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Sample records for respiratory tract harmless

  1. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  2. [Major respiratory tract traumas].

    PubMed

    Petrov, D; Obretenov, E; Kalaĭdzhiev, G; Plochev, M; Kostadinov, D

    2002-01-01

    Between 1988 and 2000 a total of 33 patients with traumatic tracheobronchial lesions were diagnosed and treated. The trauma was penetrating in 7 (stab and gun-shot), blunt in 10 (car accidents, compression and falling from heights) and iatrogenic in 16 of them (postintubational--15, after foreign body extraction--1). The main clinical and radiological features were subcutaneous emphysema, hemoptysis, respiratory insufficiency, pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax. The diagnosis was confirmed in all patients by early fiberoptic bronchoscopy. "Watch and see" tactics with massive antibiotics therapy was followed in 4 (12%) patients. A surgical treatment was carried out in 29 (88%) patients as follows: simple repair--19 (58%), left pneumonectomy--2 (6%), tracheal resection and anastomosis "end to end"--2 (6%), tracheostomy--1 (3%), thoracocenthesis and drainage--3 (9%) and cervical mediastinotomy--2 (6%). The operative mortality was 9%. The cause of death in these 3 patients were associated brain and spinal cord injuries. In the rest of patients the early and long-term postoperative results were considered very good. PMID:12515032

  3. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea. PMID:27090537

  4. [Phytotherapy of respiratory tract diseases].

    PubMed

    Bylka, Wiesława; Witkowska-Banaszczak, Ewa; Studzińska-Sroka, Elzbieta; Matławska, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been used in cough due to their antitussive and expectorant activity. Antitussives act either centrally on the cough center of the brain or peripherally on the cough receptors in the respiratory passages. The antitussive effect of many herbs results from the content of mucilage, which exerts protective and demulcent activity. The activity of expectorant herbs results primarily from their influence on the gastric mucose (saponins and ipec alkaloids). This proves reflex stimulation which leads to an increase in the secretion of bronchial glands. Volatile-oil type expectorant herbs exert a direct stimulatory effect on the bronchial glands by means of local irritation with antibacterial activity. In colds and flu, herbs containing volatile oil can be used; also, volatile oils are ingredients of syrups and liquids as well as external phytomedicines in the form of liniments, ointments, and inhalations. The paper shows the herbs and phytomedicines present on the Polish market used for the treatment of respiratory tract diseases. PMID:23289257

  5. Diseases of the respiratory tract of chelonians.

    PubMed

    Origgi, F C; Jacobson, E R

    2000-05-01

    Diseases of the respiratory tract commonly occur in captive chelonians, and several diseases also have occurred in wild chelonians. Infectious causes include viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Herpesviruses have surfaced as important pathogens of the oral cavity and respiratory tract in Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanii), spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca), and other tortoises in Europe and the United States. Herpesvirus-associated respiratory diseases also have been reported in the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, in mariculture in the Cayman Islands. Of diseases caused by bacteria, an upper respiratory tract disease caused by Mycoplasma sp has been reported in free-hanging and captive gopher tortoises in the southeastern United States and in desert tortoises in the Mojave Desert of the southwestern United States. Mycotic pulmonary disease is commonly reported in captive chelonians, especially in those maintained at suboptimal temperatures. An intranuclear coccidia has been seen in several species of captive tortoises in the United States, and, in one case, a severe proliferative pneumonia was associated with organisms in the lung. The most common noninfectious cause of respiratory disease in chelonians results from trauma to the carapace. Although pulmonary fibromas commonly occur in green turtles with fibropapillomatosis, for the most part, tumors of the respiratory tract are uncommon in chelonians. PMID:11228895

  6. Mechanisms of infection in the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, A

    1981-12-01

    Related to its potential vulnerability the respiratory tract has a very complex and effective defence apparatus. The interaction between these defence mechanisms and certain characteristics of aetiological agents results in a pattern in which initial infections by these agents tend to occur at specific sites in the tract. Infections in which the primary portal of entry is in the upper respiratory tract include Bordetella bronchiseptica and Haemophilus spp in pigs; Pasteurella spp in cattle, sheep, pigs; Mycoplasma spp in cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry; equine herpesvirus 1 in horses; infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in cattle; parainfluenza 3 in cattle and sheep; infectious laryngo-tracheitis and infectious bronchitis in poultry; feline viral rhinotracheitis and calicivirus in cats; Aujeszky's disease virus and swine influenza in pigs; and equine influenza in horses. Infections in which the primary portal of entry is in the lower respiratory tract include Aspergillus fumigatus in poultry and mammals, respiratory syncytial virus in cattle, distemper virus in dogs and adenovirus in cattle and dogs. A fuller understanding of the interactions between an agent and the host at the point of entry would make it much easier to develop effective vaccines and therapeutic agents. PMID:16030806

  7. The Microbiome and the Respiratory Tract.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Robert P; Erb-Downward, John R; Martinez, Fernando J; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2016-01-01

    Although the notion that "the normal lung is free from bacteria" remains common in textbooks, it is virtually always stated without citation or argument. The lungs are constantly exposed to diverse communities of microbes from the oropharynx and other sources, and over the past decade, novel culture-independent techniques of microbial identification have revealed that the lungs, previously considered sterile in health, harbor diverse communities of microbes. In this review, we describe the topography and population dynamics of the respiratory tract, both in health and as altered by acute and chronic lung disease. We provide a survey of current techniques of sampling, sequencing, and analysis of respiratory microbiota and review technical challenges and controversies in the field. We review and synthesize what is known about lung microbiota in various diseases and identify key lessons learned across disease states. PMID:26527186

  8. Upper respiratory tract illnesses and accidents.

    PubMed

    Smith, A P; Harvey, I; Richmond, P; Peters, T J; Thomas, M; Brockman, P

    1994-07-01

    Anecdotal accounts suggest that colds and influenza may increase human error. This view is supported by laboratory studies of the effects of upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs) on performance efficiency, which have shown that both experimentally induced and naturally occurring URTIs reduce aspects of performance efficiency. The present research examined the relationship between accidents and URTIs by studying 923 patients attending an Accident and Emergency department at a time of year when upper respiratory tract viruses were circulating. The results revealed no significant associations between URTIs and workplace accidents, and, similarly, no significant associations emerged when all accidents were compared with other attenders. The only effect which was close to statistical significance was a protective effect of influenza against workplace accidents, which could be explained in terms of a person with influenza or who has recently had influenza being less likely to work and therefore less likely to be at risk of experiencing a workplace accident. Further research must examine this topic with different methodologies, such as selecting controls from fellow workers of the index case, and these studies will provide us with a clearer view as to whether or not there is an association between URTIs and workplace accidents. PMID:7919298

  9. Environmentally mediated disorders of the respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Utell, M.J.; Samet, J.M. )

    1990-03-01

    Although much of the evidence in environmental lung disease remains equivocal, some environmental exposures are known to be clinically relevant. Ambient air pollution remains of concern as a source of morbidity, particularly for susceptible populations such as persons with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac disease and the elderly. The adverse effects of several components of indoor air pollution have been established. Environmental tobacco smoke contributes to lower-respiratory illness in infants; office workers exposed to thermophilic actinomycetes contaminating ventilation systems have developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis; and in the home, components of house dust and fungus spores may provoke asthma via immediate hypersensitivity. The evidence is less compelling for a link between other exposures and disorders of the respiratory tract. For example, formaldehyde may be responsible for provoking vague respiratory symptoms and even nasal cancers; however, the associations are unproved. Likewise, the relation between low-level exposure to asbestos and the development of lung cancer, although a concern, is not conclusively established. The clinician should be aware of practical measures for patients who inquire about air cleaning. Often, relatively simple solutions are effective. A knowledge of sources and exposures as well as an understanding of the principles of inhalation lung injury should prove useful in directing patient care. 33 references.

  10. Bovine coronaviruses from the respiratory tract: Antigenic and genetic diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine corona viruses (BoCV) isolated from respiratory tract, nasal swab and broncho alveolar washing fluid samples were evaluated for genetic and antigenic differences. These BoCV from the respiratory tract of healthy and clinically ill cattle with BRD signs were compared to reference and vaccine ...

  11. Biomarkers in lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Francesco; Stolz, Daiana; Piffer, Federico

    2010-12-01

    This review aims to provide physicians with an overview of the potential of biomarkers to complement existing clinical severity scores and in conjunction with clinical parameters to improve the diagnosis, risk-stratification and management of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). The usefulness of biomarkers for diagnosing LRTIs is still unclear. However, the specificity of pneumonia diagnosis is high when high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) are used. PCT, CRP and particularly pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), pro-vasopressin (CT-proAVP) and proadrenomedullin (proADM) levels can reliably predict LRTIs mortality. These markers do not significantly improve the severity scores predictive values, confirming that biomarkers are meant to complement, rather than supersede, clinician's judgment and validated severity scores. Biomarkers, and particularly PCT, are useful tools as antibiotic treatment duration indicators both in pneumonia and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Even if more data are required to fully appreciate the role of biomarkers in LRTIs management, there is emerging evidence that biomarkers have the potential to improve the daily clinical management of LRTIs. PMID:20434579

  12. Fluorescence diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Kate C.; Inada, Natalia M.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    The pharyngitis and laryngitis are respiratory tract infections highly common. Pharyngitis can be accompanied by fever, especially if caused by a systemic infection. Laryngitis is an inflammation of your voice box (larynx) from irritation or infection. The conventional treatment is the antibiotics administration, which may be responsible by an increase of identification of bacterial strains resistant to drug. This fact associated to high incidence of these infections become important to develop new technologies for diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the use of widefield fluorescence imaging for the characterization of oropharynx infections, in order to diagnose the bacteria colonization. The imaging system for wide field fluorescence visualization is Evince® (MMOptics, São Carlos, SP, Brazil) coupled to an Apple iPhone® cell phone device. The system consists of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) operating in the violet blue region centered at green-red spectrum 450 nm and optical filters that allow viewing of fluorescence. A tongue depressor was adapted to Evince® for mouth opening. The same images were captured with white light and fluorescence with an optical system. The red fluorescence may be a bacterial marker for physiological monitoring of oropharynx infection processes. The bacterial biofilm on tissue were assigned to the presence of protoporphyrin IX. This work indicates that the autofluorescence of the tissue may be used as a non-invasive technique to aid in the oropharynx infection diagnostic.

  13. MECHANISTIC DOSIMETRY MODELS OF NANOMATERIAL DEPOSITION IN THE RESPIRATORY TRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate health risk assessments of inhalation exposure to nanomaterials will require dosimetry models that account for interspecies differences in dose delivered to the respiratory tract. Mechanistic models offer the advantage to interspecies extrapolation that physicochemica...

  14. Particle size and pathogenicity in the respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Richard James

    2013-01-01

    Particle size dictates where aerosolized pathogens deposit in the respiratory tract, thereafter the pathogens potential to cause disease is influenced by tissue tropism, clearance kinetics and the host immunological response. This interplay brings pathogens into contact with a range of tissues spanning the respiratory tract and associated anatomical structures. In animal models, differential deposition within the respiratory tract influences infection kinetics for numerous select agents. Greater numbers of pathogens are required to infect the upper (URT) compared with the lower respiratory tract (LRT), and in comparison the URT infections are protracted with reduced mortality. Pathogenesis in the URT is characterized by infection of the URT lymphoid tissues, cervical lymphadenopathy and septicemia, closely resembling reported human infections of the URT. The olfactory, gastrointestinal, and ophthalmic systems are also infected in a pathogen-dependent manner. The relevant literature is reviewed with respect to particle size and infection of the URT in animal models and humans. PMID:24225380

  15. Regional respiratory tract absorption of inhaled reactive gases

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, F.J.; Overton, J.H.; Kimbell, J.S.; Russell, M.L.

    1992-06-29

    Highly reactive gases present unique problems due to the number of factors which must be taken into account to determine regional respiratory tract uptake. The authors reviewed some of the physical, chemical, and biological factors that affect dose and that must be understood to interpret toxicological data, to evaluate experimental dosimetry studies, and to develop dosimetry models. Selected dosimetry experiments involving laboratory animals and humans were discussed, showing the variability and uptake according to animal species and respiratory tract region for various reactive gases. New experimental dosimetry approaches, such as those involving isotope ratio mass spectroscopy and cyclotron generation reactive gases, were discussed that offer great promise for improving the ability to study regional respiratory tract absorption of reactive gases. Various dosimetry modeling applications were discussed which demonstrate: the importance of airflow patterns for site-specific dosimetry in the upper respiratory tract, the influence of the anatomical model used to make inter- and intraspecies dosimetric comparisons, the influence of tracheobronchial path length on predicted dose curves, and the implications of ventilatory unit structure and volume on dosimetry and response. Collectively, these examples illustrate important aspects of regional respiratory tract absorption of inhaled reactive gases. Given the complex nature of extent and pattern of injury in the respiratory tract from exposure to reactive gases, understanding interspecies differences in the absorption of reactive gases will continue to be an important area for study.

  16. Update on viral diseases of the equine respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Gilkerson, James R; Bailey, Kirsten E; Diaz-Méndez, Andrés; Hartley, Carol A

    2015-04-01

    Many viral agents have been associated with respiratory disease of the horse. The most important viral causes of respiratory disease in horses are equine influenza and the equine alphaherpesviruses. Agents such as equine viral arteritis virus, African horse sickness virus, and Hendra virus establish systemic infections. Clinical signs of disease resulting from infection with these agents can manifest as respiratory disease, but the respiratory tract is not the major body system affected by these viruses. Treatment of viral respiratory disease is generally limited to supportive therapies, whereas targeted antimicrobial therapy is effective in cases of bacterial infection. PMID:25648568

  17. Bovine coronaviruses from the respiratory tract: antigenic and genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Fulton, R W; Ridpath, J F; Burge, L J

    2013-01-30

    BoCV isolated from respiratory tract, nasal swab and broncho alveolar washing fluid samples were evaluated for genetic and antigenic differences. These BoCV from the respiratory tract of healthy and clinically ill cattle with BRD signs were compared to reference and vaccine strains based on Spike protein coding sequences and VNT using convalescent antisera. Based on this study, the BoCV isolates belong to one of two genomic clades (clade 1 and 2) which can be differentiated antigenically. The respiratory isolates from Oklahoma in this study were further divided by genetic differences into three subclades, 2a, 2b, and 2c. Reference enteric BoCV strains and a vaccine strain were in clade 1. Currently available vaccines designed to control enteric disease are based on viruses from one clade while viruses isolated from respiratory tracts, in this study, belong to the other clade. PMID:23246548

  18. Management of upper respiratory tract infections by telephone.

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, S; Holbrook, J H; Hale, D; Lyon, J

    1994-01-01

    We surveyed Utah general internists (N = 134) regarding their attitudes toward and practices associated with telephone management of upper respiratory tract infections. The questionnaire contained 3 case vignettes--viral upper respiratory tract infection, streptococcal pharyngitis, and acute infectious epiglottitis--and a series of questions were asked about telephone diagnosis, management preferences (clinic versus telephone), and telephone management practices. The 53 respondents (40%) were able to make important diagnostic distinctions about upper respiratory tract infections from a written vignette. As the likelihood of a complicated or serious condition increased, patients would be appropriately triaged for clinical evaluation. Most internists would make a written record of the telephone conversation. Only 1 internist of the 53 would charge for telephone management. PMID:8053174

  19. Reactive nitrogen species in the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Ricciardolo, Fabio L M; Di Stefano, Antonino; Sabatini, Federica; Folkerts, Gert

    2006-03-01

    Endogenous Nitric Oxide (NO) plays a key role in the physiological regulation of airway functions. In response to various stimuli activated inflammatory cells (e.g., eosinophils and neutrophils) generate oxidants ("oxidative stress") which in conjunction with exaggerated enzymatic release of NO and augmented NO metabolites produce the formation of strong oxidizing reactive nitrogen species, such as peroxynitrite, in various airway diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), cystic fibrosis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Reactive nitrogen species provoke amplification of inflammatory processes in the airways and lung parenchyma causing DNA damage, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, protein dysfunction and cell damage ("nitrosative stress"). These effects alter respiratory homeostasis (such as bronchomotor tone and pulmonary surfactant activity) and the long-term persistence of "nitrosative stress" may contribute to the progressive deterioration of pulmonary functions leading to respiratory failure. Recent studies showing that protein nitration can be dynamic and reversible ("denitration mechanisms") open new horizons in the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases affected by the deleterious actions of "nitrosative stress". PMID:16464450

  20. REGIONAL RESPIRATORY TRACT ABSORPTION OF INHALED REACTIVE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Highly reactive gases present unique problems due to the number of actors which must be taken into account to determine regional respiratory tract uptake. We reviewed some of the physical, chemical, and biological factors that affect dose and that must be understood to interpret ...

  1. 3-D PARTICLE TRANSPORT WITHIN THE HUMAN UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study trajectories of inhaled particulate matter (PM) were simulated within a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model of the human upper respiratory tract (URT). The airways were described by computer-reconstructed images of a silicone rubber cast of the human head, throat...

  2. FLOW SIMULATION IN THE HUMAN UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT

    EPA Science Inventory


    ABSTRACT

    Computer simulations of airflow patterns within the human upper respiratory tract (URT) are presented. The URT model includes airways of the head (nasal and oral), throat (pharyngeal and laryngeal), and lungs (trachea and main bronchi). The head and throat mor...

  3. MODELING OZONE ABSORPTION IN THE LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A dosimetry simulation model has been developed for predicting the local absorption of ozone (03) in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) of animals and man. The model takes into account species LRT anatomy and ventilatory characteristics, transport in the lumen and air spaces, loss...

  4. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF OZONE ABSORPTION IN THE LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mathematical O3 dosimetry model has been developed for simulating the local absorption of O3 in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) of animals and man. The model takes into account LRT anatomy, transport in the lumen and air spaces, transport and chemical reactions in the liquid ...

  5. [Serum procalcitonin and respiratory tract infections].

    PubMed

    Zarka, V; Valat, C; Lemarié, E; Boissinot, E; Carré, P; Besnard, J C; Diot, P

    1999-12-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of serum procalcitonine (PCT) assay in adult respiratory infections. Forty-nine patients admitted with pleurisy, community-acquired pneumonia, tuberculosis, infection were included in this prospective study. PCT was assayed on admission and discharge. Biological and clinical parameters of gravity were also evaluated. Twenty patients had elevated PCT of more than 0.50 ng/ml. In 29 patients, PCT was undetectable. The serum PCT level was normal in the patients with tuberculosis, infection, pneumocytosis. PCT did not correlate with the biological and clinical markers of the disease severity but the evolution of PCT correlated with the evolution of C-reactive-protein (r = 0.58, p < 0.05). PCT seems to be an early marker of the evolution of respiratory infections, but it does not help to establish prognosis. Further studies are necessary to assess the potential value of PCT in more severe respiratory infections requiring assisted ventilation. PMID:10685471

  6. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Reduces Vitamin D3 in the Blood Stream and Respiratory Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... respiratory tract Share | Exposure to cigarette smoke reduces vitamin D3 in the blood stream and respiratory tract ... be understood as to how smoke causes inflammation. Vitamin D3 has anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects. ...

  7. The respiratory tract and the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Brain, J D

    1977-01-01

    The primary determinants of pulmonary disease are environmental. The same thinness and delicacy of the air-blood barrier which allows rapid exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide also reduce its effectiveness as a barrier to inhaled allergens, carcinogens, toxic particles, and noxious gases, and micro-organisms. Adults breath 10,000 to 20,000 liters of air daily. This volume of air contains potentially hazardous contaminating particles and gases. Future research should explore the diverse physiological mechanisms which prevent the accumulation and deleterious action of inhaled particles and gases. Since most pulmonary diseases are either initiated by or at least aggravated by the inhalagion of particles and gases, the role of environmental factors in the development of respiratory disease is an area worthy of continued support. PMID:598343

  8. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2%) were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3%) patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV) in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%), Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3) in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8%) and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3). Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36) of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection. PMID:22490115

  9. Aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winchester, John W.; Jones, Donald L.; Mu-tian, Bi

    1984-04-01

    Rising sulfur dioxide emissions from increased coal combustion present risks, not only of acid rain, but also to health by inhalation of the SO 2 and acid to the lung. We are investigating human inhalation of ppm SO 2 concentrations mixed with aerosol of submicrometer aqueous salt droplets to determine the effects on lung function and body chemistry. Unlike some investigators, we emphasize ammonium sulfate and trace element aerosol composition which simulates ambient air; aerosol pH, relative humidity, and temperature control to reveal gas-particle reaction mechanisms; and dose estimates from length of exposure, SO 2 concentration, and a direct measurement of respiratory deposition of aerosol as a function of particle size by cascade impactor sampling and elemental analysis by PIXE. Exposures, at rest or during exercise, are in a walk-in chamber at body temperature and high humidity to simulate Florida's summer climate. Lung function measurement by spirometry is carried out immediately after exposure. The results are significant in relating air quality to athletic performance and to public health in the southeastern United States.

  10. Management of upper respiratory tract infections in children

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, MF; Innes, S; Jaspan, H; Madide, A; Rabie, H

    2011-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) occurs commonly in both children and adults and is a major cause of mild morbidity. It has a high cost to society, being responsible for absenteeism from school and work and unnecessary medical care, and is occasionally associated with serious sequelae. URTIs are usually caused by several families of virus; these are the rhinovirus, coronavirus, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, influenza, enterovirus and the recently discovered bocavirus. This review will mainly focus on the rhinovirus, where significant advances have been made in understanding the epidemiology, natural history and relationship with other pathogens. PMID:21603094

  11. Mechanisms of Bacterial Colonization of the Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Steven J.; Weiser, Jeffrey N.

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Chief among these are infections involving the lower airways. The opportunistic bacterial pathogens responsible for most cases of pneumonia can cause a range of local and invasive infections. However, bacterial colonization (or carriage) in the upper airway is the prerequisite of all these infections. Successful colonizers must attach to the epithelial lining, grow on the nutrient-limited mucosal surface, evade the host immune response, and transmit to a susceptible host. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms underlying these conserved stages of carriage. We also examine how the demands of colonization influence progression to disease. A range of bacteria can colonize the upper airway; nevertheless, we focus on strategies shared by many respiratory tract opportunistic pathogens. Understanding colonization opens a window to the evolutionary pressures these pathogens face within their animal hosts and that have selected for attributes that contribute to virulence and pathogenesis. PMID:26488280

  12. Effects of inhaled acids on respiratory tract defense mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, R B

    1985-01-01

    The respiratory tract is endowed with an interlocking array of nonspecific and specific defense mechanisms which protect it from the effects of inhaled microbes and toxicants, and reduce the risk of absorption of materials into the bloodstream, with subsequent systemic translocation. Ambient acids may compromise these defenses, perhaps providing a link between exposure and development of chronic and acute pulmonary disease. This paper reviews the effects of inhaled acids upon the nonspecific clearance system of the lungs. PMID:3908089

  13. A respiratory tract dosimetry model for air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.H. )

    1990-10-01

    The development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for the whole body in which inhalation, exhalation, and metabolism in respiratory tract tissues are taken into account is described. As an example of the model's use, the results of several experiments in which rats and humans were exposed to styrene were simulated; these results are discussed. The predicted results agree with the empirical data and with the modeling results of others.

  14. A respiratory tract dosimetry model for air toxics.

    PubMed

    Overton, J H

    1990-10-01

    The development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for the whole body in which inhalation, exhalation, and metabolism in respiratory tract tissues are taken into account is described. As an example of the model's use, the results of several experiments in which rats and humans were exposed to styrene were simulated; these results are discussed. The predicted results agree with the empirical data and with the modeling results of others. PMID:2274981

  15. Respiratory-tract dosimetry model for air toxics (October 1990)

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for the whole body in which inhalation, exhalation, and metabolism in respiratory tract tissues are taken into account is described. As an example of the model's use, the results of several experiments in which rats and humans were exposed to styrene were simulated; these results are discussed. The predicted results agree with the empirical data and with the modeling results of others.

  16. Fiber deposition pattern in two human respiratory tract replicas.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei-Chung; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2006-09-01

    This study consisted of a series of experiments to investigate the factors that might affect the fiber deposition pattern in the human respiratory tract. Carbon fibers with uniform diameter and polydispersed length were chosen as the test material. Two geometry-defined human respiratory tract replicas encompassing the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, trachea, and first few bifurcations of the tracheobronchial airways were used in this research. Deposition studies were conducted by delivering aerosolized carbon fibers into the replicas at constant inspiratory flow rates of 15, 43.5, and 60 L/min. The results showed that impaction is the dominant deposition mechanism for both replicas. Most of the fibers with high momentum deposited in the oral airway (oral cavity to larynx), and fibers with low momentum were found to pass through the entire replica easily. When comparing the results between the two replicas, fiber length, inspiratory flow rate, and the geometry of the oral airway were found to be factors that might affect the fiber deposition pattern in the human respiratory tract. PMID:16774864

  17. Mouse Model of Respiratory Tract Infection Induced by Waddlia chondrophila

    PubMed Central

    Pilloux, Ludovic; LeRoy, Didier; Brunel, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Waddlia chondrophila, an obligate intracellular bacterium belonging to the Chlamydiales order, is considered as an emerging pathogen. Some clinical studies highlighted a possible role of W. chondrophila in bronchiolitis, pneumonia and miscarriage. This pathogenic potential is further supported by the ability of W. chondrophila to infect and replicate within human pneumocytes, macrophages and endometrial cells. Considering that W. chondrophila might be a causative agent of respiratory tract infection, we developed a mouse model of respiratory tract infection to get insight into the pathogenesis of W. chondrophila. Following intranasal inoculation of 2 x 108 W. chondrophila, mice lost up to 40% of their body weight, and succumbed rapidly from infection with a death rate reaching 50% at day 4 post-inoculation. Bacterial loads, estimated by qPCR, increased from day 0 to day 3 post-infection and decreased thereafter in surviving mice. Bacterial growth was confirmed by detecting dividing bacteria using electron microscopy, and living bacteria were isolated from lungs 14 days post-infection. Immunohistochemistry and histopathology of infected lungs revealed the presence of bacteria associated with pneumonia characterized by an important multifocal inflammation. The high inflammatory score in the lungs was associated with the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both serum and lungs at day 3 post-infection. This animal model supports the role of W. chondrophila as an agent of respiratory tract infection, and will help understanding the pathogenesis of this strict intracellular bacterium. PMID:26950066

  18. The pressure gradient in the human respiratory tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chovancová, Michaela; Elcner, Jakub

    2014-03-01

    Respiratory airways cause resistance to air flow during inhalation and exhalation. The pressure gradient is necessary to transport the air from the mount (or nose) to pulmonary alveoli. The knowledge of pressure gradient (i.e. respiratory airways resistance) is also needed to solve the question of aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract. The obtained data will be used as boundary conditions for CFD simulations of aerosol transport. Understanding of aerosol transport in the human lungs can help us to determine the health hazard of harmful particles. On the other hand it can be used to set the conditions for transport of medication to the desirable place. This article deals with the description of the mathematical equations defining the pressure gradient and resistance in the bronchial three and describes the geometry used in the calculation.

  19. Glycomic Characterization of Respiratory Tract Tissues of Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Nan; Barclay, Wendy S.; Roberts, Kim; Yen, Hui-Ling; Chan, Renee W. Y.; Lam, Alfred K. Y.; Air, Gillian; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Dell, Anne; Nicholls, John M.; Haslam, Stuart M.

    2014-01-01

    The initial recognition between influenza virus and the host cell is mediated by interactions between the viral surface protein hemagglutinin and sialic acid-terminated glycoconjugates on the host cell surface. The sialic acid residues can be linked to the adjacent monosaccharide by α2–3- or α2–6-type glycosidic bonds. It is this linkage difference that primarily defines the species barrier of the influenza virus infection with α2–3 binding being associated with avian influenza viruses and α2–6 binding being associated with human strains. The ferret has been extensively used as an animal model to study the transmission of influenza. To better understand the validity of this model system, we undertook glycomic characterization of respiratory tissues of ferret, which allows a comparison of potential viral receptors to be made between humans and ferrets. To complement the structural analysis, lectin staining experiments were performed to characterize the regional distributions of glycans along the respiratory tract of ferrets. Finally, the binding between the glycans identified and the hemagglutinins of different strains of influenza viruses was assessed by glycan array experiments. Our data indicated that the respiratory tissues of ferret heterogeneously express both α2–3- and α2–6-linked sialic acids. However, the respiratory tissues of ferret also expressed the Sda epitope (NeuAcα2-3(GalNAcβ1–4)Galβ1–4GlcNAc) and sialylated N,N′-diacetyllactosamine (NeuAcα2–6GalNAcβ1–4GlcNAc), which have not been observed in the human respiratory tract surface epithelium. The presence of the Sda epitope reduces potential binding sites for avian viruses and thus may have implications for the usefulness of the ferret in the study of influenza virus infection. PMID:25135641

  20. Coinfections of the Respiratory Tract: Viral Competition for Resources

    PubMed Central

    Pinky, Lubna; Dobrovolny, Hana M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that simultaneous infection of the respiratory tract with at least two viruses is common in hospitalized patients, although it is not clear whether these infections are more or less severe than single virus infections. We use a mathematical model to study the dynamics of viral coinfection of the respiratory tract in an effort to understand the kinetics of these infections. Specifically, we use our model to investigate coinfections of influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, and human metapneumovirus. Our study shows that during coinfections, one virus can block another simply by being the first to infect the available host cells; there is no need for viral interference through immune response interactions. We use the model to calculate the duration of detectable coinfection and examine how it varies as initial viral dose and time of infection are varied. We find that rhinovirus, the fastest-growing virus, reduces replication of the remaining viruses during a coinfection, while parainfluenza virus, the slowest-growing virus is suppressed in the presence of other viruses. PMID:27196110

  1. Clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin in lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, S S

    1989-01-01

    The sputum pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin in lower respiratory tract infections is reviewed. Following intravenous administration, ciprofloxacin penetrates rapidly into bronchial tissue; the elimination half life is between 3 and 4 h and a dose dependency is seen. Following oral intake, the time to reach maximal concentrations is approximately two hours and after a dose of 750 mg the concentration may reach 1.7 mg/l in patients without cystic fibrosis and range from 0.5 to 3.4 mg/l in cystic fibrosis patients. Coadministration of ciprofloxacin increases serum levels and decreases total body clearance of theophylline. In controlled comparative clinical trials, ciprofloxacin has been found to have similar clinical efficacy as amoxycillin, ampicillin, cefalexin, doxycycline, co-trimoxazole, imipenem-cilastatin and ceftazidime for the treatment of a range of lower respiratory tract infections. Ciprofloxacin has been found to be superior in clinical efficacy to cefaclor. Experimental animal models suggest a role for ciprofloxacin in infections caused by Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The clinical and bacteriological efficacy of ciprofloxacin is less pronounced in lung infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but is comparable to the combination of beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. Development of resistance is frequently observed during ciprofloxacin treatment of Ps. aeruginosa. Because of the availability of other oral and effective agents, ciprofloxacin is not recommended for empirical treatment of community acquired lower respiratory infections, but should be reserved for infections caused by multiply resistant organisms. PMID:2667111

  2. Familial non-cystic fibrosis mucus inspissation of respiratory tract.

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, M; Williams, J; Hirsch, M; Bar-Ziv, J

    1975-01-01

    Perlman, M., Williams, J., Hirsch, M., and Bar-Ziv, J. (1975). Archives of Disease in Childhood, 50, 727. Familial non-cystic fibrosis mucus inspissation of respiratory tract. Two sibs, whose parents are first cousins, have had chronic obstructive airways disease from birth with recurrent otitis media, sinusitis, and mastoiditis. The disease, associated with clinically abnormal mucus, differs from other familial obstructive airways diseases and probably constitutes a new entity. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:1190822

  3. Deposition of sidestream cigarette smoke in the human respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Hiller, F.C.; McCusker, K.T.; Mazumder, M.K.; Wilson, J.D.; Bone, R.C.

    1982-04-01

    Measurement of deposition of sidestream cigarette smoke in the human respiratory tract is important for assessing the health effects of sidestream cigarette smoke. We measured the deposition fraction of sidestream cigarette smoke in 5 normal adult male volunteers using sidestream smoke at a concentration similar to that encountered indoors with smokers present. The mean deposition was 11%. These data indicate that the deposition fraction of sidestream smoke is similar to other previously studied aerosols in the same size range and is much less than mainstream smoke.

  4. Dosimetry modeling of inhaled formaldehyde: the human respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Overton, J H; Kimbell, J S; Miller, F J

    2001-11-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO), which has been shown to be a nasal carcinogen in rats and mice, is used widely and extensively in various manufacturing processes. Studies in rhesus monkeys suggest that the lower respiratory tract may be at risk and some epidemiologic studies have reported an increase in lung cancer associated with HCHO; other studies have not. Thus, an assessment of possible human risk to HCHO exposure based on dosimetry information throughout the respiratory tract (RT) is desirable. To obtain dosimetry estimates for a risk assessment, two types of models were used. The first model (which is the subject of another investigation) used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to estimate local fluxes in a 3-dimensional model of the nasal region. The subject of the present investigation (the second model) applied a 1-dimensional equation of mass transport to each generation of an adult human symmetric, bifurcating Weibel-type RT anatomical model, augmented by an upper respiratory tract. The two types of modeling approaches were made consistent by requiring that the 1-dimensional version of the nasal passages have the same inspiratory air-flow rate and uptake during inspiration as the CFD simulations for 4 daily human activity levels. Results obtained include the following: (1) More than 95% of the inhaled HCHO is predicted to be retained by the RT. (2) The CFD predictions for inspiration, modified to account for the difference in inspiration and complete breath times, are a good approximation to uptake in the nasal airways during a single breath. (3) In the lower respiratory tract, flux is predicted to increase for several generations and then decrease rapidly. (4) Compared to first pulmonary region generation fluxes, the first few tracheobronchial generations fluxes are over 1000 times larger. Further, there is essentially no flux in the alveolar sacs. (5) Predicted fluxes based on the 1-dimensional model are presented that can be used in a biologically based dose

  5. [Molecular identification of Candida lusitaniae in lower respiratory tract infection].

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Israel Martínez; Ibarra, Misael González; Torres Guerrero, Haydee K

    2014-01-01

    Candida lusitaniae is a yeast that has emerged as a low frequency nosocomial pathogen in deep infections. Although it usually shows in vitro susceptibility to all antifungal agents, in vivo resistance to amphotericin B has been observed in several clinical cases. Therefore, its early identification in the course of therapy is important. We report the isolation of C. lusitaniae as an etiologic agent of a lower respiratory tract infection in a male patient. Urine and sputum cultures were negative for bacteria and positive for this yeast. Isolates were identified by routine phenotypic methods and confirmed by sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR internal spacer of ribosomal DNA. PMID:25576413

  6. Low to medium WU-virus titers in young children with lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Kleines, Michael; Scheithauer, Simone; Hengst, Meike; Honnef, Dagmar; Ritter, Klaus; Mühler, Eberhard; Häusler, Martin; Rostamzadeh, Ayda

    2008-01-01

    The WU-virus (WUV), a novel polyomavirus, has recently been recovered from respiratory tract samples. Within a study collective of children with severe lower respiratory tract disease, 3% of the patients tested WUV positive. Viral loads ranged from 5 x 10(2) copies/ml to 1 x 10(4) copies/ml. The WUV genome-positive patients did not display specific clinical or radiological characteristics to be distinguished from other respiratory tract infections. PMID:19321930

  7. Respiratory tract mortality in cement workers: a proportionate mortality study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evidence regarding the association between lung cancer and occupational exposure to cement is controversial. This study investigated causes of deaths from cancer of respiratory tract among cement workers. Methods The deaths of the Greek Cement Workers Compensation Scheme were analyzed covering the period 1969-1998. All respiratory, lung, laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer proportionate mortality were calculated for cement production, maintenance, and office workers in the cement industry. Mortality from urinary bladder cancer was used as an indirect indicator of the confounding effect of smoking. Results Mortality from all respiratory cancer was significantly increased in cement production workers (PMR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.33). The proportionate mortality from lung cancer was significantly elevated (PMR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.65 to 2.52). A statistically significant increase in proportionate mortality due to respiratory (PMR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.34). and lung cancer (PMR = 1.67;95% CI = 1.15-2.34) among maintenance workers has been observed. The PMR among the three groups of workers (production, maintenance, office) did differ significantly for lung cancer (p = 0.001), while the PMR for urinary bladder cancer found to be similar among the three groups of cement workers. Conclusion Cement production, and maintenance workers presented increased lung and respiratory cancer proportionate mortality, and this finding probably cannot be explained by the confounding effect of smoking alone. Further research including use of prospective cohort studies is needed in order to establish a causal association between occupational exposure to cement and risk of lung cancer. PMID:22738120

  8. Mycoplasmas isolated from the respiratory tract of horses.

    PubMed Central

    Allam, N. M.; Lemcke, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Ten mycoplasmas were isolated from 130 nasopharyngeal swabs from thoroughbred horses with acute respiratory disease and three from 198 apparently normal horses. Two mycoplasmas were isolated from 21 tracheal swabs taken at necropsy. These mycoplasmas, together with six isolated from the equine respiratory tract by other workers, were subjected to biochemical and serological tests. Other properties examined in certain representative strains were appearance under the electron microscope, ability to adsorb or agglutinate the erythrocytes of various animal species and the electrophoretic pattern of the cell proteins. On the basis of these test, mycoplasmas from the equine respiratory tract were divided into seven species. Three species belonged to the genus Acholeplasma, members of which do not require sterol for growth, and were identified as A. laidlawii, A. oculi (formerly A. oculusi) originally isolated from the eyes of goats, and a recently named species A. equifoetale, previously isolated from aborted equine fetuses. Of the four sterol-dependent Mycoplasma species, one was indentified as M. pulmonis, a common rodent pathogen. Another cross-reacted serologically with M. felis and should probably be classified as that species. The other two species probably represent new species peculiar to the horse. One of these, represented by the strains N3 and N11, ferments glucose and is serologically distinct from 19 recognized species of glucose-utilizing mycoplasmas and from two species which do not metabolize either glucose or arginine. The other species, represented by four strains, hydrolyses arginine and, because it is serologically distinct from all the named arginine-hydrolysing Mycoplasma species, the name M. equirhinis sp.nov. is proposed for it. Of the seven species, only M. pulmonis and the glucose-utilizing species represented by N3 and N11 were found exclusively in horses with acute respiratory disease. A. oculi was isolated from an apparently normal horse. The

  9. Simultaneous influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infection in human respiratory tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinky, Lubna Jahan Rashid; Dobrovolny, Hana

    2015-03-01

    Studies have shown that simultaneous infection of the respiratory tract with at least two viruses is not uncommon in hospitalized patients, although it is not clear whether these infections are more or less severe than single infections. We use mathematical models to study the dynamics of simultaneous influenza (flu) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, two of the more common respiratory viruses, in an effort to understand simultaneous infections. We examine the roles of initial viral inoculum, relative starting time, and cell regeneration on the severity of the infection. We also study the effect of antiviral treatment on the course of the infection. This study shows that, unless treated with antivirals, flu always takes over the infection no matter how small the initial dose and how delayed it starts with respect to RSV.

  10. Respiratory tract versus cloacal sampling of migratory ducks for influenza A viruses: are both ends relevant?

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Scott; Pryor, Sydney Paul; Raven, Garnet; Danner, Angela; Kayali, Ghazi; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Krauss et al. (2012) Respiratory tract versus cloacal sampling of migratory ducks for influenza A viruses: are both ends relevant? Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: . Background  Early studies in dabbling ducks showed that cloacal swabs yielded a larger number of avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates than did respiratory tract swabs. Historically, AIV surveillance has been performed by collecting cloacal or environmental fecal samples only. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus emerged in 1996 and replicated to higher titers in the respiratory rather than the gastrointestinal tract of ducks, prompting the collection of respiratory samples in addition to cloacal swabs from wild birds. Studies confirmed that some virus subtypes, especially H9 and highly pathogenic H5, are shed primarily through the respiratory tract and may not be detected in cloacal swabs. Objectives  To examine prevalence and subtype differences for AIV isolates from cloacal or respiratory swabs of wild ducks and to determine whether individual respiratory tract samples should be included in AIV surveillance studies in wild birds. Methods  Individual respiratory tract and cloacal swabs were collected from each of 1036 wild ducks in Alberta, Canada, during the month of August from 2007 to 2010 in an ongoing surveillance study. Virus isolation in eggs and subtype identification by antigenic and molecular methods were performed. Results and conclusions  Respiratory tract and cloacal swabs yielded ten influenza virus HA subtypes representing 28 HA–NA combinations. Three HA–NA subtype combinations were found exclusively in respiratory tract samples. Only four HA subtypes (H1, H3, H4, and H7) were recovered from respiratory samples, but respiratory shedding was associated with the dominance of 1 year’s subtype. Might respiratory shedding provide a risk assessment indicator? PMID:22458473

  11. Relationship Between Upper Respiratory Tract Influenza Test Result and Clinical Outcomes Among Critically Ill Influenza Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Krishna P.; Bajwa, Ednan K.; Parker, Robert A.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2016-01-01

    Among critically ill patients with lower respiratory tract (LRT)-confirmed influenza, we retrospectively observed worse 28-day clinical outcomes in upper respiratory tract (URT)-negative versus URT-positive subjects. This finding may reflect disease progression and highlights the need for influenza testing of both URT and LRT specimens to improve diagnostic yield and possibly inform prognosis. PMID:26966696

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma of the respiratory tract following laryngeal papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Lie, E S; Engh, V; Boysen, M; Clausen, O P; Kvernvold, H; Stenersen, T C; Winther, F O

    1994-03-01

    With the object to disclose an association between laryngeal papillomatosis and laryngeal carcinoma, we reviewed 102 patients with laryngeal papillomatosis treated between 1950 and 1979. Seven cases of laryngeal carcinomas were recorded and 1 patient with spread of papilloma to the bronchial tree developed a bronchial carcinoma. The time between onset of papilloma and diagnosis of carcinoma was 4-55 years (mean 24 years). For laryngeal carcinoma the ratio of observed to expected cases was 88. Of the 8 patients developing respiratory tract carcinoma, 2 had received treatment with radiation and 2 had been treated with Bleomycin. Four of these 8 patients were known smokers. This study shows that papillomatosis is more often associated with laryngeal carcinoma than previously reported. It appears, however, that laryngeal papillomas alone seldom induce carcinomas. Apart from irradiation and smoking, Bleomycin could be an important co-factor. PMID:7515551

  13. Biochemical basis of physical properties of respiratory tract secretions.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vidriero, M T

    1987-01-01

    The physical properties of respiratory tract secretion (RTS) play a prominent rôle in the non-specific defence mechanisms of the lung. Viscosity and elasticity, that is flow and deformation, are only two of the physical properties of RTS. Spinability, pourability, adhesiveness and tackiness are starting to be recognised as physical properties of RTS and its is likely that they may be relevant in the pathogenesis of airways obstruction. RTS is a gel, which consists of a cross-linked polymer network dispersed in a liquid solvent. The polymeric structure of the epithelial glycoprotein can be explained in terms of covalent (disulphide) linkages and/or physical entanglement between glycoproteins subunits. Other constituents of RTS such as proteins, lipids, ions and water can influence the physical properties of RTS. PMID:3322857

  14. Deposition of pressurised aerosols in the human respiratory tract.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, S P; Pavia, D; Morén, F; Sheahan, N F; Clarke, S W

    1981-01-01

    Although the use of pressurised aerosol inhalers is widespread, little is known about the actual deposition of the aerosol in the respiratory tract, since this has previously been difficult to measure. We have incorporated Teflon particles (mean diameter 2 micrometer) with aerodynamic properties similar to those of bronchodilator drug crystals into pressurised aerosol canisters. Controlled inhalations by eight patients with obstructive airways disease showed that on average 8.8% of the dose was deposited in the lungs (3.0% in the alveoli and 5.8% on the conducting airways) and 80% in the mouth. These figures are in good agreement with previous indirect estimates of deposition based on metabolic studies. The remainder of the dose was either expired (1.0%) or deposited in the aerosol actuator (9.8%). This method should have wide application for measurement of deposition patterns under various conditions and for assessment of therapeutic effects. Images PMID:7292382

  15. Mathematical modeling of ozone absorption in the lower respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.; Graham, R.C.; Miller, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    A mathematical O/sub 3/ dosimetry model was developed for simulating the local absorption of O/sub 3/ in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) of animals and man. The model takes into account LRT anatomy, transport in the lumen and air spaces, and transport and chemical reactions in the liquid layers and in the underlying tissue and capillaries. Differential equations are used to describe the processes of transport and chemical reactions; solutions are obtained numerically. Simulations are illustrated with results of two investigations: the effect of anatomical models on predicted LRT uptake of O/sub 3/ in rat and guinea pig, and the effect of exercise on the uptake and distribution of ozone in the LRT of man.

  16. Nebulizer delivery of tobramycin to the lower respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Weber, A; Smith, A; Williams-Warren, J; Ramsey, B; Covert, D S

    1994-05-01

    We characterized a tobramycin aerosol generated by five nebulizers: Micron One, Pulmosonic, Pulmo-Aide, DeVilbiss Model 65, and UltraNeb 100 by particle size and drug concentration. The Micron One nebulizer did not produce a recoverable aerosol, while the Pulmosonic had a minimal output; therefore three machines were examined for their ability to deliver tobramycin to the lower respiratory tract of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The DeVilbiss 65 had the greatest output: with air as the carrier gas it produced an aerosol with > 60% of the particles having a mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of > 5.5 microns. Using helox shifted the MMAD so that > 65% of the particles were < 5.5 microns. Increasing the power in the DeVilbiss 65 increased the output of particles > 9.2 microns, without a change in the particles < 3.3 microns. With air as the carrier gas the Pulmo-Aide and the UltraNeb 100 produced an aerosol with > 60% particles, < 3.3 microns MMAD. Using helox the UltraNeb 100 increased the amount of aerosol with a < 3.3 microns MMAD to 98%. Tobramycin delivery to the lower respiratory tract with the Pulmo-Aide and UltraNeb 100 was compared using air or helox by measuring sputum drug concentration. Pulmo-Aide failed to produce detectable tobramycin in sputum in 2 out of 9 patients with CF. With the UltraNeb 100, all patients had measurable sputum tobramycin immediately after administration (range, 16.2-3385 micrograms/g), but no statistically significant difference was found when using either compressed air, helox, or ambient air.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8058428

  17. An association between Helicobacter pylori and upper respiratory tract disease: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2014-02-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major cause of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers and considerable evidence supports the notion that infection with this bacterium is also associated with gastric malignancy in addition to various other conditions including pulmonary, vascular and autoimmune disorders. Gastric juice infected with H. pylori might play an important role in upper respiratory tract infection. Although direct and/or indirect mechanisms might be involved in the association between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the etiological role of H. pylori in upper respiratory tract disorders has not yet been fully elucidated. Although various studies over the past two decades have suggested a relationship between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the findings are inconsistent. The present overview describes the outcomes of recent investigations into the impact of H. pylori on upper respiratory tract and adjacent lesions. PMID:24587622

  18. An association between Helicobacter pylori and upper respiratory tract disease: Fact or fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major cause of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers and considerable evidence supports the notion that infection with this bacterium is also associated with gastric malignancy in addition to various other conditions including pulmonary, vascular and autoimmune disorders. Gastric juice infected with H. pylori might play an important role in upper respiratory tract infection. Although direct and/or indirect mechanisms might be involved in the association between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the etiological role of H. pylori in upper respiratory tract disorders has not yet been fully elucidated. Although various studies over the past two decades have suggested a relationship between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the findings are inconsistent. The present overview describes the outcomes of recent investigations into the impact of H. pylori on upper respiratory tract and adjacent lesions. PMID:24587622

  19. DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT, LARYNX, AND BRONCHIAL AIRWAYS: A MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mathematical description of inhaled particle behavior suitable for analysis of factors affecting deposition in the human upper respiratory tract (nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal compartments), larynx, and ciliated airways is presented. When upper respiratory tract and larynx f...

  20. Lower respiratory tract infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus: current management and new therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Natalie I; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Baraldi, Eugenio; Fauroux, Brigitte; Greenough, Anne; Heikkinen, Terho; Manzoni, Paolo; Mejias, Asuncion; Nair, Harish; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Polack, Fernando P; Ramilo, Octavio; Sharland, Mike; Stein, Renato; Madhi, Shabir A; Bont, Louis

    2015-11-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Evidence-based management guidelines suggest that there is no effective treatment for RSV lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and that supportive care, ie, hydration and oxygenation, remains the cornerstone of clinical management. However, RSV treatments in development in the past decade include 10 vaccines and 11 therapeutic agents in active clinical trials. Maternal vaccination is particularly relevant because the most severe disease occurs within the first 6 months of life, when children are unlikely to benefit from active immunisation. We must optimise the implementation of novel RSV therapeutics by understanding the target populations, showing safety, and striving for acceptable pricing in the context of this worldwide health problem. In this Review, we outline the limitations of RSV LRTI management, the drugs in development, and the remaining challenges related to study design, regulatory approval, and implementation. PMID:26411809

  1. Role of the Zinc Uptake ABC Transporter of Moraxella catarrhalis in Persistence in the Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, Aimee L.; Kirkham, Charmaine; Johnson, Antoinette; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We have identified and characterized a zinc uptake ABC transporter that is present in all strains of M. catarrhalis tested. A mutant in which the znu gene cluster is knocked out shows markedly impaired growth compared to the wild type in medium that contains trace zinc; growth is restored to wild-type levels by supplementing medium with zinc but not with other divalent cations. Thermal-shift assays showed that the purified recombinant substrate binding protein ZnuA binds zinc but does not bind other divalent cations. Invasion assays with human respiratory epithelial cells demonstrated that the zinc ABC transporter of M. catarrhalis is critical for invasion of respiratory epithelial cells, an observation that is especially relevant because an intracellular reservoir of M. catarrhalis is present in the human respiratory tract and this reservoir is important for persistence. The znu knockout mutant showed marked impairment in its capacity to persist in the respiratory tract compared to the wild type in a mouse pulmonary clearance model. We conclude that the zinc uptake ABC transporter mediates uptake of zinc in environments with very low zinc concentrations and is critical for full virulence of M. catarrhalis in the respiratory tract in facilitating intracellular invasion of epithelial cells and persistence in the respiratory tract. PMID:23817618

  2. Differential Expression of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Receptor in the Upper Respiratory Tracts of Humans and Dromedary Camels.

    PubMed

    Widagdo, W; Raj, V Stalin; Schipper, Debby; Kolijn, Kimberley; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Bosch, Berend J; Bensaid, Albert; Segalés, Joaquim; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koopmans, Marion P; van den Brand, Judith M A; Haagmans, Bart L

    2016-05-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor-dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4)-is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels but not in that of humans. Lack of DPP4 expression may be the primary cause of limited MERS-CoV replication in the human upper respiratory tract and hence restrict transmission. PMID:26889022

  3. Risk Factors for Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Lower Respiratory Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Constanze; Resch, Bernhard; Simões, Eric A.F

    2011-01-01

    RSV infection is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection, especially in High-risk infants with a history of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), congenital heart disease (CHD), neuromusculair impairment, immunodeficiency, and Down syndrome. Host related risk factors that have been identified to be associated with severe RSV related lower respiratory tract infection include young age below 6 months at the beginning of RSV season, multiple birth, male sex, low socioeconomic status and parental education, crowded living conditions, young siblings, maternal smoking and indoor smoke pollution, malnutrition/small for gestational age, family history of atopy or asthma, low cord serum RSV antibody titers, and living at altitude. Risk factors increasing the risk of acquisition of RSV have been identified to be birth before and/or during RSV season, day care attendance, presence of older siblings in school or day-care, and lack of breast feeding. Some of these risk factors are discussed controversially and some of them are found continuously throughout the literature. Given the high cost of RSV prophylaxis, especially for the large population of late preterm infants, algorithms and risk score systems have been published that could identify high-risk infants for treatment with palivizumab out of this gestational age group. Several models reported on an average sensitivity and specificity of 70 percent and, thus, are helpful to identify infants at high risk for severe RSV infection and need for prophylaxis with palivizumab. PMID:22262987

  4. Nanotubes in the human respiratory tract - Deposition modeling.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Deposition of inhaled single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in the respiratory tract was theoretically investigated for various age groups (infants, children, adolescents, and adults). Additionally, possible effects of the inhalative flow rate on nanotube deposition were simulated for adult lungs. Theoretical computations were based on the aerodynamic diameter concept and the assumption of particles being randomly transported through a stochastic (close-to-realistic) lung structure. Deposition of nanotubes was calculated by application of well validated empirical deposition formulae, thereby considering Browian motion, inertial impaction, interception, and sedimentation as main deposition mechanisms acting on the particles. Results of the simulations clearly show that for a given inhalation scenario (sitting breathing) total, bronchial, and acinar nanotube deposition increase with subject's age, whereas extrathoracic deposition is characterized by a decrease from younger to older subjects. According to the data provided by the model, MWCNT, whose aerodynamic diameters exceed those of SWCNT by one order of magnitude, are deposited in specific respiratory compartments to a lower extent than SWCNT. A change of the physical state from sitting to heavy work results in a common decline of bronchial and extrathoracic deposition of nanotubes. Total deposition is slightly increased for SWCNT and moderately decreased for MWCNT, whereas acinar deposition is significantly increased for SWCNT and decreased for MWCNT. Based on the results of this contribution it may be concluded that SWCNT bear a higher potential as health hazards than MWCNT, because they are accumulated in sensitive lung regions with higher doses than MWCNT. PMID:25172831

  5. The revised International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, W.J.

    1992-05-01

    A task group has revised the dosimetric model of the respiratory tract used to calculate annual limits on intake of radionuclides. The revised model can be used to project respiratory tract doses for workers and members of the public from airborne radionuclides and to assess past exposures. Doses calculated for specific extrathoracic and thoracic tissues can be adjusted to account for differences in radiosensitivity and summed to yield two values of dose for the respiratory tract that are applicable to the ICRP tissue weighted dosimetry system.

  6. The Revised International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The new respiratory tract model is based on the premise that the large differences in radiation sensitivity of respiratory tract tissues, and the wide range of doses they receive, argue for calculating specific tissue doses rather than average lung doses for radiation protection purposes. The new model is more complex than the current lung model because it describes deposition of inhaled radioactive material in the clearance from several tissues and regions of the respiratory tract and is applicable to the worldwide population of both workers and the public. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Mathematical justification of the acoustic method for measuring the impedance of the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Bogomolov, A V; Dragan, S P

    2015-01-01

    A new method for measuring a complex frequency-dependent acoustic impedance of the respiratory tract based on two-microphone method was developed. The measuring device consists of a waveguide connected through a mouthpiece to the patient's mouth. A sound field with a frequency range from 5 to 100 Hz is created in the waveguide. The impedance of the respiratory tract is determined at free respiration of the patient in the set frequency range; the duration of examination does not exceed 15 s. The criteria for the recognition of respiratory tract pathologies are proposed. PMID:26518558

  8. Reducing uncertainty in managing respiratory tract infections in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Naomi; Francis, Nick A; Butler, Chris C

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) remain the commonest reason for acute consultations in primary care in resource-rich countries. Their spectrum and severity has changed from the time that antibiotics were discovered, largely from improvements in the socioeconomic determinants of health as well as vaccination. The benefits from antibiotic treatment for common RTIs have been shown to be largely overstated. Nevertheless, serious infections do occur. Currently, no clinical features or diagnostic test, alone or in combination, adequately determine diagnosis, aetiology, prognosis, or response to treatment. This narrative review focuses on emerging evidence aimed at helping clinicians reduce and manage uncertainty in treating RTIs. Consultation rate and prescribing rate trends are described, evidence of increasing rates of complications are discussed, and studies and the association with antibiotic prescribing are examined. Methods of improving diagnosis and identifying those patients who are at increased risk of complications from RTIs, using clinical scoring systems, biomarkers, and point of care tests are also discussed. The evidence for alternative management options for RTIs are summarised and the methods for changing public and clinicians' beliefs about antibiotics, including ways in which we can improve clinician–patient communication skills for management of RTIs, are described. PMID:21144191

  9. Neandertal nasal structures and upper respiratory tract "specialization".

    PubMed

    Franciscus, R G

    1999-02-16

    Schwartz and Tattersall [Schwartz, J. H. & Tattersall, I. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10852-10854] have argued for a previously unrecognized suite of autapomorphies in the internal nasal region of Neandertals that make them unique, not only among hominids, but possibly among all other terrestrial mammals. These purported autapomorphies include (i) the development of an internal nasal margin bearing a well developed and vertically oriented medial projection; (ii) a pronounced medial swelling of the lateral nasal wall into the posterior nasal cavity; and (iii) the lack of an ossified roof over the lacrimal groove. In addition, Laitman et al. [Laitman, J. T., Reidenberg, J. S., Marquez, S. & Gannon, P. J. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10543-10545] pointed to these features as evidence for upper respiratory tract specializations among the Neandertals, indicating potential differences in behavior compared with modern humans. Critically reviewing the anatomical basis for Schwartz and Tattersall's contentions reveals several serious problems with their analysis, including (i) reliance on specimens with damaged, incomplete, or, in some cases, entirely absent relevant anatomy; (ii) failure to consider primary vs. secondary spatial consequences in nasal trait conceptualization; and (iii) failure to consider actual ranges of variation in these traits in both fossil and recent humans. Accordingly, the unique phylogenetic and adaptive "specializations" attributed to Neandertal internal nasal structures are unwarranted. PMID:9990106

  10. Neandertal nasal structures and upper respiratory tract “specialization”

    PubMed Central

    Franciscus, Robert G.

    1999-01-01

    Schwartz and Tattersall [Schwartz, J. H. & Tattersall, I. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10852–10854] have argued for a previously unrecognized suite of autapomorphies in the internal nasal region of Neandertals that make them unique, not only among hominids, but possibly among all other terrestrial mammals. These purported autapomorphies include (i) the development of an internal nasal margin bearing a well developed and vertically oriented medial projection; (ii) a pronounced medial swelling of the lateral nasal wall into the posterior nasal cavity; and (iii) the lack of an ossified roof over the lacrimal groove. In addition, Laitman et al. [Laitman, J. T., Reidenberg, J. S., Marquez, S. & Gannon, P. J. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10543–10545] pointed to these features as evidence for upper respiratory tract specializations among the Neandertals, indicating potential differences in behavior compared with modern humans. Critically reviewing the anatomical basis for Schwartz and Tattersall’s contentions reveals several serious problems with their analysis, including (i) reliance on specimens with damaged, incomplete, or, in some cases, entirely absent relevant anatomy; (ii) failure to consider primary vs. secondary spatial consequences in nasal trait conceptualization; and (iii) failure to consider actual ranges of variation in these traits in both fossil and recent humans. Accordingly, the unique phylogenetic and adaptive “specializations” attributed to Neandertal internal nasal structures are unwarranted. PMID:9990106

  11. [Consensus guidelines for the management of upper respiratory tract infections].

    PubMed

    Lopardo, Gustavo; Calmaggi, Aníbal; Clara, Liliana; Levy Hara, Gabriel; Mykietiuk, Analía; Pryluka, Daniel; Ruvinsky, Silvina; Vujacich, Claudia; Yahni, Diego; Bogdanowicz, Elizabeth; Klein, Manuel; López Furst, María J; Pensotti, Claudia; Rial, María J; Scapellato, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections are the most common source of antibiotic prescriptions. Acute pharyngitis is caused mainly by viruses, viral cases can be distinguished from acute streptococcal pharyngitis using Centor clinical epidemiological criteria, by rapid antigen tests or throat culture. Treatment of choice for streptococcal infection is penicillin V given in two daily doses. In children, acute otitis media (AOM) is the infection for which antibiotics are most often prescribed. Predominant causative pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae non-type b and Moraxella catarrhalis. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination and otoscopic exam. Antibiotic treatment should be initiated promptly in all children<2 years of age, and in older children presenting bilateral AOM, otorrhoea, co-morbidities or severe illness. In Argentina, amoxicillin is the drug of choice given the low penicillin resistance rates for S. pneumoniae. In children who fail amoxicillin therapy, amoxicillin/clavulanate provides better coverage against beta-lactamase producing H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. Rhinosinusitis is caused mainly by viruses, secondary bacterial complication occurs in less than 5% of cases. Diagnosis is based on physical examination and additional studies are not usually required. Acute bacterial sinusitis is caused by the same pathogens that cause AOM and amoxicillin is the drug of choice. PMID:23241293

  12. Modeling ozone absorption in the lower respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.H.; Miller, F.J.

    1987-04-01

    A dosimetry simulation model was developed for predicting the local absorption of ozone in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) of animals and man. The model takes into account species LRT anatomy and ventilatory characteristics, transport in the lumen and air spaces, loss of O/sub 3/ to the liquid lining, and transport and chemical reactions in the liquid lining and underlying tissues and capillaries. Basic biological concepts and the mathematical formulation of the model are briefly outlined and the results of several investigations presented. Predicted values of LRT uptake are compared to experimental O/sub 3/ uptake data in humans, showing good agreement over the range of experimental tidal volumes and breathing frequencies. The effect of airway path distance on centriacinar ozone dose is explored; large variations in dose for the first alveolated ducts in a rat are predicted. Human and rat generational doses versus generation are plotted together for comparison; the curves demonstrate a remarkable similarity with regards to shape and structure.

  13. SURROGATE EXPERIMENTAL MODELS FOR STUDYING PARTICLE DEPOSITION IN THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY TRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazard assessment following challenge by ambient aerosols requires accurate estimation of exposure, that is, determination of the total mass of particulate matter deposited within the respiratory tract, and its intercompartmental distribution. Aerosol deposition studies utilizing...

  14. Systematic review of the epidemiology literature on formaldehyde and cancers of the upper respiratory tract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: EPA is currently drafting a Toxicological Review of formaldehyde. As part of the comprehensive evaluation of potential hazards associated with exposure to formaldehyde, the potential hazards for cancers of the upper respiratory tract are being evaluated. We are aware ...

  15. [Respiratory tract infections in children treated on an outpatient basis for a year].

    PubMed

    Karkowski, M K

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of doctor's work record an analysis was done of respiratory tract diseases in children treated in the Paediatric Division of the Regional outpatient Clinic of the Railway Health Service in Elblag in 1991. Respiratory tract infections accounted for 24.17% attendance (255.42% in July and 53.62% in March). Despite periodicity, high morbidity persisted over the whole year. PMID:7975596

  16. Ethnic variations in morbidity and mortality from lower respiratory tract infections: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Markus FC; Cezard, Genevieve; Bansal, Narinder; Fischbacher, Colin; Douglas, Anne; Bhopal, Raj; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is evidence of substantial ethnic variations in asthma morbidity and the risk of hospitalisation, but the picture in relation to lower respiratory tract infections is unclear. We carried out an observational study to identify ethnic group differences for lower respiratory tract infections. Design A retrospective, cohort study. Setting Scotland. Participants 4.65 million people on whom information was available from the 2001 census, followed from May 2001 to April 2010. Main outcome measures Hospitalisations and deaths (any time following first hospitalisation) from lower respiratory tract infections, adjusted risk ratios and hazard ratios by ethnicity and sex were calculated. We multiplied ratios and confidence intervals by 100, so the reference Scottish White population’s risk ratio and hazard ratio was 100. Results Among men, adjusted risk ratios for lower respiratory tract infection hospitalisation were lower in Other White British (80, 95% confidence interval 73–86) and Chinese (69, 95% confidence interval 56–84) populations and higher in Pakistani groups (152, 95% confidence interval 136–169). In women, results were mostly similar to those in men (e.g. Chinese 68, 95% confidence interval 56–82), although higher adjusted risk ratios were found among women of the Other South Asians group (145, 95% confidence interval 120–175). Survival (adjusted hazard ratio) following lower respiratory tract infection for Pakistani men (54, 95% confidence interval 39–74) and women (31, 95% confidence interval 18–53) was better than the reference population. Conclusions Substantial differences in the rates of lower respiratory tract infections amongst different ethnic groups in Scotland were found. Pakistani men and women had particularly high rates of lower respiratory tract infection hospitalisation. The reasons behind the high rates of lower respiratory tract infection in the Pakistani community are now required. PMID:26152675

  17. Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Distribution in the Human Respiratory Tract: Implications for the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meyerholz, David K; Lambertz, Allyn M; McCray, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4, CD26), a type II transmembrane ectopeptidase, is the receptor for the Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). MERS emerged in 2012 and has a high mortality associated with severe lung disease. A lack of autopsy studies from MERS fatalities has hindered understanding of MERS-CoV pathogenesis. We investigated the spatial and cellular localization of DPP4 to evaluate an association MERS clinical disease. DPP4 was rarely detected in the surface epithelium from nasal cavity to conducting airways with a slightly increased incidence in distal airways. DPP4 was also found in a subset of mononuclear leukocytes and in serous cells of submucosal glands. In the parenchyma, DPP4 was found principally in type I and II cells and alveolar macrophages and was also detected in vascular endothelium (eg, lymphatics) and pleural mesothelia. Patients with chronic lung disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis, exhibited increased DPP4 immunostaining in alveolar epithelia (type I and II cells) and alveolar macrophages with similar trends in reactive mesothelia. This finding suggests that preexisting pulmonary disease could increase MERS-CoV receptor abundance and predispose individuals to MERS morbidity and mortality, which is consistent with current clinical observations. We speculate that the preferential spatial localization of DPP4 in alveolar regions may explain why MERS is characterized by lower respiratory tract disease. PMID:26597880

  18. IRON AND IRON-RELATED PROTEINS IN THE LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT OF ARDS PATIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    OBJECTIVE: An increased oxidative stress in the lower respiratory tract of individuals with acute respiratory distress syndrome is considered to be one mechanism of lung injury in these patients. Cell and tissue damage resulting from an oxidative stress can ultimately be the cons...

  19. Effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory tract complaints and airway inflammation in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Altuğ, Hicran; Gaga, Eftade O; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Van Doorn, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution were studied in 605 school children 9 to 13 years in Eskişehir, Turkey. Each child performed a fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurement and a lung function test (LFT). Self-reported respiratory tract complaints (having cold, complaints of throat, runny nose and shortness of breath/wheezing) in the last 7 days and on the day of testing were also recorded. As acute health outcomes were investigated, weekly average ambient concentrations of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were determined by passive sampling in the school playgrounds simultaneously with the health survey. Effects of air pollution on respiratory tract complaints and exhaled NO/lung function were estimated by multivariate logistic regression and multivariate linear mixed effects models, respectively. Upper respiratory tract complaints were significantly (p<0.05) associated with weekly average O3 concentrations during the health survey (adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 1.21 and 1.28 for a 10 μgm(-3) increment for having cold and a runny nose on day of testing, respectively). FENO levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased in children with various upper respiratory tract complaints (ratio in FENO varied between 1.16 and 1.40). No significant change in FENO levels was detected in association with any of the measured pollutants (p ≥ 0.05). Lung function was not associated with upper respiratory tract complaints and FENO levels. Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) levels were negatively associated with weekly average O3 levels for children without upper respiratory tract complaints. In summary, elevated levels of air pollutants increased respiratory tract complaints in children. PMID:24561926

  20. The effect of vitamin D on lower respiratory tract infections in children

    PubMed Central

    Şişmanlar, Tuğba; Aslan, Ayşe Tana; Gülbahar, Özlem; Özkan, Seçil

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Lower respiratory tract infections including mainly pneumonia represent an important public health problem leading to high mortality and mobidity rates in children aged below five years in developing countries including our country. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of rickets/osteomalacia, various cancers, autoimmune diseases, hyperproliferative skin diseases, cardiovascular system diseases and infectious diseases. Vitamin D has an important role in cellular and humoral immunity and pulmonary functions. Vitamin D deficiency and lower respiratory tract infection are common health problems in children in our country and no clinical study investigating the relationship between these problems has been conducted so far. In this case-control study, we aimed to assess the association between vitamin D level and lower respiratory tract infection in children. Material and Methods: Sixty-three children aged between six months and five years with lower respiratory infections and 59 age-matched children who had no history of respiratory symptoms in the last month and no accompanying chronic disease were compared in terms of vitamin D levels. The children in the patient group were also evaluated by the clinical picture. Results: No significant correlation was found between vitamin D levels and lower respiratory tract infection in terms of disease and its severity. However, it was found that vitamin D deficiency/ insufficiency was observed with a high rate in all children included in the study. Conclusions: Although no correlation was found between vitamin D level and lower respiratory tract infection, it is recommended that vitamin D level should be measured in children with lower respiratory tract infection and vitamin D supplementation should be given to all children especially in winter months based on the fact that the level of vitamin D was lower than normal in approximately half of the children included in the study and considering the

  1. Efficacy of Oral Ribavirin in Lung Transplant Patients With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Lower Respiratory Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pelaez, Andres; Lyon, G. Marshall; Force, Seth D.; Ramirez, Allan M.; Neujahr, David C.; Foster, Marianne; Naik, Priyumvada M.; Gal, Anthony A.; Mitchell, Patrick O.; Lawrence, E. Clinton

    2012-01-01

    Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRI) and is a risk factor for the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation (LTx). Currently, the most widely used therapy for RSV is inhaled ribavirin. However, this therapy is costly and cumbersome. We investigated the utility of using oral ribavirin for the treatment of RSV infection after LTx. Methods RSV was identified in nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) using direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) in 5 symptomatic LTx patients diagnosed with LRI. Data were collected from December 2005 and August 2007 and included: age; gender; type of LTx; underlying disease; date of RSV; pulmonary function prior to, during and up to 565 days post-RSV infection; need for mechanical ventilation; concurrent infections; and radiographic features. Patients received oral ribavirin for 10 days with solumedrol (10 to 15 mg/kg/day intravenously) for 3 days, until repeat NPS were negative. Results Five patients had their RSV–LRI diagnosis made at a median of 300 days post-LTx. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) fell 21% (p < 0.012) during infection. After treatment, FEV1 returned to baseline and was maintained at follow-up of 565 days. There were no complications and no deaths with oral therapy. A 10-day course of oral ribavirin cost $700 compared with $14,000 for nebulized ribavirin at 6 g/day. Conclusions Treatment of RSV after LTx with oral ribavirin and corticosteroids is well tolerated, effective and less costly than inhaled ribavirin. Further studies are needed to directly compare the long-term efficacy of oral vs nebulized therapy for RSV. PMID:19134533

  2. Recovery of bacteria from broiler carcass respiratory tracts before and after immersion scalding.

    PubMed

    Buhr, R J; Berrang, M E; Cason, J A; Bourassa, D V

    2005-11-01

    Occlusion of the trachea and decapitation were compared with a conventional unilateral neck cut for effects on bacteria entering into the respiratory tract of broiler carcasses during scalding. In experiment 1, the trachea was occluded prior to the carcass entering the scalder to determine if bacterial recovery from the respiratory tract could be diminished. The first carcass was removed at the end of bleeding, and a plastic cable tie was placed around the neck of a second carcass and tightened to occlude the trachea. After proceeding through the triple-tank immersion scalder, the second carcass (trachea occluded) was removed, and a third carcass (without the trachea occluded during scalding) was removed. In experiment 2, after being stunned, carcasses were unilaterally bled or decapitated. Unilaterally bled and decapitated carcasses were removed at the end of bleeding and after scalding. In both experiments, trachea were cannulated, and respiratory tract rinses were collected. For experiment 1, the numbers of bacteria recovered (log10 cfu/mL of rinse) from prescald nonoccluded carcass respiratory tract rinses were 2.5 Escherichia coli, 2.6 coliforms, and 3.2 total aerobes. Respiratory tract rinses from carcasses sampled postscald (without occluding the trachea) had higher bacteria numbers at 4.6 E. coli, 5.0 coliforms, and 5.4 total aerobes. Respiratory tract rinses from carcasses with the trachea occluded prior to scalding had the lowest number of bacteria at 1.9 E. coli, 2.3 coliforms, and 2.7 total aerobes. In experiment 2, the numbers of bacteria recovered from respiratory tract rinses of unilaterally bled or decapitated carcasses did not differ prescald or postscald, although all postscald values were higher (P < 0.05). Results confirmed that bacteria numbers increased within the respiratory tract during immersion scalding, the increase could have been prevented by occluding the trachea prior to scalding, and decapitation did not alter the number of bacteria

  3. Revision of the ICRP dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, W.J.

    1990-12-01

    Although the dosimetric model of the respiratory tract used in ICRP Publication 30 had not been shown to be seriously deficient for the purpose of calculating Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) for workers, the availability of new information led the ICRP in 1984 to create a special Task Group to review the dosimetric model of the respiratory tract and, if justified, propose revisions or a new model. The Task Group directed its efforts toward improving the model used in Publication 30 rather than developing a completely new model. The objective was a model that would facilitate calculation of biologically meaningful doses; be consistent with morphological, physiological, and radiobiological characteristics of the respiratory tract; incorporate current knowledge; meet all radiation protection needs; be user friendly by not being unnecessarily sophisticated; be adaptable to development of computer software for calculation of relevant radiation doses from knowledge of a few readily measured exposure parameters; be equally useful for assessment purposes as for calculating ALIs; be applicable to all members of the world population; and consider the influence of smoking, air pollutants, and diseases of the inhalation, deposition, and clearance of radioactive particles from the respiratory tract. The model provides for calculation of a committed dose equivalent for each region, adjusted for the relative cancer sensitivity of that region, and for the summing of these to yield a committed dose equivalent for the entire respiratory tract. 3 figs.

  4. Advances in biologically based models for respiratory tract uptake of inhaled volatiles.

    PubMed

    Medinsky, M A; Kimbell, J S; Morris, J B; Gerde, P; Overton, J H

    1993-04-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for volatile organic chemicals typically describe the respiratory tract as a single compartment in which chemicals in the alveolar air space and the arterial blood are in instantaneous equilibrium. These models also assume that the distribution of chemical in the air-stream is uniform throughout the respiratory tract and that uptake is significant only in the alveolar region. A functional role for the upper respiratory tract in the uptake of volatile chemicals has been largely ignored. While these models have worked well for chemicals with low aqueous solubility in biological fluids, systemic uptake of highly soluble volatiles is overestimated. Thus, there is a significant effort to describe the critical determinants for uptake of soluble chemicals and to formulate models with more biologically relevant descriptions of respiratory tract structure and function. Investigators have addressed this problem from several viewpoints. Airflow patterns in the respiratory tract, regional metabolism, diffusion-dependent uptake, and the cyclic nature of respiration are now being incorporated into current models. Use of dosimetric models that incorporate relevant biology for inhaled chemicals will ultimately result in more meaningful human risk assessments. PMID:8504900

  5. Aetiology of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Hospitalised Children in Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Jan; Panayiotou, Christakis; Tryfonos, Christina; Koptides, Dana; Koliou, Maria; Kalogirou, Nikolas; Georgiou, Eleni; Christodoulou, Christina

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve clinical management and prevention of viral infections in hospitalised children improved etiological insight is needed. The aim of the present study was to assess the spectrum of respiratory viral pathogens in children admitted to hospital with acute respiratory tract infections in Cyprus. For this purpose nasopharyngeal swab samples from 424 children less than 12 years of age with acute respiratory tract infections were collected over three epidemic seasons and were analysed for the presence of the most common 15 respiratory viruses. A viral pathogen was identified in 86% of the samples, with multiple infections being observed in almost 20% of the samples. The most frequently detected viruses were RSV (30.4%) and Rhinovirus (27.4%). RSV exhibited a clear seasonality with marked peaks in January/February, while rhinovirus infections did not exhibit a pronounced seasonality being detected almost throughout the year. While RSV and PIV3 incidence decreased significantly with age, the opposite was observed for influenza A and B as well as adenovirus infections. The data presented expand our understanding of the epidemiology of viral respiratory tract infections in Cypriot children and will be helpful to the clinicians and researchers interested in the treatment and control of viral respiratory tract infections. PMID:26761647

  6. Structure, material characteristics and function of the upper respiratory tract of the pygmy sperm whale.

    PubMed

    Davenport, John; Cotter, Liz; Rogan, Emer; Kelliher, Denis; Murphy, Colm

    2013-12-15

    Cetaceans are neckless, so the trachea is very short. The upper respiratory tract is separate from the mouth and pharynx, and the dorsal blowhole connects, via the vestibular and nasopalatine cavities, directly to the larynx. Toothed cetaceans (Odontoceti) are capable of producing sounds at depth, either for locating prey or for communication. It has been suggested that during dives, air from the lungs and upper respiratory tract can be moved to the vestibular and nasal cavities to permit sound generation to continue when air volume within these cavities decreases as ambient pressure rises. The pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps, is a deep diver (500-1000 m) that is known to produce hunting clicks. Our study of an immature female shows that the upper respiratory tract is highly asymmetrical: the trachea and bronchi are extremely compressible, whereas the larynx is much more rigid. Laryngeal and tracheal volumes were established. Calculations based on Boyle's Law imply that all air from the lungs and bronchi would be transferred to the larynx and trachea by a depth of 270 m and that the larynx itself could not accommodate all respiratory air mass at a depth of 1000 m. This suggests that no respiratory air would be available for vocalisation. However, the bronchi, trachea and part of the larynx have a thick vascular lining featuring large, thin-walled vessels. We propose that these vessels may become dilated during dives to reduce the volume of the upper respiratory tract, permitting forward transfer of air through the larynx. PMID:24072789

  7. Emerging novel and antimicrobial-resistant respiratory tract infections: new drug development and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Memish, Ziad A; Maeurer, Markus; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Denning, David W; Hayden, Frederick G; Hui, David S

    2014-11-01

    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens for which diminishing treatment options are available is of major global concern. New viral respiratory tract infections with epidemic potential, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, swine-origin influenza A H1N1, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection, require development of new antiviral agents. The substantial rise in the global numbers of patients with respiratory tract infections caused by pan-antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and multiazole-resistant fungi has focused attention on investments into development of new drugs and treatment regimens. Successful treatment outcomes for patients with respiratory tract infections across all health-care settings will necessitate rapid, precise diagnosis and more effective and pathogen-specific therapies. This Series paper describes the development and use of new antimicrobial agents and immune-based and host-directed therapies for a range of conventional and emerging viral, bacterial, and fungal causes of respiratory tract infections. PMID:25189352

  8. The upper respiratory tract microbiome and its potential role in bovine respiratory disease and otitis media.

    PubMed

    Lima, Svetlana F; Teixeira, Andre Gustavo V; Higgins, Catherine H; Lima, Fabio S; Bicalho, Rodrigo C

    2016-01-01

    The upper respiratory tract (URT) hosts a complex microbial community of commensal microorganisms and potential pathogens. Analyzing the composition and nature of the healthy URT microbiota and how it changes over time will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of pneumonia and otitis. A longitudinal study was conducted including 174 Holstein calves that were divided in four groups: healthy calves, calves diagnosed with pneumonia, otitis or both diseases. Deep pharyngeal swabs were collected on days 3, 14, 28, and 35 of life, and next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene as well as quantitative PCR was performed. The URT of Holstein dairy calves aged 3 to 35 days revealed to host a highly diverse bacterial community. The relative abundances of the bacterial genera Mannheimia, Moraxella, and Mycoplasma were significantly higher in diseased versus healthy animals, and the total bacterial load of newborn calves at day 3 was higher for animals that developed pneumonia than for healthy animals. Our results corroborate the existing knowledge that species of Mannheimia and Mycoplasma are important pathogens in pneumonia and otitis. Furthermore, they suggest that species of Moraxella can potentially cause the same disorders (pneumonia and otitis), and that high neonatal bacterial load is a key contributor to the development of pneumonia. PMID:27363739

  9. The upper respiratory tract microbiome and its potential role in bovine respiratory disease and otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Svetlana F.; Teixeira, Andre Gustavo V.; Higgins, Catherine H.; Lima, Fabio S.; Bicalho, Rodrigo C.

    2016-01-01

    The upper respiratory tract (URT) hosts a complex microbial community of commensal microorganisms and potential pathogens. Analyzing the composition and nature of the healthy URT microbiota and how it changes over time will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of pneumonia and otitis. A longitudinal study was conducted including 174 Holstein calves that were divided in four groups: healthy calves, calves diagnosed with pneumonia, otitis or both diseases. Deep pharyngeal swabs were collected on days 3, 14, 28, and 35 of life, and next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene as well as quantitative PCR was performed. The URT of Holstein dairy calves aged 3 to 35 days revealed to host a highly diverse bacterial community. The relative abundances of the bacterial genera Mannheimia, Moraxella, and Mycoplasma were significantly higher in diseased versus healthy animals, and the total bacterial load of newborn calves at day 3 was higher for animals that developed pneumonia than for healthy animals. Our results corroborate the existing knowledge that species of Mannheimia and Mycoplasma are important pathogens in pneumonia and otitis. Furthermore, they suggest that species of Moraxella can potentially cause the same disorders (pneumonia and otitis), and that high neonatal bacterial load is a key contributor to the development of pneumonia. PMID:27363739

  10. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT WITH MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common human respiratory pathogen, has been studied experimentally for years using intranasal inoculation of the golden Sytrian hamster. Because of recent evidence outlining the role in pulmonary immune development of particle size and depth of mycoplasma...

  11. Normal mechanisms of heat and moisture exchange in the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Irlbeck, D

    1998-06-01

    The initial conditioning of the inhaled gases occurs in the upper respiratory tract. The conditioned gases are at approximately 32 degrees C and more than 95% relative humidity as they enter the lower respiratory tract. This level of heat and humidity will preserve the body's defense mechanisms. When the upper airway is bypassed the gases being delivered to the lower airways need to be as close to physiologic levels as possible based on the length of time the endotracheal tube will be in place. The delivery of gases above or below normal physiologic levels has been shown to produce clinical problems. PMID:9648181

  12. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes transient lower respiratory tract infection in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Emmie; Rasmussen, Angela L.; Falzarano, Darryl; Bushmaker, Trenton; Brining, Douglas L.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Martellaro, Cynthia; Okumura, Atsushi; Chang, Jean; Scott, Dana; Benecke, Arndt G.; Katze, Michael G.; Feldmann, Heinz; Munster, Vincent J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, a novel betacoronavirus, designated Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus or MERS-CoV and associated with severe respiratory disease in humans, emerged in the Arabian Peninsula. To date, 108 human cases have been reported, including cases of human-to-human transmission. The availability of an animal disease model is essential for understanding pathogenesis and developing effective countermeasures. Upon a combination of intratracheal, ocular, oral, and intranasal inoculation with 7 × 106 50% tissue culture infectious dose of the MERS-CoV isolate HCoV-EMC/2012, rhesus macaques developed a transient lower respiratory tract infection. Clinical signs, virus shedding, virus replication in respiratory tissues, gene expression, and cytokine and chemokine profiles peaked early in infection and decreased over time. MERS-CoV caused a multifocal, mild to marked interstitial pneumonia, with virus replication occurring mainly in alveolar pneumocytes. This tropism of MERS-CoV for the lower respiratory tract may explain the severity of the disease observed in humans and the, up to now, limited human-to-human transmission. PMID:24062443

  13. Influenza A (H10N7) Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, Judith M A; Wohlsein, Peter; Herfst, Sander; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Seehusen, Frauke; Puff, Christina; Richard, Mathilde; Siebert, Ursula; Lehnert, Kristina; Bestebroer, Theo; Lexmond, Pascal; Fouchier, Ron A M; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Herbst, Werner; Koopmans, Marion; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7) in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). This epidemic caused high mortality in seals along the north-west coast of Europe and represented a potential risk for human health. To characterize the spectrum of lesions and to identify the target cells and viral distribution, findings in 16 harbor seals spontaneously infected with Seal/H10N7 are described. The seals had respiratory tract inflammation extending from the nasal cavity to bronchi associated with intralesional virus antigen in respiratory epithelial cells. Virus infection was restricted to the respiratory tract. The fatal outcome of the viral infection in seals was most likely caused by secondary bacterial infections. To investigate the pathogenic potential of H10N7 infection for humans, we inoculated the seal virus intratracheally into six ferrets and performed pathological and virological analyses at 3 and 7 days post inoculation. These experimentally inoculated ferrets displayed mild clinical signs, virus excretion from the pharynx and respiratory tract inflammation extending from bronchi to alveoli that was associated with virus antigen expression exclusively in the respiratory epithelium. Virus was isolated only from the respiratory tract. In conclusion, Seal/H10N7 infection in naturally infected harbor seals and experimentally infected ferrets shows that respiratory epithelial cells are the permissive cells for viral replication. Fatal outcome in seals was caused by secondary bacterial pneumonia similar to that in fatal human cases during influenza pandemics. Productive infection of ferrets indicates that seal/H10N7 may possess a zoonotic potential. This outbreak of LPAI from wild birds to seals demonstrates the risk of such occasions for mammals and thus humans

  14. Influenza A (H10N7) Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Herfst, Sander; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M.; van de Bildt, Marco W. G.; Seehusen, Frauke; Puff, Christina; Richard, Mathilde; Siebert, Ursula; Lehnert, Kristina; Bestebroer, Theo; Lexmond, Pascal; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Herbst, Werner; Koopmans, Marion; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7) in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). This epidemic caused high mortality in seals along the north-west coast of Europe and represented a potential risk for human health. To characterize the spectrum of lesions and to identify the target cells and viral distribution, findings in 16 harbor seals spontaneously infected with Seal/H10N7 are described. The seals had respiratory tract inflammation extending from the nasal cavity to bronchi associated with intralesional virus antigen in respiratory epithelial cells. Virus infection was restricted to the respiratory tract. The fatal outcome of the viral infection in seals was most likely caused by secondary bacterial infections. To investigate the pathogenic potential of H10N7 infection for humans, we inoculated the seal virus intratracheally into six ferrets and performed pathological and virological analyses at 3 and 7 days post inoculation. These experimentally inoculated ferrets displayed mild clinical signs, virus excretion from the pharynx and respiratory tract inflammation extending from bronchi to alveoli that was associated with virus antigen expression exclusively in the respiratory epithelium. Virus was isolated only from the respiratory tract. In conclusion, Seal/H10N7 infection in naturally infected harbor seals and experimentally infected ferrets shows that respiratory epithelial cells are the permissive cells for viral replication. Fatal outcome in seals was caused by secondary bacterial pneumonia similar to that in fatal human cases during influenza pandemics. Productive infection of ferrets indicates that seal/H10N7 may possess a zoonotic potential. This outbreak of LPAI from wild birds to seals demonstrates the risk of such occasions for mammals and thus humans

  15. [Epidemiology of cancers of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts].

    PubMed

    Lefèbvre, J L; Adenis, L

    1995-04-01

    Tumours of the upper aerodigestive tract affect mainly industrial countries. Squamous cell carcinomas of the pharynx and larynx are linked to alcohol and tobacco abuse. Other factors (such as poor dental or nutritional status, viral or genetic or occupational factors) are, by far, of less importance. Glandular tumours of the ethmoid are, undoubtedly, due to wood dust exposure. Undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharynx are associated with Epstein-Barr virus exposure, genetic profiles and diet behaviour. PMID:7761748

  16. Mental health of Polish students and the occurrence of respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Baran, Sylwia; Teul-Swiniarska, Iwona; Dzieciolowska-Baran, Edyta; Lorkowski, Jacek; Gawlikowska-Sroka, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to examine the association between the psychological status and the occurrence of respiratory tract infections which constitute the most common group of disorders in the student population. The study comprised 500 Polish students aged 19-21. Two psychological scales were utilized: the Goldberg GHQ-12 scale to examine the general psychological status and the CES-D scale to evaluate the symptoms of depression. In addition a pro-health questionnaire in the examined group of students was performed. We found an increased stress level in 51% of students and the symptoms of depression in 22%. An association between distress and the occurrence of respiratory tract infections was found, based on statistical analyses. The highest stress level and related high distress index were observed in the students suffering from lower respiratory tract infections (7.1 scale value). This group self-evaluated their health status as poor, based on the pro-health questionnaire. In the same group of students, lack of sleep (5.4), lack of regular eating habits (4.2) and lack of physical activity (3.9) were also observed. The study shows that the Polish student population is exposed to increased stress level, which, in turn, increases the occurrence of respiratory tract infections. PMID:22826077

  17. [Probiotics as stimulators of immune response against pathogens in the respiratory tract].

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhin, O V; Afanasyev, S S; Bykov, A S

    2016-01-01

    This review analyzes whether.it is expedient to use oral probiotics for the stimulation of immune response against pathogens in the respiratory tract. It considers a relationship between.mucosal microbial colonization in different biotopes of the body and mucosal.immunity in the respiratory tract. The principal and terminological controversial issues of colonic dysbiosis and the possibilities of using the medicines and products containing live commensals/symbionts to correct microbiota disturbances are examined. There are data on the degree of resistance and resilience of the colonic microbial community exposed to destabilizing factors, antibiotics in particular. The properties of probiotics that have been proven to enhance host response against pathogens and the phenomena that characterize these probiotics as immunomodifiers and distinguish them from other immunostimulating/immunomodulating agents are described. Criteria for choosing effective and safe oral probiotics to stimulate an immune response in the respiratory tract are formulated. Finally, we review the data on the clinical and immunomodulatory effects of dietary supplement containing a combination of three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium bifidum MF 20/5 and Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3) with vitamins and minerals as an agent to prevent and reduce the severity of acute and recurrent respiratory tract infections. PMID:27458629

  18. COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF MAMMALIAN RESPIRATORY TRACTS: THE NASOPHARYNGEAL REGION AND THE TRACHEOBRONCHIAL REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silicone rubber casts of the respiratory tract are used in morphological studies of the human, baboon, rhesus monkey, dog, rabbit, guinea pig, rat, hamster, and mouse. n these studies, the trachea of the specimen was opened by tracheotomy, and silicone rubber (734 RTV) was introd...

  19. Early adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract of foot and mouth disease-infected cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease which affects both domestic and wildlife biungulate species. This acute disease, caused by the FMD virus (FMDV), usually includes an active replication phase in the respiratory tract up to 72 h post-infection followed by hematogenous ...

  20. [Phytoterapy: a glimmer of hope in the prevention of recurrent respiratory tract infections in children].

    PubMed

    Miniello, V L; Brunetti, L; Cafagna, R; Lieggi, M S; Lippolis, P; Natile, M; Francavilla, R; Armenio, L

    2007-08-01

    Evidence on the efficacy of standardised phytoterapic extracts for the prevention of recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) in children is reviewed. Echinacea extracts are widely used in European countries and in the United States as immune-stimulating agents. However, further prospective, appropriately powered clinical studies are required to confirm their benefits in reducing duration and severity of RRTIs. PMID:17947844

  1. LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT STRUCTURE OF LABORATORY ANIMALS AND HUMANS: DOSIMETRY IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant differences in lower respiratory tract structure exist both within an animal and between species at each level of anatomy. rregular bipodial and tripodial branching patterns of airways are present in human an nonhuman primate lungs. n contrast, the dog and common labo...

  2. Effects of chronic exposure to crack cocaine on the respiratory tract of mice.

    PubMed

    Herculiani, Percyleine P; Pires-Neto, Ruy C; Bueno, Heloisa M S; Zorzetto, Júlio C; Silva, Luiz C; Santos, Angela B G; Garcia, Raphael C T; Yonamine, Mauricio; Detregiachi, Cláudia R P; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Mauad, Thais

    2009-04-01

    Smoked cocaine (crack cocaine) causes several forms of injury to the respiratory tract, including asthma exacerbations, lung edema and hemorrhage, and nasal mucosal alterations. Few studies, however, have assessed respiratory tract pathology in habitual users of crack cocaine. Here, we describe the histological alterations in the respiratory tract of mice caused by chronic inhalation of crack cocaine. Twenty 2-month-old BALB/c mice were exposed to the smoke of 5 g crack cocaine in an inhalation chamber once a day for two months and compared to controls (n = 10). We then morphometrically analyzed nose and bronchiolar epithelial alterations, bronchiolar and alveolar macrophage cell density, alveolar hemosiderin content, and in addition determined the vasoconstriction index and the wall thickness of pulmonary arteries. The serum cocaine level was 212.5 ng/mL after a single inhalation. The mucus content of the nasal epithelium increased in crack-exposed animals, and the nasal and bronchial epithelium thickness decreased significantly. The alveolar hemosiderin content and the alveolar and bronchiolar macrophage cell density increased in animals exposed to crack. The vasoconstriction index increased in the pulmonary arteries of the exposed group. Chronic crack cocaine inhalation causes extensive histological changes along the entire respiratory tract. PMID:19380842

  3. INCORPORATION OF LABELED NITRIC OXIDE INTO RESPIRATORY TRACT LINING FLUIDS AND BLOOD PLASMA DURING LUNG INFLAMMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporation of labeled nitric oxide (N18O) into respiratory tract lining fluids and blood plasma during lung inflammation. Slade, R., Norwood, J., Crissman, K., McKee, J., Hatch, G. PTB, ETD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Res. Tri. Pk., NC

    Our earlier studies have demonstrated t...

  4. [Sense and nonsense in antibiotic therapy for respiratory tract infections].

    PubMed

    Domej, W; Flögel, E; Tilz, G P; Demel, U

    2005-07-01

    Whether an antibiotic successfully eradicates pathogens depends on the pathogens involved, on pharmacokinetics and bioavailability in the target tissue, and on the antimicrobial resistance of the pathogen. Other determinants are drug interactions, individual risk factors, age and compliance with respect to correct dosage and duration of therapy. In many cases, antimicrobial therapy is begun on an empirical basis, because the responsible pathogen can be identified in only half of all respiratory infections. The eradication of the pathogen has to be the first aim if treatment is to be curative and the development of resistance prevented. Long-term prevention of antimicrobial resistance will require a more critical prospective evaluation of the prescription of antibiotics. This paper considers rational and irrational measures in the antimicrobial therapy of respiratory infections. PMID:15815891

  5. Response of the ruminant respiratory tract to Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M R; Brogden, K A

    2000-07-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of loss to the sheep and cattle industry throughout the world. Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica is one of the most important respiratory pathogens of domestic ruminants and causes serious outbreaks of acute pneumonia in neonatal, weaned and growing lambs, calves, and goats. M. haemolytica is also an important cause of pneumonia in adult animals. Transportation, viral infections with agents such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza-3 virus or bovine respiratory syncytial virus, overcrowding, housing of neonates and weaned animals together and other stressful conditions predispose animals to M. haemolytica infection [1, 2]. This review assimilates some of the findings key to cellular and molecular responses of the lung from a pathologist's perspective. It includes some of what is known and underscores areas that are not fully understood. PMID:10967288

  6. Respiratory tract clearance model for dosimetry and bioassay of inhaled radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, M.R.; Birchall, A. ); Cuddihy, R.G. ); James, A.C. ); Roy, M. . Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire)

    1990-07-01

    The ICRP Task Group on Respiratory Tract Models is developing a model to describe the retention and clearance of deposited radionuclides for dose-intake calculations and interpretation of bioassay data. Clearance from each region is treated as competition between mechanical transport, which moves particles to the gastro-intestinal tract and lymph nodes, and the translocation of material to blood. It is assumed that mechanical transport rates are the same for all materials, and that rates of translocation to blood are the same in all regions. Time-dependent clearance is represented by combinations of compartments. Representative values of parameters to describe mechanical transport from the human respiratory tract have been estimated, and guidance is given on the determination of translocation rates. It is emphasized that the current version of the model described here is still provisional. 30 refs.

  7. Proteins found within porcine respiratory tract secretions bind lipopolysaccharides of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, M; Dubreuil, D; Jacques, M

    1994-01-01

    Affinity for porcine respiratory tract secretions was found in some isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and involved lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (M. Bélanger, S. Rioux, B. Foiry, and M. Jacques, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 97:119-126, 1992). In the present study, the affinity for a crude preparation of porcine respiratory tract mucus of isolates of the Pasteurellaceae family, i.e., Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella spp., and of some unrelated gram-negative bacteria was examined. Affinity for crude porcine respiratory tract mucus was not a property shared by all Pasteurellaceae isolates tested. Furthermore, affinity for the porcine crude mucus preparation was not unique to the Pasteurellaceae group and did not seem to be restricted to bacteria originating from pigs. Different surface properties of A. pleuropneumoniae isolates in relation to their adherence to crude mucus were examined. The capsular layer seemed to mask the adhesin and interfered with adherence to crude mucus. Two poorly capsulated isolates, which had a more hydrophobic surface and bound Congo red, were also heavily labeled by gold particles coated with polymyxin, which is known to interact with the lipid A-core region of LPS, and adhered strongly to respiratory tract secretions. Tetramethylurea, charged polymers, divalent cations, chelators, monosaccharides and amino sugars, or lectins were unable to inhibit adherence of A. pleuropneumoniae to the crude mucus preparation. To identify the receptor(s) recognized by the lipopolysaccharidic adhesin of A. pleuropneumoniae, affinity chromatography was used. Two bands, which were proteinaceous in nature, of 10 and 11 kDa were recovered. Our results suggest that two low-molecular-mass proteins present in porcine respiratory tract secretions bind A. pleuropneumoniae LPS. Images PMID:8112857

  8. Do children’s upper respiratory tract infections benefit from probiotics?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract have profound influence at multiple levels, even on the development and maintenance of lung immunity and inflammation. Aim of this review is to evaluate the current knowledge about the specific impact on children’s respiratory tract infections from probiotics, live microbes with the power to modify intestinal microbial populations and exert subsequent benefits for the host. Discussion The role of probiotics in gastrointestinal and allergic diseases has been largely assessed, but the number of studies performed so far in the field of respiratory tract infections is small, though some data show that probiotic administration might display clinical advantages. Probiotic strain identity and host genetic differences may account for differential modulation of immune responses by probiotics. Current laboratory and clinical data regarding the possibility of the role of probiotics on preventing the development of respiratory tract infections are contradictory, and are somewhat insufficient to recommend strongly their routine use. Further study of gastrointestinal-respiratory interactions is likely to yield important insights into the pathogenesis of different pulmonary diseases, and improve our knowledge in the prophylactic role of probiotics in children affected by recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. Summary A better understanding of the effects of different probiotic strains and a deeper insight into their mechanisms of action are needed for the validation of specific strains carrying a potential to modify the frequency and severity of RTIs in infants and children. No data have been collected in pediatric patients with chronic underlying diseases, and yet there are no published data concerning treatment of RTIs with probiotics. The very few studies published so far do not indicate which micro-organism or administration regimen might exert beneficial effects as a prevention tool of RTIs both in healthy

  9. Is There Still Room for Novel Viral Pathogens in Pediatric Respiratory Tract Infections?

    PubMed Central

    Taboada, Blanca; Espinoza, Marco A.; Isa, Pavel; Aponte, Fernando E.; Arias-Ortiz, María A.; Monge-Martínez, Jesús; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Rubén; Díaz-Hernández, Fidel; Zárate-Vidal, Fernando; Wong-Chew, Rosa María; Firo-Reyes, Verónica; del Río-Almendárez, Carlos N.; Gaitán-Meza, Jesús; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Martínez-Aguilar, Gerardo; Salas-Mier, Ma. del Carmen; Noyola, Daniel E.; Pérez-Gónzalez, Luis F.; López, Susana; Santos-Preciado, José I.; Arias, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are the most frequent cause of respiratory disease in children. However, despite the advanced diagnostic methods currently in use, in 20 to 50% of respiratory samples a specific pathogen cannot be detected. In this work, we used a metagenomic approach and deep sequencing to examine respiratory samples from children with lower and upper respiratory tract infections that had been previously found negative for 6 bacteria and 15 respiratory viruses by PCR. Nasal washings from 25 children (out of 250) hospitalized with a diagnosis of pneumonia and nasopharyngeal swabs from 46 outpatient children (out of 526) were studied. DNA reads for at least one virus commonly associated to respiratory infections was found in 20 of 25 hospitalized patients, while reads for pathogenic respiratory bacteria were detected in the remaining 5 children. For outpatients, all the samples were pooled into 25 DNA libraries for sequencing. In this case, in 22 of the 25 sequenced libraries at least one respiratory virus was identified, while in all other, but one, pathogenic bacteria were detected. In both patient groups reads for respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus-OC43, and rhinovirus were identified. In addition, viruses less frequently associated to respiratory infections were also found. Saffold virus was detected in outpatient but not in hospitalized children. Anellovirus, rotavirus, and astrovirus, as well as several animal and plant viruses were detected in both groups. No novel viruses were identified. Adding up the deep sequencing results to the PCR data, 79.2% of 250 hospitalized and 76.6% of 526 ambulatory patients were positive for viruses, and all other children, but one, had pathogenic respiratory bacteria identified. These results suggest that at least in the type of populations studied and with the sampling methods used the odds of finding novel, clinically relevant viruses, in pediatric respiratory infections are low. PMID:25412469

  10. Unravelling the Transcriptome Profile of the Swine Respiratory Tract Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale. PMID:25333523

  11. Influence of Asian Desert Dust on Lower Respiratory Tract Symptoms in Patients with Asthma over 4 Years.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Igishi, Tadashi; Yamasaki, Akira; Burioka, Naoto; Takeuchi, Hiromi; Sako, Takanori; Touge, Hirokazu; Nakamoto, Masaki; Hasegawa, Yasuyuki; Chikumi, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Shingo; Yamasaki, Chie; Minato, Sayaka; Ueda, Yutaka; Horasaki, Kazunori; Watanabe, Tetsushi; Shimizu, Eiji

    2012-06-01

    The Asian Dust Storm (ADS) aggravates symptoms and pulmonary dysfunction in adult asthma patients. Our objective was to investigate the association of air pollutants and metals in desert dust with worsening of asthma symptoms during the ADS. A telephone survey was performed to investigate the upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms, ocular symptoms and skin symptoms of asthma patients during the ADS in March between 2007 and 2010. Four surveys were conducted in 46 patients. Two patients noted worsening of lower respiratory tract symptoms in all four surveys, as well as 2 patients in three surveys, 7 patients in two surveys, and 9 patients in one survey. There was no worsening of lower respiratory tract symptoms in 26 patients. In each patient, the influence of the ADS on lower respiratory tract symptoms varied between surveys. In 2010, the level of suspended particulate matter was highest in all four years, but the smallest number of patients noted worsening of lower respiratory tract symptoms. Among pollutants, only the maximum concentration of nitrogen dioxide during the ADS was significantly associated with the worsening of lower respiratory tract symptoms. The influence of the ADS on lower respiratory tract symptoms of adult asthma patients is variable. PMID:24031138

  12. Man-made mineral fibers and the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Costa, Roser; Orriols, Ramon

    2012-12-01

    Man-made mineral fibers are produced using inorganic materials and are widely used as thermal and acoustic insulation. These basically include continuous fiberglass filaments, glass wool (fiberglass insulation), stone wool, slag wool and refractory ceramic fibers. Likewise, in the last two decades nanoscale fibers have also been developed, among these being carbon nanotubes with their high electrical conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability. Both man-made mineral fibers and carbon nanotubes have properties that make them inhalable and potentially harmful, which have led to studies to assess their pathogenicity. The aim of this review is to analyze the knowledge that currently exists about the ability of these fibers to produce respiratory diseases. PMID:22763045

  13. Measurement techniques for respiratory tract deposition of airborne nanoparticles: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Löndahl, Jakob; Möller, Winfried; Pagels, Joakim H; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Swietlicki, Erik; Schmid, Otmar

    2014-08-01

    Determination of the respiratory tract deposition of airborne particles is critical for risk assessment of air pollution, inhaled drug delivery, and understanding of respiratory disease. With the advent of nanotechnology, there has been an increasing interest in the measurement of pulmonary deposition of nanoparticles because of their unique properties in inhalation toxicology and medicine. Over the last century, around 50 studies have presented experimental data on lung deposition of nanoparticles (typical diameter≤100 nm, but here≤300 nm). These data show a considerable variability, partly due to differences in the applied methodologies. In this study, we review the experimental techniques for measuring respiratory tract deposition of nano-sized particles, analyze critical experimental design aspects causing measurement uncertainties, and suggest methodologies for future studies. It is shown that, although particle detection techniques have developed with time, the overall methodology in respiratory tract deposition experiments has not seen similar progress. Available experience from previous research has often not been incorporated, and some methodological design aspects that were overlooked in 30-70% of all studies may have biased the experimental data. This has contributed to a significant uncertainty on the absolute value of the lung deposition fraction of nanoparticles. We estimate the impact of the design aspects on obtained data, discuss solutions to minimize errors, and highlight gaps in the available experimental set of data. PMID:24151837

  14. Measurement Techniques for Respiratory Tract Deposition of Airborne Nanoparticles: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Winfried; Pagels, Joakim H.; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Swietlicki, Erik; Schmid, Otmar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Determination of the respiratory tract deposition of airborne particles is critical for risk assessment of air pollution, inhaled drug delivery, and understanding of respiratory disease. With the advent of nanotechnology, there has been an increasing interest in the measurement of pulmonary deposition of nanoparticles because of their unique properties in inhalation toxicology and medicine. Over the last century, around 50 studies have presented experimental data on lung deposition of nanoparticles (typical diameter≤100 nm, but here≤300 nm). These data show a considerable variability, partly due to differences in the applied methodologies. In this study, we review the experimental techniques for measuring respiratory tract deposition of nano-sized particles, analyze critical experimental design aspects causing measurement uncertainties, and suggest methodologies for future studies. It is shown that, although particle detection techniques have developed with time, the overall methodology in respiratory tract deposition experiments has not seen similar progress. Available experience from previous research has often not been incorporated, and some methodological design aspects that were overlooked in 30–70% of all studies may have biased the experimental data. This has contributed to a significant uncertainty on the absolute value of the lung deposition fraction of nanoparticles. We estimate the impact of the design aspects on obtained data, discuss solutions to minimize errors, and highlight gaps in the available experimental set of data. PMID:24151837

  15. Viral metagenomics reveal blooms of anelloviruses in the respiratory tract of lung transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jacque C.; Chehoud, Christel; Bittinger, Kyle; Bailey, Aubrey; Diamond, Joshua M.; Cantu, Edward; Haas, Andrew R.; Abbas, Arwa; Frye, Laura; Christie, Jason D.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Collman, Ronald G.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the lung virome in health and disease. Outcomes of lung transplantation are known to be influenced by several recognized respiratory viruses, but global understanding of the virome of the transplanted lung is incomplete. To define the DNA virome within the respiratory tract following lung transplantation we carried out metagenomic analysis of allograft bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and compared to healthy and HIV+ subjects. Viral concentrates were purified from BAL and analyzed by shotgun DNA sequencing. All of the BAL samples contained reads mapping to anelloviruses, with high proportions in lung transplant samples. Anellovirus populations in transplant recipients were complex, with multiple concurrent variants. Q-PCR quantification revealed that anellovirus sequences were 56-fold more abundant in BAL from lung transplant recipients compared with healthy controls or HIV+ subjects (p<0.0001). Anellovirus sequences were also more abundant in upper respiratory tract specimens from lung transplant recipients than controls (p=0.006). Comparison to metagenomic data on bacterial populations showed that high anellovirus loads correlated with dysbiotic bacterial communities in allograft BAL (p=0.00816). Thus the respiratory tracts of lung transplant recipients contain high levels and complex populations of anelloviruses, warranting studies of anellovirus lung infection and transplant outcome. PMID:25403800

  16. Overview of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dalovisio, Joseph R.

    2002-01-01

    Because the diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continue to present decision-making challenges, a number of professional organizations have developed treatment guidelines to provide parameters for diagnosis and treatment. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Thoracic Society (ATS) both recently updated their guidelines for the treatment of CAP to take into account the changes that have occurred in antimicrobial susceptibility and the availability of newer antimicrobial agents. Both the IDSA and ATS guidelines stratify treatment according to where the patient is treated, but the ATS guidelines further characterize patients according to the presence or absence of cardiopulmonary disease or other modifying factors. For outpatients with CAP, doxycycline, a macrolide, or a newer fluoroquinolone with enhanced activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae are the IDSA-preferred agents for empiric treatment. The ATS recommends monotherapy with a macrolide or doxycycline in patients without modifying factors, or combination therapy with a β–lactam plus a macrolide, or monotherapy with an antipneumococcal fluoroquinolone in patients with modifying factors. For empiric therapy of CAP in hospitalized patients, the IDSA recommendations are as follows: an extended-spectrum cephalosporin plus a macrolide, a β–lactam/β–lactamase inhibitor plus a macrolide, or a fluoroquinolone with extended activity against S. pneumoniae. For hospitalized patients without modifying factors, the ATS recommends monotherapy with azithromycin or an antipneumococcal fluoroquinolone. For hospitalized patients with modifying factors, combination therapy with a β–lactam plus a macrolide, doxycycline, or monotherapy with a respiratory fluoroquinolone are recommended. Given the increasing resistance of S. pneumoniae to macrolides and doxycycline, a respiratory fluoroquinolone may represent the best choice of therapy. PMID:22826663

  17. Numerical simulation of inhaled aerosol particle deposition within 3D realistic human upper respiratory tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Fan, J. R.; Zheng, Y. Q.; Hu, G. L.; Pan, D.

    2010-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of airflow and particle deposition in the upper respiratory tract (URT) were conducted in this paper. Based on the CT (Computerized Tomography) scanned images of a 19-years-old healthy boy, a realistic geometric model of URT from oral cavity to the upper six-generation bronchial is rebuilt. To investigate airflow and particle deposition in the obtained realistic human upper respiratory tract, RNG k-ɛ turbulence model was used to describe the primary flow and particle deposition under three breathing intensity such as 15 L/min, 30 L/min and 60 L/min. The particle is tracked and analyzed in the Lagrangian frame. The velocity fields of airflow under different airflow rates were computed and discussed. In order to study the characteristics of particles movement and the effect of particles diameter on the deposition pattern, eleven kinds of sphere particles with different diameters are selected as research object. The diameters of selected particles as follows: 0.1 μm, 0.5 μm, 1 μm, 2.5 μm, 3 μm, 3.5 μm, 4 μm, 4.5 μm, 5 μm, 6.5 μm and 8 μm. The variation of inhalable particles deposition in realistic human upper respiratory tract with respiratory intensity and particle size was researched and compared. Furthermore, the more real inhalable particles with Rosin-Rammler mass distribution are used to study the effect of particles size. The deposition rate of particles with the different diameter scope in the different part of upper respiratory tract was summarized. The geometrical model based images technology promises to provide more real results of airflow field and particle deposition in the URT.

  18. Human Coronaviruses Associated with Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Three Rural Areas of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Owusu, Michael; Annan, Augustina; Corman, Victor Max; Larbi, Richard; Anti, Priscilla; Drexler, Jan Felix; Agbenyega, Olivia; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Drosten, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, especially in Africa. This study sought to determine whether human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are associated with upper respiratory tract infections among older children and adults in Ghana. Methods We conducted a case control study among older children and adults in three rural areas of Ghana using asymptomatic subjects as controls. Nasal/Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), HCoV-22E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Results Out of 1,213 subjects recruited, 150 (12.4%) were positive for one or more viruses. Of these, single virus detections occurred in 146 subjects (12.0%) and multiple detections occurred in 4 (0.3%). Compared with control subjects, infections with HCoV-229E (OR = 5.15, 95%CI = 2.24–11.78), HCoV-OC43 (OR = 6.16, 95%CI = 1.77–21.65) and combine HCoVs (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.5 = 3.72) were associated with upper respiratory tract infections. HCoVs were found to be seasonally dependent with significant detections in the harmattan season (mainly HCoV-229E) and wet season (mainly HCoV-NL63). A comparison of the obtained sequences resulted in no differences to sequences already published in GenBank. Conclusion HCoVs could play significant role in causing upper respiratory tract infections among adults and older children in rural areas of Ghana. PMID:25080241

  19. Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus using Direct Fluorescent Antibody Assay in Paediatric Patients with Acute Respiratory Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Boloor, Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) pulmonary disease manifesting as bronchiolitis and pneumonia continues to play a major role in the childhood mortality and morbidity. Hence the present study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of RSV among hospitalized children presenting with Acute Respiratory Tract Infection (ARTI) and its correlation with risk factors. Aim To determine the occurrence of RSV related respiratory tract infection in paediatric patients and to access the risk factors and clinical features associated. Materials and Methods RSV antigen detection was performed by Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) staining on 100 nasopharyngeal aspirate collected from hospitalized children below 5 years of age with a diagnosis of ARTI. Results Out of the 100 samples tested for RSV with DFA, 22 (22%) were found RSV positive with a mean age of 12 months and a male to female ratio of (1.75:1). Clinical features significantly associated with RSV were wheezing and breathlessness. Congenital heart disease (CHD) and prematurity were the risk factors significantly associated with RSV infection. Conclusion RSV infection is a significant cause of morbidity among children presenting with ARTI. In resource limited countries DFA can be used as an important tool for rapid detection of RSV and can potentially eliminate prolonged hospitalization and unnecessary use of antibiotics.

  20. Diagnosis of Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Bacterial Infections with the Use of Multiplex PCR Assays

    PubMed Central

    Xirogianni, Athanasia; Tsolia, Maria; Voyiatzi, Aliki; Sioumala, Maria; Makri, Antonia; Argyropoulou, Athina; Paniara, Olga; Markoulatos, Panayotis; Kourea-Kremastinou, Jenny; Tzanakaki, Georgina

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of respiratory infections by molecular techniques provides important information about the epidemiology of respiratory disease, especially during the post-vaccination era. The objective of the present study was the detection of bacterial pathogens directly in clinical samples from patients with upper and lower respiratory tract infections using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays developed in our laboratory. Clinical samples taken over a three-year period (2007–2009) and obtained from 349 patients (adults (n = 66); children (n = 283)) with signs and symptoms of certain upper or lower respiratory tract infections, consisted of: bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL, n = 83), pleural fluids (n = 29), and middle-ear aspirates (n = 237). Overall, 212 samples (61%) were confirmed by culture and/or PCR. Among the positive samples, Streptococcus pneumoniae (mainly serotype 3) was predominant (104/212; 49.0%), followed by non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) 59/212; 27.8%) and Streptococcus pyogenes (47/212; 22%). Haemophilus influenzae type b was detected in only three samples. The underlying microbiology of respiratory infections is gradually changing in response to various selective pressures, such as vaccine use and antibiotic consumption. The application of multiplex PCR (mPCR) assays is particularly useful since it successfully identified the microorganisms implicated in acute otitis media or lower respiratory tract infections in nearly 75% of patients with a positive result compared to conventional cultures. Non-culture identification of the implicated pneumococcal serotypes is also an important issue for monitoring pneumococcal infections in the era of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:26835676

  1. Association between secondary thrombocytosis and viral respiratory tract infections in children.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shou-Yan; Xiao, Qiu-Yan; Xie, Xiao-Hong; Deng, Yu; Ren, Luo; Tian, Dai-Yin; Luo, Zheng-Xiu; Luo, Jian; Fu, Zhou; Huang, Ai-Long; Liu, En-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Secondary thrombocytosis (ST) is frequently observed in children with a variety of clinical conditions. The leading cause of ST is respiratory tract infection (RTI) in children. Nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were collected and assessed for common respiratory viruses. The relationships between virus infections and secondary thrombocytosis were analyzed retrospectively. The blood platelet count and the presence of respiratory viruses were determined for 3156 RTI patients, and 817 (25.9%) cases with platelet ≥500 × 10(9)/L were considered as the thrombocytosis group. Compared with the normal group, the detection rates of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) were significantly higher in the thrombocytosis group (P = 0.017 and 0.042, respectively). HRV single infection was a risk factor associated with thrombocytosis [odds ratio (OR) = 1.560, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.108-2.197]. Furthermore, ST was more likely to occur in younger patients who had clinical manifestations of wheezing and dyspnea and who had been diagnosed with bronchiolitis. Furthermore, the course of disease lasted longer in these patients. ST is associated with viral respiratory tract infections, especially RSV and HRV infections. HRV single infection is a risk factor associated with thrombocytosis. PMID:26965460

  2. Association between secondary thrombocytosis and viral respiratory tract infections in children

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shou-Yan; Xiao, Qiu-Yan; Xie, Xiao-Hong; Deng, Yu; Ren, Luo; Tian, Dai-Yin; Luo, Zheng-Xiu; Luo, Jian; Fu, Zhou; Huang, Ai-Long; Liu, En-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Secondary thrombocytosis (ST) is frequently observed in children with a variety of clinical conditions. The leading cause of ST is respiratory tract infection (RTI) in children. Nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were collected and assessed for common respiratory viruses. The relationships between virus infections and secondary thrombocytosis were analyzed retrospectively. The blood platelet count and the presence of respiratory viruses were determined for 3156 RTI patients, and 817 (25.9%) cases with platelet ≥500 × 109/L were considered as the thrombocytosis group. Compared with the normal group, the detection rates of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) were significantly higher in the thrombocytosis group (P = 0.017 and 0.042, respectively). HRV single infection was a risk factor associated with thrombocytosis [odds ratio (OR) = 1.560, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.108–2.197]. Furthermore, ST was more likely to occur in younger patients who had clinical manifestations of wheezing and dyspnea and who had been diagnosed with bronchiolitis. Furthermore, the course of disease lasted longer in these patients. ST is associated with viral respiratory tract infections, especially RSV and HRV infections. HRV single infection is a risk factor associated with thrombocytosis. PMID:26965460

  3. [Current epidemiology of microbial low respiratory tract infections].

    PubMed

    Trémolières, F

    2006-01-01

    The recent literature brings nothing new since it provides only fragmented, though undoubtedly useful, studies which remain within the prevalence interval for the different bacterias. The occurrence of germs varies with time and space; nevertheless, whatever the studied series and the site of the studies, the 3 most frequent causal germs belong to the following five strains: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Influenza A, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Legionella pneumophila. Thus, 90% of all documented pneumoniae appear to be caused by the following pathogens: Pneumococcus; most frequent in hospitalized patients; Mycoplasma, Chlamydia and respiratory viruses were predominant in outpatients, with great variations; Staphylococcus and enterobacteriace may be encountered, mostly in elderlies with major debilitating diseases; association of germs, generally including pneumococcus, are increasingly identified. Last, in 25% to 50% of cases, the causal agent is not known. Recently, some Staphylococcus meticillin-resistant were identified. The diagnosis of viruses (as well as that of atypical bacterias) seems to have improved, thanks to the use of PCR though the interest of such a diagnosis remains questionable, except for epidemiological studies, as well as the relevance of this type of test in clinical practice. Nothing really new has come out on the epidemiology of acute bronchitis, while in bacterial exacerbation of COPD, attention focused on the colonizing or infective role of H. influenzae in the genesis of bronchus inflammation. PMID:17011149

  4. Aerosol deposition in human respiratory-tract casts

    SciTech Connect

    Martonen, T.B.

    1981-09-01

    To assess the health hazard to the human presented by airborne particulate matter in the mining and industrial work environment, information is needed concerning total dose deposition and its distribution. Data has been obtained by depositing monodisperse ammonium fluorscein aerosols in respiratory system simulators consisting of combined human replica larynx casts and single-pathway trachebronchial (TB) tue models. Since they have only two airways in each generation distal to the trachea, airflow rates and patterns could be controlled in a practical manner with rotometers. Larynx configurations correspond to inspiratory flow rates of 15, 30 and 60 lmin. The mass median aerodynamic diameters of the aerosols ranged from 3.0 ..mu..m to 10.6 ..mu..m with geometric standard deviations of 1.11 to 1.16. Total larynx and TB deposition measurements could be expressed in terms of a single parameter, the particle Stokes number. Intrabronchial dose distribution results indicated relatively large tracheal losses, attributed to the laryngeal jet. Some airway bifurcations were sites of enhanced deposition. Such hot spots would indicate very high dosage to epithelial cells of workers' airways and have important implications regarding the establishment of threshold exposure values. Findings are in agreement with aerosol deposition data from replica TB casts. Inhalation exposure tests support the use of the single-pathway TB model as a suitable surrogate in studies of factors affecting aerosol behavior and deposition in the human.

  5. Profiling Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Children from Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farzana; Sarma, Ratna; Debroy, Arup; Kar, Sumit; Pal, Ranabir

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are leading global cause of under-five mortality and morbidity. Objective: To elicit the prevalence and risk factors associated with ARI among under-five children. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in 21 registered urban slums of Guwahati in Assam to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with ARI among 370 under-five children from 184 households and 370 families. Results: The prevalence of ARI was found to be 26.22%; infants and female children were more affected. Majority of the ARI cases were from nuclear families (84.54%), living in kutcha houses (90.72%) with inadequate ventilation (84.54%), overcrowded living condition (81.44%), with kitchen attached to the living room (65.98%) and using biomass fuel for cooking (89.69%). ARI was significantly associated with ventilation, location of kitchen in household; presence of overcrowding, nutritional status, and primary immunization status also had impacts on ARI. Conclusion: The present study had identified a high prevalence of the disease among under-fives. It also pointed out various socio-demographic, nutritional, and environmental modifiable risk factors which can be tackled by effective education of the community. PMID:23599611

  6. [Respiratory tract symptoms and illnesses in rescue and clearance workers after the World Trade Center catastrophe].

    PubMed

    Aro, Leena; Sauni, Riitta; Lusa, Sirpa; Lindholm, Harri; Uitti, Jukka

    2009-01-01

    The World Trade Center catastrophe and subsequent rescue and clearance operations caused unusual respiratory tract symptoms in fire fighters and rescue workers. Persistent cough was a common symptom, being extraordinarily often associated with the gastroesophageal reflux symptom. Irritant dusts caused reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS). Tracheal hyperreactivity increased with the exposure, and the risk of asthma is estimated to have increased up to 12 times higher as compared with the normal population. Investigation and treatment of exposed persons have yielded generalizable information about the reactions of the respiratory system in situations of heavy exposure. PMID:19839191

  7. [The curative action of Monticelli Term's water in upper respiratory tract diseases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Turchi, R; Jemmi, G; Barani, B

    1976-01-01

    The Authors study the action of the sodio bromide-iodic water of Monticelli Terme in upper respiratory tract disease and particularly assert that is not to neglect the organic ground on which establishes mucosa's disease. Therman treatment gives the best therapeutic results in every patient presenting chronic inflammatory processes of the upper respiratory trach alternating periods of quiescency and of activity, and poor therapeutic action in patients presenting chronic inveterate diseases with great alterations in vascular and glandular components of the mucosa. PMID:1021139

  8. Inhaled anti-infective chemotherapy for respiratory tract infections: Successes, challenges and the road ahead

    PubMed Central

    Velkov, Tony; Rahim, Nusaibah Abdul; Zhou, Qi (Tony); Chan, Hak-Kim; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    One of the most common causes of illnesses in humans is from respiratory tract infections caused by bacterial, viral or fungal pathogens. Inhaled anti-infective drugs are crucial for the prophylaxis and treatment of respiratory tract infections. The benefit of anti-infective drug delivery via inhalation is that it affords delivery of sufficient therapeutic dosages directly to the primary site of infection, while minimizing the risks of systemic toxicity or avoiding potential suboptimal pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics associated with systemic drug exposure. This review provides an up-to-date treatise of approved and novel developmental inhaled anti-infective agents, with particular attention to effective strategies for their use, pulmonary pharmacokinetic properties and safety. PMID:25446140

  9. [Mucolytics in acute and chronic respiratory tract disorders. I. Pathophysiology and mechanisms of action].

    PubMed

    Kupczyk, Maciej; Kuna, Piotr

    2002-03-01

    Mucus hypersecretion is a cardinal sign of both acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. Normally, mucus protects respiratory tract, but its overproduction leads to airway obstruction and promotes bacterial colonization. In the first part of our review we outlined the possible factors responsible for mucus hypersecretion and clinical consequences of this process. Mucolytic agents such as Ambroxol and N-acetylcysteine are able to alter the secretion of mucus and its physical properties which results in improvement of mucociliary clearance. Mechanisms of action and indications for use of mucolytics are presented. Mucolytics have been shown to have a role in improving lung functions and patients' quality of life. Undoubtedly they are useful as an adjunctive therapy of respiratory tract disorders. PMID:12053600

  10. Sarcoid-like lymphocytosis of the lower respiratory tract in patients with active Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Smiéjan, J M; Cosnes, J; Chollet-Martin, S; Soler, P; Basset, F M; Le Quintrec, Y; Hance, A J

    1986-01-01

    To re-evaluate the relationship between Crohn's disease and sarcoidosis, we compared the numbers and types of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from normal volunteers and patients with Crohn's disease, with other forms of inflammatory bowel disease, and with sarcoidosis. Patients with Crohn's disease, but not patients with other inflammatory bowel disorders, had an increase in the number of T lymphocytes on the surface of the lower respiratory tract similar to that seen in patients with sarcoidosis. As in sarcoidosis, this lymphocytosis results from an expansion of the T4+ T-lymphocyte subset, is characteristic of patients with active disease only, and is not associated with similar abnormalities in the peripheral blood. Thus, patients with apparently localized Crohn's disease have sarcoid-like lymphocytosis of the lower respiratory tract, a finding that emphasizes the systemic nature of Crohn's disease and the disorder's close relationship to sarcoidosis. PMID:3940500

  11. Mass-transport models to predict toxicity of inhaled gases in the upper respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Hubal, E.A.C.; Fedkiw, P.S.; Kimbell, J.S.

    1996-04-01

    Mass-transport (the movement of a chemical species) plays an important role in determining toxic responses of the upper respiratory tract (URT) to inhaled chemicals. Mathematical dosimetry models incorporate physical characteristics of mass transport and are used to predict quantitative uptake (absorption rate) and distribution of inhaled gases and vapors in the respiratory tract. Because knowledge of dose is an essential component of quantitative risk assessment, dosimetry modeling plays an important role in extrapolation of animal study results to humans. A survey of existing mathematical dosimetry models for the URT is presented, limitations of current models are discussed, and adaptations of existing models to produce a generally applicable model are suggested. Reviewed URT dosimetry models are categorized as early, lumped-parameter, and distributed-parameter models. Specific examples of other relevant modeling work are also presented. 35 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Airway CD8(+) T Cells Are Associated with Lung Injury during Infant Viral Respiratory Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Connors, Thomas J; Ravindranath, Thyyar M; Bickham, Kara L; Gordon, Claire L; Zhang, Feifan; Levin, Bruce; Baird, John S; Farber, Donna L

    2016-06-01

    Infants and young children are disproportionately susceptible to severe complications from respiratory viruses, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Recent studies show that the T cell response in the lung is important for protective responses to respiratory infections, although details on the infant/pediatric respiratory immune response remain sparse. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the local versus systemic immune response in infants and young children with respiratory failure from viral respiratory tract infections and its association to disease severity. Daily airway secretions were sampled from infants and children 4 years of age and younger receiving mechanical ventilation owing to respiratory failure from viral infection or noninfectious causes. Samples were examined for immune cell composition and markers of T cell activation. These parameters were then correlated with clinical disease severity. Innate immune cells and total CD3(+) T cells were present in similar proportions in airway aspirates derived from infected and uninfected groups; however, the CD8:CD4 T cell ratio was markedly increased in the airways of patients with viral infection compared with uninfected patients, and specifically in infected infants with acute lung injury. T cells in the airways were phenotypically and functionally distinct from those in blood with activated/memory phenotypes and increased cytotoxic capacity. We identified a significant increase in airway cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells in infants with lung injury from viral respiratory tract infection that was distinct from the T cell profile in circulation and associated with increasing disease severity. Airway sampling could therefore be diagnostically informative for assessing immune responses and lung damage. PMID:26618559

  13. Vitamin D for prevention of respiratory tract infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Charan, Jaykaran; Goyal, Jagdish P.; Saxena, Deepak; Yadav, Preeti

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the effect of vitamin D supplementation in prevention of respiratory tract infections on the basis of published clinical trials. Materials and Methods: Clinical trials were searched from various electronic databases. Five clinical trials were suitable for inclusion. Outcome was events of respiratory tract infections in vitamin D group and placebo group. Data was reported as odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Both random and fixed model was used for analysis. Analysis was done with the help of Comprehensive meta-analysis software 2. Results: Events of respiratory tract infections were significantly lower in vitamin D group as compared to control group [Odds ratio = 0.582 (0.417 – 0.812) P = 0.001] according to random model. Results were similar in fixed model. On separate analysis of clinical trials dealing with groups of children and adults, beneficial effect of vitamin D was observed in both, according to fixed model [Odds ratio = 0.579 (0.416 – 0.805), P = 0.001 and Odd ratio = 0.653 (0.472 – 0.9040, P = 0.010 respectively]. On using random model beneficial effect persisted in children's group but became nonsignificant in adults group [Odds ratio = 0.579 (0.416 – 0.805), P = 0.001 and Odd ratio = 0.544 (0.278 – 1.063) P = 0.075 respectively]. Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation decreases the events related to respiratory tract infections. There is need of more well conducted clinical trials to reach to a certain conclusion. PMID:23326099

  14. [Bee products for treatment of diseases of mouth and upper respiratory tract].

    PubMed

    Gendrolis, Antanas; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Lukosius, Audronis; Brusokas, Valdemaras

    2004-01-01

    Production of spray (from bee products), which is used for mouth and upper respiratory tract disease treatment and prevention, is described in this article. The optimal technology of spray is prepared, and concentration of ethanol as extragent 70% and 15% of honey is determined. The preparation is called propomel. Methods of analysis were applied, investigations of stability were performed, time of suitableness was determined, as well as the normative and technical documentation was prepared. PMID:15299996

  15. Particle deposition and clearance of atmospheric particles in the human respiratory tract during LACE 98

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, U.; Hänel, G.

    2003-04-01

    During the LACE 98footnote{Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment, (Germany) 1998} experiment microphysical, chemical and optical properties of atmospheric particles were measured by several groups. (Bundke et al.). The particle deposition and clearance of the particles in the human respiratory tract was calculated using the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) deposition and clearance model (ICRP 1994). Particle growth as function of relative humidity outside the body was calculated from measurement data using the model introduced by Bundke et al.. Particle growth inside the body was added using a non-equilibrium particle growth model. As a result of the calculations, time series of the total dry particle mass and -size distribution were obtained for all compartments of the human respiratory tract defined by ICRP 1994. The combined ICRP deposition and clearance model was initialized for different probationers like man, woman, children of different ages and several circumstances like light work, sitting, sleeping etc. Keeping the conditions observed during LACE 98 constant a approximation of the aerosol burdens of the different compartments was calculated up to 4 years of exposure and compared to the results from Snipes et al. for the "Phoenix" and "Philadelphia" aerosol. References: footnotesize{ Bundke, U. et al.,it{Aerosol Optical Properties during the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment (LACE 98)} ,10.1029/2000JD000188, JGR, 2002 ICRP,it{Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection, Bd. ICRP Publication 66}, Annals of the ICRP, 24,1-3, Elsevier Science, Ocford, 1994 Snipes et al. ,it{The 1994 ICRP66 Human Respiratory Tract Model as a Tool for predicting Lung Burdens from Exposure to Environmental Aerosols}, Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg., 12, 547-553,1997}

  16. Chryseobacterium gleum - a novel bacterium species detected in neonatal respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Virok, Dezső Péter; Ábrók, Mariann; Szél, Borbála; Tajti, Zsanett; Mader, Krisztina; Urbán, Edit; Tálosi, Gyula

    2014-12-01

    We report three patients with early neonatal infections. All patients had respiratory tract involvement with increased inflammation markers. Chryseobacterium gleum was cultured from the stomach content aspirated on arrival at the Neonatal intensive Care Unit and it was identified with the help of a Microflex™ MALDI Biotyper mass spectrometer (Bruker-Daltonik, Fremont, CA). Recovery could be achieved with ciprofloxacin treatment. We consider our cases a possible new clinical presentation of a rare human pathogen. PMID:24410052

  17. Computational modeling of nanoscale and microscale particle deposition, retention and dosimetry in the mouse respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Asgharian, B; Price, O T; Oldham, M; Chen, Lung-Chi; Saunders, E L; Gordon, T; Mikheev, V B; Minard, K R; Teeguarden, J G

    2014-12-01

    Comparing effects of inhaled particles across rodent test systems and between rodent test systems and humans is a key obstacle to the interpretation of common toxicological test systems for human risk assessment. These comparisons, correlation with effects and prediction of effects, are best conducted using measures of tissue dose in the respiratory tract. Differences in lung geometry, physiology and the characteristics of ventilation can give rise to differences in the regional deposition of particles in the lung in these species. Differences in regional lung tissue doses cannot currently be measured experimentally. Regional lung tissue dosimetry can however be predicted using models developed for rats, monkeys, and humans. A computational model of particle respiratory tract deposition and clearance was developed for BALB/c and B6C3F1 mice, creating a cross-species suite of available models for particle dosimetry in the lung. Airflow and particle transport equations were solved throughout the respiratory tract of these mice strains to obtain temporal and spatial concentration of inhaled particles from which deposition fractions were determined. Particle inhalability (Inhalable fraction, IF) and upper respiratory tract (URT) deposition were directly related to particle diffusive and inertial properties. Measurements of the retained mass at several post-exposure times following exposure to iron oxide nanoparticles, micro- and nanoscale C60 fullerene, and nanoscale silver particles were used to calibrate and verify model predictions of total lung dose. Interstrain (mice) and interspecies (mouse, rat and human) differences in particle inhalability, fractional deposition and tissue dosimetry are described for ultrafine, fine and coarse particles. PMID:25373829

  18. Computational Modeling of Nanoscale and Microscale Particle Deposition, Retention and Dosimetry in the Mouse Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Asgharian, B.; Price, O.T.; Oldham, M.; Chen, L.C.; Saunders, E.L.; Gordon, T.; Mikheev, V.B.; Minard, K.R.; Teeguarden, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Comparing effects of inhaled particles across rodent test systems and between rodent test systems and humans is a key obstacle to the interpretation of common toxicological test systems for human risk assessment. These comparisons, correlation with effects and prediction of effects, are best conducted using measures of tissue dose in the respiratory tract. Differences in lung geometry, physiology and the characteristics of ventilation can give rise to differences in the regional deposition of particles in the lung in these species. Differences in regional lung tissue doses cannot currently be measured experimentally. Regional lung tissue dosimetry can however be predicted using models developed for rats, monkeys, and humans. A computational model of particle respiratory tract deposition and clearance was developed for BALB/c and B6C3F1 mice, creating a cross species suite of available models for particle dosimetry in the lung. Airflow and particle transport equations were solved throughout the respiratory tract of these mice strains to obtain temporal and spatial concentration of inhaled particles from which deposition fractions were determined. Particle inhalability (Inhalable fraction, IF) and upper respiratory tract (URT) deposition were directly related to particle diffusive and inertial properties. Measurements of the retained mass at several post-exposure times following exposure to iron oxide nanoparticles, micro and nanoscale C60 fullerene, and nanoscale silver particles were used to calibrate and verify model predictions of total lung dose. Interstrain (mice) and interspecies (mouse, rat, human) differences in particle inhalability, fractional deposition and tissue dosimetry are described for ultrafine, fine and coarse particles. PMID:25373829

  19. Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Eliseeva, Ekaterina A.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2010-11-15

    Dampness and mold have been shown in qualitative reviews to be associated with a variety of adverse respiratory health effects, including respiratory tract infections. Several published meta-analyses have provided quantitative summaries for some of these associations, but not for respiratory infections. Demonstrating a causal relationship between dampness-related agents, which are preventable exposures, and respiratory tract infections would suggest important new public health strategies. We report the results of quantitative meta-analyses of published studies that examined the association of dampness or mold in homes with respiratory infections and bronchitis. For primary studies meeting eligibility criteria, we transformed reported odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) to the log scale. Both fixed and random effects models were applied to the log ORs and their variances. Most studies contained multiple estimated ORs. Models accounted for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed. One set of analyses was performed with all eligible studies, and another set restricted to studies that controlled for age, gender, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Subgroups of studies were assessed to explore heterogeneity. Funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. The resulting summary estimates of ORs from random effects models based on all studies ranged from 1.38 to 1.50, with 95% CIs excluding the null in all cases. Use of different analysis models and restricting analyses based on control of multiple confounding variables changed findings only slightly. ORs (95% CIs) from random effects models using studies adjusting for major confounding variables were, for bronchitis, 1.45 (1.32-1.59); for respiratory infections, 1.44 (1.31-1.59); for respiratory infections excluding nonspecific upper respiratory infections, 1.50 (1.32-1.70), and for respiratory infections in children or infants, 1.48 (1.33-1.65). Little effect of publication

  20. Association between temperature change and outpatient visits for respiratory tract infections among children in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Guo, Yong; Wang, Changbing; Li, Weidong; Lu, Jinhua; Shen, Songying; Xia, Huimin; He, Jianrong; Qiu, Xiu

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the association between temperature change and clinical visits for childhood respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in Guangzhou, China. Outpatient records of clinical visits for pediatric RTIs, which occurred from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013, were collected from Guangzhou Women and Children's Hospital. Records for meteorological variables during the same period were obtained from the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. Temperature change was defined as the difference between the mean temperatures on two consecutive days. A distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to examine the impact of temperature change on pediatric outpatient visits for RTIs. A large temperature decrease was associated with a significant risk for an RTI, with the effect lasting for ~10 days. The maximum effect of a temperature drop (-8.8 °C) was reached at lag 2~3 days. Children aged 0-2 years, and especially those aged <1 year, were particularly vulnerable to the effects of temperature drop. An extreme temperature decrease affected the number of patient visits for both upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). A temperature change between consecutive days, and particularly an extreme temperature decrease, was significantly associated with increased pediatric outpatient visits for RTIs in Guangzhou. PMID:25568973

  1. Inhalation of uranium nanoparticles: respiratory tract deposition and translocation to secondary target organs in rats.

    PubMed

    Petitot, Fabrice; Lestaevel, Philippe; Tourlonias, Elie; Mazzucco, Charline; Jacquinot, Sébastien; Dhieux, Bernadette; Delissen, Olivia; Tournier, Benjamin B; Gensdarmes, François; Beaunier, Patricia; Dublineau, Isabelle

    2013-03-13

    Uranium nanoparticles (<100 nm) can be released into the atmosphere during industrial stages of the nuclear fuel cycle and during remediation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Explosions and fires in nuclear reactors and the use of ammunition containing depleted uranium can also produce such aerosols. The risk of accidental inhalation of uranium nanoparticles by nuclear workers, military personnel or civilian populations must therefore be taken into account. In order to address this issue, the absorption rate of inhaled uranium nanoparticles needs to be characterised experimentally. For this purpose, rats were exposed to an aerosol containing 10⁷ particles of uranium per cm³ (CMD=38 nm) for 1h in a nose-only inhalation exposure system. Uranium concentrations deposited in the respiratory tract, blood, brain, skeleton and kidneys were determined by ICP-MS. Twenty-seven percent of the inhaled mass of uranium nanoparticles was deposited in the respiratory tract. One-fifth of UO₂ nanoparticles were rapidly cleared from lung (T(½)=2.4 h) and translocated to extrathoracic organs. However, the majority of the particles were cleared slowly (T(½)=141.5 d). Future long-term experimental studies concerning uranium nanoparticles should focus on the potential lung toxicity of the large fraction of particles cleared slowly from the respiratory tract after inhalation exposure. PMID:23296105

  2. Prognostic value of procalcitonin in hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, Vandack; Borges, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections are common and potentially lethal conditions and are a major cause of inadequate antibiotic prescriptions. Characterization of disease severity and prognostic prediction in affected patients can aid disease management and can increase accuracy in determining the need for and place of hospitalization. The inclusion of biomarkers, particularly procalcitonin, in the decision taken process is a promising strategy. This study aims to present a narrative review of the potential applications and limitations of procalcitonin as a prognostic marker in hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections. The studies on this topic are heterogeneous with respect to procalcitonin measurement techniques, cutoff values, clinical settings, and disease severity. The results show that procalcitonin delivers moderate performance for prognostic prediction in patients with lower respiratory tract infections; its predictive performance was not higher than that of classical methods, and knowledge of procalcitonin levels is most useful when interpreted together with other clinical and laboratory results. Overall, repeated measurement of the procalcitonin levels during the first days of treatment provides more prognostic information than a single measurement; however, information on the cost-effectiveness of this procedure in intensive care patients is lacking. The results of studies that evaluated the prognostic value of initial procalcitonin levels in patients with community-acquired pneumonia are more consistent and have greater potential for practical application; in this case, low procalcitonin levels identify those patients with a low risk of adverse outcomes. PMID:27305038

  3. Association between Temperature Change and Outpatient Visits for Respiratory Tract Infections among Children in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Guo, Yong; Wang, Changbing; Li, Weidong; Lu, Jinhua; Shen, Songying; Xia, Huimin; He, Jianrong; Qiu, Xiu

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the association between temperature change and clinical visits for childhood respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in Guangzhou, China. Outpatient records of clinical visits for pediatric RTIs, which occurred from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013, were collected from Guangzhou Women and Children’s Hospital. Records for meteorological variables during the same period were obtained from the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. Temperature change was defined as the difference between the mean temperatures on two consecutive days. A distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to examine the impact of temperature change on pediatric outpatient visits for RTIs. A large temperature decrease was associated with a significant risk for an RTI, with the effect lasting for ~10 days. The maximum effect of a temperature drop (−8.8 °C) was reached at lag 2~3 days. Children aged 0–2 years, and especially those aged <1 year, were particularly vulnerable to the effects of temperature drop. An extreme temperature decrease affected the number of patient visits for both upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). A temperature change between consecutive days, and particularly an extreme temperature decrease, was significantly associated with increased pediatric outpatient visits for RTIs in Guangzhou. PMID:25568973

  4. MODULAR APPLICATION OF COMPUTATIONAL MODELS OF INHALED REACTIVE GAS DOSIMETRY FOR RISK ASSESSMENT OF RESPIRATORY TRACT TOXICITY: CHLORINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled reactive gases typically cause respiratory tract toxicity with a prominent proximal to distal lesion pattern. This pattern is largely driven by airflow and interspecies differences between rodents and humans result from factors such as airway architecture, ventilation ra...

  5. Respiratory and allergic diseases: from upper respiratory tract infections to asthma.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Raja

    2002-06-01

    patient, mind-body interventions such as yoga, hypnosis, and biofeedback-assisted relaxation and breathing exercises are beneficial for stress reduction in general and may be helpful in further controlling asthma. Encouraging parents to learn how to massage their asthmatic children may appeal to some parents and provide benefits for parents and children alike. Acupuncture and chiropractic treatment cannot be recommended at this time, although some patients may derive benefit because of the placebo effect. For patients with allergic rhinitis, there are no good clinical research data on the use of quercetin and vitamin C. Similarly, freeze-dried stinging nettle leaves may be tried, but the applicable research evidence also is poor. Further studies are needed to assess the efficacy of these supplements and herbs. Homeopathic remedies based on extreme dilutions of the allergen may be beneficial in allergic rhinitis but require collaboration with an experienced homeopath. There are no research data on constitutional homeopathic approaches to asthma and allergic rhinitis. Patients with COPD are helped by exercise, pulmonary rehabilitation, and increased caloric protein and fat intake. Vitamin C and n-3 supplements are safe and reasonable; however, studies are needed to establish their efficacy in COPD. On the other hand, there are convincing data in favor of N-acetyl-cysteine supplementation for the patient with COPD at doses ranging between 400 and 1200 mg daily. Red blood cell magnesium levels may guide the use of magnesium replacement. The use of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 in patients with COPD needs further study. The addition of essential oils to the dietary regimen of patients with chronic bronchitis is worth exploring. Patients with upper respiratory tract infections can expect a shorter duration of symptoms by taking high doses of vitamin C (2 g) with zinc supplements, preferably the nasal zinc gel, at the onset of their symptoms. Adding an herb such as echinacea or

  6. Mixed Viral Infections Circulating in Hospitalized Patients with Respiratory Tract Infections in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Essa, Sahar; Owayed, Abdullah; Altawalah, Haya; Khadadah, Mousa; Behbehani, Nasser; Al-Nakib, Widad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of viral mixed detection in hospitalized patients with respiratory tract infections and to evaluate the correlation between viral mixed detection and clinical severity. Hospitalized patients with respiratory tract infections (RTI) were investigated for 15 respiratory viruses by using sensitive molecular techniques. In total, 850 hospitalized patients aged between 3 days and 80 years were screened from September 2010 to April 2014. Among the 351 (47.8%) patients diagnosed with viral infections, viral mixed detection was identified in 49 patients (14%), with human rhinovirus (HRV) being the most common virus associated with viral mixed detection (7.1%), followed by adenovirus (AdV) (4%) and human coronavirus-OC43 (HCoV-OC43) (3.7%). The highest combination of viral mixed detection was identified with HRV and AdV (2%), followed by HRV and HCoV-OC43 (1.4%). Pneumonia and bronchiolitis were the most frequent reason for hospitalization with viral mixed detection (9.1%). There were statistical significance differences between mixed and single detection in patients diagnosed with bronchiolitis (P = 0.002) and pneumonia (P = 0.019). Our findings might indicate a significant association between respiratory virus mixed detection and the possibility of developing more severe LRTI such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia when compared with single detection. PMID:25983755

  7. Inhalation dosimetry of hexamethylene diisocyanate vapor in the rat and human respiratory tracts.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Jeffry D; Kimbell, Julia S; Asgharian, Bahman; Tewksbury, Earl W; Sochaski, Mark; Foster, Melanie L; Dorman, David C; Wong, Brian A; Andersen, Melvin E

    2013-02-01

    Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) is a reactive chemical used in the commercial production of polyurethanes. Toxic effects in rodents exposed to HDI vapor primarily occur in the nasal passages, yet some individuals exposed occupationally to concentrations exceeding current regulatory limits may experience temporary reduction in lung function and asthma-like symptoms. Knowledge of interspecies differences in respiratory tract dosimetry of inhaled HDI would improve our understanding of human health risks to this compound. HDI uptake was measured in the upper respiratory tract of anesthetized Fischer-344 rats. Nasal uptake of HDI was >90% in rats at unidirectional flow rates of 150 and 300 ml/min and a target air concentration of 200 ppb. Uptake data was used to calibrate nasal and lung dosimetry models of HDI absorption in rats and humans. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the nasal passages were used to simulate inspiratory airflow and HDI absorption. Transport of HDI through lung airways was simulated using convection-diffusion based mass transport models. HDI nasal uptake of 90% and 78% was predicted using the rat and human nasal CFD models, respectively. Total respiratory tract uptake was estimated to be 99% in rats and 97% in humans under nasal breathing. Predicted human respiratory uptake decreased to 87% under oral breathing conditions. Absorption rates of inhaled HDI in human lung airways were estimated to be higher than the rat due to lower uptake in head airways. Model predictions demonstrated significant penetration of HDI to human bronchial airways, although absorption rates were sensitive to breathing style. PMID:23421488

  8. Factors associated with antibiotic misuse in outpatient treatment for upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Schroeck, Jennifer L; Ruh, Christine A; Sellick, John A; Ott, Michael C; Mattappallil, Arun; Mergenhagen, Kari A

    2015-07-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has promoted the appropriate use of antibiotics since 1995 when it initiated the National Campaign for Appropriate Antibiotic Use in the Community. This study examined upper respiratory tract infections included in the campaign to determine the degree to which antibiotics were appropriately prescribed and subsequent admission rates in a veteran population. This study was a retrospective chart review conducted among outpatients with a diagnosis of a respiratory tract infection, including bronchitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, or nonspecific upper respiratory tract infection, between January 2009 and December 2011. The study found that 595 (35.8%) patients were treated appropriately, and 1,067 (64.2%) patients received therapy considered inappropriate based on the Get Smart Campaign criteria. Overall the subsequent readmission rate was 1.5%. The majority (77.5%) of patients were prescribed an antibiotic. The most common antibiotics prescribed were azithromycin (39.0%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (13.2%), and moxifloxacin (7.5%). A multivariate regression analysis demonstrated significant predictors of appropriate treatment, including the presence of tonsillar exudates (odds ratio [OR], 0.6; confidence interval [CI], 0.3 to 0.9), fever (OR, 0.6; CI, 0.4 to 0.9), and lymphadenopathy (OR, 0.4; CI, 0.3 to 0.6), while penicillin allergy (OR, 2.9; CI, 1.7 to 4.7) and cough (OR, 1.6; CI, 1.1 to 2.2) were significant predictors for inappropriate treatment. Poor compliance with the Get Smart Campaign was found in outpatients for respiratory infections. Results from this study demonstrate the overprescribing of antibiotics, while providing a focused view of improper prescribing. This article provides evidence that current efforts are insufficient for curtailing inappropriate antibiotic use. PMID:25870064

  9. [Pharmacological effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the respiratory tract. (I). Quantitative and qualitative changes in respiratory tract fluid and sputum (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kogi, K; Saito, T; Kasé, Y; Hitoshi, T

    1981-06-01

    The following three experiments were performed to determine the effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on the quantity and quality of respiratory tract fluid (RTF) and sputum. All drugs used were administered into the stomach through a gastric tube. 1) Indirect measurement of bronchial secretion in rats, which was expressed by the amounts of dye excreted into the respiratory tract, was carried out according the the Sakuno's method, with some modification. Some expectorants of the secretomotor type, such as bromhexine and pilocarpine, significantly increased the secretion, even at low doses. On the other hand, mucolytic agents such as NAC augmented the secretion only in doses of 500 to 1500 mg/kg. 2)As a direct method of measurements, Kasé's modification of Perry and Boyd's method was used to collect RTF, quantitatively, from rabbits. The RTF of healthy rabbits was colorless and watery. The administration of NAC in doses of 500 to 1500 mg/kg augmented the output volume and RTF became slightly turbid, probably due to an increase in the viscous mucus. 3) Rabbits with subacute bronchitis were prepared by long-term exposure to air contaminated with SO2 gas and sputa were collected before and after administration of NAC, respectively, according to the Kase's method. The sputa were opalescent and viscous gel included nodular masses. The administration of NAC, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg resulted in a dose dependent decrease in the relative viscosity. The percent-decreased in viscosity with NAC was statistically correlated with that in amounts of dry matter, those in protein and polysaccharide in the sputa. From the results described above, it was concluded that NAC given into the stomach can liquefy sputum by splitting mucoprotein disulphide linkages, that is, altering the rheological characteristics of sputum to facilitate expectoration. PMID:7286849

  10. Influences of parameter uncertainties within the ICRP-66 respiratory tract model: particle clearance.

    PubMed

    Bolch, Wesley E; Huston, Thomas E; Farfán, Eduardo B; Vernetson, William G; Bolch, W Emmett

    2003-04-01

    Quantifying radiological risk following the inhalation of radioactive aerosols entails not only an assessment of particle deposition within respiratory tract regions but a full accounting of clearance mechanisms whereby particles may be translocated to adjacent respiratory tissue regions, absorbed to blood, or released to the gastrointestinal tract. The model outlined in ICRP Publication 66 represents to date one of the most complete overall descriptions of particle deposition and clearance, as well as localized radiation dosimetry, within the respiratory tract. In this study, a previous review of the ICRP-66 deposition model is extended to the study of the subsequent clearance model. A systematic review of the clearance component within the ICRP 66 respiratory tract model was conducted in which probability density functions were assigned to all input parameters for both 239PuO2 and 238UO2/238U3O8. These distributions were subsequently incorporated within a computer code LUDUC (Lung Dose Uncertainty Code) in which Latin hypercube sampling techniques are used to generate multiple (e.g., 1,000) sets of input vectors (i.e., trials) for all model parameters needed to assess mechanical clearance and particle dissolution/absorption. Integral numbers of nuclear disintegrations, U(s), in various lung regions were shown to be well-described by lognormal probability distributions. Of the four extrathoracic clearance compartments of the respiratory tract, uncertainties in U(s), expressed as the ratio of its 95% to 5% confidence levels, were highest within the LN(ET) tissues for 239PuO2 (ratio of 50 to 130) and within the ET(seq) tissues for 238UO2/238U3O8 (ratio of 12 to 50). Peak uncertainties in U(s) in these respiratory regions occurred at particle sizes of approximately 0.5-0.6 microm where uncertainties in ET2 particle deposition fractions accounted for only approximately 10% of the total U(s) uncertainty for 239PuO2, and only approximately 30% of the total U

  11. [The express diagnostic of microorganisms affecting respiratory tract of patients with mucoviscidosis].

    PubMed

    Voronina, O L; Kunda, M S; Aksenova, E I; Orlova, A A; Chernukha, M Iu; Lunin, V G; Amelina, E L; Chuchalin, A G; Gintsburg, A L

    2013-11-01

    The shared bacteria Burkholderia capacia complex and Achromobacter sp. infect the respiratory tract of patients with mucoviscidosis brining on disorders of respiratory patency. Burkholderia capacia complex is characterized by transmissivity and higher lethality of patients infected by Burkholderia. Hence, the importance of differentiation of these phenotypically similar microorganisms is obvious. The developed express technique of diagnostic includes the separation of DNA from phlegm amplification and sequenation was fragments of genes recA, gltB, gyrB, 16S rDNA. The evaluation of products of amplification of genes recA, gltB makes it possible to differentiate Burkholderia capacia complex and Achromobacter sp. The analysis of successions of recA, gltB, gyrB makes it possible to identify genotype of Burkholderia capacia complex on the basis of data of allele profiles of strains of Burkholderia capacia complex circulating in Russia. The succession of gene 16S rDNA makes it possible to determine the taxonomic position of microorganism dominating in phlegm and not belonging to Burkholderia capacia complex or Achromobacter sp. The real time polymerase chain reaction in presence of intercalating dye Sybr Green I, DMSO and D(+)-trehalose makes it possible to differentiate Burkholderia capacia complex from other microorganisms infecting respiratory tract of patients with mucoviscidosis. This approach provides additional reduction of diagnostic duration and decrease possibility of contamination. PMID:24640113

  12. Ten year retrospective evaluation of the seasonal distribution of agent viruses in childhood respiratory tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Gülen, Figen; Yıldız, Başak; Çiçek, Candan; Demir, Esen; Tanaç, Remziye

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Infections caused by respiratory viruses sometimes occur as epidemias or pandemias and are an important public health problem in the whole world. These viral agents may lead to severe respiratory diseases especially in young children and in the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine the seasonal distribution of agent viruses in childhood respiratory infections in our region. Material and Methods: In this study, nasopharyngeal swab sample was obtained from 1 326 patients who presented to Ege University, Medical Faculty Children’s Hospital between 2002 and 2012 and who were thought to have respiratory tract infection. Influenza virus type A and B, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus and parainfluenza virus type 1–3 were investigated using shell-vial cell culture method and direct fluorescent antibody test and/or multiplex PCR test. Parainfluenza virus type 4, human metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus, human bocavirus were investigated using multiplex PCR test. The seasonal distributions of the viruses were determined according to the results obtained from Ege University Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Microbiology Clinical Virology Laboratory. Approval was obtained from the ethics committee (Ege University Clinical Researches Ethics Committee, 12.02.2013, number: 13–1/46). Results: The majority of the patients who presented were outpatients (n:888, 67%) and the remainder were hospitalized patients (33%, n:438). Respiratory viruses were found in 503 of the nasopharyngeal swab samples (38%). Parainfluenza and respiratory syncytial virus were found most frequently in December–february (58% and 59%, respectively, influenza viruses were found most frequently in November–december (72%) and adenoviruses were found most frequently in may–september (56%). Conclusion: Although only supportive therapies are administered generally in viral infections, viral investigations are important in terms of determining the measures to be taken by

  13. Comparison of old and new ICRP models for respiratory tract dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Boecker, B.B.

    1993-12-31

    This paper examines the historical development and application of respiratory tract dosimetry models by the International Commission for Radiological Protection, ICRP, for health protection from inhaled radioactive aerosols. Three different models are discussed, those that were included in ICRP recommendations published in 1960 and 1979, and the new ICRP Publication 66. Basic features of these models are compared and contrasted. These features include model structure, sites and frequencies of particle deposition, processes and rates of clearance of the deposited material from the respiratory tract, and consideration of the parameters involved in these processes and how various factors can influence these parameters. All three models lead to the calculation of absorbed radiation doses with differing degrees of regional and local specificity. These calculations are achieved using different tools ranging from quick hand calculations to sophisticated computerized modeling approaches. A side-by-side review of these models indicates several important trends in respiratory tract dosimetry models, the most obvious of which is the increased complexity of each new model over the past 30+ years. These increases reflect both the increasing size of the knowledge base derived from studies in laboratory animals and in human subjects and the need for models more broadly applicable for both occupational and environmental exposures. It is likely that future research will be directed to those key aspects of the new model having the largest uncertainties. The detailed design of the new model and its associated software provide excellent means of identifying useful research areas and using the resulting new information in organized and productive ways.

  14. Impact of Chest Radiography for Children with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection: A Propensity Score Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ecochard-Dugelay, Emmanuelle; Beliah, Muriel; Boisson, Caroline; Perreaux, Francis; de Laveaucoupet, Jocelyne; Labrune, Philippe; Epaud, Ralph; Ducou-Lepointe, Hubert; Bouyer, Jean; Gajdos, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Background Management of acute respiratory tract infection varies substantially despite this being a condition frequently encountered in pediatric emergency departments. Previous studies have suggested that the use of antibiotics was higher when chest radiography was performed. However none of these analyses had considered the inherent indication bias of observational studies. Objective The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between performing chest radiography and prescribing antibiotics using a propensity score analysis to address the indication bias due to non-random radiography assignment. Methods We conducted a prospective study of 697 children younger than 2 years of age who presented during the winter months of 2006–2007 for suspicion of respiratory tract infection at the Pediatric Emergency Department of an urban general hospital in France (Paris suburb). We first determined the individual propensity score (probability of having a chest radiography according to baseline characteristics). Then we assessed the relation between radiography and antibiotic prescription using two methods: adjustment and matching on the propensity score. Results We found that performing a chest radiography lead to more frequent antibiotic prescription that may be expressed as OR = 2.3, CI [1.3–4.1], or as an increased use of antibiotics of 18.6% [0.08–0.29] in the group undergoing chest radiography. Conclusion Chest radiography has a significant impact on the management of infants admitted for suspicion of respiratory tract infection in a pediatric emergency department and may lead to unnecessary administration of antibiotics. PMID:24788944

  15. Protective Mechanisms of Respiratory Tract Streptococci against Streptococcus pyogenes Biofilm Formation and Epithelial Cell Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Tomas; Riani, Catur; Koczan, Dirk; Standar, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]) encounter many streptococcal species of the physiological microbial biome when entering the upper respiratory tract of humans, leading to the question how GAS interact with these bacteria in order to establish themselves at this anatomic site and initiate infection. Here we show that S. oralis and S. salivarius in direct contact assays inhibit growth of GAS in a strain-specific manner and that S. salivarius, most likely via bacteriocin secretion, also exerts this effect in transwell experiments. Utilizing scanning electron microscopy documentation, we identified the tested strains as potent biofilm producers except for GAS M49. In mixed-species biofilms, S. salivarius dominated the GAS strains, while S. oralis acted as initial colonizer, building the bottom layer in mixed biofilms and thereby allowing even GAS M49 to form substantial biofilms on top. With the exception of S. oralis, artificial saliva reduced single-species biofilms and allowed GAS to dominate in mixed biofilms, although the overall two-layer structure was unchanged. When covered by S. oralis and S. salivarius biofilms, epithelial cells were protected from GAS adherence, internalization, and cytotoxic effects. Apparently, these species can have probiotic effects. The use of Affymetrix array technology to assess HEp-2 cell transcription levels revealed modest changes after exposure to S. oralis and S. salivarius biofilms which could explain some of the protective effects against GAS attack. In summary, our study revealed a protection effect of respiratory tract bacteria against an important airway pathogen and allowed a first in vitro insight into local environmental processes after GAS enter the respiratory tract. PMID:23241973

  16. Pathogenic influenza B virus in the ferret model establishes lower respiratory tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Stephen S. H.; Banner, David; Paquette, Stephane G.; Leon, Alberto J.; Kelvin, Alyson A.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza B viruses have become increasingly more prominent during influenza seasons. Influenza B infection is typically considered a mild disease and receives less attention than influenza A, but has been causing 20 to 50 % of the total influenza incidence in several regions around the world. Although there is increasing evidence of mid to lower respiratory tract diseases such as bronchitis and pneumonia in influenza B patients, little is known about the pathogenesis of recent influenza B viruses. Here we investigated the clinical and pathological profiles of infection with strains representing the two current co-circulating B lineages (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria) in the ferret model. Specifically, we studied two B/Victoria (B/Brisbane/60/2008 and B/Bolivia/1526/2010) and two B/Yamagata (B/Florida/04/2006 and B/Wisconsin/01/2010) strain infections in ferrets and observed strain-specific but not lineage-specific pathogenicity. We found B/Brisbane/60/2008 caused the most severe clinical illness and B/Brisbane/60/2008 and the B/Yamagata strains instigated pathology in the middle to lower respiratory tract. Importantly, B/Brisbane/60/2008 established efficient lower respiratory tract infection with high viral burden. Our phylogenetic analyses demonstrate profound reassortment among recent influenza B viruses, which indicates the genetic make-up of B/Brisbane/60/2008 differs from the other strains. This may explain the pathogenicity difference post-infection in ferrets. PMID:24989173

  17. Topographical Continuity of Bacterial Populations in the Healthy Human Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Charlson, Emily S.; Bittinger, Kyle; Haas, Andrew R.; Fitzgerald, Ayannah S.; Frank, Ian; Yadav, Anjana; Bushman, Frederic D.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Defining the biogeography of bacterial populations in human body habitats is a high priority for understanding microbial–host relationships in health and disease. The healthy lung was traditionally considered sterile, but this notion has been challenged by emerging molecular approaches that enable comprehensive examination of microbial communities. However, studies of the lung are challenging due to difficulties in working with low biomass samples. Objectives: Our goal was to use molecular methods to define the bacterial microbiota present in the lungs of healthy individuals and assess its relationship to upper airway populations. Methods: We sampled respiratory flora intensively at multiple sites in six healthy individuals. The upper tract was sampled by oral wash and oro-/nasopharyngeal swabs. Two bronchoscopes were used to collect samples up to the glottis, followed by serial bronchoalveolar lavage and lower airway protected brush. Bacterial abundance and composition were analyzed by 16S rDNA Q-PCR and deep sequencing. Measurements and Main Results: Bacterial communities from the lung displayed composition indistinguishable from the upper airways, but were 2 to 4 logs lower in biomass. Lung-specific sequences were rare and not shared among individuals. There was no unique lung microbiome. Conclusions: In contrast to other organ systems, the respiratory tract harbors a homogenous microbiota that decreases in biomass from upper to lower tract. The healthy lung does not contain a consistent distinct microbiome, but instead contains low levels of bacterial sequences largely indistinguishable from upper respiratory flora. These findings establish baseline data for healthy subjects and sampling approaches for sequence-based analysis of diseases. PMID:21680950

  18. Indoor aerosol modeling for assessment of exposure and respiratory tract deposited dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Tareq; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Löndahl, Jakob; Lazaridis, Mihalis; Hänninen, Otto

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the major environmental problems that influence people's health. Exposure to harmful particulate matter (PM) occurs both outdoors and indoors, but while people spend most of their time indoors, the indoor exposures tend to dominate. Moreover, higher PM concentrations due to indoor sources and tightness of indoor environments may substantially add to the outdoor originating exposures. Empirical and real-time assessment of human exposure is often impossible; therefore, indoor aerosol modeling (IAM) can be used as a superior method in exposure and health effects studies. This paper presents a simple approach in combining available aerosol-based modeling techniques to evaluate the real-time exposure and respiratory tract deposited dose based on particle size. Our simple approach consists of outdoor aerosol data base, IAM simulations, time-activity pattern data-base, physical-chemical properties of inhaled aerosols, and semi-empirical deposition fraction of aerosols in the respiratory tract. These modeling techniques allow the characterization of regional deposited dose in any metric: particle mass, particle number, and surface area. The first part of this presentation reviews recent advances in simple mass-balance based modeling methods that are needed in analyzing the health relevance of indoor exposures. The second part illustrates the use of IAM in the calculations of exposure and deposited dose. Contrary to previous methods, the approach presented is a real-time approach and it goes beyond the exposure assessment to provide the required information for the health risk assessment, which is the respiratory tract deposited dose. This simplified approach is foreseen to support epidemiological studies focusing on exposures originating from both indoor and outdoor sources.

  19. STUDIES ON NON-HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI ISOLATED FROM THE RESPIRATORY TRACT OF MAN

    PubMed Central

    Horsfall, Frank L.

    1951-01-01

    The type specific immunological properties of certain non-hemolytic streptococci, including Str. salivarius type I and type II, present in the respiratory tract of human beings appear to be dependent upon the presence of capsular polysaccharides. The levans formed from sucrose by Str. salivarius (encapsulated S cells or non-encapsulated R variants), or by cell-free enzymes derived from these microorganisms, are indistinguishable immunologically and show no evidence of type specificity. Such levans appear to be immunologically distinct from and unrelated to the capsular polysaccharides of the microorganisms which produce them. PMID:14824398

  20. The potential of methylxanthine-based therapies in pediatric respiratory tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Franco, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are the most known methylxanthines as they are present in coffee, tea and/or chocolate. In the last decades, a huge experimental effort has been devoted to get insight into the variety of actions that these compounds exert in humans. From such knowledge it is known that methylxanthines have a great potential in prevention, therapy and/or management of a variety of diseases. The benefits of methylxanthine-based therapies in the apnea of prematurity and their translational potential in pediatric affections of the respiratory tract are here presented. PMID:26880379

  1. The Association between Invasive Group A Streptococcal Diseases and Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Andrea L.; Huber, Victor C.; Chaussee, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections of the upper respiratory tract are associated with a variety of invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the group A streptococcus, including pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock syndrome, and bacteremia. While these polymicrobial infections, or superinfections, are complex, progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of disease. Areas of investigation have included the characterization of virus-induced changes in innate immunity, differences in bacterial adherence and internalization following viral infection, and the efficacy of vaccines in mitigating the morbidity and mortality of superinfections. Here, we briefly summarize viral-S. pyogenes superinfections with an emphasis on those affiliated with influenza viruses. PMID:27047460

  2. Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in a Renal Transplant Recipient: Do not Forget Metapneumovirus

    PubMed Central

    Noel, N.; Rammaert, B.; Zuber, J.; Sayre, N.; Mamzer-Bruneel, M. F.; Leruez-Ville, M.; Mascard, L.; Lecuit, M.; Lortholary, O.

    2012-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is emerging as a cause of a severe respiratory tract infection in immunocompromised patients. hMPV pneumonia has only been seldom reported in nonpulmonary solid organ transplanted patients, such as renal transplant recipients. We report here a case of a 39-year-old patient presenting with fever, cough, and interstitial opacities on CT scan diagnosed as a nonsevere hMPV pneumonia 11 years after a renal transplantation. Infection resolved spontaneously. Differential diagnosis with Pneumocystis pneumonia was discussed. We review the medical literature and discuss clinical presentation and detection methods that can be proposed in solid organ transplant recipients. PMID:23213611

  3. Cancer screening via infrared spectral cytopathology (SCP): results for the upper respiratory and digestive tracts.

    PubMed

    Diem, Max; Miljković, Miloš; Bird, Benjamin; Mazur, Antonella I; Schubert, Jen M; Townsend, Douglas; Laver, Nora; Almond, Max; Old, Oliver

    2016-01-21

    Instrumental advances in infrared micro-spectroscopy have made possible the observation of individual human cells and even subcellular structures. The observed spectra represent a snapshot of the biochemical composition of a cell; this composition varies subtly but reproducibly with cellular effects such as progression through the cell cycle, cell maturation and differentiation, and disease. The aim of this summary is to provide a synopsis of the progress achieved in infrared spectral cytopathology (SCP) - the combination of infrared micro-spectroscopy and multivariate methods of analysis - for the detection of abnormalities in exfoliated human cells of the upper respiratory and digestive tract, namely the oral and nasopharyngeal cavities, and the esophagus. PMID:26421636

  4. Isolation of Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis from Iraqi Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Yehia, Manahil M.; Abdulla, Zainalabideen A.

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and fifty immunocompetent and 150 presumably immunocompromised patients suffering from lower respiratory tract infections were enrolled in this study. The clinical specimens were collected from April 2007 to June 2008 and included sputum (247), bronchial wash (80), and blood (300) samples. The identification process employed direct examination, culture, conversion test, and serological study. Among 218 fungal isolates only six were categorized as true pathogenic fungi; two Histoplasma capsulatum, and four Blastomyces dermatitidis. The former isolates were detected in two immunocompromised patients, while the latter isolates were detected in two immunocompetent and two immunocompromised patients. PMID:23610487

  5. Phylogenetically distinct equine influenza viruses show different tropism for the swine respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Patrono, Livia V.; Bonfante, Francesco; Zanardello, Claudia; Terregino, Calogero; Capua, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses circulate in a wide range of animals. H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) is an avian-origin virus that has established in dogs as canine influenza virus (CIV) and has also been isolated from camels and pigs. Previous work suggests that mutations acquired during EIV evolution might have played a role in CIV emergence. Given the potential role of pigs as a source of human infections, we determined the ability of H3N8 EIVs to replicate in pig cell lines and in respiratory explants. We show that phylogenetically distinct EIVs display different infection phenotypes along the pig respiratory tract, but not in cell lines. Our results suggest that EIV displays a dynamic host range along its evolutionary history, supporting the view that evolutionary processes play important roles in host range and tropism and also underscoring the utility of using explant cultures to study influenza pathogenesis. PMID:25593159

  6. Insights into the respiratory tract microbiota of patients with cystic fibrosis during early Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Keravec, Marlène; Mounier, Jérôme; Prestat, Emmanuel; Vallet, Sophie; Jansson, Janet K.; Burgaud, Gaëtan; Rosec, Sylvain; Gouriou, Stéphanie; Rault, Gilles; Coton, Emmanuel; et al

    2015-08-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the initial steps of P. aeruginosa infection. The structure and dynamics of CF respiratory tract microbial communities during the early stages of P. aeruginosa colonization were characterized by pyrosequencing and cloning-sequencing. The respiratory microbiota showed high diversity, related to the young age of the CF cohort (mean age 10 years). Wide inter- and intra-individual variations were revealed. A common core microbiota of 5 phyla and 13 predominant genera was found, the majority of which were obligate anaerobes. A few genera were significantly moremore » prevalent in patients never infected by P. aeruginosa. Persistence of an anaerobic core microbiota regardless of P. aeruginosa status suggests a major role of certain anaerobes in the pathophysiology of lung infections in CF. Some genera may be potential biomarkers of pulmonary infection state.« less

  7. Insights into the respiratory tract microbiota of patients with cystic fibrosis during early Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization

    SciTech Connect

    Keravec, Marlene; Mounier, Jerome; Prestat , Emmanuel; Vallet, Sophie; Jansson, Janet K.; Bergaud , Gaetaqn; Rosec, Silvain; Gourious, Stephanie; Rault, Gilles; Coton, Emmanuel; Barbier, George; Hery-Arnaud, Geneveieve

    2015-08-09

    Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the initial steps of P. aeruginosa infection. The structure and dynamics of CF respiratory tract microbial communities during the early stages of P. aeruginosa colonization were characterized by pyrosequencing and cloning-sequencing. The respiratory microbiota showed high diversity, related to the young age of the CF cohort (mean age 10 years). Wide inter- and intra-individual variations were revealed. A common core microbiota of 5 phyla and 13 predominant genera was found, the majority of which were obligate anaerobes. A few genera were significantly more prevalent in patients never infected by P. aeruginosa. Persistence of an anaerobic core microbiota regardless of P. aeruginosa status suggests a major role of certain anaerobes in the pathophysiology of lung infections in CF. Some genera may be potential biomarkers of pulmonary infection state.

  8. Insights into the respiratory tract microbiota of patients with cystic fibrosis during early Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization.

    PubMed

    Keravec, Marlène; Mounier, Jérôme; Prestat, Emmanuel; Vallet, Sophie; Jansson, Janet K; Burgaud, Gaëtan; Rosec, Sylvain; Gouriou, Stéphanie; Rault, Gilles; Coton, Emmanuel; Barbier, Georges; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the initial steps of P. aeruginosa infection. The structure and dynamics of CF respiratory tract microbial communities during the early stages of P. aeruginosa colonization were characterized by pyrosequencing and cloning-sequencing. The respiratory microbiota showed high diversity, related to the young age of the CF cohort (mean age 10 years). Wide inter- and intra-individual variations were revealed. A common core microbiota of 5 phyla and 13 predominant genera was found, the majority of which were obligate anaerobes. A few genera were significantly more prevalent in patients never infected by P. aeruginosa. Persistence of an anaerobic core microbiota regardless of P. aeruginosa status suggests a major role of certain anaerobes in the pathophysiology of lung infections in CF. Some genera may be potential biomarkers of pulmonary infection state. PMID:26266076

  9. Mycoplasma agassizii causes upper respiratory tract disease in the desert tortoise.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M B; Schumacher, I M; Klein, P A; Harris, K; Correll, T; Jacobson, E R

    1994-01-01

    The desert tortoise is listed by the United States government as a threatened species in part of its range. A major contributing factor in the decline of this animal has been the presence of an upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) which is characterized by a chronic disease which eventually leads to severe occlusion of the nares with viscous exudate and destruction of the respiratory epithelium. Electron microscopy of infected tissues demonstrated the presence of a mycoplasma-like organism attached to the respiratory surfaces. The mycoplasma was isolated and designated as a new species, with the proposed name Mycoplasma agassizii. The current study was designed to fulfill Koch's postulates and determine if M. agassizii was the etiologic agent of URTD. Clinically healthy animals with known antibody status were infused intranasally with pooled exudate (n = 8) from ill donor animals, with M. agassizii alone (n = 9) or in combination with Pasteurella testudinis (n = 8), with P. testudinis alone (n = 9), or with sterile broth (n = 12). The pooled exudate was culture positive for M. agassizii. Tortoises which received exudate or M. agassizii alone or in conjunction with P. testudinis were significantly more likely to develop clinical disease (P < 0.0004) than animals which received P. testudinis alone or the broth controls. Tortoises demonstrated a strong immune response to M. agassizii, and seroconversion was seen in all groups with clinical disease. M. agassizii was isolated from the upper respiratory tracts of clinically ill animals up to 6 months postinfection. On the basis of the results of these transmission studies, we conclude that M. agassizii is an etiologic agent of URTD in the desert tortoise. Images PMID:7927724

  10. Viruses as Sole Causative Agents of Severe Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Children

    PubMed Central

    Moesker, Fleur M.; van Kampen, Jeroen J. A.; van Rossum, Annemarie M. C.; de Hoog, Matthijs; Koopmans, Marion P. G.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Fraaij, Pieter L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A viruses are known to cause severe acute respiratory tract infections (SARIs) in children. For other viruses like human rhinoviruses (HRVs) this is less well established. Viral or bacterial co-infections are often considered essential for severe manifestations of these virus infections. Objective The study aims at identifying viruses that may cause SARI in children in the absence of viral and bacterial co-infections, at identifying disease characteristics associated with these single virus infections, and at identifying a possible correlation between viral loads and disease severities. Study Design Between April 2007 and March 2012, we identified children (<18 year) with or without a medical history, admitted to our paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with SARI or to the medium care (MC) with an acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) (controls). Data were extracted from the clinical and laboratory databases of our tertiary care paediatric hospital. Patient specimens were tested for fifteen respiratory viruses with real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays and we selected patients with a single virus infection only. Typical bacterial co-infections were considered unlikely to have contributed to the PICU or MC admission based on C-reactive protein-levels or bacteriological test results if performed. Results We identified 44 patients admitted to PICU with SARI and 40 patients admitted to MC with ARTI. Twelve viruses were associated with SARI, ten of which were also associated with ARTI in the absence of typical bacterial and viral co-infections, with RSV and HRV being the most frequent causes. Viral loads were not different between PICU-SARI patients and MC-ARTI patients. Conclusion Both SARI and ARTI may be caused by single viral pathogens in previously healthy children as well as in children with a medical history. No relationship between viral load and disease severity was identified. PMID:26964038

  11. Atypical presentation of human bocavirus: Severe respiratory tract infection complicated with encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Akturk, Hacer; Sık, Guntulu; Salman, Nuran; Sutcu, Murat; Tatli, Burak; Ciblak, Meral Akcay; Erol, Oguz Bulent; Torun, Selda Hancerli; Citak, Agop; Somer, Ayper

    2015-11-01

    Human bocavirus (HBOV) has been reported as a worldwide distributed respiratory pathogen. It has also been associated with encephalitis recently by detection of the virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients presented with encephalitis. This retrospective study aimed to present clinical features of HBOV infections in children with respiratory symptoms and describe unexplained encephalopathy in a subgroup of these patients. Results of 1,143 pediatric nasal samples from mid-December 2013 to July 2014 were reviewed for detection of HBOV. A multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction assay was used for viral detection. Medical records of the patients were retrospectively analyzed. HBOV was detected in 30 patients (2.6%). Median age was 14 months (5-80). Clinical diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (n = 10), bronchopneumonia (n = 9), acute bronchiolitis (n = 5), pneumonia (n = 4), acute bronchitis (n = 1), and asthma execarbation (n = 1). Hospitalization was required in 16 (53.3%) patients and 10 (62.5%) of them admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Noninvasive mechanical ventilation modalities was applied to four patients and mechanical ventilation to four patients. Intractable seizures developed in four patients while mechanically ventilated on the 2nd-3rd days of PICU admission. No specific reason for encephalopathy was found after a thorough investigation. No mortality was observed, but two patients were discharged with neurological sequela. HBOV may lead to respiratory infections in a wide spectrum of severity. This report indicates its potential to cause severe respiratory infections requiring PICU admission and highlights possible clinical association of HBOV and encephalopathy, which developed during severe respiratory infection. PMID:25966820

  12. Viral Respiratory Tract Infections in Adult Patients Attending Outpatient and Emergency Departments, Taiwan, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Hsin-I; Wang, Hsuan-Chen; Su, Ih-Jen; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Wang, Jen-Ren; Sun, Hsiao Fang Sunny; Chou, Chien-Hsuan; Ko, Wen-Chien; Hsieh, Ming-I; Wu, Chi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Viral etiologies of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) have been less studied in adult than in pediatric populations. Furthermore, the ability of PCR/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) to detect enteroviruses and rhinoviruses in respiratory samples has not been well evaluated. We sought to use PCR/ESI-MS to comprehensively investigate the viral epidemiology of adult RTIs, including testing for rhinoviruses and enteroviruses. Nasopharyngeal or throat swabs from 267 adults with acute RTIs (212 upper RTIs and 55 lower RTIs) who visited a local clinic or the outpatient or emergency departments of a medical center in Taiwan between October 2012 and June 2013 were tested for respiratory viruses by both virus isolation and PCR/ESI-MS. Throat swabs from 15 patients with bacterial infections and 27 individuals without active infections were included as control samples. Respiratory viruses were found in 23.6%, 47.2%, and 47.9% of the 267 cases by virus isolation, PCR/ESI-MS, and both methods, respectively. When both methods were used, the influenza A virus (24.3%) and rhinoviruses (9.4%) were the most frequently identified viruses, whereas human coronaviruses, human metapneumovirus (hMPV), enteroviruses, adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza viruses were identified in small proportions of cases (<5% of cases for each type of virus). Coinfection was observed in 4.1% of cases. In the control group, only 1 (2.4%) sample tested positive for a respiratory virus by PCR/ESI-MS. Patients who were undergoing steroid treatment, had an active malignancy, or suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were at risk for rhinovirus, hMPV, or parainfluenza infections, respectively. Overall, immunocompromised patients, patients with COPD, and patients receiving dialysis were at risk for noninfluenza respiratory virus infection. Rhinoviruses (12.7%), influenza A virus (10.9%), and parainfluenza viruses (7.3%) were the most

  13. CT findings in viral lower respiratory tract infections caused by parainfluenza virus, influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Sung-Han

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) can present with a variety of computed tomography (CT) findings. However, identifying the contribution of a particular virus to CT findings is challenging due to concomitant infections and the limited data on the CT findings in viral LRTIs. We therefore investigate the CT findings in different pure viral LRTIs. All patients who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and were diagnosed with LRTIs caused by parainfluenza virus (PIV), influenza virus, or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) between 1998 and 2014 were enrolled in a tertiary hospital in Seoul, South Korea. A pure viral LRTI was defined as a positive viral culture from BAL without any positive evidence from respiratory or blood cultures, or from polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or from serologic tests for bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria, or other viruses. CT images of 40 patients with viral LRTIs were analyzed: 14 with PIV, 14 with influenza virus, and 12 with RSV. Patch consolidation (≥1 cm or more than 1 segmental level) was found only in PIV (29%) (P = 0.03), by which CT findings caused by PIV could resemble those seen in bacterial LRTIs. Ground-glass opacities were seen in all cases of influenza virus and were more frequent than in PIV (71%) and RSV (67%) (P = 0.05). Bronchial wall thickening was more common in influenza virus (71%) and RSV (67%) LRTIs than PIV LRTIs (21%) (P = 0.02). With respect to anatomical distribution, PIV infections generally affected the lower lobes (69%), while influenza virus mostly caused diffuse changes throughout the lungs (57%), and RSV frequently formed localized patterns in the upper and mid lobes (44%). The CT findings in LRTIs of PIV, influenza virus, and RSV can be distinguished by certain characteristics. These differences could be useful for early differentiation of these viral LRTIs, and empirical use of appropriate antiviral agents. PMID:27368011

  14. Rapid point of care diagnostic tests for viral and bacterial respiratory tract infections--needs, advances, and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Enne, Virve I; Kidd, Mike; Drosten, Christian; Breuer, Judy; Muller, Marcel A; Hui, David; Maeurer, Markus; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Al-Hakeem, Rafaat; Gray, Gregory; Gautret, Philippe; Al-Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Memish, Ziad A; Gant, Vanya

    2014-11-01

    Respiratory tract infections rank second as causes of adult and paediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide. Respiratory tract infections are caused by many different bacteria (including mycobacteria) and viruses, and rapid detection of pathogens in individual cases is crucial in achieving the best clinical management, public health surveillance, and control outcomes. Further challenges in improving management outcomes for respiratory tract infections exist: rapid identification of drug resistant pathogens; more widespread surveillance of infections, locally and internationally; and global responses to infections with pandemic potential. Developments in genome amplification have led to the discovery of several new respiratory pathogens, and sensitive PCR methods for the diagnostic work-up of these are available. Advances in technology have allowed for development of single and multiplexed PCR techniques that provide rapid detection of respiratory viruses in clinical specimens. Microarray-based multiplexing and nucleic-acid-based deep-sequencing methods allow simultaneous detection of pathogen nucleic acid and multiple antibiotic resistance, providing further hope in revolutionising rapid point of care respiratory tract infection diagnostics. PMID:25189349

  15. Aerosol Deposition in the Human Respiratory Tract Breathing Air and 80:20 Heliox

    PubMed Central

    DARQUENNE, CHANTAL; PRISK, G. KIM

    2005-01-01

    Aerosol mixing resulting from turbulent flows is thought to be an important mechanism of deposition in the upper respiratory tract (URT). Since turbulence levels are a function of gas density, the use of a low density carrier gas would be expected to reduce deposition in the URT. We measured aerosol deposition in the respiratory tract of 8 healthy subjects using both air and heliox, a low density gas mixture containing 80% helium and 20% oxygen, as the carrier gas. The subjects breathed 0.5, 1, and 2 μm-diameter monodisperse polystyrene latex particles from a reservoir at a constant flow rate (~450 mL/sec) and tidal volume (~900 mL). Aerosol concentration and flow rate were measured at the mouth using a photometer and a pneumotachograph, respectively. Deposition was 17.0%, 20.3%, and 38.9% in air and 16.8%, 18.5%, and 36.9% in heliox for 0.5, 1, and 2 μm-diameter particles, respectively. There was a small but statistically significant decrease in deposition when using heliox compared to air for 1 and 2 μm-diameter particles (p < 0.05). While it could not be directly measured from these data, it is likely that when breathing heliox instead of air, deposition is reduced in the URT and increased in the small airways and alveoli. PMID:15625820

  16. Oxidative stress and antioxidants at biosurfaces: plants, skin, and respiratory tract surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, C E; van der Vliet, A; Louie, S; Thiele, J J; Halliwell, B

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric pollutants represent an important source of oxidative and nitrosative stress to both terrestrial plants and to animals. The exposed biosurfaces of plants and animals are directly exposed to these pollutant stresses. Not surprisingly, living organisms have developed complex integrated extracellular and intracellular defense systems against stresses related to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), including O3 and NO2. Plant and animal epithelial surfaces and respiratory tract surfaces contain antioxidants that would be expected to provide defense against environmental stress caused by ambient ROS and RNS, thus ameliorating their injurious effects on more delicate underlying cellular constituents. Parallelisms among these surfaces with regard to their antioxidant constituents and environmental oxidants are presented. The reactive substances at these biosurfaces not only represent an important protective system against oxidizing environments, but products of their reactions with ROS/RNS may also serve as biomarkers of environmental oxidative stress. Moreover, the reaction products may also induce injury to underlying cells or cause cell activation, resulting in production of proinflammatory substances including cytokines. In this review we discuss antioxidant defense systems against environmental toxins in plant cell wall/apoplastic fluids, dead keratinized cells/interstitial fluids of stratum corneum (the outermost skin layer), and mucus/respiratory tract lining fluids. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:9788905

  17. The effect of anticholinergic bronchodilator therapy on cough during upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, R; Wood, A; Higenbottam, T

    1994-01-01

    1. Oxitropium bromide (Oxivent), an anticholinergic bronchodilator, inhibits coughing induced by hypotonic aerosols in both asthmatic and non-asthmatic individuals. We have now extended this work to investigate whether this antitussive activity is reproducible in cough associated with viral infection. 2. The effect of oxitropium bromide (200 micrograms three times daily) on cough and pulmonary function has been studied in 56 non-asthmatic volunteers with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in a double-blind, randomised, parallel group, placebo controlled study over 10 days. 3. Lung function, symptom questionnaire and cough response to ultrasonically nebulised distilled water (UNDW) inhalation were initially recorded within 72 h of development of cough and again after the 10 day treatment period. By use of a diary card at home, frequency and severity of cough, nocturnal symptoms and general malaise were assessed daily throughout the treatment period using 5 cm visual analogue scales (VAS). Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was recorded thrice daily before treatment over this 10 day period. 4. VAS scores of symptoms and UNDW-induced cough frequency all decreased over the 10 days of observation whether oxitropium bromide or placebo was administered. The mean PEFR showed a statistically significant fall in morning values during the early stages of infection which lessened with recovery but no effect of treatment with oxitropium bromide was observed (P > 0.05). 5. Oxitropium bromide, which inhibits the cough response to UNDW, does not offer an effective therapy for cough associated with an upper respiratory tract viral infection. PMID:8186064

  18. In Silico Models of Aerosol Delivery to the Respiratory Tract – Development and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Longest, P. Worth; Holbrook, Landon T.

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses the application of computational models to simulate the transport and deposition of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols from the site of particle or droplet formation to deposition within the respiratory tract. Traditional one-dimensional (1-D) whole-lung models are discussed briefly followed by a more in-depth review of three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The review of CFD models is organized into sections covering transport and deposition within the inhaler device, the extrathoracic (oral and nasal) region, conducting airways, and alveolar space. For each section, a general review of significant contributions and advancements in the area of simulating pharmaceutical aerosols is provided followed by a more in-depth application or case study that highlights the challenges, utility, and benefits of in silico models. Specific applications presented include the optimization of an existing spray inhaler, development of charge-targeted delivery, specification of conditions for optimal nasal delivery, analysis of a new condensational delivery approach, and an evaluation of targeted delivery using magnetic aerosols. The review concludes with recommendations on the need for more refined model validations, use of a concurrent experimental and CFD approach for developing aerosol delivery systems, and development of a stochastic individual path (SIP) model of aerosol transport and deposition throughout the respiratory tract. PMID:21640772

  19. Optical coherence tomography imaging of structural components of the respiratory tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteman, Suzanne C.; Yang, Ying; Gey van Pittius, D.; He, Yonghong; Spiteri, M. A.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2004-07-01

    For optimal curative treatment and the prevention of metastasis, it is critical that premalignant lesions are detected as early as possible. However, current diagnostic methods for human airways do not possess sufficient resolution and tissue penetration depth to detect these aberrations. Therefore it is necessary to develop safe, reproducible imaging techniques with high spatial resolution. In this study, optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to obtain cross sectional images of porcine respiratory tract tissue. OCT images were compared to parallel conventional histological sections. Our objective was to establish whether OCT differentiates the microstructural layers of the respiratory tract. These data demonstrate that OCT can characterize the multilayered structure of the airways, with a depth of up to 2 mm and a 10 μm spatial resolution. The subtle structural differences between trachea, main bronchus and tertiary bronchus were clearly identifiable. The epithelium, sub-epithelial tissues and cartilage were individually defined. In addition, the relative thickness of the structural components was comparable to histological sections. These data suggest that OCT is a highly feasible diagnostic tool, which requires further exploration for early detection of human airway pathology.

  20. [Mucolytics in acute and chronic respiratory tract disorders. II. Uses for treatment and antioxidant properties].

    PubMed

    Kupczyk, Maciej; Kuna, Piotr

    2002-03-01

    In the first part of our editorial we reviewed the possible factors responsible for mucus hypersecretion in acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. The present paper presents the results of studies proving, that mucolytics are useful in adjunctive therapy of respiratory tract disorders. Mucolytic agents such as Ambroxol and N-acetylcysteine are able to alter the secretion of mucus and its physical properties which results in improvement of mucociliary clearance. Current evidence indicate, that these drugs are effective, especially in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and acute bronchitis. They produce a modest improvement in symptom control and lung function. It has been demonstrated that there is a synergism between mucolytics and antibiotics in the treatment of exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Moreover, they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. Ambroxol is able to inhibit mediator release involved in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. As mucolytics are cheap and well-tolerated they are beneficial in the therapy of patients suffering from respiratory tract disorders. PMID:12053601

  1. Differential response to bacteria, and TOLLIP expression, in the human respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo-Nieto, Olga Lucia; Wilkinson, Thomas S; Brittan, Mairi; McHugh, Brian J; Jones, Richard O; Conway Morris, Andrew; Walker, William S; Davidson, Donald J; Simpson, A John

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The observation that pathogenic bacteria are commonly tolerated in the human nose, yet drive florid inflammation in the lung, is poorly understood, partly due to limited availability of primary human cells from each location. We compared responses to bacterial virulence factors in primary human nasal and alveolar cells, and characterised the distribution of Toll-interacting protein (TOLLIP; an inhibitor of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling) in the human respiratory tract. Methods Primary cells were isolated from nasal brushings and lung tissue taken from patients undergoing pulmonary resection. Cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, peptidoglycan, CpG-C DNA or tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Cytokines were measured in cell supernatants. TOLLIP was characterised using quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence. Results In primary alveolar, but not primary nasal, cells peptidoglycan significantly increased secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF. TLR2 expression was significantly higher in alveolar cells and correlated with IL-8 production. TOLLIP expression was significantly greater in nasal cells. Conclusion In conclusion, primary human alveolar epithelial cells are significantly more responsive to peptidoglycan than primary nasal epithelial cells. This may partly be explained by differential TLR2 expression. TOLLIP is expressed widely in the human respiratory tract, and may contribute to the regulation of inflammatory responses. PMID:25478190

  2. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. Methods A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1–4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A—F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011–2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12–24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV—Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV—bocavirus / bocavirus—influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12–24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis. PMID:26332375

  3. S. mansoni Bolsters Anti-Viral Immunity in the Murine Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Sebastian; Krempl, Christine; Kallfass, Carsten; Frey, Stefanie; Jakob, Thilo; Mouahid, Gabriel; Moné, Hélène; Schmitt-Gräff, Annette; Staeheli, Peter; Lamers, Marinus C.

    2014-01-01

    The human intestinal parasite Schistosoma mansoni causes a chronic disease, schistosomiasis or bilharzia. According to the current literature, the parasite induces vigorous immune responses that are controlled by Th2 helper cells at the expense of Th1 helper cells. The latter cell type is, however, indispensable for anti-viral immune responses. Remarkably, there is no reliable literature among 230 million patients worldwide describing defective anti-viral immune responses in the upper respiratory tract, for instance against influenza A virus or against respiratory syncitial virus (RSV). We therefore re-examined the immune response to a human isolate of S. mansoni and challenged mice in the chronic phase of schistosomiasis with influenza A virus, or with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a mouse virus to model RSV infections. We found that mice with chronic schistosomiasis had significant, systemic immune responses induced by Th1, Th2, and Th17 helper cells. High serum levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-13, IL-2, IL-17, and GM-CSF were found after mating and oviposition. The lungs of diseased mice showed low-grade inflammation, with goblet cell hyperplasia and excessive mucus secretion, which was alleviated by treatment with an anti-TNF-α agent (Etanercept). Mice with chronic schistosomiasis were to a relative, but significant extent protected from a secondary viral respiratory challenge. The protection correlated with the onset of oviposition and TNF-α-mediated goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus secretion, suggesting that these mechanisms are involved in enhanced immune protection to respiratory viruses during chronic murine schistosomiasis. Indeed, also in a model of allergic airway inflammation mice were protected from a viral respiratory challenge with PVM. PMID:25398130

  4. [Significance of PRRS virus infections for respiratory tract infections in swine--a literature review].

    PubMed

    Grosse Beilage, E

    1995-12-01

    The paper summarises present knowledge concerning the possible role of a virus which has in the meantime been classified as belonging to the arteriviridae and which causes PRRS (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome), in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases four years after first isolation of the virus. Although the fact that PRRSV-infection produces an immunity which protects swine from repeated bouts of PRRSV is common knowledge by now, reinfection with the virus might be possible. An immunosuppression, which has been suggested by many investigators, and which was thought to be the result of destruction of alveolar macrophages during virus replication, was not found as yet. The significance of the extent and the duration of the decrease in the number of alveolar macrophages, which belong to the unspecific immunity, for the total immune system of swine infected with PRRSV remains unclear. A general impairment of specific immunity through PRRSV-infection could not be shown. The present role of PRRS for the pathogenesis of respiratory disease is seen very differently. The significance of PRRSV as primary cause of an "influenza-like" illness which is principally followed by severe bacterial infection of the respiratory tract, is questioned by the results of studies which identify PRRSV-infection as a mainly subclinical disease. In these studies, clinical cases are the exemption. Attempts at experimental reproduction of a clinically manifest, respiratory disease was not successful as yet. The paper describes factors which might be responsible for these variable results. Control of PRRS is difficult in areas with a high density of the swine population, since the spreading of the virus with the wind seems to be important besides the recruitment of new, infected animals. A vaccine has not yet been registered in Germany. First experimental experiences with vaccination are available from Denmark and the USA. PMID:8591744

  5. Specific and nonspecific antibody responses in different segments of the respiratory tract in rats infected with Mycoplasma pulmonis.

    PubMed Central

    Simecka, J W; Patel, P; Davis, J K; Ross, S E; Otwell, P; Cassell, G H

    1991-01-01

    Murine respiratory mycoplasmosis resulting from Mycoplasma pulmonis infection in rats provides a useful model for the study of immunological and inflammatory mechanisms operative in the respiratory tract. We have previously shown that LEW rats develop more severe disease than do F344 rats. To further study the production of antibody responses in chronic respiratory disease due to M. pulmonis infection, we examined the distribution and development of M. pulmonis-specific antibody-forming cells (AFC) in different segments of the respiratory tracts of infected LEW and F344 rats. In these studies, the upper respiratory nodes were the initial site of antibody production after infection and remained the major site for recovery of AFC. Since infected LEW rats had equal or higher numbers of AFC than did infected F344 rats, these results suggest that the level of local antibody production alone is not responsible for the decreased susceptibility of F344 rats to murine respiratory mycoplasmosis. The differences in total antibody responses appear to be due to the greater numbers of cells recovered from the tissues of infected LEW rats compared with those recovered from F344 rats, suggesting that LEW rats may have greater production of chemotactic factors. Also, we demonstrate that nonspecific activation and/or recruitment of B cells occurs in the respiratory tracts of both LEW and F344 rats after infection with M. pulmonis. PMID:1894371

  6. Glass fibers and vapor phase components of cigarette smoke as cofactors in experimental respiratory tract carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Feron, V.J.; Kuper, C.F.; Spit, B.J.; Reuzel, P.G.; Woutersen, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Syrian golden hamsters were given intratracheal instillations of glass fibers with or without BP suspended in saline, once a fortnight for 52 weeks; the experiment was terminated at week 85. No tumors of the respiratory tract were observed in hamsters treated with glass fibers alone. There was no indication that glass fibers enhanced the development of respiratory tract tumors induced by BP. In another study Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to fresh air or to a mixture of 4 major vapor phase components of cigarette smoke, viz. isoprene (800----700 ppm), methyl chloride (1000----900 ppm), methyl nitrite (200----190 ppm) and acetaldehyde (1400----1200 ppm) for a period of at most 23 months. Some of the animals were also given repeated intratracheal instillations of BP or norharman in saline. Laryngeal tumors were found in 7/31 male and 6/32 female hamsters exposed only to the vapor mixture, whereas no laryngeal tumors occurred in controls. The tumor response of the larynx most probably has to be ascribed entirely to the action of acetaldehyde. Simultaneous treatment with norharman or BP did not affect the tumor response of the larynx. Acetaldehyde may occur in the vapor phase of cigarette smoke at levels up to 2000 ppm. Chronic inhalation exposure of rats to acetaldehyde at levels of 0 (controls), 750, 1500 or 3000----1000 ppm resulted in a high incidence of nasal carcinomas, both squamous cell carcinomas of the respiratory epithelium and adenocarcinomas of the olfactory epithelium. It was discussed that acetaldehyde may significantly contribute to the induction of bronchogenic cancer by cigarette smoke in man.

  7. Procalcitonin as a diagnostic tool in lower respiratory tract infections and tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Polzin, A; Pletz, M; Erbes, R; Raffenberg, M; Mauch, H; Wagner, S; Arndt, G; Lode, H

    2003-06-01

    The diagnostic significance of procalcitonin concentrations in lower respiratory tract infections and tuberculosis is not known. A prospective analysis was, therefore, performed in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and tuberculosis and their procalcitonin levels compared with those of patients with noninfectious lung diseases (controls). In addition, standard inflammatory parameter data were collected. A prospective clinical study was performed with four different groups of patients and a control group that consisted of patients with noninfectious lung diseases. A total of 129 patients were included: 25 with HAP, 26 CAP, 26 AECB, 27 tuberculosis, and 25 controls. C-reactive protein level, blood cell counts and procalcitonin concentration were evaluated on the first day after onset of clinical and inflammatory symptoms prior to treatment. The median procalcitonin concentrations in HAP, CAP, AECB and tuberculosis were not elevated in relation to the cut-off level of 0.5 ng x mL(-1). In the HAP group, in four of five patients who subsequently died, procalcitonin concentrations of >0.5 ng x mL(-1) were found. In acute lower respiratory infections, such as HAP, CAP and AECB, significantly elevated levels were found in comparison to the control group, but below the usual cut-off level. No differences were observed between tuberculosis and the control group. Relative to the current cut-off level of 0.5 ng x mL(-1), procalcitonin concentration is not a useful parameter for diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections. However, compared to the control group, there were significantly elevated levels in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis below the current cut-off level, which should be further investigated. PMID:12797485

  8. Systematic Review of Factors Associated with Antibiotic Prescribing for Respiratory Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    McKay, Rachel; Mah, Allison; Law, Michael R; McGrail, Kimberlyn; Patrick, David M

    2016-07-01

    Antibiotic use is a modifiable driver of antibiotic resistance. In many circumstances, antibiotic use is overly broad or unnecessary. We systematically assessed factors associated with antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections (RTI). Studies were included if they used actual (not self-reported or intended) prescribing data, assessed factors associated with antibiotic prescribing for RTIs, and performed multivariable analysis of associations. We searched Medline, Embase, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts using keyword and MeSH (medical subject headings) search terms. Two authors reviewed each abstract and independently appraised all included texts. Data on factors affecting antibiotic prescribing were extracted. Our searches retrieved a total of 2,848 abstracts, with 97 included in full-text review and 28 meeting full inclusion criteria. Compared to other factors, diagnosis of acute bronchitis was associated with increased antibiotic prescribing (range of adjusted odds ratios [aOR], 1.56 to 15.9). Features on physical exam, such as fever, purulent sputum, abnormal respiratory exam, and tonsillar exudate, were also associated with higher odds of antibiotic prescribing. Patient desire for an antibiotic was not associated or was modestly associated with prescription (range of aORs, 0.61 to 9.87), in contrast to physician perception of patient desire for antibiotics, which showed a stronger association (range of aORs, 2.11 to 23.3). Physician's perception of patient desire for antibiotics was strongly associated with antibiotic prescribing. Antimicrobial stewardship programs should continue to expand in the outpatient setting and should emphasize clear and direct communication between patients and physicians, as well as signs and symptoms that do and do not predict bacterial etiology of upper respiratory tract infections. PMID:27139474

  9. Clinical presentation and microbiological diagnosis in paediatric respiratory tract infection: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Hannah V; Blair, Peter S; Lovering, Andrew M; Muir, Peter; Hay, Alastair D

    2015-01-01

    Background Antibiotic prescribing decisions for respiratory tract infection (RTI) in primary care could be improved if clinicians could target bacterial infections. However, there are currently no evidence-based diagnostic rules to identify microbial aetiology in children presenting with acute RTIs. Aim To analyse evidence of associations between clinical symptoms or signs and detection of microbes from the upper respiratory tract (URT) of children with acute cough. Design and setting Systematic review and meta-analysis. Method A literature search identified articles reporting relationships between individual symptoms and/or signs, and microbes detected from URT samples. Associations between pathogens and symptoms or signs were summarised, and meta-analysis conducted where possible. Results There were 9984 articles identified, of which 28 met inclusion criteria. Studies identified 30 symptoms and 41 signs for 23 microbes, yielding 1704 potential associations, of which only 226 (13%) have presently been investigated. Of these, relevant statistical analyses were presented for 175 associations, of which 25% were significant. Meta-analysis demonstrated significant relationships between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) detection and chest retractions (pooled odds ratio [OR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6 to 2.3), wheeze (pooled OR 1.7, 95% CI = 1.5 to 2.0), and crepitations/crackles (pooled OR 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3 to 2.2). Conclusions There was an absence of evidence for URT pathogens other than RSV. The meta-analysis identified clinical signs associated with RSV detection, suggesting clinical presentation may offer some, albeit poor, diagnostic value. Further research is urgently needed to establish the value of symptoms and signs in determining microbiological aetiology and improve targeting of antibiotics in primary care. PMID:25624310

  10. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on respiratory tract clearance in the ferret

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, R.E.; Mannix, R.C.; Oldham, M.J.; Phalen, R.F. )

    1994-01-01

    During growth and development, young children are periodically exposed to relatively high concentrations of various air contaminants, including tobacco smoke and environmental pollutants generated by fossil fuel use. The effects of these exposures on respiratory function and lung development are difficult to determine because of interindividual variation and lack of accurate dosimetry. To provide information on the effects of chronic exposure to a common indoor and outdoor pollutant during lung development, a study was performed to assess the effects of exposure to two concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO[sub 2]; 0.5 or 10 ppm) on tracer particle clearance from the airways of ferrets exposed during postnatal respiratory tract development. Separate groups of ferrets were exposed nose-only to the test atmospheres or clean air 4 h/d, 5 d/wk, for either 8 or 15 wk. Those animals exposed for 8 wk were subsequently housed in a filtered air environment until the particle clearance measurements commenced at 3 wk prior to the end of the 15-wk exposure protocol. Radiolabeled ([sup 51]Cr) tracer particles were deposited in the respiratory tract of all animals by inhalation, and the clearance rates from the head and thoracic regions were separately monitored for 18 d. No significant effects of the NO[sub 2] exposure on head airways clearance were seen. In contrast, the rates of particle clearance from the thorax of both the 8- and 15-wk groups exposed to 10 ppm NO[sub 2] were significantly reduced, and did not differ from each other. Thoracic clearance was also reduced in animals exposed to 0.5 ppm, but the rate was not significantly different from that of the clean air exposed controls. These results show that NO[sub 2] at moderate concentrations caused highly significant changes in the deep lung of the juvenile ferret, and suggest that impairment of the clearance function may be only slowly recovered after chronic exposure. 35 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Viral respiratory tract infections among patients with acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phuong, Hoang Lan; Nga, Tran T T; van Doornum, Gerard J; Groen, Jan; Binh, Tran Q; Giao, Phan T; Hung, Le Q; Nams, Nguyen V; Kager, P A; de Vries, Peter J

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the proportion of viral respiratory tract infections among acute undifferentiated fevers (AUFs) at primary health facilities in southern Vietnam during 2001-2005, patients with AUF not caused by malaria were enrolled at twelve primary health facilities and a clinic for malaria control program. Serum was collected on first presentation (t0) and after 3 weeks (t3) for serology. After exclusion of acute dengue infection, acute and convalescent serum samples from 606 patients were using enzyme-linked immunoassays to detect IgA, as well as IgM and IgG antibodies against common respiratory viruses. Paired sera showed the following infections: human parainfluenza virus (HPIV, 4.7%), influenza B virus (FLUBV, 2.2%), influenza A virus (FLUAV, 1.9%) and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, 0.6%). There was no association between type of infection and age, sex or seasonality; some inter-annual differences were observed for influenza. Antibody prevalence, indicative of previous infections, was relatively low: HPV, 56.8%, FLUBV, 12.1%; FLUAV, 5.9% and HRSV, 6.8%. PMID:21073032

  12. Ketolides in the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Martin S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The increasing prevalence of resistance to established antibiotics among key respiratory bacterial pathogens highlights a need for new antibacterial agents for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Ketolides are a new class of antibiotics specifically developed for the treatment of RTIs. Objective: The aim of this review was to present the current status of treatment of RTIs with ketolides, focusing on telithromycin—the first ketolide to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for clinical use. Methods: To gather evidence on the current status of ketolides, a literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (years: 1990–2005; key terms: ketolides, telithromycin, and HMR3647). Results: Telithromycin shows strong in vitro activity against the major respiratorypathogens, including strains resistant to other antibiotics, as well as the atypical respiratory pathogens. The pharmacokinetic properties of telithromycin are compatible with once-daily dosing. Clinical trials have demonstrated that telithromycin 800 mg QD for 5 to 10 days is effective in the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, and mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia. Overall, telithromycin is well tolerated by patients. Drug-drug interactions are similar to those reported for macrolides. Conclusion: Evidence to date indicates that telithromycin is an effective andwell-tolerated empiric treatment for community-acquired RTIs. PMID:24672119

  13. RESPIRATORY RESPONSE AND INTERNAL TISSUE DOSE OF INHALED CHLORINE IN THE RESPIRATORY TRACT OF F344 RATS: SEX AND SPECIES COMPARISONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled Cl2 causes irritant effects in the respiratory tract. Females of various toxicological studies show more severe effects than males, notably a decrease in survivability observed in rats of a 2-year bioassay (CIIT, 1993; Wolf et al., 1995, Fundam. Appl. Toxic...

  14. Physicochemical processes and the formulation of dosimetry models. [Transport and absorption of ozone and nitrogen dioxide in the respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The major physical and chemical processes involved in the transport and absorption of O/sub 3/ or NO/sub 2/ in the lower respiratory tract are discussed. This included the development of respiratory tract models, flow patterns, and transport in tube networks, the mucous, surfactant, and tissue layers, and chemical reactions and transport of O/sub 3/ or NO/sub 2/ within these layers. Descriptions of the individual processes are simplified and integrated to illustrate the formulation of dosimetry models. Data from a dosimetry model, formulated from the concepts discussed, are used to illustrate the types of information obtained by modeling. 31 references.

  15. Bacterial Metabolism in the Host Environment: Pathogen Growth and Nutrient Assimilation in the Mammalian Upper Respiratory Tract.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Sandra K

    2015-06-01

    Pathogens evolve in specific host niches and microenvironments that provide the physical and nutritional requirements conducive to their growth. In addition to using the host as a source of food, bacterial pathogens must avoid the immune response to their presence. The mammalian upper respiratory tract is a site that is exposed to the external environment, and is readily colonized by bacteria that live as resident flora or as pathogens. These bacteria can remain localized, descend to the lower respiratory tract, or traverse the epithelium to disseminate throughout the body. By virtue of their successful colonization of the respiratory epithelium, these bacteria obtain the nutrients needed for growth, either directly from host resources or from other microbes. This chapter describes the upper respiratory tract environment, including its tissue and mucosal structure, prokaryotic biota, and biochemical composition that would support microbial life. Neisseria meningitidis and the Bordetella species are discussed as examples of bacteria that have no known external reservoirs but have evolved to obligately colonize the mammalian upper respiratory tract. PMID:26185081

  16. Acute viral infections with combined involvement of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts in children. Therapy with interferon.

    PubMed

    Dondurei, E A; Osidak, L V; Golovacheva, E G; Golovanova, A K; Amosova, I V; Gladchenko, L N

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated the percent of acute respiratory viral infections with gastrointestinal syndrome in the structure of morbidity in babies aging 6 months and elder. Therapeutic efficiency and safety of anaferon (pediatric formuation) as a component of complex therapy of acute respiratory viral infections with involvement of the gastrointestinal tract were proven; more rapid disappearance of all symptoms and improvement of the immune status parameters were demonstrated. PMID:20027348

  17. A probabilistic respiratory tract dosimetry model with application to beta-particle and photon emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfan, Eduardo Balderrama

    2002-01-01

    Predicting equivalent dose in the human respiratory tract is significant in the assessment of health risks associated with the inhalation of radioactive aerosols. A complete respiratory tract methodology based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 66 model was used in this research project for beta-particle and photon emitters. The conventional methodology has been to use standard values (from Reference Man) for parameters to obtain a single dose value. However, the methods used in the current study allow lung dose values to be determined as probability distributions to reflect the spread or variability in doses. To implement the methodology, a computer code, LUDUC, has been modified to include inhalation scenarios of beta-particle and photon emitters. For beta particles, a new methodology was implemented into Monte Carlo simulations to determine absorbed fractions in target tissues within the thoracic region of the respiratory tract. For photons, a new mathematical phantom of extrathoracic and thoracic regions was created based on previous studies to determine specific absorbed fractions in several tissues and organs of the human body due to inhalation of radioactive materials. The application of the methodology and developed data will be helpful in dose reconstruction and prediction efforts concerning the inhalation of short-lived radionuclides or radionuclides of Inhalation Class S. The resulting dose distributions follow a lognormal distribution shape for all scenarios examined. Applying the probabilistic computer code LUDUC to inhalation of strontium and yttrium aerosols has shown several trends, which could also be valid for many S radionuclide compounds that are beta-particle emitters. The equivalent doses are, in general, found to follow lognormal distributions. Therefore, these distributions can be described by geometric means and geometric standard deviations. Furthermore, a mathematical phantom of the extrathoracic and

  18. New insights on the biology of swine respiratory tract mycoplasmas from a comparative genome analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis live in swine respiratory tracts. M. flocculare, a commensal bacterium, is genetically closely related to M. hyopneumoniae, the causative agent of enzootic porcine pneumonia. M. hyorhinis is also pathogenic, causing polyserositis and arthritis. In this work, we present the genome sequences of M. flocculare and M. hyopneumoniae strain 7422, and we compare these genomes with the genomes of other M. hyoponeumoniae strain and to the a M. hyorhinis genome. These analyses were performed to identify possible characteristics that may help to explain the different behaviors of these species in swine respiratory tracts. Results The overall genome organization of three species was analyzed, revealing that the ORF clusters (OCs) differ considerably and that inversions and rearrangements are common. Although M. flocculare and M. hyopneumoniae display a high degree of similarity with respect to the gene content, only some genomic regions display considerable synteny. Genes encoding proteins that may be involved in host-cell adhesion in M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare display differences in genomic structure and organization. Some genes encoding adhesins of the P97 family are absent in M. flocculare and some contain sequence differences or lack of domains that are considered to be important for adhesion to host cells. The phylogenetic relationship of the three species was confirmed by a phylogenomic approach. The set of genes involved in metabolism, especially in the uptake of precursors for nucleic acids synthesis and nucleotide metabolism, display some differences in copy number and the presence/absence in the three species. Conclusions The comparative analyses of three mycoplasma species that inhabit the swine respiratory tract facilitated the identification of some characteristics that may be related to their different behaviors. M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare display many differences

  19. Occurence of Bordetella bronchiseptica in domestic cats with upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Garbal, M; Adaszek, Ł; Łyp, P; Frymus, J; Winiarczyk, M; Winiarczyk, S

    2016-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is a widespread Gram-negative pathogen occurring in different mammal species. It is known to play a role in the etiology of infectious atrophic rhinitis of swine, canine kennel cough, respiratory syndromes of cats, rabbits and guinea pigs, and sporadic human cases have also been reported. The aim of this article is to present the occurrence of infections caused by these bacteria in domestic cats with respiratory symptoms, as well as to conduct a molecular analysis of the flaA gene B. bronchiseptica for the purpose of ascertaining whether cats become infected with one or more bacteria strains. B. bronchiseptica was isolated from the respiratory system of 16 out of 35 domestic cats with symptoms of respiratory tract infections. Polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction products of B. bronchiseptica flaA was performed to reveal the possible differences in nucleotide sequences of the flagellin gene. The phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences obtained during PCR indicated that the isolates of bacteria from our own studies are characterised by 100% homology of the analysed fragment of the flaA gene, which suggests maintenance of a single genotype of these microorganisms in the cat population. Moreover, the bacteria revealed full homology with reference strain B. bronchiseptica ATCC 4617, and 99.4% homology with strain B. parapertussis ATCC 15311. This indicates that the PCR optimised for the Bordetella spp. flaA gene, combined with sequencing of amplicons obtained in PCR, is an effective diagnostic method allowing differentiation of Bordetella spp. type microorganisms. PMID:27487509

  20. A HYBRID CFD-PBPK MODEL OF INHALED CHLORINE GAS UPTAKE AND TISSUE DOSIMETRY IN THE ISOLATED UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT (URT) OF F344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine (Cl2), an important commercial gas, is highly reactive in water, causing irritant effects in the respiratory tract on inhalation. Nasal extraction of Cl2 is high and resultant lesions in the respiratory tract show a proximal to distal distribution ...

  1. ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters of the Human Respiratory Tract Pathogen, Moraxella catarrhalis: Role in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F; Brauer, Aimee L.; Johnson, Antoinette; Kirkham, Charmaine

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media (middle ear infections) in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In view of the huge global burden of disease caused by M. catarrhalis, the development of vaccines to prevent these infections and better approaches to treatment have become priorities. In previous work, we used a genome mining approach that identified three substrate binding proteins (SBPs) of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters as promising candidate vaccine antigens. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive assessment of 19 SBPs of 15 ABC transporter systems in the M. catarrhalis genome by engineering knockout mutants and studying their role in assays that assess mechanisms of infection. The capacity of M. catarrhalis to survive and grow in the nutrient-limited and hostile environment of the human respiratory tract, including intracellular growth, account in part for its virulence. The results show that ABC transporters that mediate uptake of peptides, amino acids, cations and anions play important roles in pathogenesis by enabling M. catarrhalis to 1) grow in nutrient-limited conditions, 2) invade and survive in human respiratory epithelial cells and 3) persist in the lungs in a murine pulmonary clearance model. The knockout mutants of SBPs and ABC transporters showed different patterns of activity in the assay systems, supporting the conclusion that different SBPs and ABC transporters function at different stages in the pathogenesis of infection. These results indicate that ABC transporters are nutritional virulence factors, functioning to enable the survival of M catarrhalis in the diverse microenvironments of the respiratory tract. Based on the role of ABC transporters as virulence factors of M. catarrhalis, these molecules represent potential drug targets to eradicate the organism from the human respiratory tract. PMID:27391026

  2. ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters of the Human Respiratory Tract Pathogen, Moraxella catarrhalis: Role in Virulence.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F; Brauer, Aimee L; Johnson, Antoinette; Kirkham, Charmaine

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media (middle ear infections) in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In view of the huge global burden of disease caused by M. catarrhalis, the development of vaccines to prevent these infections and better approaches to treatment have become priorities. In previous work, we used a genome mining approach that identified three substrate binding proteins (SBPs) of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters as promising candidate vaccine antigens. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive assessment of 19 SBPs of 15 ABC transporter systems in the M. catarrhalis genome by engineering knockout mutants and studying their role in assays that assess mechanisms of infection. The capacity of M. catarrhalis to survive and grow in the nutrient-limited and hostile environment of the human respiratory tract, including intracellular growth, account in part for its virulence. The results show that ABC transporters that mediate uptake of peptides, amino acids, cations and anions play important roles in pathogenesis by enabling M. catarrhalis to 1) grow in nutrient-limited conditions, 2) invade and survive in human respiratory epithelial cells and 3) persist in the lungs in a murine pulmonary clearance model. The knockout mutants of SBPs and ABC transporters showed different patterns of activity in the assay systems, supporting the conclusion that different SBPs and ABC transporters function at different stages in the pathogenesis of infection. These results indicate that ABC transporters are nutritional virulence factors, functioning to enable the survival of M catarrhalis in the diverse microenvironments of the respiratory tract. Based on the role of ABC transporters as virulence factors of M. catarrhalis, these molecules represent potential drug targets to eradicate the organism from the human respiratory tract. PMID:27391026

  3. The impact of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia on the upper respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lucy C; Birman, Catherine S

    2016-03-01

    Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive genetic condition affecting the function of motile cilia. The upper respiratory tract is lined with ciliated epithelium and hence a hallmark of PCD is the development, from the neonatal period onwards, of persisting secretion retention and suppurative infection in the middle ear, nose and facial sinuses [1]. This review aims to remind the clinician involved in the care of a patient with PCD of the complexities of making the diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and chronic otitis media with effusion (ChOME), the morbidity associated with CRS and ChOME and of current evidence of best practice for the management of these conditions. PMID:26898410

  4. Surveillance of upper respiratory tract disease in owned cats in Australia, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Wong, W T; Kelman, M; Ward, M P

    2013-10-01

    Reported cases of feline upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) - presumptively diagnosed as feline herpesvirus (FHV) or feline calicivirus (FCV) - throughout Australia (2010-2012) were obtained from Disease WatchDog, a companion animal disease surveillance system. This surveillance system is based on voluntary reporting of cases by veterinarians, using a web-based program. Animal factors, location and vaccination information are also reported. Cases reported were mapped and seasonal patterns were described. A total of 131 FHV cases and 120 FCV cases were reported. Excluding euthanasia, case fatality rates were 1.12% and 1.28%, respectively. The largest proportion of cases was reported in winter. Young cats (≤ 2 years), intact cats, unvaccinated cats and (for FHV) male cats appeared to be over-represented in the cases reported. The distributions of cases reported in this surveillance system provide information to aid the diagnosis of infectious feline URTD and to develop client educational programs. PMID:23910025

  5. Macroscopic Anatomy of the Saimaa Ringed Seal (Phoca hispida saimensis) Lower Respiratory Tract.

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, Juha; Jernvall, Jukka

    2016-04-01

    We studied the macroscopic anatomy of the lower respiratory tract of the endangered Saimaa ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis). Examination of one adult and one young individual found dead showed that trachea had 85 and 86 complete cartilage rings. The adjacent cartilages exhibited very few random anastomoses. There was variation in the confirmation of the trachea between the cranial and caudal part of the trachea. The right lung was divided by partly incomplete inter-lobar fissures into cranial, middle, caudal, and accessory lobes. The left lung consisted of cranial, middle, and caudal lobes. The lungs were characterized by a high amount of interlobular connective tissue. Silicone casts were prepared of the two specimens to visualize the tracheobronchial branching which was similar to that of marine ringed seals but in the Saimaa ringed seal the right middle lobar bronchus originated at the same level as the accessory lobar bronchus. Anat Rec, 299:538-543, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26766601

  6. Pteropine orthoreovirus infection among out-patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Voon, Kenny; Tan, Yeh Fong; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Teng, Cheong Lieng; Gunnasekaran, Rajasekaran; Ujang, Kamsiah; Chua, Kaw Bing; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to assess the incidence rate of Pteropine orthreovirus (PRV) infection in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in a suburban setting in Malaysia, where bats are known to be present in the neighborhood. Using molecular detection of PRVs directly from oropharyngeal swabs, our study demonstrates that PRV is among one of the common causative agents of acute URTI with cough and sore throat as the commonest presenting clinical features. Phylogenetic analysis on partial major outer and inner capsid proteins shows that these PRV strains are closely related to Melaka and Kampar viruses previously isolated in Malaysia. Further study is required to determine the public health significance of PRV infection in Southeast Asia, especially in cases where co-infection with other pathogens may potentially lead to different clinical outcomes. PMID:26106066

  7. The effect of probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Sæterdal, Ingvil; Underland, Vigdis; Nilsen, Elin Strømme

    2012-05-01

    As part of its efforts to disseminate the results of Cochrane reviews to a wider audience, the Cochrane Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Field develops Summary of Findings (SoF) tables and then uses those tables as a basis for its plain-language summaries. Each SoF table presents the most important outcomes for the review as well as the effect of the intervention and the quality of the evidence for each outcome. The process of developing the SoF table involves deciding which outcomes to present for which time points and evaluating the strength and quality of the evidence for the outcomes. In this article, we present a Cochrane review about the effects of the use of probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections. We contacted the authors of the Cochrane review to request clarification on points that we did not understand and to have them review the SoF table. PMID:24278820

  8. Virological response to peramivir treatment in adults hospitalised for influenza-associated lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Lee, N; Chan, P K S; Tam, W W S; Chan, M C W; Lui, G C Y; Kwok, A K; Ko, F W S; Ng, S S S; Yung, I M H; Wong, R Y K; Hui, D S C

    2016-08-01

    An open-label trial on intravenous peramivir was conducted among adult patients hospitalised for influenza-associated lower respiratory tract complications (LRTCs). Virus culture and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) were performed serially until Day 10. Peramivir treatment was associated with viral RNA decline as well as culture and RNA negativity, which occurred at rates comparable with those of oseltamivir: by Day 5, viral load decline -2.5 log10 copies/mL [βinteraction -0.071, standard error (SE) 0.121, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.309 to 0.167]; culture-negative, 94% (vs. 95%); and RNA-negative, 44% (vs. 36%). Extended treatment of >5 days was required in 69% of cases because of slow clinical resolution and viral clearance in LRTCs. Peramivir was well tolerated. These data are useful for future trial design in this unique population. PMID:27319273

  9. [Immunization and immuno-modulation for prevention of respiratory tract infections].

    PubMed

    Mazza-Stalder, Jesica; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Janssens, Jean-Paul

    2005-11-16

    Respiratory tract infections are a major public health issue. Prevention in high risk populations relies mainly on vaccination against Influenza and S. pneumoniae. Vaccination of health-care workers is highly recommended, to decrease absenteism, but above all to protect high risk patients. New conjugate vaccines have shown their effectiveness in the paediatric population. In patients with chronic bronchitis or COPD, immunomodulatory agents (OM-85 BV) and anti-oxidants (NAC) are probably contributive in decreasing exacerbation rates. Inhaled corticosteroids decrease exacerbations in a well defined group of severe COPD. In patients with diffuse bronchiectasis, the immunomodulatory effect of macrolides, and the use of inhaled corticosteroids should be confirmed by larger clinical investigations. PMID:16355878

  10. Clinical experience with OM-85 BV in upper and lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Derenne, J P; Delclaux, B

    1992-01-01

    The preventive effect of OM-85 BV on recurrent ENT and respiratory tract infections has been documented in a series of clinical trials. This article reviews the more significant controlled clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of OM-85 BV in airway infections. The literature reviewed covers all age groups. In summary, the administration of OM-85 BV was associated with a decrease in the number of acute exacerbations, with an increase in the number of patients remaining free from infections and with a decrease in antibiotic consumption. These results indicate the efficacy of oral immunostimulation with the bacterial extract OM-85 BV in all age groups and demonstrate its protective effect against recurrent airway infections. PMID:1439237

  11. Tissue damage and nutritional factors in experimental respiratory tract (Co-)carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Reuzel, P G; Feron, V J; Spit, B J; Beems, R B; Kroes, R

    1983-04-01

    Cofactors involved in respiratory tract carcinogenesis were studied in Syrian golden hamsters or in rats using benzo(a)pyrene as the carcinogenic agent. These factors included severe tissue damage induced by electro-coagulation, glass fibers administered by intratracheal instillation, acetaldehyde as irritant vapor, food restriction, and nutrients such as vitamin A and saturated and unsaturated fats. In addition, the effects of a combined exposure to four different major gaseous cigarette smoke components--methyl nitrate, isoprene, methyl chloride and acetaldehyde--and to one solid cigarette smoke component--norharman--were examined in short- and long-term inhalation studies. An interesting finding was the carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde, of which the possible mechanism is briefly discussed. Another conspicuous observation was the substantial increase in number and size of lipid droplets in alveolar fibroblasts of hamsters fed a high vitamin A diet. PMID:6307680

  12. Tissue damage and nutritional factors in experimental respiratory tract (Co-)carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Reuzel, P G; Feron, V J; Spit, B J; Beems, R B; Kroes, R

    1983-01-01

    Cofactors involved in respiratory tract carcinogenesis were studied in Syrian golden hamsters or in rats using benzo(a)pyrene as the carcinogenic agent. These factors included severe tissue damage induced by electro-coagulation, glass fibers administered by intratracheal instillation, acetaldehyde as irritant vapor, food restriction, and nutrients such as vitamin A and saturated and unsaturated fats. In addition, the effects of a combined exposure to four different major gaseous cigarette smoke components--methyl nitrate, isoprene, methyl chloride and acetaldehyde--and to one solid cigarette smoke component--norharman--were examined in short- and long-term inhalation studies. An interesting finding was the carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde, of which the possible mechanism is briefly discussed. Another conspicuous observation was the substantial increase in number and size of lipid droplets in alveolar fibroblasts of hamsters fed a high vitamin A diet. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. PMID:6307680

  13. Aminomethyl spectinomycins as therapeutics for drug-resistant respiratory tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, David F; Waidyarachchi, Samanthi L; Madhura, Dora B; Shcherbakov, Dimitri; Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Jiuyu; Abdelrahman, Yasser M; Singh, Aman P; Duscha, Stefan; Rathi, Chetan; Lee, Robin B; Belland, Robert J; Meibohm, Bernd; Rosch, Jason W; Böttger, Erik C; Lee, Richard E

    2015-05-20

    The antibiotic spectinomycin is a potent inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis with a unique mechanism of action and an excellent safety index, but it lacks antibacterial activity against most clinically important pathogens. A series of N-benzyl-substituted 3'-(R)-3'-aminomethyl-3'-hydroxy spectinomycins was developed on the basis of a computational analysis of the aminomethyl spectinomycin binding site and structure-guided synthesis. These compounds had ribosomal inhibition values comparable to spectinomycin but showed increased potency against the common respiratory tract pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, and Moraxella catarrhalis, as well as the sexually transmitted bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Non-ribosome-binding 3'-(S) isomers of the lead compounds demonstrated weak inhibitory activity in in vitro protein translation assays and poor antibacterial activity, indicating that the antibacterial activity of the series remains on target against the ribosome. Compounds also demonstrated no mammalian cytotoxicity, improved microsomal stability, and favorable pharmacokinetic properties in rats. The lead compound from the series exhibited excellent chemical stability superior to spectinomycin; no interaction with a panel of human receptors and drug metabolism enzymes, suggesting low potential for adverse reactions or drug-drug interactions in vivo; activity in vitro against a panel of penicillin-, macrolide-, and cephalosporin-resistant S. pneumoniae clinical isolates; and the ability to cure mice of fatal pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Together, these studies indicate that N-benzyl aminomethyl spectinomycins are suitable for further development to treat drug-resistant respiratory tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections. PMID:25995221

  14. Aminomethyl Spectinomycins as Novel Therapeutics for Drug Resistant Respiratory Tract and Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Madhura, Dora B.; Shcherbakov, Dimitri; Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Jiuyu; Abdelrahman, Yasser M.; Singh, Aman P.; Duscha, Stefan; Rathi, Chetan; Lee, Robin B.; Belland, Robert J.; Meibohm, Bernd; Rosch, Jason W.; Böttger, Erik C.; Lee, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    The antibiotic spectinomycin is a potent inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis with a unique mechanism of action and an excellent safety index, but it lacks antibacterial activity against most clinically important pathogens. A novel series of N-benzyl substituted 3'-(R)- 3'-aminomethyl-3'-hydroxy spectinomycins was developed based on a computational analysis of the aminomethyl spectinomycin binding site and structure guided synthesis. These compounds had ribosomal inhibition values comparable to spectinomycin but showed increased potency against common respiratory tract pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, and Moraxella catarrhalis as well as the sexually transmitted bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Non-ribosome binding 3'-(S) isomers of the leads demonstrated weak inhibitory activity in in vitro protein translation assays and poor antibacterial activity, indicating that the antibacterial activity of the series remains on target. In addition to improved antibacterial potency, compounds also demonstrated no mammalian cytotoxicity, improved microsomal stability, and favorable pharmacokinetic properties in rats. The lead compound from the series, compound 1, exhibited excellent chemical stability, which was superior to spectinomycin and had no significant interaction with a panel of human receptors and drug metabolism enzymes suggesting low potential for adverse reactions or drug-drug interactions in vivo. Compound 1 was active in vitro against a panel of penicillin, macrolide, and cephalosporin resistant S. pneumoniae clinical isolates and cured mice of fatal pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Together, these studies indicate N-benzyl aminomethyl spectinomycins possess suitable properties for further development as novel antibacterial agents to treat drug resistant respiratory tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections. PMID:25995221

  15. Antibiotic Utilization for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in U.S. Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, John P.; Wang, Henry E.

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate use of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) has decreased in many outpatient settings. For patients presenting to U.S. emergency departments (EDs) with ARTIs, antibiotic utilization patterns are unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of ED patients from 2001 to 2010 using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). We identified patients presenting to U.S. EDs with ARTIs and calculated rates of antibiotic utilization. Diagnoses were classified as antibiotic appropriate (otitis media, sinusitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, and nonviral pneumonia) or antibiotic inappropriate (nasopharyngitis, unspecified upper respiratory tract infection, bronchitis or bronchiolitis, viral pneumonia, and influenza).There were 126 million ED visits with a diagnosis of ARTI, and antibiotics were prescribed in 61%. Between 2001 and 2010, antibiotic utilization decreased for patients aged <5 presenting with antibiotic-inappropriate ARTI (rate ratio [RR], 0.94; confidence interval [CI], 0.88 to 1.00). Utilization also decreased significantly for antibiotic-inappropriate ARTI patients aged 5 to 19 years (RR, 0.89; CI, 0.85 to 0.94). Utilization remained stable for antibiotic-inappropriate ARTI among adult patients aged 20 to 64 years (RR, 0.99; CI, 0.97 to 1.01). Among adults, rates of quinolone use for ARTI increased significantly from 83 per 1,000 visits in 2001 to 2002 to 105 per 1,000 in 2009 to 2010 (RR, 1.08; CI, 1.03 to 1.14). Although significant progress has been made toward reduction of antibiotic utilization for pediatric patients with ARTI, the proportion of adult ARTI patients receiving antibiotics in U.S. EDs is inappropriately high. Institution of measures to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use in the ED setting is warranted. PMID:24342652

  16. Respiratory Tract Lung Geometry and Dosimetry Model for Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Frederick J.; Asgharian, Bahman; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Price, Owen; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Cox, Timothy C.; Kabilan, Senthil; Bentley, Timothy

    2015-07-24

    While inhalation toxicological studies of various compounds have been conducted using a number of different strains of rats, mechanistic dosimetry models have only had tracheobronchial (TB) structural data for Long-Evans rats, detailed morphometric data on the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats and limited alveolar data on other strains. Based upon CT imaging data for two male Sprague-Dawley rats, a 15-generation, symmetric typical path model was developed for the TB region. Literature data for the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats were analyzed to develop an eight-generation model, and the two regions were joined to provide a complete lower respiratory tract model for Sprague-Dawley rats. The resulting lung model was used to examine particle deposition in Sprague-Dawley rats and to compare these results with predicted deposition in Long-Evans rats. Relationships of various physiologic variables and lung volumes were either developed in this study or extracted from the literature to provide the necessary input data for examining particle deposition. While the lengths, diameters and branching angles of the TB airways differed between the two Sprague-Dawley rats, the predicted deposition patterns in the three major respiratory tract regions were very similar. Between Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats, significant differences in TB and alveolar predicted deposition fractions were observed over a wide range of particle sizes, with TB deposition fractions being up to 3- to 4-fold greater in Sprague-Dawley rats and alveolar deposition being significantly greater in Long-Evans rats. Thus, strain-specific lung geometry models should be used for particle deposition calculations and interspecies dose comparisons.

  17. Food allergy is associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections during childhood

    PubMed Central

    Woicka-Kolejwa, Katarzyna; Zaczeniuk, Magdalena; Majak, Paweł; Pawłowska-Iwanicka, Kamila; Kopka, Monika; Stelmach, Wlodzimierz; Jerzyńska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To find out whether children with food allergy have an increased risk of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections and of asthma. Aim To describe the clinical profile of children diagnosed with food allergy referred to the Allergy Clinic. Material and methods We conducted a retrospective study to assess the patients’ demographic, anthropometric and clinical data. The analysis included data of all children by the age of 10 years (registered with the Allergy Clinic between 2012 and 2013) in whom IgE mediated food allergy had been diagnosed during 18 months of observation. Results We included 280 children into the analysis. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (rRTI), asthma and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were observed in 153 (54.6%), 96 (34.3%), 39 (13.9%), respectively, with a significant increasing trend across age-subgroups. In children from 1 to 2 years old, sensitization to β-lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.03–14.87). In older children sensitization to allergens other than milk or egg decreases the risk of rRTI (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10–0.62); sensitization to egg decreased the risk of asthma diagnosis (OR = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01–0.75). We did not identify food allergens which change the risk of GI symptoms in children. This finding was consistent throughout all age-subgroups. Conclusions Sensitization to β-lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI in children under 2 years of age nearly four times. The presence of sensitization to food allergens above 3 years of age did not increase the risk of developing clinical presentation of food allergy other than atopic dermatitis. PMID:27279819

  18. Respiratory tract lung geometry and dosimetry model for male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Frederick J.; Asgharian, Bahman; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Price, Owen; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Cox, Timothy C.; Kabilan, Senthil; Bentley, Timothy

    2014-08-26

    While inhalation toxicological studies of various compounds have been conducted using a number of different strains of rats, mechanistic dosimetry models have only had tracheobronchial (TB) structural data for Long-Evans rats, detailed morphometric data on the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats and limited alveolar data on other strains. Based upon CT imaging data for two male Sprague-Dawley rats, a 15-generation, symmetric typical path model was developed for the TB region. Literature data for the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats were analyzed to develop an eight-generation model, and the two regions were joined to provide a complete lower respiratory tract model for Sprague-Dawley rats. The resulting lung model was used to examine particle deposition in Sprague-Dawley rats and to compare these results with predicted deposition in Long-Evans rats. Relationships of various physiologic variables and lung volumes were either developed in this study or extracted from the literature to provide the necessary input data for examining particle deposition. While the lengths, diameters and branching angles of the TB airways differed between the two Sprague- Dawley rats, the predicted deposition patterns in the three major respiratory tract regions were very similar. Between Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats, significant differences in TB and alveolar predicted deposition fractions were observed over a wide range of particle sizes, with TB deposition fractions being up to 3- to 4-fold greater in Sprague-Dawley rats and alveolar deposition being significantly greater in Long-Evans rats. Thus, strain-specific lung geometry models should be used for particle deposition calculations and interspecies dose comparisons.

  19. Morphologic observations on respiratory tracts of chickens after hatchery infectious bronchitis vaccination and formaldehyde fumigation.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, A M; Soñez, M C; Plano, C M; von Lawzewitsch, I

    2000-01-01

    The histologic changes in the respiratory tracts of chickens were evaluated after hatchery fumigation with 40% formaldehyde vapors and vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus with live attenuated vaccine (Massachusetts serotype). One-day-old chickens were housed in four isolation units in controlled environmental conditions, fed and watered ad libitum, and separated into four groups: 1) fumigated and vaccinated birds (FV group); 2) nonfumigated and vaccinated birds (NFV group); 3) fumigated and nonvaccinated birds (FNV group); and 4) control group (C group). All birds were tested to be free from Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. After necropsy on the first, eighth, and twenty-sixth days after birth, samples from tracheal upper portion and lungs were conventionally processed for light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Tissue response was monitored by microscopic examination of trachea and lung. On the first day of observation, fumigated and vaccinated birds (FV group) showed extensively damaged tracheal epithelium with exfoliated areas and some active glands with electrodense granules, and in the lung, the primary bronchi epithelium had disorganized cilia and abundant lymphocytes, with emphysematous areas in tertiary bronchus. On day 8 after vaccination, cubical and cylindrical tracheal cell proliferation was observed, and on day 26, ciliated columnar epithelium was almost regenerated with heterophil corion infiltration, and hyaline cartilage nodules appeared in parabronchi. The nonfumigated and vaccinated birds (NFV) revealed less injury on the epithelial surface and a more rapid response to epithelial regeneration than the in only fumigated animals (FNV). The control group did not show remarkable morphologic changes. Postvaccinal and fumigation effects on the upper respiratory tract were temporary, whereas in lungs, increased emphysema, cartilage nodules in the interchange zone, and general lymphocyte infiltration had caused

  20. Acrolein depletes the neuropeptides CGRP and substance P in sensory nerves in rat respiratory tract.

    PubMed Central

    Springall, D R; Edginton, J A; Price, P N; Swanston, D W; Noel, C; Bloom, S R; Polak, J M

    1990-01-01

    The mammalian respiratory tract is densely innervated by autonomic and sensory nerves around airways and blood vessels. Subsets of these nerves contain a number of putative neurotransmitter peptides, such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in sensory nerves and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), possibly serving autonomic functions. CGRP is also found in endocrine cells in rat airway epithelium. These peptides are all pharmacologically potent effectors of bronchial and vascular smooth muscle and bronchial secretion. Their functions in vivo are less well established. We have therefore examined the effects of inhaled acrolein, a sensory irritant, on three pulmonary neuropeptides: CGRP, substance P, and VIP. Groups of rats (n = 3 each) were exposed for 10 min to acrolein in air (Ct = 510, 1858, and 5693 mg.min/m3) or to air alone. Fifteen minutes later they were killed (pentabarbitone IP) and their respiratory tracts were dissected and fixed in 0.4% p-benzoquinone solution. Cryostat sections were stained by indirect immunofluorescence for a general nerve marker (PGP 9.5) and neuropeptides. The acrolein-treated animals had a dose-related decrease in tracheal substance P- and CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers compared with controls. No change was seen in total nerve fiber distribution and number (PGP 9.5) or VIP immunoreactivity, nor in CGRP-immunoreactive epithelial endocrine cells. It is concluded that the rat tracheal peptidergic nerves are a sensitive indicator of inhaled irritant substances. Their reduced immunoreactivity may be because of a release of sensory neuropeptides that could play a role in the physiological response to irritant or toxic compounds. Images FIGURE 4. a FIGURE 4. b FIGURE 5. a FIGURE 5. b FIGURE 6. a FIGURE 6. b FIGURE 7. a FIGURE 7. b FIGURE 7. c FIGURE 8. a FIGURE 8. b PMID:1696540

  1. Prevalence and susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing respiratory tract infections in North Waziristan, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shah, Said Nasir; Ullah, Bait; Basit, Abdul; Begum, Asia; Tabassum, Anum; Zafar, Shaista; Saleha, Shamim

    2016-03-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common infectious diseases in humans and are the major cause of mortality and morbidity in Pakistan. These infections are the leading causes of consultations in primary care in Pakistan. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining bacterial pathogens of respiratory tract infections and the susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates to antibiotics. The study was conducted between February, 2013 and March, 2014 in North Waziristan region of Pakistan. Sputum specimens were collected aseptically from 227 patients and cultured on the appropriate bacteriological media. Bacterial isolates were identified by biochemical tests and their antibiotics susceptibility patterns were determined by standard methods. Out of 227, various species of bacteria were isolated from 152 (75%) specimens. The prevalence of bacteria species isolated were as follows Pseudomonas aeruginosa (42.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (26.7%), Corynebacterium diphtheria (10.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.9%), Proteus vulgaris (4.6%), Micrococcus species (3.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.6%) and Bacillus species (2.6%). The susceptibility patterns varied among bacterial species depending on the antibiotics. For the susceptibility test 11 commercially available antibiotics against bacterial isolates were used. The results revealed that generally the bacterial isolates were susceptible to gentamicin (80.9%), meropenem (75 %), ceftazidime (62.5%), cefotaxime (57.9%) and ceftriazone (57.9%) and resistant to penicillin (84.9%) and doxycycline (78.9%). The antibiotics gentamicin (100%) meropenem (100%), ceftriaxone (58.5%), ciprofloxacin (60%) trimethoprim (60%), ceftazidime (66.2%) and cefotaxime (64.6%) were observed effective against the P. aeruginosa isolates. The findings of our study provide significant information for empiric therapy of patients with RTIs in North Waziristan region of Pakistan. PMID:27113300

  2. Echinacea and elderberry—should they be used against upper respiratory tract infections during pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    Holst, Lone; Havnen, Gro C.; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2014-01-01

    This review evaluates the safety of echinacea and elderberry in pregnancy. Both herbs are commonly used to prevent or treat upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and surveys have shown that they are also used by pregnant women. The electronic databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science, AMED, EMBASE, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, and Cochrane Library were searched from inception to November 2013. Relevant references from the acquired articles were included. No clinical trials concerning safety of either herb in pregnancy were identified. One prospective human study and two small animal studies of safety of echinacea in pregnancy were identified. No animal- or human studies of safety of elderberry in pregnancy were identified. Twenty clinical trials concerning efficacy of various echinacea preparations in various groups of the population were identified between 1995 and 2013. Three clinical trials concerning efficacy of two different elderberry preparations were identified between 1995 and 2013. The results from the human and animal studies of Echinacea sp. are not sufficient to conclude on the safety in pregnancy. The prospective, controlled study in humans found no increase in risk of major malformations. The efficacy of Echinacea sp. is dubious based on the identified studies. Over 2000 persons were given the treatment, but equal amounts of studies of good quality found positive and negative results. All three clinical trials of Elderberry concluded that it is effective against influenza, but only 77 persons were given the treatment. Due to lack of evidence of efficacy and safety, health care personnel should not advice pregnant women to use echinacea or elderberry against upper respiratory tract infection. PMID:24624087

  3. The Use of Guidelines for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Tanzania: A Lesson from Kilimanjaro Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Mbwele, B; Slot, A; De Mast, Q; Kweka, P; Msuya, M; Hulscher, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evaluations of the guidelines for the management of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (LRTI) Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Tanzania is scant. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of the current Tanzanian treatment guideline for the management lower respiratory tract infection. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study in 11 hospitals of different levels in the Kilimanjaro region Data were collected from May 2012 to July 2012 by semi-structured interview for clinicians using 2 dummy cases for practical assessment. Data were analyzed by STATA v11 (StataCorp, TX, USA). Qualitative narratives from the interviews were translated, transcribed then coded by colors into meaningful themes. Results: A variety of principles for diagnosing and managing LRTI were demonstrated by 53 clinicians of Kilimanjaro. For the awareness, 67.9% (36/53) clinicians knew their responsibility to use Standard Treatment Guideline for managing LRTI. The content derived from Standard Treatment Guideline could be cited by 11.3% of clinicians (6/53) however they all showed concern of gaps in the guideline. Previous training in the management of patients with LRTI was reported by 25.9% (14/53), majority were pulmonary TB related. Correct microorganisms causing different forms of LRTI were mentioned by 11.3% (6/53). Exact cause of Atypical pneumonia and Q fever as an example was stated by 13.0% (7/53) from whom the need of developing the guideline for LRTI was explicitly elaborated. Conclusion: The current guidelines have not been used effectively for the management of LRTI in Tanzania. There is a need to review its content for the current practical use. PMID:27213093

  4. Infected or not: are PCR-positive oropharyngeal swabs indicative of low pathogenic influenza A virus infection in the respiratory tract of Mallard Anas platyrhynchos?

    PubMed

    Wille, Michelle; van Run, Peter; Waldenström, Jonas; Kuiken, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Detection of influenza virus in oropharyngeal swabs collected during wild bird surveillance is assumed to represent respiratory infection, although intestine is the main site of infection. We tested this assumption by histological examination of the respiratory tract of wild Mallards with virus-positive oropharyngeal swabs. Thirty-two of 125 Mallards tested had viral-RNA positive oropharyngeal swabs. The respiratory tracts of four Mallards with the most virus were examined in detail by immunohistochemistry. None had detectable virus antigen in the respiratory tract, suggesting it was not infected. An alternative explanation is that the oropharynx was contaminated with virus through feeding in surface water or through preening. PMID:24885647

  5. College Students, Shared Decision Making, and the Appropriate Use of Antibiotics for Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyer, Kristina; Hulton, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review examines shared decision making to promote the appropriate use of antibiotics for college students with respiratory tract infections. Participants/Methods: CINAL, Cochrane, PubMed, EBSCO, and PsycNET were searched in October 2014 using the following criteria: English language, human subjects, peer-reviewed, shared…

  6. UPTAKE AND INTERNAL DOSIMETRY OF INHALED CHLORINE IN THE ISOLATED UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT (URT) OF F344 RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to large-volume commercial uses as an intermediate and for water disinfection, chlorine (Cl2) is an important hazardous air pollutant (HAP). Inhaled Cl2 causes irritant effects in the respiratory tract. We conducted studies to characterize determinants...

  7. Patterns of antimicrobial use for respiratory tract infections in older residents of long-term care facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: To describe patterns of antimicrobial use for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) among elderly residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). DESIGN: Data from a prospective, randomized, controlled study conducted from April 1998 through August 2001 to investigate the effect of vitamin ...

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1, Isolated from a Patient with a Respiratory Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shuguang; Le, Shuai; Li, Gang; Shen, Mengyu; Tan, Yinling; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Jing; Shen, Wei; Guo, Keke; Yang, Yuhui; Zhu, Hongbin; Li, Shu; Li, Ming; Zhu, Junmin; Rao, Xiancai

    2015-01-01

    We report the 6,498,072-bp complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1, which was isolated from a patient with a respiratory tract infection in Chongqing, People's Republic of China. Whole-genome sequencing was performed using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology, and de novo assembly revealed a single contig with 396-fold sequence coverage. PMID:26659688

  9. Transendoscopic soft-tissue laser ablation in the equine upper respiratory tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, K. E.; MacAllister, C. G.; Dickey, D. T.; Schafer, S. A.; Nordquist, R. E.

    1997-05-01

    Transendoscopic application of Nd:YAG laser energy for treatment of partial upper respiratory obstruction in the horse has been practiced for the last 12 years in both contact and non-contact modes. Endoscopic laser ablation has been limited to wavelengths transmitted through flexible optical fibers. Devices used for this purpose have been primarily the Nd:YAG (1064 nm), KTP (532 nm), holmium (2100 nm), and diode (805 nm) lasers. Few investigations have focused on use of the holmium or diode lasers. Objectives of this study were to evaluate use of fiber-deliverable laser wavelengths provided by newer, more portable, user-friendly, solid-state diode and holmium lasers for ablation of laryngeal tissues of the equine upper respiratory tract. In addition, information on efficacy and dosimetry for both the contact and non-contact modes was obtained using an in vitro cadaveric model. Preliminary conclusions based on histologic evaluation and scanning electron microscopy revealed that diode laser energy has the ability to penetrate laryngeal tissue easily and deeply with minimal collateral coagulation, but is sensitive to tissue color. Holmium laser energy can be used to incise laryngeal tissue easily in contact mode with moderate collateral damage, and absorption does not seem dependent on tissue color.

  10. Novel diversity of bacterial communities associated with bottlenose dolphin upper respiratory tracts.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wesley R; Torralba, Manolito; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory D; Nelson, Karen E; Morris, Pamela J

    2009-12-01

    Respiratory illness is thought to be most the common cause of death in both wild and captive populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). The suspected pathogens that have been isolated from diseased animals have also been isolated from healthy individuals, suggesting they may be part of the normal flora. Our current understanding of the bacteria associated with the upper respiratory tract (URT) of bottlenose dolphins is based exclusively upon culture-based isolation and identification. Because < 1% of naturally occurring bacteria are culturable, a substantial fraction of the bacterial community associated with the dolphin URT remains to be described. The dolphin URT microbiota revealed by sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA exhibits almost no overlap with the taxa indicated in culture-based studies. The most abundant sequences in our libraries were similar among all of our study animals and shared the greatest homology to sequences of bacteria belonging to the genera Cardiobacterium, Suttonella, Psychrobacter, Tenacibaculum, Fluviicola and Flavobacterium; however, they were sufficiently different from database sequences from both cultured and uncultured organisms to suggest they represent novel genera and species. Our findings also demonstrate the dominance of three of the four bacterial phyla that dominate other mammalian microbiomes, including those of humans, and show tremendous diversity at the species/strain level, suggesting tight coevolution of the dolphin host and its URT bacterial community. PMID:23765934

  11. Antimicrobial treatment of lower respiratory tract infections in the hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Ronald F; Rotschafer, John C; Tan, James S

    2005-07-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) that may require hospitalization include acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), which includes ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is treated similar to HAP and may be considered with HAP. For CAP requiring hospitalization, the current guidelines for the treatments of RTIs generally recommend either a beta-lactam and macrolide combination or a fluoroquinolone. The respiratory fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gemifloxacin) are excellent antibiotics due to high levels of susceptibility among gram-negative, gram-positive, and atypical pathogens. The fluoroquinolones are active against > 98% of Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin-resistant strains. Fluoroquinolones are also recommended for AECB requiring hospitalization. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that levofloxacin monotherapy is as efficacious as combination ceftriaxone-erythromycin therapy in the treatment of patients hospitalized with CAP. For early-onset HAP, VAP, and HCAP without the risk of multidrug resistance, ceftriaxone, ampicillin-sulbactam, ertapenem, or one of the fluoroquinolones is recommended. High-dose, short-course therapy regimens may offer improved treatment due to higher drug concentrations, more rapid killing, increased adherence, and the potential to reduce development of resistance. Recent studies have shown that short-course therapy with levofloxacin, azithromycin, or telithromycin in patients with CAP was effective, safe, and tolerable and may control the rate of resistance. PMID:15993675

  12. Treatment of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Primary Care: A Randomized Study Using Aromatic Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Dudai, Nativ; Eini, Anat; Torem, Moshe; Schiff, Elad; Rakover, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    This study is a prospective randomized double-blind controlled trial whose aim was to investigate the clinical effects of aromatic essential oils in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. The trial was conducted in six primary care clinics in northern Israel. A spray containing aromatic essential oils of five plants (Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Origanum syriacum, and Rosmarinus officinalis) as applied 5 times a day for 3 days and compared with a placebo spray. The main outcome measure was patient assessment of the change in severity of the most debilitating symptom (sore throat, hoarseness or cough). Sixty patients participated in the study (26 in the study group and 34 in the control group). Intention-to-treat analysis showed that 20 minutes following the spray use, participants in the study group reported a greater improvement in symptom severity compared to participants in the placebo group (P = .019). There was no difference in symptom severity between the two groups after 3 days of treatment (P = .042). In conclusion, spray application of five aromatic plants reported in this study brings about significant and immediate improvement in symptoms of upper respiratory ailment. This effect is not significant after 3 days of treatment. PMID:21052500

  13. The respiratory tract deposition model proposed by the ICRP Task Group

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.C.; Briant, J.K. ); Stahlhofen, W.; Rudolf, G. . Abt. fuer Biophysikalische Strahlenforschung); Egan, M.J.; Nixon, W. ); Gehr, P. . Anatomisches Inst.)

    1990-11-01

    The Task Group has developed a new model of the deposition of inhaled aerosols in each anatomical region of the respiratory tract. The model is used to evaluate the fraction of airborne activity that is deposited in respiratory regions having distinct retention characteristics and clearance pathways: the anterior nares, the extrathoracic airways of the naso- and oropharynx and larynx, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the alveolated airways of the lung. Drawn from experimental data on total and regional deposition in human subjects, the model is based on extrapolation of these data by means of a detailed theoretical model of aerosol transport and deposition within the lung. The Task Group model applies to all practical conditions, and for aerosol particles and vapors from atomic size up to very coarse aerosols with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 100 {mu}m. The model is designed to predict regional deposition in different subjects, including adults of either sex, children of various ages, and infants, and also to account for anatomical differences among Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects. The Task Group model represents aerosol inhalability and regional deposition in different subjects by algebraic expressions of aerosol size, breathing rates, standard lung volumes, and scaling factors for airway dimensions. 35 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in primary care: a randomized study using aromatic herbs.

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Dudai, Nativ; Eini, Anat; Torem, Moshe; Schiff, Elad; Rakover, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    This study is a prospective randomized double-blind controlled trial whose aim was to investigate the clinical effects of aromatic essential oils in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. The trial was conducted in six primary care clinics in northern Israel. A spray containing aromatic essential oils of five plants (Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Origanum syriacum, and Rosmarinus officinalis) as applied 5 times a day for 3 days and compared with a placebo spray. The main outcome measure was patient assessment of the change in severity of the most debilitating symptom (sore throat, hoarseness or cough). Sixty patients participated in the study (26 in the study group and 34 in the control group). Intention-to-treat analysis showed that 20 minutes following the spray use, participants in the study group reported a greater improvement in symptom severity compared to participants in the placebo group (P = .019). There was no difference in symptom severity between the two groups after 3 days of treatment (P = .042). In conclusion, spray application of five aromatic plants reported in this study brings about significant and immediate improvement in symptoms of upper respiratory ailment. This effect is not significant after 3 days of treatment. PMID:21052500

  15. Human upper respiratory tract responses to inhaled pollutants with emphasis on nasal lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, H.S.; Devlin, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    A set of symptoms has been described during the past two decades which has been called the sick building syndrome. These symptoms include eye, nose, and throat irritation; headache; mental fatigue; and respiratory distress. It is likely that volatile organic compounds (VOC) present in synthetic materials used in homes and office buildings contribute to these symptoms. However, there have been few studies in which humans have been exposed to known amounts of VOC under carefully controlled conditions. In the study 14 subjects have been exposed to a mixture of VOC (25 mg/cu m total hydrocarbon) representative of what is found in new homes and office buildings. Since irritation of the nose and throat are symptoms often associated with the upper respiratory tract and may result from an inflammatory response in the upper airways, the authors have used nasal lavage to monitor neutrophil (PMN) influx into the nasal passages following exposure to VOC. The authors report statistically significant increases in PMNs both immediately after a four hour exposure to VOC, as well as 18 hours later.

  16. Human upper respiratory tract responses to inhaled pollutants with emphasis on nasal lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, H.S.; Devlin, R.B. )

    1992-04-30

    A set of symptoms has been described during the past two decades. These symptoms, which have been called the sick building syndrome, include eye, nose, and throat irritation; headache; mental fatigue; and respiratory distress. It is likely that VOCs present in synthetic materials used in homes and office buildings contribute to these symptoms. There have been few studies, however, in which humans have been exposed to known amounts of VOCs under carefully controlled conditions. In this study, 14 subjects have been exposed to a mixture of VOCs (25 mg/m3 total hydrocarbon) representative of what is found in new homes and office buildings. Because irritation of the nose and throat are symptoms often associated with the upper respiratory tract and may result from an inflammatory response in the upper airways, we have used NAL to monitor PMN influx into the nasal passages following exposure to VOCs. We report statistically significant increases in PMNs both immediately after a 4-hr exposure to VOCs, as well as 18 hr later.

  17. Impacts of upper respiratory tract disease on olfactory behavior of the Mojave desert tortoise.

    PubMed

    Germano, Jennifer; Van Zerr, Vanessa E; Esque, Todd C; Nussear, Ken E; Lamberski, Nadine

    2014-04-01

    Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) caused by Mycoplasma agassizii is considered a threat to desert tortoise populations that should be addressed as part of the recovery of the species. Clinical signs can be intermittent and include serous or mucoid nasal discharge and respiratory difficulty when nares are occluded. This nasal congestion may result in a loss of the olfactory sense. Turtles are known to use olfaction to identify food items, predators, and conspecifics; therefore, it is likely that URTD affects not only their physical well-being but also their behavior and ability to perform necessary functions in the wild. To determine more specifically the impact nasal discharge might have on free-ranging tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), we compared the responses of tortoises with and without nasal discharge and both positive and negative for M. agassizii antibodies to a visually hidden olfactory food stimulus and an empty control. We found that nasal discharge did reduce sense of smell and hence the ability to locate food. Our study also showed that moderate chronic nasal discharge in the absence of other clinical signs did not affect appetite in desert tortoises. PMID:24506425

  18. Impacts of upper respiratory tract disease on olfactory behavior of the Mojave desert tortoise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germano, Jennifer; Van Zerr, Vanessa E.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Ken E.; Lamberski, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) caused by Mycoplasma agassizii is considered a threat to desert tortoise populations that should be addressed as part of the recovery of the species. Clinical signs can be intermittent and include serous or mucoid nasal discharge and respiratory difficulty when nares are occluded. This nasal congestion may result in a loss of the olfactory sense. Turtles are known to use olfaction to identify food items, predators, and conspecifics; therefore, it is likely that URTD affects not only their physical well-being but also their behavior and ability to perform necessary functions in the wild. To determine more specifically the impact nasal discharge might have on free-ranging tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), we compared the responses of tortoises with and without nasal discharge and both positive and negative for M. agassizii antibodies to a visually hidden olfactory food stimulus and an empty control. We found that nasal discharge did reduce sense of smell and hence the ability to locate food. Our study also showed that moderate chronic nasal discharge in the absence of other clinical signs did not affect appetite in desert tortoises.

  19. Effects of some Malian medicinal plants on the respiratory tract of guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Occhiuto, F; Sanogo, R; Germano, M P; Keita, A; D'Angelo, V; De Pasquale, R

    1999-11-01

    Crossopteryx febrifuga, Pteleopsis suberosa and Entada africana are used in Mali traditional medicine for fever and various respiratory diseases. We have investigated the effects of these three drugs in the form of a decoction on the respiratory tract using different experimental models. On citric acid-induced cough in guinea-pigs, the three drugs significantly decreased the number of coughs at the doses of 250 (P < 0.01), 500 (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) and 1000 (P < 0.01) mg kg(-1). The percent inhibition was respectively 62.86, 69.03 and 77.44% for C. febrifuga, 57.80, 53.90 and 61.40% for E. africana, and 37.13, 42.44 and 73.72% for P. suberosa. Codeine phosphate (10 mg kg(-1)) used as reference drug showed an inhibition of 76.32%. E. africana (1000 mg kg(-1)) reduced (65% inhibition) significantly (P < 0.05) bronchoconstriction induced by histamine (99.25% and 34.00% for control and extract, respectively). Furthermore, E. africana (1000 mg kg(-1)) provoked a bronchodilatation response when administered under basal conditions. On antigen-induced bronchospasm, C. febrifuga protected (54% inhibition) sensitized guinea-pigs with a pulmonary ventilation pressure (PVP) of 24.87% (control value < 55.00%). P. suberosa was inactive in both experimental models. The reference drug, disodium cromoglycate (10 mg kg(-1), i.v.) protected significantly (P < 0.05) with a PVP of 12.00% (78% of inhibition). This study confirmed the traditional use of these plants in the treatment of cough and other respiratory disorders. PMID:10632088

  20. Inhable particulate matter from lime industries: Chemical composition and deposition in human respiratory tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoi, Ricardo H. M.; Braga, Darci M.; Makarovska, Yaroslava; Alfoldy, Balint; Carvalho Filho, Marco A. S.; Van Grieken, Réne; Godoi, Ana Flavia L.

    Air pollution caused by the lime production industry has become a serious problem with potential effects to human health, especially in developing countries. Colombo is a city included in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba (capital of Paraná State) in South Brazil. In Colombo city, a correlation has been shown between the lime production and the number of persons who need respiratory treatment in a local hospital, indicating that the lime industry can cause deleterious health effects in the exposed workers and population. This research was conducted to deal firstly with the characterization of the size distribution and chemical compositions of particles emitted from lime manufacturing and subsequently to assess the deposition rate of inhaled dolomitic lime aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract. The elemental chemical composition and particle size of individual atmospheric particles was quantitatively elucidated, including low-Z components like C, N and O, as well as higher-Z elements, using automated electron probe microanalysis. Information concerning the bulk composition is provided by energy-dispersive X-ray detection. The majority of the respirable particulate matter identified was composed of aluminosilicates, Ca-Mg oxides, carbon-rich particles, mixtures of organic particles and Ca-Mg carbonates, soot and biogenic particles. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the human respiratory system were calculated, revealing the deposition of CaO·MgO at extrathoracic, tracheobronchial and pulmonary levels. The results of this study offer evidence to the threat of the fine and coarse particles emitted from dolomite lime manufacturing, allowing policy-makers to better focus their mitigation strategies in an effective way, as well as to the dolomite producers for the purpose of designing and/or implementing improved emission controls.

  1. [Numerical simulation on cycle change form of the pressure and wall shear in human upper respiratory tract].

    PubMed

    Li, Fusheng; Xu, Xinxi; Sun, Dong; Zhao, Xiuguo; Tan, Shulin

    2013-04-01

    The research on cycle change form of the pressure and the wall shear in human upper respiratory tract can strengthen understanding of the characteristics of the airflow in the place and provide us with a scientific basis for analyzing the diffusion, transition and deposition patterns of aerosol there. In our study, we used large eddy simulation to emulate the pressure and wall shear in human upper respiratory tract in conditions of the low intensive respiratory patterns, and discussed the distributing disciplinarian of the pressure and wall shear in mouth-throat model and trachea-triple bifurcation. The results showed that the pressure gradient variation in human upper respiratory tract was mainly fastened from root of epiglottis to trachea. The minimum pressure at the interim of inspiration was a duplication of the interim of expiration, and located on the posterior wall of the glottis. The pressure gradient variation was evident on trachea and its fork. The wall shear changed with the velocity of the air flow, and its direction changed periodically with breath cycle. PMID:23858771

  2. Therapeutic approaches to the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis of the aerodigestive tract (a clinical study)

    PubMed Central

    Avramov, Toma; Vetckova, Evelina; Nikolova, Maria; Valev, Dinko; Manolova, Antoaneta; Tafradgiiska, Maya; Kostadinov, Dimitar; Tchalacov, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare disease, characterized by recurrent proliferation of benign squamous cell papillomas in the larynx as well as in the other parts of the aerodigestive tract. We have compared different treatment options for RRP of the aerodigestive tract including surgical, conservative and combined approaches. A total of 43 patients with papillomatosis that received a combined therapy were followed in the period from 2009 to 2013. The treatment included electrosurgery and CO2 laser surgery alongside with either immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) (Calgevax) or α-interferon. In the control group without immunotherapy (n = 16) we used conventional microlaryngeal surgery. During the follow-up, relapse occurred in two patients for the CO2 laser surgery with Calgevax immunotherapy group (n = 16). In the group treated with α-interferon preceded by CO2 laser surgery (n = 9) and electrosurgery (n = 2), relapse had occurred in three patients. Among the control group, recurrence was observed in six patients. This required re-operation. Our data showed a three times more frequent relapses among patients who were operated with conventional surgery as compared to those operated with CO2 laser surgery and Calgevax immunotherapy, and two times more often relapses in patients operated with conventional surgery as compared to those with electrosurgery and CO2 laser surgery and application of α-interferon therapy. Conventional and laser surgeries have a palliative effect, though playing an important role in ensuring the airway patency. While specific antivirus treatment for human papilloma viruses does not exist, the immune modulation with Calgevax considerably reduces the frequency of relapses, by stimulating cellular immune effector mechanisms. The combined protocol allows rarefication of relapses and improvement of patients’ quality of life, but not complete healing. PMID:26692782

  3. Pathology of upper respiratory tract disease of gopher tortoises in Florida.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, G S; Jacobson, E R; Brown, D R; McKenna, C E; Schumacher, I M; Adams, H P; Brown, M B; Klein, P A

    2000-04-01

    Between August 1993 and September 1995, 24 gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) were received for pathological evaluations from various locations in Florida (USA). All tortoises were examined for clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) including nasal and ocular discharge, palpebral edema, and conjunctivitis. Of the 24 tortoises, 10 had current or previously observed clinical signs of URTD and 14 did not. A blood sample was drawn for detection of anti-mycoplasma antibodies by ELISA, and nasal lavage samples were collected for culture and detection of Mycoplasma agassizii gene sequences by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the 14 clinically healthy tortoises, eight were sero-, culture- and PCR-negative, and six were seropositive for antibodies against M. agassizii. Of those six, five were culture- and/or PCR-positive for M. agassizii, and one was culture- and PCR-negative. Of the 10 ill tortoises, nine were seropositive by the ELISA and one was in the suspect range. Nine of the ill tortoises, including the suspect tortoise, were culture- and/or PCR-positive for M. agassizii, and one was culture- and PCR-negative. For histologic evaluation and discussion, the eight sero-, culture-, and PCR-negative tortoises were designated URTD-negative, and the other 16 were classified as URTD-positive. Histologic evaluation of the upper respiratory tract (URT) indicated the presence of mild to severe inflammatory, hyperplastic, or dysplastic changes in 14 URTD-positive tortoises. Seven of eight URTD-negative tortoises had normal appearing nasal cavities; one had mild inflammatory changes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed an organism consistent with Mycoplasma spp. on the nasal mucosal surface of tortoises with clinical signs and lesions of URTD. Additionally, gram-negative bacteria were isolated more frequently from the nasal cavities of URTD-positive tortoises than URTD-negative tortoises. Because clinical signs of URTD were never observed in six of

  4. Determining the basic characteristics of aerosols suitable for studies of deposition in the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Legáth, L; Naus, A; Halík, J

    1988-01-01

    Studies of aerosol particle deposition in the respiratory tract requires experimental inhalation of artificial model aerosols. The paper formulates some of the most important requirements for the properties of such aerosols. Several suitable fractions were prepared as part of a research project dealing with the use of microporous polymers for diagnostic purposes. 5 fractions of the polymer designated G-gel 60 with the particle size as stated by the manufacturer, ranging from 3 to 7 micron were evaluated using a 16-channel particle dispersity analyzer HIAC/ROYCO MT 3210 with the sensor 1200 and operated by a microprocessor, the equipment being coupled to an APPLE IIe computer. G-gel 60 particles introduced into the aerosol were characterized by the parameters CMAD, MMAD and sg both numerically and graphically. The measurement procedure was found to be very sensitive with respect to all fractions in evaluating the subtile differences between different lot numbers of the aerosol. G-gel 60 fractions characterized both numerically and graphically were compared with the known aerosols from paraffin oil and atmospheric air. The equipment MT 3210 enables prompt determination of the percentages of aerosol particles distribution by size class. The authors conclude that the procedure, both in its numerical and graphical versions, is particularly suitable for the diagnosis of aerosol particles deposition in the respiratory tract, offering a new application for HIAC/ROYCO in the field of medicine. In evaluating atmospheric aerosol in exhaled air, the number of particles was found to be below that in inhaled air, the difference being dependent on the choice of investigation methods. Percentual distribution of deposited particles following one minute ventilation proved to be at its maximum, as regards atmospheric aerosol, in the 0.30-0.50 micron range. The deposition curve was similar to already published curves, being characterized by an S-shaped pattern with maximum deposition

  5. PEGylation of antibody fragments greatly increases their local residence time following delivery to the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Koussoroplis, Salome Juliette; Paulissen, Geneviève; Tyteca, Donatienne; Goldansaz, Hadi; Todoroff, Julie; Barilly, Céline; Uyttenhove, Catherine; Van Snick, Jacques; Cataldo, Didier; Vanbever, Rita

    2014-08-10

    Inhalation aerosols offer a targeted therapy for respiratory diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled biopharmaceuticals is limited by the rapid clearance of macromolecules in the lungs. The aim of this research was to study the effects of the PEGylation of antibody fragments on their local residence time after administration to the respiratory tract. We demonstrate that the conjugation of a two-armed 40-kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain to anti-interleukin-17A (IL-17A) F(ab')2 and anti-IL-13 Fab' greatly prolonged the presence of these fragments within the lungs of mice. The content of PEGylated antibody fragments within the lungs plateaued up to 4h post-delivery, whereas the clearance of unconjugated proteins started immediately after administration. Forty-eight hours post-delivery, F(ab')2 and Fab' contents in the lungs had decreased to 10 and 14% of the dose initially deposited, respectively. However, this value was 40% for both PEG40-F(ab')2 and PEG40-Fab'. The prolonged pulmonary residency of the anti-IL-17A PEG40-F(ab')2 translated into an improved efficacy in reducing lung inflammation in a murine model of house dust mite-induced lung inflammation. We demonstrate that PEGylated proteins were principally retained within the lung lumen rather than the nasal cavities or lung parenchyma. In addition, we report that PEG increased pulmonary retention of antibody fragments through mucoadhesion and escape from alveolar macrophages rather than increased hydrodynamic size or improved enzymatic stability. The PEGylation of proteins might find broad application in the local delivery of therapeutic proteins to diseased airways. PMID:24845126

  6. Roles of Clinician, Patient, and Community Characteristics in the Management of Pediatric Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Yaeger, Jeffrey P.; Temte, Jonathan L.; Hanrahan, Lawrence P.; Martinez-Donate, P.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Prior studies have evaluated factors predictive of inappropriate antibiotic prescription for upper respiratory tract infections (URIs). Community factors, however, have not been examined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of patient, clinician, and community factors in predicting appropriate management of URIs in children. METHODS We used a novel database exchange, linking electronic health record data with community statistics, to identify all patients aged 3 months to 18 years in whom URI was diagnosed in the period from 2007 to 2012. We followed the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) quality measurement titled “Appropriate treatment for children with upper respiratory infection” to determine the rate of appropriate management of URIs. We then stratified data across individual and community characteristics and used multiple logistic regression modeling to identify variables that independently predicted antibiotic prescription. RESULTS Of 20,581 patients, the overall rate for appropriate management for URI was 93.5%. Family medicine clinicians (AOR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.31, 1.71; reference = pediatric clinicians), urgent care clinicians (AOR = 2.23; 95% CI 1.93, 2.57; reference = pediatric clinicians), patients aged 12 to 18 years (AOR = 1.44; 95% CI 1.25, 1.67; reference = age 3 months to 4 years), and patients of white race/ ethnicity (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI 1.41, 2.37; reference = black non-Hispanic) were independently predictive of antibiotic prescription. No community factors were independently predictive of antibiotic prescription. CONCLUSIONS Results correlate with prior studies in which non-pediatric clinicians and white race/ethnicity were predictive of antibiotic prescription, while association with older patient age has not been previously reported. Findings illustrate the promise of linking electronic health records with community data to evaluate health care disparities. PMID:26553892

  7. A linear, time-varying simulation of the respiratory tract system

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, O.

    1992-11-01

    These results show that regional deposition efficiencies of inhaled particles are highly dependent on the level of physical activity in all the spectrum of thermodynamic and aerodynamic aerosol particle sizes; also it was shown that for particles in the aerodynamic size range, the values of regional deposition efficiencies at the inner regions of the lung are highly dependent on age. In addition, the shape of regional deposition efficiency curves as a function of particle size have a similar behavior for all ages; thus, any variation of the airway geometry and respiratory physiological parameters such as tidal volumes and breathing frequencies due to age difference do not cause a change in the fundamental mechanisms of deposition. Thus, for all the cases of physical activity and age dependency, the deposition of ultrafine aerosol particles is highly enhanced by diffusive processes in all regions of the respiratory tract, and for very large aerosol size particles this behavior is repeated again due to impaction and sedimentation mechanisms. Although the results presented at this work, are the result of computer simulations based on different sources of experimental data, the structure of the computer simulation code BIODEP is flexible enough to the acquisition of any kind of new experimental information in terms of biokinetic analysis and regional deposition parameters. In addition, since the design of BIODEP was intended for easy access to the users, then with exception of the subroutine DIVPAG, at this moment, the modular design of BIODEP using FORTRAN 77 allows the implementation of all the subroutines of BIODEP to be used in a interactive mode with any microcomputer.

  8. 20 CFR 498.224 - Harmless error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Harmless error. 498.224 Section 498.224 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND RECOMMENDED... substantial justice. The ALJ and the DAB at every stage of the proceeding will disregard any error or...

  9. 42 CFR 1005.23 - Harmless error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harmless error. 1005.23 Section 1005.23 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES..., modifying or otherwise disturbing an otherwise appropriate ruling or order or act, unless refusal to...

  10. The impact of passive smoking on the development of lower respiratory tract infections in children.

    PubMed

    Keskinoglu, Pembe; Cimrin, Dilek; Aksakoglu, Gazanfer

    2007-10-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke is an important public health problem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of passive smoking on lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children aged 2-12 years. A case-control study was conducted on matched-pair design. One-hundred and fifty children with LRTIs and 150 healthy children were included in the study. Data were collected through questionnaire and urine samples for the determination of cotinine levels, and were analysed by McNemar chi-square, paired t-test and Pearson correlation tests. The prevalence of parental self-reported, indoor smoking was 71.3% in children with LRTI and 72.0% in healthy children. Employing 30 ng mg(-1), the cut-off level of urinary cotinine/creatinine as commonly accepted, 87.3% of the children with LRTIs and 84.7% of healthy children were found to be passive smokers (p = 0.61, odds ratio (OR) = 0.93; confidence interval (CI) = 0.34-2.53). If 60 ng mg(-1) of urinary cotinine/creatinine was accepted as a cut-off level, it was observed that the rates of passive smoking were 76.7% and 50.7%, respectively (p = 0.000, OR = 4.72; 95% CI = 2.62-8.52). Dose-dependent exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was found to be associated with the incidence of LRTI. PMID:17517813