenotype in a patient harboring the m.8344A > G ‘MERRF’ mutation. We present the case of a middle-aged woman with distal weakness since childhood who also had ptosis and facial weakness and who developed mid-life respiratory insufficiency necessitating non-invasive nocturnal ventilator support. Neurophysiological and acetylcholine receptor antibody analyses excluded myasthenia gravis whilst molecular genetic testing excluded myotonic dystrophy, prompting a diagnostic needle muscle biopsy. Mitochondrial histochemical abnormalities including subsarcolemmal mitochondrial accumulation (ragged-red fibers) and in excess of 90% COX-deficient fibers, was seen leading to sequencing of the mitochondrial genome in muscle. This identified the m.8344A > G mutation commonly associated with the MERRF phenotype. This case extends the evolving phenotypic spectrum of the m.8344A > G mutation and emphasizes that it may cause indolent distal weakness with respiratory insufficiency, with marked histochemical defects in muscle. Our findings support consideration of screening of this gene in cases of indolent myopathy resembling distal limb-girdle muscular dystrophy in which screening of the common genes prove negative.
Blakely, Emma L.; Alston, Charlotte L.; Lecky, Bryan; Chakrabarti, Biswajit; Falkous, Gavin; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Taylor, Robert W.; Gorman, Grainne S.
Background Acute end points of catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia (VT) remain incompletely defined. The aim of this study is to identify causes for failure in patients with structural heart disease and to assess the relation of this acute outcome to longer?term management and outcomes. Methods and Results From 2002 to 2010, 518 consecutive patients (84% male, 62±14 years) with structural heart disease underwent a first ablation procedure for sustained VT at our institution. Acute ablation failure was defined as persistent inducibility of a clinical VT. Acute ablation failure was seen in 52 (10%) patients. Causes for failure were: intramural free wall VT in 13 (25%), deep septal VT in 9 (17%), decision not to ablate due to proximity to the bundle of His, left phrenic nerve, or a coronary artery in 3 (6%), and endocardial ablation failure with inability or decision not to attempt to access the epicardium in 27 (52%) patients. In multivariable analysis, ablation failure was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio 2.010, 95% CI 1.147 to 3.239, P=0.004) and VT recurrence (hazard ratio 2.385, 95% CI 1.642 to 3.466, P<0.001). Conclusions With endocardial or epicardial ablation, or both, acute ablation failure was seen in 10% of patients, largely due to anatomic factors. Persistence of a clinical VT is associated with recurrence and comparatively higher mortality.
Tokuda, Michifumi; Kojodjojo, Pipin; Tung, Stanley; Tedrow, Usha B.; Nof, Eyal; Inada, Keiichi; Koplan, Bruce A.; Michaud, Gregory F.; John, Roy M.; Epstein, Laurence M.; Stevenson, William G.
While cardiopulmonary symptoms are common in patients undergoing classical or, due to physical exercise, exertional heat stroke, the failure of other organs is a rarely described phenomenon. Here we present two cases of acute hepatic failure, one due to classic heat shock, while the other occurred while the patient was doing a marathon-type running. Both cases presented with very high transaminases and significantly elevated international normalized ratio (INR). No other causes for liver failure could be identified but physical exhaustion and hyperthermia.
Weigand, Kilian; Riediger, Carina; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Encke, Jens
The squirrel cage induction motor has limitations, which, if exceeded, will result in premature failure of the stator or rotor. The authors identify the various causes of stator and rotor failures. A specific methodology is proposed to facilitate an accurate analysis of these failures. Failures of the bearings and lubrication systems are excluded
Austin H. Bonnett; George C. Soukup
Objective: We conducted a post-hoc analysis of early inhaled nitric oxide (iNO)-randomized controlled trial data to identify associations pertinent to the management of moderate hypoxic respiratory failure in term/late preterm infants. Study design: Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine risk factors for the progression of respiratory failure and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)/death. Result: Among the 299 enrolled infants, oxygenation index (OI) <20 at enrollment (odds ratio 0.52, confidence interval (CI) 0.27 to 0.97) and surfactant use before randomization (odds ratio 0.47, CI 0.24 to 0.91) were associated with decreased ECMO/death rates. Early surfactant use for respiratory distress syndrome, perinatal aspiration syndrome and pneumonia/sepsis was associated with lower risk of ECMO/death (P<0.001). Early iNO (OI 15 to 25) decreased the progression of respiratory failure to OI >30 (P=0.002) and to composite outcome of OI >30 or ECMO/death (P=0.02). Conclusion: This post-hoc analysis suggests that early use of surfactant and iNO in moderate respiratory failure is associated with improved outcomes.
Konduri, G G; Sokol, G M; Van Meurs, K P; Singer, J; Ambalavanan, N; Lee, T; Solimano, A
Analyses were performed of the safety-related performance of the reactor protection system (RPS) at U.S. Westinghouse and General Electric commercial reactors during the period 1984 through 1995. RPS operational data from these reactors were collected from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) and Licensee Event Reports (LER). The common-cause failure (CCF) modeling in the fault trees developed for these studies and the analysis and use of common-cause failure data were sophisticated, state-of-the-art efforts. The overall CCF effort helped to test and expand the limits of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's CCF methodology.
Gentillon, C.; Rasmuson, D.; Eide, S.; Wierman, T.
Objective Enteral nutrition is provided to mechanically ventilated patients who cannot eat normally, yet the amount of support needed is unknown. We conducted this randomized, open-label study to test the hypothesis that initial low-volume (i.e. trophic) enteral nutrition would decrease episodes of gastrointestinal intolerance/complications and improve outcomes as compared to initial full-energy enteral nutrition in patients with acute respiratory failure. Design Randomized, open-label study Patients 200 Patients with acute respiratory failure expected to require mechanical ventilation for at least 72 hours Interventions Patients were randomized to receive either initial trophic (10 ml/hr) or full-energy enteral nutrition for the initial 6 days of ventilation. Measurements and Main Results The primary outcome measure was ventilator-free days to day 28. Baseline characteristics were similar between the 98 patients randomized to trophic and the 102 patients randomized to full-energy nutrition. At enrollment, patients had a mean APACHE II score of 26.9, PaO2/FiO2 of 182 and 38% were in shock. Both groups received similar duration of enteral nutrition (5.5 vs. 5.1 days; P=0.51). The trophic group received an average of 15 ± 11% of goal calories daily through day 6 compared to 74.8 ± 38.5% (P<0.001) for the full-energy group. Both groups had a median of 23.0 ventilator-free (P=0.90) and 21.0 ICU-free days (P=0.64). Mortality to hospital discharge was 22.4% for trophic vs. 19.6% for full-energy (P=0.62). In the first 6 days, the trophic group had trends for less diarrhea (19 vs. 24% of feeding days; P=0.08) and significantly fewer episodes of elevated gastric residual volumes (2 vs. 8% of feeding days; P<0.001). Conclusions Initial trophic enteral nutrition resulted in similar clinical outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure as early full-energy enteral nutrition but with fewer episodes of gastrointestinal intolerance.
Rice, Todd W.; Mogan, Susan; Hays, Margaret A.; Bernard, Gordon R.; Jensen, Gordon L.; Wheeler, Arthur P.
We present a case of severe interstitial pneumonitis, mild polyarthritis and polymyositis, and Raynaud's syndrome with the presence of anti-Jo-1 antibodies, which had been diagnosed as anti-synthetase syndrome. The presence, however, of anti-Ro/SSA antibodies led us to understand that we were dealing here with a more severe form of interstitial lung disease. The patient was treated for acute respiratory failure but he showed resistance to glucocorticoids and cyclosporine. Thus, he was treated with infusions of anti-CD20 therapy (rituximab): his clinical conditions improved very rapidly and a significant decrease in the activity of pulmonary disease was detected using high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) of the thorax and pulmonary function tests. PMID:22958322
Zappa, Maria Cristina; Trequattrini, Tiziana; Mattioli, Francesco; Rivitti, Rosario; Vigliarolo, Rossana; Marcoccia, Antonella; D'Arcangelo, Giovanni
We present a case of severe interstitial pneumonitis, mild polyarthritis and polymyositis, and Raynaud's syndrome with the presence of anti-Jo-1 antibodies, which had been diagnosed as anti-synthetase syndrome. The presence, however, of anti-Ro/SSA antibodies led us to understand that we were dealing here with a more severe form of interstitial lung disease. The patient was treated for acute respiratory failure but he showed resistance to glucocorticoids and cyclosporine. Thus, he was treated with infusions of anti-CD20 therapy (rituximab): his clinical conditions improved very rapidly and a significant decrease in the activity of pulmonary disease was detected using high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) of the thorax and pulmonary function tests.
11 COPD patients (age: 65 +/- 9 Yrs) with acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure (PaCO2 11.3 +/- 1.1kPa) were treated with mask pressure support ventilation, another 10 similar patients (age: 68 +/- 12 Yrs) served as control. BiPAP ventilator was used with the following modifications: (1) Non-rebreathing valve set-in proximal to mask; (2) 5 LPM oxygen flow delivered into mask to reduce the dead space effect. Mask ventilation was given 2-3 hours every time and 1-2 time daily for 7 days. Synchrony and airway patency were specially monitored. The results suggested that mask ventilation could reduce PaCO2, improve PaO2, relieve dyspnea and decrease the possibility of intubation. PMID:1306412
Chen, R C
Background Prone position ventilation for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) improves oxygenation but not survival, except possibly\\u000a when AHRF is severe.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective To determine effects of prone versus supine ventilation in AHRF and severe hypoxemia [partial pressure of arterial oxygen\\u000a (PaO2)\\/inspired fraction of oxygen (FiO2) 2\\/FiO2 ? 300 mmHg).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design Systematic review and meta-analysis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Data Sources Electronic databases (to November 2009) and conference proceedings.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Two authors independently selected
Sachin Sud; Jan O. Friedrich; Paolo Taccone; Federico Polli; Neill K. J. Adhikari; Roberto Latini; Antonio Pesenti; Claude Guérin; Jordi Mancebo; Martha A. Q. Curley; Rafael Fernandez; Ming-Cheng Chan; Pascal Beuret; Gregor Voggenreiter; Maneesh Sud; Gianni Tognoni; Luciano Gattinoni
Idiopathic Infantile Arterial Calcification is a rare autosome recessive disease characterized by extensive calcification of medium and large arteries. Loss-of-function mutations in ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 gene have been described in more than 80% of the cases. Although the diagnosis is usually made at autopsy, it is possible to identify cases based on clinical presentation, radiology findings, and molecular studies. Appropriate treatment can be initiated and has been shown to successfully induce permanent remission. We report a 4-week-old neonate who initially presented with respiratory distress, heart failure, and Coxsackie B viremia suggestive of viral induced cardiomyopathy. His symptoms progressed to multiple organ failure and he eventually expired at four weeks of age. On autopsy, diffuse calcium deposition within the internal elastic lamina of medium and large arteries was identified, as well as narrowing of lumen due to myointimal proliferation. This case report will emphasize the importance of taking this rare curable disease into consideration in all cases of infants with cardiopulmonary failure.
Nael, A.; Siaghani, P. J.; Chen, D.; Romansky, S. G.; Shane, L.
This article, proposes a procedure to construct the membership functions of the system characteristics of a two-unit repairable system in series and parallel, which is subject to individual failures and common-cause shock failures. Time to individual failure and common-cause shock failure of the operating units are assumed to follow fuzzified exponential distributions. In addition, time to repair of the failed
Hsin-I. Huang; Chuen-Horng Lin; Jau-Chuan Ke
Arnold Chiari Malformation (ACM) is defined as a condition where part of the cerebellar tissue herniates into the cervical canal toward the medulla and spinal cord resulting in a number of clinical manifestations. Type I ACM consists of variable displacement of the medulla throughout the formamen magnum into the cervical canal, with prominent cerebellar herniation.Type I ACM is characterized by symptoms related to the compression of craniovertebral junction, including ataxia, dysphagia, nistagmus, headache, dizziness, and sleep disordered breathing. We report a case of a life-long non-smoker, 54 years old woman who presented these symptoms associated with bronchiectasis secondary to recurrent inhalation pneumonia, hypercapnic respiratory failure, and central sleep apnea (CSA).CSA was first unsuccessfully treated with nocturnal c-PAP. The subsequent treatment with low flow oxygen led to breathing pattern stabilization with resolution of CSA and related clinical symptoms during sleep. We suggest that in patients with type I ACM the presence of pulmonary manifestations aggravating other respiratory disturbances including sleep disordered breathing (SDB) should be actively investigated. The early diagnosis is desirable in order to avoid serious and/or poorly reversible damages. PMID:23433005
Campisi, Raffaele; Ciancio, Nicola; Bivona, Laura; Di Maria, Annalisa; Maria, Giuseppe Di
We experienced a case in which brain death liver transplantation was suspended after admission to the operating room because the impaired oxygenation was aggravated. A 32-year-old man (weight 70 kg, height 164 cm) who had previously undergone living donor liver transplantation for Budd-Chiari syndrome developed hepatic failure 11 months after the transplantation and was enrolled in the waiting list for brain death liver transplantation. Mechanical ventilation and blood purification therapy were performed in the intensive care unit because he was in coma and his respiratory function had gradually worsened. A brain-dead donor was identified 21 days after enrollment. The patient was transported to the operating room when the donor liver arrived at our hospital. However, the surgery was suspended because his respiratory function deteriorated further after induction of general anesthesia. A patient enrolled in the brain death transplantation list often has to wait long for a donor organ. Anesthesiologists should actively participate in the preoperative management and evaluation of a patient's general status during the waiting period. PMID:24724450
Hatakeyama, Tomoki; Nagata, Hirofumi; Miura, Hiroko; Inoda, Ayako; Suzuki, Tasuku; Suzuki, Kenji
Arnold Chiari Malformation (ACM) is defined as a condition where part of the cerebellar tissue herniates into the cervical canal toward the medulla and spinal cord resulting in a number of clinical manifestations. Type I ACM consists of variable displacement of the medulla throughout the formamen magnum into the cervical canal, with prominent cerebellar herniation. Type I ACM is characterized by symptoms related to the compression of craniovertebral junction, including ataxia, dysphagia, nistagmus, headache, dizziness, and sleep disordered breathing. We report a case of a life-long non-smoker, 54 years old woman who presented these symptoms associated with bronchiectasis secondary to recurrent inhalation pneumonia, hypercapnic respiratory failure, and central sleep apnea (CSA). CSA was first unsuccessfully treated with nocturnal c-PAP. The subsequent treatment with low flow oxygen led to breathing pattern stabilization with resolution of CSA and related clinical symptoms during sleep. We suggest that in patients with type I ACM the presence of pulmonary manifestations aggravating other respiratory disturbances including sleep disordered breathing (SDB) should be actively investigated. The early diagnosis is desirable in order to avoid serious and/or poorly reversible damages.
Triphasic waves are seen in the electro-encephalogram of adult patients with toxic-metabolic encephalopathies of various origins. Levetiracetam is a broad spectrum anti-epileptic drug with renal elimination and no hepatic metabolism. We describe the case of encephalopathy with triphasic waves concomitant with levetiracetam accumulation in a patient with chronic renal failure. The condition was reversible after down-titration of levetiracetam with no change of the renal function. Other causes of metabolic encephalopathy were excluded. Moreover, this patient suffered from a probable cortical myoclonus that relapsed after cessation of the drug but was well controlled by a low dosage adapted to the renal failure. In cases of metabolic encephalopathy with triphasic waves in a patient with renal failure taking levetiracetam, it is important to exclude toxic accumulation of levetiracetam among other causes. PMID:19201620
Vulliemoz, Serge; Iwanowski, Patricia; Landis, Theodor; Jallon, Pierre
There are conflicting reports on the ability of aspirin as a single agent to cause acute or chronic renal failure in experimental animals. Chronic administration of aspirin alone over 18 to 68 weeks in doses of 120 to 500 mg/kg/d has been reported to cause renal papillary necrosis in rats. However, some investigators have been unable to produce renal papillary necrosis in other species or in rats given lower divided doses comparable to therapeutic doses used in humans. In a variety of rat strains, aspirin administered as a single high dose intravenously or by oral gavage produces acute tubular necrosis of proximal tubules, rarely accompanied by renal papillary necrosis in susceptible strains. Several human studies have addressed the chronic nephrotoxicity of aspirin alone or relative risk of end-stage renal disease in association with aspirin use after correction for other analgesics. With the exception of one case control study demonstrating a low, but statistically significant risk of end-stage renal disease in association with aspirin use, all other case control studies and several prospective studies have been unable to identify a significant risk of chronic renal failure in patients using aspirin alone in therapeutic doses. In healthy adults, short-term aspirin administration in therapeutic doses has no effect on creatinine clearance, urine volume, osmolar clearance, or sodium and potassium excretion. However, in predisposed individuals with glomerulonephritis, cirrhosis, and chronic renal insufficiency, and in children with congestive heart failure, short-term aspirin use in therapeutic doses may precipitate reversible acute renal failure. Acute aspirin intoxication (>300 mg/kg) frequently causes acute renal failure and doses of 500 mg/kg may be lethal. Chronic salicylate intoxication has been reported to cause reversible or irreversible acute renal failure in association with a pseudosepsis syndrome. PMID:8669425
Every surgeon has encountered problems with a ruptured suture while pulling or knotting, but late fracture of the sutures is an uncommon cause of complications in surgical practice. In the literature, these rare events have presented with varied complications such as false aneurysm in vascular surgery and failure of anchorage in orthopedic surgery. In his medium term follow-up (eight years)
Mohamad N Bittar
Boron (B) deficiency and cold temperatures during the reproductive development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cause failure of grain to set. A pot experiment at the Plant Environment Laboratory, The University of Reading, UK, in 1996 examined whether wheat cultivars differ in response to these stresses, if any stage during reproductive development was more sensitive than another, and whether the
K.D. Subedi; P. J. Gregory; R. J. Summerfield; M. J. Gooding
Bisphosphonate use has been identified as a contributory factor in atypical subtrochanteric fracture of the femur. These fractures are commonly treated with an intramedullary device. We present a case of implant failure of an intrameduallary device caused by non-union of an atypical subtrochanteric fracture. PMID:24700046
O'Neill, Barry James; O'hEireamhoin, Sven; Morrissey, David I; Keogh, Peter
Objective. To determine early predictors of outcomes of adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure. Method. 100 consecutive adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure were evaluated in this retrospective study. Data including comorbidities, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Acute Physiological Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, PaO2, FiO2, PaO2/FiO2, PEEP, mean airway pressure (mPaw), and oxygenation index (OI) on the 1st and the 3rd day of mechanical ventilation, and change in OI within 3 days were recorded. Primary outcome was hospital mortality; secondary outcome measure was ventilator weaning failure. Results. 38 out of 100 (38%) patients died within the study period. 48 patients (48%) failed to wean from ventilator. Multivariate analysis showed day 3 OI (P = 0.004) and SOFA (P = 0.02) score were independent predictors of hospital mortality. Preexisting cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (P = 0.002) was the predictor of weaning failure. Results from Kaplan-Meier method demonstrated that higher day 3 OI was associated with shorter survival time (log-Rank test, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Early OI (within 3 days) and SOFA score were predictors of mortality in severe acute respiratory failure. In the future, prospective studies measuring serial OIs in a larger scale of study cohort is required to further consolidate our findings.
Lai, Ting-Yu; Hung, Heui-Ling; Chen, Yu-Mu; Chou, Po-An; Wang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Meng-Chih; Fang, Wen-Feng
Nationwide influenza vaccination campaigns are held annually in Brazil during the same time of the year. This study aimed to analyze deaths from respiratory illnesses and influenza-related causes among the elderly in the city of Aracaju, capital of Sergipe State, Brazil. Data were analyzed from the following databases: Information System on Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance (SIVEP_GRIPE), Hospital Information System (SIH), Mortality Information System (SIM), and Health Informatics Department (DATASUS), from 1998 to 2007, Sergipe State Central Laboratory (LACEN-SE), and rainfall data from the National Meteorology Institute (INMET). The year 2007 showed the highest mortality rate from influenza and related causes in elderly individuals. From 1998 to 2007, mortality rates from influenza-related respiratory illnesses and associated causes in Aracaju city were higher than in the States of Brazil, indicating the need to reformulate the influenza vaccination schedule in elderly residents of this city. PMID:23370031
Gomes, Aline de Andrade; Nunes, Marco Antônio Prado; Oliveira, Cristiane Costa da Cunha; Lima, Sônia Oliveira
Coronaviruses have the potential to cause severe transmissible human disease, as demonstrated by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak of 2003. We describe here the clinical and virological features of a novel coronavirus infection causing severe respiratory illness in a patient transferred to London, United Kingdom, from the Gulf region of the Middle East. PMID:23078800
Bermingham, A; Chand, M A; Brown, C S; Aarons, E; Tong, C; Langrish, C; Hoschler, K; Brown, K; Galiano, M; Myers, R; Pebody, R G; Green, H K; Boddington, N L; Gopal, R; Price, N; Newsholme, W; Drosten, C; Fouchier, R A; Zambon, M
Follow-up studies were conducted to assess the medical and developmental outcome of 92 infants treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation at the University of Michigan. Of 118 near-term (greater than 34 weeks' gestation) infants who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, 103 (87%) were surviving and available for follow-up at between 1 and 7 years of age. Ninety-two of these children were seen on at least one occasion. Each visit included a history and physical examination, an evaluation by a physical therapist, and developmental testing by a pediatric psychologist. Medical outcome during year 1 found 31% of the children rehospitalized, primarily with respiratory illness. Outpatient-treated lower respiratory tract illness was seen in an additional 31% of the children. New or nonstatic neurologic problems were noted in 6% of the children. Abnormal growth during year 1 occurred in 26% of the children. At last clinic visit 16% of the children exhibited moderate-to-severe neurologic abnormalities, and 8% had moderate-to-severe cognitive delay. Sensorineural hearing loss occurred in 4% of children. Nine percent of the children were receiving speech and language therapy; screening tests showed that an additional 6% had speech and language delay. Overall, at last visit 16 (20%) of the children exhibited some type of handicap. A review of the literature on follow-up studies of non-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-treated infants with persistent pulmonary artery hypertension produced an impairment rate of 18.5%. Outcome post-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation appears similar to that seen in less ill cohorts of infants treated with more "conventional" therapy. Long-term follow-up of all such infants remains essential. PMID:1707156
Schumacher, R E; Palmer, T W; Roloff, D W; LaClaire, P A; Bartlett, R H
BACKGROUND: Domiciliary assisted ventilation, using negative or positive pressure devices, is an effective treatment for respiratory failure due to chest wall deformity and neuromuscular disease. Negative pressure ventilators have been used with some success in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease in hospital, but attempts to continue treatment at home have been disappointing. This study evaluates the practicalities of nasal
M W Elliott; A K Simonds; M P Carroll; J A Wedzicha; M A Branthwaite
INTRODUCTION: High daily intensive care unit (ICU) costs are associated with the use of mechanical ventilation (MV) to treat acute respiratory failure (ARF), and assessment of quality of life (QOL) after critical illness and cost-effectiveness analyses are warranted. METHODS: Nationwide, prospective multicentre observational study in 25 Finnish ICUs. During an eight-week study period 958 consecutive adult ICU patients were treated
Rita Linko; Raili Suojaranta-Ylinen; Sari Karlsson; Esko Ruokonen; Tero Varpula; Ville Pettilä
Background Wound botulism occurs as a consequence of inoculation of Clostridium botulinum spores into a wound.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim To describe such a case of wound botulism. Results A 23-year-old drug-injecting user presented with bulbar symptoms and progressive\\u000a signs over a three-day period. The diagnosis of botulism was suspected and was treated with large doses of penicillin and\\u000a botulinum antitoxin. The diagnosis
S FitzGerald; R Lyons; J Ryan; W Hall; C Gallagher
Using United States vital statistical data we examined trends in infant deaths from Respiratory Distress Syndrome/Hyaline Membrane Disease (RDS/HMD) for 1969 to 1983, by race and age at death. In order to improve comparability of diagnosis across two revisions of the International Classification of Diseases, deaths from RDS/HMD were ascertained using both underlying and associated causes of death. These data document a 2 per cent per year increase in infant mortality attributed to RDS/HMD for all races during interval I (1969-73) followed by 9 per cent per year decreases during intervals II (1974-78) and III (1979-83). However, there was a marked difference between Whites and Blacks in these trends. In the White population, RDS/HMD infant mortality increased by 2.2 per cent per year in interval I but then decreased by 10.5 per cent per year in interval II and 8.9 per cent per year in interval III. Among Blacks, on the other hand, the initial increase in RDS/HMD mortality was steeper (5.2 per cent per year) and the subsequent decreases were less (6.3 per cent per year and 8.0 per cent per year). As a result, the Black-White ratio in infant mortality attributed to RDS/HMD increased from 1.32 in 1969-73, to 1.59 in 1974-78 and to 1.72 in 1979-83. The proportion of RDS/HMD deaths that occurred in the postneonatal period increased from 1.1 per cent in interval I to 3.6 per cent in interval II to 5.0 per cent in interval III.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Malloy, M H; Hartford, R B; Kleinman, J C
Cardiovascular disease is a major worldwide health problem with a growing impact in developing countries. Heart failure is the clinical manifestation of many advanced cardiac disorders. It can have numerous etiologies and the incidence of non-infectious causes is increasing with socio-economic development, thus illustrating the global nature of this epidemiologic transition. Several of the numerous non-infectious causes of heart failure involve cardiac diseases specific to tropical areas including dilated cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis, and peripartum cardiomyopathy. Other widespread disorders are becoming more common as a result of the epidemiologic transition. Cardiovascular risk factors are changing particularly with regard to the incidence of coronary artery disease, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and hypertension-related complications. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of non-infectious causes of heart failure in terms of frequency, onset, and therapeutic requirements. Symptomatic treatment of heart failure is same as in developing countries but is often delayed due to shortcomings in the care system. PMID:18300519
Paule, P; Braem, L; Mioulet, D; Gil, J M; Theron, A; Héno, P; Fourcade, L
The McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome is a rare cause of severe hydroelectrolyte disorders and fluid depletion as a result of rectal tumor hypersecretion, which can lead to acute renal failure. We report the case of a 70-year-old female who presented with hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, and acute renal failure, due to a watery, mucinous diarrhea. A large rectal villous adenoma was discovered on ileocolonoscopy, and definitive management was achieved by removal of the tumor. In conclusion, reversal of the biochemical derangement is the cornerstone of successful management of the McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome. Then, immediate surgical resection of the tumor is the treatment of choice.
Bruno, Andrea; Chimienti, Domenico; Montanaro, Alda; Prete, Fernando; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Basile, Carlo
Background Heart failure is sometimes incorrectly listed as the underlying cause of death (UCD) on death certificates, thus compromising the accuracy and comparability of mortality statistics. Statistical redistribution of the UCD has been used to examine the effect of misclassification of the UCD attributed to heart failure, but sex- and race-specific redistribution of deaths on coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in the United States has not been examined. Methods We used coarsened exact matching to infer the UCD of vital records with heart failure as the UCD from 1999 to 2010 for decedents 55 years old and older from states encompassing regions under surveillance by the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, and North Carolina). Records with heart failure as the UCD were matched on decedent characteristics (five-year age groups, sex, race, education, year of death, and state) to records with heart failure listed among the multiple causes of death. Each heart failure death was then redistributed to plausible UCDs proportional to the frequency among matched records. Results After redistribution the proportion of deaths increased for CHD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, hypertensive heart disease, and cardiomyopathy, P?0.001. The percent increase in CHD mortality after redistribution was the highest in Mississippi (12%) and lowest in Maryland (1.6%), with variations by year, race, and sex. Redistribution proportions for CHD were similar to CHD death classification by a panel of expert reviewers in the ARIC study. Conclusions Redistribution of ill-defined UCD would improve the accuracy and comparability of mortality statistics used to allocate public health resources and monitor mortality trends.
Background The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes symptoms similar to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), yet involving an additional component of acute renal failure (ARF) according to several published case reports. Impairment of the kidney is not typically seen in Coronavirus infections. The role of kidney infection in MERS is not understood. Findings A systematic review of communicated and peer-reviewed case reports revealed differences in descriptions of kidney involvement in MERS versus SARS patients. In particular, ARF in MERS patients occurred considerably earlier after a median time to onset of 11 days (SD ±2,0 days) as opposed to 20 days for SARS, according to the literature. In-situ histological staining of the respective cellular receptors for MERS- and SARS-Coronavirus showed highly similar staining patterns with a focus of a receptor-specific signal in kidney epithelial cells. Comparative infection experiments with SARS- and MERS-CoV in primary human kidney cells versus primary human bronchial epithelial cells showed cytopathogenic infection only in kidney cells, and only if infected with MERS-CoV. Kidney epithelial cells produced almost 1000-fold more infectious MERS-CoV progeny than bronchial epithelial cells, while only a small difference was seen between cell types when infected with SARS-CoV. Conclusion Epidemiological studies should analyze kidney impairment and its characteristics in MERS-CoV. Virus replication in the kidney with potential shedding in urine might constitute a way of transmission, and could explain untraceable transmission chains leading to new cases. Individual patients might benefit from early induction of renoprotective treatment.
Premature ovarian failure (POF) is identified as a heterogeneous disorder leading to amenorrhea and ovarian failure before the age of 40 years. The first known symptom of the disease is having irregular menstrual periods. The phenotype appearance of POF depends significantly on the variations in hormones. Low levels of gonadal hormones (estrogens and inhibins) and increased level of gonadotropins [luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)] (hypergonadotropic amenorrhea) are well documented as causes of POF. There is an association between the failure of germ cell development and complete ovarian failure, and consistently decreased number of germ cells is more likely associated with partial ovarian failure resulting in secondary amenorrhea. A literature review on recent findings about POF and its association with genomic alterations in terms of genes and chromosomes. POF is a complex heterogeneous disorder. Some of POF cases are carriers of a single gene mutation inherited in an autosomal or X-linked manner while a number of patients suffer from a chromosome abnormality like Turner syndrome in mosaic form and manifest secondary amenorrhea associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Among many of the known involved genes in POF development, several are prove to be positively associated to the disease development in different populations. While there is a promising association between X chromosome anomalies and specific gene mutations with POF, genome-wide analysis could prove a powerful tool for identifying the most important candidate genes that influence POF manifestation.
Pouresmaeili, Farkhondeh; Fazeli, Zahra
BACKGROUND: There are at least 51 adenovirus serotypes (AdV) known to cause human infections. The prevalence of the different human AdV (HAdV) serotypes varies among different regions. Presently, there are no reports of the prevalent HAdV types found in Malaysia. The present study was undertaken to identify the HAdV types associated primarily with respiratory tract infections (RTI) of young children
Juraina Abd-Jamil; Boon-Teong Teoh; Eddy H Hassan; Nuruliza Roslan; Sazaly AbuBakar
Debris flows are typically caused by natural terrain landslides triggered by intense rainfalls. If an incoming mountain torrent collapses a series of landslide dams, large debris flows can form in a very short period. Moreover, the torrent can amplify the scale of the debris flow in the flow direction. The catastrophic debris flows that occurred in Zhouqu, China, on 8 August 2010 were caused by intense rainfall and the upstream cascading failure of landslide dams along the gullies. In the wake of the incident, a field study was conducted to better understand the process of cascading landslide dam failures and the formation of debris flows. This paper looks at the geomorphic properties of the debris-flow gullies, estimates the peak flow discharges at different locations using three different methods, and analyzes the key modes (i.e., different landslide dam types and their combinations) of cascading landslide dam failures and their effect on the scale amplification of debris flows. The results show that five key modes in Luojiayu gully and two modes in Sanyanyu gully accounted for the scale amplification of downstream debris flows in the Zhouqu event. This study illustrates how the hazardous process of natural debris flows can begin several kilometers upstream as a complex cascade of geomorphic events (failure of landslide dams and erosion of the sloping bed) can scale to become catastrophic discharges. Neglecting recognition of these hazardous geomorphic and hydrodynamic processes may result in a high cost.
Cui, P.; Zhou, Gordon G. D.; Zhu, X. H.; Zhang, J. Q.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) increases mortality in patients with multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). This study evaluates the feasibility of intrapleural steroid instillation (IPSI) in patients with ARDS and MODS unresponsive to conventional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Ninety-two of 467 patients who underwent ECMO between 2005 and 2009 had ARDS, and 30 consecutive adult patients of these 92 patients with severe ARDS and MODS were retrospectively analyzed in this study. Nine of these 30 patients, who did not respond to therapy and whose condition deteriorated, were managed with IPSI. All patients met the inclusion criteria of hemodynamic instability with high catecholamine infusion requirement and 100% oxygen demand in ventilation and ECMO flow. On initial diagnosis of ARDS, no differences in prognostic scorings were observed in patients who underwent conventional treatment (n = 21) and those who underwent IPSI (n = 9). Blood oxygenation, tidal volume, changing in chest radiographic findings, and survival rates were analyzed. The primary outcome was survival until discharge from the hospital. Pulmonary radiographic appearance improved after 3 days of IPSI treatment (P = 0.008); the ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen also increased significantly after 5 days of IPSI treatment (P = 0.028). Moreover, the 28-day mortality rate (P = 0.017), 60-day mortality rate (P = 0.003), and survival rate (78% vs. 19%; P = 0.003) significantly improved in patients undergoing IPSI, which therefore appears to be an easily implemented and highly effective treatment for patients with severe ARDS in combination with MODS, particularly in patients who fail to respond to conventional treatment. PMID:24088995
Huang, Pei-Ming; Lin, Tzu-Hsin; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Ko, Wen-Je
Many software failures stem from inadequate requirements engineering. This view has been supported both by detailed accident investigations and by a number of empirical studies; however, such investigations can be misleading. It is often difficult to distinguish between failures in requirements engineering and problems elsewhere in the software development lifecycle. Further pitfalls arise from the assumption that inadequate requirements engineering is a cause of all software related accidents for which the system fails to meet its requirements. This paper identifies some of the problems that have arisen from an undue focus on the role of requirements engineering in the causes of major accidents. The intention is to provoke further debate within the emerging field of forensic software engineering.
Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C. M.
Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) has been observed in a number of tortoise species, including the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus). Clinical signs of URTD in gopher tortoises are similar to those in desert tortoises and include serous, mucoid, or purulent discharge from the nares, excessive tearing to purulent ocular discharge, conjunctivitis, and edema of the eyelids and ocular glands. The objectives of the present study were to determine if Mycoplasma agassizii was an etiologic agent of URTD in the gopher tortoise and to determine the clinical course of the experimental infection in a dose-response infection study. Tortoises were inoculated intranasally with 0.5 ml (0.25 ml/nostril) of either sterile SP4 broth (control group; n = 10) or 10(8) color-changing units (CCU) (total dose) of M. agassizii 723 (experimental infection group; n = 9). M. agassizii caused clinical signs compatible with those observed in tortoises with natural infections. Clinical signs of URTD were evident in seven of nine experimentally infected tortoises by 4 weeks postinfection (p.i.) and in eight of nine experimentally infected tortoises by 8 weeks p.i. In the dose-response experiments, tortoises were inoculated intranasally with a low (10(1) CCU; n = 6), medium (10(3) CCU; n = 6), or high (10(5) CCU; n = 5) dose of M. agassizii 723 or with sterile SP4 broth (n = 10). At all time points p.i. in both experiments, M. agassizii could be isolated from the nares of at least 50% of the tortoises. All of the experimentally infected tortoises seroconverted, and levels of antibody were statistically higher in infected animals than in control animals for all time points of >4 weeks p.i. (P < 0.0001). Control tortoises in both experiments did not show clinical signs, did not seroconvert, and did not have detectable M. agassizii by either culture or PCR at any point in the study. Histological lesions were compatible with those observed in tortoises with natural infections. The numbers of M. agassizii 723 did not influence the clinical expression of URTD or the antibody response, suggesting that the strain chosen for these studies was highly virulent. On the basis of the results of the transmission studies, we conclude that M. agassizii is an etiologic agent of URTD in the gopher tortoise. PMID:10364595
Brown, M B; McLaughlin, G S; Klein, P A; Crenshaw, B C; Schumacher, I M; Brown, D R; Jacobson, E R
Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) has been observed in a number of tortoise species, including the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus). Clinical signs of URTD in gopher tortoises are similar to those in desert tortoises and include serous, mucoid, or purulent discharge from the nares, excessive tearing to purulent ocular discharge, conjunctivitis, and edema of the eyelids and ocular glands. The objectives of the present study were to determine if Mycoplasma agassizii was an etiologic agent of URTD in the gopher tortoise and to determine the clinical course of the experimental infection in a dose-response infection study. Tortoises were inoculated intranasally with 0.5 ml (0.25 ml/nostril) of either sterile SP4 broth (control group; n = 10) or 108 color-changing units (CCU) (total dose) of M. agassizii 723 (experimental infection group; n = 9). M. agassizii caused clinical signs compatible with those observed in tortoises with natural infections. Clinical signs of URTD were evident in seven of nine experimentally infected tortoises by 4 weeks postinfection (p.i.) and in eight of nine experimentally infected tortoises by 8 weeks p.i. In the dose-response experiments, tortoises were inoculated intranasally with a low (101 CCU; n = 6), medium (103 CCU; n = 6), or high (105 CCU; n = 5) dose of M. agassizii 723 or with sterile SP4 broth (n = 10). At all time points p.i. in both experiments, M. agassizii could be isolated from the nares of at least 50% of the tortoises. All of the experimentally infected tortoises seroconverted, and levels of antibody were statistically higher in infected animals than in control animals for all time points of >4 weeks p.i. (P < 0.0001). Control tortoises in both experiments did not show clinical signs, did not seroconvert, and did not have detectable M. agassizii by either culture or PCR at any point in the study. Histological lesions were compatible with those observed in tortoises with natural infections. The numbers of M. agassizii 723 did not influence the clinical expression of URTD or the antibody response, suggesting that the strain chosen for these studies was highly virulent. On the basis of the results of the transmission studies, we conclude that M. agassizii is an etiologic agent of URTD in the gopher tortoise.
Brown, M. B.; McLaughlin, G. S.; Klein, P. A.; Crenshaw, B. C.; Schumacher, I. M.; Brown, D. R.; Jacobson, E. R.
PURPOSE: Atherosclerotic vascular disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease, but the independent contribution of renal failure rather than associated risk factors is unclear. We sought to examine the relative contribution of these factors to the severity of atherosclerosis by measuring intima-medial thickness and brachial artery reactivity in uremic patients and controls.SUBJECTS
Robert Kennedy; Colin Case; Robert Fathi; David Johnson; Nicole Isbel; Thomas H Marwick
In this investigation, we examined the probable cause of failure of a welded joint of a economizer tube of a 210 MW thermal\\u000a power plant. X-ray radiography and chemical analysis along with detailed optical and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination\\u000a of the economizer tube were carried out. It was concluded that severe blowholes, pipings, and porosity along with brittle\\u000a fracture were
Atanu SahaH; H. Roy; A. K. Shukla
A procedure for the failure cause identification of tribo-mechanical systems is presented based on fault-tree using a digraph approach. A variable-event system digraph for a tribo-mechanical system is suggested which takes into account structure of the system. A top event or undesirable event for the system is then defined and the fault-tree for this top event is deduced from the
Rakesh Sehgal; O. P. Gandhi; S. Angra
We discuss exponential asymptotic property of the solution of a parallel repairable system with warm standby under common-cause failure. This system can be described by a group of partial differential equations with integral boundary. First we show that the positive contraction C0-semigroup T(t) [Weiwei Hu, Asymptotic stability analysis of a parallel repairable system with warm standby under common-cause failure, Acta Anal. Funct. Appl. 8 (1) (2006) 5-20] which is generated by the operator corresponding to these equations is a quasi-compact operator. Then by using [Weiwei Hu, Asymptotic stability analysis of a parallel repairable system with warm standby under common-cause failure, Acta Anal. Funct. Appl. 8 (1) (2006) 5-20] that 0 is an eigenvalue of the operator with algebraic index one and the C0-semigroup T(t) is contraction, we conclude that the spectral bound of the operator is zero. By using the above results the exponential asymptotical stability of the time-dependent solution of the system follows easily.
Shen, Zifei; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Fan, Weifeng
Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) has been observed in a number of tortoise species, including the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus). Clinical signs of URTD in gopher tortoises are similar to those in desert tortoises and include serous, mucoid, or purulent discharge from the nares, excessive tearing to purulent ocular discharge, conjunctivitis, and edema of
M. B. BROWN; G. S. M CLAUGHLIN; P. A. KLEIN; B. C. CRENSHAW
Pulmonary agenesis, defined as complete absence of bronchus, parenchyma, and vessels is a very rare condition. Herein, we report a 4-month-old infant who presented with fever, cough, and respiratory distress and was misdiagnosed in a peripheral hospital as a case of pneumonia. The child was, later diagnosed as having right lung agenesis with dextrocardia.
Nandan, Devki; Bhatt, Girish Chandra; Dewan, Vivek; Pongener, Imkongkumzuk
Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) is a rare disorder characterized by severe respiratory involvement at onset, muscle weakness starting in the early adulthood, and cytoplasmic bodies with peculiar immunohistochemical reactivity on muscle biopsy. Here we describe a patient who presented with hypercapnic coma at age 32. A detailed light and electron microscopy analysis on muscle biopsy was performed and, together with clinical data, led to the diagnosis. The R279W mutation in the TTN gene was excluded. This report expands the geographical region of incidence and encourages additional studies to clarify the genetic heterogeneity of the condition. PMID:20708934
Tasca, Giorgio; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Monforte, Mauro; Sabatelli, Mario; Biscione, Gian Luca; Piluso, Giulio; Gualandi, Francesca; Tonali, Pietro Attilio; Udd, Bjarne; Ricci, Enzo
Primary liver sarcomas make up 2% of all malignant neoplasms of the liver; of these, angiosarcoma is the most common type. Primary liver tumours rarely cause fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), which is most frequently caused by non-neoplasmic pathologies. In the case of neoplasms, the most frequent are lymphoma and metastatic carcinomas. We describe the case of a 76-year-old man who suffered from FHF as a result of a liver angiosarcoma and we present a review of the medical literature in which we found only two cases of liver angiosarcomas linked to FHF. PMID:22865805
Montell García, Marco; Romero Cabello, Raúl; Romero Feregrino, Raul; Atri Moises, Mercado; Trejo Estrada, Rafael; Alvaro, Padilla-Rodríguez; Moreno Manlio Gerardo, Gama; Feregrino Rodrigo, Romero
Though the pathogenic significance and the reservoir of Ewingella americana have not been clarified, this organism has caused several pathogenic infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. We report a pneumonia in a patient with chronic renal failure, who had chronic rejection of transplanted kidney. E. americana was identified to be the pathogen of pneumonia with clinical symptoms and signs and radiological examination. As soon as he was treated with ceftriaxone and isepamicin, clinical improvement was followed with no further growth of E. americana or other pathogenic isolates from sputum culture. This suggests to be the case of pneumonia caused by E. americana for the first time in the Korean literature. PMID:15716620
Ryoo, Nam-Hee; Ha, Jung-Sook; Jeon, Dong-Seok; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Kim, Hyun-Chul
Though the pathogenic significance and the reservoir of Ewingella americana have not been clarified, this organism has caused several pathogenic infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. We report a pneumonia in a patient with chronic renal failure, who had chronic rejection of transplanted kidney. E. americana was identified to be the pathogen of pneumonia with clinical symptoms and signs and radiological examination. As soon as he was treated with ceftriaxone and isepamicin, clinical improvement was followed with no further growth of E. americana or other pathogenic isolates from sputum culture. This suggests to be the case of pneumonia caused by E. americana for the first time in the Korean literature.
Ha, Jung-Sook; Jeon, Dong-Seok; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Kim, Hyun-Chul
Alveolar macrophages (AM) are critical for defense against bacterial and fungal infections. However, a definitive role of AM in viral infections remains unclear. We here report that AM play a key role in survival to influenza and vaccinia virus infection by maintaining lung function and thereby protecting from asphyxiation. Absence of AM in GM-CSF-deficient (Csf2?/?) mice or selective AM depletion in wild-type mice resulted in impaired gas exchange and fatal hypoxia associated with severe morbidity to influenza virus infection, while viral clearance was affected moderately. Virus-induced morbidity was far more severe in Csf2?/? mice lacking AM, as compared to Batf3-deficient mice lacking CD8?+ and CD103+ DCs. Csf2?/? mice showed intact anti-viral CD8+ T cell responses despite slightly impaired CD103+ DC development. Importantly, selective reconstitution of AM development in Csf2rb?/? mice by neonatal transfer of wild-type AM progenitors prevented severe morbidity and mortality, demonstrating that absence of AM alone is responsible for disease severity in mice lacking GM-CSF or its receptor. In addition, CD11c-Cre/Ppargfl/fl mice with a defect in AM but normal adaptive immunity showed increased morbidity and lung failure to influenza virus. Taken together, our results suggest a superior role of AM compared to CD103+ DCs in protection from acute influenza and vaccinia virus infection-induced morbidity and mortality.
Schneider, Christoph; Nobs, Samuel P.; Heer, Alex K.; Kurrer, Michael; Klinke, Glynis; van Rooijen, Nico; Vogel, Johannes; Kopf, Manfred
Little is known about long-term effects of neonatal intensive care on exercise capacity, physical activity, and fatigue in term borns. We determined these outcomes in 57 young adults, treated for neonatal respiratory failure; 27 of them had congenital diaphragmatic hernia with lung hypoplasia (group 1) and 30 had normal lung development (group 2). Patients in group 2 were age-matched, with similar gestational age and birth weight, and similar neonatal intensive care treatment as patients in group 1. All patients were born before the era of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, nitric oxide administration, and high frequency ventilation. Exercise capacity was measured by cycle ergometry, daily physical activity with an accelerometry-based activity monitor, and fatigue by the fatigue severity scale. Median (range) VO2peak in mL/kg/min was 35.4 (19.6-55.0) in group 1 and 37.6 (15.7-52.7) in group 2. There was a between-group P-value of 0.65 for exercise capacity. Daily activity and fatigue were also similar in both groups. So, residual lung hypoplasia did not play an important role in this cohort. There were no significant associations between exercise capacity and perinatal characteristics. Future studies need to elucidate whether exercise capacity is impaired in patients with more severe lung hypoplasia who nowadays survive. PMID:22724460
van der Cammen-van Zijp, M H M; Spoel, M; Laas, R; Hop, W C J; de Jongste, J C; Tibboel, D; van den Berg-Emons, R J G; IJsselstijn, H
This paper presents a real time prediction approach for floods caused by failure of natural dams due to overtopping. The approach adopts the observed outflow data of the preceding failure process for calibrating a simulation model, and the calibrated model is then implemented to predict the remaining failure process and flood characteristics. A widely used parametric model of dam failure is adopted in consideration of practicability and computational simplicity. The problems raised by interrelation among the model parameters and impeding the model calibration are analytically identified, and a simple but effective solution method is proposed. The approach was examined through two idealized cases where there exist no model inadequacy and measurement errors. Its effectiveness of and applicability to predicting the peak discharge and the time to peak of various outflows were exhibited. The real world case of Tangjiashan Quake Lake in China was further analyzed. The outflow peak discharge and the time to peak were reasonably predicted with one and a half hours ahead, demonstrating its potential for practical applications. Multistage features of the breach growth in nature may lower its performance due to raising difficulties in the identification of reasonable predictions. Future work of improving the model adequacy and observation accuracy would enhance its applicability to natural environments.
Ma, Hongbo; Fu, Xudong
We report a case of a retroperitoneal hematoma occurring in a patient under anticoagulation therapy for deep-venous thrombosis and presenting as an anuric acute renal failure. A coexisting polycythemia vera led to misdiagnosis that could have been life-threatening. A woman, known for polycythemia vera and a single functioning right kidney, was admitted with mild abdominal pain in a context of recent deep venous thrombosis under low-molecular weight heparin. Clinical examination revealed hepatomegaly associated with polycythemia vera. Biochemical evaluation disclosed an acute renal failure, and renal ultrasonography showed no dilation of the renal pelvis. Retroperitoneal hematoma resulted in shock, progressive anemia and obstructive renal failure, related to renal pelvic compression. A right renal indwelling catheter was introduced to restore urine flow after one hemodialysis session, and an inferior vena cava filter was placed because of anti-coagulation contra-indication. However, pulmonary embolism occurred, so that oral anticoagulants were introduced. The hematoma resorbed spontaneously, and a year after this episode, the patient is still alive and well. Retroperitoneal hematoma is a rare cause of obstructive acute renal failure and a life-threatening complication of anti-coagulation therapy. PMID:17542341
Monge, M; Vaida, I; Modeliar, S S; Solanilla, A; Airapetian, N; Presne, C; Makdassi, R; Fournier, A; Choukroun, G
Mechanical ventilation-induced excessive stretch of alveoli is reported to induce cellular stress failure and subsequent lung injury, and is therefore an injurious factor to the lung. Avoiding cellular stress failure is crucial to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) treatment. In the present study, primary rat alveolar type II (ATII) cells were isolated to evaluate their viability and the mechanism of their survival under tonic stretch. By the annexin V/ PI staining and flow cytometry assay, we demonstrated that tonic stretch-induced cell death is an immediate injury of mechanical stress. In addition, immunofluorescence and immunoblots assay showed that the cells experienced an expansion-contraction-reexpansion process, accompanied by partial focal adhesion (FA) disassembly during contraction. Manipulation of integrin adherent affinity by altering bivalent cation levels in the culture medium and applying an integrin neutralizing antibody showed that facilitated adhesion affinity promoted cell death under tonic stretch, while lower level of adhesion protected the cells from stretch-induced stress failure. Finally, a simplified numerical model was established to reveal that adequate disassembly of FAs reduced the forces transmitting throughout the cell. Taken together, these results indicate that ATII cells escape stress failure caused by tonic stretch via active cell morphological remodeling, during which cells transiently disassemble FAs to unload mechanical forces.
Liu, Xiao-Yang; Chen, Xiao-Fei; Ren, Yan-Hong; Zhan, Qing-Yuan; Wang, Chen; Yang, Chun
Introduction. Many diseases and conditions can contribute to elevated liver enzymes. Common causes include viral and autoimmune hepatitis, fatty liver, and bile duct diseases, but, in uncommon cases like liver involvement in endocrine disorders, liver failure is also seen. Adrenal insufficiency is the rarest endocrine disorder complicating the liver. In the previously reported cases of adrenal insufficiency, mild liver enzymes elevation was seen but we report a case with severe elevated liver enzymes and liver failure due to adrenal insufficiency. Based on our knowledge, this is the first report in this field. Case Report. A 39-year-old woman was referred to emergency ward due to drowsiness and severe fatigue. Her laboratory tests revealed prothrombin time: 21 sec, alanine aminotransferase (ALT): 2339?IU/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST): 2002?IU/L, and ALP: 90?IU/L. No common cause of liver involvement was discovered, and eventually, with diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency and corticosteroid therapy, liver enzymes and function became normal. Finally, the patient was discharged with good general condition. Conclusion. With this report, we emphasize adrenal insufficiency (primary or secondary) as a reason of liver involvement in unexplainable cases and recommend that any increase in the liver enzymes, even liver failure, in these patients should be observed. PMID:23533837
Vafaeimanesh, Jamshid; Bagherzadeh, Mohammad; Parham, Mahmoud
Introduction. Many diseases and conditions can contribute to elevated liver enzymes. Common causes include viral and autoimmune hepatitis, fatty liver, and bile duct diseases, but, in uncommon cases like liver involvement in endocrine disorders, liver failure is also seen. Adrenal insufficiency is the rarest endocrine disorder complicating the liver. In the previously reported cases of adrenal insufficiency, mild liver enzymes elevation was seen but we report a case with severe elevated liver enzymes and liver failure due to adrenal insufficiency. Based on our knowledge, this is the first report in this field. Case Report. A 39-year-old woman was referred to emergency ward due to drowsiness and severe fatigue. Her laboratory tests revealed prothrombin time: 21 sec, alanine aminotransferase (ALT): 2339?IU/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST): 2002?IU/L, and ALP: 90?IU/L. No common cause of liver involvement was discovered, and eventually, with diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency and corticosteroid therapy, liver enzymes and function became normal. Finally, the patient was discharged with good general condition. Conclusion. With this report, we emphasize adrenal insufficiency (primary or secondary) as a reason of liver involvement in unexplainable cases and recommend that any increase in the liver enzymes, even liver failure, in these patients should be observed.
Bagherzadeh, Mohammad; Parham, Mahmoud
Sinupret(®), a herbal medicinal product made from Gentian root, Primula flower, Elder flower, Sorrel herb, and Verbena herb is frequently used in the treatment of acute and chronic rhinosinusitis and respiratory viral infections such as common cold. To date little is known about its potential antiviral activity. Therefore experiments have been performed to measure the antiviral activity of Sinupret(®) oral drops (hereinafter referred to as "oral drops") and Sinupret(®) dry extract (hereinafter referred to as "dry extract"), in vitro against a broad panel of both enveloped and non-enveloped human pathogenic RNA and DNA viruses known to cause infections of the upper respiratory tract: influenza A, Chile 1/83 (H1N1) virus (FluA), Porcine Influenza A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) virus (pFluA), parainfluenza type 3 virus (Para 3), respiratory syncytial virus, strain Long (RSV), human rhinovirus B subtype 14 (HRV 14), coxsackievirus subtype A9 (CA9), and adenovirus C subtype 5 (Adeno 5). Concentration-dependent antiviral activity (EC(50) between 13.8 and 124.8 ?g/ml) of Sinupret(®) was observed against RNA as well as DNA viruses independent of a viral envelope. Remarkable antiviral activity was shown against Adeno 5, HRV 14 and RSV in which dry extract was significantly superior to oral drops. This could be ascertained with different assays as plaque-reduction assays in plaque forming units (PFU), the analyses of a cytopathogenic effect (CPE) and with enzyme immunoassays (ELISA) to determine the amount of newly synthesised virus. Our results demonstrate that Sinupret(®) shows a broad spectrum of antiviral activity in vitro against viruses commonly known to cause respiratory infections. PMID:22112724
Glatthaar-Saalmüller, B; Rauchhaus, U; Rode, S; Haunschild, J; Saalmüller, A
Pediatric neuromuscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy cause pulmonary compromise. In severely affected patients, upper respiratory tract infections exacerbate lower respiratory tract secretion retention, with the potential for pneumonia, pulmonary atelectasis, and respiratory failure. In the pediatric intensive care unit, effective treatment includes noninvasive positive pressure ventilation and manual and mechanical mucus clearance techniques. A
David J. Birnkrant; John F. Pope; Robert M. Eiben
Although the failure to trip or scram represents a single class of initiators, the actual events of each transient are operationally unique and require individual human response. The operational team's reaction to the challenge can be successful, in very short response times, and without complete diagnosis of the event's root cause. This underscores the need for a better basic understanding of the team response patterns in such cases, to allow designs, procedures, and training to take advantage of it. In addition, as one analyzes the recent failure at the Salem 1 reactor, it becomes obvious that the optimization of test and maintenance practices are essential and the use of time dependent reliability analyses lend themselves nicely to such calculations.
Hall, R.E.; Boccio, J.L.; Luckas, W.J.
Clinical reports on management and rewarming complications after prolonged avalanche burial are not common. We present a case of an unreported combination of respiratory failure and unexpected spontaneous hypoglycemia during noninvasive rewarming from severe hypothermia. We collected anecdotal observations in a 42-year-old, previously healthy, male backcountry skier admitted to the ICU at a tertiary care center after 2 hours 7 minutes of complete avalanche burial, who presented with a patent airway and a core body temperature of 25.0°C (77.0°F) on extrication. There was no decrease in core body temperature during transport (from 25.0°C [77.0°F] to 24.7°C [76.5°F]). Atrial fibrillation occurred during active noninvasive external rewarming (to 37.0°C [98.6°F] during 5 hours), followed by pulmonary edema and respiratory failure (SaO(2) 73% and PaO(2)/FIO(2) 161 mm Hg), which resolved with endotracheal intubation and continuous positive end-respiratory pressure. Moreover, a marked spontaneous glycemic imbalance (from 22.2 to 1.4 mmol/L) was observed. Despite a possible favorable outcome, clinicians should be prepared to identify and treat severe respiratory problems and spontaneous hypoglycemia during noninvasive rewarming of severely hypothermic avalanche victims. PMID:22153969
Strapazzon, Giacomo; Nardin, Michele; Zanon, Peter; Kaufmann, Marc; Kritzinger, Meinhard; Brugger, Hermann
Introduction The simple bedside method for sampling undiluted distal pulmonary edema fluid through a normal suction catheter (s-Cath) has been experimentally and clinically validated. However, there are no data comparing non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (mini-BAL) and s-Cath for assessing lung inflammation in acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure. We designed a prospective study in two groups of patients, those with acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and those with acute cardiogenic lung edema (ACLE), designed to investigate the clinical feasibility of these techniques and to evaluate inflammation in both groups using undiluted sampling obtained by s-Cath. To test the interchangeability of the two methods in the same patient for studying the inflammation response, we further compared mini-BAL and s-Cath for agreement of protein concentration and percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). Methods Mini-BAL and s-Cath sampling was assessed in 30 mechanically ventilated patients, 21 with ALI/ARDS and 9 with ACLE. To analyse agreement between the two sampling techniques, we considered only simultaneously collected mini-BAL and s-Cath paired samples. The protein concentration and polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) count comparisons were performed using undiluted sampling. Bland-Altman plots were used for assessing the mean bias and the limits of agreement between the two sampling techniques; comparison between groups was performed by using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney-U test; continuous variables were compared by using the Student t-test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, analysis of variance or Student-Newman-Keuls test; and categorical variables were compared by using chi-square analysis or Fisher exact test. Results Using protein content and PMN percentage as parameters, we identified substantial variations between the two sampling techniques. When the protein concentration in the lung was high, the s-Cath was a more sensitive method; by contrast, as inflammation increased, both methods provided similar estimates of neutrophil percentages in the lung. The patients with ACLE showed an increased PMN count, suggesting that hydrostatic lung edema can be associated with a concomitant inflammatory process. Conclusions There are significant differences between the s-Cath and mini-BAL sampling techniques, indicating that these procedures cannot be used interchangeably for studying the lung inflammatory response in patients with acute hypoxaemic lung injury.
In order to improve the organization of a General Medical ward without a real critical care area and to optimize treatment of patients with acute respiratory failure, we developed a cart for non-invasive ventilation to be used at the patient bedside. In the rear panel, we set two i.v. drip poles used for i.v. therapy and to hold two Venturi-like flow generators for continuous positive airway pressure. On the top, two ventilators are present, a smaller one (domiciliary) and a bigger one (intensive care unit ventilator). In the front panel, there are 4 drawers called "blood - drugs", "oxygenation", "CPAP", "ventilation", in which all the devices for ventilation, oxygenation, aerosol and medical therapy are easily and quickly available. The management of acute respiratory failure is simpler, easier and safer with this cart: each necessary device is immediately available, and this avoids wasting time. This bedside non-invasive ventilation cart, as far as the cardiac emergency cart, can be useful in general medical wards lacking a critical care area in order to improve interventions in patients with acute respiratory failure. PMID:23548951
Lari, Federico; Bortolotti, Roberta; Scandellari, Novella; Zecchi, Virna; Bragagni, Gianpaolo; Giostra, Fabrizio; Di Battista, Nicola
Chronic heart failure (HF) is a cardiovascular disease of cardinal importance because of several factors: a) an increasing occurrence due to the aging of the population, primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, and modern advances in therapy, b) a bad prognosis: around 65% of patients are dead within 5 years of diagnosis, c) a high economic cost: HF accounts for 1% to 2% of total health care expenditure. This review focuses on the main causes, consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality and costs and treatment of HF.
Pazos-Lopez, Pablo; Peteiro-Vazquez, Jesus; Carcia-Campos, Ana; Garcia-Bueno, Lourdes; de Torres, Juan Pablo Abugattas; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso
Ureteral herniation is rare. Only a few cases of bilateral ureterosciatic herniation have been reported. We report the case of a 74-year-old woman with flank pain and acute renal failure. The initial ultrasound scan showed bilateral hydronephrosis. Follow-up computed tomography imaging demonstrated sciatic herniation of both ureters, causing bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter. The patient underwent bilateral retrograde ureterography and ureteral stent placement, with improvement in renal function to normal limits. Observation after stent removal demonstrated recurrent sciatic herniation of both ureters. Definitive surgical correction was performed by way of laparoscopic bilateral ureterolysis and sciatic notch hernia repair using mesh. PMID:23602799
Whyburn, James J; Alizadeh, Ahmadreza
Intestinal obstruction caused by an anomalous congenital band is very rare in adults and children. A 7-year-old boy was admitted with acute intestinal obstruction. His parents mentioned that the child always had mild abdominal distention and failure to thrive from his infancy. On his medical history, there were not any attacks of abdominal pain, fever and hospitalization. Laparotomy showed an ileal loop compressed by an anomalous band, which extended from the ileum to the sigmoid mesentery resembling a mesenteric remnant. The band was resected. Histologically, it was composed of loose connective tissue containing mature vessels. PMID:16237556
Etensel, Barlas; Ozkisacik, Sezen; Döger, Firuzan; Yazici, Mesut; Gürsoy, Harun
A pregnant woman in the mid-third trimester developed complications with enlarged fetal abdomen and polyhydramnios. Prenatal ultrasound visualized dilated bowel, intraperitoneal calcifications, ascites, hydroceles and polyhydramnios, giving the impression of meconium peritonitis. The fetal abdomen continued to increased in size, and maternal dyspnea due to polyhydramnios was aggravated. She underwent a cesarean section at 36 + 1 weeks' gestation. The delivery was followed by severe neonatal respiratory distress due to the huge mass in the abdomen. The tumor was successfully removed by emergency surgery and diagnosed as immature gastric teratoma. No other associated anomaly was found. The infant made a good progress after the operation. PMID:22229956
Jeong, Hyun Chul; Cha, Seong Jae; Kim, Gwang Jun
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) decreases mechanical ventilation indication in the early period of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHcRF) and factors for success have been studied well. But, less is known about the factors influencing the NIV response in the subacute period. This study was aimed to determine the factors influencing the reduction of PaCO2 levels within first 24 hours of therapy. METHODS: NIV response was defined as reduction of PaCO2 level below 50 mmHg within first 24 hours. Patients with AHcRF, treated with NIV, were divided into 2 groups according to this criterion; group 1 as the nonresponsive, group 2 as the responsive. The differences in NIV methods and characteristics of the two groups were evaluated and compared in this retrospective study. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients were included in the study; 66 of them in group 1 and 34 in group 2. No significant differences were identified between the length of NIV application and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, intubation and mortality rates, across the groups. Ninety-one percent of the patients in group 2 had received all night long NIV therapy; this was just 74% in group 1 (P=0.036). Results of multivariate analysis showed that while nocturnal application was significantly associated with better response, prior home ventilation and requirement of higher pressure support (PS) levels significantly and independently associated with poorer response to NIV therapy. CONCLUSION: In patients with AHcRF, all night long use of NIV may accelerate healing by improving PaCO2 reduction within the first 24 hours. A rapid response in PaCO2 levels should not be expected in patients requiring higher PS levels and using prior home ventilation.
Gursel, Gul; Aydogdu, Muge; Tasyurek, Secil; Gulbas, Gazi; Ozkaya, Sevket; Nazik, Sakine; Demir, Ayse
Objective:To describe differences in characteristics among neonates treated with extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in the first week of life for respiratory failure compared with later in the neonatal period and to assess risk factors for central nervous system (CNS) hemorrhage and mortality among the two groups.Study Design:Review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry from 2001 to 2010 of neonates ?30 days comparing two age groups: those ?7 days (Group 1) to those >7 days (Group 2) at ECLS initiation.Result:Among 4888 neonates, Group 1 (n=4453) had significantly lower mortality (17 vs 39%, P<0.001) but greater CNS hemorrhage (11 vs 7%, P=0.02) than Group 2 (n=453). Mortality and CNS hemorrhage improved significantly with increasing gestational age only for Group 1 patients. CNS hemorrhage occurred more frequently in Group 1 patients receiving venoarterial (VA) than with venovenous ECLS (15 vs 7%, P<0.001). In Group 1, lower birth weight and pre-ECLS pH and VA mode were independently associated with mortality. In Group 2, higher mean airway pressure was independently associated with mortality. Complications of ECLS therapy, including CNS hemorrhage and renal replacement therapy were independently associated with mortality for both groups.Conclusion:Neonates cannulated for ECLS after the first week of life had greater mortality despite lower CNS hemorrhage than neonates receiving ECLS earlier. Premature infants cannulated after 1 week had fewer CNS hemorrhages than premature infants treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation starting within the first week of life. PMID:24603452
Smith, K M; McMullan, D M; Bratton, S L; Rycus, P; Kinsella, J P; Brogan, T V
It is unusual for inborn errors of metabolism to be considered in the investigative work-up of pancytopenia. We report a family in which the proband presented with failure to thrive at 2 months of age and subsequent bone marrow failure. A previous sibling had died at 7 months of age with suspected leukaemia. Haematological findings in the proband were significant for pancytopenia, and bone marrow aspiration showed dysplastic changes in all cell lineages. Urinary organic acid analysis revealed elevated methylmalonic acid. The synthesis of transcobalamin II (transcobalamin, TC) by cultured fibroblasts was markedly reduced, confirming the diagnosis of TC deficiency. The proband and his younger asymptomatic sister (also found to have TC deficiency) were homozygous for R399X (c.1195C>T), a novel mutation resulting in the loss of the C- terminal 29 amino acids of TC, a highly conserved region. Response to parenteral vitamin B(12) in the proband was dramatic. At 6 years 3 months of age, physical examination is normal and developmental level is age appropriate. His sister is clinically asymptomatic and is also developing normally. Propionylcarnitine concentrations were not elevated in the newborn screening cards from the proband and sister, but that was for specimens retrieved from storage after 7 years and 5 years, respectively. Inherited and acquired cobalamin disorders should both be considered in the differential diagnosis of bone marrow failure syndromes in young children. Early detection of the metabolic causes of bone marrow failure can ensure prompt recovery in some cases involving the vitamin B(12) pathway. PMID:18956254
Prasad, C; Rosenblatt, D S; Corley, K; Cairney, A E L; Rupar, C A
This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the possible causes of chronic renal failure (CRF) in Ibn Sina Teaching Hospital (ISTH) in Hadramout, Yemen. Fifty-one CRF patients (29 men and 22 women) on regular hemodialysis were included in the study. Glomerulonephritis (25.4%) was the commonest cause of CRF, followed by obstructive nephropathy (13.7%), hypertension (11.8%), pyelonephrits (11.8%), diabetic nephropathy (7.8%), arthritis, malaria, vasculitis and postpartum hemorrhage (5.9% each) and the least common one was Alport's syndrome (3.9%). There were more men than women (57% and 43%, respectively). The mean age range of the patients was 42 years. More patients were the from coast of Mukalla than from the valley and desert (59% and 41%) respectively. PMID:17297542
Badheeb, Ahmed M
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECTThe analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of dexibuprofen compared with ibuprofen in adults with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and dental pain. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDSDexibuprofen is as effective and tolerable as ibuprofen, and a dose of 5 mg kg?1 of dexibuprofen would be sufficient to control fever caused by upper respiratory tract infection in children. AIM To evaluate the antipyretic efficacy and tolerability of dexibuprofen compared with ibuprofen in children with fever caused by upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). METHODS The study population consisted of children aged 6 months to 14 years. At the time of visit to the hospital, the children had fever; the cause of fever was determined to be URTI by a paediatrician based on history taking and physical examination. The study was a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, controlled parallel group, comparative, Phase 3 clinical trial, conducted at three hospitals. By using a computer-based random assignment program, the subjects were allocated to the following three groups: 5 mg kg?1 dexibuprofen group, 7 mg kg?1 dexibuprofen group, and 10 mg kg?1 ibuprofen group. RESULTS In the clinical trial of the antipyretic action of dexibuprofen in patients with fever caused by URTI, there was no statistically significant difference in maximal decrease of temperature and mean time to become apyrexial among the 5 mg kg?1 dexibuprofen, 7 mg kg?1 dexibuprofen and 10 mg kg?1 ibuprofen groups (P > 0.05). There also was no significant difference in adverse drug reaction (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Dexibuprofen is as effective and tolerable as ibuprofen. A dose of 5 mg kg?1 and 7 mg kg?1 dexibuprofen in place of 10 mg kg?1 ibuprofen would be sufficient to control fever caused by URTI in children.
Yoon, Jong Seo; Jeong, Dae-Chul; Oh, Jae-Won; Lee, Keun Young; Lee, Hyun Seung; Koh, Young Yull; Kim, Jin Tack; Kang, Jin Han; Lee, Joon Sung
...whether you have good cause for failure to report timely, we will take into account any physical, mental, educational, or linguistic limitations (including any lack of facility with the English language) you may have. [59 FR 1636, Jan. 12,...
We examined the effects of 4-chloro-m-cresol (4-CmC, a potent and specific activator of ryanodine receptors) on Ca(2+)-release/influx and respiratory burst in freshly isolated human PMN as well as HL60 cells. 4-CmC induces Ca(2+) store-depletion in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations between 400muM and 3mM, however no dose-dependent effect on Ca(2+)-influx was found. 4-CmC depleted Ca(2+) stores that were shared with the GPC agonists such as fMLP and PAF, and therefore 4-CmC presumably depletes Ca(2+) from ER. Since the authentic ligand for RyR is cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), we assessed the functional relevance of RyR in PMN by studying the presence and function of membrane-bound ADP-ribosyl cyclase (CD38) in PMN. First, expression of CD38 was confirmed by RT-PCR using cDNA from HL60 cells. Second, PMN from trauma patients showed significantly enhanced CD38 expression than those from healthy volunteers. In addition, although no chemotaxis effect was detected by 4-CmC, it stimulated respiratory burst in PMN in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that RyRs exist in human PMN and that RyR pathway may play an active role in inflammatory PMN calcium signaling. 8-Br-cADPR and cyclic 3-deaza-ADP did not have inhibitory effects either on 4-CmC-induced Ca(2+) store-depletion or on respiratory burst, on the other hand, PLC inhibitor, U73122, completely attenuated both 4-CmC-induced Ca(2+) store-depletion and respiratory burst. Although it has been used as a specific activator of RyR, 4-CmC has non-specific effects which cause Ca(2+) store-depletion and respiratory burst at least in human PMN. PMID:16168959
Hauser, Carl J; Kannan, Kolenkode B; Deitch, Edwin A; Itagaki, Kiyoshi
The temporary work incapacity caused by disease make yearly the consumption of billions of lei from the Social Care budget of our country. The Gravity Index (number of days of medical vacation/100 employers) was 627 days in 1989 and reached 948 in 2000. The high frequency of superior airways pulmonary parenchyma and pleural disease set the respiratory pathology on the first place in the structure of general morbidity and subsequently, it's the first cause generating temporary work incapacity (16.1%). 45% of medical vacation days paid in 2000 were due to respiratory and osteo-articular diseases and to accidents. In Dolj county gravity index is situated below the country average, being 785 days in 2000 versus 570 in 1989. In same production departments as in charcoal industry, the gravity index reaches 1714 days and above 1400 in other departments such as leather, furs, footwear and textile industries. In health care units the gravity index was 533.7 days in 2000. The "balance" of tuberculosis in temporary work incapacity structure diminished, as a result of introducing new treatment formula, from 4.4% in 1989 to 3.3% in 2000. In Dolj county, with higher TB incidence 4.5% of temporary work incapacity was due to tuberculosis. PMID:12693167
Didilescu, Cr; Ni?u, Mimi
Premature infants are at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a complex condition characterized by impaired alveolar development and increased alveolar epithelial apoptosis. The functional involvement of pulmonary apoptosis in bronchopulmonary dysplasia- associated alveolar disruption remains undetermined. The aims of this study were to generate conditional lung-specific Fas-ligand (FasL) transgenic mice and to determine the effects of FasL-induced respiratory epithelial apoptosis on alveolar remodeling in postcanalicular lungs. Transgenic (TetOp)7-FasL responder mice, generated by pronuclear microinjection, were bred with Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP)-rtTA activator mice. Doxycycline (Dox) was administered from embryonal day 14 to postnatal day 7, and lungs were studied between embryonal day 19 and postnatal day 21. Dox administration induced marked respiratory epithelium-specific FasL mRNA and protein up-regulation in double-transgenic CCSP-rtTA+/(TetOp)7-FasL+ mice compared with single-transgenic CCSP-rtTA+ littermates. The Dox-induced FasL up-regulation was associated with dramatically increased apoptosis of alveolar type II cells and Clara cells, disrupted alveolar development, decreased vascular density, and increased postnatal lethality. These data demonstrate that FasL-induced alveolar epithelial apoptosis during postcanalicular lung remodeling is sufficient to disrupt alveolar development after birth. The availability of inducible lung-specific FasL transgenic mice will facilitate studies of the role of apoptosis in normal and disrupted alveologenesis and may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for perinatal and adult pulmonary diseases characterized by dysregulated apoptosis.
De Paepe, Monique E.; Gundavarapu, Sravanthi; Tantravahi, Umadevi; Pepperell, John R.; Haley, Sheila A.; Luks, Francois I.; Mao, Quanfu
Introduction To investigate whether respiratory variation of inferior vena cava diameter (cIVC) predict fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing patients with acute circulatory failure (ACF). Methods Forty patients with ACF and spontaneous breathing were included. Response to fluid challenge was defined as a 15% increase of subaortic velocity time index (VTI) measured by transthoracic echocardiography. Inferior vena cava diameters were recorded by a subcostal view using M Mode. The cIVC was calculated as follows: (Dmax - Dmin/Dmax) × 100 and then receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for cIVC, baseline VTI, E wave velocity, E/A and E/Ea ratios. Results Among 40 included patients, 20 (50%) were responders (R). The causes of ACF were sepsis (n = 24), haemorrhage (n = 11), and dehydration (n = 5). The area under the ROC curve for cIVC was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60-0.88). The best cutoff value was 40% (Se = 70%, Sp = 80%). The AUC of the ROC curves for baseline E wave velocity, VTI, E/A ratio, E/Ea ratio were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.68-0.93), 0.78 (95% CI: 0.61-0.88), 0.76 (95% CI: 0.59-0.89), 0.58 (95% CI: 0.41-0.75), respectively. The differences between AUC the ROC curves for cIVC and baseline E wave velocity, baseline VTI, baseline E/A ratio, and baseline E/Ea ratio were not statistically different (p = 0.46, p = 0.99, p = 1.00, p = 0.26, respectively). Conclusion In spontaneously breathing patients with ACF, high cIVC values (>40%) are usually associated with fluid responsiveness while low values (< 40%) do not exclude fluid responsiveness.
Objective The objective of this case series is to identify and define causes of failure of Szabo technique in rapid-exchange monorail system for ostial lesions. Methods and results From March 2009 to March 2011, 42 patients with an ostial lesion were treated percutaneously at our institution using Szabo technique in a monorail stent system. All patients received unfractionated heparin during intervention. Loading dose of clopidogrel, followed by clopidogrel and aspirin was administered. In 57% of patients, drug-eluting stents were used and in 42.8% patients bare metal stents. The stent was advanced over both wires, the target wire and the anchor wire. The anchor wire, which was passed through the proximal trailing strut of the stent helps to achieve precise stenting. The procedure was considered to be successful if stent was placed precisely covering the lesion and without stent loss or anchor wire prolapsing. Of the total 42 patients, the procedure was successful in 33, while failed in 9. Majority of failures were due to wire entanglement, which was fixed successfully in 3 cases by removing and reinserting the anchor wire. Out of other three failures, in one stent dislodgment occurred, stent could not cross the lesion in one and in another anchor wire got looped and prolapsed into target vessel. Conclusion This case series shows that the Szabo technique, in spite of some difficulties like wire entanglement, stent dislodgement and resistance during stent advancement, is a simple and feasible method for treating variety of ostial lesions precisely compared to conventional angioplasty.
Jain, Rajendra Kumar; Padmanabhan, T.N.C.; Chitnis, Nishad
Introduction 30 day mortality in patients with Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF) is approximately 30%, defined as patients requiring ventilator support for more than 6 hours. Novel biomarkers are needed to predict patient outcomes and to guide potential future therapies. The activins A and B, members of the Transforming Growth Factor ? family of proteins, and their binding protein, follistatin, have recently been shown to be important regulators of inflammation and fibrosis but no substantial data are available concerning their roles in ARF. Our objectives were to evaluate whether the serum levels of activin A, B and follistatin are elevated in 518 patients with ARF from the FINNALI study compared the concentrations in 138 normal subjects that form a reference range. Methods Specific assays for activin A, B and follistatin were used and the results analyzed according to diagnostic groups as well as according to standard measures in intensive care. Multivariable logistic regression was used to create a model to predict death at 90 days and 12 months from the onset of the ARF. Results Serum activin A and B were significantly elevated in most patients and in most of the diagnostic groups. Patients who had activin A and/or B concentrations above the reference maximum were significantly more likely to die in the 12 months following admission [either activin A or B above reference maximum: Positive Likelihood Ratio [LR+] 1.65 [95% CI 1.28-2.12, P?=?0.00013]; both activin A and B above reference maximum: LR?+?2.78 [95% CI 1.96-3.95, P?0.00001]. The predictive model at 12 months had an overall accuracy of 80.2% [95% CI 76.6-83.3%]. Conclusions The measurement of activin A and B levels in these patients with ARF would have assisted in predicting those at greatest risk of death. Given the existing data from animal studies linking high activin A levels to significant inflammatory challenges, the results from this study suggest that approaches to modulate activin A and B bioactivity should be explored as potential therapeutic agents.
This paper describes an approach to establish effective mitigating strategies that can resolve potential common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in instrumentation and control systems at nuclear power plants. A particular objective in the development of these strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria, is to address the unique characteristics of digital technology that can contribute to CCF concerns. The research approach employed to establish diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on diversity usage and experience from nuclear power and non-nuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of common practices, and assessment of the nature of CCFs and compensating diversity attributes. The resulting diversity strategies address considerations such as the effect of technology choices, the nature of CCF vulnerabilities, and the prospective impact of each diversity type. In particular, the impact of each attribute and criterion on the purpose, process, product, and performance aspects of diverse systems are considered.
Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Waterman, Michael E. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Three mixed-bred raptors (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug) from a German falcon breeder were presented with a history of respiratory distress. In one bird a laryngeal stridor was noted, and oral examination revealed an epiglottal swelling. In the other two birds, nasal discharge and sneezing were the main clinical symptoms. Nasal flushing samples and biopsies were collected for pathologic, bacteriologic, and parasitologic examination. Results confirmed a cryptosporidial infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA analysis identified the causative agent to be Cryptosporidium baileyi. No cryptosporidia were detected in fecal samples, indicating the infection was confined to the respiratory system. Analysis of prey animals (pigeons, quail) failed to identify the source of infection. Treatment was initiated with paromomycin in all three birds, whereas in two birds an additional therapy with azithromycin was given. However, no clinical improvement was seen after several weeks of treatment, and the birds either died or were euthanatized. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first confirmed cases of disease caused by cryptosporidia in the order of Falconiformes. PMID:18646471
van Zeeland, Y R A; Schoemaker, N J; Kik, M J L; van der Giessend, J W B
Background As children represent the future, ensuring that they receive proper health care should be a primary concern of our societies. Epidemiological research underpins the importance of effective child health care strategies, and highlights the need for accurate data collection; such surveys are currently lacking in Taiwan. In our descriptive studies, we compared the differences of the ten most common diseases in the year 2000 and 2009 among Taiwanese children. Methods Data for a total of 174,651 and 142,200 visits under eighteen years old were collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in year 2000 and 2009. A maximum of three outpatient diagnostic codes (the International Classification of Disease [ICD], ninth revision) could be listed for every visit. Data were categorized according to the principal diagnoses, age and different specialties of physicians. Results Respiratory tract infection was the most common disease (58.21% to 44.77%). Teeth (4.90% to 5.16%) and eye (2.52% to 3.15%) problems were the also in the list of top ten diseases. In year 2009, the rate of allergic rhinitis was 2.87% in 7-18 years old group. Pediatricians were the first option for consultation, followed by ear, nose and throat specialists and family physicians. However, for the school age children group, the role of pediatricians with regards to children's health care showed a decrease in its importance. Conclusions The amount of information relevant to child health care is rapidly expanding. The ten most common diseases of the present analysis may serve as baseline data for future evaluations of the changes of type of diseases among children.
Objective We used isolated cardiomyocytes to investigate a possible role of mitochondrial permeability transition pore in mitochondrial abnormalities associated with heart failure. Methods Cardiomyocytes were isolated from LV myocardium of normal control dogs and dogs with heart failure produced by intracoronary microembolizations. Mitochondrial permeability transition was measured in isolated cardiomyocytes with intact sarcolemma with and without 0.2 ?M Cyclosporin A using calcein AM and the fluorometer. State-3 mitochondrial respiration was also measured with the Clark electrode. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured with JC-1 probe using the fluorometer. Propidium iodide was used to ensure sarcolemma integrity. Results 200 minutes after loading with calcein AM, mitochondria of failing cardiomyocytes showed only 50% of maximal level of calcein fluorescence while it remained unchanged in normal cells. The mitochondrial membrane potential in failing cardiomyocytes was significantly decreased by 38% compared to normal cardiomyocytes. Cyclosporine A significantly slowed the exit of calcein from mitochondria of failing cardiomyocytes and increased mitochondrial membrane potential by 29%. State-3 respiration was not affected with Cyclosporine A in normal cardiomyocytes while it was significantly increased in failing cardiomyocytes by 20%. Conclusions Exit of calcein (m.w. 1.0 kDa) from mitochondria of viable failing cardiomyocytes with intact sarcolemma suggests an existence of a reversible transitory permeability transition opening in high conductance mode. Attenuation of calcein exit, ??m and improvement of state-3 respiration achieved with CsA (0.2 ?M) show that permeability transition opening could be a cause of mitochondrial dysfunction described in the failing heart.
Sharov, Victor G.; Todor, Anastassia; Khanal, Sanjaya; Imai, Makoto; Sabbah, Hani N.
Background Although posterior correction and fusion surgery using pedicle screws carries the risk of vascular injury, a massive postoperative hemothorax in a patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is quite rare. We here report a case of a 12-year-old girl with AIS who developed a massive postoperative hemothorax. Case presentation The patient had a double thoracic curve with Cobb angles of 63° at T2-7 and 54° at T7-12. Posterior correction and fusion surgery was performed using a segmental pedicle screw construct placed between T2 and T12. Although the patient's respiration was stable during the surgery, 20 minutes after removing the trachea tube, the patient’s pulse oximetry oxygen saturation suddenly decreased to 80%. A contrast CT scan showed a massive left hemothorax, and a drainage tube was quickly inserted into the chest. The patient was re-intubated and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cmH2O applied, which successfully stopped the bleeding. The patient was extubated 4 days after surgery without incident. Based on contrast CT scans, it was suspected that the hemothorax was caused by damage to the intercostal arteries or branches during pedicle probing on the concave side of the upper thoracic curve. Extensive post-surgical blood tests, echograms, and CT and MRI radiographs did not detect coagulopathy, pulmonary or vascular malformation, or any other possible causative factors. Conclusion This case underscores the potential risk of massive hemothorax related to thoracic pedicle screw placement, and illustrates that for this serious complication, respiratory management with positive airway pressure, along with a chest drainage tube, can be an effective treatment option.
Asian dust (called 'Kosa' in Japan) is comprised of a large number of soil particles originating from the arid regions and deserts of China and Mongolia and dispersed long-range to Japan. A major public concern about Asian dust is its impact on human health. We collected Asian dust particles over the Japan Sea at an altitude of 900?m to directly estimate their effects on health. We examined the properties of the collected particles on wet surfaces. Through size distribution measurements and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis, we demonstrated that small dust particles (less than 1?µm) form aggregations with water-soluble salts such as calcium and sodium and they are transported to Japan as aggregates. These aggregates probably break down into small particles on nasal mucous membranes and may cause adverse respiratory health effects. PMID:22791171
Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Sakotani, Akiko; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Kenzaka, Takehiko; Tani, Katsuji; Baba, Takashi; Nasu, Masao
From early 1989 the emergence of an infectious bacterial disease resembling infectious coryza was seen in several commercial chicken flocks in Natal Province of South Africa. Clinical signs were facial swelling and nasal discharge. An organism was routinely isolated from the infra-orbital sinus or trachea of infected chickens. The organism was found to be a Gram-negative rod, non-motile, V factor (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NAD)-independent, catalase negative, oxidase positive and urease and indole negative. No gas was produced from carbohydrates and acid was produced from glucose, mannitol, inositol and sorbitol. Experimental inoculation of this organism into the infraorbital sinus of SPF chickens and conventional broilers produced an acute upper respiratory disease. The organism could be recovered for up to 7 days post-inoculation. The organism is closely related to Haemophilus paragallinarum, the cause of infectious coryza, but because it is NAD-independent it cannot be classed as an Haemophilus species. PMID:18670957
Horner, R F; Bishop, G C; Haw, C
It is estimated that there are over 5,000 species of mushrooms worldwide. Some of them are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. In more than 95% of mushroom toxicity cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. The severity of mushroom poisoning may vary, depending on the geographic location where the mushroom is grown, growth conditions, the amount of toxin delivered, and the genetic characteristics of the mushroom. Amanita phalloides is the most common and fatal cause of mushroom poisoning. This mushroom contains amanitins, which are powerful hepatotoxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II in liver. Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He reported ingesting several wild mushrooms about 36 hours earlier. In this article we report a case of lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms.
Erden, Abdulsamet; Esmeray, Kubra; Karagoz, Hatice; Karahan, Samet; Gumuscu, Hasan Huseyin; Basak, Mustafa; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avc?, Deniz; Poyrazoglu, Orhan Kursat
Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, non-conventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful.
Radha Krishna, Y; Mittal, V; Grewal, P; Fiel, MI; Schiano, T
Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, nonconventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful. PMID:21499580
Yellapu, Radha K; Mittal, Vivek; Grewal, Priya; Fiel, Mariaisabel; Schiano, Thomas
Seismic cycle related to earthquake faulting includes four major processes: which could be described by fault locking, self-acceleration or nucleation (possible foreshocks), coseismic slip, and post-stress relaxation and afterslip. Static stress change in the surrounding curst can advance or delay the fault instability or failure time. Based on a simple one dimensional spring-slide block model with a combination of rate- and state-dependent friction relation, in this study we have derived the analytical solutions of clock advance/delay of fault failures caused due to a static Coulomb stress change applied in the different fault temporal evolution periods. These results have been used in the physics based explanation of delayed characteristic earthquake in Parkfield region in which the next characteristic earthquake of M6.0 after 1966 occurred in 2004 instead of around 1988 accord to its characteristic return time of 22 years. At the same time, the analytical solutions also indicate that the time advance/delay in Coulomb stress change derived by the dislocation model has a certain limitation and fundamental flaw. Furthermore, we discussed the essential difference between rate- and state-variable constitutive (R-S) model and Coulomb stress model used commonly in current earthquake triggering study, and demonstrated that, in fact, the Coulomb stress model could be involved in the R-S model. The results we have obtained in this study could be used in the development of time-dependent fault interaction model and the probability calculation related to the time-dependent and renewal earthquake forecasting model.
Zhong, Q.; Shen, W.; Shi, B.
Viral hepatitis A and B are known to cause acute liver failure. While nearly 20% of acute liver failure cases are of indeterminate etiology, screening for other viruses has not been uniformly performed. We looked for evidence for parvovirus B19 and hepatitis E virus in sera from U.S. acute liver failure patients. For B19, 78 patients' sera, including 34 with indeterminate etiology, were evaluated by DNA dot-blot hybridization, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobin G and M antibodies; none showed evidence for infection. PMID:16964546
Lee, W M; Brown, K E; Young, N S; Dawson, G J; Schlauder, G G; Gutierrez, R A; Fontana, R; Rossaro, L; Davern, T; Lalani, E
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), an inherited hepatic disorder, is due to a defect of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), an enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis. AIP is characterized by recurrent, life-threatening attacks at least partly due to the increased hepatic production of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA). Both the mitochondrial enzyme, ALA synthase (ALAS) 1, involved in the first step of heme biosynthesis, which is closely linked to mitochondrial bioenergetic pathways, and the promise of an ALAS1 siRNA hepatic therapy in humans, led us to investigate hepatic energetic metabolism in Hmbs KO mice treated with phenobarbital. The mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were explored in the Hmbs(-/-) mouse model. RC and TCA cycle were significantly affected in comparison to controls in mice treated with phenobarbital with decreased activities of RC complexes I (-52%, (**)p<0.01), II (-50%, (**)p<0.01) and III (-55%, (*)p<0.05), and decreased activity of ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (-64%, (*)p<0.05), citrate synthase (-48%, (**)p<0.01) and succinate dehydrogenase (-53%, (*)p<0.05). Complex II-driven succinate respiration was also significantly affected. Most of these metabolic alterations were at least partially restored after the phenobarbital arrest and heme arginate administration. These results suggest a cataplerosis of the TCA cycle induced by phenobarbital, caused by the massive withdrawal of succinyl-CoA by ALAS induction, such that the TCA cycle is unable to supply the reduced cofactors to the RC. This profound and reversible impact of AIP on mitochondrial energetic metabolism offers new insights into the beneficial effect of heme, glucose and ALAS1 siRNA treatments by limiting the cataplerosis of TCA cycle. PMID:24727425
Homedan, Chadi; Laafi, Jihane; Schmitt, Caroline; Gueguen, Naïg; Lefebvre, Thibaud; Karim, Zoubida; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Wetterwald, Céline; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Gouya, Laurent; Puy, Hervé; Reynier, Pascal; Malthièry, Yves
The consequences resulting from an emergency failure of one subflow in the middle radiant part of a modernized PK-39-IIM boiler occurred during one of its first startups after the erection are presented. A numerical analysis of the factors that caused this failure is carried out. The calculation was carried out in accordance with the recommendations suggested in the standard method of hydraulic design. It is shown that at a load equal to 40% of its nominal value, increment of heat absorption in the subflow equal to 586 kJ/kg (140 kcal/kg), and heat absorption nonuniformity coefficient in the misaligned element equal to 1.5, the temperature of medium downstream of the subflow is equal to 670°C (operating conditions close to those under which the failure occurred).
Baranov, V. N.; Gorb, A. A.; Nikolaev, S. F.
Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are well known for the lack of a good diagnostic method. The main difficulty lies in the fact that there are a variety of pathogens causing LRTIs, and their management and treatment are quite different. The development of quantitative real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (qrt-LAMP) made it possible to rapidly amplify and quantify multiple pathogens simultaneously. The question that remains to be answered is how accurate and reliable is this method? More importantly, how are qrt-LAMP measurements utilized to inform/suggest medical decisions? When does a pathogen start to grow out of control and cause infection? Answers to these questions are crucial to advise treatment guidance for LRTIs and also helpful to design phase I/II trials or adaptive treatment strategies. In this article, our main contributions include the following two aspects. First, we utilize zero-inflated mixture models to provide statistical evidence for the validity of qrt-LAMP being used in detecting pathogens for LRTIs without the presence of a gold standard test. Our results on qrt-LAMP suggest that it provides reliable measurements on pathogens of interest. Second, we propose a novel statistical approach to identify disease-causing pathogens, that is, distinguish the pathogens that colonize without causing problems from those that rapidly grow and cause infection. We achieve this by combining information from absolute quantities of pathogens and their symbiosis information to form G-scores. Change-point detection methods are utilized on these G-scores to detect the three phases of bacterial growth-lag phase, log phase, and stationary phase. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24599506
Zhang, Peng; Peng, Peichao; Wang, Lu; Kang, Yu
This study aimed to investigate the pathophysiological changes in a rat chronic heart failure complicated with renal failure model, caused by three-quarters nephrectomy and subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (ISO). Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in the model group received three-quarters nephrectomy after twice undergoing surgical resections and subcutaneous injection of ISO (100 mg/kg body weight, injected twice, with a 24 h interval) after one week, while rats in the control group received sham surgery and injection of normal saline. Survival rate, heart failure and renal failure were compared between the two groups after 4 weeks. Serum creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), B-type natriuretic protein (BNP), aldolase (ALD), angiotensin II (Ang II) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined by kit assay. Urine protein at 24 h was determined by the Bradford method and left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular diastolic pressure (LVDP) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), as well as the maximum rates of increased and decreased left ventricular pressure (±dP/dtmax) were determined by left ventricular intubation. Heart weight indices were determined and the myocardial pathological conditions were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. There was no death in the control group, while the survival rate of the model group was 73%. Compared with the control group, each index of serum and urine protein in the model group was significantly increased. Additionally, LVSP was decreased, LVDP and LVEDP were increased and heart weight index was increased, with a significant difference. The serum Cr was positively correlated to BNP levels in the model group. Three-quarters nephrectomy and subcutaneous injection of ISO induces left ventricular heart failure and renal failure at the same time, which is characterized in pathophysiology by left ventricular diastolic and systolic function failure, left ventricular myocardial hypertrophy and reconstruction complicated with renal insufficiency.
PENG, DING-FENG; TANG, SHAO-YONG; HU, YONG-JUN; CHEN, JIAO; YANG, LI
Adult respiratory distress syndrome, characterized by high permeability pulmonary oedema caused by endothelial cell damage, resulting in refractory hypoxemia, has a very high mortality. Cardiopulmonary bypass is said to be responsible for the development of adult respiratory distress syndrome after cardiac surgery. The present study was performed in order to identify predicting and aetiological factors of adult respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure after cardiac surgery. Between January 1984 and December 1993, 3848 patients underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in the authors' institution, and were analysed in a retrospective manner. The operations performed were 3444 coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG), 267 valve and 137 combined (CABG + valve) procedures. The incidence of adult respiratory distress syndrome was 1.0% (38 of 3848) with an overall mortality rate of 68.4% (26 patients); 24 of these died from multiple organ failure. Multivariate regression analysis identified hypertension, current smoking, emergency surgery, preoperative New York Heart Association (NYHA) class 3 and 4, low postoperative cardiac output and left ventricular ejection fraction < 40% as significant, independent predictors for adult respiratory distress syndrome. Combined cardiac surgery and diffuse coronary disease were also significant predictors; cardiopulmonary bypass time was not. Thirty-six of the 38 patients that later developed adult respiratory distress syndrome had low postoperative cardiac output, 12 requiring intra-aortic balloon pump support. The remaining two had severe hypotension caused by postoperative bleeding. Twenty-six adult respiratory two had severe hypotension caused by postoperative bleeding. Twenty-six adult respiratory distress syndrome patients (68%) had confirmed gastrointestinal complication (e.g. intestinal ischaemia). Adult respiratory distress syndrome is a rare complication after cardiac surgery but is associated with a very high mortality. Preoperative predictors were identified. Cardiopulmonary bypass alone was not found to be an important factor. Postoperative low cardiac output leading to splanchnic hypoperfusion may be the most important single factor in developing adult respiratory distress syndrome after cardiac surgery. PMID:8634840
Christenson, J T; Aeberhard, J M; Badel, P; Pepcak, F; Maurice, J; Simonet, F; Velebit, V; Schmuziger, M
Background For over 25 years families with an increased susceptibility to melanoma have been under surveillance at our institution. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of surveillance for CDKN2A mutated families and causes for failure of the program in patients with late detected tumours. Methods In a retrospective case-control study, Breslow thickness of melanomas diagnosed in relatives enrolled in the surveillance program were compared to melanomas of unscreened index patients. We investigated the influence of mode of detection and length of surveillance interval on outcome. Results Surveillance melanomas (n = 226, median thickness: 0.50 mm) had a significantly lower Breslow thickness (multiplication factor: 0.61 (95% CI 0.47 – 0.80), p < 0.001) than index melanomas (n = 40, median thickness: 0.98 mm). Index melanomas were more likely diagnosed with a Breslow thickness > 1.0 mm (Odds ratio: 3.1 (95% CI 1.2 – 8.1), p = 0.022). 53% of surveillance melanomas were diagnosed during regular screens, 7% during patients’ first screen, 20% in between regular screens, and 20% in patients who were non-compliant with the surveillance schedule. The majority of surveillance melanomas (58%) were detected within 6 months after the last screen. There was no correlation between tumour thickness and the length of the screening interval for tumours diagnosed within 24 months since the last screen. Limitations The study is retrospective. Conclusions Surveillance was associated with earlier detection of melanomas. Noncompliance was an important cause for failing surveillance. Shortening surveillance intervals may advance detection of tumours, but may paradoxically not improve prognosis
van der Rhee, Jasper I.; de Snoo, Femke A.; Vasen, Hans F.A.; Mooi, Wolter J.; Putter, Hein; Gruis, Nelleke A.; Kukutsch, Nicole A.; Bergman, Wilma
Ultrafiltration enhances volume removal and weight reduction vs diuretics. However, their differential impact on total body sodium, potassium, and magnesium has not been described. Fifteen patients with congestion despite diuretic therapy had urine electrolytes measured after a diuretic dose. Ultrafiltration was initiated and ultrafiltrate electrolytes were measured. The urine sodium after diuretics (60+/-47 mmol/L) was less than in the ultrafiltrate (134+/-8.0 mmol/L) (P=.000025). The urine potassium level after diuretics (41+/-23 mmol/L) was greater than in the ultrafiltrate (3.7+/-0.6 mmol/L) (P=.000017). The urine magnesium level after diuretics (5.2+/-3.1 mg/dL) was greater than in the ultrafiltrate (2.9+/-0.7 mg/dL) (P=.017). In acute decompensated heart failure patients with congestion despite diuretic therapy, diuretics are poor natriuretics and cause significant potassium and magnesium loss. Ultrafiltration extracts more sodium while sparing potassium and magnesium. The sustained clinical benefits of ultrafiltration compared with diuretics may be partly related to their disparate effects on total body sodium, potassium, and magnesium, in addition to their differential efficacy of volume removal. PMID:19187399
Ali, Syed S; Olinger, Chad C; Sobotka, Paul A; Dahle, Thom G A; Bunte, Matthew C; Blake, Donnevan; Boyle, Andrew J
Overwhelming evidence supports the importance of the sympathetic nervous system in heart failure. In contrast, much less is known about the role of failing cholinergic neurotransmission in cardiac disease. By using a unique genetically modified mouse line with reduced expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and consequently decreased release of acetylcholine, we investigated the consequences of altered cholinergic tone for cardiac function. M-mode echocardiography, hemodynamic experiments, analysis of isolated perfused hearts, and measurements of cardiomyocyte contraction indicated that VAChT mutant mice have decreased left ventricle function associated with altered calcium handling. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and Western blotting, and the results indicated that VAChT mutant mice have profound cardiac remodeling and reactivation of the fetal gene program. This phenotype was attributable to reduced cholinergic tone, since administration of the cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine for 2 weeks reversed the cardiac phenotype in mutant mice. Our findings provide direct evidence that decreased cholinergic neurotransmission and underlying autonomic imbalance cause plastic alterations that contribute to heart dysfunction. PMID:20123977
Lara, Aline; Damasceno, Denis D; Pires, Rita; Gros, Robert; Gomes, Enéas R; Gavioli, Mariana; Lima, Ricardo F; Guimarães, Diogo; Lima, Patricia; Bueno, Carlos Roberto; Vasconcelos, Anilton; Roman-Campos, Danilo; Menezes, Cristiane A S; Sirvente, Raquel A; Salemi, Vera M; Mady, Charles; Caron, Marc G; Ferreira, Anderson J; Brum, Patricia C; Resende, Rodrigo R; Cruz, Jader S; Gomez, Marcus Vinicius; Prado, Vania F; de Almeida, Alvair P; Prado, Marco A M; Guatimosim, Silvia
Overwhelming evidence supports the importance of the sympathetic nervous system in heart failure. In contrast, much less is known about the role of failing cholinergic neurotransmission in cardiac disease. By using a unique genetically modified mouse line with reduced expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and consequently decreased release of acetylcholine, we investigated the consequences of altered cholinergic tone for cardiac function. M-mode echocardiography, hemodynamic experiments, analysis of isolated perfused hearts, and measurements of cardiomyocyte contraction indicated that VAChT mutant mice have decreased left ventricle function associated with altered calcium handling. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and Western blotting, and the results indicated that VAChT mutant mice have profound cardiac remodeling and reactivation of the fetal gene program. This phenotype was attributable to reduced cholinergic tone, since administration of the cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine for 2 weeks reversed the cardiac phenotype in mutant mice. Our findings provide direct evidence that decreased cholinergic neurotransmission and underlying autonomic imbalance cause plastic alterations that contribute to heart dysfunction.
Lara, Aline; Damasceno, Denis D.; Pires, Rita; Gros, Robert; Gomes, Eneas R.; Gavioli, Mariana; Lima, Ricardo F.; Guimaraes, Diogo; Lima, Patricia; Bueno, Carlos Roberto; Vasconcelos, Anilton; Roman-Campos, Danilo; Menezes, Cristiane A. S.; Sirvente, Raquel A.; Salemi, Vera M.; Mady, Charles; Caron, Marc G.; Ferreira, Anderson J.; Brum, Patricia C.; Resende, Rodrigo R.; Cruz, Jader S.; Gomez, Marcus Vinicius; Prado, Vania F.; de Almeida, Alvair P.; Prado, Marco A. M.; Guatimosim, Silvia
Obesity increases the risk of adverse outcomes during acute critical illnesses such as burns, severe trauma, and acute pancreatitis. Although individuals with more body fat and higher serum cytokines and lipase are more likely to experience problems, the roles that these characteristics play are not clear. We used severe acute pancreatitis as a representative disease to investigate the effects of obesity on local organ function and systemic processes. In obese humans, we found that an increase in the volume of intrapancreatic adipocytes was associated with more extensive pancreatic necrosis during acute pancreatitis and that acute pancreatitis was associated with multisystem organ failure in obese individuals. In vitro studies of pancreatic acinar cells showed that unsaturated fatty acids were proinflammatory, releasing intracellular calcium, inhibiting mitochondrial complexes I and V, and causing necrosis. Saturated fatty acids had no such effects. Inhibition of lipolysis in obese (ob/ob) mice with induced pancreatitis prevented a rise in serum unsaturated fatty acids and prevented renal injury, lung injury, systemic inflammation, hypocalcemia, reduced pancreatic necrosis, and mortality. Thus, therapeutic approaches that target unsaturated fatty acid–mediated lipotoxicity may reduce adverse outcomes in obese patients with critical illnesses such as severe acute pancreatitis.
Navina, Sarah; Acharya, Chathur; DeLany, James P.; Orlichenko, Lidiya S.; Baty, Catherine J.; Shiva, Sruti S.; Durgampudi, Chandra; Karlsson, Jenny M.; Lee, Kenneth; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Furlan, Alessandro; Behari, Jaideep; Liu, Shiguang; McHale, Teresa; Nichols, Larry; Papachristou, Georgios Ioannis; Yadav, Dhiraj; Singh, Vijay P.
We present a case of fetal liver failure caused by the activation of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) nine months after lamivudine treatment. A 57-year old man visited our hospital for the treatment of decompensated chronic hepatitis B. Lamivudine was started in December 2001. Subsequently, serum HBV was negative for HBV DNA with seroconversion from HBeAg to anti-HBe and improvement of liver function. However, HBV DNA and HBeAg were again detected in September 2002. He was complicated by breakthrough hepatitis and admitted to our hospital in November for severely impaired liver function. Vidarabine treatment was started and serum HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) decreased transiently. However, after the start of ?-interferon treatment, HBV DNA level increased and liver function deteriorated. He died 1 mo after admission. An analysis of amino acid sequences in the polymerase region revealed that rtM204I/V with rtL80I/V occurred at the time of viral breakthrough. After the start of antiviral treatment, rtL180M was detected in addition to rtM204I/V and rtL80I/V, and became predominant in the terminal stage of the disease. HBV clone with a high replication capacity may be produced by antiviral treatment leading to the worsening of liver function. Antiviral therapy for patients with breakthrough hepatitis in advanced liver disease should be carefully performed.
Suzuki, Yuka; Yotsuyanagi, Hiroshi; Okuse, Chiaki; Nagase, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Hideaki; Moriya, Kyoji; Suzuki, Michihiro; Koike, Kazuhiko; Iino, Shiro; Itoh, Fumio
Isolated complex I deficiency is the most commonly reported enzyme defect in paediatric mitochondrial disorders, and may arise due to mutations in nuclear-encoded structural or assembly genes, or the mitochondrial genome. We present the clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic data in a young girl whose clinical picture is dominated by chronic renal failure, myopathy and persistent lactic acidosis. An isolated complex I deficiency in muscle was identified due to a novel mutation (m.12425delA) in the MTND5 gene. This single nucleotide deletion is heteroplasmic and detectable in several tissues from the proband but not her mother, suggesting a de novo mutation event. The description of the first frameshift mutation in a mitochondrial complex I gene affirms mitochondrial DNA mutations as an important cause of isolated complex I deficiency in children and the importance of whole mitochondrial genome sequencing in the diagnostic work-up to elucidate the underlying molecular genetic abnormality and provide important genetic advice. PMID:20018511
Alston, Charlotte L; Morak, Monika; Reid, Christopher; Hargreaves, Iain P; Pope, Simon A S; Land, John M; Heales, Simon J; Horvath, Rita; Mundy, Helen; Taylor, Robert W
Clinical presentations for viral respiratory tract infections are often nonspecific, and a rapid, high- throughput laboratory technique that can detect a panel of common viral pathogens is clinically desirable. We evaluated two multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) products coupled with microarray-based systems for simultaneous detection of common respiratory tract viral pathogens. The NGEN respiratory virus analyte-specific assay (Nanogen, San Diego, CA)
Haijing Li; Melinda A. McCormac; R. Wray Estes; Susan E. Sefers; Ryan K. Dare; James D. Chappell; Dean D. Erdman; Peter F. Wright; Yi-Wei Tang
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the course of serum cytokine levels in patients with multiple trauma, patients with a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and patients undergoing elective AAA repair and the relationship of these cytokines to the development of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure (MOF). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Severe tissue trauma, hemorrhagic shock, and ischemia-reperfusion injury are pathophysiologic mechanisms that may result in an excessive uncontrolled activation of inflammatory cells and mediators. This inflammatory response is thought to play a key role in the development of (remote) cell and organ dysfunction, which is the basis of ARDS and MOF. METHODS: The study concerns 28 patients with multiple trauma, 20 patients admitted in shock because of a ruptured AAA, and 18 patients undergoing elective AAA repair. Arterial blood was serially sampled from admission (or at the start of elective operation) to day 13 in the intensive care unit, and the serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1 beta, and IL-6 were determined. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients died, 15 within 48 hours and 7 after several weeks, as a result of ARDS/MOF. At hospital admission and after 6 hours, these nonsurvivors had significantly higher plasma TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta levels than did the survivors. At the same measuring points, TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta were significantly more elevated in patients with ruptured AAA than in traumatized patients. However, IL-6 was significantly higher in the traumatized patients. In 10 patients, ARDS/MOF developed, and 41 had an uncomplicated course in this respect. Those with ARDS/MOF exhibited significantly different cytokine patterns in the early postinjury phase. TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta levels were higher mainly on the first day of admission; IL-6 concentrations were significantly elevated in patients with ARDS/MOF from the second day onward. The latter cytokine showed a good correlation with the daily MOF score during the whole 2-week observation period. CONCLUSIONS: In the early postinjury phase, higher concentrations of these cytokines are associated, not only with an increased mortality rate, but also with an increased risk for subsequent ARDS and MOF. These data therefore support the concept that these syndromes are caused by an overwhelming autodestructive inflammatory response.
Roumen, R M; Hendriks, T; van der Ven-Jongekrijg, J; Nieuwenhuijzen, G A; Sauerwein, R W; van der Meer, J W; Goris, R J
Background The safety of beta-blockers as a heart rate-limiting drug (HRLD) in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) has not been properly assessed in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. This study aims to compare the use of beta-blocker drugs relative to non-beta-blocker ones in COPD patients with ARF due to heart rate-limiting with respect to length of ICU stay and mortality. Methods We performed a retrospective (January 2011-December 2012) case-control study in a level III ICU in a teaching hospital. It was carried out in a closed ICU by the same intensivists. All COPD patients with ARF who were treated with beta-blockers (case group) and non-beta-blocker HRLDs (control group) were included. Their demographics, reason for HRLD, cause of ARF, comorbidities, ICU data including acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) score, type of ventilation, heart rate, and lengths of ICU and hospital stays were collected. The mortality rates in the ICU, the hospital, and over 30 days were also recorded. Results We enrolled 188 patients (46 female, n?=?74 and n?=?114 for the case and control groups, respectively). Reasons for HRLD (case and control group, respectively) were atrial fibrillation (AF, 23% and 50%), and supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, 41.9% and 54.4%). Patients’ characteristics, APACHE II score, heart rate, duration and type of ventilation, and median length of ICU-hospital stay were similar between the groups. The mortality outcomes in the ICU, hospital, and 30 days after discharge in the case and control groups were 17.6% versus 15.8% (p?>?0.75); 18.9% versus 19.3% (p?>?0.95) and 20% versus 11% (p?>?0.47), respectively. Conclusions Our results suggest that beta-blocker use for heart rate control in COPD patients with ARF is associated with similar ICU stay length and mortality compared with COPD patients treated with other HRLDs.
There is a need to understand the impact of technology fail- ures on work. In the studies reported here, subjects' plans at the start of each day were compared with their eventual accomplishments, and failures to carry out plans were in- vestigated. A number of sources of disruption were identi- fied; they included technology failures, which had a par- ticular
Margery Eldridge; William M. Newman
The mitochondrial protein AFG3L2 forms homo-oligomeric and hetero-oligomeric complexes with paraplegin in the inner mitochondrial membrane, named m-AAA proteases. These complexes are in charge of quality control of misfolded proteins and participate in the regulation of OPA1 proteolytic cleavage, required for mitochondrial fusion. Mutations in AFG3L2 cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 and a complex neurodegenerative syndrome of childhood. In this study, we demonstrated that the loss of AFG3L2 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) reduces mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake capacity. This defect is neither a consequence of global alteration in cellular Ca2+ homeostasis nor of the reduced driving force for Ca2+ internalization within mitochondria, since cytosolic Ca2+ transients and mitochondrial membrane potential remain unaffected. Moreover, experiments in permeabilized cells revealed unaltered mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake speed in Afg3l2?/? cells, indicating the presence of functional Ca2+ uptake machinery. Our results show that the defective Ca2+ handling in Afg3l2?/? cells is caused by fragmentation of the mitochondrial network, secondary to respiratory dysfunction and the consequent processing of OPA1. This leaves a number of mitochondria devoid of connections to the ER and thus without Ca2+ elevations, hampering the proper Ca2+ diffusion along the mitochondrial network. The recovery of mitochondrial fragmentation in Afg3l2?/? MEFs by overexpression of OPA1 rescues the impaired mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering, but fails to restore respiration. By linking mitochondrial morphology and Ca2+ homeostasis, these findings shed new light in the molecular mechanisms underlining neurodegeneration caused by AFG3L2 mutations.
Maltecca, Francesca; De Stefani, Diego; Cassina, Laura; Consolato, Francesco; Wasilewski, Michal; Scorrano, Luca; Rizzuto, Rosario; Casari, Giorgio
An investigation was made into the premature failure of a gas-header at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) natural gas production facility. A wide variety of possible failure mechanisms were considered: design of the header, deviation from normal pipe alloy composition, physical orientation of the header, gas composition and flow rate, type of corrosion, protectiveness of the interior oxide film, time of wetness, and erosion-corrosion. The failed header was examined using metallographic techniques, scanning electron microscopy, and microanalysis. A comparison of the failure site and an analogous site that had not failed, but exhibited similar metal thinning was also performed. From these studies it was concluded that failure resulted from erosion-corrosion, and that design elements of the header and orientation with respect to gas flow contributed to the mass loss at the failure point.
Matthes, S.A.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, G.R.
A piperidinyl chlorotriazine (PCT) derivative, used as a plastic UV-stabilizer, caused an outbreak of occupational asthma. We verified, in BALB\\/c mice, the sensitizing potential of PCT in comparison to a known respiratory sensitizer (toluene diisocya- nate (TDI)) and a known dermal sensitizer (oxazolone), using three different methods in order to evaluate the validity of current models of sensitization. These included
Jeroen A. J. Vanoirbeek; Cindy Mandervelt; Albert R. Cunningham; Peter H. M. Hoet; Haiyan Xu; Hadewijch M. Vanhooren; Benoit Nemery
We report the first case of peritonitis caused by Roseomonas mucosa which led to technique failure in an adolescent patient with HIV receiving peritoneal dialysis. Identification of the causative organism by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis is described.
Laurens, Matthew B.; Fiorella, Paul D.
In recent years an increasing share of fishery management resources has been com- mitted to alteration of fish habitat with artificial stream structures. We evaluated rates and causes of physical impairment or failure for 161 fish habitat structures in 15 streams in southwest Oregon and southwest Washington, following a flood of a magnitude that recurs every 2-10 years. The incidence
CHRISTOPHER A. FRISSELL; RICHARD K. NAWA
\\u000a Breathing problems such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis or emphysema, present the need to carry\\u000a out home respiratory therapy. This requires the deployment of specific devices for supplemental oxygen therapy and monitoring\\u000a of the status of the patient. This paper presents an Ambient Assisted Living solution to carry out the treatments in their\\u000a houses. This introduces technological innovations
Antonio J. Jara; Miguel A. Zamora; Antonio F. Gómez Skarmeta
Neuronal cell death during impaired energy metabolism is often attributed to increased activity at glutamate receptors, but this increase has not been directly demonstrated. We recorded responses to glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate in hippocampal slice CA1 neurons and glia while inhibiting mitochondrial complex II with 3-nitropropionic acid. As the period of inhibition increased, neuronal depolarization following bath application of glutamate (5 mM) or N-methyl-D-aspartate (50 microM) increased dramatically. However, depolarization upon iontophoresis of glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate decreased with time. A transient hyperpolarization, reflecting electrogenic sodium pump activity, was present immediately after responses to iontophoretic glutamate agonists. In the presence of the inhibitor, this hyperpolarization decreased and eventually disappeared. Even the repolarization seen upon washing of the iontophoretic or bath application of glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate was incomplete. Glial depolarization upon bath application of glutamate increased during inhibition, while glial depolarization upon application of N-methyl-D-aspartate decreased. Application of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists aminophosphonovaleric acid (100 microM) or MK-801 (20 microM) resulted in a delay of further depolarization when applied early during the terminal decay of membrane potential following metabolic inhibition. We conclude that during impaired oxidative phosphorylation the failure of repolarizing mechanisms, not potentiated neuronal depolarization by excitants, is the primary cause of the terminal depolarization. Large glial depolarization increases the demand for neuronal ion exchange which cannot be met in situations of reduced energy metabolism. Our results provide further evidence that acute and chronic blockade of energy metabolism have different effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7708218
Riepe, M W; Hori, N; Ludolph, A C; Carpenter, D O
We previously showed that when the pulmonary capillaries in anesthetized rabbits are exposed to a transmural pressure (Ptm) of approximately 40 mmHg, stress failure of the walls occurs with disruption of the capillary endothelium, alveolar epithelium, or sometimes all layers. The present study was designed to determine whether some of the ultrastructural changes are rapidly reversible when the capillary pressure is reduced. To test this, the Ptm was raised to 52.5 cmH2O for 1 min of blood perfusion and then reduced to 12.5 cmH2O for 3 min of saline-dextran perfusion, followed by intravascular fixation at the same pressure. In another group of animals, the pressure was elevated for 1 min of blood and 3 min of saline-dextran before being reduced. The results were compared with previous studies in which the capillary pressures were maintained elevated at 52.5 cmH2O during the entire procedure. Control studies were also done at sustained low pressures. The results showed that the number of endothelial and epithelial breaks per millimeter and the total fraction area of the breaks were reduced when the pressure was lowered. For example, the number of endothelial breaks per millimeter decreased from 7.1 +/- 2.1 to 2.4 +/- 0.7, and the number of epithelial breaks per millimeter fell from 11.4 +/- 3.7 to 3.4 +/- 0.7. There was evidence that the breaks that closed were those that were initially small and were associated with an intact basement membrane. The results suggest that cells can move along their underlying matrix by rapid disengagement and reattachment of cell adhesion molecules, causing breaks to open or close within minutes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).
Elliott, A. R.; Fu, Z.; Tsukimoto, K.; Prediletto, R.; Mathieu-Costello, O.; West, J. B.
Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition. The current definition of peripartum cardiomyopathy only includes patients with systolic dysfunction. We describe a 25-year-old nulligravid patient with heart failure, i.e. left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic dysfunction during the third trimester of pregnancy. She complained of dyspnea and was referred to our hospital at 31 weeks of gestation. The patient met the clinical criteria for peripartum cardiomyopathy with the exception of systolic dysfunction. Brain-type natriuretic peptide levels peaked at 1447 pg/dL. The patient responded to therapy for heart failure and showed resolution of her diastolic dysfunction by 1 month postpartum. The case demonstrated the important role of diastolic dysfunction in peripartum heart failure and the possibility of clarifying the pathophysiology of peripartum cardiomyopathy by evaluating diastolic function. Further investigations are needed to provide evidence regarding the clinical role of diastolic dysfunction in peripartum heart failure. PMID:24797205
Kakogawa, Jun; Nako, Takafumi; Igarashi, Suguru; Nakamura, Shin; Tanaka, Mamoru
Two shallow slides were occurred at Talaimai location of the Rajshahi City Protection Embankment (RCPE) recenly. The Ganges river side slope of this part of the embankment was protected with concrete-block lining just before the flood season of 2008. The failures were took place during the first drawdown of the river water within the two months of the construction of concrete-block lining. Several slope stability analysis methods including Finite Element (FE) and Limit Equilibrium (LE) were used for these two failed slopes. Stability analyses of these failed slopes revealed the primary failure mechanisms and causes. The pore water pressure during the rapid drawdown of river water suddenly reduced the shear strength of the embankment soil and the weight of the concrete block resulted additional shear stresses. Study showed that the seepage related erosion of the embankment soil caused major contribution for slope failure. Due to the loosening of the embankment soil particles, the newly settled concrete-blocks were readjusted and the overall stress-strength equilibrium was lost and hence caused failures. The present paper suggests further study in detail for the greater safety of this embankment as well as the Rajshahi City.
Khan, Y. A.
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare systemic anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-) associated granulomatous vasculitis of the small and medium sized blood vessels. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare life-threatening complication of GPA. In our patient, cyclophosphamide was held secondary to complications of acute kidney injury, hematuria, and concern for a possible hemorrhagic cystitis. However, during the workup for hematuria the patient acutely developed respiratory failure and was found to have DAH. The patient was initially supported with mechanical ventilation volume control mode, steroids, and plasma exchange. With no improvement of oxygenation, the mode of ventilation was changed to airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) and the patient was started on rituximab. The patient clinically improved over the next few days, was able to be extubated, and was transferred out of the intensive care unit. PMID:24829812
Powers, Braden; Uppalapati, Aditya; Gogineni, Sindhura; Jamkhana, Zafar Akram
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare systemic anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-) associated granulomatous vasculitis of the small and medium sized blood vessels. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare life-threatening complication of GPA. In our patient, cyclophosphamide was held secondary to complications of acute kidney injury, hematuria, and concern for a possible hemorrhagic cystitis. However, during the workup for hematuria the patient acutely developed respiratory failure and was found to have DAH. The patient was initially supported with mechanical ventilation volume control mode, steroids, and plasma exchange. With no improvement of oxygenation, the mode of ventilation was changed to airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) and the patient was started on rituximab. The patient clinically improved over the next few days, was able to be extubated, and was transferred out of the intensive care unit.
Powers, Braden; Uppalapati, Aditya; Gogineni, Sindhura
In severe congestive heart failure (CHF), sympathetic overactivity correlates with the exacerbation of cardiac performance. To test the hypothesis that the cardiac sympathetic nerve density dramatically changes with the acceleration of circulating norepinephrine (NE) concentration, we investigated the temporal association of nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in the heart and cardiac sympathetic nerve density during the development of CHF in the continuous NE-infused rats. The animals were analyzed at 0-, 1-, 3-, 7-, 14-, and 28-day after implantation of osmotic pump at a rate of 0.05 mg/kg/hr. The cardiac performance was temporally facilitated in NE-exposed rats at 3-day in accordance with the sympathetic hyper-innervation induced by the augmentation of NGF mRNA expression in the heart. In NE-treated rats, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was significantly increased after 7-day and marked left ventricular hypertrophy and systemic fluid retention were observed at 28-day. CHF-induced sympathetic overactivity further increased plasma NE concentration in NE-treated rats and finally reached to 16.1+/-5.6 ng/ml at 28-day (control level was 0.39+/-0.1 ng/ml, p<0.01). In the decompensated CHF rats at 28-day, the NGF mRNA expression was conspicuously reduced concomitant with the obvious nerve fiber loss confirmed by the immunostaining of nerve axonal marker, PGP9.5 and sympathetic neuron marker, tyrosine hydroxylase. This resulted in the attenuated tissue NE contents and the exacerbating cardiac performance. The cardiac sympathetic fiber loss was also confirmed in NE-exposed DBH (dopamine beta-hydroxylase)-Cre/Floxed-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) mice with severe CHF, in which sympathetic nerve could be traced by EGFP. Our results suggest that the cardiac sympathetic nerve density is strictly regulated by the NGF expression in the heart and long-exposure of high plasma NE concentration caused myocardial NGF reduction, following sympathetic fiber loss in severe CHF animals. PMID:20335077
Kimura, Kensuke; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Ieda, Masaki; Kawaguchi-Manabe, Haruko; Miyake, Yoshiko; Yagi, Takashi; Arai, Takahide; Sano, Motoaki; Fukuda, Keiichi
Pulmonary infiltrations associated with renal failure demand several diagnostic procedures to exclude autoimmune disorders affecting both organ systems or to find an infectious cause of the disease. We report the case of a 60 year-old man with chronic renal failure and recurring pulmonary infiltrations. On admission to hospital all diagnostic parameters for systemic vasculitis, infectious or neoplastic disease were negative, including the histological report on transbronchial biopsies. Eventually, follow-up biopsies taken 3 months later showed vegetable fibres and necrosis due to intensive snuff abuse during the previous months. After the patient stopped taking snuff the pulmonary infiltrations improved quickly. Uraemic neuropathy, which may have facilitated aspiration, as well as the reduced pulmonary and systemic defence mechanisms due to chronic renal failure probably contributed to a considerable degree to the development of pulmonary infiltration. PMID:1413815
Hoppichler, F; Lechleitner, M; Prior, C H; König, P; Luef, G; Tötsch, M; Patsch, J R; Braunsteiner, H
Experimental study was carried out for classified a mechanism of failure of low-voltage electronic Watt-Hour Meters. As the results, the mechanism of failure of electronic meters is clarified into two patterns. One is due to the magnetic field generated by lightning current passing through the inside of an electronic meter. The other is due to the blow out of electric wire caused by lightning current flowing into the power supply circuit for processing unit. For these failure mechanisms, following counter measures were clarified. One is that a magnetic shielding measure using a metallic plate covering the processing unit was effective for reducing the magnetic field. The other measure is that a relocation of the ZnO device in the electronic meter was effective for reducing the lightning current flowing into the power supply circuit.
Asakawa, Akira; Hurukawa, Seiji; Takahashi, Akihisa; Ishimoto, Kazuyuki
Anemia is one of the most frequent co-morbidities in the patients with heart failure. Its prevalence increases from 4–7% in the subjects with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction to >30% in the patients with severe heart failure. Renal insufficiency, activation of inflammatory mediators, and treatment with renin-angiotensin antagonists seem to be its main determinants. The results of many studies agree in showing that anemia is a powerful independent determinant of survival in patients with heart failure. However, the mechanisms of this relation are still incompletely understood. Moreover a favourable effect on prognosis of the correction of anemia has not been shown, yet, and also controlled studies assessing its effects on exercise tolerance have yielded controversial results.
METRA, MARCO; NODARI, SAVINA; BORDONALI, TANIA; BUGATTI, SILVIA; FONTANELLA, BENEDETTA; LOMBARDI, CARLO; SAPORETTI, ALBERTO; VERZURA, GIULIA; DANESI, ROSSELLA; DEI CAS, LIVIO
Cancer cells often have unstable genomes and increased centrosome and chromosome numbers, which play an important part of malignant transformation in the most recent models tumorigenesis. However, very little is known about divisional failures in cancer cells that may lead to chromosomal and centrosomal amplifications. We show here that cancer cells often failed at cytokinesis due to decreased phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (MLC), a key regulatory component of cortical contraction during division. Reduced MLC phosphorylation was associated with high expression of myosin phosphatase and/or reduced myosin light chain kinase levels. Furthermore, expression of phosphomimetic MLC largely prevented cytokinesis failure in the tested cancer cells. When myosin light chain phosphorylation was restored to normal levels by phosphatase knockdown multinucleation, and multipolar mitosis were both markedly reduced, resulting in enhanced genome stabilization. Furthermore, both overexpression of myosin phosphatase or inhibition of the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in nonmalignant cells can recapitulate some of the mitotic defects of cancer cells, including multinucleation and multipolar spindles, indicating these changes are sufficient to reproduce the cytokinesis failures we see in cancer cells. These results for the first time define the molecular defects leading to divisional failure in cancer cells.
Wu, Qian; Sahasrabudhe, Ruta M.; Luo, Li Z.; Lewis, Dale W.; Gollin, Susanne M.; Saunders, William S.
Early failures of metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (THA) occur due to aseptic loosening, metal hypersensitivity reactions, pseudotumor formation, and component seizing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the timing, common modes of failure, clinical outcomes, and incidence of metal-on-metal THA revisions. A review was performed of 80 patients who underwent revision of a failed metal-on-metal THA for any reason. The most common reason for metal-on-metal failure was aseptic acetabular loosening, with a rate of 56.25% (45/80 patients). Early failure of metal-on-metal THAs was noted, with 78% of these revisions being performed within 2 years of the index operation and 92.5% within 3 years. Furthermore, 13% of patients experienced significant localized soft tissue reactions. Mean preoperative Harris Hip Score was 42.35 ± 14.24 and mean postoperative Harris Hip Score was 66.5 ± 23.2 (range, 9.55-95.4), with an average follow-up of 438 ± 492 days (range, 40-2141), or 1.2 years.It is imperative that clinicians be cognizant of the fact that the proposed advantages of metal-on-metal THA are not without potential detrimental sequelae. This article proposes an algorithm to aid in diagnosing the etiology of a painful metal-on-metal THA, as well as 2 classification schemes regarding metal-on-metal THA complications to help direct treatment. PMID:22784892
Fabi, David; Levine, Brett; Paprosky, Wayne; Della Valle, Craig; Sporer, Scott; Klein, Gregg; Levine, Harlan; Hartzband, Mark
Coronary artery fistulae are uncommon, reported in 0.25% of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Two patients with congenital coronary artery fistula and coronary artery disease who presented with symptoms of exacerbated congestive heart failure out of proportion to their atherosclerotic burden were successfully treated by epicardial fistula ligation and coronary artery bypass grafting with marked improvement in functional status.
This article attempts to show why an experimental hypothesis is plausible and merits testing; in brief, the hypothesis is that autism begins with a failure in early learning and that changing the environment of early learning would dramatically change its incidence. Strong statistical evidence supporting this hypothesis has been published by Waldman et al. (2008), but to date this evidence
Maxson J. McDowell
Summarizes the findings of a two-year study in Bahia (Brazil) designed to provide insight into the failure of the schooling system in Brazil to meet the educational needs of the population. Gives information from the literature review, reports on the survey results, and discusses a case study of four schools. (KO)
Verhine, Robert E.; Pita de Melo, Ana Maria
Acute renal failure (ARF) is not listed as a usual form of presentation in hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, despite the gross uric acid overproduction in the defect. We found that a third of such patients may present in ARF when the urinary uric acid\\/creatinine ratio may be normal, not raised, and the defect may be suspected from the disproportionate increase in
H. A. Simmonds; J. S. Cameron; T. M. Barratt; M. J. Dillon; S. R. Meadow; R. S. Trompeter
A 5 year old girl with tuberculous meningitis developed progressive visual failure during in-patient anti-tuberculous chemotherapy due to an ophthochiasmatic tuberculoma. This was successfully managed by prolonged high-dose corticosteroids and continued anti-tuberculous therapy resulting in complete visual and psychosocial recovery.
W. S. Poon; A. Ahuja; A. K. Li
Prior to the recent work performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)relative to nuclear industry check valve performance, no information was readily available regarding the failure characteristics of check valves based on valve type (e.g., swing che...
K. L. McElhaney
Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia are thought to underlie the increased risk for sudden infant death and neuropsychological deficits seen in this condition. This review evaluates literature regarding respiratory dysfunctions and their sequelae in patients with achondroplasia. The limited number of prospective studies of respiratory disease in achondroplasia means that observational studies and case series provide a large proportion of the data regarding the spectrum of respiratory diseases in achondroplasia and their treatments. Amongst clinical respiratory problems described, snoring is the commonest observed abnormality, but the reported incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows wide variance (10% to 75%). Reported treatments of OSA include adenotonsillectomy, the use of CPAP, and surgical improvement of the airway, including mid-face advancement. Otolaryngologic manifestations are also common. Respiratory failure due to small thoracic volumes is reported, but uncommon. Mortality rate at all ages was 2.27 (CI: 1.7-3.0) with age-specific mortality increased at all ages. Sudden death was most common in infants and children. Cardiovascular events are the main cause of mortality in adults. Despite earlier recognition and treatment of respiratory complications of achondroplasia, increased mortality rates and other complications remain high. Future and ongoing evaluation of the prevalence and impact of respiratory disorders, particularly OSA, in achondroplasia is recommended. PMID:23523391
Afsharpaiman, S; Saburi, A; Waters, Karen A
In its programme for accelerated development of vaccines for viral respiratory and enteric tract diseases the WHO has assigned a very high priority to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza viruses and rotaviruses. There is also some interest in alternative approaches to immunization against influenza viruses because of the failure of inactivated vaccines to provide complete and reasonably durable immunity. Current attempts to develop satisfactorily attenuated viruses for use in prevention of disease caused by the above viral pathogens are described. PMID:2838984
Chanock, R M; Murphy, B R; Collins, P L; Coelingh, K V; Olmsted, R A; Snyder, M H; Spriggs, M K; Prince, G A; Moss, B; Flores, J
The diagnosis of Frasier syndrome is based on the association of male pseudohermaphroditism (as a result of gonadal dysgenesis),\\u000a with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome due to focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS), which progresses to end-stage\\u000a renal failure (ESRF) during adolescence or adulthood. Frasier syndrome results from mutations in the Wilms’ tumour suppressor\\u000a gene WT1, which is responsible for alterations in
Manon Bache; Céline Dheu; Bérénice Doray; Hélène Fothergill; Sylvie Soskin; Françoise Paris; Charles Sultan; Michel Fischbach
Using zebrafish embryos, we reported that 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) evoked circulation failure through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor type 2 (AHR2). However, the following molecular target after AHR2 activation is largely unclear. It has been reported that TCDD induces cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), a rate-limiting enzyme for prostaglandin synthesis in some cells. In this study, we investigated the involvement of
Hiroki TERAOKA; Akira KUBOTA; Yusuke KAWAI; Takeo HIRAGA
Immunoglobulin G4 associated cholangitis (IAC) is an autoimmune disease associated with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). It presents with clinical and radiographic findings similar to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). IAC commonly has a faster, more progressive onset of symptoms and it is more common to see obstructive jaundice in IAC patients compared to those with PSC. One of the hallmarks of IAC is its responsiveness to steroid therapy. Current recommendations for treatment of AIP demonstrate excellent remission of the disease and associated symptoms with initiation of steroid therapy followed by steroid tapering. If untreated, it can progress to irreversible liver failure. This report describes a 59 year-old female with undiagnosed IAC who previously had undergone a pancreaticoduodenectomy for a suspected pancreatic cancer and later developed liver failure from presumed PSC. The patient underwent an uncomplicated liver transplantation at our institution, but experienced allograft failure within five years due to progressive and irreversible bile duct injury. Radiology and histology suggested recurrence of PSC, but the diagnosis of IAC was suspected based on her past history and confirmed when IgG4 positive cells were found within the intrahepatic bile duct walls on a liver biopsy. A successful liver retransplantation was performed and the patient is currently on triple immunosuppressive therapy. Our experience in this case and review of the current literature regarding IAC management suggest that patients with suspected or recurrent PSC with atypical features including history of pancreatitis should undergo testing for IAC as this entity is highly responsive to steroid therapy. PMID:21911900
Clendenon, Jacob N; Aranda-Michel, Jaime; Krishna, Murli; Taner, C Burcin; Willingham, Darrin L
High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5?mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags. PMID:24810330
Nerin, C; Ubeda, J L; Alfaro, P; Dahmani, Y; Aznar, M; Canellas, E; Ausejo, R
Populations of freshwater mussels (Unionoida) are declining or disappearing from many waters around the world. In many declining populations, recruitment fails before adult mortality occurs, resulting in relict populations that can persist for decades. We tested whether recruitment failure in populations of the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata was associated with invasion of nonnative crayfish, loss of a primary fish host (American eel Anguilla rostrata), excessive inputs of fine sediments, or unfavorable interstitial water chemistry (too little dissolved oxygen or too much un-ionized ammonia). We sampled mussel populations, crayfish populations, and environmental conditions at 14 sites on wadeable streams in southeastern New York. Five of the mussel populations had little or no recent recruitment. We found no association between recruitment failure and crayfish, American eels, fine sediments, or interstitial dissolved oxygen. In contrast, recruitment failure was strongly associated with high concentrations (>0.2 microg N/L) of un-ionized ammonia. This threshold is much lower than thresholds for acute ammonia toxicity identified in laboratory studies. We suggest that excessive concentrations of interstitial un-ionized ammonia may be responsible for widespread declines of freshwater mussel populations, especially in agricultural areas. PMID:23092015
Strayer, David L; Malcom, Heather M
High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.
Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Dahmani, Y.; Aznar, M.; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.
High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5?mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.
Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Dahmani, Y.; Aznar, M.; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.
2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP), a potent mutagenic agent produced during thermal processing of meats, shows detrimental effects on mitochondrial respiratory function. Effects of dietary ubiquinone-10 was examined on PhIP-induced mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction in rats. Rats fed with 0.2% ubiquinone-10 diet mitigated the PhIP-induced decrease in mitochondrial complex I activities observed in rat heart, diaphragm, and psoai major. Therefore, dietary anti-oxidants such as ubiquinone-10 could cancel out the unfavorable effects of PhIP and contribute to the preservation of mitochondrial function. PMID:8896752
Sugiyama, S; Yamada, K; Hayakawa, M; Esumi, H; Ozawa, T
Respiratory syncitial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children worldwide and it is associated with significant childhood morbidity. Acute infection may result in respiratory failure with varying degrees of severity, and increasing evidence supports a role of RSV infection as a key determinant for the development of subsequent chronic respiratory disease. Independent predictors of RSV severity include; prematurity, congenital heart disease, cystic fibrosis, immune defects and neuromuscular disorders. Passive immunization with palivizumab has proven to be safe and effective for preventing RSV hospitalization in infants at higher risk of acquiring severe RSV infection, but its expense and cumbersome monthly intravenous delivery schedule make it inaccessible to many. Furthermore, implementing prophylaxis in 32- to 35-week-gestational age infants and the mode of its administration still represent areas of uncertainty. In this review, we describe several aspects of RSV infection and analyze recent advances in the assessment of cost-effective palivizumab prophylaxis. PMID:24059554
Del Vecchio, Antonio; Ferrara, Teresa; Maglione, Marco; Capasso, Letizia; Raimondi, Francesco
Objective To describe the frequency of diagnostic testing for the 4 most common causes of pediatric acute liver failure (PALF) (drugs, metabolic disease, autoimmune process, and infections) in indeterminate PALF within the PALF Study Group Database. Study design PALF was defined by severe hepatic dysfunction within 8 weeks of onset of illness, with no known underlying chronic liver disease in patients from birth through 17 years of age. Results Of the 703 patients in the database, 329 (47%) had indeterminate PALF. In this group, a drug history was obtained in 325 (99%) urine toxicology screenings performed in 118 (36%) and acetaminophen level measured in 124 (38%) patients. No testing for common metabolic diseases was done in 179 (54%) patients. Anti-nuclear antibody, anti-smooth muscle antibody, and anti-liver kidney microsomal autoantibodies associated with autoimmunity were determined in 239 (73%), 233 (71%), and 208 (63%) patients, and no tests were obtained in 70 (21%). Testing was performed for hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, and Epstein Barr virus in 80%, 86%, and 68%, respectively. Conclusions Current practice indicates that investigation for metabolic and autoimmune causes of PALF are infrequent in patients ultimately given a diagnosis of indeterminate acute liver failure. This offers an opportunity to improve diagnosis and potential treatment options in children with acute liver failure.
Narkewicz, Michael R.; Olio, Dominic Dell; Karpen, Saul J.; Murray, Karen F.; Schwarz, Kathy; Yazigi, Nada; Zhang, Song; Belle, Steven H.; Squires, Robert H.
S-Nitrosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification that regulates diverse biologic processes. In skeletal muscle, hypernitrosylation of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) causes sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium leak, but whether abnormalities of cardiac RyR nitrosylation contribute to dysfunction of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling remains controversial. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that cardiac RyR2 is hyponitrosylated in heart failure, because of nitroso-redox imbalance. We evaluated excitation-contraction coupling and nitroso-redox balance in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure rats with dilated cardiomyopathy and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats. Spontaneously hypertensive heart failure myocytes were characterized by depressed contractility, increased diastolic Ca2+ leak, hyponitrosylation of RyR2, and enhanced xanthine oxidase derived superoxide. Global S-nitrosylation was decreased in failing hearts compared with nonfailing. Xanthine oxidase inhibition restored global and RyR2 nitrosylation and reversed the diastolic SR Ca2+ leak, improving Ca2+ handling and contractility. Together these findings demonstrate that nitroso-redox imbalance causes RyR2 oxidation, hyponitrosylation, and SR Ca2+ leak, a hallmark of cardiac dysfunction. The reversal of this phenotype by inhibition of xanthine oxidase has important pathophysiologic and therapeutic implications.
Gonzalez, Daniel R.; Treuer, Adriana V.; Castellanos, Jorge; Dulce, Raul A.; Hare, Joshua M.
We report three families presenting with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and multiple defects of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) activities. By direct sequencing of the candidate gene MTO1, encoding the mitochondrial-tRNA modifier 1, or whole exome sequencing analysis, we identified novel missense mutations. All MTO1 mutations were predicted to be deleterious on MTO1 function. Their pathogenic role was experimentally validated in a recombinant yeast model, by assessing oxidative growth, respiratory activity, mitochondrial protein synthesis, and complex IV activity. In one case, we also demonstrated that expression of wt MTO1 could rescue the respiratory defect in mutant fibroblasts. The severity of the yeast respiratory phenotypes partly correlated with the different clinical presentations observed in MTO1 mutant patients, although the clinical outcome was highly variable in patients with the same mutation and seemed also to depend on timely start of pharmacological treatment, centered on the control of lactic acidosis by dichloroacetate. Our results indicate that MTO1 mutations are commonly associated with a presentation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and MRC deficiency, and that ad hoc recombinant yeast models represent a useful system to test the pathogenic potential of uncommon variants, and provide insight into their effects on the expression of a biochemical phenotype.
Baruffini, Enrico; Dallabona, Cristina; Invernizzi, Federica; Yarham, John W; Melchionda, Laura; Blakely, Emma L; Lamantea, Eleonora; Donnini, Claudia; Santra, Saikat; Vijayaraghavan, Suresh; Roper, Helen P; Burlina, Alberto; Kopajtich, Robert; Walther, Anett; Strom, Tim M; Haack, Tobias B; Prokisch, Holger; Taylor, Robert W; Ferrero, Ileana; Zeviani, Massimo; Ghezzi, Daniele
We report three families presenting with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and multiple defects of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) activities. By direct sequencing of the candidate gene MTO1, encoding the mitochondrial-tRNA modifier 1, or whole exome sequencing analysis, we identified novel missense mutations. All MTO1 mutations were predicted to be deleterious on MTO1 function. Their pathogenic role was experimentally validated in a recombinant yeast model, by assessing oxidative growth, respiratory activity, mitochondrial protein synthesis, and complex IV activity. In one case, we also demonstrated that expression of wt MTO1 could rescue the respiratory defect in mutant fibroblasts. The severity of the yeast respiratory phenotypes partly correlated with the different clinical presentations observed in MTO1 mutant patients, although the clinical outcome was highly variable in patients with the same mutation and seemed also to depend on timely start of pharmacological treatment, centered on the control of lactic acidosis by dichloroacetate. Our results indicate that MTO1 mutations are commonly associated with a presentation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and MRC deficiency, and that ad hoc recombinant yeast models represent a useful system to test the pathogenic potential of uncommon variants, and provide insight into their effects on the expression of a biochemical phenotype. PMID:23929671
Baruffini, Enrico; Dallabona, Cristina; Invernizzi, Federica; Yarham, John W; Melchionda, Laura; Blakely, Emma L; Lamantea, Eleonora; Donnini, Claudia; Santra, Saikat; Vijayaraghavan, Suresh; Roper, Helen P; Burlina, Alberto; Kopajtich, Robert; Walther, Anett; Strom, Tim M; Haack, Tobias B; Prokisch, Holger; Taylor, Robert W; Ferrero, Ileana; Zeviani, Massimo; Ghezzi, Daniele
Steven, a 25-month-old white male, suffered from respiratory arrest and was resuscitated and taken to St. Joseph's Hospital in Phoenix, Arizona. He was placed on mechanical ventilation and treated with epinephrine, IV fluids, antibiotics, ulcer prophylaxis, and sodium bicarbonate. No im- provement in Steven's neurological condition was observed and he was pronounced dead 20 hours following admission. An autopsy was
Mohammed Ali Al-Bayati