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Sample records for responders study p04823am3terminated

  1. NIH exceptional responders to cancer therapy study launched

    Cancer.gov

    The Exceptional Responders Initiative, a study to investigate the molecular factors of tumors associated with exceptional treatment responses of cancer patients to drug therapies, was launched today by NCI. Scientists will attempt to identify the molecula

  2. Measurement of Respondent Burden: Study Design and Early Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Joanne

    This is an experimental 2-phase study which focuses upon perceived respondent burden (PRB), that is, upon negative feelings which may be experienced by people who participate in household surveys. For phase 1 of the study, whose results are reported here, the effects of two variables-- interview length and interview effort--upon PRB were assessed.…

  3. ASA24® Instructions for Study Staff & Respondents

    Cancer.gov

    The following documents have been created by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) as resources for study staff and Respondents. Each resource is available as a ready-to-use PDF as well as in Word format to allow users to adapt the content as desired.

  4. How the Brain Responds to "Any": An MEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesan, Graciela; Johnson, Blake W.; Crain, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The word "any" may appear in some sentences, but not in others. For example, "any" is permitted in sentences that contain the word "nobody", as in "Nobody ate any fruit". However, in a minimally different context "any" seems strikingly anomalous: *"Everybody ate any fruit". The aim of the present study was to investigate how the brain responds to…

  5. Potential Selective Responding in a Parent Questionnaire Study of Post-Institutionalized Children.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Brandi N; Wright, Amanda; Julian, Megan M; Rosas, Johana M; Merz, Emily C; McCall, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Selective responding bias, though under-researched, is of particular concern in the study of post-institutionalized children because many studies rely on mailed questionnaires and response rates are often low. The current study addresses the impact of selective responding in a single wave of data collection and in a multi-wave study. Participants were 121 parents from a larger four-wave study of post-institutionalized children, identified as Never Responders, Previous Responders (but not to the current wave), or Wave 4 Responders. Parents were telephoned and asked about their adopted child's family, school, peer, and behavioral adjustment. The children (47% male) ranged in age from 2 to 20 years (M = 10.79, SD = 4.59) and had been adopted between 5 and 54 months of age (M = 15.49, SD = 9.94). There were no differences in parent ratings of adjustment for a single wave of data collection; however, participants who never responded reported poorer family and peer adjustment than those who had responded to at least one wave of data collection. Within a single wave of data collection, there was no evidence that selective responding contributes much bias. Over a multi-wave study, however, results may under-represent adjustment difficulties, especially with family and friends. PMID:23710124

  6. A Study of Interviewer-Respondent Interaction in the Urban Employment Survey. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquis, Kent H.; Cannell, Charles F.

    The purpose of this study was to provide basic knowledge about the kinds and amounts of behavior in a personal survey interview and to investigate the effects of certain respondent demographic characteristics on the verbal behavior of the interviewer and respondent during the interview. Four sample groups of employed males (Negroes and Caucasians…

  7. The burden of research on trauma for respondents: a prospective and comparative study on respondents evaluations and predictors.

    PubMed

    van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; Scherpenzeel, Annette C

    2013-01-01

    The possible burden of participating in trauma research is an important topic for Ethical Committees (EC's), Review Boards (RB's) and researchers. However, to what extent research on trauma is more burdensome than non-trauma research is unknown. Little is known about which factors explain respondents evaluations on the burden: to what extent are they trauma-related or dependent on other factors such as personality and how respondents evaluate research in general? Data of a large probability based multi-wave internet panel, with surveys on politics and values, personality and health in 2009 and 2011, and a survey on trauma in 2012 provided the unique opportunity to address these questions. Results among respondents confronted with these events in the past 2 years (N = 950) showed that questions on trauma were significantly and systematically evaluated as less pleasant (enjoyed less), more difficult, but also stimulated respondents to think about things more than almost all previous non-trauma surveys. Yet, the computed effect sizes indicated that the differences were (very) small and often meaningless. No differences were found between users and non-users of mental services, in contrast to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Evaluations of the burden of previous surveys in 2011 on politics and values, personality and health most strongly, systematically and independently predicted the burden of questions on trauma, and not posttraumatic stress symptoms, event-related coping self-efficacy and personality factors. For instance, multiple linear regression analyses showed that 30% of the variance of how (un)pleasant questions on trauma and life-events were evaluated, was explained by how (un)pleasant the 3 surveys in 2011 were evaluated, in contrast to posttraumatic stress symptoms (not significant) and coping self-efficacy (5%). Findings question why EC's, RB's and researchers should be more critical of the possible burden of trauma research than of the possible burden of

  8. What is wrong with non-respondents? Alcohol-, drug- and smoking related mortality and morbidity in a 12-year follow up study of respondents and non-respondents in the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Gray, Linsay; Glümer, Charlotte; Juel, Knud

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim Response rates in health surveys have diminished over the last two decades, making it difficult to obtain reliable information on health and health-related risk factors in different population groups. This study compared cause-specific mortality and morbidity among survey respondents and different types of non-respondents to estimate alcohol-, drug- and smoking related mortality and morbidity among non-respondents. Design Prospective follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in two cross-sectional health surveys. Setting Denmark. Participants A total sample of 39,540 Danish citizens aged 16 or older. Measurements Register-based information on cause-specific mortality and morbidity at the individual level was obtained for respondents (n=28,072) and different types of non-respondents (refusals n=8,954; illness/disabled n=731, uncontactable n=1,593). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine differences in alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity, respectively, in a 12 year follow-up period. Findings Overall, non-response was associated with a significantly increased hazard ratio of 1.56 (95% CI: 1.36–1.78) for alcohol-related morbidity, 1.88 (95% CI: 1.38–2.57) for alcohol-related mortality, 1.55 (95% CI: 1.27–1.88) for drug-related morbidity, 3.04 (95% CI: 1.57–5.89) for drug-related mortality and 1.15 (95% CI: 1.03–1.29) for smoking-related morbidity. The hazard ratio for smoking-related mortality also tended to be higher among non-respondents compared with respondents although no significant association was evident (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.95-1.36). Uncontactable and ill/disabled non-respondents generally had a higher hazard ratio of alcohol-, drug- and smoking related mortality and morbidity compared with refusal non-respondents. Conclusion Health survey non-respondents in Denmark have an increased hazard ratio of alcohol-, drug-, and smoking-related mortality and morbidity compared with respondents

  9. Invalid responding in questionnaire-based research: implications for the study of schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Fervaha, Gagan; Remington, Gary

    2013-12-01

    Data collected through self-report questionnaires are particularly susceptible to inappropriate or random responding, and such invalid data increase noise and attenuate true statistical relationships. While many researchers studying schizotypy have employed infrequency measures to exclude participants, such measures are not universally employed. Moreover, some researchers have even outright questioned whether validity scales are warranted. Here, we show the effect of invalid responses on the relationship between schizotypy and hedonic reaction. For valid responders, negative schizotypal traits were inversely related to both anticipatory and consummatory pleasure (p < .01). Invalid responses were found for 23% of respondents, and within these subjects, no relationship was found between any of the measures. When the valid and invalid respondents were pooled, the relationship was dampened. Furthermore, linear multiple regression modeling showed that validity trended toward moderating the relationship between the variables of interest. These data highlight the importance of screening for, and excluding, invalid responses in schizotypy research. Our results also affirm that screening for random responding is effective and warranted. Implications for future studies employing questionnaire-based methods are discussed. PMID:23815113

  10. Responding to Racism and Racial Trauma in Doctoral Study: An Inventory for Coping and Mediating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truong, Kimberly A.; Museus, Samuel D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Kimberly A. Truong and Samuel D. Museus focus on understanding strategies doctoral students of color use to respond to racism. The authors conducted semi-structured individual interviews with twenty-six participants who self-reported experiencing racism and racial trauma during doctoral studies. Analysis of the data resulted in…

  11. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR): A Reliability Generalization Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Andrew; Bagger, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) is one of the most widely used social desirability scales. The authors conducted a reliability generalization study to examine the typical reliability coefficients of BIDR scores and explored factors that explained the variability of reliability estimates across studies. The results indicated…

  12. Understanding and Responding to Diversity in the Primary Classroom: An International Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Bartolo, Paul; Ale, Peter; Calleja, Colin; Hofsaess, Thomas; Janikova, Vera; Lous, Annemieke Mol Lous; Vilkiene, Vida; Wetso, Gun-Marie

    2006-01-01

    The increased diversification of classrooms in recent years has placed additional demands upon teachers who strive to facilitate the learning and participation of all pupils. The aim of the current study was to explore how primary teachers across Europe understand and respond to diversity in their classrooms. A total of 35 teachers from 7…

  13. Recommendations for the Definition of Clinical Responder in Insulin Preservation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gitelman, Stephen E.; Palmer, Jerry P.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical responder studies should contribute to the translation of effective treatments and interventions to the clinic. Since ultimately this translation will involve regulatory approval, we recommend that clinical trials prespecify a responder definition that can be assessed against the requirements and suggestions of regulatory agencies. In this article, we propose a clinical responder definition to specifically assist researchers and regulatory agencies in interpreting the clinical importance of statistically significant findings for studies of interventions intended to preserve β-cell function in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. We focus on studies of 6-month β-cell preservation in type 1 diabetes as measured by 2-h–stimulated C-peptide. We introduce criteria (bias, reliability, and external validity) for the assessment of responder definitions to ensure they meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency guidelines. Using data from several published TrialNet studies, we evaluate our definition (no decrease in C-peptide) against published alternatives and determine that our definition has minimum bias with external validity. We observe that reliability could be improved by using changes in C-peptide later than 6 months beyond baseline. In sum, to support efficacy claims of β-cell preservation therapies in type 1 diabetes submitted to U.S. and European regulatory agencies, we recommend use of our definition. PMID:24722251

  14. Reliability of the sensory responder classification to learned flavor cues: a test-retest study.

    PubMed

    Tepper, B J; Farkas, B K

    1994-10-01

    Previous work from this laboratory has examined the extent to which learned associations between the flavor of food and the caloric consequences of food ingestion influence daily energy intake in humans. We have consistently identified a subset of subjects, called sensory responders, whose intakes were strongly guided by flavor cues. Sensory responders were identified on the basis of post hoc examination of energy intake patterns. The purpose of this study was to confirm the reliability of this classification scheme using a test-retest paradigm. Eighteen normal-weight, free-living adults participated in the study. Subjects were first fed a high-calorie lunch with distinctive flavors for 5 consecutive days then a low-calorie lunch with different distinctive flavors for an additional 5 days. Following this training, the flavors in the lunches were covertly switched. Subjects whose intakes were influenced by the change in the flavor cues were classified as sensory responders and those whose intakes were not influenced by the switch in the flavor cues were classified as sensory nonresponders. Subjects then repeated the protocol. All subjects who were classified as sensory responders at the end of the first trial were similarly classified at the end of the second trial, indicating that their initial responses were reliable. PMID:7800754

  15. Allocation of Study Time in Chinese Junior School Students: Habitual Responding, Item Difficulty, and Time Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuyun; Qin, Qiwen; Jiang, Yanju

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated factors influencing Chinese junior school students’ study time allocation and the age difference in the effect of habitual responding. Participants were 240 junior school students (120 girls, 120 boys; aged 13–15 years) with half taking part in Experiment 1 and half in Experiment 2, and 240 young adults aged 18–23 years, (120 women and 120 men,) involved in Experiments 3a and 3b, all native Chinese speakers. In Experiments 1 and 3a, Chinese word pairs (e.g., moon–star) were presented on the screen with three items in one array. In each trial, the items were arranged from left to right, either easy, moderate, then difficult, or the reverse. Participants had either 5 s or no time limits to study the word pairs. In Experiments 2 and 3b, word pairs were ordered in a column with the easiest items either at the top or bottom position. Results showed interactions among item difficulty, item order, and time limitation in terms of effects on study time allocation of junior school students. Participants tended to learn the items in order (from left to right and from top to bottom), but the effect of item difficulty was greater than that of item order on item selection. Results indicated that agenda and habitual responding have a combined effect on study time allocation and that the contribution of agenda is greater than that of habitual responding. The effect of habitual responding on the self-paced study and recall performance of junior school students is greater than its effect on young adults, and the study time allocation of junior school students is more likely to be affected by external conditions. PMID:27199865

  16. Professional Uncertainty and Disempowerment Responding to Ethnic Diversity in Health Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Joe; Beavan, Jackie; Faull, Christina; Dodson, Lynne; Gill, Paramjit; Beighton, Angela

    2007-01-01

    Background While ethnic disparities in health and health care are increasing, evidence on how to enhance quality of care and reduce inequalities remains limited. Despite growth in the scope and application of guidelines on “cultural competence,” remarkably little is known about how practising health professionals experience and perceive their work with patients from diverse ethnic communities. Using cancer care as a clinical context, we aimed to explore this with a range of health professionals to inform interventions to enhance quality of care. Methods and Findings We conducted a qualitative study involving 18 focus groups with a purposeful sample of 106 health professionals of differing disciplines, in primary and secondary care settings, working with patient populations of varying ethnic diversity in the Midlands of the UK. Data were analysed by constant comparison and we undertook processes for validation of analysis. We found that, as they sought to offer appropriate care, health professionals wrestled with considerable uncertainty and apprehension in responding to the needs of patients of ethnicities different from their own. They emphasised their perceived ignorance about cultural difference and were anxious about being culturally inappropriate, causing affront, or appearing discriminatory or racist. Professionals' ability to think and act flexibly or creatively faltered. Although trying to do their best, professionals' uncertainty was disempowering, creating a disabling hesitancy and inertia in their practice. Most professionals sought and applied a knowledge-based cultural expertise approach to patients, though some identified the risk of engendering stereotypical expectations of patients. Professionals' uncertainty and disempowerment had the potential to perpetuate each other, to the detriment of patient care. Conclusions This study suggests potential mechanisms by which health professionals may inadvertently contribute to ethnic disparities in health

  17. What responders need to respond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eifried, Gary

    2004-12-01

    Developing equipment and instrumentation for use by first responders and HAZMAT professionals in a Homeland Defense role requires an understanding of the real needs of those responders. These needs are driven by the manner in which the incident response takes place and how the response actions occur over time. This paper describes a chemical terrorist incident, the response functions and related timelines, and the detection and identification needs during each phase. From this information, developers will be able to better understand requirements related to sensitivity, specificity, response time, weight, ruggedness, ease of use, and other design parameters.

  18. Responding to a Social Studies Classic--"Decision Making: The Heart of Social Studies Instruction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwin, David

    2003-01-01

    In 1960, Shirley Engle published an article in "Social Education," entitled "Decision Making: The Heart of Social Studies Instruction," that he hoped would end the conflict over a definition of social studies. He argued that social studies instruction should emphasize decision making in two senses: first, as a decision about the meaning of data…

  19. Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Vanessa; Cooper, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    SSS11.4/ESSI4.6/HS11.39/NH9.13 Communication of uncertain information in earth sciences: data, models and visualization Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK. Cooper, A. H.1, Banks, V.J.1, Cowup, P.2, Curness, J.3, Davis, R.4, Dawson, L3. and Gazzard, L.4 1 British Geological Survey, Keyworth, NG12 5GG, UK 2 London Fire Brigade, 169 Union Street, London, SE1 0LL, UK 3.Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB, UK 4.Avon Fire and Rescue, Temple Back, Bristol, BS1 6EU, UK. In February 2013 a sinkhole opened beneath a Florida Home resulting in the loss of a life and demolition of the affected home. The resulting void was in the order of 15 m deep. Neighbouring homes also had to be demolished. Television footage of this unfortunate incident resonated with an Assistant Commissioner of the London Fire Brigade who questioned whether or not such a feature would be recognised in the UK and if so, how the emergency response would be managed. Stemming from this, the British Geological Survey was invited to work with the Chief Fire Officers Association Urban Search and Rescue working group on geohazards. The aim of this group was to develop national tactical operational guidance on geohazards that would form the basis for regional guidance and training. The project was addressed collaboratively providing opportunities for two students from the Coventry University Disaster Management course, that were on placements with Avon Fire and Rescue, to work with the BGS to develop the guidance. Key to the success of the project was an iterative approach to knowledge exchange with respect to firstly, the characterization of the geohazards, and the processes and uncertainties associated with them and secondly, with respect to emergency responders' needs and priorities. Effective communication was achieved through challenging and rationalising the geoscience language for the end user and through a series of customised

  20. [Study on endoscopic features in responders to systemic chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Yasutake, K; Tokisue, M; Masuda, T; Ono, S; Yoshimura, Y; Yasutake, K; Imamura, Y; Oya, M; Matsushita, K

    1990-10-20

    We studied the endoscopic features in 6 cases of advanced gastric cancer responded to chemotherapy. Patient characteristics were as follows. [table; see text] Age 43-77 (mean 63 years old) Endoscopic type Mean duration of PR was 26.6 weeks. The process of the improvement of primary lesion as judged by endoscopic findings were as follows. Firstly getting flat of wall, secondly reduction in size of ulcer, and lastly changing into scar. Number of reported cases including our case No. 6 which are diagnosed as scar endoscopically after chemotherapy and are operated successfully has been increasing. Most of them showed scar macroscopically with wide and irregular surface. Especially our case No. 6 showed keloidal scar. In these cases, the histological improvement into grade 2-3 was observed in scared tissue. Sooner or later, such a process of endoscopic improvement was observed 4-8 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy. Unless the endoscopic improvement was observed 8 weeks after initiation, regimen of chemotherapy should be changed into others. PMID:2148178

  1. Mixed Methods Study of Help Seekers and Self-Changers Responding to an Online Recovery Survey

    PubMed Central

    Witbrodt, Jane; Borkman, Thomasina J.; Stunz, Aina; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To compare self-changers (natural recovery) with help seekers on demographics, pre-recovery problem severity, and recovery beliefs and behaviors; and to augment these quantitative findings with information extracted from the qualitative stories of a subset of self-changers to explore themes in recovery paths as informed by a nascent natural recovery literature. Methods: Quantitative secondary analyses were conducted with persons who had responded to a US nationwide online survey called ‘What Is Recovery’ (WIR) and who reported a prior lifetime alcohol problem (n = 5495). Six men and six women (with longer-term recoveries) interviewed later were asked to tell their ‘recovery story from the beginning up to now’. These were coded using a narrative approach. Results: Compared with help seekers, self-changers were younger and never married: they did not differ on problem severity, gender, ethnicity or education. Self-changers identified with ‘used to have a problem’ more than in recovery/recovered, reported fewer years in that status, and reported more current, non-problematic substance use. A new concept of shadow help and shadow obstacles to help-seeking emerged from the qualitative analysis. Though self-changers believed that they had overcome their alcohol problem on their own, change actually occurred within a social context that allowed access to information, normative expectations, relationships, and other opportunities that provided important resources for change. Conclusion: Findings imply that the concept of help-seeking needs to be re-conceptualized to include the informal help we found in this study. PMID:25381088

  2. Responding to symptoms suggestive of lung cancer: a qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Birt, Linda; Hall, Nicky; Emery, Jon; Banks, Jon; Mills, Katie; Johnson, Margaret; Hamilton, Willie; Walter, Fiona M

    2014-01-01

    Background Late diagnosis of lung cancer can impact on survival rates. Patients delay seeking help for a number of reasons. This study explored symptom appraisal and help-seeking decisions among patients referred to specialist respiratory services with symptoms suggestive of lung cancer. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews with patients as soon as possible after referral, ideally before diagnosis and mainly within 10 weeks, explored factors impacting on their pathways prior to referral. Framework analysis, underpinned by the Model of Pathways to Treatment, was used to explore the data with particular focus on patients’ beliefs and experiences, disease factors and healthcare professional influences. Results 35 patients were interviewed (aged 41–88 years, 15 women, 17 with lung cancer). All described similar presenting symptoms and triggers to seek help. Appraisal of symptoms was influenced by whether they had a lung comorbidity; seriousness of symptoms was interpreted within the context of previous illness experiences. Help-seeking was triggered when: symptoms failed to respond as expected; there was an increased awareness of symptoms of lung cancer; the public nature of a cough meant others were able to endorse help-seeking. Almost half visited the general practitioner (GP) two or more times before referral; during this period they reinterpreted initial symptoms and appraised new symptoms. The meaning given to symptoms changed over time and many became increasingly concerned they may have lung cancer. The GP played a role in ensuring timely further help-seeking but often there was little guidance on how to monitor symptoms or when to reconsult. Conclusions Patients diagnosed with and without lung cancer had similar symptom pathways. Findings provide guidance for lung cancer awareness campaigns on the importance of social networks in endorsing patient help-seeking. The importance of appropriate advice, monitoring and safety-netting procedures by GPs for

  3. A Phenomenological Study of Urban Search and Rescue Members Who Responded to a Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    The complicated world of disaster management requires urban search and rescue (US&R) members to be well trained to respond to complex, unpredictable, and difficult to manage disasters anywhere in the world on short notice. Disasters are becoming more complex and difficult to manage as was witnessed by the multi-faceted disaster in Japan in…

  4. Hitting Reply: A Qualitative Study to Understand Student Decisions to Respond to Online Discussion Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Diane D.; Storberg-Walker, Julia; Stone, Sophia J.

    2008-01-01

    Providing tools for dialogue exchange does not ensure that students will respond to team mate postings or that online groups will grow in cohesiveness. Students decide whether or not to reply, and it is increasingly important to understand how students make these decisions due to the increase in distance education, millenials, and asynchronous…

  5. Hitting Reply: A Qualitative Study to Understand Student Decisions to Respond to Online Discussion Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Diane D.; Storberg-Walker, Julia; Stone, Sophia J.

    2007-01-01

    Providing tools for dialogue exchange does not ensure that students will respond to teammate postings or that online groups will grow in cohesiveness (Murphy, 2004). Students decide whether or not to reply, and it is increasingly important to understand how students make these decisions due to the increase in distance education, Millennials, and…

  6. How Institutional and University Counselor Policies Effectively Respond to Victims of Cyber Violent Acts: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gretchen M.

    2012-01-01

    This multisite case study examined how institutional and university counselor policies effectively respond to cyber violent acts. Stake's (2006) multisite case study methodology was used to identify seven themes from current literature. Two sites with four participants were selected. The participants included two counseling directors and the…

  7. Developing Specific Self-Efficacy and Resilience as First Responders among Students of Social Work and Stress and Trauma Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farchi, Moshe; Cohen, Ayala; Mosek, Atalia

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the challenging task of preparing baccalaureate social work students to master proficiency as first responders in stress and trauma situations. We begin with a brief description of the context, goals, admission procedure, structure, and process of a stress and trauma studies (STS) program. We then compare the development of…

  8. High-Dimensional Gene Expression Profiling Studies in High and Low Responders to Primary Smallpox Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Haralambieva, Iana H.; Oberg, Ann L.; Dhiman, Neelam; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Grill, Diane E.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The mechanisms underlying smallpox vaccine-induced variations in immune responses are not well understood, but are of considerable interest to a deeper understanding of poxvirus immunity and correlates of protection. Methods. We assessed transcriptional messenger RNA expression changes in 197 recipients of primary smallpox vaccination representing the extremes of humoral and cellular immune responses. Results. The 20 most significant differentially expressed genes include a tumor necrosis factor–receptor superfamily member, an interferon (IFN) gene, a chemokine gene, zinc finger protein genes, nuclear factors, and histones (P ≤ 1.06E−20, q ≤ 2.64E−17). A pathway analysis identified 4 enriched pathways with cytokine production by the T-helper 17 subset of CD4+ T cells being the most significant pathway (P = 3.42E−05). Two pathways (antiviral actions of IFNs, P = 8.95E−05; and IFN-α/β signaling pathway, P = 2.92E−04), integral to innate immunity, were enriched when comparing high with low antibody responders (false discovery rate, < 0.05). Genes related to immune function and transcription (TLR8, P = .0002; DAPP1, P = .0003; LAMP3, P = 9.96E−05; NR4A2, P ≤ .0002; EGR3, P = 4.52E−05), and other genes with a possible impact on immunity (LNPEP, P = 3.72E−05; CAPRIN1, P = .0001; XRN1, P = .0001), were found to be expressed differentially in high versus low antibody responders. Conclusion. We identified novel and known immunity-related genes and pathways that may account for differences in immune response to smallpox vaccination. PMID:22949304

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Rivastigmine in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease Not Responding Adequately to Donepezil: An Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Figiel, Gary S.; Sadowsky, Carl H.; Strigas, John; Koumaras, Barbara; Meng, Xiangyi; Gunay, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Switching patients with Alzheimer's disease from one cholinesterase inhibitor to another represents a viable option for patients not responding to current therapy. The objective of this large U.S.-based study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a treatment switch to rivastigmine in patients not responding adequately to or declining on treatment with donepezil. Method: In this 26-week, prospective, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study conducted from April 24, 2003, to June 25, 2004, patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (DSM-IV-TR criteria) who were not responding to donepezil were treated with rivastigmine 3–12 mg/day. Safety and tolerability were measured by the occurrence of adverse events and patient disposition. Treatment effects on global functioning were assessed using the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) scale. Results: Two hundred seventy patients with a mean age of 78.5 (SD = 7.56) years and a mean duration of dementia of 3.5 (SD = 2.06) years were included in the study. Sixty-nine percent of patients completed the study with 17.8% discontinuing due to adverse events. Eighty-three percent of patients reported at least 1 adverse event, with the most frequently occurring adverse events affecting the gastrointestinal system (54%). The majority of patients were reported to have either improvement or no decline on the CGIC. A limitation of the study is that the interpretation of the results is based on an overall completion rate of 69%. Conclusion: Immediately switching patients from donepezil to rivastigmine without a washout period was safe and well tolerated in the current study. Additionally, these results suggest that patients not responding adequately to or declining while taking donepezil may improve or stabilize after switching to rivastigmine. PMID:18787673

  10. Perception, Experience, and Response to Genetic Discrimination in Huntington Disease: The International RESPOND-HD Study

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Cheryl; Williams, Janet K.; Juhl, Andrew R.; Mengeling, Michelle; Mills, James A.; Bombard, Yvonne; Hayden, Michael R.; Quaid, Kimberly; Shoulson, Ira; Taylor, Sandra; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic discrimination—defined as the denial of rights, privileges, or opportunities or other adverse treatment based solely on genetic information (including family history)—is an important concern to patients, healthcare professionals, lawmakers, and family members at risk for carrying a deleterious gene. Data from the United States, Canada, and Australia were collected from 433 individuals at risk for Huntington disease (HD) who have tested either positive or negative for the gene that causes HD and family members of affected individuals who have a 50% risk for developing the disorder but remain untested. Across all three countries, a total of 46.2% of respondents report genetic discrimination or stigma based on either their family history of HD or genetic testing for the HD gene mutation. We report on the overall incidence of discrimination and stigma in the domains of insurance (25.9%), employment (6.5%), relationships (32.9%), and other transactions (4.6%) in the United States, Canada, and Australia combined. The incidence of self-reported discrimination is less than the overall worry about the risk of discrimination, which is more prevalent in each domain. Despite a relatively low rate of perceived genetic discrimination in the areas of health insurance and employment, compared to the perception of discrimination and stigma in personal relationships, the cumulative burden of genetic discrimination across all domains of experience represents a challenge to those at risk for HD. The effect of this cumulative burden on daily life decisions remains unknown. PMID:20468061

  11. Perception, Experience, and Response to Genetic Discrimination in Huntington's Disease: The Australian Results of the International RESPOND-HD Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Edmond; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; Erwin, Cheryl; Williams, Janet K.; Juhl, Andrew R.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This study examines elements of genetic discrimination among an at-risk, clinically undiagnosed Huntington's disease (HD) population. Methods: Sixty at-risk individuals, either positive or negative for the HD genetic mutation, completed a survey regarding their experiences of genetic discrimination, adverse and unfair treatment, and knowledge about existing laws and policies surrounding genetic discrimination. Results: Sixty eight percent of participants reported feeling “Great benefit” from knowing their genetic test results. Reported benefits of knowledge included planning for the future, making decisions, and many individuals found meaning in active participation in the HD community and in advocating for themselves or families at risk for HD. Many individuals found personal meaning and a sense of community from knowledge of this information and from the ability to participate in research. Despite these positive feelings toward gene testing, results demonstrated that 33% of participants perceived experiences of genetic discrimination, which occurred repeatedly and caused great self-reported distress. Significantly, more gene-positive respondents reported experiencing incidents of genetic discrimination, compared to gene-negative respondents. At least 58 separate incidents of discrimination were reported, the number of incidents ranged from 1 to 10, with 45% of individuals (9/20 respondents) indicating more than one event. Of the most significant events of discrimination, 58% were related to insurance, 21% to employment, 16% to transactions of daily life, and 5% to relationships. Conclusion: Results contribute toward validation of empirical data regarding genetic discrimination. PMID:23289616

  12. Respondent-driven sampling for an adolescent health study in vulnerable urban settings: a multi-country study.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michele R; Marshall, Beth Dail; Emerson, Mark; Kalamar, Amanda; Covarrubias, Laura; Astone, Nan; Wang, Ziliang; Gao, Ersheng; Mashimbye, Lawrence; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Acharya, Rajib; Olumide, Adesola; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Blum, Robert W; Sonenstein, Freya L

    2014-12-01

    The global adolescent population is larger than ever before and is rapidly urbanizing. Global surveillance systems to monitor youth health typically use household- and school-based recruitment methods. These systems risk not reaching the most marginalized youth made vulnerable by conditions of migration, civil conflict, and other forms of individual and structural vulnerability. We describe the methodology of the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments survey, which used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit male and female youth aged 15-19 years and living in economically distressed urban settings in Baltimore, MD; Johannesburg, South Africa; Ibadan, Nigeria; New Delhi, India; and Shanghai, China (migrant youth only) for a cross-sectional study. We describe a shared recruitment and survey administration protocol across the five sites, present recruitment parameters, and illustrate challenges and necessary adaptations for use of RDS with youth in disadvantaged urban settings. We describe the reach of RDS into populations of youth who may be missed by traditional household- and school-based sampling. Across all sites, an estimated 9.6% were unstably housed; among those enrolled in school, absenteeism was pervasive with 29% having missed over 6 days of school in the past month. Overall findings confirm the feasibility, efficiency, and utility of RDS in quickly reaching diverse samples of youth, including those both in and out of school and those unstably housed, and provide direction for optimizing RDS methods with this population. In our rapidly urbanizing global landscape with an unprecedented youth population, RDS may serve as a valuable tool in complementing existing household- and school-based methods for health-related surveillance that can guide policy. PMID:25454005

  13. Fish mucus as a rapid responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  14. Fish mucus as a rapidly responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  15. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR ENSURING CONFIDENTIALITY OF RESPONDENTS' RECORDS (G02)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide procedures designed to ensure respondent confidentiality while maintaining access to records cross-referenced to the individual. In order to minimize any reluctance of the respondents towards participation because of confidentiality consider...

  16. Non-response in a nationwide follow-up postal survey in Finland: a register-based mortality analysis of respondents and non-respondents of the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) Study

    PubMed Central

    Koskenvuo, Karoliina; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Vahtera, Jussi; Korkeila, Katariina; Kivimäki, Mika; Mattila, Kari J; Virtanen, Pekka; Sumanen, Markku; Rautava, Päivi; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine difference in mortality between postal survey non-respondents and respondents. Design A prospective cohort study with baseline survey in 1998 and comprehensive linkage to national mortality registers until 2005, the Health and Social Support study. Setting A population-based postal survey of the working-aged population in Finland in 1998. Participants The original random sample comprised 64 797 working-aged individuals in Finland (20–24, 30–34, 40–44, 50–54 years of age; 32 059 women and 32 716 men), yielding 25 898 (40.0%) responses in the baseline postal survey in 1998. Primary outcome measure Registry-based primary causes of death encoded with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Results In women, HR for total mortality was 1.75 (95% CI 1.40 to 2.19) times higher among the non-respondents compared with the respondents. In men, non-response was associated with a 1.41-fold (1.21–1.65) excess risk of total mortality. Non-response associated in certain age groups with deaths due to diseases in women and with deaths due to external causes in men. The most prominent excess mortality was seen for total mortality for both genders and for mortality due to external causes among men. Conclusions Postal surveys result in slight underestimation of illness prevalence. PMID:22422917

  17. Between Guru and Deceiver? Responding to Unchosen Metaphors in the Religious Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Amy; Simmons, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Two troublesome portraits of religious studies professors often exist in the minds of some students at any given time: the Guru, or wise spiritual teacher, and the Deceiver. These metaphors capture student perceptions of us that may be ill-informed and beyond our control. We will examine and compare how our own chosen metaphors for…

  18. Teachers' and Students' Beliefs about Responding to ESL Writing: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diab, Rula L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ESL instructors' feedback techniques and the rationales behind these techniques, to explore ESL students' beliefs about the relative effectiveness of various types of feedback, and to compare students' beliefs with those of their instructors. A university-level ESL instructor and two of her students…

  19. Traumatic Responding in Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Peter; Elliston, Ellen J.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined posttraumatic stress disorder in Mexican, Mexican American, and non-Mexican American children exposed to domestic violence. Surveys of 68 mothers with children in shelters in Mexico and Texas revealed no ethnic differences in children's overall trauma symptoms. Mothers' experience of physical and sexual abuse predicted greater…

  20. Coordinated Community Efforts to Respond to Sexual Assault: A National Study of Sexual Assault Response Team Implementation.

    PubMed

    Greeson, Megan R; Campbell, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) bring together sexual assault responders (e.g., police, prosecutors, medical/forensic examiners, rape victim advocates) to coordinate and improve the response to sexual assault. Ultimately, SARTs seek to improve sexual assault victims' experiences of seeking help and sexual assault case outcomes in the criminal justice system. To date, there are hundreds of SARTs across the United States and yet, there has been no nationally representative study of how SARTs are implemented. Therefore, the current study used a multistep process to create the first sampling frame of SARTs and then studied how SARTs are structured and function within a random sample of SARTs. Findings reveal commonalities as well as variation across SARTs. Most SARTs rated improving legal outcomes, improving victims' help-seeking experiences, and prevention/education as important goals, yet most prioritized their time and energy toward victims' experiences. SARTs' membership varied, with an average of 12 organizations involved in the SART, and 75% of SARTs having active membership from police, prosecutors, rape victim advocates, and medical/forensic examiners. SARTs were moderately formalized and most SARTs engaged in most collaborative processes (e.g., multidisciplinary cross-training, case review, policy/protocol development, and review) on an as needed basis. Finally, results revealed that some types of cross-system coordination in responding to victims/cases were quite frequent, whereas other types of coordination were quite infrequent. Implications for future research and supporting the development and sustainability of SARTs are discussed. PMID:25315485

  1. Responding to aggression; the role of significant others for student psychiatric nurses, an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Farrell, G A

    1989-10-01

    There is much quantitative information on the level and type of aggression towards hospital staff. Junior staff are said to be particularly at risk. In an attempt to add to our knowledge on this important subject a qualitative perspective was chosen to investigate the experiences of student psychiatric nurses when on clinical placements. This paper draws on interview data to highlight the importance significant others play for students before, during and following incidents of aggression. An ethnographic methodology was chosen as it is particularly suited to small-scale research when the research focus is not fully articulated. The validity of ethnographic evidence is discussed and suggestions made for the improvement of validity in further studies while remaining within an ethnographic perspective. PMID:2811826

  2. A transcranial Doppler sonography study of shoot/don't-shoot responding.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Natasha B; Matthews, Gerald; Warm, Joel S; Washburn, David A

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between changes in cerebral blood-flow velocity and performance on a speeded shoot/don't-shoot task. Brain activity as indicated by cerebral blood-flow velocity (hemovelocity) was recorded using the transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. A shoot/don't-shoot decision-making task presented participants with threat/nonthreat stimuli in the form of bull's-eye images of various colors. Participants were required to shoot threat targets using a laser-modified handgun. Results support a vigilance decrement in both the performance measures and hemovelocity. Performance, as measured by reaction time, number of hits, and marksmanship, decreased across the length of the vigil. Hemovelocity slowed across the left and right hemispheres as the task progressed, and hemovelocity was slower in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. PMID:19587168

  3. Feasibility of using fMRI to study mothers responding to infant cries.

    PubMed

    Lorberbaum, J P; Newman, J D; Dubno, J R; Horwitz, A R; Nahas, Z; Teneback, C C; Bloomer, C W; Bohning, D E; Vincent, D; Johnson, M R; Emmanuel, N; Brawman-Mintzer, O; Book, S W; Lydiard, R B; Ballenger, J C; George, M S

    1999-01-01

    While parenting is a universal human behavior, its neuroanatomic basis is currently unknown. Animal data suggest that the cingulate may play an important function in mammalian parenting behavior. For example, in rodents cingulate lesions impair maternal behavior. Here, in an attempt to understand the brain basis of human maternal behavior, we had mothers listen to recorded infant cries and white noise control sounds while they underwent functional MRI (fMRI) of the brain. We hypothesized that mothers would show significantly greater cingulate activity during the cries compared to the control sounds. Of 7 subjects scanned, 4 had fMRI data suitable for analysis. When fMRI data were averaged for these 4 subjects, the anterior cingulate and right medial prefrontal cortex were the only brain regions showing statistically increased activity with the cries compared to white noise control sounds (cluster analysis with one-tailed z-map threshold of P < 0.001 and spatial extent threshold of P < 0.05). These results demonstrate the feasibility of using fMRI to study brain activity in mothers listening to infant cries and that the anterior cingulate may be involved in mothers listening to crying babies. We are currently replicating this study in a larger group of mothers. Future work in this area may help (1) unravel the functional neuroanatomy of the parent-infant bond and (2) examine whether markers of this bond, such as maternal brain response to infant crying, can predict maternal style (i.e., child neglect), offspring temperament, or offspring depression or anxiety. PMID:10604082

  4. Self-folding of Polymer Sheets Responding to Light: Applications and Mechanistic Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Dickey, Michael; Genzer, Jan

    2013-03-01

    We describe a simple approach to self-folding that uses localized light absorption on a pre-stressed polymer sheet. Self-folding takes advantage of 2D patterning techniques (e.g., lithography, inkjet printing) and converts predefined 2D templates into 3D structures. Self-folding is useful for packaging, actuation, and sensing. Most approaches to self-folding use hinges (regions that fold) that have unique chemical composition from the rest of the sheet, which requires photolithography or other multiple fabrication steps. Our approach employs homogeneous polymer sheets and inkjet printing. The black ink (i.e., the hinge) is patterned using a desktop printer on the sheet. Hinges absorb selectively the light to locally heat the underlying polymer and cause the shrinkage. We study experimentally the key physical parameters (hinge geometry, line width and support temperature) which affect the folding. We also explore various light and ink sources for folding complex 3D structures. Moreover, we model thermal profiles inside the polymer film, and investigate folding dynamics based on thermal shrinkage and rheological properties of polymer networks.

  5. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR ASSURANCE OF RESPONDENT CONFIDENTIALITY (UA-G-3.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to design respondent privacy and confidentiality for all participants of the Arizona Border Study. This SOP covers verbal, written and electronic data references to respondents. This procedure was followed to ensure consistent data retrieval during th...

  6. Reconceptualising public acceptability: A study of the ways people respond to policies aimed to reduce alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The issue of public acceptability of health policies is key if they are to have significant and lasting impact. This study, based on focus groups conducted in England, examines the ways people responded to, and made sense of, policy ideas aimed at reducing alcohol consumption. Although effective policies were supported in the abstract, specific proposals were consistently rejected because they were not thought to map onto the fundamental causes of excessive drinking, which was not attributed to alcohol itself but instead its cultural context. Rather than being influenced by the credibility of evidence, or assessed according to likely gains set against possible losses, such responses were established dynamically as people interacted with others to make sense of the topic. This has significant implications for policy-makers, suggesting that existing beliefs and knowledge need to be taken into account as potentially productive rather than obstructive resources. PMID:25769693

  7. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR ASSURANCE OF RESPONDENT CONFIDENTIALITY (UA-G-3.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to design respondent privacy and confidentiality for all participants of the NHEXAS Arizona project. This SOP covers verbal, written and electronic data references to respondents. This procedure was followed to ensure consistent data retrieval during ...

  8. Skin substitutes based on allogenic fibroblasts or keratinocytes for chronic wounds not responding to conventional therapy: a retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Pajardi, Giorgio; Rapisarda, Vicenzo; Somalvico, Francesco; Scotti, Andrea; Russo, Giulia Lo; Ciancio, Francesco; Sgrò, Arturo; Nebuloni, Manuela; Allevi, Raffaele; Torre, Maria L; Trabucchi, Emilio; Marazzi, Mario

    2016-02-01

    Chronic wounds are an expression of underlying complex pathologies and have a high incidence. Skin substitutes may represent an alternative approach to treat chronic ulcers. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to evaluate the wound reduction using skin substitutes based on allogenic fibroblasts or keratinocytes in 30 patients not responding to conventional therapy. Wound bed was prepared, then keratinocytes on Laserskin(®) to treat superficial wounds or fibroblasts on Hyalograft 3D(R) to treat deep leg ulcers were applied, and finally wounds were treated with a secondary dressing composed of nanocrystalline silver. Once a week constructs were removed and new bioengineered products were applied, as well as nanocrystalline silver medication. In none of the cases under examination did any complications arise relating to the treatment. We also achieved a reduction in wound dimension and exudates, and an increase in wound bed score. Postoperative assessment shows a degree of healing that is statistically higher in the group treated with keratinocytes as compared with the fibroblast group. This retrospective study improves our understanding and defines the clinical indications for the various uses of the two types of skin substitutes. PMID:24517418

  9. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  10. Exceptional Responders Initial Feasibility Results

    Cancer.gov

    A pilot study evaluating identification of cancer patients who respond to treatment that is ineffective in at least 90 percent of patients found that it was indeed able to confirm a majority of proposed patients as exceptional responders based on clinical

  11. Pre-hospital assessment by a single responder: The Swedish ambulance nurse in a new role: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Carl; Källenius, Christofer; Knutsson, Susanne; Herlitz, Johan; Axelsson, Christer

    2016-05-01

    When a person with vague symptoms calls 112, the dispatchers often have difficulty prioritising the severity of the call. Their only alternative has been to send an ambulance. In Gothenburg, Sweden, a nurse-manned single responder (SR) was initiated to assess this patient group. The study aims to describe patient characteristics and assessment level made by the SR nurse among patients assessed by the dispatcher as low priority and/or vague symptoms. A consecutive journal review was conducted. During six months, 529 patients were assessed; 329 (62%) attended the emergency department (ED) or inpatient care (IC). Of these, 85 patients (26%) were assessed as high priority. Only 108 were assessed as being in need of ambulance transport. ED/IC patients were significantly older. Two hundred (38%) stayed at the scene (SS) (n = 142) or were referred to primary care (PC) (n = 58). Of the 200 SS/PC patients, 38 (19%) attended the ED within 72 hrs with residual symptoms, 20 of whom were admitted to a ward. Nine patients (4% of 200 SS/PC patients) required inpatient treatment and 11 patients stayed overnight for observation. These results suggest a relatively high level of patient safety and the usefulness of an SR among patients assessed by the dispatcher as low priority. PMID:26472522

  12. Online Respondent-Driven Sampling for Studying Contact Patterns Relevant for the Spread of Close-Contact Pathogens: A Pilot Study in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Mart L.; van Steenbergen, Jim E.; Chanyasanha, Charnchudhi; Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Buskens, Vincent; van der Heijden, Peter G. M.; Sabaiwan, Wasamon; Bengtsson, Linus; Lu, Xin; Thorson, Anna E.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E. E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Information on social interactions is needed to understand the spread of airborne infections through a population. Previous studies mostly collected egocentric information of independent respondents with self-reported information about contacts. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a sampling technique allowing respondents to recruit contacts from their social network. We explored the feasibility of webRDS for studying contact patterns relevant for the spread of respiratory pathogens. Materials and Methods We developed a webRDS system for facilitating and tracking recruitment by Facebook and email. One-day diary surveys were conducted by applying webRDS among a convenience sample of Thai students. Students were asked to record numbers of contacts at different settings and self-reported influenza-like-illness symptoms, and to recruit four contacts whom they had met in the previous week. Contacts were asked to do the same to create a network tree of socially connected individuals. Correlations between linked individuals were analysed to investigate assortativity within networks. Results We reached up to 6 waves of contacts of initial respondents, using only non-material incentives. Forty-four (23.0%) of the initially approached students recruited one or more contacts. In total 257 persons participated, of which 168 (65.4%) were recruited by others. Facebook was the most popular recruitment option (45.1%). Strong assortative mixing was seen by age, gender and education, indicating a tendency of respondents to connect to contacts with similar characteristics. Random mixing was seen by reported number of daily contacts. Conclusions Despite methodological challenges (e.g. clustering among respondents and their contacts), applying RDS provides new insights in mixing patterns relevant for close-contact infections in real-world networks. Such information increases our knowledge of the transmission of respiratory infections within populations and can be used to

  13. Responding to racism: insights on how racism can damage health from an urban study of Australian Aboriginal people.

    PubMed

    Ziersch, Anna M; Gallaher, Gilbert; Baum, Fran; Bentley, Michael

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines responses to racism and the pathways through which racism can affect health and wellbeing for Aboriginal people living in an urban environment. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2006/07 with 153 Aboriginal people living in Adelaide, Australia. Participants were asked about their experience of, and responses to, racism, and the impact of these experiences on their health. Racism was regularly experienced by 93% of participants. Almost two thirds of people felt that racism affected their health. Using a thematic analysis with a particular focus on how agency and structure interacted, a number of key reactions and responses to racism were identified. These included: emotional and physiological reactions; and responses such as gaining support from social networks; confronting the person/situation; ignoring it; avoiding situations where they might experience racism; 'minimising' the significance or severity of racism or questioning whether incidents were racist; and consuming alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. A further theme was a conscious decision to not 'allow' racism to affect health. Our study found that most people used more than one of these coping strategies, and that strategies were selected with an awareness of positive and negative health impacts. While individuals demonstrated substantial agency in their responses, there were clear structural constraints on how they reacted and responded. We found that not only was racism potentially detrimental to health, but so too were some responses. However, while some strategies appeared 'healthier' than others, most strategies entailed costs and benefits, and these depended on the meanings of responses for individuals. This paper concludes that initiatives to promote health-protective responses to racism need to consider structural constraints and the overarching goal of reducing systemic racism. PMID:21835522

  14. Respondent-driven sampling in a study of drug users in New York City: notes from the field.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Courtney; Des Jarlais, Don; Bramson, Heidi; Tower, Lisa; Abdul-Quader, Abu S; Nemeth, Chris; Heckathorn, Douglas

    2006-11-01

    Beth Israel Medical Center (BIMC), in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in a study of HIV seroprevalence among drug users in New York City in 2004. We report here on operational issues with RDS including recruitment, coupon distribution, storefront operations, police and community relations, and the overall lessons we learned. Project staff recruited eight seeds from a syringe exchange in Lower Manhattan to serve as the initial study participants. Upon completion of the interview that lasted approximately 1 h and a blood draw, each seed was given three coupons to recruit three drug users into the study. Each of the subsequent eligible participants was also given three coupons to recruit three of their drug-using acquaintances. Eligible participants had to have: injected, smoked or snorted an illicit drug in the last 6 months (other than marijuana), aged 18 or older, adequate English language knowledge to permit informed consent and complete questionnaire. From April to July 2004, 618 drug users were interviewed, including 263 (43%) current injectors, 119 (19%) former injectors, and 236 (38%) never injectors. Four hundred sixty nine (76%) participants were men, 147 (24%) were women, and two (<1%) were transgender. By race/ethnicity, 285 (46%) were black, 218 (35%) Hispanic, 88 (14%) white, 23 (4%) mixed/not specified, and four (<1%) native American. Interviews were initially done on a drop-in basis but this system changed to appointments 1 month into the study due to the large volume of subjects coming in for interviews. Data collection was originally proposed to last for 1 year with a target recruitment of 500 drug users. Utilizing RDS, we were able to recruit and interview 118 more drug users than originally proposed in one quarter of the time. RDS was efficient with respect to time and economics (we did not have to hire an outreach worker) and

  15. The Relations of Parental Warmth and Positive Expressiveness to Children's Empathy-Related Responding and Social Functioning: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Losoya, Sandra H.; Fabes, Richard A.; Reiser, Mark; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Cumberland, Amanda J.; Shepard, Stephanie A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the concurrent and cross-time relations of parents' warmth and positive expressivity to elementary school children's situational facial and self-reported empathic responding, social competence, and externalizing problems. Found that parents' positive expressivity mediated the relation between parental warmth and children's empathy, and…

  16. Respondent-Driven Sampling with Hard-to-Reach Emerging Adults: An Introduction and Case Study with Rural African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Slater, LaTrina M.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining representative samples from populations of emerging adults who do not attend college is challenging for researchers. This article introduces respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a method for obtaining representative samples of hard-to-reach but socially interconnected populations. RDS combines a prescribed method for chain referral with a…

  17. Factors that Influence the Way Communities Respond to Proposals for Major Changes to Local Emergency Services: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, Helen; Harrison, David A.; Fulop, Naomi J.; Raine, Rosalind

    2015-01-01

    Objective According to policy commentators, decisions about how best to organise care involve trade-offs between factors relating to care quality, workforce, cost, and patient access. In England, proposed changes such as Emergency Department closures often face public opposition. This study examined the way communities respond to plans aimed at reorganising emergency services, including the trade-offs inherent in such decisions. Design Cross-sectional study involving in-depth interviews. Participants selected their priorities for emergency care, including aspects they might be prepared to have ‘less’ of (e.g. rapid access) if it meant having ‘more’ of another (e.g. consultant-delivered care). A thematic analysis was carried out, combining inductive and deductive approaches, drawing on theories about risk perception. Setting Two urban areas of England; one where changes to emergency services were under consideration (‘Greenville’), and one where they were not (‘Hilltown’). Participants 28 participants in total. Greenville interviewees included more common emergency service users - parents of young children (n=5) and older people (n=6) - plus patient representatives and individuals campaigning against service closures (n=9). Hilltown interviewees (n=8) received outpatient care for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, an important cause of emergency admission. Results Most participants, in both areas, were not willing to accommodate the trade-offs involved in consolidating emergency services, principally because of the belief that timely access is associated with better outcomes. Participants did not consider the proposed improvements as gains worth having; interviewees believed care quality would be adversely impact, partly because increased patient numbers would place staff under greater pressure and result in longer waiting times. Conclusions Visible clinical leadership and detailed explanation of the case for change were insufficient to overcome

  18. Expecting the unexpected: A mixed methods study of violence to EMS responders in an urban fire department

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Brittany; Davis, Andrea L.; Wright, Jasmine; Widman, Shannon; LeVasseur, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Struck by injuries experienced by females were observed to be higher compared to males in an urban fire department. The disparity was investigated while gaining a grounded understanding of EMS responder experiences from patient‐initiated violence. Methods A convergent parallel mixed methods design was employed. Using a linked injury dataset, patient‐initiated violence estimates were calculated comparing genders. Semi‐structured interviews and a focus group were conducted with injured EMS responders. Results Paramedics had significantly higher odds for patient‐initiated violence injuries than firefighters (OR 14.4, 95%CI: 9.2–22.2, P < 0.001). Females reported increased odds of patient‐initiated violence injuries compared to males (OR = 6.25, 95%CI 3.8–10.2), but this relationship was entirely mediated through occupation (AOR = 1.64, 95%CI 0.94–2.85). Qualitative data illuminated the impact of patient‐initiated violence and highlighted important organizational opportunities for intervention. Conclusions Mixed methods greatly enhanced the assessment of EMS responder patient‐initiated violence prevention. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:150–163, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26725756

  19. What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

  20. Basic and applied research on choice responding.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, W W; Mazur, J E

    1997-01-01

    Choice responding refers to the manner in which individuals allocate their time or responding among available response options. In this article, we first review basic investigations that have identified and examined variables that influence choice responding, such as response effort and reinforcement rate, immediacy, and quality. We then describe recent bridge and applied studies that illustrate how the results of basic research on choice responding can help to account for human behavior in natural environments and improve clinical assessments and interventions. PMID:9316255

  1. SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS WITH RESPONDENT-DRIVEN SAMPLING DATA: A STUDY OF RACIAL INTEGRATION ON CAMPUS1

    PubMed Central

    Wejnert, Cyprian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) as a viable method of sampling and analyzing social networks with survey data. RDS is a network based sampling and analysis method that provides a middle ground compliment to ego-centric and saturated methods of social network analysis. The method provides survey data, similar to ego-centric approaches, on individuals who are connected by behaviorally documented ties, allowing for macro-level analysis of network structure, similar to that supported by saturated approaches. Using racial interaction of university undergraduates as an empirical example, the paper examines whether and to what extent racial diversity at the institutional level is reflected as racial integration at the interpersonal level by testing hypotheses regarding the quantity and quality of cross-race friendships. The primary goal of this article, however, is to introduce RDS to the network community and to stimulate further research toward the goal of expanding the analytical capacity of RDS. Advantages, limitations, and areas for future research to network analysis using RDS are discussed. PMID:20383316

  2. How Do the Laurentian Great Lakes Water Levels Respond to Climate Change? A Regional Climate Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Vavrus, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain twenty percent of the world's surface freshwater. Over the past century, inter-annual water levels have fluctuated in a primarily cyclic pattern with amplitudes from 0.2 m in Lake Superior to 0.7 m in Lake Erie. These changes in water levels result in more significant changes in coastlines of the Great Lakes and alter shoreline erosion, pollutant concentrations, and shoreline habitat. As climate changes, we are interested in how lake levels will respond. Global scale climate models do not depict the Great Lakes, and thus, are unlikely to accurately capture the mechanisms impacting water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model 4 at 20 km horizontal resolution with an improved, explicit lake model, a groundwater module, and a channel routing model. We simulate the past regional climate (1978-present) using NCEP Reanalysis to evaluate model performance and biases. We then simulate present and future water levels using boundary conditions from the global Community Climate System Model. Model evaluation and preliminary findings for future water levels will be presented.

  3. Contactable Non-responders Show Different Characteristics Compared to Lost to Follow-Up Participants: Insights from an Australian Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shu-Kay; Scott, Rani; Scuffham, Paul A

    2016-07-01

    Objective This research aims to identify predictors of attrition in a longitudinal birth cohort study in Australia and assess differences in baseline characteristics and responses in subsequent follow-up phases between contactable non-responders and uncontactable non-responders deemed "lost to follow-up (LTF)". Methods 3368 women recruited from three public hospitals in Southeast Queensland and Northern New South Wales during antenatal visits in 2006-2011 completed a baseline questionnaire to elicit information on multiple domains of exposures. A follow-up questionnaire was posted to each participant at 1 year after birth to obtain mother's and child's health and development information. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the association between exposures and respondents' status at 1 year. The effect of an inverse-probability-weighting method to adjust for non-response was studied. Results Overall attrition at 1-year was 35.4 %; major types of attrition were "contactable non-response" (27.6 %) and "LTF" (6.7 %). These two attrition types showed different responses at the 3-year follow-up and involved different predictors. Besides shared predictors (first language not English, higher risk of psychological distress, had smoked during pregnancy, higher levels of family conflict), distinguishable predictors of contactable non-responders were younger age, having moved home in the past year and having children under 16 in the household. Attrition rates increased substantially from 20 % in 2006 to 54 % in 2011. Conclusions This observed trend of increased attrition rates raises concern about the use of traditional techniques, such as "paper-based" questionnaires, in longitudinal cohort studies. The supplementary use of electronic communications, such as online survey tools and smart-device applications, could provide a better alternative. PMID:26976281

  4. Responding to Children's Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to explore the issues that face primary school teachers when responding to children's drawings. Assessment in art and design is an ongoing concern for teachers with limited experience and confidence in the area and, although children's drawings continue to be a focus of much research, the question of what it is that teachers say…

  5. Experience and Responding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Responds to critiques of an article comparing Dewey and Vygotsky. The critiques argued that Dewey did not promote process over product in the classroom and that Dewey and Vygotsky are more similar than the original article suggested. Focuses on critiques regarding the process product relationship, concrete curriculum issues, student diversity, and…

  6. Responding to Misbehavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kathryn; Forton, Mary Beth; Porter, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    As they learn to negotiate social expectations, children test limits, get carried away, forget, and make mistakes. In fact, having these experiences--and seeing how adults respond to them--is one way children learn about how to behave. Just as when they teach academics, teachers can use students' behavioral mistakes as opportunities for learning.…

  7. Responding to Tragedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coopman, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author, a superintendent of Clark-Pleasant School Corporation in Whiteland, Indiana, relates how she and the school community responded to a car accident that killed two students. The author stresses the need to develop a comprehensive crisis plan. It is also important to be sensitive to the needs of family members who are…

  8. "Cigarettes Are Priority": A Qualitative Study of How Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers Respond to Rising Cigarette Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite substantial modelling research assessing the impact of cigarette taxes on smoking rates across income groups, few studies have examined the broader financial effects and unintended consequences on very low-income smokers. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers in a high-income country manage smoking costs on…

  9. Connected Coaching: How Three Middle School Teachers Responded to the Challenge to Integrate Social Studies and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkley, Russell; Keiser, Megan; Strahan, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examined three teachers' responses to professional development initiatives designed to support them in integrating literacy strategies with their social studies curriculum. Data from participant observation, interviews, archival records, and email exchanges provided insights regarding participants' efforts to weave together literacy…

  10. A Study of Some Conditions Relating to the Retarded Adult's Stereotyped Responding in a Binary-Choice Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Siegel, Paul S.

    1977-01-01

    Examined in a longitudinal study were the effects of conditions on alternation and perseveration of eight moderately and severely mentally retarded institutionalized adults. Available from: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, New Jersey 07648. (CL)

  11. Responding to Mechanical Antigravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.; Thomas, Nicholas E.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the experiences of the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project, suggestions are offered for constructively responding to proposals that purport breakthrough propulsion using mechanical devices. Because of the relatively large number of unsolicited submissions received (about 1 per workday) and because many of these involve similar concepts, this report is offered to help the would-be submitters make genuine progress as well as to help reviewers respond to such submissions. Devices that use oscillating masses or gyroscope falsely appear to create net thrust through differential friction or by misinterpreting torques as linear forces. To cover both the possibility of an errant claim and a genuine discovery, reviews should require that submitters meet minimal thresholds of proof before engaging in further correspondence; such as achieving sustained deflection of a level-platform pendulum in the case of mechanical thrusters.

  12. The Effect of Active Student Responding during Computer-Assisted Instruction on Social Studies Learning by Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerome, Annamaria; Barbetta, Patricia M.

    2005-01-01

    An alternating treatments design with a best treatments phase was used to compare two active student response (ASR) conditions and one on-task (OT) condition on the acquisition and maintenance of social studies facts during computer-assisted instruction. Each week for six weeks, five students were provided daily computer-assisted instruction on 21…

  13. Head Start Evaluation and Research Center, University of Kansas. Report No. IIA, a Study of Auditory Discrimination and Verbal Responding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Thomas A.

    An auditory discrimination procedure was used in this study to attempt to correct the speech problem of a 4-year-old girl. The major characteristic of that speech problem was the consistent use of inappropriate first consonant sounds in some words, like "gog" for "dog." The child was given 25 training sessions and two posttraining sessions. The…

  14. Responding to User's Expectation in the Library: Innovative Web 2.0 Applications at JUIT Library: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Shri; Anbu K., John Paul; Kataria, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to provide an insight into the implementation of some of the innovative Web 2.0 applications at Jaypee University of Information Technology with the aim of exploring the expectations of the users and their awareness and usage of such applications. Design/methodology/approach: The study was undertaken at the Learning…

  15. A transcriptomic study reveals differentially expressed genes and pathways respond to simulated acid rain in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Niu, Li; Fu, Bin; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; He, Jun-Xian; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Acid rain, as a worldwide environmental issue, can cause serious damage to plants. In this study, we provided the first case study on the systematic responses of arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) to simulated acid rain (SiAR) by transcriptome approach. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the expression of a set of genes related to primary metabolisms, including nitrogen, sulfur, amino acid, photosynthesis, and reactive oxygen species metabolism, were altered under SiAR. In addition, transport and signal transduction related pathways, especially calcium-related signaling pathways, were found to play important roles in the response of arabidopsis to SiAR stress. Further, we compared our data set with previously published data sets on arabidopsis transcriptome subjected to various stresses, including wound, salt, light, heavy metal, karrikin, temperature, osmosis, etc. The results showed that many genes were overlapped in several stresses, suggesting that plant response to SiAR is a complex process, which may require the participation of multiple defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study will help us gain further insights into the response mechanisms of plants to acid rain stress. PMID:23379338

  16. The Trier Social Stress Test as a paradigm to study how people respond to threat in social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Johanna U.; Häusser, Jan A.; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In our lives, we face countless situations in which we are observed and evaluated by our social interaction partners. Social-evaluative threat is frequently associated with strong neurophysiological stress reactions, in particular, an increase in cortisol levels. Yet, social variables do not only cause stress, but they can also buffer the neurophysiological stress response. Furthermore, social variables can themselves be affected by the threat or the threat-induced neurophysiological stress response. In order to study this complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses, a paradigm is needed that (a) reliably induces high levels of social-evaluative threat and (b) is extremely adaptable to the needs of the researcher. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a well-established paradigm in biopsychology that induces social-evaluative threat in the laboratory by subjecting participants to a mock job-interview. In this review, we aim at demonstrating the potential of the TSST for studying the complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses. PMID:25698987

  17. Executive attention control and emotional responding in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder — A functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Soonjo; White, Stuart F.; Nolan, Zachary T.; Craig Williams, W.; Sinclair, Stephen; Blair, R.J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background There are suggestions that patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show impairment in executive attention control and emotion regulation. This study investigated emotion regulation as a function of the recruitment of executive attention in patients with ADHD. Methods Thirty-five healthy children/adolescents (mean age = 13.91) and twenty-six children/adolescents with ADHD (mean age = 14.53) participated in this fMRI study. They completed the affective Stroop paradigm viewing positive, neutral and negative images under varying cognitive loads. A 3-way ANOVA (diagnosis-by-condition-by-emotion) was conducted on the BOLD response data. Following this, 2 3-way ANOVAs (diagnosis-by-condition-by-emotion) were applied to context-dependent psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analyses generated from a dorsomedial frontal cortex and an amygdala seed (identified from the BOLD response ANOVA main effects of condition and emotion respectively). Results A diagnosis-by-condition interaction within dorsomedial frontal cortex revealed reduced recruitment of dorsomedial frontal cortex as a function of increased task demands in the children/adolescents with ADHD relative to healthy children/adolescents. The level of reduction in recruitment of dorsomedial frontal cortex was significantly correlated with symptom severity (total and hyperactivity) measured by Conner's Parent Report Scale in the children/adolescents with ADHD. In addition, analysis of gPPI data from a dorsomedial frontal cortex seed revealed significant diagnosis-by-condition interactions within lateral frontal cortex; connectivity between dorsomedial frontal cortex and lateral frontal cortex was reduced in the patients with ADHD relative to comparison youth during congruent and incongruent task trials relative to view trials. There were no interactions of group, or main effect of group, within the amygdala in the BOLD response ANOVA (though children/adolescents with ADHD showed

  18. Stress field respond to massive injection of cold water into a geothermal reservoir study by geomechanical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanne, P.; Rutqvist, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study the evolution and distribution of the stress tensor within the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field during 9 years of injection (from 2003 to 2012). Based on a refined 3D structural model, developed by Calpine Corporation, where the horizon surfaces are mapped, we use the GMS™ GUI to construct a realistic three-dimensional geologic model of the Northwest Geysers geothermal field. This model includes a low permeability graywacke layer that forms the caprock for the reservoir, an isothermal steam zone (the Normal Temperature Reservoir) within metagraywacke, a hornfels zone (the High Temperature Reservoir), and a felsite layer that is assumed to extend downward to the magmatic heat source. This model is mapped into a rectangular grid for use with the TOUGH-FLAC numerical simulator. Then, we reproduce the injection history of seven active wells between 2003 and 2012. Finally, our results are compared with previous works where the stress tensor was studied from the inversion of focal plane mechanism in the same area and during the same period. As in these publications we find that: (1) changes in the orientation of principal horizontal stress are very small after one decade of injection, and (2) at injection depth significant rotations of the initially vertically oriented maximum compressive principal stress occur in response to changes in the fluid injection rates. As observed in the field, we found that σ1 tilted towards the σ2 direction by approximately 15° when injection rates were at their peak level. Such a rotation consequently results in a local change in the state stress from a normal stress regime (Sv > SHmax> > Shmin) to a strike slip regime (SHmax> Sv > > Shmin) above and below the injection zone. Our results show that thermal processes are the principal cause for the stress tensor rotation.

  19. Reducing the trigger dose of recombinant hCG in high-responder patients attending an assisted reproductive technology program: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Tiboni, Gian Mario; Colangelo, Enrica Concetta; Ponzano, Adalisa

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the dose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) used to trigger final oocyte maturation in assisted reproductive technology programs is regarded as a useful intervention in the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, but the minimal effective dose has not been yet identified. In this study, the capacity of a reduced dose of recombinant hCG (r-hCG) to provide adequate oocyte maturation was tested for the first time. Thirty-five high-responder patients received a dose of 125 µg (half of the standard dose) of r-hCG for triggering final oocyte maturation. The number of oocytes retrieved per patient and the proportion of mature oocytes were evaluated. As a result, a mean number of 14 oocytes were retrieved, of which 85% were found to be mature (MII). There was only one patient developing a moderate form of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and not requiring hospitalization. It is suggested that r-hCG at 125 µg can be effective in triggering final oocyte maturation in high-responder patients. Additional properly powered and controlled studies are needed to support this contention. PMID:27274202

  20. Successful use of "Hour 1" transfer of sperm microinjected oocytes in natural cycles of poor responder women: a prospective randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aragona, Cesare; Linari, Antonella; Micara, Giulietta; Tranquilli, Daniela; Gambaro, Agnese Maria Lourdes; Bezerra Espinola, Maria Salome

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate the successful use of "Hour 1" transfer of sperm microinjected oocytes in natural cycles of poor responder women. Seventy women were selected from 92 consecutive poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) in a natural cycle at our Sterility and Assisted Reproduction Unit from September 2009 to July 2013, and randomly distributed in two homogeneous groups: Group A or B. Women in Group A (35) underwent transfer within 1 h after ICSI; Group B (35, control group) underwent transfer 3 days after ICSI. In Group A, seven clinical pregnancy and one miscarriage occurred; in Group B, eight clinical pregnancies and two miscarriages were observed. Pregnancy, miscarriage, term pregnancy and overall live birth rates' difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Difference between the two groups in terms of timing, type of delivery and newborn birthweight was not observed. Neither ectopic pregnancy nor multiple pregnancies occurred. "Hour 1" uterine transfer of ICSI oocytes, still to be considered with caution because of the relatively low number of observations of the pilot study, deserves further attention on a larger scale, and might be evaluated for clinical and financial effectiveness in other clinical settings. PMID:26654862

  1. Factors that influence the way local communities respond to consultation processes about major service change: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, Helen; Harrison, David A.; Raine, Rosalind; Fulop, Naomi J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In England, proposed service changes such as Emergency Department closures typically face local opposition. Consequently, public consultation exercises often involve protracted, hostile debates. This study examined a process aimed at engaging a community in decision-making about service reconfiguration, and the public response to this process. Methods A documentary analysis was conducted to map consultation methods used in an urban area of England where plans to consolidate hospital services on fewer sites were under discussion. In-depth interviews (n = 20) were conducted with parents, older people, and patient representatives. The analysis combined inductive and deductive approaches, informed by risk communication theories. Results The commissioners provided a large volume of information about the changes, alongside a programme of public events. However, the complexity of the process, together with what members of the public perceived to be the commissioners’ dismissal of their concerns, led the community to question their motivation. This was compounded by a widespread perception that the proposals were financially driven. Discussion Government policy emphasises the importance of clinical leadership and ‘evidence’ in public consultation. However, an engagement process based on this approach fuelled hostility to the proposals. Policymakers should not assume communities can be persuaded to accommodate service change which may result in reduced access to care. PMID:25975768

  2. The marriage of surgical simulation and telementoring for damage-control surgical training of operational first responders: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Tien, Homer; LaPorta, Anthony T.; Lavell, Kit; Keillor, Jocelyn; Wright Beatty, Heather E.; McKee, Jessica Lynn; Brien, Susan; Roberts, Derek J.; Wong, Jonathan; Ball, Chad G.; Beckett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable posttraumatic death. Many such deaths may be potentially salvageable with remote damage-control surgical interventions. As recent innovations in information technology enable remote specialist support to point-of-care providers, advanced interventions, such as remote damage-control surgery, may be possible in remote settings. METHODS An anatomically realistic perfused surgical training mannequin with intrinsic fluid loss measurements (the “Cut Suit”) was used to study perihepatic packing with massive liver hemorrhage. The primary outcome was loss of simulated blood (water) during six stages, namely, incision, retraction, direction, identification, packing, and postpacking. Six fully credentialed surgeons performed the same task as 12 military medical technicians who were randomized to remotely telementored (RTM) (n = 7) or unmentored (UTM) (n=5) real-time guidance by a trauma surgeon. RESULTS There were no significant differences in fluid loss between the surgeons and the UTM group or between the UTM and RTM groups. However, when comparing the RTM group with the surgeons, there was significantly more total fluid loss (p = 0.001) and greater loss during the identification (p = 0.002), retraction (p = 0.035), direction (p = 0.014), and packing(p = 0.022) stages. There were no significant differences in fluid loss after packing between the groups despite differences in the number of sponges used; RTM group used more sponges than the surgeons and significantly more than the UTM group (p = 0.048). However, mentoring significantly increased self-assessed nonsurgeon procedural confidence (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION Perihepatic packing of an exsanguinating liver hemorrhage model was readily performed by military medical technicians after a focused briefing. While real-time telementoring did not improve fluid loss, it significantly increased nonsurgeon procedural confidence, which may augment the feasibility of the

  3. Social networks of men who have sex with men: a study of recruitment chains using Respondent Driven Sampling in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila Denise; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Kerr, Lígia R F S

    2015-11-01

    Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil), one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree) and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks' structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention. PMID:26648372

  4. Understanding the HIV/AIDS epidemic in transgender women of Lima, Peru: results from a sero-epidemiologic study using respondent driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Raymond, H Fisher; Salazar, Ximena; Villayzan, Jana; Leon, Segundo; McFarland, Willi; Caceres, Carlos F

    2012-05-01

    In Latin America, transgender women (transwomen or male to female transgenders) have been included in MSM research but without addressing their specific needs in terms of the HIV/AIDS. We present results of the first seroepidemiologic study designed for transwomen in Peru. We conducted a study using respondent driven sampling to recruit transwomen from Lima. Our survey explored sociodemographic characteristics, gender enhancement procedures and sexual behavior. In addition, we conducted laboratory based HIV, genital herpes (HSV2) and syphilis testing. A total of 450 transwomen were recruited between April and July 2009. HIV prevalence was 30%, HSV2: 79% and syphilis: 23%. Sex-work was the main economic activity (64%). Gender enhancement procedures were reported by 70% of the population. Multivariable analysis showed HIV infection to be associated with being older than 35 recent, syphilis infection and HSV2 infection. Transwomen are the group most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS in Peru. PMID:21983694

  5. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Tuan Anh, Tran; Rocklöv, Joacim; Bao Giang, Kim; Trang, Le Quynh; Sahlen, Klas-Göran; Nilsson, Maria; Weinehall, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. Objective This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. Design This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions) were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. Results 1) Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2) Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3) Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4) Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5) Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological data) were largely

  6. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH): Scientific Understanding of Arctic Environmental Change to Help Society Understand and Respond to a Rapidly Changing Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Myers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a U.S. program with a mission to provide a foundation of Arctic change science through collaboration with the research community, funding agencies, and other stakeholders. To achieve this mission, SEARCH: Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes Arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. Identifies emerging issues in Arctic environmental change. Provides scientific information to Arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them understand and respond to arctic environmental change. Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales, with an emphasis on addressing needs of decision-makers. Collaborates with national and international science programs integral to SEARCH goals. This poster presentation will present SEARCH activities and plans, highlighting those focused on providing information for decision-makers. http://www.arcus.org/search

  7. Observational Study to Assess the Therapeutic Value of Four Ovarian Hyperstimulation Protocols in IVF After Pituitary Suppression with GnRH Antagonists in Normally Responding Women

    PubMed Central

    Ana, Monzó; Vicente, Montañana; María, Rubio José; Trinidad, García-Gimeno; Alberto, Romeu

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical results of four different protocols of COH for IVF-ICSI in normovulatory women, using in all cases pituitary suppression with GnRH antagonists. Materials/methods A single center, open label, parallel-controlled, prospective, post-authorization study under the approved conditions for use where 305 normal responders women who were candidates to COH were assigned to r-FSH +hp-hMG (n = 51, Group I), hp-hMG (n = 61, Group II), fixed-dose r-FSH (n = 118, Group III), and r-FSH with potential dose adjustment (n = 75, Group IV) to subsequently undergo IVF-ICSI. Results During stimulation, Group IV needed significantly more days of stimulation as compared to Group II [8.09 ± 1.25 vs. 7.62 ± 1.17; P < 0.05], but was the group in which more oocytes were recovered [Group I: 9.43 ± 4.99 vs. Group II: 8.96 ± 4.82 vs. Group III: 8.78 ± 3.72 vs. Group IV: 11.62 ± 5.80; P < 0.05]. No significant differences were seen between the groups in terms of clinical and ongoing pregnancy, but among patients in whom two embryos with similar quality parameters (ASEBIR) were transferred, the group treated with hp-hMG alone achieved a significantly greater clinical pregnancy rate as compared to all other groups [Group I: 31.6%, Group II: 56.4%, Group III: 28.7%, Group IV: 32.7%; P < 0.05]. Conclusions Although randomized clinical trials should be conducted to achieve a more reliable conclusion, these observations support the concept that stimulation with hp-hMG could be beneficial in normal responders women undergoing pituitary suppression with GnRH antagonists. PMID:24453506

  8. Responders to Wide-Pulse, High-Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Show Reduced Metabolic Demand: A 31P-MRS Study in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Wegrzyk, Jennifer; Fouré, Alexandre; Le Fur, Yann; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Vilmen, Christophe; Guye, Maxime; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Place, Nicolas; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Conventional (CONV) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) (i.e., short pulse duration, low frequencies) induces a higher energetic response as compared to voluntary contractions (VOL). In contrast, wide-pulse, high-frequency (WPHF) NMES might elicit–at least in some subjects (i.e., responders)–a different motor unit recruitment compared to CONV that resembles the physiological muscle activation pattern of VOL. We therefore hypothesized that for these responder subjects, the metabolic demand of WPHF would be lower than CONV and comparable to VOL. 18 healthy subjects performed isometric plantar flexions at 10% of their maximal voluntary contraction force for CONV (25 Hz, 0.05 ms), WPHF (100 Hz, 1 ms) and VOL protocols. For each protocol, force time integral (FTI) was quantified and subjects were classified as responders and non-responders to WPHF based on k-means clustering analysis. Furthermore, a fatigue index based on FTI loss at the end of each protocol compared with the beginning of the protocol was calculated. Phosphocreatine depletion (ΔPCr) was assessed using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Responders developed four times higher FTI’s during WPHF (99 ± 37 ×103 N.s) than non-responders (26 ± 12 ×103 N.s). For both responders and non-responders, CONV was metabolically more demanding than VOL when ΔPCr was expressed relative to the FTI. Only for the responder group, the ∆PCr/FTI ratio of WPHF (0.74 ± 0.19 M/N.s) was significantly lower compared to CONV (1.48 ± 0.46 M/N.s) but similar to VOL (0.65 ± 0.21 M/N.s). Moreover, the fatigue index was not different between WPHF (-16%) and CONV (-25%) for the responders. WPHF could therefore be considered as the less demanding NMES modality–at least in this subgroup of subjects–by possibly exhibiting a muscle activation pattern similar to VOL contractions. PMID:26619330

  9. Investigation of alcohol-related social norms among youth aged 14–17 years in Perth, Western Australia: protocol for a respondent-driven sampling study

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Janina; Maycock, Bruce; Howat, Peter; Burns, Sharyn; Allsop, Steve; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Lobo, Roanna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use among young people is a major public health concern in Australia and internationally. Research elucidating social norms influencing alcohol use supports the desire to conform to peers. However, there is a lack of evidence on how social norms are transmitted from the community to young people and between family members and peers, as previous studies are limited to mainly school and university environments. This article describes the proposed process to investigate common alcohol-related norms held by 14-year-olds to 17-year-olds in Perth, Western Australia, and to clarify the process and pathways through which proalcohol norms are transmitted to adolescents. Methods and analysis This cross-sectional quantitative study will use respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit a sample of 672 adolescents from sporting groups, youth programmes and the community in Perth. Data will be collected with a previously developed and validated multidimensional online survey instrument. A variety of strategies will be explored to aid participation including face-to-face recruitment and survey administration, web-based RDS and a ‘mature minor’ consent assessment protocol. Data analysis will include descriptive statistics of demographic characteristics, as well as social network and dyadic analyses, to explore the connections between shared understanding of norms and behaviours among individuals and how these translate into reported practices. Ethics and dissemination This research is expected to extend our understanding of normative development pathways to inform future interventions, and will be widely disseminated through conference presentations, peer-reviewed papers, media channels and community seminars. A study reference group of key health industry stakeholders will be established to encourage integration of study findings into policy and practice, and results will guide the development of community interventions. The Curtin University Human

  10. Genetically-based behavioral traits influence the effects of Shuttle Box avoidance overtraining and extinction upon intertrial responding: a study with the Roman rat strains.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Raúl; Gil, Luis; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Tobeña, Adolf

    2004-04-30

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of extended exposure procedures to contextual fear cues as a way of reducing intertrial responses (ITRs), a characteristic stereotyped behavior displayed in 2-way Shuttle Box avoidance overtraining. We used rat strains psychogenetically selected for efficient (Roman high-avoidance; RHA) versus poor 2-way Shuttle Box performance (Roman low-avoidance; RLA), the former being fearless/impulsive relative to the latter. Additionally, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were compared with RHAs to have a measure of the ITRs exhibited by another, non-selected group of animals. The main findings were that after extended exposure RHAs diminished their ITRs without affecting avoidance performance, although they emitted a pattern of ITRs somewhat excessive as compared with SDs. We concluded that three factors could influence the expression of ITRs in RHA rats: (1) the repetitive and stereotyped responding induced by 2-way Shuttle Box overtraining; (2) contextual fear conditioning; and (3) a genetic background associated with high impulsiveness. PMID:15062972

  11. How Do Medical Students Respond to Emotional Cues and Concerns Expressed by Simulated Patients during OSCE Consultations? – A Multilevel Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuefang; Collinson, Alex; Laidlaw, Anita; Humphris, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Objectives How medical students handle negative emotions expressed by simulated patients during Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) has not been fully investigated. We aim to explore (i) whether medical students respond differently to different types of patients’ emotional cues; and (2) possible effects of patients’ progressive disclosure of emotional cues on students’ responses. Methods Forty OSCE consultations were video recorded and coded for patients’ expressions of emotional distress and students’ responses using a validated behavioural coding scheme (the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequence). Logistic multilevel regression was adopted to model the probability of the occurrence of student reduce space response behaviour as a function of the number of patients’ expressions of emotional cues. Results We found that medical students offered responses that differed to emotional cue types expressed by simulated patients. Students appeared to provide space to emotional cues when expressed in vague and unspecific words and reduce space to cues emphasizing physiological or cognitive correlates. We also found that medical students were less likely to explore patients’ emotional distress nearer the end of the consultation and when the duration of a patient speech turn got larger. Cumulative frequency of patients’ emotional cues also predicted students’ reduce space behaviour. Practical Implications Understanding how medical students manage negative emotions has significant implications for training programme development focusing on emotion recognition skills and patient-centred communication approach. In addition, the statistical approaches adopted by this study will encourage researchers in healthcare communication to search for appropriate analytical techniques to test theoretical propositions. PMID:24194960

  12. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  13. Clinical-biochemical correlates of migraine attacks in rizatriptan responders and non-responders.

    PubMed

    Sarchielli, P; Pini, L A; Zanchin, G; Alberti, A; Maggioni, F; Rossi, C; Floridi, A; Calabresi, P

    2006-03-01

    The present study was aimed at verifying the clinical characteristics of a typical attack in 20 migraine patients, 10 responders and 10 non-responders to rizatriptan, and at investigating any differences in the levels of neuropeptides of the trigeminovascular or parasympathetic systems [calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neurokinin A (NKA) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) measured by radioimmunoassay methods in external jugular blood] between responders and non-responders. In all responders to rizatriptan, pain was unilateral, severe, and pulsating, and in five of them at least one sign suggestive of parasympathetic system activation was recorded. Five patients who were non-responders to rizatriptan referred bilateral and non-pulsating pain, even though severe in most of them. CGRP and NKA levels measured before rizatriptan administration were significantly higher in responders than in non-responders (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.002, respectively). In the five patients with autonomic signs among rizatriptan responders, detectable VIP levels were found at baseline. One hour after rizatriptan administration, a decrease in CGRP and NKA levels was evident in the external jugular venous blood of rizatriptan responders, and this corresponded to a significant pain relief and alleviation of accompanying symptoms. VIP levels were also significantly reduced at the same time in the five patients with autonomic signs. After rizatriptan administration, CGRP and NKA levels in non-responder patients showed less significant variations at all time points after rizatriptan administration compared with rizatriptan responders. The present study, although carried out on a limited number of patients, supports recent clinical evidence of increased trigeminal activation associated with a better triptan response in migraine patients accompanied by parasympathetic activation in a subgroup of patients with autonomic signs. In contrast, the poor response seems to be correlated with a

  14. Integrated respondent-driven sampling and peer support for persons who inject drugs in Haiphong, Vietnam: a case study with implications for interventions.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don; Duong, Huong Thi; Pham Minh, Khue; Khuat, Oanh Hai Thi; Nham, Thanh Tuyet Thi; Arasteh, Kamyar; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Heckathorn, Douglas D; Peries, Marianne; Moles, Jean Pierre; Laureillard, Didier; Nagot, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    Combined prevention for HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWID) has led to greatly reduced HIV transmission among PWID in many high-income settings, but these successes have not yet been replicated in resource-limited settings. Haiphong, Vietnam experienced a large HIV epidemic among PWID, with 68% prevalence in 2006. Haiphong has implemented needle/syringe programs, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), and anti-retroviral treatment (ART), but there is an urgent need to identify high-risk PWID and link them to services. We examined integration of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and strong peer support groups as a mechanism for identifying high-risk PWID and linking them to services. The peer support staff performed the key tasks that required building and maintaining trust with the participants, including recruiting the RDS seeds, greeting and registering participants at the research site, taking electronic copies of participant fingerprints (to prevent multiple participation in the study), and conducting urinalyses. A 6-month cohort study with 250 participants followed the RDS cross-sectional study. The peer support staff maintained contact with these participants, tracking them if they missed appointments, and providing assistance in accessing methadone and ART. The RDS recruitment was quite rapid, with 603 participants recruited in three weeks. HIV prevalence was 25%, Hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence 67%, and participants reported an average of 2.7 heroin injections per day. Retention in the cohort study was high, with 86% of participants re-interviewed at 6-month follow-up. Assistance in accessing services led to half of the participants in need of methadone enrolled in methadone clinics, and half of HIV-positive participants in need of ART enrolled in HIV clinics by the 6-month follow-up. This study suggests that integrating large-scale RDS and strong peer support may provide a method for rapidly linking high-risk PWID to combined prevention and care, and

  15. Relational Responding in Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Amy R.; Wilson, Kelly G.; LaBorde, Cicely T.; Drake, Chad E.; Rogers, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parenting stress and relational conditioning. Fourteen students who were not mothers, 14 mothers who reported high parenting stress and 14 mothers with low parenting stress completed two matching-to-sample (MTS) computer tasks, each requiring formation of three 3-member classes. The first MTS task…

  16. Thinking It Through: A Study of How Pre-Service Teachers Respond to Children Who Present with Possible Mental Health Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, David; Price, Deborah; Crowley, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are key professionals in responding to children and adolescents with possible mental health difficulties and who exhibit social, emotional or behavioural difficulties in the classroom. Health and education policy increasingly positions teachers as vital agents in connecting mental health services with affected young people. A growing…

  17. Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Anti-Müllerian Hormone per Oocyte in Predicting in vitro Fertilization Pregnancy in High Responders: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Weghofer, Andrea; Kim, Ann; Barad, David H.; Gleicher, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) are utilized to differentiate between good and poor response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Their respective roles in defining functional ovarian reserve remain, however, to be elucidated. To better understand those we investigated AMH and FSH per oocyte retrieved (AMHo and FSHo). Methodology/Principal Findings Three-hundred and ninety-six women, undergoing first in vitro fertilization cycles, were retrospectively evaluated. Women with oocyte yields >75th percentile for their age group were identified as high responders. In a series of logistic regression analyses, AMHo and FSHo levels were then evaluated as predictive factors for pregnancy potential in high responders. Patients presented with a mean age of 38.0±5.0 years, mean baseline FSH of 11.8±8.7 mIU/mL and mean AMH of 1.6±2.1 ng/mL. Those 88 women, who qualified as high responders, showed mean FSH of 9.7±6.5 mIU/mL, AMH of 3.1±3.1 ng/mL and oocyte yields of 15.8±7.1. Baseline FSH and AMH did not predict pregnancy in high responders. However, a statistically significant association between FSHo and pregnancy was observed in high responders, both after univariate regression (p = 0.02) and when adjusted for age, percentage of usable embryos, and number of embryos transferred (p = 0.03). Rate of useable embryos also significantly affected pregnancy outcome independently of FSHo (p = 0.01). AMHo was also associated with clinical pregnancy chances in high responders (p = 0.03) and remained significant when adjusted for usable embryos and number of embryos transferred (p = 0.04). Conclusions AMHo and FSHo are predictive of pregnancy potential in high responders, but likely reflect different responsibilities in recruitment and maturation of growing follicle cohorts. PMID:22545082

  18. Genome-Wide Association Studies Reveal that Diverse Heading Date Genes Respond to Short and Long Day Lengths between Indica and Japonica Rice.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhongmin; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Hu; Ayaad, Mohammed; Xing, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a short-day plant. Short-day length promotes heading, and long-day length suppresses heading. Many studies have evaluated rice heading in field conditions in which some individuals in the population were exposed to various day lengths, including short and long days, prior to a growth phase transition. In this study, we investigated heading date under natural short-day conditions (SD) and long-day conditions (LD) for 100s of accessions and separately conducted genome-wide association studies within indica and japonica subpopulations. Under LD, three and four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified in indica and japonica subpopulations, respectively, two of which were less than 80 kb from the known genes Hd17 and Ghd7. But no common QTLs were detected in both subpopulations. Under SD, six QTLs were detected in indica, three of which were less than 80 kb from the known heading date genes Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1. But no QTLs were detected in japonica subpopulation. qHd3 under SD and qHd4 under LD were two novel major QTLs, which deserve isolation in the future. Eleven known heading date genes were used to test the power of association mapping at the haplotype level. Hd17, Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1 were again detected at more significant level and three additional genes, Hd3a, OsMADS56, and Ghd7.1, were detected. However, of the detected seven genes, only one gene, Hd17, was commonly detected in both subpopulations and two genes, Ghd7 and Ghd7.1, were commonly detected in indica subpopulation under both conditions. Moreover, haplotype analysis identified favorable haplotypes of Ghd7 and OsMADS56 for breeding design. In conclusion, diverse heading date genes/QTLs between indica and japonica subpopulations responded to SD and LD, and haplotype-level association mapping was more powerful than SNP-level association in rice. PMID:27621738

  19. Genome-Wide Association Studies Reveal that Diverse Heading Date Genes Respond to Short and Long Day Lengths between Indica and Japonica Rice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhongmin; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Hu; Ayaad, Mohammed; Xing, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a short-day plant. Short-day length promotes heading, and long-day length suppresses heading. Many studies have evaluated rice heading in field conditions in which some individuals in the population were exposed to various day lengths, including short and long days, prior to a growth phase transition. In this study, we investigated heading date under natural short-day conditions (SD) and long-day conditions (LD) for 100s of accessions and separately conducted genome-wide association studies within indica and japonica subpopulations. Under LD, three and four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified in indica and japonica subpopulations, respectively, two of which were less than 80 kb from the known genes Hd17 and Ghd7. But no common QTLs were detected in both subpopulations. Under SD, six QTLs were detected in indica, three of which were less than 80 kb from the known heading date genes Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1. But no QTLs were detected in japonica subpopulation. qHd3 under SD and qHd4 under LD were two novel major QTLs, which deserve isolation in the future. Eleven known heading date genes were used to test the power of association mapping at the haplotype level. Hd17, Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1 were again detected at more significant level and three additional genes, Hd3a, OsMADS56, and Ghd7.1, were detected. However, of the detected seven genes, only one gene, Hd17, was commonly detected in both subpopulations and two genes, Ghd7 and Ghd7.1, were commonly detected in indica subpopulation under both conditions. Moreover, haplotype analysis identified favorable haplotypes of Ghd7 and OsMADS56 for breeding design. In conclusion, diverse heading date genes/QTLs between indica and japonica subpopulations responded to SD and LD, and haplotype-level association mapping was more powerful than SNP-level association in rice. PMID:27621738

  20. Emergency responders' critical infrared (ERCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konsin, Larry S.

    2004-08-01

    Emergency Responders (Fire, Police, Medical, and Emergency Management) face a high risk of injury or death. Even before September 11, 2001, public and private organizations have been driven to better protect Emergency Responders through education, training and improved technology. Recent research on Emergency Responder safety, health risks, and personal protective requirements, shows infrared (IR) imaging as a critical need. Today"s Emergency Responders are increasingly challenged to do more, facing demands requiring technological assistance and/or solutions. Since the introduction of Fire Service IR imaging in the mid 1990s, applications have increased. Emergency response IR is no longer just seeing through smoke to find victims or the seat of a fire. Many more mission critical needs now exist across the broad spectrum of emergency response. At the same time, Emergency Responder injuries and deaths are increasing. The Office of Domestic Preparedness (ODP) has also recognized IR imaging as critical in protecting our communities -- and in preventing many of the injuries and deaths of Emergency Responders. Currently, only 25% of all fire departments (or less than 7% of individual firefighters) have IR imaging. Availability to Police, EMS and Emergency Management is even lower. Without ERCI, Emergency Responders and our communities are at risk.

  1. School Principals and Racism: Responding to Aveling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Claire; Mahoney, Caroline; Fox, Brandi; Halse, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study responds to Nado Aveling's call in "Anti-racism in Schools: A question of leadership?" ("Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education," 2007, 28(1), 69-85) for further investigation into racism in Australian schools. Aveling's interview study concluded that an overwhelming number of school principals…

  2. Responder Technology Alert (February 2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-04-10

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  3. The Impact of Limited School Choice on Public School Districts: Case Studies of How School Districts in Michigan's Largest County Are Responding to Competition from Charter Schools and Public "Schools-of-Choice."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladner, Matthew; Brouillette, Matthew J.

    This study sought to determine whether increased competition among Michigan public schools, resulting from charter schools and the state's "schools-of-choice" program, has improved educational opportunities for children and whether competition encourages or discourages schools to respond to the needs and demands of students and parents. The…

  4. Operant and nonoperant vocal responding in the mynah: Complex schedule control and deprivation-induced responding

    PubMed Central

    Hake, D. F.; Mabry, J.

    1979-01-01

    Several recent studies have been concerned with operant responses that are also affected by nonoperant factors, (e.g., biological constraints, innate behavior patterns, respondent processes). The major reason for studying mynah vocal responding concerned the special relation of avian vocalizations to nonoperant emotional and reflexive systems. The research strategy was to evaluate operant and nonoperant control by comparing the schedule control obtained with the vocal response to that characteristic of the motor responses of other animals. We selected single, multiple, and chain schedules that ordinarily produce disparate response rates at predictable times. In multiple schedules with one component where vocal responding (“Awk”) was reinforced with food (fixed-ratio or fixed-interval schedule) and one where the absence of vocal responding was reinforced (differential reinforcement of other behavior), response rates never exceeded 15 responses per minute, but clear schedule differences developed in response rate and pause time. Nonoperant vocal responding was evident when responding endured across 50 extinction sessions at 25% to 40% of the rate during reinforcement. The “enduring extinction responding” was largely deprivation induced, because the operant-level of naive mynahs under food deprivation was comparable in magnitude, but without deprivation the operant level was much lower. Food deprivation can induce vocal responding, but the relatively precise schedule control indicated that operant contingencies predominate when they are introduced. PMID:16812153

  5. Assessing respondent-driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Goel, Sharad; Salganik, Matthew J

    2010-04-13

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a network-based technique for estimating traits in hard-to-reach populations, for example, the prevalence of HIV among drug injectors. In recent years RDS has been used in more than 120 studies in more than 20 countries and by leading public health organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Despite the widespread use and growing popularity of RDS, there has been little empirical validation of the methodology. Here we investigate the performance of RDS by simulating sampling from 85 known, network populations. Across a variety of traits we find that RDS is substantially less accurate than generally acknowledged and that reported RDS confidence intervals are misleadingly narrow. Moreover, because we model a best-case scenario in which the theoretical RDS sampling assumptions hold exactly, it is unlikely that RDS performs any better in practice than in our simulations. Notably, the poor performance of RDS is driven not by the bias but by the high variance of estimates, a possibility that had been largely overlooked in the RDS literature. Given the consistency of our results across networks and our generous sampling conditions, we conclude that RDS as currently practiced may not be suitable for key aspects of public health surveillance where it is now extensively applied. PMID:20351258

  6. Assessing respondent-driven sampling

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Sharad; Salganik, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a network-based technique for estimating traits in hard-to-reach populations, for example, the prevalence of HIV among drug injectors. In recent years RDS has been used in more than 120 studies in more than 20 countries and by leading public health organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Despite the widespread use and growing popularity of RDS, there has been little empirical validation of the methodology. Here we investigate the performance of RDS by simulating sampling from 85 known, network populations. Across a variety of traits we find that RDS is substantially less accurate than generally acknowledged and that reported RDS confidence intervals are misleadingly narrow. Moreover, because we model a best-case scenario in which the theoretical RDS sampling assumptions hold exactly, it is unlikely that RDS performs any better in practice than in our simulations. Notably, the poor performance of RDS is driven not by the bias but by the high variance of estimates, a possibility that had been largely overlooked in the RDS literature. Given the consistency of our results across networks and our generous sampling conditions, we conclude that RDS as currently practiced may not be suitable for key aspects of public health surveillance where it is now extensively applied. PMID:20351258

  7. In their own words: Reports of stigma and genetic discrimination by people at risk for Huntington disease in the International RESPOND-HD study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Janet K; Erwin, Cheryl; Juhl, Andrew R; Mengeling, Michelle; Bombard, Yvonne; Hayden, Michael R; Quaid, Kimberly; Shoulson, Ira; Taylor, Sandra; Paulsen, Jane S

    2011-01-01

    Genetic discrimination may be experienced in the day-to-day lives of people at risk for Huntington Disease (HD), encompassing occurrences in the workplace, when seeking insurance, within social relationships, and during other daily encounters. At-risk individuals who have tested either positive or negative for the genetic expansion that causes HD, as well as at-risk persons with a 50% chance for developing the disorder but have not had DNA testing completed the International RESPOND-HD (I-RESPOND-HD) survey. One of the study’s purposes was to examine perceptions of genetic stigmatization and discrimination. A total of 412 out of 433 participants provided narrative comments, and 191 provided related codable narrative data. The core theme, Information Control, refers to organizational policies and interpersonal actions. This theme was found in narrative comments describing genetic discrimination perceptions across employment, insurance, social, and other situations. These reports were elaborated with five themes: What they encountered, What they felt, What others did, What they did, and What happened. Although many perceptions were coded as hurtful, this was not true in all instances. Findings document that reports of genetic discrimination are highly individual, and both policy as well as interpersonal factors contribute to the outcome of potentially discriminating events. PMID:20468062

  8. Responding to Bullying: What Works?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra; Blais, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Children who are bullied are often told to "solve the problems themselves"; however, when bullying is repeated over time, it becomes increasingly difficult for victimized children to stop the torment because of their relative lack of power. We examine the ways in which children respond to bullying and their evaluations of the effectiveness of…

  9. Finding Respondents from Minority Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mier, Nelda; Medina, Alvaro A.; Bocanegra-Alonso, Anabel; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Acosta-Gonzalez, Rosa I.; Ramirez, Jose A.

    2006-01-01

    The recruitment of respondents belonging to ethnic minorities poses important challenges in social and health research. This paper reflects on the enablers and barriers to recruitment that we encountered in our research work with persons belonging to ethnic minorities. Additionally, we applied the Matching Model of Recruitment, a theoretical…

  10. Responding to Hate at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes a publication from Teaching Tolerance that is designed to help schools prepare for and respond effectively to bias incidents so that they can become catalysts for positive change. Presents two of the guidelines: (1) create an unwelcome environment for hate speech and symbols; and (2) put the lid on graffiti and other vandalism. (SLD)

  11. Learning as Calling and Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jons, Lotta

    2014-01-01

    According to Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue, our being-in-the-world is to be conceived of as an existential dialogue. Elsewhere, I have conceptualized the teacher-student-relation accordingly (see Jons 2008), as a matter of calling and responding. The conceptualization rests on a secularised notion of vocation, paving way for…

  12. 37 CFR 41.68 - Respondent's brief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respondent's brief. 41.68... Respondent's brief. (a)(1) Respondent(s) in an appeal may once, within the time limit for filing set forth in § 41.66, file a respondent brief and serve the brief on all parties in accordance with § 1.903 of...

  13. What does the answer mean? A qualitative study of how palliative cancer patients interpret and respond to the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Irmelin; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin; Aass, Nina; Hjermstad, Marianne Jensen

    2011-10-01

    The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) is a well-known self-reporting tool for symptom assessment in palliative care. Research has shown that patients experience difficulties in the scoring and interpretation, which may lead to suboptimal treatment. The aims were to examine how palliative care cancer patients interpreted and responded to the ESAS. Eleven patients (3 F/8 M), median age 65 (34-95) with mixed diagnoses were interviewed by means of cognitive interviewing, immediately after having completed the ESAS. The highest mean scores were found with tiredness (6.3) and oral dryness (5.7). The results showed that sources of error were related to interpretation of symptoms and differences in the understanding and use of the response format. The depression and anxiety symptoms were perceived as difficult to interpret, while the appetite item was particularly prone to misunderstandings. Contextual factors, such as mood and time of the day, influenced the answers. Lack of information and feedback from staff influenced the scores. Some patients stated that they scored at random because they did not understand why and how the ESAS was used. The patients' interpretation must be considered in order to minimize errors. The ESAS should always be reviewed with the patients after completion to improve symptom management, thereby strengthening the usability of the ESAS. PMID:21248179

  14. Responding to the codependent employee.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R

    1992-06-01

    Codependence is an important human disorder that is disturbingly prevalent. When codependence is viewed as a psychological concept, it offers a useful framework for evaluating and responding to problematic behavior. While nursing the addicted and codependent patient and family is an emerging specialty that is helping address the national health care problem of addictions, until now the nursing literature has provided little assistance with the need to recognize codependency from a broad perspective in nursing management. This field offers important and unexplored terrain for the creative and scholarly nurse to assist in developing nursing knowledge. This article has summarized key information about the general problem of codependency and suggests how to apply this information to the setting of the nurse manager. When a nurse manager responds to codependent behavior with understanding and firm control, feelings of security for codependent individuals can be increased and optimum performance will be facilitated. PMID:10171014

  15. Corifollitropin alfa followed by hpHMG in GnRH agonist protocols. Two prospective feasibility studies in poor ovarian responders.

    PubMed

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Corona, Roberta; Van De Vijver, Arne; Blockeel, Christophe; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Vloeberghs, Veerle; De Vos, Michel; Camus, Michel; Humaidan, Peter; Tournaye, Herman

    2015-01-01

    In two prospective uncontrolled feasibility trials, we examined the effect of corifollitropin alfa (CFA) followed by highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin (hpHMG) in a short flare-up gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a long GnRH agonist protocol for women with poor ovarian response. Overall, 45 patients were treated with short flare-up and 47 patients with the long agonist protocol. All patients received a single dose of 150 μg CFA, followed by 300 IU hpHMG 7 days later, triggering with 10 000 IU hCG, CSI and day 3 embryo transfer. Ongoing pregnancy rates (OPRs) did not differ between the short 15.6% and the long 17% agonist protocol (p = 0.85). Among patients treated with the short flare-up protocol, OPRs were 20% for younger patients (<40 years old) and 12% in older women (≥40 years old), p = 0.68. Similarly, in patients treated with the long agonist protocol younger women had an OPR of 26.7% versus 12.5% in older women, p = 0.23. Among patients treated with the short flare-up, live births rate were 15% and 4.3% for younger (<40 years old) and older patients (≥40 years old), respectively, p = 0.32. Similarly, in patients treated with the long agonist protocol, live births rate were 25% and 12.9% for younger (<40 years old) and older patients (≥40 years old), respectively, p = 0.41. None of the patients reported any serious adverse event related to treatment. According to our results, CFA followed by hpHMG in a short flare-up or long GnRH agonist protocol appears to be a feasible option for poor ovarian responders. Large phase III trials are mandatory prior to introduction in clinical practice. PMID:26172925

  16. Prevalence of HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Risk Behaviours Among Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya: Results of a Respondent Driven Sampling Study

    PubMed Central

    Kellogg, Timothy A.; Geibel, Scott; Muraguri, Nicholas; Okal, Jerry; Tun, Waimar; Raymond, H. Fisher; Dadabhai, Sufia; Sheehy, Meredith; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a respondent driven sampling survey to estimate HIV prevalence and risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Women aged 18 years and older who reported selling sex to a man at least once in the past 3 months were eligible to participate. Consenting FSWs completed a behavioral questionnaire and were tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adjusted population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS analysis tool. Factors significantly associated with HIV infection were assessed using log-binomial regression analysis. A total of 596 eligible participants were included in the analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was 29.5 % (95 % CI 24.7–34.9). Median age was 30 years (IQR 25–38 years); median duration of sex work was 12 years (IQR 8–17 years). The most frequent client-seeking venues were bars (76.6 %) and roadsides (29.3 %). The median number of clients per week was seven (IQR 4–18 clients). HIV testing was high with 86.6 % reported ever been tested for HIV and, of these, 63.1 % testing within the past 12 months. Of all women, 59.7 % perceived themselves at ‘great risk’ for HIV infection. Of HIV-positive women, 51.0 % were aware of their infection. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, inconsistent condom use with paying clients, and use of a male condom as a method of contraception were independently associated with unrecognized HIV infection. Prevalence among STIs was low, ranging from 0.9 % for syphilis, 1.1 % for gonorrhea, and 3.1 % for Chlamydia. The data suggest high prevalence of HIV among FSWs in Nairobi. Targeted and routine HIV and STI combination prevention strategies need to be scaled up or established to meet the needs of this population. PMID:25428282

  17. Prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and risk behaviours among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya: results of a respondent driven sampling study.

    PubMed

    Musyoki, Helgar; Kellogg, Timothy A; Geibel, Scott; Muraguri, Nicholas; Okal, Jerry; Tun, Waimar; Fisher Raymond, H; Dadabhai, Sufia; Sheehy, Meredith; Kim, Andrea A

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a respondent driven sampling survey to estimate HIV prevalence and risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Women aged 18 years and older who reported selling sex to a man at least once in the past 3 months were eligible to participate. Consenting FSWs completed a behavioral questionnaire and were tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adjusted population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS analysis tool. Factors significantly associated with HIV infection were assessed using log-binomial regression analysis. A total of 596 eligible participants were included in the analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was 29.5 % (95 % CI 24.7-34.9). Median age was 30 years (IQR 25-38 years); median duration of sex work was 12 years (IQR 8-17 years). The most frequent client-seeking venues were bars (76.6 %) and roadsides (29.3 %). The median number of clients per week was seven (IQR 4-18 clients). HIV testing was high with 86.6 % reported ever been tested for HIV and, of these, 63.1 % testing within the past 12 months. Of all women, 59.7 % perceived themselves at 'great risk' for HIV infection. Of HIV-positive women, 51.0 % were aware of their infection. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, inconsistent condom use with paying clients, and use of a male condom as a method of contraception were independently associated with unrecognized HIV infection. Prevalence among STIs was low, ranging from 0.9 % for syphilis, 1.1 % for gonorrhea, and 3.1 % for Chlamydia. The data suggest high prevalence of HIV among FSWs in Nairobi. Targeted and routine HIV and STI combination prevention strategies need to be scaled up or established to meet the needs of this population. PMID:25428282

  18. Emotional Risks to Respondents in Survey Research: Some Empirical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Labott, Susan M.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Fendrich, Michael; Feeny, Norah C.

    2014-01-01

    Some survey research has documented distress in respondents with pre-existing emotional vulnerabilities, suggesting the possibility of harm. In this study, respondents were interviewed about a personally distressing event; mood, stress, and emotional reactions were assessed. Two days later, respondents participated in interventions to either enhance or alleviate the effects of the initial interview. Results indicated that distressing interviews increased stress and negative mood, although no adverse events occurred. Between the interviews, moods returned to baseline. Respondents who again discussed a distressing event reported moods more negative than those who discussed a neutral or a positive event. This study provides evidence that, among nonvulnerable survey respondents, interviews on distressing topics can result in negative moods and stress, but they do not harm respondents. PMID:24169422

  19. Protecting Respondent Confidentiality in Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Karen

    2009-01-01

    For qualitative researchers, maintaining respondent confidentiality while presenting rich, detailed accounts of social life presents unique challenges. These challenges are not adequately addressed in the literature on research ethics and research methods. Using an example from a study of breast cancer survivors, I argue that by carefully considering the audience for one’s research and by re-envisioning the informed consent process, qualitative researchers can avoid confidentiality dilemmas that might otherwise lead them not to report rich, detailed data. PMID:19843971

  20. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Seiner, Derrick R.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2012-10-24

    In a white powder scenario, there are a large number of field-deployable assays that can be used to determine if the suspicious substance contains biological material and warrants further investigation. This report summarizes commercially available technologies that are considered hand portable and can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor do the authors endorse any of the technologies described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use.

  1. 37 CFR 41.68 - Respondent's brief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respondent's brief. 41.68... Respondent's brief. (a)(1) Respondent(s) in an appeal may once, within the time limit for filing set forth in... title. (2) The brief must be signed by the party, or the party's duly authorized attorney or agent,...

  2. Responding to Climate Change Interactive Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Matter, J. M.; Callahan, P.; Schlosser, P.

    2011-12-01

    While many institutions now have courses that teach climate from an earth or biological systems perspective, it is more challenging to address how to respond to climate change. Implementing adaptation and mitigation measures requires an interdisciplinary approach of involving stakeholders, identifying needs, resolving conflicts and taking action at levels ranging from local, to national and global. Through the upper level undergraduate course "Responding to Climate Change" taught at Barnard College and Columbia University, students engage in a variety of hands-on activities that help them navigate potential options. Activities include games, role play, case studies, scenario development, spatial planning, exploration of analogies, and conflict resolution exercises. Evaluation indicates that this interactive approach empowers students with scientific and technical knowledge, an understanding of how to deal with complexity, and optimism in their capacity to problem solve.

  3. Chicana/o Students Respond to Arizona's Anti-Ethnic Studies Bill, SB 1108: Civic Engagement, Ethnic Identity, and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Anna Ochoa; Romero, Andrea J.

    2011-01-01

    Arizona Senate Bill 1108, the "anti-ethnic studies bill," proposed to eliminate ethnic studies programs and ethnic-based organizations from state-funded education. Along with other anti-immigrant legislation, this bill is creating an oppressive climate of discrimination against individuals of Mexican descent in Arizona. This study investigates the…

  4. Habituation of salivation and motivated responding for food in children.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Saad, Frances G; Handley, Elizabeth A; Roemmich, James N; Hawk, Larry W; McSweeney, Frances K

    2003-12-01

    Repeated presentation of food cues results in habituation in adults, as demonstrated by a decrement in salivary responding that is reversed by presenting a new food cue in adults. Food reinforced behavior in animals shows the same pattern of responding, with a decrease in responding to obtain the food, followed by a recovery of responding when a new food is presented. The present study assessed whether children would show the same pattern of a decrement of food reinforced responding followed by recovery of responding when a new food is presented for both salivation and food reinforcement tasks. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups that differed in the trial that the new food stimulus was presented to ensure recovery was specific to the introduction of the new food stimulus. In the salivation task, subjects were provided repeated olfactory presentations of a cheeseburger with apple pie as the new food stimulus, while in the food reinforcement task subjects worked for the opportunity to consume a cheeseburger, followed by the opportunity to work for consumption of apple pie. Subjects in both groups showed a decrement in salivary and food reinforced responding to repeated food cues followed by immediate recovery of responding on the trial when a new food was presented. Subjects increased their energy intake by over 30% in the food reinforcement task when a new food was presented. These results are consistent with the general process theory of motivation that suggests that changes in food reinforced responding may be due in part to habituation. PMID:14637327

  5. Agriculture Emergencies: A Primer for First Responders

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Regens, James L.; Burden, Ray W.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several years, the primary focus of emergency preparedness has been on terrorism, and how a CBRNE event would directly affect human health. Limited emphasis has been placed on the direct (eg, zoonotic infections) and indirect (eg, mental health, financial loss) effects that an agricultural emergency event can have on human health outcomes, and how they relate to emergency preparedness. We critically reviewed the resources and information readily accessible to our target audience, emergency responders; the resources included military and civilian books, personal communications, internet sites, GAO reports, and peer-reviewed journals. Among more than 2,000 bioterrorism-related articles, we found 51 that addressed either agroterrorism and/or veterinary public health: 2 cross-sectional studies, 28 review papers, and 21 commentary papers. In order to properly respond to future agriculture emergencies, emergency response professionals need to understand the nature and implications of the event as well as their roles and responsibilities, but the availability of educational and training opportunities is limited. The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that more resources, education, and training opportunities should be available to responders as well as to producers, importers and shippers, international travelers, and the general public. Increased education and training will raise awareness among these groups of the relationship between animal and human health. PMID:19635003

  6. Agriculture emergencies: a primer for first responders.

    PubMed

    Gilpen, Johnnie L; Carabin, Hélène; Regens, James L; Burden, Ray W

    2009-06-01

    Over the past several years, the primary focus of emergency preparedness has been on terrorism, and how a CBRNE event would directly affect human health. Limited emphasis has been placed on the direct (eg, zoonotic infections) and indirect (eg, mental health, financial loss) effects that an agricultural emergency event can have on human health outcomes, and how they relate to emergency preparedness. We critically reviewed the resources and information readily accessible to our target audience, emergency responders; the resources included military and civilian books, personal communications, internet sites, GAO reports, and peer-reviewed journals. Among more than 2,000 bioterrorism-related articles, we found 51 that addressed either agroterrorism and/or veterinary public health: 2 cross-sectional studies, 28 review papers, and 21 commentary papers. In order to properly respond to future agriculture emergencies, emergency response professionals need to understand the nature and implications of the event as well as their roles and responsibilities, but the availability of educational and training opportunities is limited. The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that more resources, education, and training opportunities should be available to responders as well as to producers, importers and shippers, international travelers, and the general public. Increased education and training will raise awareness among these groups of the relationship between animal and human health. PMID:19635003

  7. Bubbles Responding to Ultrasound Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Bubble and Drop Nonlinear Dynamics (BDND) experiment was designed to improve understanding of how the shape and behavior of bubbles respond to ultrasound pressure. By understanding this behavior, it may be possible to counteract complications bubbles cause during materials processing on the ground. This 12-second sequence came from video downlinked from STS-94, July 5 1997, MET:3/19:15 (approximate). The BDND guest investigator was Gary Leal of the University of California, Santa Barbara. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced fluid dynamics experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (435KB, 13-second MPEG, screen 160 x 120 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300162.html.

  8. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include ‘one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. Method: This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Results: Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02–7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90

  9. Implementing an Audience-Specific Small-Group Gatekeeper Training Program to Respond to Suicide Risk among College Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimini, M. Dolores; Rivero, Estela M.; Bernier, Joseph E.; Stanley, Judith A.; Murray, Andrea D.; Anderson, Drew A.; Wright, Heidi R.; Bapat, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This case study evaluated the effectiveness of an audience-specific, single-session, small-group interactive gatekeeper training program conducted at a large northeastern public university. Participants: Participants were 335 faculty, staff, and students completing gatekeeper training programs tailored to their group needs. Methods:…

  10. Identifying Anglo, Mexican American and American Indian Respondents for a Study of Recent Widows: Suggestions for Future Researchers. Working Paper No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Cynthia L.; And Others

    Innovative methods devised to obtain the desired number of Anglo, Mexican American and American Indian women for a study of the health of recently widowed low income women are explored. Social and health service agencies proved generally unable to assist by contacting their clients. Different techniques were found to be successful for recruiting…

  11. Using Multiple Imputation to Assign Pesticide Use for Non-Responders in the Follow-Up Questionnaire in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a large prospective cohort, was designed to elucidate associations between pesticide use and other agricultural exposures and health outcomes. The cohort includes 57,310 pesticide applicators who were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and...

  12. HIV testing experience and risk behavior among sexually active Black young adults: a CBPR-based study using respondent-driven sampling in Durham, North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    MacQueen, Kathleen M.; Chen, Mario; Jolly, David; Mueller, Monique P.; Okumu, Eunice; Eley, Natalie T.; Laws, Michelle; Isler, Malika Roman; Kalloo, Allison; Rogers, Randy C.

    2015-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic inclusive of men who have sex with men, heterosexual men, and women. As part of a community-based participatory research study we assessed HIV testing experience among sexually active 18 to 30 year old Black men and women in Durham, North Carolina. Of 508 participants, 173 (74%) men and 236 (86%; p=.0008) women reported ever being tested. Barriers to testing (e.g., perceived risk and stigma) were the same for men and women, but men fell behind mainly because a primary facilitator of testing---routine screening in clinical settings---was more effective at reaching women. Structural and behavioral risk factors associated with HIV infection were prevalent but did not predict HIV testing experience. Reduced access to health care services for low income Black young adults may exacerbate HIV testing barriers that already exist for men and undermine previous success rates in reaching women. PMID:25893817

  13. HIV Testing Experience and Risk Behavior Among Sexually Active Black Young Adults: A CBPR-Based Study Using Respondent-Driven Sampling in Durham, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Chen, Mario; Jolly, David; Mueller, Monique P; Okumu, Eunice; Eley, Natalie T; Laws, Michelle; Isler, Malika Roman; Kalloo, Allison; Rogers, Randy C

    2015-06-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic inclusive of men who have sex with men, heterosexual men, and women. As part of a community-based participatory research study we assessed HIV testing experience among sexually active 18-30 year old Black men and women in Durham, NC. Of 508 participants, 173 (74 %) men and 236 (86 %; p = 0.0008) women reported ever being tested. Barriers to testing (e.g., perceived risk and stigma) were the same for men and women, but men fell behind mainly because a primary facilitator of testing-routine screening in clinical settings-was more effective at reaching women. Structural and behavioral risk factors associated with HIV infection were prevalent but did not predict HIV testing experience. Reduced access to health care services for low income Black young adults may exacerbate HIV testing barriers that already exist for men and undermine previous success rates in reaching women. PMID:25893817

  14. Factor Associated with Neutral Sphingomyelinase Activity Mediates Navigational Capacity of Leukocytes Responding to Wounds and Infection: Live Imaging Studies in Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Boecke, Alexandra; Sieger, Dirk; Neacsu, Cristian Dan; Kashkar, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Factor associated with neutral sphingomyelinase activity (FAN) is an adaptor protein that specifically binds to the p55 receptor for TNF (TNF-RI). Our previous investigations demonstrated that FAN plays a role in TNF-induced actin reorganization by connecting the plasma membrane with actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that FAN may impact on cellular motility in response to TNF and in the context of immune inflammatory conditions. In this study, we used the translucent zebrafish larvae for in vivo analysis of leukocyte migration after morpholino knockdown of FAN. FAN-deficient zebrafish leukocytes were impaired in their migration toward tail fin wounds, leading to a reduced number of cells reaching the wound. Furthermore, FAN-deficient leukocytes show an impaired response to bacterial infections, suggesting that FAN is generally required for the directed chemotactic response of immune cells independent of the nature of the stimulus. Cell-tracking analysis up to 3 h after injury revealed that the reduced number of leukocytes is not due to a reduction in random motility or speed of movement. Leukocytes from FAN-deficient embryos protrude pseudopodia in all directions instead of having one clear leading edge. Our results suggest that FAN-deficient leukocytes exhibit an impaired navigational capacity, leading to a disrupted chemotactic response. PMID:22802420

  15. Changes in empathy-related cry responding as a function of time: A time course study of adult's responses to infant crying.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Chu; Manuel, Jessica; McFatter, Robert; Cech, Claude

    2016-02-01

    Describing temporal relations between perceptual and emotional elements underlying responses to infant crying is important to our understanding of sensitive parenting. Prior research on adults' responses to infant crying has mostly relied on playback and snapshot approaches to obtaining recall of responses following exposure to relatively short cry stimuli. This study documented continuous temporal relations in the perception of the infant's distress and affect-related processes in response to a 4-min-long bout of crying. Three visual-analog slider scales were used to collect 90 participants' real-time responses on perceived aversiveness of the cry, empathic concern for the infant, and personal distress elicited by the cry, respectively. The results highlighted a moderating role of empathic concern at certain second in the relation between personal distress and empathic concern at the following second. In addition, personal distress moderated the relation between concurrent perceived aversiveness and empathic concern. The findings carry potentially important implications for cognitive and emotional regulation in adaptive parenting. PMID:26705932

  16. An open-label pilot study of aripiprazole for male and female veterans with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder who respond suboptimally to antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nagy A; Marx, Christine E; Bradford, Daniel W; Zinn, Sandra; Hertzberg, Michael A; Kilts, Jason D; Naylor, Jennifer C; Butterfield, Marian I; Strauss, Jennifer L

    2012-07-01

    Emerging data suggest that second-generation antipsychotics such as aripiprazole may be effective in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, few clinical trials have used aripiprazole in PTSD, and data are limited on its use in Veterans with PTSD. The objective of this pilot trial was to investigate the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole in Veterans with PTSD. Ten individuals (five men and five women) meeting the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed., PTSD criteria participated in this 12-week, open-label, flexibly dosed monotherapy trial. The dose range of aripiprazole was 5-30 mg/day, titrated to tolerability and clinical response. The primary outcome measure was the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Additional outcomes included the Short PTSD Rating Interview, the Treatment Outcome PTSD Scale (Top-8), the Davidson Trauma Scale, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen, and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement. Eight participants completed the study, and aripiprazole was generally well tolerated and associated with a significant improvement in PTSD symptoms, as measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (primary outcome measure) and by the Short PTSD Rating Interview, the Treatment Outcome PTSD Scale, and the Davidson Trauma Scale. An improvement was also observed on all three Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale subscales and the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen, and the average Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement ratings indicated that patients were 'much improved'. These promising initial results merit further investigation in a larger, randomized-controlled trial. PMID:22475888

  17. Immune response to a new hepatitis B vaccine in healthcare workers who had not responded to standard vaccine: randomised double blind dose-response study.

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, J. N.; Sabin, C.; Craig, F. M.; Williams, A.; Zuckerman, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a new triple S recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in a cohort of healthy people in whom currently licensed hepatitis B vaccines had persistently not induced an immune response. DESIGN: Single centre, randomised, double blind, dose-response study. SETTING: Research vaccine evaluation centre at a teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 100 healthcare workers aged 18-70 years with a history of failure to seroconvert after at least four doses of a licensed hepatitis B vaccine containing the S component. INTERVENTION: Each subject was randomly allocated two doses of 5, 10, 20, or 40 micrograms of a new hepatitis B vaccine two months apart. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Immunogenicity of the four doses. Seroconversion and seroprotection were defined as an antibody tire > 10 IU/l and > 100 IU/l respectively against an international antibody standard. RESULTS: 69 subjects seroconverted after a single dose of the vaccine. After the booster vaccination one other subject seroconverted, bringing the overall seroconversion rate to 70%. Fifteen subjects given 5 micrograms of vaccine, 19 given 10 micrograms, 16 given 20 micrograms, and 20 given 40 micrograms seroconverted. Seroconversion rates in the four antigen dose groups were 60% (15/25), 76% (19/25), 64% (16/25), and 80% (20/25). After the booster dose there was no significant dose-response effect on the overall seroconversion rate, although the small sample size meant that a clinically important dose-response could not be ruled out. CONCLUSION: A single dose of 20 micrograms of the vaccine was as effective as two doses of either 40 micrograms or 20 micrograms of this vaccine formulation in terms of seroconversion, seroprotection, and geometric mean titres. PMID:9040320

  18. Responding changes systematically within sessions during conditioning procedures.

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, F K; Roll, J M

    1993-01-01

    When the procedure is held constant within an experimental session, responding often changes systematically within that session. Many of these within-session changes in responding cannot be dismissed as learning curves or by-products of satiation. They have been observed in studies of positive reinforcement, avoidance, punishment, extinction, discrimination, delayed matching to sample, concept formation, maze and alley running, and laboratory analogues of foraging, as well as in the unconditioned substrates of conditioned behavior. When aversive stimuli are used, responding usually increases early in the session. When positive reinforcers are used, responding changes in a variety of ways, including increasing, decreasing, and bitonic functions. Both strong and minimal reinforcement procedures produce within-session decreases in positively reinforced behavior. Within-session changes in responding have substantial theoretical and methodological implications for research in conditioning. PMID:8283153

  19. Let's Get Personal: Responding to Creative Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Suzanne

    In hopes of discovering how to respond to her students' work in a way that heads them toward meaningful revision, a creative writing teacher singles out several categories of student fiction she has trouble responding to and pinpoints common shortcomings of students' early drafts, the way students respond to comments regarding revisions, and genre…

  20. Hydrogen Safety Training for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    The use of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies is emerging in the U.S. through vehicle demonstration programs and early deployments of fuel cells for onsite power generation, materials handling, and other applications. To help first responders prepare for hydrogen and fuel cell use in their communities, the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program has developed hydrogen safety training for first responders. A web-based awareness-level course, 'Introduction to Hydrogen Safety for First Responders,' launched in 2007, is available at http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/FirstResponders/. Approximately 17,000 first responders have accessed the online training.

  1. "Responding to Climate Change" Course: Research Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bowman, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The "Responding to Climate Change" Barnard/Columbia course integrates current research as well as hands-on research-based activities modified for a classroom environment. The course covers the major response themes of adaptation, mitigation and communication. In the spring of 2015 the course was oriented around Arctic and Antarctic case studies. Each week a different theme is addressed, such as the physical setting, changing ecosystems, governance issues, perspectives of residents and indigenous peoples, geoengineering, commercial interests, security, and health and developmental issues. Frequent guest lectures from thematic experts keep the course grounded in realities and present the students with cutting edge issues. Activities match the weekly theme, for example during the week on Arctic development, students engage with the marine spatial planning simulation Arctic SMARTIC (Strategic Management of Resources in Times of Change) based on research on Arctic sea ice trends and projections coupled with current and projected developmental interests of stakeholders. Created under the Polar Learning and Responding: PoLAR Climate Change Education Partnership (thepolarhub.org), a complete set of SMARTIC resources is available on line for use by others (http://www.camelclimatechange.org/view/article/175297/). The Responding to Climate Change course is designed to be current and respond to events. For the Arctic case study, students developed proposals for the US State Department as the upcoming Chair of the Arctic Council. Student evaluations indicated that they appreciated the opportunity to connect science with policy and presentation of preliminary proposals in a workshop format was valued as a way to develop and hone their ideas. An additional finding was that students were surprisingly tolerant of technical issues when guest lecturers were linked in via Skype, allowing interaction with thematic experts across the US. Students commented positively on this exposure to

  2. Some 9/11 First Responders Suffer Severe Sinus Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... responded on the third day, when rain reduced air pollution levels, the study found. Firefighters who worked at ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Air Pollution Occupational Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  3. Schedule-induced mirror responding in the pigeon1

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Perrin S.; Looney, Thomas A.

    1973-01-01

    Two pigeons that were previously exposed to a multiple schedule of reinforcement in the presence of a stuffed and a live pigeon, and two of three naive pigeons, responded on a mirror during exposure to multiple fixed-ratio, fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement for key pecking. Both the topography and temporal pattern of mirror responding were comparable to schedule-induced “attack” on live and stuffed targets. Rate of target responding was reduced when either the mirror was covered with paper or when the multiple schedule was removed. A reversal in the relationship between reinforcement schedules and discriminative stimuli demonstrated that mirror responding was controlled by the stimulus correlated with the higher fixed-ratio schedule. With one component of the multiple schedule held constant at fixed ratio 25 and the ratio requirement of the other component varying from 25 to 150, there was an inverted U-shaped relationship between rate of mirror responding and fixed-ratio schedule in the varied component. As in Flory's study (1969b) there was an inverted U-shaped relationship between target responding and inter-food intervals. The combined results of these studies suggest that the relationship between rate of target responding and reinforcement schedules is controlled primarily by the inter-food intervals resulting from the schedules. PMID:16811671

  4. Programmed Instruction: Construction Responding, Discrimination Responding, and Highlighted Keywords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew L.; Malott, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    Skinner (1958) expressed the need for an increase in the effectiveness and efficiency of education. In particular, he suggested that programmed instruction could provide such efficiency. The present study used a within-subject design to compare the effects of four types of instructional materials; those requiring overt construction responses,…

  5. Hazard perception in emergency medical service responders.

    PubMed

    Johnston, K A; Scialfa, C T

    2016-10-01

    The perception of on-road hazards is critically important to emergency medical services (EMS) professionals, the patients they transport and the general public. This study compared hazard perception in EMS and civilian drivers of similar age and personal driving experience. Twenty-nine EMS professionals and 24 non-professional drivers were given a dynamic hazard perception test (HPT). The EMS group demonstrated an advantage in HPT that was independent of simple reaction time, another indication of the validity of the test. These results are also consistent with the view that professional driving experience results in changes in the ability to identify and respond to on-road hazards. Directions for future research include the development of a profession-specific hazard perception tool for both assessment and training purposes. PMID:27415813

  6. Journeying: Children Responding to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Kathleen E., Ed.; And Others

    Based on Louise Rosenblatt's transactional theory of reader response, the studies collected in this book present findings and recommendations that contribute to the understanding of how children create meaning from stories, how they acquire literacy skills to express that meaning, and what role educators play in these literary processes. The book…

  7. Pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills to identify poor responders that may benefit from rLH supplementation during GnRH-antagonist treatment for IVF: A pilot perspective study proposal

    PubMed Central

    GIZZO, SALVATORE; ANDRISANI, ALESSANDRA; NOVENTA, MARCO; GANGEMI, MICHELE; NARDELLI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA; AMBROSINI, GUIDO

    2015-01-01

    Controlled ovarian stimulation, using a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, is a potential treatment option for women with a low response to other fertility treatments as it appears to be at least as effective as GnRH agonists (long protocol). However, previous studies have indicated that the administration of GnRH antagonist may cause an excessive reduction in endogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The use of recombinant LH (rLH) supplementation during ovarian stimulation is controversial. The present article proposes a future study focused on women aged ≥40 years old, with the aim of identifying patients who are poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment that may benefit from rLH supplementation. We hypothesize that patients with suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may benefit from rLH supplementation, as GnRH-antagonist administration has the potential to induce a marked reduction in LH levels in such patients compared with that in patients that exhibit a regular recovery following the administration of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Furthermore, patients with hyper-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may be affected by ‘low-gonadotropin-responsiveness’, similar to that observed in patients with any mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor, who are known to benefit from rLH supplementation. The proposed pilot study would include 120 women who are predicted to be poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment. All subjects will be allocated at random (using 2:1 computerized randomization) into two study groups: Group A (OCP-treated) and group B (control). For all patients, the serum values of FSH, LH and 17β estradiol (E2) will be detected on day 3 of the menstrual cycle preceding OCP treatment (baseline) and at day 4 following OCP treatment. The Δ-variation from baseline levels for all markers, the FSH/LH ratio and the E2/FSH ratio will be determined. Δ-variation from the baseline

  8. Who cares and who is careless? Insufficient effort responding as a reflection of respondent personality.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Nathan A; Huang, Jason L; Bragg, Caleb B; Khazon, Steve; Liu, Mengqiao; Blackmore, Caitlin E

    2016-08-01

    Insufficient effort responding (IER) to surveys, which occurs when respondents fail to carefully read questionnaire instructions or item content, has recently gained attention as a source of inaccuracy in self-report data (Huang, Curran, Keeney, Poposki, & DeShon, 2012; Johnson, 2005; Maniaci & Rogge, 2014; Meade & Craig, 2012). Whereas previous studies have focused on IER as a methodological nuisance, the current studies examined IER as a substantive variable. Specifically, we hypothesized that IER is a reflection of enduring individual differences. In Study 1, we found that IER displayed rank-order consistency over the course of 13 months; in Studies 2 and 3, we found that IER displayed rank-order consistency across multiple research situations; in Study 4, we found that acquaintance-reported conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, and emotional stability were each negatively related to IER; and in Study 5, we found that IER was related to college grade point average and class absences. Together, these 5 studies suggest that IER is in part a manifestation of enduring individual differences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26927958

  9. 37 CFR 41.68 - Respondent's brief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., file a respondent brief and serve the brief on all parties in accordance with § 1.903 of this title. (2... (b)(1)(ii) of this section. (x) Certificate of service. A certification that a copy of the respondent... non-compliance and given a non-extendable time period within which to file an amended brief....

  10. HOW PEOPLE RESPOND TO CONTINGENT VALUATION QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the project is to understand better how individuals interpret and respond to contingent valuation (CV) questions. The research will address three issues: the reliability of the referendum questions format, the importance of reminding respondents about subst...

  11. DECONTAMINATION WIPES FOR FIRST RESPONDERS - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The threat of chemical or biological (CB) attack is real, and there is a recognized need for improved technologies to better respond to these situations. During a CB emergency, first responder units are critical for handling the emergency, and then restoring the environment wh...

  12. Evaluation of Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda Ndagire; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Background Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex-workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total-population data. Methods Total-population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household-heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, employing current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). Results We recruited 927 household-heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples under-represented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven-sampling statistical-inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven-sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Conclusions Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected non-hidden population. However, current respondent-driven-sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience

  13. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth’s magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  14. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (January 2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-02-01

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  15. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (December 2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-02-13

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  16. Enhancing Academic Engagement: Providing Opportunities for Responding and Influencing Students to Choose to Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Christopher H.; Pappas, Danielle N.; Davis, Kai A.

    2005-01-01

    Although educators often provide opportunities for students to engage in active academic responding, in many situations, students either cannot or will not respond. In the current article, we analyze the reasons students fail to respond. Practical procedures educators can use to prevent "can't do" problems are provided. "Won't do" problems are…

  17. The Effect of Missing Data on Estimating a Respondent's Location Using Ratings Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Ayala, R. J.

    In social science research there are a number of instruments that use a rating scale such as a Likert response scale. For a number of reasons, a respondent's response vector may not contain responses to each item. This study investigated the effect on a respondent's location estimate when a respondent is presented an item, has ample time to answer…

  18. Using Video Modeling to Teach Children with PDD-NOS to Respond to Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axe, Judah B.; Evans, Christine J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit delays in responding to facial expressions, and few studies have examined teaching responding to subtle facial expressions to this population. We used video modeling to train 3 participants with PDD-NOS (age 5) to respond to eight facial expressions: approval, bored, calming, disapproval,…

  19. 34 CFR 85.1000 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 85.1000 Respondent. Respondent means a person against whom an agency has initiated a debarment or suspension action. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec. 2455, Pub. L. 103-355, 108 Stat. 3243...

  20. Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Responding in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Horan, William P.; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Kring, Ann M.; Simons, Robert F.; Green, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    People with schizophrenia consistently report normal levels of pleasant emotion when exposed to evocative stimuli, suggesting intact consummatory pleasure. However, little is known about the neural correlates and time course of emotion in schizophrenia. This study used a well-validated affective picture viewing task that elicits a characteristic pattern of Event Related Potentials (ERP) from early to later processing stages (i.e., P1, P2, P3, and Late Positive Potentials (LPP)). Thirty eight stabilized schizophrenia outpatients and 36 healthy controls viewed standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neural pictures while ERPs were recorded, and subsequently rated their emotional responses to the stimuli. Patients and controls responded to the pictures similarly in terms of their valence ratings, as well as the initial ERP components (P1, P2, and P3). However, at the later LPP component (500 – 1000 ms), patients displayed diminished electrophysiological discrimination between pleasant versus neutral stimuli. This pattern suggests that patients demonstrate normal self-reported emotional experience and intact initial sensory processing of and resource allocation to emotional stimuli. However, they show a disruption in a later component associated with sustained attentional processing of emotional stimuli. PMID:20141239

  1. Musical hallucinations responding to a further increase of carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Saeko; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Ishii, Nobuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman outpatient with mild cognitive impairment, parasomnia and depressive state with musical hallucinations failed to respond to 400 mg/day of valproate. Once she was admitted to a university hospital, her musical hallucinations partially responded to 1 mg/day of clonazepam and sufficiently improved on 100 mg/day of carbamazepine. Two months after discharge, however, her musical hallucinations recurred probably as a consequence of psychological stress. The increase of carbamazepine from 100 to 200 mg/day completely remitted her musical hallucinations. This case suggests that musical hallucinations respond in a dose-dependent manner to increasing carbamazepine, and that gradual titration from small doses of carbamazepine is required because optimal doses appear to be smaller than those required for epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Further studies are warranted to determine the therapeutic levels of carbamazepine for musical hallucinations. PMID:25253486

  2. The meaning of occupational stress items to survey respondents.

    PubMed

    Jex, S M; Beehr, T A; Roberts, C K

    1992-10-01

    This study tested the effect of using the word stress in the measurement of self-reported occupational stressors and strains. Employees from two organizations responded to a questionnaire that included specific occupational stressors, strains, and 16 items in which the word stress was used. Survey respondents tended to interpret the word stress to refer both to employees' strains or reactions to the work environment and to job stressors or elements of the environment itself. Implications of these findings for occupational stress research are discussed. PMID:1429346

  3. Responding to Students' Learning Preferences in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Wiebe, Rick

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on a teacher's and his students' responsiveness to a new tetrahedral-oriented (Mahaffy in J Chem Educ 83(1):49-55, 2006) curriculum requiring more discursive classroom practices in the teaching of chemistry. In this instrumental case study, we identify the intentions of this learner-centered curriculum and a teacher's development in response to this curriculum. We also explore the tensions this teacher experiences as students subsequently respond to his adjusted teaching. We use a Chemistry Teacher Inventory (Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Res Sci Educ 40(11):667-689, 2011; Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Can J Math Sci Technol Educ 12(1):36-61, 2012; Lewthwaite in Chem Educ Res Pract. doi:10.1039/C3RP00122A, 2014) to assist the teacher in monitoring how he teaches and how he would like to improve his teaching. We also use a student form of the instrument, the Chemistry Classroom Inventory and Classroom Observation Protocol (Lewthwaite and Wiebe 2011) to verify the teacher's teaching and perception of student preferences for his teaching especially in terms of the discursive processes the curriculum encourages. By so doing, the teacher is able to use both sets of data as a foundation for critical reflection and work towards resolution of the incongruence in data arising from students' preferred learning orientations and his teaching aspirations. Implications of this study in regards to the authority of students' voice in triggering teachers' pedagogical change and the adjustments in `teachering' and `studenting' required by such curricula are considered.

  4. Supporting Children's Counterfactual Thinking with Alternative Modes of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Sarah R.; Carroll, Daniel J.; Brunsdon, Victoria E. A.; Gryg, Charlotte K.

    2011-01-01

    To speculate about counterfactual worlds, children need to ignore what they know to be true about the real world. Prior studies yielding individual differences data suggested that counterfactual thinking may be related to overcoming prepotent responses. In two experiments, we manipulated how 3- to 5-year-olds responded to counterfactual…

  5. Meta-Analysis and Inadequate Responders to Intervention: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Hughes, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    In a recently published meta-analysis, Tran, Sanchez, Arellano, and Swanson (2011) synthesized 13 studies that permitted assessment of characteristics of children who were adequate and inadequate responders to instruction. The authors indicated that "[t]he central question addressed in this review is whether individual differences in…

  6. African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

  7. Variational Pragmatics and "Responding to Thanks"--Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieswanger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, Klaus P. Schneider published a fascinating article with the title "'No problem, you're welcome, anytime': Responding to thanks in Ireland, England, and the U.S.A." Adopting the then emerging and now established framework of variational pragmatics, Schneider's pioneering paper presents the results of a study on differences…

  8. Transfer of Aversive Respondent Elicitation in Accordance with Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Miguel Rodriguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the…

  9. Chondrogenic Progenitor Cells Respond to Cartilage Injury

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Hyeonghun; Zheng, Hongjun; Yu, Yin; Jang, Keewoong; Walter, Morgan W.; Lehman, Abigail D.; Ding, Lei; Buckwalter, Joseph A.; Martin, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hypocellularity resulting from chondrocyte death in the aftermath of mechanical injury is thought to contribute to posttraumatic osteoarthritis. However, we observed that nonviable areas in cartilage injured by blunt impact were repopulated within 7–14 days by cells that appeared to migrate from the surrounding matrix. The aim of this study was to assess our hypothesis that the migrating cell population included chondrogenic progenitor cells that were drawn to injured cartilage by alarmins. Methods Osteochondral explants obtained from mature cattle were injured by blunt impact or scratching, resulting in localized chondrocyte death. Injured sites were serially imaged by confocal microscopy, and migrating cells were evaluated for chondrogenic progenitor characteristics. Chemotaxis assays were used to measure the responses to chemokines, injury-conditioned medium, dead cell debris, and high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1). Results Migrating cells were highly clonogenic and multipotent and expressed markers associated with chondrogenic progenitor cells. Compared with chondrocytes, these cells overexpressed genes involved in proliferation and migration and underexpressed cartilage matrix genes. They were more active than chondrocytes in chemotaxis assays and responded to cell lysates, conditioned medium, and HMGB-1. Glycyrrhizin, a chelator of HMGB-1 and a blocking antibody to receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), inhibited responses to cell debris and conditioned medium and reduced the numbers of migrating cells on injured explants. Conclusion Injuries that caused chondrocyte death stimulated the emergence and homing of chondrogenic progenitor cells, in part via HMGB-1 release and RAGE-mediated chemotaxis. Their repopulation of the matrix could promote the repair of chondral damage that might otherwise contribute to progressive cartilage loss. PMID:22777600

  10. Helping Your Children Respond to Global Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFarge, Phyllis

    1992-01-01

    Discusses what it is like for children to grow up with an awareness that they live in a world in which unrestrained technological prowess has created vulnerabilities on a global scale. The article examines how parents and teachers can help their children cope with and respond to world issues. (SM)

  11. Modeling Socially Desirable Responding and Its Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Matthias; Buehner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The impact of socially desirable responding or faking on noncognitive assessments remains an issue of strong debate. One of the main reasons for the controversy is the lack of a statistical method to model such response sets. This article introduces a new way to model faking based on the assumption that faking occurs due to an interaction between…

  12. Resurgence of Temporal Patterns of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancado, Carlos R. X.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2011-01-01

    The resurgence of temporal patterns of key pecking by pigeons was investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, positively accelerated and linear patterns of responding were established on one key under a discrete-trial multiple fixed-interval variable-interval schedule. Subsequently, only responses on a second key produced reinforcers…

  13. Responding to Children Victimized by Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Brock, Stephen E.; Chang, Yiping; O'Malley, Meagan D.

    2006-01-01

    Because victimization results from the dynamic interplay between the victim and his or her parents, peers, and teachers, responding to this problem should involve both direct and indirect interventions. This paper describes and reviews empirically supported direct interventions with victims, as well as indirect interventions with parents, peers,…

  14. Criticisms and Concerns: How Do You Respond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joy

    1994-01-01

    Montessorians respond to the following criticisms and concerns about Montessori education: (1) accessibility by all racial and socioeconomic groups; (2) evaluation of children's progress; (3) the noisiness of Montessori classrooms; (4) the inclusion or exclusion of humanities and physical education in Montessori curriculum; and (5) transition…

  15. Suspected Child Maltreatment: Recognize and Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemple, Kristen Mary; Kim, Hae Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood educators spend extensive amounts of time with young children, so they are often the first adults to notice signs that a child may be abused or neglected. All educators are required by law to report suspected maltreatment, and can play an important role in preventing and responding to abuse and neglect of young children. What is…

  16. ASA24® Respondent Website Features

    Cancer.gov

    The ASA24 Respondent Website guides the participant through the completion of either a 24-hour recall for the previous day (from midnight-to-midnight or for the past 24-hours) or for a single or multiple day food record.

  17. Methods for Handling Missing Secondary Respondent Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rebekah; Johnson, David

    2013-01-01

    Secondary respondent data are underutilized because researchers avoid using these data in the presence of substantial missing data. The authors reviewed, evaluated, and tested solutions to this problem. Five strategies of dealing with missing partner data were reviewed: (a) complete case analysis, (b) inverse probability weighting, (c) correction…

  18. Responding to Accountability Mandates. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outcalt, Charles; Rabin, Joel

    In recent years, community colleges have developed innovative assessment programs to respond to more explicit state guidelines and mandates for greater accountability. In California, for example, the State Assembly began requiring community colleges to address specific educational and fiscal performance issues in assessments in 1989, while…

  19. Timely Completion of Paperwork: Are Some Residents Consistently Late Responders?

    PubMed Central

    Metheny, William P.

    2014-01-01

    Background One element of competence in professionalism entails the timely completion of paperwork. Early identification of residents who are consistently late in completing their assignments might be the first step in helping them change this habit. Objective This study sought to determine if program coordinators' ratings of residents' response habits to completing assignments were associated with existing measures of resident response times tracked by the institution. Methods Program coordinators rated residents as early, mid, or late responders based on their experience with them. We compared coordinators' ratings with the response time of these same residents in returning orientation materials to the institution, completing a patient safety survey and duty hour logs, and providing their required countersignature on telephone and verbal orders. A total of 196 residents enrolled at this institution were eligible for this comparison in the 2012–2013 academic year. Results Program coordinators rated 23% (40 of 177) of the residents as late responders. These ratings were significantly associated with the response time of residents in returning orientation materials and the completed patient safety survey. Residents identified as late responders were 2.45 times (confidence interval, 1.09 ± 5.64) more likely to have delinquent medical records. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that residents who are late responders can be identified as early as orientation and that they likely maintain this response habit in completing assignments throughout residency. To address this professionalism issue, programs should track and counsel residents on their timeliness in completing paperwork. PMID:24949137

  20. Visual Motor Integration as a Screener for Responders and Non-Responders in Preschool and Early School Years: Implications for Inclusive Assessment in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Visual motor integration (VMI) is the ability of the eyes and hands to work together in smooth, efficient patterns. In Oman, there are few effective methods to assess VMI skills in children in inclusive settings. The current study investigated the performance of preschool and early school years responders and non-responders on a VMI test. The full…

  1. Responder individuality in red blood cell alloimmunization.

    PubMed

    Körmöczi, Günther F; Mayr, Wolfgang R

    2014-11-01

    Many different factors influence the propensity of transfusion recipients and pregnant women to form red blood cell alloantibodies (RBCA). RBCA may cause hemolytic transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and may be a complication in transplantation medicine. Antigenic differences between responder and foreign erythrocytes may lead to such an immune answer, in part with suspected specific HLA class II associations. Biochemical and conformational characteristics of red blood cell (RBC) antigens, their dose (number of transfusions and pregnancies, absolute number of antigens per RBC) and the mode of exposure impact on RBCA rates. In addition, individual circumstances determine the risk to form RBCA. Responder individuality in terms of age, sex, severity of underlying disease, disease- or therapy-induced immunosuppression and inflammation are discussed with respect to influencing RBC alloimmunization. For particular high-risk patients, extended phenotype matching of transfusion and recipient efficiently decreases RBCA induction and associated clinical risks. PMID:25670932

  2. Preventing and responding to medical identity theft.

    PubMed

    Amori, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Medical identity theft is a crime with two victims: patients and providers. It is easy to commit and lucrative because healthcare record keeping and business interactions are complex and mainly electronic. Patients whose identity has been stolen are vulnerable to both medical error and financial loss. Providers may suffer both reputation loss and financial loss. There are steps to help prevent and to respond appropriately to medical identity theft. PMID:20200908

  3. Evidence of More Immanent Justice Responding in Adults than Children: A Challenge to Traditional Developmental Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Lakshmi; Winer, Gerald A.

    2004-01-01

    Three studies investigated developmental changes in immanent justice responding by asking participants to respond to vignettes in which a person's bad behaviour was followed by a negative consequence. Study 1 consisted of 152 sixth graders and 128 college students and presented participants with a vignette that examined the notion of bad people…

  4. Diagnostics for Respondent-driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a widely used method for sampling from hard-to-reach human populations, especially populations at higher risk for HIV. Data are collected through peer-referral over social networks. RDS has proven practical for data collection in many difficult settings and is widely used. Inference from RDS data requires many strong assumptions because the sampling design is partially beyond the control of the researcher and partially unobserved. We introduce diagnostic tools for most of these assumptions and apply them in 12 high risk populations. These diagnostics empower researchers to better understand their data and encourage future statistical research on RDS. PMID:27226702

  5. Liquid-Flow Controller Responds To Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Mechanism controls flow of liquid in fuel-spraying head in combustion chamber responds nonlinearly to pressure of liquid. Shell of spraybar expands or contracts laterally as its internal pressure rises or falls, forcing collar down or up on entry tube. Area of window formed by slots in collar and entry tube thus increases or decreases. Drop in pressure through variable-area orifice increases much more with flow through orifice than does corresponding drop in pressure with flow through fixed-area orifice. In practical terms, lower pump pressure needed with variable orifice for given flow of liquid. Principle of operation applicable to spraying heads for other fluids.

  6. 15 CFR 904.107 - Joint and several respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint and several respondents. 904.107... PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.107 Joint and several respondents. (a) A NOVA may assess a civil penalty against two or more respondents jointly and severally. Each joint and several respondent is liable for...

  7. 15 CFR 904.107 - Joint and several respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint and several respondents. 904.107... PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.107 Joint and several respondents. (a) A NOVA may assess a civil penalty against two or more respondents jointly and severally. Each joint and several respondent is liable for...

  8. To respond or not to respond, the recurring question in plant mechanosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc-Fournier, Nathalie; Martin, Ludovic; Lenne, Catherine; Decourteix, Mélanie

    2014-01-01

    In nature, terrestrial plants experience many kinds of external mechanical stimulation and respond by triggering a network of signaling events to acclimate their growth and development. Some environmental cues, especially wind, recur on time scales varying from seconds to days. Plants thus have to adapt their sensitivity to such stimulations to avoid constitutive activation of stress responses. The study of plant mechanosensing has been attracting more interest in the last two decades, but plant responses to repetitive mechanical stimulation have yet to be described in detail. In this mini review, alongside classic experiments we survey recent descriptions of the kinetics of plant responses to recurrent stimulation. The ability of plants to modulate their responses to recurrent stimulation at the molecular, cellular, or organ scale is also relevant to other abiotic stimuli. It is possible that plants reduce their responsiveness to environmental signals as a function of their recurrence, recovering full sensitivity several days later. Finally, putative mechanisms underlying mechanosensing regulation are discussed. PMID:25177327

  9. Characteristics of the traumatic stressors experienced by rural first responders.

    PubMed

    Regambal, Marci J; Alden, Lynn E; Wagner, Shannon L; Harder, Henry G; Koch, William J; Fung, Klint; Parsons, Carly

    2015-08-01

    First responders routinely experience work-related events that meet the definition of a traumatic stressor. Despite the high exposure to traumatic events, prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are relatively low. This discrepancy points to the potential value of identifying factors that distinguish those traumatic stressors that produce ongoing traumatic stress symptoms from those that do not. The present study surveyed 181 first responders from rural settings. A repeated-measures design was used to compare characteristics of traumatic stressors that were or were not associated with ongoing PTSD symptoms. A factor analysis revealed that distressing events were characterized by chaos and resource limitations. Consistent with contemporary models, two mediational analyses revealed that each event characteristic predicted peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic cognitions, which in turn predicted PTSD symptoms. Moreover, the effect of each event characteristic on PTSD symptoms was partially mediated by these cognitive processes. PMID:26188614

  10. How tree roots respond to drought

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Ivano; Herzog, Claude; Dawes, Melissa A.; Arend, Matthias; Sperisen, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing climate change is characterized by increased temperatures and altered precipitation patterns. In addition, there has been an increase in both the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events such as drought. Episodes of drought induce a series of interconnected effects, all of which have the potential to alter the carbon balance of forest ecosystems profoundly at different scales of plant organization and ecosystem functioning. During recent years, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of how aboveground parts of trees respond to drought and how these responses affect carbon assimilation. In contrast, processes of belowground parts are relatively underrepresented in research on climate change. In this review, we describe current knowledge about responses of tree roots to drought. Tree roots are capable of responding to drought through a variety of strategies that enable them to avoid and tolerate stress. Responses include root biomass adjustments, anatomical alterations, and physiological acclimations. The molecular mechanisms underlying these responses are characterized to some extent, and involve stress signaling and the induction of numerous genes, leading to the activation of tolerance pathways. In addition, mycorrhizas seem to play important protective roles. The current knowledge compiled in this review supports the view that tree roots are well equipped to withstand drought situations and maintain morphological and physiological functions as long as possible. Further, the reviewed literature demonstrates the important role of tree roots in the functioning of forest ecosystems and highlights the need for more research in this emerging field. PMID:26284083

  11. Smart physiological monitoring of first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Anurag; Kaiser, William; Tamminedi, Tejaswi; Yadegar, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    Today's state-of-the-art medical vests and shirts for health status monitoring are inflexible and expensive. The high cost and the lack of flexibility and integral-unity of the current vests are prohibiting factors for their use in first responder applications. The vests also lack an in-built intelligence to accurately determine the health status of the person wearing the vest. We present a hardware plus software solution for monitoring the health status of first responders in pressurized and adversarial missions. The technology consists of two main components. The first component is a physiological vest consisting of a suite of physiological sensors interfaced with energy management units designed to prolong the life of the sensors. The sensors communicate wirelessly with a personal server consisting of a Decision Support Software (DSS), which forms the second major component of our technology. The DSS (1) integrates the physiologic sensors readings for global assessment of the individual's health status; (2) recommends medical Alerts and Actions based on the fusion of the sensor readings; and (3) applies cognitive computation to personalize the medical vest to the specific physiologic and motion characteristics of the individual wearing the vest, in the theater of the operation or during exercise.

  12. Academic Responding during Instruction and Reading Outcomes for Kindergarten Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the academic responding of students at-risk for reading difficulties in beginning reading instruction. Opportunities for kindergarten students at-risk for reading difficulties to respond academically during teacher-facilitated reading instruction in the general education classroom were examined in…

  13. Changes in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate during Fixed-Interval Responding in Squirrel Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWeese, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Episodic and sustained increases in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure can occur with recurring patterns of schedule-controlled behavior. Most previous studies were conducted under fixed-ratio schedules, which maintained a consistent high rate of responding that alternated with periods of no responding during times when the schedule was…

  14. Responding to Literature through Storytelling, Artifacts and Multigenre Writing Practices: Explorations of Cultures and Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga-Dobai, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes how innovative literacy practices such as multigenre writing and artifactual critical literacy have been used to tap into pre-service teachers' cultural identities while responding to literature. In the process of responding to literature, personal experience is crucial; therefore, in this study, I focused on the…

  15. Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

  16. Affective and Cardiovascular Responding to Unpleasant Events from Adolescence to Old Age: Complexity of Events Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Muller, Viktor; Wagner, Gert G.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the "overpowering hypothesis" as a possible explanation for the currently inconclusive empirical picture on age differences in affective responding to unpleasant events. The overpowering hypothesis predicts that age differences in affective responding are particularly evident in highly resource-demanding situations that…

  17. Empathic Responding in Toddlers at Risk for an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Nicole M.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Empathy deficits represent an important social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little is known about the early development of empathy prior to diagnosis. This study examined empathic responding to parental distress in toddlers at risk for an ASD. Children later diagnosed with an ASD engaged in less empathic responding at 24 and…

  18. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders: 2014 Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Ozanich, Richard M.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2014-03-28

    This report summarizes commercially-available, hand-portable technologies that can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, this report is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use. Information listed in this report is primarily vendor-provided; however, where possible it has been supplemented with additional information obtained from publications, reports, and websites. Manufacturers were given the chance to review summaries of their technologies from August through November 2013 to verify the accuracy of technical specifications, available references, and pricing.

  19. Hailey-hailey disease responding to thalidomide.

    PubMed

    Nanda, K Bala; Saldanha, Celia Soni; Jacintha, Martis; Kamath, Ganesh

    2014-03-01

    Familial benign chronic pemphigus or Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of recurrent blisters and erosions in the intertriginous areas. Various topical and systemic treatment options include corticosteroids, topical 5-fluorouracil, topical vitamin D analogs, topical zinc oxide, dapsone, psoralen plus ultraviolet A, systemic retinoids, cyclosporine, methotrexate, and photodynamic therapy. In recalcitrant cases, further options including, invasive methods such as grenz ray therapy, carbon dioxide laser abrasion, and erbium: YAG laser ablation, dermabrasion, electron beam therapy, botulinum toxin, and full-thickness excision of affected skin with repair by split-thickness grafting have been reported as useful in treatment of HHD. We describe a case of HHD who was treated with several treatment modalities including antibiotics, corticosteroids, and dapsone earlier and when presented to us had a severe recalcitrant disease. Thalidomide, as a modality of treatment has been successfully used in few cases earlier. Our patient responded well to thalidomide. PMID:24700941

  20. Hailey-Hailey Disease Responding to Thalidomide

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, K Bala; Saldanha, Celia Soni; Jacintha, Martis; Kamath, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Familial benign chronic pemphigus or Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of recurrent blisters and erosions in the intertriginous areas. Various topical and systemic treatment options include corticosteroids, topical 5-fluorouracil, topical vitamin D analogs, topical zinc oxide, dapsone, psoralen plus ultraviolet A, systemic retinoids, cyclosporine, methotrexate, and photodynamic therapy. In recalcitrant cases, further options including, invasive methods such as grenz ray therapy, carbon dioxide laser abrasion, and erbium: YAG laser ablation, dermabrasion, electron beam therapy, botulinum toxin, and full-thickness excision of affected skin with repair by split-thickness grafting have been reported as useful in treatment of HHD. We describe a case of HHD who was treated with several treatment modalities including antibiotics, corticosteroids, and dapsone earlier and when presented to us had a severe recalcitrant disease. Thalidomide, as a modality of treatment has been successfully used in few cases earlier. Our patient responded well to thalidomide. PMID:24700941

  1. Space-Dynamically Responding Ultrasonic Matrix System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guigne, Jacques; Yi, Hu Chun

    2008-01-01

    Space-Dynamically Responding Ultrasonic Matrix System (SpaceDRUMS) comprises a suite of hardware that enables containerless processing (samples of experimental materials can be processed without ever touching a container wall). Using a collection of 20 acoustic beam emitters, SpaceDRUMS can completely suspend a baseball-sized solid or liquid sample during combustion or heat-based synthesis. Because the samples never contact the container walls, materials can be produced in microgravity with an unparalleled quality of shape and composition. The ultimate goal of the SpaceDRUMS hardware is to assist with the development of advanced materials of a commercial quantity and quality, using the space-based experiments to guide development of manufacturing processes on Earth. T

  2. Responding to chemical attack. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, R.W.

    1991-02-11

    In view of Iraq's stated intention of using chemical weapons in the Persian Gulf War, the Coalition forces must be prepared to respond. Iraq is capable of conducting such an attack. While the use of chemical weapons may not be militarily significant, the political effect of the use and the response to it may be very significant. Responses including the use of chemical and nuclear weapons are assessed in terms of their legality, political cost, and military effectiveness and found unacceptable. Reliance on diplomatic protests and on post-war criminal sanctions are judged ineffective. A response in the form of increased conventional attack on the Iraqi chemical infrastructure is recommended because that response will preserve the present Coalition, effectively counter the chemical attack, contribute to regional stability, and enhance the reputation of the United States for lawfulness and dependability.

  3. How to define responders in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Cyrus; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Bardin, Thomas; Berenbaum, Francis; Flamion, Bruno; Jonsson, Helgi; Kanis, John A.; Pelousse, Franz; Lems, Willem F.; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Reiter, Susanne; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Rizzoli, René; Bruyère, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a clinical syndrome of failure of the joint accompanied by varying degrees of joint pain, functional limitation, and reduced quality of life due to deterioration of articular cartilage and involvement of other joint structures. Scope Regulatory agencies require relevant clinical benefit on symptoms and structure modification for registration of a new therapy as a disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD). An international Working Group of the European Society on Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) and International Osteoporosis Foundation was convened to explore the current burden of osteoarthritis, review current regulatory guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials, and examine the concept of responder analyses for improving drug evaluation in osteoarthritis. Findings The ESCEO considers that the major challenges in DMOAD development are the absence of a precise definition of the disease, particularly in the early stages, and the lack of consensus on how to detect structural changes and link them to clinically meaningful endpoints. Responder criteria should help identify progression of disease and be clinically meaningful. The ideal criterion should be sensitive to change over time and should predict disease progression and outcomes such as joint replacement. Conclusion The ESCEO considers that, for knee osteoarthritis, clinical trial data indicate that radiographic joint space narrowing >0.5 mm over 2 or 3 years might be a reliable surrogate measure for total joint replacement. On-going research using techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and biochemical markers may allow the identification of these patients earlier in the disease process. PMID:23557069

  4. Imagination and dissociation in hypnotic responding.

    PubMed

    Bowers, K S

    1992-10-01

    A neodissociative model of mind is better equipped than a social-psychological model to deal with the complexities of hypnosis, and of human behavior generally. It recognizes, as Coe's (1992) model does not, that behavior can be more automatically activated than strategically enacted. In particular, Coe's emphasis on human behavior as purposeful and goal directed does not distinguish between goal-directed behavior that serves a purpose, and goal-directed behavior that is performed on purpose. It is this distinction that permits goal-directed behavior to be dissociated from a person's conscious plans and intentions. In addition to offering a critique of Coe's "limited process" view of hypnosis, 4 main points are made in the interest of developing a slightly modified, neodissociation view of hypnosis. First, it is argued that goal-directed fantasies are more limited in their ability to mediate hypnotic responding than is commonly appreciated; as well, they do not seem to account for the nonvolitional quality of hypnotic responding. Second, it is argued that hypnotic ability is not unidimensional, with compliance and social influence more apt to account for the low than for the high hypnotizable's responsiveness to suggestion. Third, compared to low hypnotizables, the hypnotic responsiveness of high hypnotizables seems more likely to result from dissociated control. In other words, for high hypnotizables, hypnotic suggestions may often directly activate subsystems of cognitive control. Consequently, the need for executive initiative and effort to produce hypnotically suggested behavior is minimized, and such responses are therefore experienced as nonvolitional. Fourth and finally, while goal-directed fantasies typically accompany hypnotically suggested responses, they are in many cases more a marker of dissociated control than a mediator of suggested effects. PMID:1468834

  5. Ecosystem Greenhouse Gas Fluxes Respond Directly to Weather Not Climate: A Case Study on the Relationship of Global Atmospheric Circulation, Foehn Frequency, and Winter Weather to Northern Alps Regional Grassland Phenology and Carbon Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, A. R.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Zeeman, M. J.; Katata, G.; Mauder, M.; Schmid, H. P. E.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of climate change on regional ecosystem structure and biogeochemical cycling has two important aspects that require better elaboration to improve projections of these effects. The first is that ecosystems don't respond directly to climate, but indirectly via frequency and occurrence of weather systems, which are driven by climatic shifts in global circulation and radiative processes. The second is that many responses of ecosystems to these weather patterns and extremes are lagged in time. Here, we examine these aspects for northern Alpine grasslands. Long-term eddy covariance flux tower and phenology observations in Austria and Germany and biophysical models reveal a strong influence of winter air temperature, snowfall, and snowmelt frequency on winter grass mortality and spring grassland carbon uptake. Further, the mode of climate variability that drives winter air temperature and snow depth patterns is primarily the frequency of strong regional southerly Foehn flow that promotes warm, dry conditions in winter. Finally, we demonstrate that much of the interannual variance in Foehn frequency and southerly flow is driven by statistics and climatic trends of 500 hPa pressure patterns in Greenland, part of the Arctic Oscillation. However, a few years, including the unusually warm and dry winter of 2013-2014 appear to have secondary, possibly local thermotopographic circulation factors that promoted its weather conditions regionally, which also included primarily cool and wet conditions in northern Europe and the southern Alps. These findings demonstrate that the regional response of ecosystems to climate change is modulated by how large-scale circulation patterns influence local meteorology and topographic flows both during and outside the growing season and provides a framework for future assessment and climate model improvements of linkages of climate change, weather patterns, and ecosystem responses.

  6. 76 FR 9039 - Emergency Responder Field Operations Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Emergency Responder Field Operations Guide AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Emergency Management Agency is requesting public comments on the Emergency Responder Field Operations...

  7. 33 CFR 20.1311 - Admissions by respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Supplementary Evidentiary Rules for Suspension and Revocation Hearings § 20.1311 Admissions by respondent. No person may testify regarding admissions made by the respondent during an investigation under 46 CFR...

  8. Improving Situational Awareness for First Responders via Mobile Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; Del Mundo, Rommel; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This project looks to improve first responder situational awareness using tools and techniques of mobile computing. The prototype system combines wireless communication, real-time location determination, digital imaging, and three-dimensional graphics. Responder locations are tracked in an outdoor environment via GPS and uploaded to a central server via GPRS or an 802.11 network. Responders can also wirelessly share digital images and text reports, both with other responders and with the incident commander. A pre-built three dimensional graphics model of a particular emergency scene is used to visualize responder and report locations. Responders have a choice of information end points, ranging from programmable cellular phones to tablet computers. The system also employs location-aware computing to make responders aware of particular hazards as they approach them. The prototype was developed in conjunction with the NASA Ames Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team and has undergone field testing during responder exercise at NASA Ames.

  9. Improving Situational Awareness for First Responders via Mobile Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; Del Mundo, Rommel; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This project looks to improve first responder incident command, and an appropriately managed flow of situational awareness using mobile computing techniques. The prototype system combines wireless communication, real-time location determination, digital imaging, and three-dimensional graphics. Responder locations are tracked in an outdoor environment via GPS and uploaded to a central server via GPRS or an 802. II network. Responders can also wireless share digital images and text reports, both with other responders and with the incident commander. A pre-built three dimensional graphics model of the emergency scene is used to visualize responder and report locations. Responders have a choice of information end points, ranging from programmable cellular phones to tablet computers. The system also employs location-aware computing to make responders aware of particular hazards as they approach them. The prototype was developed in conjunction with the NASA Ames Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team and has undergone field testing during responder exercises at NASA Ames.

  10. Software Assists in Responding to Anomalous Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark; Kronbert, F.; Weiner, A.; Morgan, T.; Stroozas, B.; Girouard, F.; Hopkins, A.; Wong, L.; Kneubuhl, J.; Malina, R.

    2004-01-01

    Fault Induced Document Retrieval Officer (FIDO) is a computer program that reduces the need for a large and costly team of engineers and/or technicians to monitor the state of a spacecraft and associated ground systems and respond to anomalies. FIDO includes artificial-intelligence components that imitate the reasoning of human experts with reference to a knowledge base of rules that represent failure modes and to a database of engineering documentation. These components act together to give an unskilled operator instantaneous expert assistance and access to information that can enable resolution of most anomalies, without the need for highly paid experts. FIDO provides a system state summary (a configurable engineering summary) and documentation for diagnosis of a potentially failing component that might have caused a given error message or anomaly. FIDO also enables high-level browsing of documentation by use of an interface indexed to the particular error message. The collection of available documents includes information on operations and associated procedures, engineering problem reports, documentation of components, and engineering drawings. FIDO also affords a capability for combining information on the state of ground systems with detailed, hierarchically-organized, hypertext- enabled documentation.

  11. Please respond ASAP: workplace telepressure and employee recovery.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larissa K; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2015-04-01

    Organizations rely heavily on asynchronous message-based technologies (e.g., e-mail) for the purposes of work-related communications. These technologies are primary means of knowledge transfer and building social networks. As a by-product, workers might feel varying levels of preoccupations with and urges for responding quickly to messages from clients, coworkers, or supervisors--an experience we label as workplace telepressure. This experience can lead to fast response times and thus faster decisions and other outcomes initially. However, research from the stress and recovery literature suggests that the defining features of workplace telepressure interfere with needed work recovery time and stress-related outcomes. The present set of studies defined and validated a new scale to measure telepressure. Study 1 tested an initial pool of items and found some support for a single-factor structure after problematic items were removed. As expected, public self-consciousness, techno-overload, and response expectations were moderately associated with telepressure in Study 1. Study 2 demonstrated that workplace telepressure was distinct from other personal (job involvement, affective commitment) and work environment (general and ICT work demands) factors and also predicted burnout (physical and cognitive), absenteeism, sleep quality, and e-mail responding beyond those factors. Implications for future research and workplace practices are discussed. PMID:25365629

  12. The relational responding task: toward a new implicit measure of beliefs

    PubMed Central

    De Houwer, Jan; Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; Roets, Arne; Hughes, Sean

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the Relational Responding Task (RRT) as a tool for capturing beliefs at the implicit level. Flemish participants were asked to respond as if they believed that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants (e.g., respond “true” to the statement “Flemish people are wiser than immigrants”) or to respond as if they believed that immigrants are more intelligent than Flemish people (e.g., respond “true” to the statement “Flemish people are dumber than immigrants”). The difference in performance between these two tasks correlated with ratings of the extent to which participants explicitly endorsed the belief that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants and with questionnaire measures of subtle and blatant racism. The current study provides a first step toward validating RRT effects as a viable measure of implicit beliefs. PMID:25852624

  13. Academic Responding During Instruction and Reading Outcomes for Kindergarten Students At-risk for Reading Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the academic responding of students at-risk for reading difficulties in beginning reading instruction. Opportunities for kindergarten students at-risk for reading difficulties to respond academically during teacher-facilitated reading instruction in the general education classroom were examined in relation to student reading achievement as well as social behaviors. Student academic responding during teacher-facilitated instruction significantly predicted end of year reading achievement. Teacher perceptions of students’ social skills (positive correlation) and problem behaviors (negative correlation) were significantly correlated with academic responding. When academic responding and teacher perceptions of social behaviors were examined together, only teacher perceptions of academic competence and problem behaviors predicted spring outcomes. PMID:24665162

  14. 31 CFR 595.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 595.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director of the Office of Foreign Assets Control. (b) Form and contents of...

  15. 31 CFR 560.704 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 560.704 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of the written presentation. The written presentation...

  16. 31 CFR 575.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 575.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of written presentation. The written presentation need...

  17. 31 CFR 535.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 535.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of written presentation. The written presentation need...

  18. 19 CFR 162.78 - Presentations responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presentations responding to prepenalty notice. 162... Violations § 162.78 Presentations responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. Unless a... notice to make a written and an oral presentation. The Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer...

  19. 77 FR 56622 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting... First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet). DATES: The meeting will be held on September 25, 2012... the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) as an independent authority within the...

  20. 78 FR 15357 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone...

  1. 78 FR 57843 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... Washington, DC See First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting, Notice of Open Public Meetings, 77 FR... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting... (NTIA) will convene an open public meeting of the Board of the First Responder Network Authority...

  2. 78 FR 38014 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone...

  3. 78 FR 26323 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone...

  4. 78 FR 57621 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting...: Notice of special meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Board meeting via teleconference on September...

  5. 78 FR 72666 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting...: Notice of Open Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will convene open public meetings of the Board Committees on...

  6. 78 FR 54241 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone...

  7. 78 FR 63168 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone...

  8. 39 CFR 962.11 - Respondent access to information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respondent access to information. 962.11 Section... RELATIVE TO THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 962.11 Respondent access to information. (a)(1) Except... § 962.6, the Respondent shall be entitled to obtain all exculpatory information in the possession of...

  9. Per cent of patients with chronic migraine who responded per onabotulinumtoxinA treatment cycle: PREEMPT

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Stephen D; Dodick, David W; Aurora, Sheena K; Diener, Hans-Christoph; DeGryse, Ronald E; Lipton, Richard B; Turkel, Catherine C

    2015-01-01

    Objective The approved use of onabotulinumtoxinA for prophylaxis of headaches in patients with chronic migraine (CM) involves treatment every 12 weeks. It is currently unknown whether patients who fail to respond to the first onabotulinumtoxinA treatment cycle will respond to subsequent treatment cycles. To help inform decisions about treating non-responders, we examined the probability of treatment cycle 1 non-responders responding in cycle 2, and cycle 1 and 2 non-responders responding in cycle 3. Methods Pooled PREEMPT data (two studies: a 24-week, 2-cycle, double-blind, randomised (1:1), placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase, followed by a 32-week, 3-cycle, open-label phase) evaluated onabotulinumtoxinA (155–195 U) for prophylaxis of headaches in persons with CM (≥15 days/month with headache ≥4 h/day). End points of interest included the proportion of study patients who first achieved a ≥50% reduction in headache days, moderate/severe headache days, total cumulative hours of headache on headache days, or a ≥5-point improvement in Headache Impact Test (HIT)-6. For treatment cycle 1, all eligible participants were included. For subsequent cycles, responders in a previous cycle were no longer considered first responders. Results Among onabotulinumtoxinA-treated patients (n=688) 49.3% had a ≥50% reduction in headache-day frequency during treatment cycle 1, with 11.3% and 10.3% of patients first responding during cycles 2 and 3, respectively. 54.2%, 11.6% and 7.4% of patients first responded with a ≥50% reduction in cumulative hours of headache, and 56.3%, 14.5% and 7.7% of patients first responded with a ≥5-point improvement in total HIT-6 during treatment cycles 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Conclusions A meaningful proportion of patients with CM treated with onabotulinumtoxinA who did not respond to the first treatment cycle responded in the second and third cycles of treatment. Trial registration number NCT00156910, NCT00168428. PMID

  10. Smart radio: spectrum access for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvius, Mark D.; Ge, Feng; Young, Alex; MacKenzie, Allen B.; Bostian, Charles W.

    2008-04-01

    This paper details the Wireless at Virginia Tech Center for Wireless Telecommunications' (CWT) design and implementation of its Smart Radio (SR) communication platform. The CWT SR can identify available spectrum within a pre-defined band, rendezvous with an intended receiver, and transmit voice and data using a selected quality of service (QoS). This system builds upon previous cognitive technologies developed by CWT for the public safety community, with the goal of providing a prototype mobile communications package for military and public safety First Responders. A master control (MC) enables spectrum awareness by characterizing the radio environment with a power spectrum sensor and an innovative signal detection and classification module. The MC also enables spectrum and signal memory by storing sensor results in a knowledge database. By utilizing a family radio service (FRS) waveform database, the CWT SR can create a new communication link on any designated FRS channel frequency using FM, BPSK, QPSK, or 8PSK modulations. With FM, it supports analog voice communications with legacy hand-held FRS radios. With digital modulations, it supports IP data services, including a CWT developed CVSD-based VoIP protocol. The CWT SR coordinates spectrum sharing between analog primary users and digital secondary users by applying a simple but effective channel-change protocol. It also demonstrates a novel rendezvous protocol to facilitate the detection and initialization of communications links with neighboring SR nodes through the transmission of frequency-hopped rendezvous beacons. By leveraging the GNU Radio toolkit, writing key modules entirely in Python, and utilizing the USRP hardware front-end, the CWT SR provides a dynamic spectrum test bed for future smart and cognitive radio research.

  11. Respondent driven sampling of wheelchair users: A lack of traction?

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, John A.; Schluter, Philip J.; Hay-Smith, E. Jean C.; Snell, Deborah L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Internationally, wheelchair users are an emerging demographic phenomenon, due to their increased prevalence and rapidly increasing life-span. While having significant healthcare implications, basic robust epidemiological information about wheelchair users is often lacking due, in part, to this population’s ‘hidden’ nature. Increasingly popular in epidemiological research, Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) provides a mechanism for generating unbiased population-based estimates for hard-to-reach populations, overcoming biases inherent within other sampling methods. This paper reports the first published study to employ RDS amongst wheelchair users. Methods: Between October 2015 and January 2016, a short, successfully piloted, internet-based national survey was initiated. Twenty seeds from diverse organisations were invited to complete the survey then circulate it to peers within their networks following a well-defined protocol. A predetermined reminder protocol was triggered when seeds or their peers failed to respond. All participants were entered into a draw for an iPad. Results: Overall, 19 people participated (nine women); 12 initial seeds, followed by seven second-wave participants arising from four seeds . Completion time for the survey ranged between 7 and 36 minutes. Despite repeated reminders, no further people were recruited. Discussion: While New Zealand wheelchair user numbers are unknown, an estimated 14% of people have physical impairments that limited mobility. The 19 respondents generated from adopting the RDS methodology here thus represents a negligible fraction of wheelchair users in New Zealand, and an insufficient number to ensure equilibrium required for unbiased analyses. While successful in other hard-to-reach populations, applying RDS methodology to wheelchair users requires further consideration. Formative research exploring areas of network characteristics, acceptability of RDS, appropriate incentive options, and seed

  12. Sunlight upon a Dark Sky Haiti's Urban Poor Responds to Socio-Political and Socio-Cultural Conflicts: A Case Study of the Grande Ravine Community Human Rights Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmett, Deborah Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This case study investigates the organizational characteristics of a Haitian grassroots community human rights council (CHRC) that emerged as a response to three politically motivated massacres. The impromptu grassroots response of this poor urban community is at the core of the following research question investigated in this study: "What…

  13. Effects of oxytocin on aggressive responding in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Alcorn, Joseph L; Green, Charles E; Schmitz, Joy; Lane, Scott D

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of oxytocin (OT) on human aggression using a well-established laboratory measure of state (reactive) aggression to test the hypothesis that OT would decrease the frequency of aggressive responding. In a within-subject design, 17 healthy male volunteers received placebo or 24 IU of intranasal OT. Aggression was measured using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm at 30 min before and 30, 60, and 90 min after dose. Acute OT did not produce a significant main effect on aggressive behavior. OT attenuated the expected rise in diastolic blood pressure from morning to early afternoon observed under placebo, providing a possible indication of biological activity. Examination of individual differences showed that aggressive responding following OT dosing (but not placebo) was positively correlated with psychometric measures of interpersonal manipulation and anger (Pearson's r=0.57), indicating that higher scores on these antisocial personality traits were related to increased aggressive behavior following OT administration. These preliminary results stand in contrast to previous work on the prosocial effects of OT and highlight the need for further understanding of individual differences in aggression following OT administration. Such individual differences may have implications for the therapeutic use of OT in individuals with psychiatric disorders and dysfunctional social behavior. PMID:26241153

  14. A Simple Evacuation Modeling and Simulation Tool for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B; Payne, Patricia W

    2015-01-01

    Although modeling and simulation of mass evacuations during a natural or man-made disaster is an on-going and vigorous area of study, tool adoption by front-line first responders is uneven. Some of the factors that account for this situation include cost and complexity of the software. For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively developing the free Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) to address these issues. One of the components of IMPACT is a multi-agent simulation module for area-based and path-based evacuations. The user interface is designed so that anyone familiar with typical computer drawing tools can quickly author a geospatially-correct evacuation visualization suitable for table-top exercises. Since IMPACT is designed for use in the field where network communications may not be available, quick on-site evacuation alternatives can be evaluated to keep pace with a fluid threat situation. Realism is enhanced by incorporating collision avoidance into the simulation. Statistics are gathered as the simulation unfolds, including most importantly time-to-evacuate, to help first responders choose the best course of action.

  15. CALIBRATION OF OBSERVATIONAL MEASUREMENT OF RATE OF RESPONDING

    PubMed Central

    Mudford, Oliver C; Zeleny, Jason R; Fisher, Wayne W; Klum, Molly E; Owen, Todd M

    2011-01-01

    The quality of measurement systems used in almost all natural sciences other than behavior analysis is usually evaluated through calibration study rather than relying on interobserver agreement. We demonstrated some of the basic features of calibration using observer-measured rates of free-operant responding from 10 scripted 10-min calibration samples on video. Five novice and 5 experienced observers recorded (on laptop computers) response samples with a priori determined response rates ranging from 0 to 8 responses per minute. Observer records were then compared with these predetermined reference values using linear regression and related graphical depiction. Results indicated that all of the observers recorded rates that were accurate to within ±0.4 responses per minute and 5 were accurate to within ±0.1 responses per minute, indicating that continuous recording of responding on computers can be highly accurate and precise. Additional research is recommended to investigate conditions that affect the quality of direct observational measurement of behavior. PMID:21941386

  16. First aid skill retention of first responders within the workplace

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent literature states that many necessary skills of CPR and first aid are forgotten shortly after certification. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill and knowledge decay in first aid in those who are paid to respond to emergency situations within a workplace. Methods Using a choking victim scenario, the sequence and accuracy of events were observed and recorded in 257 participants paid to act as first responders in large industrial or service industry settings. A multiple choice exam was also written to determine knowledge retention. Results First aid knowledge was higher in those who were trained at a higher level, and did not significantly decline over time. Those who had renewed their certificate one or more times performed better than those who had learned the information only once. During the choking scenario many skills were performed poorly, regardless of days since last training, such as hand placement and abdominal thrusts. Compressions following the victim becoming unconscious also showed classic signs of skill deterioration after 30 days. Conclusions As many skills deteriorate rapidly over the course of the first 90 days, changing frequency of certification is not necessarily the most obvious choice to increase retention of skill and knowledge. Alternatively, methods of regularly "refreshing" a skill should be explored that could be delivered at a high frequency - such as every 90 days. PMID:21303536

  17. Language Generativity, Response Generalization, and Derived Relational Responding

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John; Ming, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Language generativity can be described as the ability to produce sentences never before said, and to understand sentences never before heard. One process often cited as underlying language generativity is response generalization. However, though the latter seems to promise a technical understanding of the former at a process level, an investigation of definitions and approaches to the term “response generalization” that appear in the literature suggests that it does not do so. We argue that a more promising candidate for the role of key process underlying language generativity is derived relational responding. We introduce the latter concept and describe empirical research showing its connection with language. We subsequently present a relational frame theory (RFT) conceptualization of derived relations as contextually controlled generalized relational responding. We then review a series of recent studies on derived manding in developmentally delayed children and adults that arguably demonstrate the applied utility of a derived relations-based approach with respect to the phenomenon of generative language. PMID:23814374

  18. CIRUN: Climate Information Responding to User Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busalacchi, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth System will experience real climate change over the next 50 years, exceeding the scope of natural climate variability. A paramount question facing society is how to adapt to this certainty of climate variability and change. In response, OSTP and NOAA are considering how comprehensive climate services would best inform decisions about adaptation. Similarly, NASA is considering the optimal configuration of the next generation of Earth, environmental, and climate observations to be deployed over the coming 10-20 years. Moreover, much of the added-value information for specific climate-related decisions will be provided by private, academic and non-governmental organizations. In this context, over the past several years the University of Maryland has established the CIRUN (Climate Information: Responding to User Needs) initiative to identify the nature of national needs for climate information and services from a decision support perspective. To date, CIRUN has brought together decisionmakers in a number of sectors to help understand their perspectives on climate with the goal of improving the usefulness of climate information, observations and prediction products to specific user communities. CIRUN began with a major workshop in October 2007 that convened 430 participants in agriculture, parks and recreation, terrestrial ecosystems, insurance/investment, energy, national security, state/local/municipal, water, human health, commerce and manufacturing, transportation, and coastal/marine sectors. Plenary speakers such as Norman Augustine, R. James Woolsey, James Mahoney, and former Senator Joseph Tydings, breakout panel sessions, and participants provided input based on the following: - How would you characterize the exposure or vulnerability to climate variability or change impacting your organization? - Does climate variability and/or change currently factor into your organization's objectives or operations? - Are any of your existing plans being affected by

  19. Certified first responder: a comprehensive model for pediatric training.

    PubMed

    Markenson, D; Foltin, G; Tunik, M; Cooper, A; Treiber, M; Welborn, C; Clappin, J; Fitton, A; Giordano, L

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a general approach to educating the First Responder in Emergency Pediatric Care. The First Responder is especially important in the emergency care of the sick or injured child. The majority of mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric emergencies is a result of airway and ventilatory compromise. In addition, most airway and ventilation problems can be corrected with only basic life support interventions that are within the scope of practice of the First Responder. As a result, it is of paramount importance to assure that the First Responder is adequately trained in the initial care of the pediatric patient. This document will review some of the key objectives and topics which the First Responder needs to understand in order to adequately care for children until further emergency care arrives. Templates for lesson plans and suggested activities for training the First Responder are also presented. PMID:9127426

  20. Long-Term, Open-Label, Safety Study of Edivoxetine 12 to 18 mg Once Daily as Adjunctive Treatment for Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Who Are Partial Responders to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ball, Susan G; Atkinson, Sarah; Sparks, JonDavid; Bangs, Mark; Goldberger, Celine; Dubé, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    Long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of adjunctive edivoxetine hydrochloride (hereafter edivoxetine), a highly selective and potent norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was assessed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experiencing partial response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. Data are from a multicenter, 54-week, open-label trial of adjunctive edivoxetine 12 to 18 mg once daily in patients with MDD who had experienced partial response by history to 6 or more weeks of current selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy and who had a 17-item GRID Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score 16 or higher at study entry. Safety measures included discontinuation rate, treatment-emergent adverse events, serious adverse events, and vital signs. Efficacy measures included the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Of 608 patients, 328 (54%) completed the open-label adjunctive treatment. Study discontinuation due to adverse events occurred in 17.0%, and there were 13 serious adverse events (1 death). Treatment-emergent adverse events 5% or higher were nausea, hyperhidrosis, constipation, headache, dry mouth, dizziness, vomiting, insomnia, and upper respiratory tract infection. Mean increases were observed in systolic blood pressure (range, 0.0-2.3 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (range, 1.9-3.3 mm Hg), and pulse (range, 5.9-8.4 beats per minute). Mean improvements on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (-17.0) were observed from baseline to week 54. The safety profile from this study provides an overview of outcomes associated with edivoxetine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition as an adjunctive treatment in patients with MDD who were treated up to 1 year. PMID:25815754

  1. The Discrimination of Fully Randomized and Partially Randomized Responding from Nonrandomized Responding on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire-Fifth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrzak, Dale; Korcuska, James S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the detection of various rates of noncontent responding on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire-Fifth Edition (R. Cattell, H. Eber, & M. Tatsuoka, 1970). The study used a sample of 237 adult volunteers. New scales were developed and tested. (Contains 3 tables.)

  2. An integrated command control and communications center for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messner, Richard A.; Hludik, Frank; Vidacic, Dragan; Melnyk, Pavlo

    2005-05-01

    First responders to a major incident include many different agencies. These may include law enforcement officers, multiple fire departments, paramedics, HAZMAT response teams, and possibly even federal personnel such as FBI and FEMA. Often times multiple jurisdictions respond to the incident which causes interoperability issues with respect to communication and dissemination of time critical information. Accurate information from all responding sources needs to be rapidly collected and made available to the current on site responders as well as the follow-on responders who may just be arriving on scene. The creation of a common central database with a simple easy to use interface that is dynamically updated in real time would allow prompt and efficient information distribution between different jurisdictions. Such a system is paramount to the success of any response to a major incident. First responders typically arrive in mobile vehicles that are equipped with communications equipment. Although the first responders may make reports back to their specific home based command centers, the details of those reports are not typically available to other first responders who are not a part of that agencies infrastructure. Furthermore, the collection of information often occurs outside of the first responder vehicle and the details of the scene are normally either radioed from the field or written down and then disseminated after significant delay. Since first responders are not usually on the same communications channels, and the fact that there is normally a considerable amount of confusion during the first few hours on scene, it would be beneficial if there were a centralized location for the repository of time critical information which could be accessed by all the first responders in a common fashion without having to redesign or add significantly to each first responders hardware/software systems. Each first responder would then be able to provide information

  3. The Exceptional Responders Initiative: Welcoming More Cases

    Cancer.gov

    The initiative is studying tissue, clinical, and genomic data from patients with cancer who have had dramatic and long-lasting responses to standard and experimental treatments that were not seen in similar patients who received the same treatment.

  4. Radar detection of drones responding to honeybee queen pheromone.

    PubMed

    Loper, G M; Wolf, W W; Taylor, O R

    1993-09-01

    The response of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) drones to queen pheromone(s) (either natural from a mated queen, or synthetic from a lure) was recorded using an X-band, ground-based radar. The distribution of drones (insect targets on the radar screen) changed from a scattered distribution to a line concentration (downwind) when the pheromone was released. Displacement within the line concentration was toward the pheromone. This response was seen as far as 800±15 m downwind from a lure with 10 mg of synthetic 9-oxodec-trans-2-enoic acid (9-ODA) and as far as 420±15 m from a mated queen. These studies demonstrate that queen pheromone can be detected by drones at much greater distances than previously believed and illustrate how X-band radar may be used to establish the distances at which insects of similar or larger size respond to pheromones. PMID:24249369

  5. How Institutions Respond to Training Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Andrew

    The impact of the transition to training packages (TPs) on institutionally based training in Australia was examined. Information was gathered from 14 case studies of registered trade organizations (RTOs) delivering qualifications to institutionally based students in TPs in the following areas: administration, beauty therapy, community services,…

  6. Smart Bodies: Louisiana Responds to Youth Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ellen P.; Holston, Denise; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2005-01-01

    In Louisiana, it is estimated that almost 33% of school-age children are at risk for becoming overweight or are already overweight (Louisiana Office of Public Health, 2004). Studies have shown that poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and weight problems often associated with being overweight adversely affect academic performance in school…

  7. Responding to Literature: Theme 2, Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rexford

    This study presents the second of four reports of the results of the 1970-71 National Assessment of Literature. The educational attainments of nine-year-olds, thirteen-year-olds, seventeen-year-olds, and adults (ages 26-35) were surveyed according to the subjects' ability to become engaged in, find meanings in, and evaluate a work of literature.…

  8. Transit Economy Market Challenge and University Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiulis, Algirdas Vaclovas

    2003-01-01

    In an ever-changing labour market, university tries to make efforts to estimate the free labour market demands for university graduates. The strength of Engineering Education lies in the range and depth of fundamental knowledge the students acquire during their studies, but the abilities like: taking risk, taking initiative, teamwork,…

  9. Racism and Sexism: Responding to the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Richard L., Ed.; Contreras, Gloria, Ed.

    Five essays examine the responses of the social studies to racism and sexism in the 1960s and 1970s. The first essay discusses the general concept of pluralism and its relationship to racism and sexism. Textbook and curricular response and legislation relevant to racism and sexism are also considered. The second essay deals with racism in terms of…

  10. Responding to Diversity? Refugee Families and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol; Warren, Simon

    This paper reports on a small-scale, recently completed qualitative project conducted in the United Kingdom that focuses on links between refugee families and the schools their children attend. The project attempted to study the relationships between refugee parents and education professionals in order to identify factors that encourage or hinder…

  11. 29 CFR 458.56 - Service on respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service on respondent. 458.56 Section 458.56 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STANDARDS OF CONDUCT... Prohibited Discipline § 458.56 Service on respondent. Upon the filing of a complaint, a copy of the...

  12. Music as a Catalyst for Responding to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelcer, John

    1999-01-01

    Describes an in-class exercise in which students listen to a piece of music (without lyrics), and then write about their responses. Notes that students learn that responding to literature is as natural as responding to music, and that they all have valid and unique reactions and connections to literature. (SR)

  13. Meta-Analysis and Inadequate Responders to Intervention: A Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis by Tran, Sanchez, Arellano, and Swanson (2011) of the published RTI literature found that the magnitude of effect size (ES) between responders and low responders at posttest was significantly moderated by the pretest ES and the type of dependent measure administered, whereas no significant moderating effects were found in the mixed…

  14. The CODE RED Solution: biothreat response training for first responders.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Cassandra D; Egan, Christina; Cirino, Nick M

    2006-01-01

    The terrorist events of 2001 brought to light the need for a close working relationship between the first responder communities and the public health laboratories in New York State (NYS). Since 2002, the Wadsworth Center's Biodefense Laboratory (BDL) has been providing outreach training to first responders in New York, to enable them to respond safely, correctly, and confidently to biothreat events. A pocket trifold was developed, titled "CODE RED," which describes sampling protocols, risk analysis criteria, and important contact information for use during an emergency response to a potential bioterrorism situation. In addition, the BDL has provided training to more than 1,000 first responders in the basic knowledge of biothreat agents, routes of dissemination, sampling and decontamination methods, contamination control protocols, biothreat risk assessment, and legal chain of custody procedures. The training methods have been established for use by first responders wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). All states can benefit from highly trained first responders who are capable of efficient, safe, and effective biothreat response, resulting in increased safety of the first responders and laboratorians, as well as decreased turnaround times for laboratory results. The CODE RED trifold provides a working model for training first responders at the state and county levels for emergency biothreat response. PMID:17238823

  15. 31 CFR 585.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 585.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within... to make a written presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of written presentation....

  16. 78 FR 5422 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ..., 2013 in Boulder, Colorado. 78 FR 2660 (Jan. 14, 2013). This Notice is intended to inform the public... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting... public meeting of the Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) to be held on February...

  17. 78 FR 20619 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ..., in San Francisco, California, and that NTIA would publish a future notice for this meeting. 77 FR... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting... (NTIA) will convene an open public meeting of the Board of the First Responder Network Authority...

  18. 78 FR 72667 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... would publish a future notice for this meeting. 77 FR 67342 (Nov. 9, 2012). This notice provides an... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting...: Notice of Open Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the...

  19. 77 FR 67342 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting... (NTIA) will convene open public meetings of the Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet... a single nationwide, interoperable public safety broadband network. The FirstNet Board...

  20. 78 FR 2660 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting... First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet). DATES: The meeting will be held on February 12, 2013, from... directs FirstNet to establish a nationwide, interoperable public safety broadband network. The...

  1. 39 CFR 958.11 - Respondent's access to information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respondent's access to information. 958.11 Section... § 958.11 Respondent's access to information. Except as provided in this section, after receiving the... Determining Official under 39 U.S.C. 3018, and all exculpatory information in the possession of...

  2. 49 CFR 630.7 - Failure to respond to questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Failure to respond to questions. 630.7 Section 630.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.7 Failure to respond to...

  3. 49 CFR 630.7 - Failure to respond to questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Failure to respond to questions. 630.7 Section 630.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.7 Failure to respond to...

  4. 49 CFR 630.7 - Failure to respond to questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure to respond to questions. 630.7 Section 630.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.7 Failure to respond to...

  5. 49 CFR 630.7 - Failure to respond to questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Failure to respond to questions. 630.7 Section 630.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.7 Failure to respond to...

  6. 49 CFR 630.7 - Failure to respond to questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Failure to respond to questions. 630.7 Section 630.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.7 Failure to respond to...

  7. Understanding and Responding to Adolescent Girls' Online Cruelty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokal, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Many school counsellors have identified "cyber-bullying" among adolescent girls as a growing concern. In order to respond to this issue, this article begins with a new model of cyber-communications from the unique perspective of adolescent girls. Next, it explores the limitations of responding to this model, based on current understandings of…

  8. Transforming Higher Education in the Information Age: Presidents Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Richard D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    College presidents respond to an article by Richard Nolan challenging college and university presidents and chancellors to transform their campuses for survival and competitive advantage in the information age. Respondents include Richard D. Breslin, David M. Clarke, Joseph Cronin, Thomas Ehrlich, Donald N. Langenberg, Harold McAninch, and Donald…

  9. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  10. EIA responds to Nature article on shale gas projections

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    EIA has responded to a December 4, 2014 Nature article on projections of shale gas production made by EIA and by the Bureau of Economic Geology of the University of Texas at Austin (BEG/UT) with a letter to the editors of Nature. BEG/UT has also responded to the article in their own letter to the editor.

  11. The regulation of explicit and implicit race bias: the role of motivations to respond without prejudice.

    PubMed

    Devine, Patricia G; Plant, E Ashby; Amodio, David M; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Vance, Stephanie L

    2002-05-01

    Three studies examined the moderating role of motivations to respond without prejudice (e.g., internal and external) in expressions of explicit and implicit race bias. In all studies, participants reported their explicit attitudes toward Blacks. Implicit measures consisted of a sequential priming task (Study 1) and the Implicit Association Test (Studies 2 and 3). Study 3 used a cognitive busyness manipulation to preclude effects of controlled processing on implicit responses. In each study, explicit race bias was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice, whereas implicit race bias was moderated by the interaction of internal and external motivation to respond without prejudice. Specifically, high internal, low external participants exhibited lower levels of implicit race bias than did all other participants. Implications for the development of effective self-regulation of race bias are discussed. PMID:12003481

  12. Ready to Respond: Case Studies in Campus Safety and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Is your campus primed for the next big emergency? The National Campus Safety and Security Project (NCSSP), led by NACUBO, sought to help colleges and universities develop comprehensive emergency management plans that address the four phases of emergency management: prevention/mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. A major component of…

  13. Agreement among response to intervention criteria for identifying responder status.

    PubMed

    Barth, Amy E; Stuebing, Karla K; Anthony, Jason L; Denton, Carolyn A; Mathes, Patricia G; Fletcher, Jack M; Francis, David J

    2008-09-01

    In order to better understand the extent to which operationalizations of response to intervention (RTI) overlap and agree in identifying adequate and inadequate responders, an existing database of 399 first grade students was evaluated in relation to cut-points, measures, and methods frequently cited for the identification of inadequate responders to instruction. A series of 543 2x2 measures of association (808 total comparisons) were computed to address the agreement of different operationalizations of RTI. The results indicate that agreement is generally poor and that different methods tend to identify different students as inadequate responders, although agreement for identifying adequate responders is higher. Approaches to the assessment of responder status must use multiple criteria and avoid formulaic decision making. PMID:19081758

  14. Differential reinforcement and stimulus control of not responding1

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, John A.

    1968-01-01

    Pigeons were trained to respond with equal variable-interval reinforcement in the presence of a white key and also a white key with a vertical line. They were then trained not to respond to the vertical line by extinguishing the response or by reinforcing its non-occurrence at various frequencies. During training, the rate of key-pecking in the presence of the white key, maintained by a constant variable-interval schedule of reinforcement, depended on the frequency of reinforcement in the presence of the line. When lines of different orientations were presented in a generalization test, birds trained with extinction responded more to other orientations than to the vertical line, whereas those trained with high frequencies of reinforcement for not responding tended to respond equally at all line orientations. Intermediate frequencies of reinforcement gave mixed results. PMID:16811319

  15. Biomarkers for ischemic preconditioning: finding the responders

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Sebastian; Della-Morte, David; Dave, Kunjan R; Sacco, Ralph L; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning is emerging as an innovative and novel cytoprotective strategy to counter ischemic vascular disease. At the root of the preconditioning response is the upregulation of endogenous defense systems to achieve ischemic tolerance. Identifying suitable biomarkers to show that a preconditioning response has been induced remains a translational research priority. Preconditioning leads to a widespread genomic and proteonomic response with important effects on hemostatic, endothelial, and inflammatory systems. The present article summarizes the relevant preclinical studies defining the mechanisms of preconditioning, reviews how the human preconditioning response has been investigated, and which of these bioresponses could serve as a suitable biomarker. Human preconditioning studies have investigated the effects of preconditioning on coagulation, endothelial factors, and inflammatory mediators as well as on genetic expression and tissue blood flow imaging. A biomarker for preconditioning would significantly contribute to define the optimal preconditioning stimulus and the extent to which such a response can be elicited in humans and greatly aid in dose selection in the design of phase II trials. Given the manifold biologic effects of preconditioning a panel of multiple serum biomarkers or genomic assessments of upstream regulators may most accurately reflect the full spectrum of a preconditioning response. PMID:24643082

  16. How Do Membranes Respond to Pressure?

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Bilayers formed by phospholipids are fundamental structures of biological membranes. The mechanical perturbation brought about by pressure significantly affects the membrane states of phospholipid bilayers. In this chapter, we focus our attention on the pressure responsivity for bilayers of some major phospholipids contained in biological membranes. At first, the membrane states and phase transitions of phospholipid bilayers depending on water content, temperature and pressure are explained by using the bilayer phase diagrams of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), which is the most familiar phospholipid in model membrane studies. Subsequently, the thermotropic and barotropic bilayer phase behavior of various kinds of phospholipids with different molecular structures is discussed from the comparison of their temperature--pressure phase diagrams to that of the DPPC bilayer. It turns out that a slight change in the molecular structure of the phospholipids produces a significant difference in the bilayer phase behavior. The systematic pressure studies on the phase behavior of the phospholipid bilayers reveal not only the pressure responsivity for the bilayers but also the role and meaning of several important phospholipids existing in real biological membranes. PMID:26174389

  17. Relation between Self-Esteem and Socially Desirable Responding and the Role of Socially Desirable Responding in the Relation between Self-Esteem and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examines the relation between self-esteem and socially desirable responding by integrating previous findings via a meta-analysis. In 55 studies containing 73 independent samples (N?=?11,901), the correlation between self-esteem and Impression Management was weak, that between self-esteem and Self-Deceptive Enhancement was from…

  18. Disgust sensitivity predicts defensive responding to mortality salience.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Crowell, Adrienne L; Tang, David; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Disgust protects the physical self. The present authors suggest that disgust also contributes to the protection of the psychological self by fostering stronger defensive reactions to existential concerns. To test this idea, 3 studies examined the link between disgust sensitivity and defensive responses to mortality salience or "terror management" processes (Greenberg, Solomon, & Pyszczynski, 1997). Each study included an individual difference measure of disgust sensitivity, a manipulation of mortality salience, and a dependent measure of defensive responding. In Study 1, disgust sensitivity predicted increases in worldview defense in the mortality salience condition but not in the control condition. In Study 2, disgust sensitivity predicted increases in optimistic perceptions of the future in the mortality salience condition but not in the control condition. In Study 3, disgust sensitivity predicted reductions in delay discounting for those in the mortality salience condition such that those higher in disgust sensitivity discounted the future less. This pattern did not occur in the control condition. These findings highlight disgust sensitivity as a key to understanding reactions to mortality salience, and they support the view that disgust-related responses protect against both physical (e.g., noxious substances) and psychological threats. PMID:25775230

  19. Gene Regions Responding to Skeletal Muscle Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Frank W.

    1997-01-01

    Our stated specific aims for this project were: 1) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb myosin heavy chain (MHC) promoter necessary for in vivo expression in mouse fast-twitch muscle, and 2) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb MHC promoter responsive to immobilization in mouse slow-twitch muscle in vivo. We sought to address these specific aims by introducing various MHC IIb promoter/reporter gene constructs directly into the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles of living mice. Although the method of somatic gene transfer into skeletal muscle by direct injection has been successfully used in our laboratory to study the regulation of the skeletal alpha actin gene in chicken skeletal muscle, we had many difficulties utilizing this procedure in the mouse. Because of the small size of the mouse soleus and the difficulty in obtaining consistent results, we elected not to study this muscle as first proposed. Rather, our MHC IIb promoter deletion experiments were performed in the gastrocnemius. Further, we decided to use hindlimb unloading via tail suspension to induce an upregulation of the MHC IIb gene, rather than immobilization of the hindlimbs via plaster casts. This change was made because tail suspension more closely mimics spaceflight, and this procedure in our lab results in a smaller loss of overall body mass than the mouse hindlimb immobilization procedure. This suggests that the stress level during tail suspension is less than during immobilization. This research has provided an important beginning point towards understanding the molecular regulation of the MHC lIb gene in response to unweighting of skeletal muscle Future work will focus on the regulation of MHC IIb mRNA stability in response to altered loading of skeletal muscle

  20. How does yeast respond to pressure?

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P M B

    2005-08-01

    The brewing and baking yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used as a model for stress response studies of eukaryotic cells. In this review we focus on the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on S. cerevisiae. HHP exerts a broad effect on yeast cells characteristic of common stresses, mainly associated with protein alteration and lipid bilayer phase transition. Like most stresses, pressure induces cell cycle arrest. Below 50 MPa (500 atm) yeast cell morphology is unaffected whereas above 220 MPa wild-type cells are killed. S. cerevisiae cells can acquire barotolerance if they are pretreated with a sublethal stress due to temperature, ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, or pressure. Nevertheless, pressure only leads to protection against severe stress if, after pressure pretreatment, the cells are also re-incubated at room pressure. We attribute this effect to the inhibition of the protein synthesis apparatus under HHP. The global genome expression analysis of S. cerevisiae cells submitted to HHP revealed a stress response profile. The majority of the up-regulated genes are involved in stress defense and carbohydrate metabolism while most repressed genes belong to the cell cycle progression and protein synthesis categories. However, the signaling pathway involved in the pressure response is still to be elucidated. Nitric oxide, a signaling molecule involved in the regulation of a large number of cellular functions, confers baroprotection. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae cells in the early exponential phase submitted to 50-MPa pressure show induction of the expression level of the nitric oxide synthase inducible isoform. As pressure becomes an important biotechnological tool, studies concerning this kind of stress in microorganisms are imperative. PMID:16082465

  1. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    PubMed

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

  2. Professional responsibilities versus familial responsibilities: an examination of role conflict among first responders during the Hurricane Katrina disaster.

    PubMed

    Adams, Terri; Turner, Mila

    2014-01-01

    In the event of a human-caused or natural disaster, the police are essential front-line first responders. The ability of police departments to provide adequate services is contingent upon critical response personnel working and functioning in an efficient manner. Currently, it is assumed that first responders will continue to work in the event of a disaster, even if they are personally impacted by the disaster to which they are expected to respond. This study examines role conflict among police officers who served as first responders during the Hurricane Katrina disaster. PMID:24691915

  3. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Denton, Carolyn A.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Francis, David J.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with “specific” reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties. PMID:20298639

  4. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Barth, Amy E; Denton, Carolyn A; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Francis, David J; Vaughn, Sharon

    2010-05-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with "specific" reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties. PMID:20298639

  5. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (Oct-Nov 2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-01-21

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  6. The Proton Pump Inhibitor Non-Responder: A Clinical Conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Zilla H; Henderson, Emily E; Maradey-Romerao, Carla; George, Nina; Fass, Ronnie; Lacy, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a highly prevalent chronic condition where in stomach contents reflux into the esophagus causing symptoms, esophageal injury, and subsequent complications. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) remain the mainstay of therapy for acid suppression. Despite their efficacy, significant proportions of GERD patients are either partial or non-responders to PPI therapy. Patients should be assessed for mechanisms that can lead to PPI failure and may require further evaluation to investigate for alternative causes. This monograph will outline a diagnostic approach to the PPI non-responder, review mechanisms associated with PPI failure, and discuss therapeutic options for those who fail to respond to PPI therapy. PMID:26270485

  7. Repeated vaccinations do not improve specific immune defenses against Hepatitis B in non-responder health care workers.

    PubMed

    Zaffina, Salvatore; Marcellini, Valentina; Santoro, Anna Paola; Scarsella, Marco; Camisa, Vincenzo; Vinci, Maria Rosaria; Musolino, Anna Maria; Nicolosi, Luciana; Rosado, M Manuela; Carsetti, Rita

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis B is a major infectious occupational hazard for health care workers and can be prevented with a safe and effective vaccine. The serum titer of anti-HBsAg antibodies is the most commonly used correlate of protection and post-vaccination anti-HBsAg concentrations of ≥ 10 mIU/ml are considered protective. Subjects with post-vaccination anti-HBsAg titers of <10 mIU/ml 1-6 months post-vaccination, who tested negative for HBsAg and anti-HBc, are defined as non-responders. The question of whether non-responders should be repeatedly vaccinated is still open. The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations and the percentage of HBsAg-specific memory B cells in responders and non-responders (ii) assess whether non-responders can be induced to produce antibodies after administration of a booster dose of vaccine (iii) determine whether booster vaccination increases the number of specific memory B cells in non-responders. Combining flow-cytometry, ELISPOT and serology we tested the integrity and function of the immune system in 24 health care workers, confirmed to be non-responders after at least three vaccine injections. We compared the results with those obtained in 21 responders working in the same institution. We found that the great majority of the non-responders had a functional immune system and a preserved ability to respond to other conventional antigens. Our most important findings are that the frequency of HBsAg-specific memory B cells is comparable in non-responders and controls and that booster immunization does not lead either to antibody production or memory B cell increase in non-responders. PMID:25444815

  8. Is there an ideal stimulation regimen for IVF for poor responders and does it change with age?

    PubMed Central

    Osianlis, Tiki; Catt, James

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether there is a superior treatment modality for ‘poor’ responders. Method Retrospective analysis of three stimulation regimens, with patients stratified based on age, stimulation regime and response in previous cycles (“poor’ responder or “non poor” responder). Fertilisation, embryo utilisation and clinical pregnancy rates were assessed. There were a total of 1,608 cycles in the ‘poor’ responder and 8,489 cycles in the ‘non poor’ responder groups. Results In ‘poor’ responders there was no significant difference in fertilisation rate, nor utilisation rate between the three stimulation regimes and no differences in the pregnancy rate/initiated cycle irrespective of age and stimulation regimen in any of the groups. ‘Non poor’ responders had a significantly greater pregnancy rate/initiated cycle for all stimulation regimens in both age groups compared with ‘poor’ responders. Conclusion This large retrospective study of ‘poor’ responders has not shown a difference in pregnancy rates/initiated cycle between stimulation regimens. PMID:18982442

  9. The Educational Environment and Students' Responding Times as a Function of Students' Teacher-Perceived Academic Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greener, Jean W.; And Others

    The use of time in school, specifically the portion of time defined as active responding time, has been shown to correlate significantly with achievement. The comprehensive observational methodology of the academic engaged time studies provides the basis for systematically investigating student responding time and elements of the educational…

  10. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 4: Summary report to phase 1 respondents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

    1991-01-01

    Phase 1 of a 4 part study was undertaken studying the use of scientific and technical information (STI) by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Specific attention was paid to institutional and socioeconomic variables and to the step-by-step process of information gathering used by the respondents. Data were collected by means of three self administered mail-back questionnaires. The approximately 34,000 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) served as the study population. More than 65 percent of the randomly selected respondents returned the questionnaires in each of the three groups. Respondents relied more heavily upon informal sources of information than formal sources and turned to librarians and other technical information specialists only when they did not obtain results via informal means or their own formal searches.

  11. The Responders' Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers Playing the Ultimatum Game.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts' stereotypical identity (i.e., responders). The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo). When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics. PMID:26834684

  12. Impaired leukocyte influx in cervix of postterm women not responding to prostaglandin priming

    PubMed Central

    Sahlin, Lena; Stjernholm-Vladic, Ylva; Roos, Nathalie; Masironi, Britt; Ekman-Ordeberg, Gunvor

    2008-01-01

    Background Prolonged pregnancies are associated with increased rate of maternal and fetal complications. Post term women could be divided into at least two subgroups, one where parturition is possible to induce by prostaglandins and one where it is not. Our aim was to study parameters in cervical biopsies in women with spontaneous delivery at term (controls) and compare to those that are successfully induced post term (responders), and those that are not induced (non-responders), by local prostaglandin treatment. Methods Stromal parameters examined in this study were the accumulation of leukocytes (CD45, CD68), mRNAs and/or proteins for the extracellular matrix degrading enzymes (matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9), their inhibitors (tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2), interleukin-8 (IL-8), the platelet activating factor-receptor (PAF-R), syndecan-1 and estrogen binding receptors (estrogen receptor (ER)α, ERβ and G-coupled protein receptor (GPR) 30) as well as the proliferation marker Ki-67. Results The influx of leukocytes as assessed by CD45 was strongest in the responders, thereafter in the controls and significantly lower in the non-responders. IL-8, PAF-R and MMP-9, all predominantly expressed in leukocytes, showed significantly reduced immunostaining in the group of non-responders, while ERα and GPR30 were more abundant in the non-responders, as compared to the controls. Conclusion The impaired leukocyte influx, as reflected by the reduced number of CD45 positive cells as well as decreased immunostaining of IL-8, PAF-R and MMP-9 in the non-responders, could be one explanation of the failed ripening of the cervix in post term women. If the decreased leukocyte influx is a primary explanation to absent ripening or secondary, as a result of other factors, is yet to be established. PMID:18764934

  13. Astronaut Sally Ride responds to question from interviewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronaut Sally K. Ride, mission specialist for STS-7, responds to a question from an interviewer during a taping session for ABC's Night Line. Dr. Ride is in the shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  14. Aging with HIV: Responding to an Emerging Challenge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stay Connected You are here Home Aging with HIV: Responding to an emerging challenge September 30, 2013 ... with HIV. New frontiers in medical management of HIV/AIDS Several NIA and NIH-wide initiatives support ...

  15. Co-responding Police-Mental Health Programs: A Review.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, G K; Cusi, A; Kirst, M; O'Campo, P; Nakhost, A; Stergiopoulos, V

    2015-09-01

    Co-responding police-mental health programs are increasingly used to respond to 'Emotionally Disturbed Persons' in the community; however, there is limited understanding of program effectiveness and the mechanisms that promote program success. The academic and gray literature on co-responding police-mental health programs was reviewed. This review synthesized evidence of outcomes along seven dimensions, and the available evidence was further reviewed to identify potential mechanisms of program success. Co-responding police-mental health programs were found to have strong linkages with community services and reduce pressure on the justice system, but there is limited evidence on other impacts. The relevance of these findings for practitioners and the major challenges of this program model are discussed, and future research directions are identified. PMID:25239523

  16. Emergency First Responders' Experience with Colorimetric Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sandra L. Fox; Keith A. Daum; Carla J. Miller; Marnie M. Cortez

    2007-10-01

    Nationwide, first responders from state and federal support teams respond to hazardous materials incidents, industrial chemical spills, and potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD) attacks. Although first responders have sophisticated chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive detectors available for assessment of the incident scene, simple colorimetric detectors have a role in response actions. The large number of colorimetric chemical detection methods available on the market can make the selection of the proper methods difficult. Although each detector has unique aspects to provide qualitative or quantitative data about the unknown chemicals present, not all detectors provide consistent, accurate, and reliable results. Included here, in a consumer-report-style format, we provide “boots on the ground” information directly from first responders about how well colorimetric chemical detection methods meet their needs in the field and how they procure these methods.

  17. 28 CFR 115.364 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating; and (4) If the abuse occurred within a time period that still... clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating. (b) If the first staff responder is not...

  18. 28 CFR 115.164 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating; and (4) If the abuse occurred within a time period that still... clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating. (b) If the first staff responder is not...

  19. 28 CFR 115.364 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating; and (4) If the abuse occurred within a time period that still... clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating. (b) If the first staff responder is not...

  20. 28 CFR 115.164 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating; and (4) If the abuse occurred within a time period that still... clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating. (b) If the first staff responder is not...

  1. 28 CFR 115.364 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating; and (4) If the abuse occurred within a time period that still... clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating. (b) If the first staff responder is not...

  2. 28 CFR 115.164 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating; and (4) If the abuse occurred within a time period that still... clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating. (b) If the first staff responder is not...

  3. 28 CFR 115.264 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating; and (4) If the abuse occurred within a time period that... clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating. (b) If the first staff responder is not...

  4. Project Responder: technology needs for local emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beakley, Guy; Garwin, Thomas; Pollard, Neal A.; Singley, George T., III; Tuohy, Robert V.; Lupo, Jasper

    2003-09-01

    Since April 2001, the Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism has funded an effort by Hicks &Associates, Inc. and the Terrorism Research Center, Inc., aimed ultimately at improving local, state, and federal emergency responders" capabilities for mitigating the effects of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive/ incendiary (CBRNE) terrorism. This effort, titled "Project Responder," began by developing an understanding of how state and local responders view their current capabilities, shortfalls, and needs. This paper discusses some of the results of this first phase of the effort that has resulted in a comprehensive report titled "Emergency Responders" Needs, Goals, and Priorities." This paper addresses two of the capabilities from that report which we believe are of most interest to this conference. There are ten other capabilities discussed in the report, which may also be of interest.

  5. Basic and translational evaluation of renewal of operant responding.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michael E; Liddon, Clare J; Ribeiro, Aurelia; Greif, Abigail E; Podlesnik, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Treatment relapse, defined as the reemergence of problem behavior after treatment, is a serious difficulty faced by clinicians. Failures of treatment integrity (i.e., failure to implement interventions as intended) are often invoked to explain the reemergence of problem behavior. Basic studies suggest that the prevailing stimulus context might also contribute. We conducted 2 experiments in which reinforcement for a target response was followed by 2 phases of extinction with different or identical stimulus contexts relative to baseline (ABA renewal). In Experiment 1, pigeons served as subjects using procedures typical of those used in basic behavioral research. Experiment 2 was designed as a translational replication of Experiment 1, and children who had been diagnosed with autism served as participants. Returning to the previously reinforced stimulus context in both species produced a clear and immediate increase of extinguished responding. These findings are consistent with previous studies that have suggested that both reinforcement contingencies and stimulus context influence the reemergence of extinguished behavior. PMID:25891414

  6. Mutuality and the social regulation of neural threat responding

    PubMed Central

    Coan, James A.; Kasle, Shelley; Jackson, Alice; Schaefer, Hillary S.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the presence of a caring relational partner can attenuate neural responses to threat. Here we report reanalyzed data from Coan, Schaefer, and Davidson (2006), investigating the role of relational mutuality in the neural response to threat. Mutuality reflects the degree to which couple members show mutual interest in the sharing of internal feelings, thoughts, aspirations, and joys – a vital form of responsiveness in attachment relationships. We predicted that wives who were high (versus low) in perceived mutuality, and who attended the study session with their husbands, would show reduced neural threat reactivity in response to mild electric shocks. We also explored whether this effect would depend on physical contact (handholding). As predicted, we observed that higher mutuality scores corresponded with decreased neural threat responding in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor cortex. These effects were independent of hand-holding condition. These findings suggest that higher perceived mutuality corresponds with decreased self-regulatory effort and attenuated preparatory motor activity in response to threat cues, even in the absence of direct physical contact with social resources. PMID:23547803

  7. Methodology for Assessing Radiation Detectors Used by Emergency Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek; April Simpson

    2008-03-01

    The threat of weapons of mass destruction terrorism resulted in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security deploying large quantities of radiation detectors throughout the emergency responder community. However, emergency responders specific needs were not always met by standard health physics instrumentation used in radiation facilities. Several American National Standards Institute standards were developed and approved to evaluate the technical capabilities of detection equipment. Establishing technical capability is a critical step, but it is equally important to emergency responders that the instruments are easy to operate and can withstand the rugged situations they encounter. The System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program (managed by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Grants and Training, Systems Support Division) focuses predominantly on the usability, ergonomics, readability, and other features of the detectors, rather than performance controlled by industry standards and the manufacturers. National Security Technologies, LLC, as a SAVER Technical Agent, conducts equipment evaluations using active emergency responders who are familiar with the detection equipment and knowledgeable of situations encountered in the field, which provides more relevant data to emergency responders.

  8. How to define, diagnose and treat poor responders? Responses from a worldwide survey of IVF clinics.

    PubMed

    Patrizio, Pasquale; Vaiarelli, Alberto; Levi Setti, Paolo E; Tobler, Kyle J; Shoham, Gon; Leong, Milton; Shoham, Zeev

    2015-06-01

    Poor responders represent a significant percentage of couples treated in IVF units (10-24%), but the standard definition of poor responders remains uncertain and consequently optimal treatment options remain subjective and not evidence-based. In an attempt to provide uniformity on the definition, diagnosis and treatment of poor responders, a worldwide survey was conducted asking IVF professionals a set of questions on this complex topic. The survey was posted on www.IVF-worldwide.com, the largest and most comprehensive IVF-focused website for physicians and embryologists. A total of 196 centres replied, forming a panel of IVF units with a median of 400 cycles per year. The present study shows that the definition of poor responders is still subjective, and many practices do not use evidence-based treatment for this category of patients. Our hope is that by leveraging the great potential of the internet, future studies may provide immediate large-scale sampling to standardize both poor responder definition and treatment options. PMID:25892496

  9. Consensus in landscape preference judgments: the effects of landscape visual aesthetic quality and respondents' characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kalivoda, Ondřej; Vojar, Jiří; Skřivanová, Zuzana; Zahradník, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Landscape's visual aesthetic quality (VAQ) has been widely regarded as a valuable resource worthy of protection. Although great effort has been devoted to determining the factors driving aesthetic preferences, public consensus in judgments has been neglected in the vast majority of such studies. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze three main possible sources of judgment variance: landscape VAQ, landscape type, and variability among respondents. Based upon an extensive perception-based investigation including more than 400 hikers as respondents, we found that variance in respondents' judgments differed significantly among assessed landscape scenes. We discovered a significant difference in judgment variances within each investigated respondent characteristic (gender, age, education level, occupational classification, and respondent's type of residence). Judgment variance was at the same time affected by landscape VAQ itself - the higher the VAQ, the better the consensus. While differences caused by characteristics indicate subjectivity of aesthetic values, the knowledge that people better find consensus for positively perceived landscapes provides a cogent argument for legal protection of valuable landscape scenes. PMID:24594757

  10. Spatial Coding as a Function of Handedness and Responding Hand: Theoretical and Methodological Implications.

    PubMed

    Arend, Isabel; Weiss, Peter H; Timpert, David C; Fink, Gereon R; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    The Simon effect shows that choice reactions are faster if the location of the stimulus and the response correspond, even when stimulus location is task-irrelevant. The Simon effect raises the question of what factors influence spatial coding. Until now, the effects of handedness, responding hand, and visual field were addressed in separate studies that used bimanual and unimanual tasks, providing inconclusive results. Here we aimed to close this empirical gap by looking at the effects of these variables in the same study. We used a unimanual version of a Simon task with four groups of participants: left-handed and right-handed, responding with the dominant or nondominant hand. Our results show that the Simon effect is substantially reduced in the field of the responding hand for all groups of participants, except for left-handed individuals responding with the left-hand. These findings highlight the importance of attention mechanisms in stimulus-response coding. They reflect that stimulus-response interference is influenced by hierarchical activation of response units. At a practical level, these findings call for a number of methodological considerations (e.g., handedness, responding hand, and visual field) when using stimulus-response conflict to address spatial coding and cognitive control functions in neurological populations. PMID:27031523

  11. Spatial Coding as a Function of Handedness and Responding Hand: Theoretical and Methodological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Arend, Isabel; Weiss, Peter H.; Timpert, David C.; Fink, Gereon R.; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    The Simon effect shows that choice reactions are faster if the location of the stimulus and the response correspond, even when stimulus location is task-irrelevant. The Simon effect raises the question of what factors influence spatial coding. Until now, the effects of handedness, responding hand, and visual field were addressed in separate studies that used bimanual and unimanual tasks, providing inconclusive results. Here we aimed to close this empirical gap by looking at the effects of these variables in the same study. We used a unimanual version of a Simon task with four groups of participants: left-handed and right-handed, responding with the dominant or nondominant hand. Our results show that the Simon effect is substantially reduced in the field of the responding hand for all groups of participants, except for left-handed individuals responding with the left-hand. These findings highlight the importance of attention mechanisms in stimulus-response coding. They reflect that stimulus-response interference is influenced by hierarchical activation of response units. At a practical level, these findings call for a number of methodological considerations (e.g., handedness, responding hand, and visual field) when using stimulus-response conflict to address spatial coding and cognitive control functions in neurological populations. PMID:27031523

  12. Hostile attributional bias, negative emotional responding, and aggression in adults: moderating effects of gender and impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pan; Coccaro, Emil F; Jacobson, Kristen C

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the main effects of hostile attributional bias (HAB) and negative emotional responding on a variety of aggressive behaviors in adults, including general aggression, physical aggression, relational aggression, and verbal aggression. Effects of both externalizing (anger) and internalizing (embarrassment/upset) negative emotions were considered. In addition, the moderating roles of gender and impulsivity on the effects of HAB and negative emotional responding were explored. Multilevel models were fitted to data from 2,749 adult twins aged 20-55 from the PennTwins cohort. HAB was positively associated with all four forms of aggression. There was also a significant interaction between impulsivity and HAB for general aggression. Specifically, the relationship between HAB and general aggression was only significant for individuals with average or above-average levels of impulsivity. Negative emotional responding was also found to predict all measures of aggression, although in different ways. Anger was positively associated with all forms of aggression, whereas embarrassment/upset predicted decreased levels of general, physical, and verbal aggression but increased levels of relational aggression. The associations between negative emotional responding and aggression were generally stronger for males than females. The current study provides evidence for the utility of HAB and negative emotional responding as predictors of adult aggression and further suggests that gender and impulsivity may moderate their links with aggression. PMID:24833604

  13. Toddlers' Empathy-Related Responding to Distress: Predictions from Negative Emotionality and Maternal Behavior in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinrad, Tracy L.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on the predictive contributions of infants' temperamental negative emotionality (proneness to fear, anger), sex, maternal responsivity, and their interaction on toddlers' empathy-related responding to distress in 3 contexts. Ninety-eight infants and their mothers participated in a longitudinal study. When the infants were 10…

  14. Is Suicide Training Sufficient for Psychology Trainees to Respond Appropriately to Suicidal Clients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the frequency of suicide training for current psychology trainees. Additionally, the research uses the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory-Second Edition (SIRI-2) to assess psychology trainees' ability to respond appropriately to suicidal clients. This study compares scores on the SIRI-2 between participants who are in…

  15. Student-Level Effects of Increased Teacher-Directed Opportunities to Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.; Gage, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Antecedent-based classroom management strategies, including teacher-directed opportunities to respond (TD-OTR), have been identified and studied in the literature, but the link between those practices and student outcomes is still developing. This study describes a within-subject interrupted time-series analysis of the relationship between…

  16. Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education. Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from "Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education", the 2010 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of how the economic recession is impacting information technology (IT) organizations and operations in higher education. The study was designed to address the…

  17. Are Universities Responding to the Needs of Students from Refugee Backgrounds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earnest, Jaya; Joyce, Andrew; de Mori, Gabriella; Silvagni, Genevieve

    2010-01-01

    Although many Australian universities have been proactive in responding to students' diverse needs through orientation and support programs, very little is known about programs needed for the successful transition of students from refugee backgrounds into tertiary study. Facilitating the early engagement of students with their studies and campus…

  18. Response Cards as a Strategy for Increasing Opportunities to Respond: An Examination of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnorr, Crystalyn I.; Freeman-Green, Shaqwana; Test, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of the research and evidence base for using response cards to increase opportunities to respond (OTR) for students with and without disabilities at the elementary level (i.e., kindergarten through Grade 5). Using quality indicator criteria for single-case research, six single-case studies investigating response…

  19. Processes responding to restoration in forestry-drained peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, Oili; Laine, Anna; Tolvanen, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Almost one third, nearly 100 000 km2, of the total land area is covered by peatlands in Finland, which is a higher relative cover than in any other country in the world. Over a half of the peatland area has been drained for forestry, and many invaluable wetland habitat types are severely degraded. Restoration of forestry-drained peatlands is a relatively new measure, and long term results are still relatively scarce. Reinstating the ecological function with its feedback cycles can be a slow and gradual process. Nevertheless, since forestry-drained peatlands are not destroyed habitats in terms of their ecosystem functions, they can be expected to be reinstated through the returning of the crucial element, the high water-table level and its natural variability. To evaluate the development of peatland function and structure after restoration, indicators which respond at different speed to restoration are therefore useful. Vegetation indicators are commonly assessed to indicate restoration progress, but they can be slow to respond. Changes in the mineralization and decomposition rates may indicate sooner, if processes typical for undrained peatlands are initiating after restoration. However, despite the increasing amount of information on the vegetation structure after restoring forestry-drained peatlands, there is no sufficient information on the ecological processes, which may be reasons behind the existing difference between restored and pristine peatlands. Information on the ecological processes and the speed of their recovery helps to evaluate whether the restored peatlands have turned their development towards natural situation, despite that the structure does not yet show sufficient recovery. We studied how restoration affects the hydrology, peat forming processes, and vegetation in boreal fen type of peatlands. Fens drained for forestry 30 - 40 year earlier were restored in northern Finland in 2007 by harvesting trees and by damming and filling ditches. After

  20. Pre-Selection Test to Identify High Responder Donor Goats.

    PubMed

    Balaro, Mfa; Brandão, F Z; Maia, Alrs; Souza-Fabjan, Jmg; Cueto, M I; Gibbons, A E; Fonseca, J F

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of pre-selection of high or low responder does prior to the superovulatory protocols. Twenty Saanen does received 800 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) at the end of long-term progestogen treatment. Fourteen days later, a second progestogen protocol associated with a multiple-dose follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) treatment (5 IU/kg of FSH, in six decreasing doses between days 4 to 6 of the protocol) was administered. Transrectal ultrasound was used to assess the follicular status at the beginning of superovulatory treatments, at the oestrous onset and on the seventh day of the oestrous cycle for counting corpora lutea (CL). A significant lower number of CL was obtained in eCG-treated in comparision with FSH-treated does (p < 0.05). A quartic regression was able to explain the relationship between the number of CL in response to both treatments (r(2) =0.50; p < 0.05). Seventy per cent (14 of 20) of does maintained the same ovulatory response (high or low) after treatments. The Kappa (κ = 0.40; p < 0.05) and Spearman (rs = 0.39; p = 0.08) coefficients were able to show a relationship between treatments. Regarding the follicular status, there is a significant relationship between the number of small follicles (r = 0.71; r(2) =0.47; p < 0.01) and total follicles (r = 0.60; p < 0.01) at eCG and first FSH dose with the number of CL. Moreover, it was found a negative relationship between the presence of large follicles and the number of CL in response to eCG treatment (r = -0.44; p < 0.05), but not from FSH (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the screening test with eCG has the potential to identify Saanen does that will better respond to the superovulatory protocol with FSH. In addition, it highlighted the importance of an ultrasound evaluation prior to the beginning of superovulatory treatments with FSH to characterize the follicular status and identify the potential donors of high

  1. Pregabalin and placebo responders show different effects on central pain processing in chronic pancreatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bouwense, Stefan AW; Olesen, Søren S; Drewes, Asbjørn M; van Goor, Harry; Wilder-Smith, Oliver HG

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain control in chronic pancreatitis is a major challenge; the mechanisms behind analgesic treatment are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the differences in pain sensitivity and modulation in chronic pancreatitis patients, based on their clinical response (responders vs nonresponders) to placebo or pregabalin treatment. Methods This study was part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the analgesic effects of pregabalin and placebo in chronic pancreatitis. Post hoc, patients were assigned to one of four groups, ie, responders and nonresponders to pregabalin (n=16; n=15) or placebo (n=12; n=17) treatment. Responders were defined as patients with >30% pain reduction after 3 weeks of treatment. We measured change in pain sensitivity before and after the treatment using electric pain detection thresholds (ePDT) in dermatomes C5 (generalized effects) and Ventral T10 (segmental effects). Descending endogenous pain modulation was quantified via conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm. Results Sixty patients were analyzed in a per-protocol analysis. ePDT change in C5 was significant vs baseline and greater in pregabalin (1.3 mA) vs placebo responders (−0.1 mA; P=0.015). This was not so for ePDT in Ventral T10. CPM increased more in pregabalin (9%) vs placebo responders (−17%; P<0.001). CPM changed significantly vs baseline only for pregabalin responders (P=0.006). Conclusion This hypothesis-generating study provides the first evidence that pain relief with pregabalin is associated with anti-hyperalgesic effects and increased endogenous inhibitory modulation. No such effects were observed in patients experiencing pain relief with the placebo treatment. The mechanisms underlying analgesic response to placebo vs drug treatments are different and, together with their interactions, deserve further study. PMID:26203273

  2. Effects of competitive reward distribution on auditing and competitive responding.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, D R

    2000-01-01

    This study allowed subjects to audit each other's responding during a series of competitive contests. Six pairs of female college students competed in 3-min contests in which the competitive response was a knob pull. A sum of money was divided using a proportional distribution or a 100%/0% reward distribution. In the proportional distribution, a subject's proportion of the sum was her proportion of the total number of responses. Also, in every contest either subject could make a response that would end the contest prematurely and give both subjects the same amount: a sum equal to 33% of the competitive total. Each subject could press either or both of two audit buttons that displayed her own and the other's response total for 10 s. Results replicated earlier findings in showing the superiority of the proportional distribution in total number of competitive responses made. No subject audited continuously, and only 1 audited most of the time. Most audits were interpersonal, including both own and other's scores. Auditing typically was more frequent in 100%/0% contests in which subjects were more likely to stop the contest when they were far behind. Winners were more likely to audit than were losers. Competitive response rates increased when the differences revealed by audits were small and decreased when they were large. Overall audit patterns were consistent with the view that feedback as "news" is more often sought when it can lead to improved outcomes. PMID:10966099

  3. The copper responding surfaceome of Methylococccus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Odd A; Larsen, Oivind; Jensen, Harald B

    2011-10-01

    Proteins on the cellular surface of a bacterium, its surfaceome, are part of the interface between the bacterium and its environment, and are essential for the cells response to its habitat. Methylococcus capsulatus Bath is one of the most extensively studied methane-oxidizers and is considered as a model-methanotroph. The composition of proteins of the surfaceome of M. capsulatus Bath varies with the availability of copper and changes significantly upon only minor changes of copper concentration in the sub-μM concentration range. Proteins that respond to the changes in copper availability include the assumed copper acquisition protein MopE, c-type heme proteins (SACCP, cytochrome c(553o) proteins) and several proteins of unknown function. The most intriguing observation is that multi-heme c-type cytochromes are major constituents of the M. capsulatus Bath surfaceome. This is not commonly observed in bacteria, but is a feature shared with the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria. Their presence on the M. capsulatus Bath cellular surface may be linked to the cells ability to efficiently adapt to changing growth conditions and environmental challenges. However, their possible role(s) in methane oxidation, nitrogen metabolism, copper acquisition, redox-reactions and/or electron transport remain(s) at present an open question. This review will discuss the possible significance of these findings. PMID:22092708

  4. Effect of a single free food presentation on extinction responding in a multiple schedule.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Adam J; Bell, Matthew C

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effect of a single, response-independent food presentation on responding during extinction. Using a two-component multiple schedule, we examined differences in pigeons' extinction responding resulting from a single response-independent food presentation occurring at the beginning of the experimental session (30-s prior to the beginning of the first component). One component presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 45-s schedule and the second presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 180-s schedule. After establishing stable baseline responding we extinguished responding. We systematically manipulated the presence or absence of a single 3-s free food presentation using the food hopper that occurred 30-s prior to the presentation of the first component. We found the single free food presentation increased persistence of responding in extinction. This finding is inconsistent with behavioral momentum theory inasmuch as it assigns a response disruptive role to food presentations occurring outside of the context of the target operant. PMID:27423967

  5. Cognitive Reactivity, Dysfunctional Attitudes, and Depressive Relapse and Recurrence in Cognitive Therapy Responders

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Robin B.; Minhajuddin, Abu; Borman, Patricia D.; Dunlap, Lauren; Segal, Zindel V.; Kidner, Cindy L.; Friedman, Edward S.; Thase, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Dysfunctional attitudes can foreshadow depressive relapse/recurrence. Priming mood, through induction paradigms, is hypothesized to activate dysfunctional attitudes. Cognitive reactivity (CR) refers to mood-linked increases in dysfunctional attitudes after priming. Here we explored the extent to which CR as well as residual, unprimed, dysfunctional attitudes predicted depressive relapse/recurrence among depressed patients who responded to acute phase cognitive therapy (CT). Consenting adults, aged 18–70, with recurrent major depressive disorder (n = 523) participated in a two-site randomized controlled trial examining the durability of continuation phase treatments. Patients received 16–20 sessions of CT. Among the 245 incompletely remitted responders, 213 agreed to undergo a mood induction paradigm. After 8 months of continuation phase treatments, participants were followed an additional 24 months. Although the mood induction significantly lowered mood in 80% of responders, the expected CR was not evident. By contrast, higher unprimed dysfunctional attitudes following CT did predict relapse/recurrence over 20 and 32 months post randomization. The findings of this large longitudinal study of incompletely remitted CT responders challenge the notion that it is necessary to prime mood in order to maximize dysfunctional attitudes’ prediction of relapse and/or recurrence. While findings cannot be generalized beyond CT responders, they emphasize the clinical importance of reducing dysfunctional attitudes in preventing depression. PMID:22445946

  6. The effects of differential and lag reinforcement schedules on varied verbal responding by individuals with autism.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ronald; McComas, Jennifer J; Jawor, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    Variability has been shown to be a reinforceable dimension of behavior. One procedure that has been demonstrated to increase variability in basic research is the lag reinforcement schedule. On this type of schedule, a response is reinforced if it differs from a specified number of previous responses. Lag schedules are rarely used, however, for increasing response variability in applied settings. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a lag schedule of differential reinforcement on varied and appropriate verbal responding to social questions by 3 males with autism. A reversal design with a multiple baseline across subjects was used to evaluate the effects of the lag schedule. During baseline, differential reinforcement of appropriate responding (DRA) resulted in little or no varied responding. During the intervention, a Lag 1 requirement was added to the DRA (Lag 1/DRA) resulting in an increase in the percentage of trials with varied and appropriate verbal responding for 2 of the 3 participants. In addition, an increase in the cumulative number of novel verbal responses was also observed for the same 2 participants. These results are discussed in terms of reinforcement schedules that support variability, generalization, and potential stimulus control over varied responding. PMID:12555910

  7. Accurate Delayed Matching-to-Sample Responding without Rehearsal: An Unintentional Demonstration with Children.

    PubMed

    Ratkos, Thom; Frieder, Jessica E; Poling, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Research on joint control has focused on mediational responses, in which simultaneous stimulus control from two sources leads to the emission of a single response, such as choosing a comparison stimulus in delayed matching-to-sample. Most recent studies of joint control examined the role of verbal mediators (i.e., rehearsal) in evoking accurate performance. They suggest that mediation is a necessity for accurate delayed matching-to-sample responding. We designed an experiment to establish covert rehearsal responses in young children. Before participants were taught such responses; however, we observed that they responded accurately at delays of 15 and 30 s without overt rehearsal. These findings suggest that in some cases, rehearsal is not necessary for accurate responding in such tasks. PMID:27606223

  8. Heartbeat and Economic Decisions: Observing Mental Stress among Proposers and Responders in the Ultimatum Bargaining Game

    PubMed Central

    Dulleck, Uwe; Schaffner, Markus; Torgler, Benno

    2014-01-01

    The ultimatum bargaining game (UBG), a widely used method in experimental economics, clearly demonstrates that motives other than pure monetary reward play a role in human economic decision making. In this study, we explore the behaviour and physiological reactions of both responders and proposers in an ultimatum bargaining game using heart rate variability (HRV), a small and nonintrusive technology that allows observation of both sides of an interaction in a normal experimental economics laboratory environment. We find that low offers by a proposer cause signs of mental stress in both the proposer and the responder; that is, both exhibit high ratios of low to high frequency activity in the HRV spectrum. PMID:25247817

  9. Dissociating Indifferent, Directional, and Extreme Responding in Personality Data: Applying the Three-Process Model to Self- and Observer Reports.

    PubMed

    Zettler, Ingo; Lang, Jonas W B; Hülsheger, Ute R; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2016-08-01

    Research suggests that respondents vary in their tendency to use the response scale of typical (Likert-style) questionnaires. We study the nature of the response process by applying a recently introduced item response theory modeling procedure, the three-process model, to data of self- and observer reports of personality traits. The three-process model captures indifferent, directional, and extreme responding. Substantively, we hypothesize that, and test whether, trait Honesty-Humility is negatively linked to extreme responding. We applied the three-process model to personality data of 577 dyads (self- and observer reports of the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised; Lee & Ashton, ) of Dutch and German undergraduate respondents. First, we provide evidence that indifferent, directional, and extreme responding can be separated from each other in personality data through the use of the three-process model. Second, we show that the various response processes show a pattern of correlations across traits and rating sources which is in line with the idea that indifferent and extreme responding are person-specific tendencies, whereas directional responding is content-specific. Third, we report findings supporting the hypothesis that Honesty-Humility is negatively linked to extreme responding. In Likert-based personality data, applying the three-process model can unveil individual differences in the response process. PMID:25765765

  10. Intermittent punishment of human responding maintained by intermittent reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Scobie, S R; Kaufman, A

    1969-01-01

    To determine the effects of variable-interval shock punishment on behavior maintained by variable-interval and variable-ratio reinforcement, human subjects' key-pressing behavior was reinforced with money on a four-component multiple schedule. Components 1 and 2 were variable-interval 30-sec, and Components 3 and 4 were variable-ratio 210. After responding was stabilized, response-contingent electric shock was scheduled on a variable-interval 10-sec schedule during the second and fourth components of each cycle. Subjects instructed as to the reinforcement contingencies showed gradually increasing suppression of variable-interval responding at increasing shock intensities and either very high or very low rates of variable-ratio responding at higher intensities. Minimally instructed subjects showed suppression at higher shock intensities, but no clear differential suppression as a function of reinforcement schedule. Recovery from initial suppression was observed within sessions. PMID:16811334

  11. Internal and external motivation to respond without sexism.

    PubMed

    Klonis, Suzanne C; Plant, E Ashby; Devine, Patricia G

    2005-09-01

    Based on Plant and Devine's (1998) measures of Internal and External Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice toward Blacks, new scales were developed to assess Internal and External Motivation to Respond Without Sexism (IMS-S and EMS-S, respectively). The scales possess good psychometric properties. Providing evidence of convergent and discriminant validity, the IMS-S was strongly related to measures of sexism yet unrelated to measures of social evaluation. The EMS-S was modestly related to both sexism and social evaluative concerns. Providing evidence of predictive validity, participants who were either internally or externally motivated to respond without sexism rated sexist jokes more negatively in a situation discouraging sexism compared to participants low in both sources of motivation. However, only high IMS-S participants rated the jokes negatively whether the situation encouraged or discouraged sexism and whether their response was public or private. Implications for understanding the similarities and differences between sexism and racism are discussed. PMID:16055643

  12. Exit Strategies: How Low-Performing High Schools Respond to High School Exit Examination Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Jennifer Jellison

    2013-01-01

    Background: Over the past several decades, a significant number of states have either adopted or increased high school exit examination requirements. Although these policies are intended to generate improvement in schools, little is known about how high schools are responding to exit testing pressures. Purpose: This study examined how five…

  13. Responding to Children's Everyday Transgressions in Chinese Working-Class Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiao-lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how working-class mothers in the People's Republic of China respond to their young children's transgressions in everyday contexts. Twenty 4-year-old children and their mothers in a working-class neighbourhood were observed in their daily routines at home. When addressing children's transgressions and socialising desirable…

  14. Responding to Diversity: Statements and Practices in Two Early Childhood Education Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveridge, J.; Rosewarne, S.; Shuker, M. J.; Barker, A.; Nager, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on data from research on how early childhood centres in Aotearoa New Zealand are responding to diversity. The historical and contemporary contexts which are shaping possible responses to diversity are discussed. Two case studies of a parent-led and a teacher-led centre are presented. It is argued that it is important to be more…

  15. Examining the Content Validity of the WHOQOL-BRF from Respondents' Perspective by Quantitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Grace; Wu, Chia-Huei; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2008-01-01

    Content validity, the extent to which a measurement reflects the specific intended domain of content, is a basic type of validity for a valid measurement. It was usually examined qualitatively and relied on experts' subjective judgments, not on respondents' responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to introduce and demonstrate how to use…

  16. (Dis)Located Readers? High School Students Responding to African Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ingrid; Mangat, Jyoti

    A study explored whether high school readers respond significantly differently to African novels in which unfamiliar cultural elements are presented "aggressively" than to those with an "assimilative" presentation of unfamiliar cultural elements. The three novels are set in Africa: Nancy Farmer's "A Girl Named Disaster," Buchi Emecheta's "The…

  17. Providing Student Opportunities to Respond in Reading and Mathematics: A Look across Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Todd; Cooper, Justin T.; Lingo, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    The evidence for providing sufficient opportunities for students to respond has been established in terms of student engagement and achievement in reading and mathematics. Although supported by research, the question remains whether teachers are incorporating this effective practice in their classroom instruction. This study examines the analysis…

  18. Effects of Post-Session Wheel Running on Within-Session Changes in Operant Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoyama, Kenjiro

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the effects of post-session wheel running on within-session changes in operant responding. Lever-pressing by six rats was reinforced by a food pellet under a continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule in 30-min sessions. Two different flavored food pellets were used as reinforcers. In the wheel conditions, 30-min operant-sessions…

  19. Three Factors that Promote Positive Induction when Rats Respond for 1% Sucrose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Huls, Amber

    2008-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that rats will increase their operant rate of response for a low-valued reinforcer if a high-valued reinforcer will be available later in the session. Research on this positive induction effect suggests that at least three factors account for its appearance: premature responding for the yet unavailable high-valued…

  20. Measuring Readiness to Respond to Intervention in Students Attending Disciplinary Alternative Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Angela D.; Booker, Kimberly W.; Strain, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure, internal consistency, and reliability of the Readiness to Respond to Intervention Scale (RRIS), which is designed to assess adolescents' readiness to change. This measure is based on the Stage of Change Scale and assesses three stages of the Stage of Change Model (i.e.,…

  1. A Comparison of Active Student Responding Modalities in a General Psychology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayac, Ryan M.; Ratkos, Thom; Frieder, Jessica E.; Paulk, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Research on teaching has shown that incorporating active student responding (ASR) into classroom instruction facilitates learning and should be considered best practice. Nevertheless, few published studies have examined ASR using a within-participant design across a semester. Using a counterbalanced alternating treatment design, a direct…

  2. Respondent Techniques for Reduction of Emotions Limiting School Adjustment: A Quantitative Review and Methodological Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Anjali; Schloss, Patrick J.

    1989-01-01

    The critical analysis of 23 studies using respondent techniques for the reduction of excessive emotional reactions in school children focuses on research design, dependent variables, independent variables, component analysis, and demonstrations of generalization and maintenance. Results indicate widespread methodological flaws that limit the…

  3. How Schools Responded to Student Mental Health Needs Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAND Corporation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a study that examined how schools in the U.S. Gulf Coast region perceived the mental health needs of students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and how schools responded. According to the report, despite strong initial efforts to support the mental health needs of students displaced by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, many…

  4. The Practical Implication of Comparing How Adults with and without Intellectual Disability Respond to Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Jeff; Wigram, Tony; Carson, Derek; Lindsay, Bill

    2011-01-01

    Previous researchers who compared how people with, and without, an intellectual disability respond to music focused on musical aptitude, but not on arousal. This paper presents the background, methodology, and results of a study that selected fifteen different pieces of music, and compared the arousal response of adults with (n = 48), and without…

  5. 40 CFR 24.10 - Scheduling the hearing; pre-hearing submissions by respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scheduling the hearing; pre-hearing submissions by respondent. 24.10 Section 24.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Hearings on Orders Requiring Investigations or Studies § 24.10 Scheduling the hearing;...

  6. Supporting Preservice Science Teachers' Ability to Attend and Respond to Student Thinking by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hosun; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    A teacher's ability to attend and respond to student thinking is a key instructional capacity for promoting complex and deeper learning in science classrooms. This qualitative multiple case study examines 14 preservice science teachers' (PSTs) responses to learning opportunities created to develop this capacity, as provided by a teacher…

  7. How Preservice Teachers Interpret and Respond to Student Errors: Ratio and Proportion in Similar Rectangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Ji-Won

    2013-01-01

    Interpreting and responding to student thinking are central tasks of reform-minded mathematics teaching. This study examined preservice teachers' (PSTs) interpretations of and responses to a student's error(s) involving finding a missing length in similar rectangles through a teaching scenario task. Fifty-seven PSTs' responses were…

  8. Which depressed patients respond to ECT? The Nottingham results.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, D; Gill, D; Gregory, S; Shawcross, C

    1995-04-01

    The Nottingham electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) trial was designed with a simulated treatment group to test prospectively the power of delusions or agitation to predict response. The response of patients without retardation and without delusions was examined retrospectively as well because of doubts over the usefulness of ECT for this subgroup. Deluded/nondeluded and agitated/nonagitated subtypes responded significantly to real treatment. Neither delusions nor agitation predicted greater treatment response. Patients without retardation, with or without delusions responded to real ECT, supporting the continuing prescription of ECT for these patients as well. PMID:7790678

  9. Assessment of emergency responders after a vinyl chloride release from a train derailment - New Jersey, 2012.

    PubMed

    Brinker, Kimberly; Lumia, Margaret; Markiewicz, Karl V; Duncan, Mary Anne; Dowell, Chad; Rey, Araceli; Wilken, Jason; Shumate, Alice; Taylor, Jamille; Funk, Renée

    2015-01-01

    On November 30, 2012, at approximately 7:00 am, a freight train derailed near a small town in New Jersey. Four tank cars, including a breached tank car carrying vinyl chloride, landed in a tidal creek. Vinyl chloride, a colorless gas with a mild, sweet odor, is used in plastics manufacture. Acute exposure can cause respiratory irritation and headache, drowsiness, and dizziness; chronic occupational exposure can result in liver damage, accumulation of fat in the liver, and tumors (including angiosarcoma of the liver). Because health effects associated with acute exposures have not been well studied, the New Jersey Department of Health requested assistance from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and CDC. On December 11, teams from these agencies deployed to assist the New Jersey Department of Health in conducting an assessment of exposures in the community as well as the occupational health and safety of emergency personnel who responded to the incident. This report describes the results of the investigation of emergency personnel. A survey of 93 emergency responders found that 26% of respondents experienced headache and upper respiratory symptoms during the response. A minority (22%) reported using respiratory protection during the incident. Twenty-one (23%) of 92 respondents sought medical evaluation. Based on these findings, CDC recommended that response agencies 1) implement the Emergency Responder Health Monitoring and Surveillance (ERHMS) system for ongoing health monitoring of the emergency responders involved in the train derailment response and 2) ensure that in future incidents, respiratory protection is used when exposure levels are unknown or above the established occupational exposure limits. PMID:25577988

  10. Infant responding to joint attention, executive processes, and self-regulation in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Vaughan Van Hecke, Amy; Mundy, Peter; Block, Jessica J; Delgado, Christine E F; Parlade, Meaghan V; Pomares, Yuly B; Hobson, Jessica A

    2012-04-01

    Infant joint attention is related to behavioral and social outcomes, as well as language in childhood. Recent research and theory suggests that the relations between joint attention and social-behavioral outcomes may reflect the role of executive self-regulatory processes in the development of joint attention. To test this hypothesis two studies were conducted. The first, cross-sectional study examined the development of responding to joint attention (RJA) skill in terms of increasing executive efficiency of responding between 9 and 18 months of age. The results indicated that development of RJA was characterized by a decreased latency to shift attention in following another person's gaze and head turn, as well as an increase in the proportion of correct RJA responses exhibited by older infants. The second study examined the longitudinal relations between 12-month measures of responding to joint attention and 36-month attention regulation in a delay of gratification task. The results indicated that responding to joint attention at 12-months was significantly related to children's use of three types of self-regulation behaviors while waiting for a snack reward at 36 months of age. These observations are discussed in light of a developmental theory of attention regulation and joint attention in infancy. PMID:22206892

  11. Why do asthmatic subjects respond so strongly to inhaled adenosine?

    PubMed

    Meade, C J; Dumont, I; Worrall, L

    2001-08-01

    Bronchospasm induced by adenosine is blocked by representatives of all the major classes of drugs used in the treatment of asthma. Understanding the mechanism of this bronchospasm may help understand the way these drugs work. Clinical studies have suggested involvement of neural pathways, mast-like cells and mediators such as histamine, serotonin and lipoxygenase products. There is a strong link between responsiveness to adenosine and eosinophilia. In different animal models A1, A2b and A3 adenosine receptor subclasses have all been implicated in inducing bronchospasm. whilst occupation of the A2a receptor generally has no, or the opposite effect. At least two different mechanisms, both involving neural pathways, exist. One, involving the adenosine A1 receptor, functions in mast cell depleted animals; the other requires interaction with a population of mast-like cells activated over A2b or A3 receptors. Not only histamine but also serotonin and lipoxygenase products released from the mast-like cells are potential mediators. In animal models good reactivity to adenosine receptor agonists is generally only found when the animals are first sensitized and exposed to allergen in ways likely to induce an allergic inflammation. An exception is the BDE rat, which reacts to adenosine receptor agonists such as APNEA or NECA even without allergen exposure. This rat strain does however show evidence of spontaneous eosinophilic inflammation in the lung even without immunization. As mast cells both release adenosine and respond to adenosine, adenosine provides a non-specific method of amplifying specific signals resulting from IgE/antigen interaction. This mechanism may not only have a pathological significance in asthma; it may be part of a normal bodily defense response that in asthmatic subjects is inappropriately activated. PMID:11521747

  12. Climate Local Information over the Mediterranean to Respond User Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruti, P.

    2012-12-01

    CLIM-RUN aims at developing a protocol for applying new methodologies and improved modeling and downscaling tools for the provision of adequate climate information at regional to local scale that is relevant to and usable by different sectors of society (policymakers, industry, cities, etc.). Differently from current approaches, CLIM-RUN will develop a bottom-up protocol directly involving stakeholders early in the process with the aim of identifying well defined needs at the regional to local scale. The improved modeling and downscaling tools will then be used to optimally respond to these specific needs. The protocol is assessed by application to relevant case studies involving interdependent sectors, primarily tourism and energy, and natural hazards (wild fires) for representative target areas (mountainous regions, coastal areas, islands). The region of interest for the project is the Greater Mediterranean area, which is particularly important for two reasons. First, the Mediterranean is a recognized climate change hot-spot, i.e. a region particularly sensitive and vulnerable to global warming. Second, while a number of countries in Central and Northern Europe have already in place well developed climate service networks (e.g. the United Kingdom and Germany), no such network is available in the Mediterranean. CLIM-RUN is thus also intended to provide the seed for the formation of a Mediterranean basin-side climate service network which would eventually converge into a pan-European network. The general time horizon of interest for the project is the future period 2010-2050, a time horizon that encompasses the contributions of both inter-decadal variability and greenhouse-forced climate change. In particular, this time horizon places CLIM-RUN within the context of a new emerging area of research, that of decadal prediction, which will provide a strong potential for novel research.

  13. Rat embryonic palatal shelves respond to TCDD in organ culture

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S. )

    1990-05-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a highly toxic environmental contaminant, is teratogenic in mice, inducing cleft palate (CP) and hydronephrosis at doses which are not overtly maternally or embryo toxic. Palatal shelves of embryonic mice respond to TCDD, both in vivo and in organ culture, with altered differentiation of medial epithelial cells. By contrast, in the rat TCDD produces substantial maternal, embryonic, and fetal toxicity, including fetal lethality, with few malformations. In this study the possible effects of maternal toxicity on induction of cleft palate were eliminated by exposure of embryonic rat palatal shelves in organ culture. The shelves were examined for specific TCDD-induced alterations in differentiation of the medial cells. On Gestation Day (GD) 14 or 15 palatal shelves from embryonic F344 rats were placed in organ culture for 2 to 3 days (IMEM:F12 medium, 5% FBS, 0.1% DMSO) containing 0, 1 x 10(-8), 1 x 10(-9), 1 x 10(-10), or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. The medial epithelial peridermal cells degenerated on shelves exposed to control media or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. Exposure to 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8) M TCDD inhibited this degeneration in 20, 36, and 60% of the shelves, respectively, and was statistically significant at the two highest doses. A normally occurring decrease in (3H)TdR incorporation was inhibited in some GD 15 shelves cultured with 10(-10) and 10(-9) M TCDD. The medial cells of TCDD-exposed shelves continued to express high levels of immunohistochemically detected EGF receptors. The altered differentiation of rat medial epithelium is similar to that reported for TCDD-exposed mouse medial cells in vivo and in vitro. However, in order to obtain these responses, the cultured rat shelves require much higher concentrations of TCDD than the mouse shelves.

  14. Assessment of Respondent Acceptability for Preference Measures in Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franic, Duska M.; Bothe, Anne K.; Bramlett, Robin E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using one or more of four standard economic preference measures to assess health-related quality of life in stuttering, by assessing respondents' views of the acceptability of those measures. Method and results: A graphic positioning scale approach was used with 80 adults to assess four variables previously…

  15. Responding to Critical Incidents: A Resource Guide for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This resource guide is intended to assist schools in developing protocols for responding to critical incidents. It focuses on proactive plans to deal with the traumatic aftereffects of a critical incident which affects some or all of the members of a school community. The guide outlines a generic protocol which includes steps to be undertaken in…

  16. Responding to a Fiscal Crisis: A Data-Driven Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banta, Trudy W.; Busby, A. Katherine; Kahn, Susan; Black, Karen E.; Johnson, James N.

    2007-01-01

    The Division of Planning and Institutional Improvement (PAII) at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis provides for the campus data for academic planning and management, assessment and evaluation services, and progress reports on mission-critical goals. To respond to a forecast fiscal crisis and support long-range planning for the…

  17. Apple root, bark and leaf genes responding to water deficit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants respond to environmental stress conditions by altering the expression of suites of genes, many of which are associated with defense. Perennial plants, including woody shrubs and trees, have to deal with numerous cycles of environmental extremes in order to survive. We are using apple as a m...

  18. Effectively Responding to Public Scrutiny When Communicating Climate Science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, A.; Halpern, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate researchers face regular scrutiny of their work from groups outside academia. In recent years, interest groups that oppose climate policy have targeted scientists with hate-mail campaigns, invasive document requests, hostile questioning and legal threats. In their day-to-day work, scientists struggle to respond to heated discussions about their research, whether from online commentators, opinion columnists, or special interest groups. Based on decades of experience and interviews with scientists, the Union of Concerned Scientists has developed a guide for communicating science amid heightened scrutiny. Building on the information contained in the UCS guide, this presentation will discuss best practices for climate researchers, including suggestions for when scrutiny can be ignored or when it deserves a response and methods for responding that can uphold scientific integrity while also protecting an individual researcher's reputation and ability to publicly communicate. Examples include scientists who have responded to bloggers criticizing their research, advocacy groups demanding their personal emails and policymakers targeting them with personal attacks. In understanding how to respond to scrutiny, scientists can bolster their own ability to communicate and curtail the chilling effect that scrutiny can have on other scientists conducting public enegagement.

  19. Resources for Responding to Doomsday 2012: An Annotated Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Educators at all levels and in all settings are getting questions these days about the approaching "end of the world" catastrophes supposedly coming in December 2012. This resource guide provides a selection of useful resources for responding to student and public questions in this arena. The latest internet myth to gain traction is the notion…

  20. 17 CFR 200.113 - Opportunity to respond; interception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Opportunity to respond; interception. 200.113 Section 200.113 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Code of Behavior Governing Ex...

  1. 17 CFR 200.113 - Opportunity to respond; interception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Opportunity to respond; interception. 200.113 Section 200.113 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Code of Behavior Governing Ex...

  2. Training Emergency Responders: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. An Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Science Associates, Inc., Reston, VA.

    This manual was developed to help instructors train police and emergency medical technicians, who often are the first persons to arrive at the scene of a death (first responders), to serve families who lose a child to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The manual begins with an introduction that discusses the purpose of the training and…

  3. Responding to Suicidal Calls: Does Trait Anxiety Hinder or Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marceline Moulin; Range, Lillian M.

    2005-01-01

    To see if trait anxiety and suicidality interfered with the ability to respond to suicidal crisis calls, 279 undergraduates completed measures of trait anxiety and suicidality in the past week, and the revised Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-2). Unexpectedly, trait anxiety (but not suicidality) correlated with better SIRI-2 scores.…

  4. Life After Traumatic Injury: How the Body Responds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Traumatic Injury: How the Body Responds Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Life After Traumatic Injury: How the ... Threatening Bacterial Infection Remains Mysterious This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  5. Apple root, bark and leaf genes responding to water deficit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants respond to environmental stress conditions by altering the expression of suites of genes, many of which are associated with defense. Perennial plants, including woody shrubs and trees, have to deal with numerous cycles of environmental extremes in order to survive. We are using apple (Malus...

  6. Responding to Individual Differences in Inclusive Classrooms in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kraayenoord, Christina E.; Waterworth, David; Brady, Trish

    2014-01-01

    Responding to individual differences in classrooms in which there is increasing diversity is one of the challenges of inclusive education in Australia. The linking of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and assistive technologies (ATs) is one way in which this challenge can be addressed. This article describes an initiative, known as…

  7. Speaking the Language. Tulsa Junior College Responds to Workforce Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susie

    1993-01-01

    Three programs at Tulsa Junior College respond to labor force needs: (1) Aviation Education Alliance, an articulated program among universities, two-year colleges, and vocational schools; (2) International Language Center, teaching languages specific to the needs of client companies; and (3) Tulsa Training Center, focusing on workplace literacy…

  8. Mobilizing Community Strength: New York Art Therapists Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Barbara Ann; Berberian, Marygrace; Brigmon, La Shae V.; Gonzalez, Susan Natacha; Koepfer, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    After the World Trade Center terrorist attacks on 9/11/01, New York's art therapy community found itself faced with difficult political, professional, and emotional challenges. As volunteerism across this country responded to the need for assistance, many New York art therapists were on the front lines of a wounded and frightened city while…

  9. Poetic Voices: Writing, Reading, and Responding to Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandre, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    "Poetic Voices: Writing, Reading, and Responding to Poetry" was the title of the 2011 Master Class in Children's Literature. Woven into this session were the insights of poets Joyce Sidman and Pat Mora who shared their creative processes and the voices that inspire their poetry. In addition, Barbara Kiefer provided advice regarding how to connect…

  10. Evaluation of the Recognizing and Responding to Suicide Risk Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Jodi Michelle; Osteen, Philip; Jones, Andrea; Berman, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Changes in attitudes, confidence, and practice behaviors were assessed among 452 clinicians who completed the training, Recognizing and Responding to Suicide Risk, and who work with clients at risk for suicide. Data were collected at three time points. Scores on measures of attitudes toward suicide prevention and confidence to work with clients at…

  11. 22 CFR 1304.5 - Responsibility for responding to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... their order of receipt. (2) The FOIA Officer may use multi-track processing in responding to requests... and complex requests. Requests in each track are then processed according to paragraph (d)(1) of this section in their respective track. (3) The FOIA Officer may provide requesters in the slower track...

  12. Responding to the Needs of the Homeless and Hungry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This report describes the Hotels-Motels in Partnership Program, a human services resource sponsored by the Red Cross and other organizations to respond to housing needs of the homeless, disaster victims, and others in need of emergency assistance. The partnership program involves several hundred businesses in more than 240 communities. Since its…

  13. 76 FR 68828 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Forum....

  14. Relational Responding Modulates and Reverses Affective Ratings in Evaluative Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molet, Mikael; Macquet, Benjamin; Charley, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments explored relational responding in evaluative conditioning. In Experiment 1, the participants were trained with a computer task to make relational responses by putting CSs of different sizes in boxes in order of size. Subsequently they were instructed that these different sized CSs represented different intensities of hypothetical…

  15. 17 CFR 200.113 - Opportunity to respond; interception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Opportunity to respond; interception. 200.113 Section 200.113 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Code of Behavior Governing Ex...

  16. 17 CFR 200.113 - Opportunity to respond; interception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Opportunity to respond; interception. 200.113 Section 200.113 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Code of Behavior Governing Ex...

  17. First Responders: Community Colleges on the Front Line of Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Although homeland security has gained prominence as a national focus and investment, it is clear that much of the most effective preparation must begin at local, state, and regional levels. This report reveals that an astonishing number of community colleges offer degree and certificate programs for first responders--law enforcement officers,…

  18. Plant Reproduction: AMOR Enables Males to Respond to Female Signals.

    PubMed

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Coimbra, Silvia

    2016-04-25

    The pollen tube of flowering plants undertakes a long journey to transport two sperm cells for double fertilization. New work on pollen tube guidance has identified an arabinogalactan-derived ovular factor that primes tubes to respond to female gametophyte-secreted attraction signals. PMID:27115687

  19. 76 FR 18716 - Manoj Bhayana, Respondent; Final Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... extended by successive Presidential Notices, the most recent being that of August 12, 2010 (75 FR 50,681... Amendments, 75 FR 33,682 (June 15, 2010). Thus, Respondent should disregard Attachment B of the RDO...-20 (2000), as amended by the Notice on August 13, 2009 (74 FR 41,325 (Aug. 14, 2009)). \\11\\ The...

  20. Understanding and Responding to Violence in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genser, Lillian, Ed.

    Presented are proceedings from a 1976 conference entitled "Understanding and Responding to Violence in Young Children" which was attended by over 600 students, teachers, child care workers, and parents. Following an introduction by L. Genser are entries with the following titles and authors: "The Course of the Development of Violence in Young…

  1. Responding Proactively to the Politics of Language Arts Bashing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanacore, Joseph

    The education profession as well as the public do not need exposure to more one-sided opinions about the need for academic preschools, about how to generate higher standards, about how poorly United States schools perform as compared to schools in other industrialized nations, and about other potentially volatile issues. In responding to the…

  2. Authors' Rejoinder to Respondents (Shulman, Steinberg, & Piquero, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike A.; Brown, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Respondents, in "A Mistaken Account of the Age-Crime Curve: Response to Males and Brown," dispute our finding that virtually all of the discrepancy in violent crime rates between adolescents/emerging adults versus older adults is explained not by young age per se but by higher poverty levels among the young. Our rejoinder argues that…

  3. Managing resistant depression. When patients do not respond to therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Warneke, L.

    1993-01-01

    Many factors can influence outcome in the management of depressive illness, a major public health problem with significant associated mortality and morbidity. Two-thirds of patients will respond to antidepressants. The remainder can be treated in other ways. Only about 7% of patients are absolutely treatment resistant, and even they can be helped. PMID:8495142

  4. Responding to Student Unrest: A Guide for Administrators and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, James; Miller, William

    The aim of this essay is to help educators understand, respond to, and survive student militancy. The author analyzes the problem of student unrest; discusses programs for reducing militancy; and explains why student involvement is necessary and how it helps accomplish the purposes of education, stimulates interest, and reduces dropouts and…

  5. 28 CFR 115.64 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Staff first responder duties. 115.64 Section 115.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Official Response Following An Inmate Report §...

  6. 28 CFR 115.64 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Staff first responder duties. 115.64 Section 115.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Official Response Following An Inmate Report §...

  7. 28 CFR 115.64 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Staff first responder duties. 115.64 Section 115.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Official Response Following An Inmate Report §...

  8. Responding to Our Response: Student Strategies for Responding to Teacher Written Comments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, Ruth; Terdal, Marjorie

    A study investigated the responses of students of English as a Second Language (ESL) to teachers' written comments on essay drafts. Subjects were 15 students in intensive college ESL courses. The students wrote essay drafts, which were turned in to teachers for graded comments. The students were then interviewed within three days after receiving…

  9. Practice and Perception of First Aid Among Lay First Responders in a Southern District of India

    PubMed Central

    Pallavisarji, Uthkarsh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Girish, Rao Nagaraja

    2013-01-01

    Background Injuries rank among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are steadily increasing in developing countries like India. However, it is often possible to minimize injury and crash consequences by providing effective pre-hospital services promptly. In most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), transportation of road traffic victims, is usually provided by relatives, taxi drivers, truck drivers, police officers and other motorists who are often untrained. Objectives The current study was conducted to understand the current practice and perception of first aid among lay first responders in a rural southern district of India. Materials and Methods The current cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the southern district of Tumkur in India within three months from January to March 2011 and covered the population including all police, ambulance personnel, taxi drivers, bus and auto drivers, and primary and middle school teachers within the study area. Results Nearly 60% of the responders had witnessed more than two emergencies in the previous six months and 55% had actively participated in helping the injured person. The nature of the help was mainly by calling for an ambulance (41.5%), transporting the injured (19.7%) and consoling the victim (14.9%). Majority (78.1%) of the responders informed that they had run to the victim (42.4%) or had called for an ambulance. The predominant reason for not providing help was often the ‘fear of legal complications’ (30%) that would follow later. Significant number (81.4%) of respondents reported that they did not have adequate skills to manage an emergency and were willing to acquire knowledge and skills in first aid to help victims. Conclusions Regular and periodical community-based first aid training programs for first care responders will help to provide care and improve outcomes for injured persons. PMID:24396770

  10. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Differentially Affects Lithium Sensitivity of Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines from Lithium Responder and Non-responder Bipolar Disorder Patients.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Elena; Hadar, Adva; Maffioletti, Elisabetta; Werner, Haim; Shomron, Noam; Gennarelli, Massimo; Schulze, Thomas G; Costa, Marta; Del Zompo, Maria; Squassina, Alessio; Gurwitz, David

    2015-07-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric illness with an unknown etiology. Lithium is considered the cornerstone in the management of BD, though about 50-60 % of patients do not respond sufficiently to chronic treatment. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has been identified as a candidate gene for BD susceptibility, and its low expression has been suggested as a putative biomarker for lithium unresponsiveness. In this study, we examined the in vitro effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on lithium sensitivity in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from lithium responder (R) and non-responder (NR) bipolar patients. Moreover, we evaluated levels of microRNA let-7c, a small RNA predicted to target IGF1. We found that exogenous IGF-1 added to serum-free media increased lithium sensitivity selectively in LCLs from NR BD patients. However, no significant differences were observed when comparing let-7c expression in LCLs from R vs. NR BD patients. Our data support a key role for IGF-1 in lithium resistance/response in the treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:25740013

  11. Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients Immunized with AN1792: Reduced Functional Decline in Antibody Responders

    PubMed Central

    Vellas, Bruno; Black, R; Thal, Leon J; Fox, Nick C; Daniels, M; McLennan, G; Tompkins, C; Leibman, C; Pomfret, M; Grundman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Immunization of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with synthetic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42) (AN1792) was previously studied in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2a clinical trial, Study AN1792(QS-21)-201. Treatment was discontinued following reports of encephalitis. One year follow-up revealed that AN1792 antibody responders showed improvements in cognitive measures as assessed by the neuropsychological test battery (NTB) and a decrease in brain volume compared with placebo. Methods: A follow-up study, Study AN1792(QS-21)-251, was conducted to assess the long-term functional, psychometric, neuroimaging, and safety outcomes of patients from the phase 2a study 4.6 years after immunization with AN1792. The results were analyzed by comparing patients originally identified as antibody responders in the AN1792 phase 2a study with placebo-treated patients. Results: One hundred and fifty-nine patients/caregivers (30 placebo; 129 AN1792) participated in this follow-up study. Of the 129 AN1792-treated patients, 25 were classified in the phase 2a study as antibody responders (anti-AN1792 titers ≥1:2,200 at any time after the first injection). Low but detectable, sustained anti-AN1792 titers were found in 17 of 19 samples obtained from patients classified as antibody responders in the phase 2a study. No detectable anti-AN1792 antibodies were found in patients not classified as antibody responders in the phase 2a study. Significantly less decline was observed on the Disability Assessment for Dementia scale among antibody responders than placebo-treated patients (p=0.015) after 4.6 years. Significant differences in favor of responders were also observed on the Dependence Scale (p=0.033). Of the small number of patients who underwent a follow-up MRI, antibody responders showed similar brain volume loss during the follow-up period subsequent to the AN1792 phase 2a study compared with placebo-treated patients. Conclusions: Approximately 4

  12. Hepatitis C virus load and expression of a unique subset of cellular genes in circulating lymphoid cells differentiate non-responders from responders to pegylated interferon alpha-ribavirin treatment.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tram N Q; Lin, Dolly M H; Mulrooney-Cousins, Patricia M; Churchill, Norma D; Kowala-Piaskowska, Arleta; Mozer-Lisewska, Iwona; Machaj, Anna; Pazgan-Simon, Monika; Zalewska, Malgorzata; Simon, Krzysztof; King, Dawn; Reddy, S Bharati; Michalak, Tomasz I

    2013-03-01

    Based on investigations of liver biopsy material, certain cellular genes have been implicated as correlates of success or failure to interferon alpha-ribavirin (IFN/RBV) therapy against hepatitis C. The current study aimed at determining whether expression of host genes thought to be relevant to HCV replication in the liver would be correlated with HCV infection status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and also with patient responsiveness to IFN/RBV treatment. Therefore, PBMCs from patients with chronic hepatitis C responding (n = 35) or not (n = 49) to IFN/RBV and from healthy controls (n = 15) were evaluated for HCV RNA load and cellular gene expression. Non-responders had 3- to 10-fold higher basal levels of interleukin (IL)-8, IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and Toll-like receptors (TLR)-4, -5, and -7 compared to responders. Non-responders with similar post-treatment follow-ups as responders persistently expressed 6- to 20-fold greater levels of IL-8, ISG15, and OAS after therapy. Higher expression of IFN-α, IFN-γ, and IFN-λ was found in PBMCs of individuals achieving sustained virological response, either before or after therapy. Pre-treatment HCV RNA loads in PBMCs of non-responders were significantly higher (P = 0.016) than those of responders. In conclusion, the data indicate that immune cells of responders and non-responders to IFN/RBV therapy exhibited significantly different virological and host gene expression profiles. Elevated baseline HCV loads and TLR-4, -5, and -7 levels, and persistently high levels of IL-8, ISG15, and OAS were correlated with IFN non-responsiveness. The results warrant further investigations on the utilization of PBMCs for predicting success or failure to IFN-based therapies. PMID:23280583

  13. Conditioned cued recovery of responding following prolonged withdrawal from self-administered cocaine in rats: an animal model of relapse.

    PubMed

    Meil, W.M.; See, R.E.

    1996-12-01

    The present study investigated the ability of drug-associated cues to reinstate extinguished responding following an extended period of withdrawal from cocaine self-administration. Rats self-administered cocaine (0.33mg/infusion) for 2 weeks of daily 3-h limited-access sessions under a fixed-interval (FI) schedule of reinforcement, in which responding resulted in simultaneous illumination of a stimulus light and drug infusions. Rats were then exposed to 20 daily extinction sessions. Noncontingent presentation of the stimulus light and infusion pump sound on day 21 of extinction resulted in a significant increase in responding. Twenty days later (43 days after cocaine withdrawal), rats returned to the operant chamber and exposed to drug-associated cues responded significantly more than animals exposed to extinction conditions. In a second experiment, using a form of variable-interval schedule in which the stimulus light was presented prior to drug infusions, stimulus-cued recovery of responding was similar to that obtained under the FI schedule. A third experiment showed that noncontingent presentation of the stimulus light alone on day 21 failed to reinstate extinguished responding, suggesting that stimulus-cued reinstatement of responding was due to a compound stimulus or preferential conditioning of the infusion pump sound. The present paradigm may serve as a useful model for the investigation of drug abuse and relapse, since it allows for the independent examination of the reinforcing and conditioned effects of a drug. PMID:11224470

  14. Diminished self-conscious emotional responding in frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Virginia E; Ascher, Elizabeth A; Miller, Bruce L; Levenson, Robert W

    2008-12-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a neurodegenerative disease that dramatically alters social and emotional behavior. Recent work has suggested that self-conscious emotions (e.g., embarrassment) may be particularly vulnerable to disruption in this disease. Self-conscious emotions require the ability to monitor the self in relation to others. These abilities are thought to be subserved by brain regions (e.g., medial prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and insula) that are particularly vulnerable to damage in FTLD. This study examined emotional responding (expressive behavior, peripheral physiology, and subjective experience) in 24 FTLD patients and 16 cognitively normal control participants using a karaoke task known to elicit self-conscious emotion reliably and a nonemotional control task (isometric handgrip). Results indicated that FTLD patients showed diminished self-conscious emotional behavior (embarrassment and amusement) and diminished physiological responding while watching themselves singing. No differences were found between patients and controls in the nonemotional control task. These findings offer evidence of marked disruption of self-conscious emotional responding in FTLD. Diminished self-conscious emotional responding likely contributes significantly to social inappropriateness and other behavioral abnormalities in FTLD. PMID:19102597

  15. Diminished Self-Conscious Emotional Responding in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Virginia E.; Ascher, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Bruce L.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a neurodegenerative disease that dramatically alters social and emotional behavior. Recent work has suggested that self-conscious emotions (e.g., embarrassment) may be particularly vulnerable to disruption in this disease. Self-conscious emotions require the ability to monitor the self in relation to others. These abilities are thought to be subserved by brain regions (e.g., medial prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and insula) that are particularly vulnerable to damage in FTLD. This study examined emotional responding (expressive behavior, peripheral physiology, and subjective experience) in 24 FTLD patients and 16 cognitively normal control participants using a karaoke task known to elicit self-conscious emotion reliably and a nonemotional control task (isometric handgrip). Results indicated that FTLD patients showed diminished self-conscious emotional behavior (embarrassment and amusement) and diminished physiological responding while watching themselves singing. No differences were found between patients and controls in the nonemotional control task. These findings offer evidence of marked disruption of self-conscious emotional responding in FTLD. Diminished self-conscious emotional responding likely contributes significantly to social inappropriateness and other behavioral abnormalities in FTLD. PMID:19102597

  16. Social anxiety symptoms uniquely predict fear responding to 35% CO(2) challenge.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Norman B; Richey, J Anthony

    2008-08-01

    The vast majority of biological challenge studies have focused on panic disorder though there is a small literature suggesting that patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) show comparable responding. The SAD literature is potentially confounded, however, by the fact that many patients with SAD experience panic attacks. These patients also show elevated negative affect and anxiety sensitivity, factors that are also associated with increased fear responding to challenge. By controlling for these factors, the present report was able to evaluate whether social anxiety symptoms were uniquely associated with fearful responding to a 35% CO(2) challenge. A large nonclinical sample of young adults (N=120) screened for a history of panic attacks completed a 35% CO(2) challenge. Those high (versus low) in social anxiety showed approximately 2.5 times greater risk for experiencing substantial increases in anxiety in response to the challenge. This significant association was maintained after controlling for anxiety sensitivity and general negative affect. These data provide novel evidence suggesting that social anxiety symptoms are uniquely associated with anxious responding to 35% CO(2) challenge and this sensitivity appears to precede the development of panic attacks. PMID:17983629

  17. What’s the Big Deal? Responder Experiences of Large Animal Rescue in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bradley; Thompson, Kirrilly; Taylor, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The management of large animals during disasters and emergencies creates difficult operational environments for responders. The aims of this study were to identify the exact challenges faced by Australian emergency response personnel in their interactions with large animals and their owners, and to determine the readiness for large animal rescue (LAR) in Australia. Methods: A survey tool collected the views and experiences of a broad cross section of emergency services personnel operating across Australia and across all hazards. Data were collected from 156 responders including Australian emergency services personnel, emergency managers such as federal agricultural departments, and local government. Results: Overall, many of the respondents had serious concerns, and felt that there were significant issues in relation to LAR in Australia. These included the coordination of emergency care for animals, physical management of large animals, inter-agency coordination, and dealing with animal owners. Very few respondents had received any formal training in LAR, with an overwhelming majority indicating they would attend formal training if it were made available. Discussion: Results help to guide the development of evidence-informed support tools to assist operational response and community engagement, and the production of professional development resources. PMID:25685637

  18. 78 FR 55064 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Review Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority Special Review Committee. SUMMARY: The First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) Board Special ]...

  19. Impulse oscillometry and respiratory symptoms in World Trade Center responders, 6 years post-9/11.

    PubMed

    Mauer, Matthew P; Cummings, Karen R

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated whether impulse oscillometry (IOS) testing revealed signs of respiratory disease in New York State (NYS) World Trade Center (WTC) responders in comparison with unexposed NYS employees. It also compared self-reported respiratory symptoms between the two groups, 6 years post-9/11. For this evaluation participants completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding respiratory symptoms. IOS testing included measures of resistance and reactance to assess for peripheral versus central airway effects. Two hundred forty-eight subjects (99 exposed and 149 unexposed) were included in the final analysis. Since September 11, 2001, NYS responders were more likely to report new or worsening cough in the absence of a respiratory infection, cough consistent with chronic bronchitis, current respiratory symptoms, or lower respiratory symptoms in the last 12 months. Significant associations were found between IOS indices and gender, smoking history, and obesity. When comparing exposed and unexposed participants, there were no significant differences in the geometric means of the IOS indices. Responders who used a respirator with canister demonstrated significantly lower respiratory resistance at 5 and 20 Hz (R5 and R20). While this study has provided no evidence of an association between WTC exposure and peripheral airways disease in this cohort of responders, results do suggest that use of a respirator with canister may be protective for central airways in responders exposed to dust and smoke. This emphasizes the importance of stressing proper respirator use in planning responses to future disasters. Our control data also provide useful reference values for future IOS research. PMID:20012641

  20. Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ligands

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Noah D; Garruss, Alexander S; Moretti, Rocco; Chan, Sum; Arbing, Mark A; Cascio, Duilio; Rogers, Jameson K; Isaacs, Farren J; Kosuri, Sriram; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M; Raman, Srivatsan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic regulatory proteins inducible by small molecules are useful synthetic biology tools as sensors and switches. Bacterial allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) are a major class of regulatory proteins, but few aTFs have been redesigned to respond to new effectors beyond natural aTF-inducer pairs. Altering inducer specificity in these proteins is difficult because substitutions that affect inducer binding may also disrupt allostery. We engineered an aTF, the Escherichia coli lac repressor, LacI, to respond to one of four new inducer molecules: fucose, gentiobiose, lactitol or sucralose. Using computational protein design, single-residue saturation mutagenesis or random mutagenesis, along with multiplex assembly, we identified new variants comparable in specificity and induction to wild-type LacI with its inducer, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The ability to create designer aTFs will enable applications including dynamic control of cell metabolism, cell biology and synthetic gene circuits. PMID:26689263

  1. Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ligands.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Noah D; Garruss, Alexander S; Moretti, Rocco; Chan, Sum; Arbing, Mark A; Cascio, Duilio; Rogers, Jameson K; Isaacs, Farren J; Kosuri, Sriram; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M; Raman, Srivatsan

    2016-02-01

    Genetic regulatory proteins inducible by small molecules are useful synthetic biology tools as sensors and switches. Bacterial allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) are a major class of regulatory proteins, but few aTFs have been redesigned to respond to new effectors beyond natural aTF-inducer pairs. Altering inducer specificity in these proteins is difficult because substitutions that affect inducer binding may also disrupt allostery. We engineered an aTF, the Escherichia coli lac repressor, LacI, to respond to one of four new inducer molecules: fucose, gentiobiose, lactitol and sucralose. Using computational protein design, single-residue saturation mutagenesis or random mutagenesis, along with multiplex assembly, we identified new variants comparable in specificity and induction to wild-type LacI with its inducer, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The ability to create designer aTFs will enable applications including dynamic control of cell metabolism, cell biology and synthetic gene circuits. PMID:26689263

  2. Changing first responder tactics through the use of advanced technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettles, William E.; Trotter, Stephen

    1998-12-01

    The authors will first analyze current tactics used by emergency personnel when responding to 'standard' emergencies involving transportation systems. Next, the vulnerabilities and the consequences of a terrorist attack on a transportation system. Next the vulnerabilities and the consequences of a terrorist attack on a transportation system in which weapons of mass destruction are employed will be explored. The unique problems associated with the site of an emergency where chemical, nuclear, or biological agents have been employed will be investigated. The use of available or next-ready technologies in the areas of detection devices, personal protective clothing, and decontamination equipment will be examined. Combining this information, we will seek to prove the hypothesis that without the use of new technologies a change in first responder tactics is impossible. However, with the use of advanced technologies we will illustrate how new tactics can produce safe, more effective emergency responses.

  3. An alternative framework for responding to the amphibian crisis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin L.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Volumes of data illustrate the severity of the crisis affecting amphibians, where > 32% of amphibians worldwide are threatened with declining populations. Although there have been isolated victories, the current approach to the issue is unsuccessful. We suggest that a radically different approach, something akin to human emergency response management (i.e. the Incident Command System), is one alternative to addressing the inertia and lack of cohesion in responding to amphibian issues. We acknowledge existing efforts and the useful research that has been conducted, but we suggest that a change is warranted and that the identification of a new amphibian chytrid provides the impetus for such a change. Our goal is to recognize that without a centralized effort we (collectively) are likely to fail in responding to this challenge.

  4. Correlates of cyberbullying and how school nurses can respond.

    PubMed

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2015-05-01

    Cyberbullying is one of many online risks that affect an increasing number of children and teenagers. This form of abuse often occurs under the radar of adults as it usually takes place outside of school and away from adult supervision. Moreover, bystanders and victims are often reluctant to report what they have experienced. School nurses might be among the first to witness the real-life consequences of this virtual behavior, as involvement in cyberbullying is often correlated with psychological and behavioral problems. For this reason, school nurses should know how to recognize the warning signs so that they can respond and intervene appropriately. This article provides a discussion of what cyberbullying is and a summary of research on factors associated with cyberbullying, in terms of both victimization and perpetration. It also provides school nurses with evidence-based strategies for responding effectively. PMID:25870099

  5. Neural Circuits Underlying Crying and Cry Responding in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Crying is a universal vocalization in human infants, as well as in the infants of other mammals. Little is known about the neural structures underlying cry production, or the circuitry that mediates a caregiver’s response to cry sounds. In this review, the specific structures known or suspected to be involved in this circuit are identified, along with neurochemical systems and hormones for which evidence suggests a role in responding to infants and infant cries. In addition, evidence that crying elicits parental responses in different mammals is presented. An argument is made for including ‘crying’ as a functional category in the vocal repertoire of all mammalian infants (and the adults of some species). The prevailing neural model for crying production considers forebrain structures to be dispensable. However, evidence for the anterior cingulate gyrus in cry production, and this structure along with the amygdala and some other forebrain areas in responding to cries is presented. PMID:17363076

  6. Apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Wilde, Tyson; Barlow, Jonathan S.

    2010-04-13

    A method of responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a bore hole comprises detecting the anomalous change in downhole pressure, sending a signal along the segmented electromagnetic transmission path, receiving the signal, and performing a automated response. The anomalous change in downhole pressure is detected at a first location along a segmented electromagnetic transmission path, and the segmented electromagnetic transmission path is integrated into the tool string. The signal is received by at least one receiver in communication with the segmented electromagnetic transmission path. The automated response is performed along the tool string. Disclosed is an apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a downhole tool string, comprising a segmented electromagnetic transmission path connecting one or more receivers and at least one pressure sensor.

  7. Adolescent fertility programs: responding to the needs of today's youth.

    PubMed

    Galang, M L; Jamias, E G; Silayan-go, A

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 conference on Adolescent Fertility Management in Asia and the Pacific provided a forum for sharing information and experiences. The project was designed to stimulate interest in and strengthen existing programs on adolescent fertility in participating countries, i.e., Bangladesh, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri lanka, and Thailand. Specifically, the conference sought to identify adolescent fertility problems and share experiences in managing adolescent fertility programs, identify gaps in the development and implementation of adolescent fertility programs and projects, and formulate plans to meet the adolescent fertility needs of the participating countries. Capsule presentations of the experiences of the participating countries are presented. Focus is on the projects they have undertaken and proposed activities. In Bangladesh Jatio Tarum Sangha, the national youth organization, seeks to get youth involved in family planning activities through information/education/motivation programs and community development projects. Fiji proposes to establish a youth center to be operated by the Ministry of Health to reduce the incidence of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents and to make them more aware of sex-related health problems and the importance of responsible sex. India's Family Planning Association has initiated population education programs for youth. Several projects have been launched in Jakarta to cope with adolescent fertility problems including the adolescent health project, the Consultation Center for Adolescents, and the university-based family health project. The Family Planning Association of Nepal has completed some major programs under its youth project. The Philippines' proposed youth centers are planned to respond to the fertility related needs and problems of Filipino adolescents. Innovations of the center are: the operation of several youth-serving government and private agencies under 1 roof

  8. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Divan, Deepak; Moghe, Rohit; Tholomier, Damien

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  9. EMEDs and SPEARR teams: United States Air Force ready responders.

    PubMed

    Skelton, Patricia A; Droege, Leslie; Carlisle, Mary T

    2003-06-01

    The right mix and unique talents of the medical personnel brought together by chance are undoubtedly the basis for the accomplishments of the EMEDs deployed to support Operation Houston and Operation Enduring Freedom, whereas creativity and flexibility definitely remain the keys to the success of these missions. It is with great confidence that we can proudly say, "Yes, we are ready to respond when called upon to provide the highest quality care for humanitarian missions and for our deployed military personnel." PMID:12755186

  10. NARAC Dispersion Model Product Integration With RadResponder

    SciTech Connect

    Aluzzi, Fernando

    2015-09-30

    Work on enhanced cooperation and interoperability of Nuclear Incident Response Teams (NIRT) is a joint effort between DHS/FEMA, DOE/NNSA and EPA. One such effort was the integration between the RadResponder Network, a resource sponsored by FEMA for the management of radiological data during an emergency, and the National Atmospheric Advisory Center (NARAC), a DOE/NNSA modeling resource whose predictions are used to aid radiological emergency preparedness and response. Working together under a FEMA-sponsored project these two radiological response assets developed a capability to read and display plume model prediction results from the NARAC computer system in the RadResponder software tool. As a result of this effort, RadResponder users have been provided with NARAC modeling predictions of contamination areas, radiological dose levels, and protective action areas (e.g., areas warranting worker protection or sheltering/evacuation) to help guide protective action decisions and field monitoring surveys, and gain key situation awareness following a radiological/nuclear accident or incident (e.g., nuclear power plant accident, radiological dispersal device incident, or improvised nuclear detonation incident). This document describes the details of this integration effort.

  11. Challenges for Early Responders to a Nuclear / Radiological Terrorism Incident

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.A.; Stearns, L.J.; Davie, A.D.; Day, E.

    2007-07-01

    Even in the best of circumstances, most municipalities would face severe challenges in providing effective incident response to a large scale radiation release caused by nuclear terrorism or accident. Compounding obvious complexities, the effectiveness of first and early responders to a radiological emergency may also be hampered by an insufficient distribution of radiation detection and monitoring equipment, local policies concerning triage and field decontamination of critical victims, malfunctioning communications, inadequate inter-agency agility, and the psychological 'fear' impact on early responders. This paper examines several issues impeding the early response to nuclear terrorism incidents with specific consideration given to the on-going and forward-thinking preparedness efforts currently being developed in the Sacramento, California region. Specific recommendations are provided addressing hot zone protocols, radiation detection and monitoring equipment, hasty patient packaging techniques, vertically and horizontally integrated pre-event training, mitigating psychological fear, and protocols for the effective 'hand-off' from first responders to subsequent early response-recovery teams. (authors)

  12. Socially desirable responding on the web: investigating the candor hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Risko, Evan F; Quilty, Lena C; Oakman, Jonathan M

    2006-12-01

    The investigation presented here explores the hypothesis that participants are less likely to respond in a socially desirable fashion on self-report questionnaires completed on the Web relative to those completed in the laboratory--the candor hypothesis. A battery of social desirability questionnaires (i.e., Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding [Paulhaus, 1984], Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale [Crowne & Marlowe, 1964], Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Lie Scale [Eysenck & Eysenck, 1994]) was administered to 3 groups: 2 groups consisted of undergraduate participants who were randomly assigned to complete the measures either in the laboratory (n = 60) or on the Web (n = 60), and 1 group consisted of self-selected participants who visited our experimental Web page and completed the measures online (n = 284). This design allowed us to assess the role of Web administration while controlling for differences in sample type, an oft-neglected issue in the Web literature. Results do not support the claim that administering self-report measures over the Web results in a decrease in socially desirable responding. Furthermore, these findings highlight the problems associated with confounding sample and medium. Implications for the use of Web as a research tool are discussed. PMID:17134335

  13. Regularities in responding during performance of a complex choice task.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Eduardo; Orduña, Vladimir

    2015-12-01

    Systematic variations in the rate and temporal patterns of responding under a multiple concurrent-chains schedule were quantified using recurrence metrics and self-organizing maps to assess whether individual rats showed consistent or idiosyncratic patterns. The results indicated that (1) the temporal regularity of response patterns varied as a function of number of training sessions, time on task, magnitude of reinforcement, and reinforcement contingencies; (2) individuals showed heterogeneous, stereotyped patterns of responding, despite similarities in matching behavior; (3) the specific trajectories of behavioral variation shown by individuals were less evident in group-level analyses; and (4) reinforcement contingencies within terminal links strongly modulated response patterns within initial links. Temporal regularity in responding was most evident for responses that led to minimally delayed reinforcers of larger magnitude. Models of response production and selection that take into account the time between individual responses, probabilities of transitions between response options, periodicity within response sequences, and individual differences in response dynamics can clarify the mechanisms that drive behavioral adjustments during operant conditioning. PMID:26077440

  14. Effects of cocaine on fixed-interval responding reinforced by the opportunity to run.

    PubMed Central

    Belke, T W; Dunbar, M J

    2001-01-01

    Rate-dependent drug effects have been observed for operant responding maintained by food, water, heat, light onset, electrical brain stimulation, shock-stimulus termination, and shock presentation. The present study sought to determine if the effects of cocaine on lever pressing maintained by the opportunity to run could also be described as rate dependent. Seven male Wistar rats were trained to respond on levers for the opportunity to run in a wheel. The schedule of reinforcement was fixed-interval 60 s, and the reinforcing consequence was the opportunity to run for 60 s. On this schedule, overall rates of responding were low, usually below six presses per minute, and pauses frequently exceeded the 60-s interval. Despite these differences, an overall scalloped pattern of lever pressing was evident for each rat. Doses of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mg/kg cocaine were administered 10 min prior to a session. Only at the 16 mg/kg dose did the responding of the majority of rats change in a manner suggestive of a rate-dependent drug effect. Specifically, lower response rates at the beginning of the intervals increased and higher rates at the end of the intervals decreased, as indicated by the fact that slopes from the regression of drug rates on control rates decreased. These data provide tentative support for the generalization of rate-dependent effects to operant responding maintained by wheel running. Differences in the baseline performance maintained by wheel running compared to those for food and water point to the need for further experimentation before this effect can be firmly established. PMID:11256868

  15. Risks to emergency medical responders at terrorist incidents: a narrative review of the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Julian; Rehn, Marius; Lossius, Hans Morten; Lockey, David

    2014-01-01

    As the threat of international terrorism rises, there is an increasing requirement to provide evidence-based information and training for the emergency personnel who will respond to terrorist incidents. Current major incident training advises that emergency responders prioritize their own personal safety above that of the 'scene and survivors'. However, there is limited information available on the nature of these threats and how they may be accurately evaluated. This study reviews the published medical literature to identify the hazards experienced by emergency responders who have attended previous terrorist incidents. A PubMed literature search identified 10,894 articles on the subject of 'terrorism', and there was a dramatic increase in publications after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. There is heterogeneity in the focus and quality of this literature, and 307 articles addressing the subject of scene safety were assessed for information regarding the threats encountered at terrorist incidents. These articles demonstrate that emergency responders have been exposed to both direct terrorist threats and environmental scene hazards, including airborne particles, structural collapse, fire, and psychological stress. The emphasis of training and preparedness for terrorist incidents has been primarily on the direct threats, but the published literature suggests that the dominant causes of mortality and morbidity in responders after such incidents are the indirect environmental hazards. If the medical response to terrorist incidents is to be based on evidence rather than anecdote, analysis of the current literature should be incorporated into major incident training, and consistent collection of key data from future incidents is required. PMID:25323086

  16. Effects of d-amphetamine and caffeine on schedule-controlled and schedule-induced responding.

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, D E

    1979-01-01

    The effects of d-amphetamine and caffeine were studied on rates and patterns of lever pressing and schedule-induced licking under fixed-interval schedules of food pellet presentation. In addition, the effects of caffeine were studied on lever pressing and licking under a multiple fixed-ratio fixed-interval schedule. Caffeine reduced mean overall rates of licking at lower doses than it reduced mean overall rates of pressing under the fixed-interval schedules, but the effects of caffeine on both licking and lever pressing depended largely on the control rate of responding. d-Amphetamine reduced mean overall rates of lever pressing and licking at about the same dose, but the effects of d-amphetamine also were a function of the control rate of responding. PMID:512573

  17. Attitudes toward buying online as predictors of shopping online for British and American respondents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David; James, Simon

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the attitudes toward online shopping of British and American individuals. Using a sample of 327 British and American university students, the British respondents were found to have less favorable attitudes toward online shopping. Attitudes toward online shopping were found to be significant predictors of making online purchases. The implications of these results were discussed and suggestions made for future research. PMID:17474836

  18. Influences of task concreteness upon transitive responding in humans.

    PubMed

    Siemann, M; Delius, J D

    1996-01-01

    The derivation of the conclusion "Anna is bigger than Mary" from the premises "Anna is bigger than Paul" and "Mary is smaller than Paul" is considered an instance of transitive deduction. For a non-verbal presentation, the premise statements were here transformed into a multiple operant discrimination task. Adult subjects were trained with overlapping pairs of a six-member stimulus series A+B-, A+C-, C+D-, D+E-, E+F-; +: choice rewarded, -: choice penalized). A computer game-type presentation that hid the actual problem structure from the subjects was employed. The effects of varying the presentation style of the task on the objective performance and the structure awareness of subjects were investigated. A first experiment used random polygons as stimuli and the relations between them were only signalled by the above reinforcement allocations. In a second experiment the stimuli were cartoon figures additionally involved in a dominance hierarchy that was suggested graphically. A third experiment used named items that were related through visible size differences in addition to the reinforcement allocations but was otherwise like an experiment using an abstract format reported by Werner et al. (1992). In all experiments a similar proportion of subjects responded transitively when subsequently tested with the pairs BD, BE and CE by preferentially choosing stimulus B or C. Each subject subsequently filled in a questionnaire, completed a stimulus ordering exercise, and was interviewed to find out whether they were explicitly aware of the stimulus hierarchy underlying each of the tasks. Although the proportion of subjects revealing an explicit transitive responding increased together with the concreteness of the stimuli and their relations across the experiments, the objective performance in terms of choice accuracy did not vary. The accuracy performance on tests could be accurately simulated with a modification of a simple conditioning model. It is concluded that an

  19. A Decision Process for Determining Whether to Conduct Responder Health Research Following Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Decker, John A.; Kiefer, Max; Reissman, Dori B.; Funk, Renée; Halpin, John; Bernard, Bruce; Ehrenberg, Richard L.; Schuler, Christine R.; Whelan, Elizabeth; Myers, Kyle; Howard, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Disasters often set the stage for scientific inquiry within the field of occupational safety and health. This is especially true when the long-term consequences of exposures associated with a particular disaster are unclear. However, a responder research study can be costly and difficult to design, and researchers must consider whether the proposed study will produce useful, reliable results and is a prudent public health investment. Methods Senior NIOSH scientists, experienced with disaster response and representing the disciplines of epidemiology, occupational medicine and psychiatry, and industrial hygiene, were convened at the request of the NIOSH Director to develop a decision process to help determine when to conduct responder health research following disasters. Results The decision process can be broken down into various components, including scientific rationale that should be formally recognized as critical to efficiently and effectively determine whether a research study is warranted. The scientific rationale includes certain controlling or “gatekeeper” factors that should be present to proceed with research. Providing the foundation for responder disaster research also requires strategizing before an event occurs, so that critical baseline and comparison data can be collected. Conclusions The recommended framework should ensure that research that is most needed and justified will be identified and prioritized. PMID:23716371

  20. The human cost of being a 'first responder'.

    PubMed

    Rabjohn, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    It is curious that among all the literature published on emergency planning and business continuity, the impact on those individuals tasked with dealing with the human cost of disasters is rarely considered. Emergency service personnel are certainly considered a vital component of any response; heroes when outcomes are successful, valiant when they do their best but fail, and occasionally incompetent when the media think it makes a good story. This paper argues that human suffering carries a cost for both responders and society. PMID:23615066

  1. What information strategy responding to social needs should be?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Kunihiko

    With the contemporary social phenomena that people think much of diversity of value, they are concerned with differentiation from others. Consumers' tendency to seek unique goods is common to all, giving impetus to makers' attitude that they try to produce varieties of goods but small amount for each. Consequently, life cycle of goods has become smaller than ever, and rapid and creative information gathering and utilization have become essential when makers produce goods responding to consumers' need. The author discusses how information strategy should be worked in the comprehensive business activities, and how information should be located as the powerful management resource.

  2. Comparing the validity of informant and self-reports of personality using laboratory indices of emotional responding as criterion variables.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Lynne; Liu, Huiting; Huggins, Ashley A; Katz, Andrea C; Zvolensky, Michael J; Shankman, Stewart A

    2016-09-01

    Personality traits relate to risk for psychopathology and can inform predictions about treatment outcome. In an effort to obtain a comprehensive index of personality, informant reports of personality are sometimes obtained in addition to self-reports of personality. However, there is limited research comparing the validity of self- and informant reports of personality, particularly among those with internalizing psychopathology. This is important given that informants may provide an additional (and perhaps different) perspective on individuals' personality. The present study therefore compared how both reports of positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) relate to psychophysiological and subjective measures of emotional responding to positive and negative stimuli. Given that our sample (n = 117) included individuals with no history of psychopathology, as well as individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and/or panic disorder (PD), we were also able to explore whether these internalizing diagnoses moderated the association between personality reports and measures of emotional responding. Informant-reported PA predicted physiological responses to positive stimuli (but not negative). Informant-reported NA predicted physiological responses to negative stimuli (but not positive). Self-reported personality did not predict physiological responding, but did predict subjectively measured emotional responding (NA for negative responding, PA for positive responding). Diagnoses of internalizing psychopathology (PD or MDD) did not moderate these associations. Results suggest self- and informant reports of personality may each provide valid indices of an individual's emotional response tendencies, but predict different aspects of those tendencies. PMID:27273802

  3. Condom use among immigrant Latino sexual minorities: multilevel analysis after respondent-driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; McCoy, Thomas P

    2015-02-01

    This study explored correlates of condom use within a respondent-driven sample of 190 Spanish-speaking immigrant Latino sexual minorities, including gay and bisexual men, other men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender person, in North Carolina. Five analytic approaches for modeling data collected using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) were compared. Across most approaches, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased condom use self-efficacy predicted consistent condom use and increased homophobia predicted decreased consistent condom use. The same correlates were not significant in all analyses but were consistent in most. Clustering due to recruitment chains was low, while clustering due to recruiter was substantial. This highlights the importance accounting for clustering when analyzing RDS data. PMID:25646728

  4. Condom Use among Immigrant Latino Sexual Minorities: Multilevel Analysis after Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored correlates of condom use within a respondent-driven sample of 190 Spanish-speaking immigrant Latino sexual minorities, including gay and bisexual men, other men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender person, in North Carolina. Five analytic approaches for modeling data collected using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) were compared. Across most approaches, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased condom use self-efficacy predicted consistent condom use and increased homophobia predicted decreased consistent condom use. The same correlates were not significant in all analyses but were consistent in most. Clustering due to recruitment chains was low, while clustering due to recruiter was substantial. This highlights the importance accounting for clustering when analyzing RDS data. PMID:25646728

  5. A Role for Science in Responding to Health Crises.

    PubMed

    Colf, Leremy A; Brothers, Reginald; Murata, Christina E

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Science and Technology (S&T) Directorate plays a role in public health that extends beyond biodefense. These responsibilities were exercised as part of the 2014-16 Ebola outbreak, leading to productive and beneficial contributions to the international public health response and improved operations in the United States. However, we and others have identified numerous areas for improvement. Based on our successes and lessons learned, we propose a number of ways that DHS, the interagency, and academia can act now to ensure improved responses to future public health crises. These include pre-developing scientific capabilities to respond agnostically to threats, and disease-specific master question lists to organize and inform initial efforts. We are generating DHS-specific playbooks and tools for anticipating future needs and capturing requests from DHS components and our national and international partners, where efforts will also be used to refine and exercise communication and information-sharing practices. These experiences and improvement efforts have encouraged discussions on the role of science in developing government policy, specifically responding to public health crises. We propose specific considerations for both scientists and government decision makers to ensure that the best available science is incorporated into policy and operational decisions to facilitate highly effective responses to future health crises. PMID:27482881

  6. Life Threatening Idiopathic Recurrent Angioedema Responding to Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Amit; Roy-Shapira, Aviel; Evgeni, Brotfain; Leonid, Koyfman; Borer, Abraham; Klein, Moti

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 27-year-old man with recurrent episodes of angioedema since he was 19, who responded well to treatment with medical grade cannabis. Initially, he responded to steroids and antihistamines, but several attempts to withdraw treatment resulted in recurrence. In the last few months before prescribing cannabis, the frequency and severity of the attacks worsened and included several presyncope events, associated with scrotal and neck swelling. No predisposing factors were identified, and extensive workup was negative. The patient reported that he was periodically using cannabis socially and that during these periods he was free of attacks. Recent data suggest that cannabis derivatives are involved in the control of mast cell activation. Consequently, we decided to try a course of inhaled cannabis as modulators of immune cell functions. The use of inhaled cannabis resulted in a complete response, and he has been free of symptoms for 2 years. An attempt to withhold the inhaled cannabis led to a recurrent attack within a week, and resuming cannabis maintained the remission, suggesting a cause and effect relationship. PMID:26257969

  7. A Role for Science in Responding to Health Crises

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Reginald; Murata, Christina E.

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Science and Technology (S&T) Directorate plays a role in public health that extends beyond biodefense. These responsibilities were exercised as part of the 2014-16 Ebola outbreak, leading to productive and beneficial contributions to the international public health response and improved operations in the United States. However, we and others have identified numerous areas for improvement. Based on our successes and lessons learned, we propose a number of ways that DHS, the interagency, and academia can act now to ensure improved responses to future public health crises. These include pre-developing scientific capabilities to respond agnostically to threats, and disease-specific master question lists to organize and inform initial efforts. We are generating DHS-specific playbooks and tools for anticipating future needs and capturing requests from DHS components and our national and international partners, where efforts will also be used to refine and exercise communication and information-sharing practices. These experiences and improvement efforts have encouraged discussions on the role of science in developing government policy, specifically responding to public health crises. We propose specific considerations for both scientists and government decision makers to ensure that the best available science is incorporated into policy and operational decisions to facilitate highly effective responses to future health crises. PMID:27482881

  8. Anxiolytic-like effects of leptin on fixed interval responding.

    PubMed

    Tyree, Susan M; Munn, Robert G K; McNaughton, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Leptin has been shown to affect energy homeostasis, learning and memory, and some models of anxiolytic action. However, leptin has produced inconsistent results in previous non-operant behavioural tests of anxiety. Here, we test the anxiolytic potential of leptin in an operant paradigm that has produced positive results across all classes of anxiolytic so far tested. Rats were tested in the Fixed Interval 60 Seconds (FI60) task following administration of 0/0.5/1.0mg/kg (i.p.) leptin or an active anxiolytic control of 5mg/kg (i.p.) chlordiazepoxide (CDP). By the end of the 14days of testing in the FI60 task, 0.5mg/kg leptin released suppressed responding in a manner similar to CDP, and 1.0mg/kg leptin produced a relative depression in responding, a similar outcome pattern to previously tested 5HT-agonist anxiolytics. This suggests that leptin behaves similarly to established serotonergic anxiolytics such as buspirone and fluoxetine; with the delay in development of effect during testing, and the inverted-U dose-response curve explaining the inconsistent behaviour of leptin in behavioural tests of anxiety, as this type of pattern is common to serotonergic anxiolytics. PMID:27180106

  9. Characterising the immune profile of the kidney biopsy at lupus nephritis flare differentiates early treatment responders from non-responders

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Samir V; Malvar, Ana; Song, Huijuan; Alberton, Valeria; Lococo, Bruno; Vance, Jay; Zhang, Jianying; Yu, Lianbo; Rovin, Brad H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The kidney biopsy is used to diagnose and guide initial therapy in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). Kidney histology does not correlate well with clinical measurements of kidney injury or predict how patients will respond to standard-of-care immunosuppression. We postulated that the gene expression profile of kidney tissue at the time of biopsy may differentiate patients who will from those who will not respond to treatment. Methods The expression of 511 immune-response genes was measured in kidney biopsies from 19 patients with proliferative LN and 4 normal controls. RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded kidney biopsies done at flare. After induction therapy, 5 patients achieved a complete clinical response (CR), 10 had a partial response (PR) and 4 patients were non-responders (NRs). Transcript expression was compared with normal controls and between renal response groups. Results A principal component analysis showed that intrarenal transcript expression from normal kidney, CR biopsies and NR biopsies segregated from each other. The top genes responsible for CR clustering included several interferon pathway genes (STAT1, IRF1, IRF7, MX1, STAT2, JAK2), while complement genes (C1R, C1QB, C6, C9, C5, MASP2) were mainly responsible for NR clustering. Overall, 35 genes were uniquely expressed in NR compared with CR. Pathway analysis revealed that interferon signalling and complement activation pathways were upregulated in both groups, while BAFF, APRIL, nuclear factor-κB and interleukin-6 signalling were increased in CR but suppressed in NR. Conclusions These data suggest that molecular profiling of the kidney biopsy at LN flare may be useful in predicting treatment response to induction therapy. PMID:26629350

  10. Conceptual and methodological challenges to measuring political commitment to respond to HIV

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Researchers have long recognized the importance of a central government’s political “commitment” in order to mount an effective response to HIV. The concept of political commitment remains ill-defined, however, and little guidance has been given on how to measure this construct and its relationship with HIV-related outcomes. Several countries have experienced declines in HIV infection rates, but conceptual difficulties arise in linking these declines to political commitment as opposed to underlying social and behavioural factors. Methods This paper first presents a critical review of the literature on existing efforts to conceptualize and measure political commitment to respond to HIV and the linkages between political commitment and HIV-related outcomes. Based on the elements identified in this review, the paper then develops and presents a framework to assist researchers in making choices about how to assess a government's level of political commitment to respond to HIV and how to link political commitment to HIV-related outcomes. Results The review of existing studies identifies three components of commitment (expressed, institutional and budgetary commitment) as different dimensions along which commitment can be measured. The review also identifies normative and ideological aspects of commitment and a set of variables that mediate and moderate political commitment that need to be accounted for in order to draw valid inferences about the relationship between political commitment and HIV-related outcomes. The framework summarizes a set of steps that researchers can follow in order to assess a government's level of commitment to respond to HIV and suggests ways to apply the framework to country cases. Conclusions Whereas existing studies have adopted a limited and often ambiguous conception of political commitment, we argue that conceiving of political commitment along a greater number of dimensions will allow researchers to draw a more complete

  11. A systematic review of probable posttraumatic stress disorder in first responders following man-made mass violence.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C

    2015-09-30

    The current study was a systematic review examining probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in first responders following man-made mass violence. A systematic literature search yielded 20 studies that fit the inclusion criteria. The prevalence rates of probable PTSD across all 20 studies ranged from 1.3% to 22.0%. Fifteen of the 20 articles focused on first responders following the September 11th terrorist attacks and many of the studies used the same participant recruitment pools. Overall, the results of the systematic review described here suggest that our understanding of PTSD in first responders following man-made mass violence is based on a very small set of articles that have focused on a few particular events. This paper is meant to serve as a call for additional research and to encourage more breadth in the specific incidents that are examined. PMID:26253760

  12. A real time, wearable ECG and continous blood pressure monitoring system for first responders.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, David M D; Colunas, Marcio F M; Marques, Fabio A Ferreira; Fernandes, Jose M; Cunha, Joao P Silva

    2011-01-01

    The study of stress and fatigue among First Responders is a major step in mitigating this public health problem. Blood pressure, heart rate variability and fatigue related arrhythmia are three of the main "windows" to study stress and fatigue. In this paper we present a wearable medical device, capable of acquiring an electrocardiogram and estimating blood pressure in real time, through a pulse wave transit time approach. The system is based on an existent certified wearable medical device called "Vital Jacket" and is aimed to become a tool to allow cardiologists in studying stress and fatigue among first response professionals. PMID:22255923

  13. Recommendations for Biomonitoring of Emergency Responders: Focus on Occupational Health Investigations and Occupational Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Decker, John A.; DeBord, D. Gayle; Bernard, Bruce; Dotson, G. Scott; Halpin, John; Hines, Cynthia J.; Kiefer, Max; Myers, Kyle; Page, Elena; Schulte, Paul; Snawder, John

    2015-01-01

    The disaster environment frequently presents rapidly evolving and unpredictable hazardous exposures to emergency responders. Improved estimates of exposure and effect from biomonitoring can be used to assess exposure–response relationships, potential health consequences, and effectiveness of control measures. Disaster settings, however, pose significant challenges for biomonitoring. A decision process for determining when to conduct biomonitoring during and following disasters was developed. Separate but overlapping decision processes were developed for biomonitoring performed as part of occupational health investigations that directly benefit emergency responders in the short term and for biomonitoring intended to support research studies. Two categories of factors critical to the decision process for biomonitoring were identified: Is biomonitoring appropriate for the intended purpose and is biomonitoring feasible under the circumstances of the emergency response? Factors within these categories include information needs, relevance, interpretability, ethics, methodology, and logistics. Biomonitoring of emergency responders can be a valuable tool for exposure and risk assessment. Information needs, relevance, and interpretability will largely determine if biomonitoring is appropriate; logistical factors will largely determine if biomonitoring is feasible. The decision process should be formalized and may benefit from advance planning. PMID:23356122

  14. Characteristics of exceptional responders to lenalidomide-based therapy in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Vu, T; Gonsalves, W; Kumar, S; Dispenzieri, A; Lacy, M Q; Buadi, F; Gertz, M A; Rajkumar, S V

    2015-01-01

    We studied all patients at our institution with a diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM), from 1 January 2004 to 1 July 2009, who received lenalidomide-dexamethasone (Rd) as initial therapy and had a time to progression of 72 months or longer. Of 240 patients, we identified 33 exceptional responders. Twenty-five patients received primary therapy with Rd and eight patients received Rd induction followed by early stem cell transplantation (SCT). Seven of the eight patients who received SCT did not receive maintenance therapy; one patient received 9 months of lenalidomide post transplant. Fifteen (45%) patients had known clonal plasma cell disorder before the diagnosis of MM. The dominant mode of clinical presentation was with lytic lesions in 28 patients. Of those with informative cytogenetics (n=24), trisomies were present in 19 (79%), including one patient with concurrent trisomies and t(11;14). Overall, 21 of 24 patients (88%) had either trisomies or t(11;14). None of these exceptional responders had high-risk cytogenetic features at baseline. Twenty-five patients (76%) had a complete response (CR), whereas eight patients (24%) achieved the exceptional response state without ever achieving a CR. We identify a cohort of exceptional responders to Rd-based therapy, representing ~10-15% newly diagnosed MM patients with normal renal function. PMID:26495860

  15. Dorsal hippocampus inactivation impairs spontaneous recovery of Pavlovian magazine approach responding in rats.

    PubMed

    Campese, Vincent D; Delamater, Andrew R

    2014-08-01

    Destruction or inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) has been shown to eliminate the renewal of extinguished fear [1-4]. However, it has recently been reported that the contextual control of responding to extinguished appetitive stimuli is not disrupted when the DH is destroyed or inactivated prior to tests for renewal of Pavlovian conditioned magazine approach [5]. In the present study we extend the analysis of DH control of appetitive extinction learning to the spontaneous recovery of Pavlovian conditioned magazine approach responding. Subjects were trained to associate two separate stimuli with the delivery of food and had muscimol or vehicle infused into the DH prior to a single test-session for spontaneous recovery occurring immediately following extinction of one of these stimuli, but one week following extinction of the other. While vehicle treated subjects showed more recovery to the distally extinguished stimulus than the proximal one, muscimol treated subjects failed to show spontaneous recovery to either stimulus. This result suggests that, while the DH is not involved in the control of extinction by physical contexts [5], it may be involved when time is the gating factor controlling recovery of extinguished responding. PMID:24742862

  16. alpha1-noradrenergic receptor antagonism blocks dependence-induced increases in responding for ethanol.

    PubMed

    Walker, Brendan M; Rasmussen, Dennis D; Raskind, Murray A; Koob, George F

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that blockade of alpha1-adrenergic receptors may suppress the excessive ethanol consumption associated with acute withdrawal in ethanol-dependent rats. Following the acquisition and stabilization of operant ethanol self-administration in male Wistar rats, dependence was induced in half the animals by subjecting them to a 4-week intermittent vapor exposure period in which animals were exposed to ethanol vapor for 14h/day. Subsequent to dependence induction, the effect of alpha1-noradrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0mg/kg IP) was tested on operant responding for ethanol in vapor-exposed and control rats during acute withdrawal. In ethanol-dependent animals, prazosin significantly suppressed responding at the 1.5 and 2.0mg/kg doses, whereas only the 2.0mg/kg dose was effective in nondependent animals, identifying an increase in the sensitivity to prazosin in dependent animals. Conversely, at the lowest dose tested (0.25mg/kg), prazosin increased responding in nondependent animals, which is consistent with the effect of anxiolytics on ethanol self-administration in nondependent animals. None of the doses tested reliably affected concurrent water self-administration. These results suggest the involvement of the noradrenergic system in the excessive alcohol drinking seen during acute withdrawal in ethanol-dependent rats. PMID:18358987

  17. Measuring the Prevalence of Problematic Respondent Behaviors among MTurk, Campus, and Community Participants.

    PubMed

    Necka, Elizabeth A; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Norman, Greg J; Cacioppo, John T

    2016-01-01

    The reliance on small samples and underpowered studies may undermine the replicability of scientific findings. Large sample sizes may be necessary to achieve adequate statistical power. Crowdsourcing sites such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) have been regarded as an economical means for achieving larger samples. Because MTurk participants may engage in behaviors which adversely affect data quality, much recent research has focused on assessing the quality of data obtained from MTurk samples. However, participants from traditional campus- and community-based samples may also engage in behaviors which adversely affect the quality of the data that they provide. We compare an MTurk, campus, and community sample to measure how frequently participants report engaging in problematic respondent behaviors. We report evidence that suggests that participants from all samples engage in problematic respondent behaviors with comparable rates. Because statistical power is influenced by factors beyond sample size, including data integrity, methodological controls must be refined to better identify and diminish the frequency of participant engagement in problematic respondent behaviors. PMID:27351378

  18. The Subventricular Zone Is Able to Respond to a Demyelinating Lesion After Localized Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Bonsu, Janice M.; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar; Achanta, Pragathi; Wong, John; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Radiation is a common tool in the treatment of brain tumors that induces neurological deficits as a side effect. Some of these deficits appear to be related to the impact of radiation on the neurogenic niches, producing a drastic decrease in the proliferative capacity of these regions. In the adult mammalian brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles is the main neurogenic niche. Neural stem/precursor cells (NSCs) within the SVZ play an important role in brain repair following injuries. However, the irradiated NSCs' ability to respond to damage has not been previously elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effects of localized radiation on the SVZ ability to respond to a lysolecithin-induced demyelination of the striatum. We demonstrated that the proliferation rate of the irradiated SVZ was increased after brain damage and that residual NSCs were reactivated. The irradiated SVZ had an expansion of doublecortin positive cells that appeared to migrate from the lateral ventricles toward the demyelinated striatum, where newly generated oligodendrocytes were found. In addition, in the absence of demyelinating damage, remaining cells in the irradiated SVZ appeared to repopulate the neurogenic niche a year post-radiation. These findings support the hypothesis that NSCs are radioresistant and can respond to a brain injury, recovering the neurogenic niche. A more complete understanding of the effects that localized radiation has on the SVZ may lead to improvement of the current protocols used in the radiotherapy of cancer. PMID:24038623

  19. Fire service and first responder thermal imaging camera (TIC) advances and standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konsin, Lawrence S.; Nixdorff, Stuart

    2007-04-01

    Fire Service and First Responder Thermal Imaging Camera (TIC) applications are growing, saving lives and preventing injury and property damage. Firefighters face a wide range of serious hazards. TICs help mitigate the risks by protecting Firefighters and preventing injury, while reducing time spent fighting the fire and resources needed to do so. Most fire safety equipment is covered by performance standards. Fire TICs, however, are not covered by such standards and are also subject to inadequate operational performance and insufficient user training. Meanwhile, advancements in Fire TICs and lower costs are driving product demand. The need for a Fire TIC Standard was spurred in late 2004 through a Government sponsored Workshop where experts from the First Responder community, component manufacturers, firefighter training, and those doing research on TICs discussed strategies, technologies, procedures, best practices and R&D that could improve Fire TICs. The workshop identified pressing image quality, performance metrics, and standards issues. Durability and ruggedness metrics and standard testing methods were also seen as important, as was TIC training and certification of end-users. A progress report on several efforts in these areas and their impact on the IR sensor industry will be given. This paper is a follow up to the SPIE Orlando 2004 paper on Fire TIC usage (entitled Emergency Responders' Critical Infrared) which explored the technological development of this IR industry segment from the viewpoint of the end user, in light of the studies and reports that had established TICs as a mission critical tool for firefighters.

  20. Measuring the Prevalence of Problematic Respondent Behaviors among MTurk, Campus, and Community Participants

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Norman, Greg J.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The reliance on small samples and underpowered studies may undermine the replicability of scientific findings. Large sample sizes may be necessary to achieve adequate statistical power. Crowdsourcing sites such as Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) have been regarded as an economical means for achieving larger samples. Because MTurk participants may engage in behaviors which adversely affect data quality, much recent research has focused on assessing the quality of data obtained from MTurk samples. However, participants from traditional campus- and community-based samples may also engage in behaviors which adversely affect the quality of the data that they provide. We compare an MTurk, campus, and community sample to measure how frequently participants report engaging in problematic respondent behaviors. We report evidence that suggests that participants from all samples engage in problematic respondent behaviors with comparable rates. Because statistical power is influenced by factors beyond sample size, including data integrity, methodological controls must be refined to better identify and diminish the frequency of participant engagement in problematic respondent behaviors. PMID:27351378

  1. Perseverative instrumental and Pavlovian responding to conditioned stimuli in serotonin transporter knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Nonkes, Lourens J P; Homberg, Judith R

    2013-02-01

    Environmental stimuli can influence behavior via the process of Pavlovian conditioning. Recent genetic research suggests that some individuals are more sensitive to environmental stimuli for behavioral guidance than others. One important mediator of this effect is serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genetic variance, which increases sensitivity to Pavlovian conditioned stimuli through changes in the build-up of corticolimbic circuits. As these stimuli can have reinforcing effects on instrumental responding, we here investigated their effects on instrumental behavior in 5-HTT knockout rats and their wild-type counterparts by means of the signal attenuation paradigm. In this paradigm animals acquired a Pavlovian association between a stimulus and food reward, and subsequently they had to lever press in order to gain access to this food reward-associated stimulus. Thereafter, half of the animals underwent extinction training during which extinction of the primary Pavlovian association was induced via non-reinforced stimulus presentations, whereas the other half did not receive this training. During a final test session all animals were tested for instrumental responding for the non-reinforced Pavlovian conditioned stimulus, as well as instrumental and Pavlovian responding to the stimulus after an initial lever-press. No genotype differences were observed during the training and extinction sessions. However, during the test session 5-HTT knockout rats that had not received prior extinction training displayed excessive instrumental responding. This was specifically observed during presentation of the stimulus (induced by the first lever press) and was accompanied by an increased number of feeder visits after termination of the stimulus presentation. An additionally performed c-Fos immunohistochemistry study revealed that the behaviors in these animals were associated with abnormal c-Fos immunoreactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala, regions important

  2. Sexual attraction to others: a comparison of two models of alloerotic responding in men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert; Cantor, James M

    2012-02-01

    The penile response profiles of homosexual and heterosexual pedophiles, hebephiles, and teleiophiles to laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children and adults may be conceptualized as a series of overlapping stimulus generalization gradients. This study used such profile data to compare two models of alloerotic responding (sexual responding to other people) in men. The first model was based on the notion that men respond to a potential sexual object as a compound stimulus made up of an age component and a gender component. The second model was based on the notion that men respond to a potential sexual object as a gestalt, which they evaluate in terms of global similarity to other potential sexual objects. The analytic strategy was to compare the accuracy of these models in predicting a man's penile response to each of his less arousing (nonpreferred) stimulus categories from his response to his most arousing (preferred) stimulus category. Both models based their predictions on the degree of dissimilarity between the preferred stimulus category and a given nonpreferred stimulus category, but each model used its own measure of dissimilarity. According to the first model ("summation model"), penile response should vary inversely as the sum of stimulus differences on separate dimensions of age and gender. According to the second model ("bipolar model"), penile response should vary inversely as the distance between stimulus categories on a single, bipolar dimension of morphological similarity-a dimension on which children are located near the middle, and adult men and women are located at opposite ends. The subjects were 2,278 male patients referred to a specialty clinic for phallometric assessment of their erotic preferences. Comparisons of goodness of fit to the observed data favored the unidimensional bipolar model. PMID:20848175

  3. Sexual victimization, alcohol intoxication, sexual-emotional responding, and sexual risk in heavy episodic drinking women.

    PubMed

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K; Nguyen, Hong V; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Otto, Jacqueline M; Andrasik, Michele P

    2014-05-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women's sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10 %) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol's effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517

  4. Attributions of Blame and Credibility in a Hypothetical Child Sexual Abuse Case: Roles of Victim Disability, Victim Resistance and Respondent Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Paul; Titterington, Leigh; Davies, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects victim disability (physical vs. intellectual vs. none), victim resistance (physical vs. verbal vs. none) and respondent gender (male vs. female) have on attributions of blame and credibility in a hypothetical case of child sexual abuse. Three hundred and thirty-five respondents read a fictional police statement…

  5. Does the Temporal Placement of Food-Pellet Reinforcement Alter Induction when Rats Respond on a Three-Component Multiple Schedule?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Lang, Kelsey K.; King, Brent M.

    2004-01-01

    A series of recent studies have demonstrated that rats will increase their rate of operant responding for sucrose reinforcement when food-pellet reinforcement will be upcoming in the same session. One potential explanation for this increase is that operant, rather than respondent or general, behavior becomes increasingly probable in sessions in…

  6. Assessing and responding to infant mental health needs.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Judy

    2013-09-01

    Early recognition of mental health problems in maltreated infants, coupled with tailored support to aid recovery, has the potential to offer significant benefits to a population whose needs have perhaps remained hidden in the past. All forms of maltreatment may adversely affect infant mental health, but perhaps none more so than emotional neglect. Universal contact with families with young children makes health visitors ideally placed to provide early support to this vulnerable group, but such practice requires considerable knowledge and understanding. This paper examines how emotional neglect can impact on an infant's mental health and explores how health visitors can assess and respond effectively to this key health need. Throughout, the term 'infant' is used to describe children from birth to age three. PMID:24133942

  7. Livedoid Vasculopathy with Hyperhomocysteinemia Responding to Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Rahul; Sharma, Aseem; Vasudevan, Biju; Sridhar, Jandhyala; Deo, Rajeev; Mohanty, CS

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old male presented to the dermatology department with complaints of multiple ulcers over both legs of 6 years duration. The ulcers had a waxing and waning course with present exacerbation of lesions since 1 month. Dermatological examination revealed multiple ulcers distributed in a reticular pattern over medial and lateral aspects of both lower legs, extensor aspect of both ankles and dorsum of both feet. Multiple interspersed atrophic porcelain white scars were also present. Investigations revealed raised serum homocysteine levels. A skin biopsy from the ulcers showed features of livedoid vasculopathy. Following recurrence of lesions after oral corticosteroid therapy, the patient was given a course of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the ulcers to which he responded very well. This case is being presented for the novel option of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in livedoid vasculopathy, which by itself is rarely reported in this part of the world. PMID:26538741

  8. Yap1: a DNA damage responder in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Lori A; Degtyareva, Natalya; Doetsch, Paul W

    2012-04-01

    Activation of signaling pathways in response to genotoxic stress is crucial for cells to properly repair DNA damage. In response to DNA damage, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species increase. One important function of such a response could be to initiate signal transduction processes. We have employed the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae to delineate DNA damage sensing mechanisms. We report a novel, unanticipated role for the transcription factor Yap1 as a DNA damage responder, providing direct evidence that reactive oxygen species are an important component of the DNA damage signaling process. Our findings reveal an epistatic link between Yap1 and the DNA base excision repair pathway. Corruption of the Yap1-mediated DNA damage response influences cell survival and genomic stability in response to exposure to genotoxic agents. PMID:22433435

  9. Respondents, Operants, and Emergents: Toward an Integrated Perspective on Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Daune M.; Washburn, David A.; Hillix, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A triarchic organization of behavior, building on Skinner's description of respondents and operants, is proposed by introducing a third class of behavior called 'emergents.' Emergents are new responses, never specifically reinforced, that require operations more complex than association. Some of these operations occur naturally only in animals above a minimum level of brain complexity, and are developed in an interaction between treatment and organismic variables. (Here complexity is defined in terms of relative levels of hierarchical integration made possible both by the amount of brain, afforded both by brain-body allometric relationships and by encephalization, and, also, the elaboration of dendritic and synaptic connections within the cortex and connections between various parts/regions of the brain.) Examples of emergents are discussed to advance this triarchic view, of behavior. The prime example is language. This triarchic view reflects both the common goals and the cumulative nature of psychological science.

  10. Lysosomal Adaptation: How the Lysosome Responds to External Cues

    PubMed Central

    Settembre, Carmine; Ballabio, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the importance of the lysosome in cell metabolism and organism physiology goes far beyond the simple disposal of cellular garbage. This dynamic organelle is situated at the crossroad of the most important cellular pathways and is involved in sensing, signaling, and transcriptional mechanisms that respond to environmental cues, such as nutrients. Two main mediators of these lysosomal adaptation mechanisms are the mTORC1 kinase complex and the transcription factor EB (TFEB). These two factors are linked in a lysosome-to-nucleus signaling pathway that provides the lysosome with the ability to adapt to extracellular cues and control its own biogenesis. Modulation of lysosomal function by acting on TFEB has a profound impact on cellular clearance and energy metabolism and is a promising therapeutic target for a large variety of disease conditions. PMID:24799353

  11. Responding to Prenatal Disclosure of Past Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    White, Amina

    2014-01-01

    The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that physicians elicit a sexual abuse and rape trauma history for every patient. Yet in practice, physicians may still struggle to understand how best to obtain this history and what clinical obligations arise when a physician inquires and a woman discloses a remote history of childhood or adult sexual trauma during the course of her prenatal care. This commentary offers a practical strategy for responding to sexual trauma disclosure by developing a tailored obstetric care plan for avoiding re-traumatization in labor. In this way, obstetricians may avoid causing harm and begin to meet the unique obstetric and psychological needs of sexual trauma survivors during pregnancy and delivery. PMID:24807334

  12. Misery loves company: mood-congruent emotional responding to music.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Patrick G; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Griffith, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    We examined emotional responding to music after mood induction. On each trial, listeners heard a 30-s music excerpt and rated how much they liked it, whether it sounded happy or sad, and how familiar it was. When the excerpts sounded unambiguously happy or sad (Experiment 1), the typical preference for happy-sounding music was eliminated after inducing a sad mood. When the excerpts sounded ambiguous with respect to happiness and sadness (Experiment 2), listeners perceived more sadness after inducing a sad mood. Sad moods had no influence on familiarity ratings (Experiments 1 and 2). These findings imply that "misery loves company." Listeners in a sad mood fail to show the typical preference for happy-sounding music, and they perceive more sadness in music that is ambiguous with respect to mood. PMID:21639629

  13. Assessing the role of alternative response rates and reinforcer rates in resistance to extinction of target responding when combining stimuli.

    PubMed

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Bai, John Y H; Skinner, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    Studies of behavioral momentum reveal that reinforcing an alternative response in the presence of a target response reduces the rate of target responding but increases its persistence, relative to training the target response on its own. Because of the parallels between these studies and differential-reinforcement techniques to reduce problem behavior in clinical settings, alternative techniques to reduce problem behavior without enhancing its persistence are being explored. One potential solution is to train an alternative response in a separate stimulus context from problem behavior before combining the alternative stimulus with the target stimulus. The present study assessed how differences in reinforcement contingencies and rate for alternative responding influenced resistance to extinction of target responding when combining alternative and target stimuli in pigeons. Across three experiments, alternative stimuli signaling a response-reinforcer dependency and greater reinforcer rates more effectively decreased the persistence of target responding when combining alternative and target stimuli within the same extinction tests, but not when compared across separate extinction tests. Overall, these findings reveal that differences in competition between alternative and target responding produced by contingencies of alternative reinforcement could influence the effectiveness of treating problem behavior through combining stimulus contexts. PMID:27193243

  14. Sympathetic neurons can produce and respond to interleukin 6

    PubMed Central

    März, Pia; Cheng, Jr-Gang; Gadient, Reto A.; Patterson, Paul H.; Stoyan, Tanja; Otten, Uwe; Rose-John, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    Neuronal expression of cytokines is an area of active investigation in the contexts of development, disease, and normal neural function. Although cultured rat sympathetic neurons respond very weakly to exogenous interleukin 6 (IL-6), we find that addition of soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) and IL-6 enhances neuronal survival in the absence of nerve growth factor. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against IL-6 block these effects. Addition of IL-6 and sIL-6R also induces a subset of neuropeptide and transmitter synthetic enzyme mRNAs identical to that demonstrated for leukemia inhibitory factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and oncostatin M. Both of these effects are duplicated by addition of a highly active fusion protein of sIL-6R and IL-6, covalently linked by a flexible peptide chain, which is designated H-IL-6. In addition, we show that sympathetic neurons produce IL-6. In situ hybridization indicates a neuronal localization of IL-6 mRNA in superior cervical ganglia, and bioactive IL-6 protein is detected in ganglion culture supernatants. Interestingly, the IL-6 produced by sympathetic neurons does not lead to survival of these cells in culture unless sIL-6R is added. Thus, sympathetic neurons can produce IL-6 and may respond to it in an autocrine/paracrine manner if sIL-6R is present. Moreover, the prior findings of sIL-6R in serum and inflammatory fluids now have added interest in the context of neuro–immune interactions. PMID:9501249

  15. Accuracy of discrimination, rate of responding, and resistance to change.

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, John A; Milo, Jessica; Odum, Amy L; Shahan, Timothy A

    2003-01-01

    Pigeons were trained on multiple schedules in which responding on a center key produced matching-to-sample trials according to the same variable-interval 30-s schedules in both components. Matching trials consisted of a vertical or tilted line sample on the center key followed by vertical and tilted comparisons on the side keys. Correct responses to comparison stimuli were reinforced with probability .80 in the rich component and .20 in the lean component. Baseline response rates and matching accuracies generally were higher in the rich component, consistent with previous research. When performance was disrupted by prefeeding, response-independent food during intercomponent intervals, intrusion of a delay between sample and comparison stimuli, or extinction, both response rates and matching accuracies generally decreased. Proportions of baseline response rate were greater in the rich component for all disrupters except delay, which had relatively small and inconsistent effects on response rate. By contrast, delay had large and consistent effects on matching accuracy, and proportions of baseline matching accuracy were greater in the rich component for all four disrupters. The dissociation of response rate and accuracy with delay reflects the localized impact of delay on matching performance. The similarity of the data for response rate and accuracy with prefeeding, response-independent food, and extinction shows that matching performance, like response rate, is more resistant to change in a rich than in a lean component. This result extends resistance to change analyses from the frequency of response emission to the degree of stimulus control, and suggests that the strength of discriminating, like the strength of responding, is positively related to rate of reinforcement. PMID:12908760

  16. A tracking technology for security personnel and first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, Phillip; Barzilov, Alexander; Paschal, Jon; Hopper, Lindsay; Music, Abe; Morgan, Timothy; Moore, Ryan; Pinson, Dudley; Schultz, Frederick; Maston, Michael J.; Kowalik, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Northwest Nuclear, LLC (NWN), the Applied Physics Institute (API) at Western Kentucky University, and Crisis Prep Services, LLC (CPS) have developed a tracking technology for first responders and security personnel based upon the AeroScout system (a product of AeroScout, Inc.) and technologies developed independently by NWN, API, and CPS. These systems provide location information using 802.11XXX architecture by measuring the time of arrival of packets from a set of active radio frequency (RF) tags to a set of location receivers. The system can track and graphically display the location on maps, drawings, floor plans or photographs of tagged items on any 802.11-compliant devices (PDAs, laptops, computers, WiFi telephones) situated both outside and inside structures. This location information would be vital for tracking the location of first responders, security, and other emergency personnel during rescue operations; particularly, under adverse conditions (e.g., fires). NWN, API, and CPS have been improving the precision of the location measurement to an uncertainty of 20 cm or 8 inches (under certain conditions) and also developing algorithms to increase the accuracy. NWN and API personnel have developed: 1) special tags which indicate tampering or sudden movement and transmit briefly under these conditions, and 2) permanent and portable systems which can be deployed rapidly. Additional software created by Crisis Prep Services, LLC allows response force personnel to be tracked and located inside a building in real time as well as use the software and tags as a training and rehersal system. The location of each person is depicted on a drawing of the building and is displayed on a laptop computer or any other browser capable device.

  17. Perceptions of Children's Television Advertising: An Empirical Investigation of the Beliefs and Attitudes of Consumer, Industry, and Government Respondents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culley, James D.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a study investigating the beliefs and attitudes of six key respondent groups regarding issues surrounding television advertising and children. The six groups included in the study are spokesmen for Action for Children's Television (ACT); the presidents and top executive officers of advertising agencies…

  18. "This Is a Field That's Open, Not Closed": Multilingual and International Writing Faculty Respond to Composition Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Lisa R.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a qualitative, interview-based study in which multilingual writing faculty based at the American University of Beirut, in Beirut, Lebanon, read and responded to "core" texts of composition scholarship primarily published in North America, for a North American audience. This study is premised on the…

  19. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 5:] Summary report to phase 1 respondents including frequency distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

    1991-01-01

    Phase 1 of a four part study was undertaken to investigate the use of scientific and technical information (STI) by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Specific attention was paid to institutional and sociometric variables and to the step-by-step process of information gathering used by the respondents. Data were collected by means of three self-administered mail-back questionnaires. The approximately 34,000 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics served as the study population. More than 65 percent of the randomly selected respondants returned the questionnaires in each of the three groups. Respondants relied more heavily on informal sources of information than formal sources and turned to librarians and other technical information specialists only when they did not obtain results via informal means or their own formal searches. The report includes frequency distributions for the questions.

  20. Baclofen blocks yohimbine-induced increases in ethanol-reinforced responding in rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Keith L; Nickel, Melissa M; Bielak, Justin T

    2016-05-01

    Chronic or repeated stress increases alcohol consumption. The GABA-B agonist baclofen decreases alcohol consumption and may be most effective for individuals with comorbid anxiety/stress disorders. The present study sought to determine if baclofen blocks stress-induced increases in ethanol self-administration as modeled by repeated yohimbine injections in rats. Rats were trained to respond for 15% w/v ethanol in operant chambers using a method that applies neither water deprivation nor saccharin/sucrose fading. Following training, the rats received 6 injections of 1.25mg/kg yohimbine were given immediately prior to the operant sessions during a 2-week time period. Subsequently, some rats were pair-matched to receive either 1.25mg/kg yohimbine or saline in the presence of 0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg baclofen prior to sessions. Acquisition of ethanol self-administration was poor. Pretreatment with yohimbine consistently increased responding across repeated injections. Yohimbine's effect on ethanol intake unexpectedly diverged from the effect on responding as the rats failed to consume all reinforcers earned. Smaller doses of baclofen paired with saline injections had no effect on ethanol responding; only 3mg/kg baclofen reduced ethanol self-administration. The smallest baclofen dose of 0.3mg/kg failed to block the yohimbine-induced increase in self-administration. The large baclofen dose of 3mg/kg continued to suppress ethanol self-administration when given with yohimbine. Baclofen 1mg/kg blocked the effect of yohimbine even though it had no effect when given in the absence of yohimbine. Exposure to high ethanol concentrations may induce self-administration only in certain conditions. The dissociation between responding and intake suggests that repeated yohimbine injections may initiate other behavioral or physiological mechanisms that confound its effects as a pharmacological stressor. Furthermore, an optimal baclofen dose range may specifically protect against stress

  1. Responder safety and health: preparing for future disasters.

    PubMed

    Reissman, Dori B; Howard, John

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews lessons learned about managing the safety and health of workers who were involved in disaster response, recovery, and cleanup after the 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster. The first two sections review ongoing responder health burdens and the tragic toll of this disaster from a worker safety and health perspective. The remaining sections address changes in federal infrastructure, response planning, and resources for protection of response and recovery personnel. Proper preparation includes pre-event and "just-in-time" disaster-worker training on likely hazards, organizational assets for hazard monitoring, and hands-on instruction in the use of assigned protective equipment. Good planning includes predeployment medical review to ensure "fitness for duty" and considers the following: (1) personal risk factors, (2) hazards likely to be associated with particular field locations, and (3) risks involved with assigned tasks (eg, workload and pace, work/rest cycles, available resources, and team/supervisory dynamics). Planning also should address worker health surveillance, medical monitoring, and availability of medical care (including mental health services). Disaster safety managers should anticipate likely hazards within planning scenarios and prepare asset inventories to facilitate making timely safety decisions. Disaster safety management begins immediately and provides ongoing real-time guidance to incident leadership at all levels of government. Robust standards must be met to reliably protect workers/responders. An integrated and measurable multiagency safety management function must be built into the incident command system before an incident occurs. This function delineates roles and responsibilities for rapid exposure assessments, ensuring cross-agency consistency in data interpretation, and timely, effective communication of information and control strategies. The ability to perform this safety management function should be tested and

  2. INCUBATION OF SACCHARIN CRAVING AND WITHIN-SESSION CHANGES IN RESPONDING FOR A CUE PREVIOUSLY ASSOCIATED WITH SACCHARIN

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, K.; Barnes, J.; Grimm, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Time-dependent increases in cue-induced sucrose seeking after forced abstinence have been described in rats with a history of sucrose self-administration, suggesting sucrose craving “incubates”. In the present study, we examined whether the incubation of craving generalizes to the artificial sweetener, saccharin. Thirty-one male Long-Evans rats lever pressed for 0.3% saccharin solution 1 h/day for 10 days. On either Day 1 or 30 of forced abstinence, rats responded for 1 h for presentation of a tone + light cue previously presented with every saccharin delivery during self-administration training. Rats responded more during this cue-reactivity test session following 30 vs. 1 day of forced abstinence (“incubation of craving”). This result is the first demonstration of the “incubation of saccharin craving” and suggests that a post-ingestive caloric consequence of self-administration is not a necessary condition for the development of incubation of sucrose craving. We also examined the time course (within-session decreases) of active-lever responding during the 1-h cue-reactivity test session. Rats in the Day 30 group responded more than rats in the Day 1 group from the beginning of the test session. In addition, within-session decreases in responding were shallower in slope in the Day 30 than the Day 1 group. These results indicate that “incubation of saccharin craving” enhances the persistence of seeking behavior. PMID:24161592

  3. Does cognitive impairment in treatment-resistant and ultra-treatment-resistant schizophrenia differ from that in treatment responders?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Valerie M; McIlwain, Meghan E; Kydd, Robert R; Russell, Bruce R

    2015-12-30

    This study aimed to investigate whether cognitive impairment is more pronounced in people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia compared with those who respond well to first-line antipsychotic medication. Fifty-one patients with schizophrenia were assigned to one of three groups dependent on their clinical history: (i) 16 people who had responded well to first-line antipsychotic medication, (ii) 20 people who were treatment-resistant but responding to clozapine monotherapy, (iii) 15 people who were ultra-treatment-resistant/clozapine-resistant but responding to antipsychotic polypharmacy. Twenty-two controls were also recruited. Groups were matched for age, sex, disease duration and psychopathology. All participants undertook a computerised battery of neuropsychological tests that assessed multiple cognitive domains. Raw data were converted to z-scores, and test performance was compared between groups. People with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than controls in the majority of neuropsychological tests, with verbal memory, sustained attention, and sensorimotor the most commonly impaired domains. No significant differences in performance between people deemed to be treatment-resistant or ultra-treatment-resistant, and those who responded well to first-line antipsychotic medication were observed. There was no significant relationship between antipsychotic dose and scores on any of the neuropsychological tests. Cognitive impairment is a central feature of schizophrenia, but our results suggest that treatment-resistance may not be associated with more severe deficits. PMID:26564550

  4. Plant traits respond to the competitive neighbourhood at different spatial and temporal scales

    PubMed Central

    Bittebiere, Anne-Kristel; Mony, Cendrine

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Clonal plants can plastically modify their traits in response to competition, but little is known regarding the spatio-temporal scale at which a competitive neighbourhood determines the variability in species traits. This study tests the hypothesis that the local neighbourhood can be expected to influence the processes that are involved in competition tolerance and avoidance, and that this effect depends on organ lifespan. Methods Fragments of the rhizomatous Elytrigia repens (Poaceae) were sampled in 2012 in experimental plant communities that varied in species identity and abundance. These communities had been cultivated since 2009 in mesocosms in a common garden. Fragment performance, shoot and clonal traits were measured, and the effects of past and present local neighbourhoods of five different radius sizes (5–25 cm) were examined. Past and present local neighbourhood compositions were assessed in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Key Results Most of the measured traits of E. repens responded to the local neighbourhood (5–10 cm radius), with an additional effect of the larger neighbourhood (20–25 cm radius) on ramet height, leaf dry matter content, maximal internode length and specific rhizome mass. Contrary to the expectation of the hypothesis, the temporal influence was not due to the organ lifespan. Indeed, five of the eight traits studied responded to both the past and present neighbourhoods. With the exception of specific rhizome mass, all trait responses were explained by the abundance of specific species. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the traits of a single clonal individual can respond to different competitive environments in space and time. The results thus contribute to the understanding of competition mechanisms. PMID:25429007

  5. 11 CFR 111.38 - Can the respondent appeal the Commission's final determination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... determination under 11 CFR 111.37, the respondent may submit a written petition to the district court of the... timely fashion during the administrative process shall be deemed a waiver of the respondent's right...

  6. Network Structure and Biased Variance Estimation in Respondent Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Verdery, Ashton M.; Mouw, Ted; Bauldry, Shawn; Mucha, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores bias in the estimation of sampling variance in Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Prior methodological work on RDS has focused on its problematic assumptions and the biases and inefficiencies of its estimators of the population mean. Nonetheless, researchers have given only slight attention to the topic of estimating sampling variance in RDS, despite the importance of variance estimation for the construction of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests. In this paper, we show that the estimators of RDS sampling variance rely on a critical assumption that the network is First Order Markov (FOM) with respect to the dependent variable of interest. We demonstrate, through intuitive examples, mathematical generalizations, and computational experiments that current RDS variance estimators will always underestimate the population sampling variance of RDS in empirical networks that do not conform to the FOM assumption. Analysis of 215 observed university and school networks from Facebook and Add Health indicates that the FOM assumption is violated in every empirical network we analyze, and that these violations lead to substantially biased RDS estimators of sampling variance. We propose and test two alternative variance estimators that show some promise for reducing biases, but which also illustrate the limits of estimating sampling variance with only partial information on the underlying population social network. PMID:26679927

  7. Peripheral Sensory Neurons Expressing Melanopsin Respond to Light.

    PubMed

    Matynia, Anna; Nguyen, Eileen; Sun, Xiaoping; Blixt, Frank W; Parikh, Sachin; Kessler, Jason; Pérez de Sevilla Müller, Luis; Habib, Samer; Kim, Paul; Wang, Zhe Z; Rodriguez, Allen; Charles, Andrew; Nusinowitz, Steven; Edvinsson, Lars; Barnes, Steven; Brecha, Nicholas C; Gorin, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    The ability of light to cause pain is paradoxical. The retina detects light but is devoid of nociceptors while the trigeminal sensory ganglia (TG) contain nociceptors but not photoreceptors. Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are thought to mediate light-induced pain but recent evidence raises the possibility of an alternative light responsive pathway independent of the retina and optic nerve. Here, we show that melanopsin is expressed in both human and mouse TG neurons. In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons that are preferentially localized in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and are likely nociceptive C fibers and high-threshold mechanoreceptor Aδ fibers based on a strong size-function association. These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin-dependent intrinsic photosensitivity observed in ipRGCs. Mice with severe bilateral optic nerve crush exhibit no light-induced responses including behavioral light aversion until treated with nitroglycerin, an inducer of migraine in people and migraine-like symptoms in mice. With nitroglycerin, these same mice with optic nerve crush exhibit significant light aversion. Furthermore, this retained light aversion remains dependent on melanopsin-expressing neurons. Our results demonstrate a novel light-responsive neural function independent of the optic nerve that may originate in the peripheral nervous system to provide the first direct mechanism for an alternative light detection pathway that influences motivated behavior. PMID:27559310

  8. Alopecia mucinosa responding to antileprosy treatment: are we missing something?

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajiv; Gopalani, Vinay

    2013-05-01

    Three cases with single lesion of Alopecia mucinosa (follicular mucinosis) were treated with antileprosy treatment and showed rapid and complete resolution of the lesions with no recurrence on extended follow-up. Two children, a boy aged 14 years and a girl aged 12 years presented themselves, each, with a single hypopigmented, hypoesthetic patch on the face. Clinically leprosy was suspected, however, skin biopsy from both patients revealed follicular mucinosis as the only pathological finding, without any granulomas. Based on clinical suspicion both were started on multi drug therapy (MDT) for leprosy with complete resolution of the lesions. The third case, male, aged 22 years presented with a single erythematous, hypoesthetic plaque on the forehead. This lesion had been diagnosed as follicular mucinosis with folliculo-tropic mycosis fungoides, in the USA. He too responded completely within 3 months with rifampicin, ofloxacin, minocycline (ROM) treatment, which was given once monthly for a total of 6 months and remains free of disease since the past 1 year. Follicular mucinosis as the only pathology may be seen in facial lesions of clinically suspected leprosy in children and young adults. Based on histological findings these cannot be diagnosed as leprosy and will be considered as Alopecia mucinosa. These lesions, however, are always single and show rapid and complete response to antileprosy treatment. The authors suggest that in regions endemic for leprosy, such as India, single lesion Alopecia mucinosa on the face in children and young adults should be given antileprosy treatment. PMID:23723476

  9. Alopecia Mucinosa Responding to Antileprosy Treatment: Are we Missing Something?

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajiv; Gopalani, Vinay

    2013-01-01

    Three cases with single lesion of Alopecia mucinosa (follicular mucinosis) were treated with antileprosy treatment and showed rapid and complete resolution of the lesions with no recurrence on extended follow-up. Two children, a boy aged 14 years and a girl aged 12 years presented themselves, each, with a single hypopigmented, hypoesthetic patch on the face. Clinically leprosy was suspected, however, skin biopsy from both patients revealed follicular mucinosis as the only pathological finding, without any granulomas. Based on clinical suspicion both were started on multi drug therapy (MDT) for leprosy with complete resolution of the lesions. The third case, male, aged 22 years presented with a single erythematous, hypoesthetic plaque on the forehead. This lesion had been diagnosed as follicular mucinosis with folliculo-tropic mycosis fungoides, in the USA. He too responded completely within 3 months with rifampicin, ofloxacin, minocycline (ROM) treatment, which was given once monthly for a total of 6 months and remains free of disease since the past 1 year. Follicular mucinosis as the only pathology may be seen in facial lesions of clinically suspected leprosy in children and young adults. Based on histological findings these cannot be diagnosed as leprosy and will be considered as Alopecia mucinosa. These lesions, however, are always single and show rapid and complete response to antileprosy treatment. The authors suggest that in regions endemic for leprosy, such as India, single lesion Alopecia mucinosa on the face in children and young adults should be given antileprosy treatment. PMID:23723476

  10. Chimpanzee responding during matching to sample: control by exclusion.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Washburn, David A

    2002-11-01

    Three chimpanzees performed a computerized matching-to-sample task in which samples were photographs of items and comparison stimuli were geometric symbols called lexigrams. In Experiment 1, samples were either defined (i.e., they represented items that were associated already with a specific lexigram label by the chimpanzees) or undefined (i.e., they did not have an already learned association with a specific lexigram). On each trial, the foil (incorrect) comparison could be either a defined or an undefined lexigram. All 3 chimpanzees selected the correct comparison for undefined samples at a level significantly better than chance only when the foil comparison was defined. In Experiment 2, three comparisons were presented on each trial, and in Experiment 3, four comparisons were presented on each trial. For Experiments 2 and 3, the foil comparisons consisted of either defined or undefined comparisons or a mixture of both. For these two experiments, when the chimpanzees were presented with an undefined sample, they typically made selections of only undefined comparisons. These data indicate that the chimpanzees responded through use of exclusion. A final experiment, however, indicated that, despite the use of exclusion to complete trials with undefined samples correctly, the chimpanzees did not learn new associations between undefined samples and comparisons. PMID:12507016

  11. Responding to requests from adult patients for neuroenhancements

    PubMed Central

    Larriviere, Dan; Williams, Michael A.; Rizzo, Matt; Bonnie, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, persons who have no diagnosed medical or mental health condition are increasingly seeking and utilizing, for the ostensible purpose of enhancing their memory or cognitive skills, prescription drugs that were originally developed to improve executive function or memory in persons diagnosed with disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or Alzheimer disease. Evidence suggests that this practice, now known as neuroenhancement, is gathering momentum. As a result, neurologists may be encountering patients without a diagnosed illness asking for medications with the goal of improving their memory, cognitive focus, or attention span. Strong arguments have been made for and against this practice, often reflecting strongly held convictions concerning the appropriate practice of medicine. The purpose of this report is to provide neurologists with an overview of the ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of pharmaceuticals prescribed to enhance or augment normal cognitive or affective functioning, as well as practical guidance for responding to an adult patient’s request for neuroenhancement. GLOSSARY ELHC = Ethics, Law and Humanities Committee; FDA = Food and Drug Administration. PMID:19776378

  12. Waiting for Brandon: How Readers Respond to Small Mysteries.

    PubMed

    Gerrig, Richard J; Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail

    2009-01-01

    When readers experience narratives they often encounter small mysteries-questions that a text raises that are not immediately settled. In our experiments, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper names (e.g., "It's just that Brandon hasn't called in so long"). Resolved versions of the stories specified the functions those characters' assumed in their narrative worlds with respect to the other characters (e.g., Brandon was identified as the speaker's grandson); unresolved versions of the stories did not immediately provide that information. We predicted that characters whose functions were still unresolved would remain relatively accessible in the discourse representations. We tested that prediction in Experiments 1 and 2 by asking participants to indicate whether a name (e.g., Brandon) had appeared in the story. Participants responded most swiftly when the characters remained unresolved. In the latter experiments, we demonstrated that the presence of an unresolved character disrupted processing of information that followed that character's introduction (Experiment 3) but not information that preceded that introduction (Experiment 4). These results support the general importance of providing a theoretical account of readers' responses to narrative mysteries. PMID:20046984

  13. Management of Poor Responders in IVF: Is There Anything New?

    PubMed Central

    Ubaldi, Filippo; Vaiarelli, Alberto; D'Anna, Rosario; Rienzi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that in the last two decades an enormous number of papers on the topic of poor ovarian response have been published in the literature, so far it has been impossible to identify any efficient treatment to improve the ovarian response and the clinical outcome of this group of patients. The incidence of poor ovarian responders among infertile women has been estimated at 9–24% but according to recent reviews, it seems to have slightly increased. The limitation in quantifying the incidence of these patients among the infertile population is due to the difficulty of a clear definition in literature. A recent paper by the Bologna ESHRE working group on poor ovarian response has been the first real attempt to find a common definition. Current literature proposes new risk factors which could be the cause of a reduction in ovarian reserve, which also includes genetic factors. This represents the first necessary step towards finding applicable solutions for these patients. To date, there is a substantial lack of literature that identifies an ideal protocol for these patients. The use of the “Bologna criteria” and the introduction of long acting gonadotropin in clinical practice have given rise to new promising stimulation protocols for this group of patients. PMID:25136579

  14. Peripheral Sensory Neurons Expressing Melanopsin Respond to Light

    PubMed Central

    Matynia, Anna; Nguyen, Eileen; Sun, Xiaoping; Blixt, Frank W.; Parikh, Sachin; Kessler, Jason; Pérez de Sevilla Müller, Luis; Habib, Samer; Kim, Paul; Wang, Zhe Z.; Rodriguez, Allen; Charles, Andrew; Nusinowitz, Steven; Edvinsson, Lars; Barnes, Steven; Brecha, Nicholas C.; Gorin, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of light to cause pain is paradoxical. The retina detects light but is devoid of nociceptors while the trigeminal sensory ganglia (TG) contain nociceptors but not photoreceptors. Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are thought to mediate light-induced pain but recent evidence raises the possibility of an alternative light responsive pathway independent of the retina and optic nerve. Here, we show that melanopsin is expressed in both human and mouse TG neurons. In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons that are preferentially localized in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and are likely nociceptive C fibers and high-threshold mechanoreceptor Aδ fibers based on a strong size-function association. These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin-dependent intrinsic photosensitivity observed in ipRGCs. Mice with severe bilateral optic nerve crush exhibit no light-induced responses including behavioral light aversion until treated with nitroglycerin, an inducer of migraine in people and migraine-like symptoms in mice. With nitroglycerin, these same mice with optic nerve crush exhibit significant light aversion. Furthermore, this retained light aversion remains dependent on melanopsin-expressing neurons. Our results demonstrate a novel light-responsive neural function independent of the optic nerve that may originate in the peripheral nervous system to provide the first direct mechanism for an alternative light detection pathway that influences motivated behavior. PMID:27559310

  15. Obscure bleeding colonic duplication responds to proton pump inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Jérémie; Projetti, Fabrice; Legros, Romain; Valgueblasse, Virginie; Sarabi, Matthieu; Carrier, Paul; Fredon, Fabien; Bouvier, Stéphane; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique; Sautereau, Denis

    2013-09-21

    We report the case of a 17-year-old male admitted to our academic hospital with massive rectal bleeding. Since childhood he had reported recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding and had two exploratory laparotomies 5 and 2 years previously. An emergency abdominal computed tomography scan, gastroscopy and colonoscopy, performed after hemodynamic stabilization, were considered normal. High-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy was initiated and bleeding stopped spontaneously. Two other massive rectal bleeds occurred 8 h after each cessation of PPI which led to a hemostatic laparotomy after negative gastroscopy and small bowel capsule endoscopy. This showed long tubular duplication of the right colon, with fresh blood in the duplicated colon. Obscure lower gastrointestinal bleeding is a difficult medical situation and potentially life-threatening. The presence of ulcerated ectopic gastric mucosa in the colonic duplication explains the partial efficacy of PPI therapy. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding responding to empiric anti-acid therapy should probably evoke the diagnosis of bleeding ectopic gastric mucosa such as Meckel's diverticulum or gastrointestinal duplication, and gastroenterologists should be aware of this potential medical situation. PMID:24124344

  16. Network Structure and Biased Variance Estimation in Respondent Driven Sampling.

    PubMed

    Verdery, Ashton M; Mouw, Ted; Bauldry, Shawn; Mucha, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores bias in the estimation of sampling variance in Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Prior methodological work on RDS has focused on its problematic assumptions and the biases and inefficiencies of its estimators of the population mean. Nonetheless, researchers have given only slight attention to the topic of estimating sampling variance in RDS, despite the importance of variance estimation for the construction of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests. In this paper, we show that the estimators of RDS sampling variance rely on a critical assumption that the network is First Order Markov (FOM) with respect to the dependent variable of interest. We demonstrate, through intuitive examples, mathematical generalizations, and computational experiments that current RDS variance estimators will always underestimate the population sampling variance of RDS in empirical networks that do not conform to the FOM assumption. Analysis of 215 observed university and school networks from Facebook and Add Health indicates that the FOM assumption is violated in every empirical network we analyze, and that these violations lead to substantially biased RDS estimators of sampling variance. We propose and test two alternative variance estimators that show some promise for reducing biases, but which also illustrate the limits of estimating sampling variance with only partial information on the underlying population social network. PMID:26679927

  17. An examination of worry in relation to anxious responding to voluntary hyperventilation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Feldner, Matthew T; Tull, Matthew T; Roemer, Lizabeth; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the association between worry and fearful responding to a 3-min voluntary hyperventilation procedure. Participants were 160 adolescents (71 females) between the ages of 12 and 17 years (M=14.92 years). After accounting for the significant effects of state anxiety and anxiety sensitivity, results indicated that pre-challenge levels of worry indexed by the Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Child Version predicted post-challenge anxiety and intensity of panic symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of the role of worry in relation to panic-relevant emotional vulnerability among youth. PMID:16500618

  18. Planning responds to gender violence: evidence from Spain, Mexico and the United States.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Elizabeth L; Escalante, Sara Ortiz

    2010-01-01

    Urban planning has been largely ineffective in addressing urban violence and particularly slow in responding to gender violence. This paper explores the public and private divide, structural inequalities, and issues of ethnicity and citizenship, in terms of their planning implications for gender violence. Drawing on evidence from Spain, Mexico and the United States, it examines how economic and social planning and gender violence intertwine. The three case studies demonstrate that the challenge is not only to break constructed structural inequalities and divisions between public and private spheres, but also to promote changes in the working models of institutions and organisations. PMID:20722226

  19. Proteomic analysis of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler responds to COS fumigation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Qu, Haixia; Zhan, Guoping; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin

    2010-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a new fumigant which has been a potential alternative to methyl bromide and phosphine in many applications. In this study, we investigated the fungitoxicity of COS towards the pathogen of pear black spot disease Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler (A. alternata). Moreover, proteomic analysis and RT-PCR was performed and our results showed that during the fumigation, the regulation of 21 proteins in protein expression and mRNA accumulation levels is involved, which respond to growth inhibition caused by COS. These results provide new clues for the mechanism of the fungitoxicity of COS. PMID:20036892

  20. Empathy-related Responding: Associations with Prosocial Behavior, Aggression, and Intergroup Relations

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Eggum, Natalie D.; Di Giunta, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Empathy-related responding, including empathy, sympathy, and personal distress, has been implicated in conceptual models and theories about prosocial behavior and altruism, aggression and antisocial behavior, and intergroup relationships. Conceptual arguments and empirical findings related to each of these topics are reviewed. In general, there is evidence that empathy and/or sympathy are important correlates of, and likely contributors to, other-oriented prosocial behavior, the inhibition of aggression and antisocial behavior, and the quality of intergroup relationships. Applied implications of these findings, including preventative studies, are discussed, as are possible future directions. PMID:21221410

  1. Dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) deletion in mice does not affect operant responding for food or cocaine

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.

    2009-10-22

    In this study we examined the genetic contribution of the D4R in food and cocaine self-administration using D4R mice. Mice were examined for operant responding to food pellets or intravenous cocaine. Compared to wild-type mice (D4R{sup +/+}), both heterozygous (D4R{sup +/-}) and knockout (D4R{sup -/-}) mice showed no difference in responding for food or cocaine. Our findings suggest that the D4R is not directly involved in mediating operant response behaviors for food or cocaine.

  2. 48 CFR 1852.235-72 - Instructions for responding to NASA Research Announcements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... responding to NASA Research Announcements. 1852.235-72 Section 1852.235-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-72 Instructions for responding to NASA Research Announcements. As prescribed in 1835.070(c), insert the following provision: Instructions for Responding to...

  3. Predicting Classroom Achievement from Active Responding on a Computer-Based Groupware System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jongho; Deno, Stanley L.; Robinson, Steven L.; Marston, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    The predictive validity of active responding on a computer-based groupware system was examined with 48 second graders. Results showed that active responding correlated highly with initial and final performance measures and that active responding contributed significantly to predicting final performance when initial performance was controlled.…

  4. 11 CFR 111.39 - When must the respondent pay the civil money penalty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Commission's final determination under 11 CFR 111.37. (b) If the respondent submits a written... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When must the respondent pay the civil money... (2 U.S.C. 437g, 437d(a)) Administrative Fines § 111.39 When must the respondent pay the civil...

  5. Interaction in the Research Interview and Drug-Related Disclosures among Respondents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    Interviewers and respondents judged interview interactions during a survey of drug-related sentiments. Pronounced variability in interviewer-respondent judgements occurred in unanticipated ways related to gender, role, and ethnicity of participants. Positive interaction yielded different respondent cognitions and reports of illicit drug ingestion…

  6. 11 CFR 111.39 - When must the respondent pay the civil money penalty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of the Commission's final determination under 11 CFR 111.37. (b) If the respondent submits a written... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When must the respondent pay the civil money... (2 U.S.C. 437g, 437d(a)) Administrative Fines § 111.39 When must the respondent pay the civil...

  7. 11 CFR 111.39 - When must the respondent pay the civil money penalty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the Commission's final determination under 11 CFR 111.37. (b) If the respondent submits a written... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When must the respondent pay the civil money... (2 U.S.C. 437g, 437d(a)) Administrative Fines § 111.39 When must the respondent pay the civil...

  8. Effects of prolonging administration gonadotropin on unexpectedly poor ovarian responders undergoing in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are still some patients who show poor response to ovarian stimulation prior to evidence of normal ovarian reserve in vitro fertilization. However, there are few studies about how to treat the unexpectedly ovarian poor responder in vitro fertilization. The main aim of this study evaluate the effect of prolonging administration follicle-stimulating hormone in woman with the unexpectedly ovarian poor responder in vitro fertilization on implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. Methods 922 patients subjected to IVF were divided into two groups according to the predicted criterion of ovarian poor response. 116 patients predicted poor response received the short protocol (group C). The others received the long protocol, among the latter, there were 149 patients undergoing unexpectedly ovarian poor response (group B) and 657 patients exhibited normal ovarian response (group A). The doses of gonadotropin, duration of administration, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate were recorded among three groups. Results The implantation rate of embryo, clinic pregnancy rate and delivery rate are similar between the group A and group B, while there are significant differences between the doses of gonadotropins (35.1 +/- 8.9 ampules vs.53.0 +/- 15.9 ampules) and the duration of administration (15.3 +/- 3.6D vs. 9.8 +/- 2.6D) of these two groups. There are no significant differences about clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate between group B and group C. Conclusion Prolonging administration gonadotropin on the unexpectedly poor ovarian responders does not lower live birth rate in vitro fertilization. PMID:20236519

  9. Operant Responding for Sucrose by Rats Bred for High or Low Saccharin Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Gosnell, Blake A.; Mitra, Anaya; Avant, Ross A.; Anker, Justin J.; Carroll, Marilyn E.; Levine, Allen S.

    2010-01-01

    The use of rats differing in the intake of sweet substances has highlighted some interesting parallels between taste preferences and drug self-administration. For example, rats selectively bred to consume high (HiS) or low (LoS) amounts of a 0.1% saccharin solution (when compared to water consumption), show corresponding differences across several measures of cocaine self-administration (HiS > LoS). In this study, we measured whether the two strains also differ when response requirements are imposed for obtaining a sucrose reinforcer. Male HiS and LoS rats were measured for operant responding for sucrose pellets under fixed-ratio (FR) schedules of 1, 3, 5 and 10 and under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule, during which the response requirement for each successive pellet increased exponentially. The effect of systemic naltrexone (0.3. 1 and 3 mg/kg) on PR responding for sucrose pellets was also tested. Under all FR and PR schedules, the numbers of pellets obtained by the LoS rats were significantly lower than those obtained by the HiS rats. Although the LoS weighed more than the HiS rats, this difference does not appear to explain differences in operant behavior. No strain differences in the effect of naltrexone were observed; the 3 mg/kg dose reduced the number of pellets obtained in both strains. Measures of locomotor activity taken prior to operant trials suggest that the differences in responding were not due to differences in general activity levels. These studies provide further characterization of the HiS and LoS rat lines by demonstrating that motivation to consume sucrose in greater in HiS than in LoS rats. PMID:20096717

  10. Context-aware event detection smartphone application for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boddhu, Sanjay K.; Dave, Rakesh P.; McCartney, Matt; West, James A.; Williams, Robert L.

    2013-05-01

    The rise of social networking platforms like Twitter, Facebook, etc…, have provided seamless sharing of information (as chat, video and other media) among its user community on a global scale. Further, the proliferation of the smartphones and their connectivity networks has powered the ordinary individuals to share and acquire information regarding the events happening in his/her immediate vicinity in a real-time fashion. This human-centric sensed data being generated in "human-as-sensor" approach is tremendously valuable as it delivered mostly with apt annotations and ground truth that would be missing in traditional machine-centric sensors, besides high redundancy factor (same data thru multiple users). Further, when appropriately employed this real-time data can support in detecting localized events like fire, accidents, shooting, etc…, as they unfold and pin-point individuals being affected by those events. This spatiotemporal information, when made available for first responders in the event vicinity (or approaching it) can greatly assist them to make effective decisions to protect property and life in a timely fashion. In this vein, under SATE and YATE programs, the research team at AFRL Tec^Edge Discovery labs had demonstrated the feasibility of developing Smartphone applications, that can provide a augmented reality view of the appropriate detected events in a given geographical location (localized) and also provide an event search capability over a large geographic extent. In its current state, the application thru its backend connectivity utilizes a data (Text & Image) processing framework, which deals with data challenges like; identifying and aggregating important events, analyzing and correlating the events temporally and spatially and building a search enabled event database. Further, the smartphone application with its backend data processing workflow has been successfully field tested with live user generated feeds.

  11. Support Needs for Canadian Health Providers Responding to Disaster: New Insights from a Grounded Theory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, Christine; O'Sullivan, Tracey L.; Lane, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: An earlier descriptive study exploring the various supports available to Canadian health and social service providers who deployed to the 2010 earthquake disaster in Haiti, indicated that when systems are compromised, professionals are at physical, emotional and mental risk during overseas deployment. While these risks are generally well-identified, there is little literature that explores the effectiveness of the supports in place to mitigate this risk. This study provides evidence to inform policy development regarding future disaster relief, and the effectiveness of supports available to responders assisting with international disaster response. Methods: This study follows Strauss and Corbin’s 1990 structured approach to grounded theory to develop a framework for effective disaster support systems. N=21 interviews with Canadian health and social service providers, who deployed to Haiti in response to the 2010 earthquake, were conducted and analyzed. Resulting data were transcribed, coded and analysed for emergent themes. Results and Discussion: Three themes were identified in the data and were used to develop the evolving theory. The interview data indicate that the experiences of responders are determined based on an interaction between the individual’s ‘lens’ or personal expectations, as well as the supports that an organization is able to provide. Therefore, organizations should consider the following factors: experience, expectations, and supports, to tailor a successful support initiative that caters to the needs of the volunteer workforce. PMID:26203399

  12. Alterations in empathic responding among women with posttraumatic stress disorder associated with childhood trauma

    PubMed Central

    Parlar, Melissa; Frewen, Paul; Nazarov, Anthony; Oremus, Carolina; MacQueen, Glenda; Lanius, Ruth; McKinnon, Margaret C

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although studies increasingly point toward problems with social cognition among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), few studies have assessed empathic responding. The aim of the current study was to investigate empathic responding in women with PTSD related to childhood trauma, and the contribution of parental bonding to empathic abilities in this sample. Methods Participants with PTSD (n = 29) and sex- and age-matched healthy controls (n = 20) completed two self-report empathy measures, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ), and a self-report measure of attachment, the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Results Women with PTSD, relative to controls, reported significantly lower levels of empathic concern (r = 0.29) and perspective taking (r = 0.30), yet significantly higher levels of personal distress (r = 0.45) on the IRI. Women with PTSD also reported elevated scores on the TEQ (η2 = 0.13). Levels of paternal care on the PBI, rather than childhood trauma severity or PTSD symptom severity best predicted perspective taking scores on the IRI in the PTSD sample (R2 = 0.20). Conclusion Women with PTSD associated with childhood trauma reported alterations among different domains of empathic functioning that may be related to low levels of paternal care. PMID:24944867

  13. Home Care Providers to the Rescue: A Novel First-Responder Programme

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steen M.; Brøndum, Stig; Thomas, Grethe; Rasmussen, Susanne R.; Kvist, Birgitte; Christensen, Anette; Lyng, Charlotte; Lindberg, Jan; Lauritsen, Torsten L. B.; Lippert, Freddy K.; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Poul A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe the implementation of a novel first-responder programme in which home care providers equipped with automated external defibrillators (AEDs) were dispatched in parallel with existing emergency medical services in the event of a suspected out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods We evaluated a one-year prospective study that trained home care providers in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and using an AED in cases of suspected OHCA. Data were collected from cardiac arrest case files, case files from each provider dispatch and a survey among dispatched providers. The study was conducted in a rural district in Denmark. Results Home care providers were dispatched to 28 of the 60 OHCAs that occurred in the study period. In ten cases the providers arrived before the ambulance service and subsequently performed CPR. AED analysis was executed in three cases and shock was delivered in one case. For 26 of the 28 cases, the cardiac arrest occurred in a private home. Ninety-five per cent of the providers who had been dispatched to a cardiac arrest reported feeling prepared for managing the initial resuscitation, including use of AED. Conclusion Home care providers are suited to act as first-responders in predominantly rural and residential districts. Future follow-up will allow further evaluation of home care provider arrivals and patient survival. PMID:26509532

  14. How nursing managers respond to intraprofessional aggression: novel strategies to an ongoing challenge.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Nursing managers are identified as playing a central role in workplace aggression management. In effect, employees' decisions to report unacceptable behavior is said to be directly influenced by how a manager will respond to their claims. Using principles from critical nursing ethnography, data were collected from interviews, organizational documents, and observation of physical environment. Twenty-three semistructured interviews were conducted in both a university-affiliated psychiatric hospital and a community hospital located in a large metropolitan city in Ontario. The study aimed at broadening the understanding of how nurse managers respond to intraprofessional and interprofessional workplace aggression. Several strategies were described by managers including coaching individuals so they feel capable of addressing the issue themselves, acting as mediator to allow both sides to openly and respectfully talk about the issue, and disciplining employees whose actions warrant harsh consequences. As part of the study, managers reported that dealing with workplace aggression could be difficult and time consuming and admitted that they sometimes came to doubt their abilities to be able to positively resolve such a widespread problem. Conclusions drawn from the study suggest that aggression management is not solely the responsibility of managers but must involve several actors including the aggressive individual, peers, human resources department, and unions. PMID:22842760

  15. Understanding Unresponsiveness to Tier 2 Reading Intervention: Exploring the Classification and Profiles of Adequate and Inadequate Responders in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toste, Jessica R.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Eunsoo; Barquero, Laura A.; Bouton, Bobette D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine academic and cognitive profiles of first graders who responded adequately and inadequately to intensive small-group reading intervention (Tier 2), as well as assess how these profiles differ based on the criteria used for classification of unresponsiveness. Nonresponders were identified using two…

  16. Deictic Relational Responding, Empathy, and Experiential Avoidance as Predictors of Social Anhedonia: Further Contributions from Relational Frame Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilardaga, Roger; Estevez, Ana; Levin, Michael E.; Hayes, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Social anhedonia has been linked to the development and exacerbation of psychosis. The present study explored the hypothesis that scores in social anhedonia are related to deictic relational responding, empathic concern, and experiential avoidance, as suggested by relational frame theory and acceptance and commitment therapy. College students (N =…

  17. Two Boys with Multiple Disabilities Increasing Adaptive Responding and Curbing Dystonic/Spastic Behavior via a Microswitch-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    A recent study has shown that microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and contingent stimulation could be used to increase adaptive responding and reduce dystonic/spastic behavior in two children with multiple disabilities [Lancioni, G. E., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Scalini, L., & Groeneweg, J. (2003). Microswitch clusters to…

  18. Internal and External Validity of Scores on the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding and the Paulhus Deception Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanyon, Richard I.; Carle, Adam C.

    2007-01-01

    The internal and external validity of scores on the two-scale Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) and its recent revision, the Paulhus Deception Scales (PDS), developed to measure two facets of social desirability, were studied with three groups of forensic clients and two groups of college undergraduates (total N = 519). The two…

  19. Nova Southeastern University's Employees Respond to a 1999 Office of Human Resources Customer Satisfaction Survey. Research and Planning Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, Thomas W.

    In 1999 the Office of Human Resources at Nova Southeastern University (Florida) prepared a survey, based on a previous study, to gather information about employee satisfaction with the University's services. This report summarizes the results of this customer satisfaction survey. Surveys were returned by 466 of the 1,941 potential respondents, a…

  20. On the Validity of Validity Scales: The Importance of Defensive Responding in the Prediction of Institutional Misconduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, John F.; Ruiz, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of defensive responding on the prediction of institutional misconduct among male inmates (N = 349) who completed the Personality Assessment Inventory (L. C. Morey, 1991). Hierarchical logistic regression analyses demonstrated significant main effects for the Antisocial Features (ANT) scale as well as main effects…