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Sample records for responders study p04823am3terminated

  1. NIH exceptional responders to cancer therapy study launched

    Cancer.gov

    The Exceptional Responders Initiative, a study to investigate the molecular factors of tumors associated with exceptional treatment responses of cancer patients to drug therapies, was launched today by NCI. Scientists will attempt to identify the molecula

  2. Measurement of Respondent Burden: Study Design and Early Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Joanne

    This is an experimental 2-phase study which focuses upon perceived respondent burden (PRB), that is, upon negative feelings which may be experienced by people who participate in household surveys. For phase 1 of the study, whose results are reported here, the effects of two variables-- interview length and interview effort--upon PRB were assessed.…

  3. ASA24® Instructions for Study Staff & Respondents

    Cancer.gov

    The following documents have been created by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) as resources for study staff and Respondents. Each resource is available as a ready-to-use PDF as well as in Word format to allow users to adapt the content as desired.

  4. How the Brain Responds to "Any": An MEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesan, Graciela; Johnson, Blake W.; Crain, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The word "any" may appear in some sentences, but not in others. For example, "any" is permitted in sentences that contain the word "nobody", as in "Nobody ate any fruit". However, in a minimally different context "any" seems strikingly anomalous: *"Everybody ate any fruit". The aim of the present study was to investigate how the brain responds to…

  5. Potential Selective Responding in a Parent Questionnaire Study of Post-Institutionalized Children.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Brandi N; Wright, Amanda; Julian, Megan M; Rosas, Johana M; Merz, Emily C; McCall, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Selective responding bias, though under-researched, is of particular concern in the study of post-institutionalized children because many studies rely on mailed questionnaires and response rates are often low. The current study addresses the impact of selective responding in a single wave of data collection and in a multi-wave study. Participants were 121 parents from a larger four-wave study of post-institutionalized children, identified as Never Responders, Previous Responders (but not to the current wave), or Wave 4 Responders. Parents were telephoned and asked about their adopted child's family, school, peer, and behavioral adjustment. The children (47% male) ranged in age from 2 to 20 years (M = 10.79, SD = 4.59) and had been adopted between 5 and 54 months of age (M = 15.49, SD = 9.94). There were no differences in parent ratings of adjustment for a single wave of data collection; however, participants who never responded reported poorer family and peer adjustment than those who had responded to at least one wave of data collection. Within a single wave of data collection, there was no evidence that selective responding contributes much bias. Over a multi-wave study, however, results may under-represent adjustment difficulties, especially with family and friends. PMID:23710124

  6. A Study of Interviewer-Respondent Interaction in the Urban Employment Survey. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquis, Kent H.; Cannell, Charles F.

    The purpose of this study was to provide basic knowledge about the kinds and amounts of behavior in a personal survey interview and to investigate the effects of certain respondent demographic characteristics on the verbal behavior of the interviewer and respondent during the interview. Four sample groups of employed males (Negroes and Caucasians…

  7. The burden of research on trauma for respondents: a prospective and comparative study on respondents evaluations and predictors.

    PubMed

    van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; Scherpenzeel, Annette C

    2013-01-01

    The possible burden of participating in trauma research is an important topic for Ethical Committees (EC's), Review Boards (RB's) and researchers. However, to what extent research on trauma is more burdensome than non-trauma research is unknown. Little is known about which factors explain respondents evaluations on the burden: to what extent are they trauma-related or dependent on other factors such as personality and how respondents evaluate research in general? Data of a large probability based multi-wave internet panel, with surveys on politics and values, personality and health in 2009 and 2011, and a survey on trauma in 2012 provided the unique opportunity to address these questions. Results among respondents confronted with these events in the past 2 years (N = 950) showed that questions on trauma were significantly and systematically evaluated as less pleasant (enjoyed less), more difficult, but also stimulated respondents to think about things more than almost all previous non-trauma surveys. Yet, the computed effect sizes indicated that the differences were (very) small and often meaningless. No differences were found between users and non-users of mental services, in contrast to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Evaluations of the burden of previous surveys in 2011 on politics and values, personality and health most strongly, systematically and independently predicted the burden of questions on trauma, and not posttraumatic stress symptoms, event-related coping self-efficacy and personality factors. For instance, multiple linear regression analyses showed that 30% of the variance of how (un)pleasant questions on trauma and life-events were evaluated, was explained by how (un)pleasant the 3 surveys in 2011 were evaluated, in contrast to posttraumatic stress symptoms (not significant) and coping self-efficacy (5%). Findings question why EC's, RB's and researchers should be more critical of the possible burden of trauma research than of the possible burden of

  8. What is wrong with non-respondents? Alcohol-, drug- and smoking related mortality and morbidity in a 12-year follow up study of respondents and non-respondents in the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Gray, Linsay; Glümer, Charlotte; Juel, Knud

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim Response rates in health surveys have diminished over the last two decades, making it difficult to obtain reliable information on health and health-related risk factors in different population groups. This study compared cause-specific mortality and morbidity among survey respondents and different types of non-respondents to estimate alcohol-, drug- and smoking related mortality and morbidity among non-respondents. Design Prospective follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in two cross-sectional health surveys. Setting Denmark. Participants A total sample of 39,540 Danish citizens aged 16 or older. Measurements Register-based information on cause-specific mortality and morbidity at the individual level was obtained for respondents (n=28,072) and different types of non-respondents (refusals n=8,954; illness/disabled n=731, uncontactable n=1,593). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine differences in alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity, respectively, in a 12 year follow-up period. Findings Overall, non-response was associated with a significantly increased hazard ratio of 1.56 (95% CI: 1.36–1.78) for alcohol-related morbidity, 1.88 (95% CI: 1.38–2.57) for alcohol-related mortality, 1.55 (95% CI: 1.27–1.88) for drug-related morbidity, 3.04 (95% CI: 1.57–5.89) for drug-related mortality and 1.15 (95% CI: 1.03–1.29) for smoking-related morbidity. The hazard ratio for smoking-related mortality also tended to be higher among non-respondents compared with respondents although no significant association was evident (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.95-1.36). Uncontactable and ill/disabled non-respondents generally had a higher hazard ratio of alcohol-, drug- and smoking related mortality and morbidity compared with refusal non-respondents. Conclusion Health survey non-respondents in Denmark have an increased hazard ratio of alcohol-, drug-, and smoking-related mortality and morbidity compared with respondents

  9. Responding to Racism and Racial Trauma in Doctoral Study: An Inventory for Coping and Mediating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truong, Kimberly A.; Museus, Samuel D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Kimberly A. Truong and Samuel D. Museus focus on understanding strategies doctoral students of color use to respond to racism. The authors conducted semi-structured individual interviews with twenty-six participants who self-reported experiencing racism and racial trauma during doctoral studies. Analysis of the data resulted in…

  10. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR): A Reliability Generalization Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Andrew; Bagger, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) is one of the most widely used social desirability scales. The authors conducted a reliability generalization study to examine the typical reliability coefficients of BIDR scores and explored factors that explained the variability of reliability estimates across studies. The results indicated…

  11. Invalid responding in questionnaire-based research: implications for the study of schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Fervaha, Gagan; Remington, Gary

    2013-12-01

    Data collected through self-report questionnaires are particularly susceptible to inappropriate or random responding, and such invalid data increase noise and attenuate true statistical relationships. While many researchers studying schizotypy have employed infrequency measures to exclude participants, such measures are not universally employed. Moreover, some researchers have even outright questioned whether validity scales are warranted. Here, we show the effect of invalid responses on the relationship between schizotypy and hedonic reaction. For valid responders, negative schizotypal traits were inversely related to both anticipatory and consummatory pleasure (p < .01). Invalid responses were found for 23% of respondents, and within these subjects, no relationship was found between any of the measures. When the valid and invalid respondents were pooled, the relationship was dampened. Furthermore, linear multiple regression modeling showed that validity trended toward moderating the relationship between the variables of interest. These data highlight the importance of screening for, and excluding, invalid responses in schizotypy research. Our results also affirm that screening for random responding is effective and warranted. Implications for future studies employing questionnaire-based methods are discussed. PMID:23815113

  12. Understanding and Responding to Diversity in the Primary Classroom: An International Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Bartolo, Paul; Ale, Peter; Calleja, Colin; Hofsaess, Thomas; Janikova, Vera; Lous, Annemieke Mol Lous; Vilkiene, Vida; Wetso, Gun-Marie

    2006-01-01

    The increased diversification of classrooms in recent years has placed additional demands upon teachers who strive to facilitate the learning and participation of all pupils. The aim of the current study was to explore how primary teachers across Europe understand and respond to diversity in their classrooms. A total of 35 teachers from 7…

  13. Recommendations for the Definition of Clinical Responder in Insulin Preservation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gitelman, Stephen E.; Palmer, Jerry P.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical responder studies should contribute to the translation of effective treatments and interventions to the clinic. Since ultimately this translation will involve regulatory approval, we recommend that clinical trials prespecify a responder definition that can be assessed against the requirements and suggestions of regulatory agencies. In this article, we propose a clinical responder definition to specifically assist researchers and regulatory agencies in interpreting the clinical importance of statistically significant findings for studies of interventions intended to preserve β-cell function in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. We focus on studies of 6-month β-cell preservation in type 1 diabetes as measured by 2-h–stimulated C-peptide. We introduce criteria (bias, reliability, and external validity) for the assessment of responder definitions to ensure they meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency guidelines. Using data from several published TrialNet studies, we evaluate our definition (no decrease in C-peptide) against published alternatives and determine that our definition has minimum bias with external validity. We observe that reliability could be improved by using changes in C-peptide later than 6 months beyond baseline. In sum, to support efficacy claims of β-cell preservation therapies in type 1 diabetes submitted to U.S. and European regulatory agencies, we recommend use of our definition. PMID:24722251

  14. Reliability of the sensory responder classification to learned flavor cues: a test-retest study.

    PubMed

    Tepper, B J; Farkas, B K

    1994-10-01

    Previous work from this laboratory has examined the extent to which learned associations between the flavor of food and the caloric consequences of food ingestion influence daily energy intake in humans. We have consistently identified a subset of subjects, called sensory responders, whose intakes were strongly guided by flavor cues. Sensory responders were identified on the basis of post hoc examination of energy intake patterns. The purpose of this study was to confirm the reliability of this classification scheme using a test-retest paradigm. Eighteen normal-weight, free-living adults participated in the study. Subjects were first fed a high-calorie lunch with distinctive flavors for 5 consecutive days then a low-calorie lunch with different distinctive flavors for an additional 5 days. Following this training, the flavors in the lunches were covertly switched. Subjects whose intakes were influenced by the change in the flavor cues were classified as sensory responders and those whose intakes were not influenced by the switch in the flavor cues were classified as sensory nonresponders. Subjects then repeated the protocol. All subjects who were classified as sensory responders at the end of the first trial were similarly classified at the end of the second trial, indicating that their initial responses were reliable. PMID:7800754

  15. Allocation of Study Time in Chinese Junior School Students: Habitual Responding, Item Difficulty, and Time Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuyun; Qin, Qiwen; Jiang, Yanju

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated factors influencing Chinese junior school students’ study time allocation and the age difference in the effect of habitual responding. Participants were 240 junior school students (120 girls, 120 boys; aged 13–15 years) with half taking part in Experiment 1 and half in Experiment 2, and 240 young adults aged 18–23 years, (120 women and 120 men,) involved in Experiments 3a and 3b, all native Chinese speakers. In Experiments 1 and 3a, Chinese word pairs (e.g., moon–star) were presented on the screen with three items in one array. In each trial, the items were arranged from left to right, either easy, moderate, then difficult, or the reverse. Participants had either 5 s or no time limits to study the word pairs. In Experiments 2 and 3b, word pairs were ordered in a column with the easiest items either at the top or bottom position. Results showed interactions among item difficulty, item order, and time limitation in terms of effects on study time allocation of junior school students. Participants tended to learn the items in order (from left to right and from top to bottom), but the effect of item difficulty was greater than that of item order on item selection. Results indicated that agenda and habitual responding have a combined effect on study time allocation and that the contribution of agenda is greater than that of habitual responding. The effect of habitual responding on the self-paced study and recall performance of junior school students is greater than its effect on young adults, and the study time allocation of junior school students is more likely to be affected by external conditions. PMID:27199865

  16. Professional Uncertainty and Disempowerment Responding to Ethnic Diversity in Health Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Joe; Beavan, Jackie; Faull, Christina; Dodson, Lynne; Gill, Paramjit; Beighton, Angela

    2007-01-01

    Background While ethnic disparities in health and health care are increasing, evidence on how to enhance quality of care and reduce inequalities remains limited. Despite growth in the scope and application of guidelines on “cultural competence,” remarkably little is known about how practising health professionals experience and perceive their work with patients from diverse ethnic communities. Using cancer care as a clinical context, we aimed to explore this with a range of health professionals to inform interventions to enhance quality of care. Methods and Findings We conducted a qualitative study involving 18 focus groups with a purposeful sample of 106 health professionals of differing disciplines, in primary and secondary care settings, working with patient populations of varying ethnic diversity in the Midlands of the UK. Data were analysed by constant comparison and we undertook processes for validation of analysis. We found that, as they sought to offer appropriate care, health professionals wrestled with considerable uncertainty and apprehension in responding to the needs of patients of ethnicities different from their own. They emphasised their perceived ignorance about cultural difference and were anxious about being culturally inappropriate, causing affront, or appearing discriminatory or racist. Professionals' ability to think and act flexibly or creatively faltered. Although trying to do their best, professionals' uncertainty was disempowering, creating a disabling hesitancy and inertia in their practice. Most professionals sought and applied a knowledge-based cultural expertise approach to patients, though some identified the risk of engendering stereotypical expectations of patients. Professionals' uncertainty and disempowerment had the potential to perpetuate each other, to the detriment of patient care. Conclusions This study suggests potential mechanisms by which health professionals may inadvertently contribute to ethnic disparities in health

  17. What responders need to respond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eifried, Gary

    2004-12-01

    Developing equipment and instrumentation for use by first responders and HAZMAT professionals in a Homeland Defense role requires an understanding of the real needs of those responders. These needs are driven by the manner in which the incident response takes place and how the response actions occur over time. This paper describes a chemical terrorist incident, the response functions and related timelines, and the detection and identification needs during each phase. From this information, developers will be able to better understand requirements related to sensitivity, specificity, response time, weight, ruggedness, ease of use, and other design parameters.

  18. Responding to a Social Studies Classic--"Decision Making: The Heart of Social Studies Instruction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwin, David

    2003-01-01

    In 1960, Shirley Engle published an article in "Social Education," entitled "Decision Making: The Heart of Social Studies Instruction," that he hoped would end the conflict over a definition of social studies. He argued that social studies instruction should emphasize decision making in two senses: first, as a decision about the meaning of data…

  19. Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Vanessa; Cooper, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    SSS11.4/ESSI4.6/HS11.39/NH9.13 Communication of uncertain information in earth sciences: data, models and visualization Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK. Cooper, A. H.1, Banks, V.J.1, Cowup, P.2, Curness, J.3, Davis, R.4, Dawson, L3. and Gazzard, L.4 1 British Geological Survey, Keyworth, NG12 5GG, UK 2 London Fire Brigade, 169 Union Street, London, SE1 0LL, UK 3.Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB, UK 4.Avon Fire and Rescue, Temple Back, Bristol, BS1 6EU, UK. In February 2013 a sinkhole opened beneath a Florida Home resulting in the loss of a life and demolition of the affected home. The resulting void was in the order of 15 m deep. Neighbouring homes also had to be demolished. Television footage of this unfortunate incident resonated with an Assistant Commissioner of the London Fire Brigade who questioned whether or not such a feature would be recognised in the UK and if so, how the emergency response would be managed. Stemming from this, the British Geological Survey was invited to work with the Chief Fire Officers Association Urban Search and Rescue working group on geohazards. The aim of this group was to develop national tactical operational guidance on geohazards that would form the basis for regional guidance and training. The project was addressed collaboratively providing opportunities for two students from the Coventry University Disaster Management course, that were on placements with Avon Fire and Rescue, to work with the BGS to develop the guidance. Key to the success of the project was an iterative approach to knowledge exchange with respect to firstly, the characterization of the geohazards, and the processes and uncertainties associated with them and secondly, with respect to emergency responders' needs and priorities. Effective communication was achieved through challenging and rationalising the geoscience language for the end user and through a series of customised

  20. [Study on endoscopic features in responders to systemic chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Yasutake, K; Tokisue, M; Masuda, T; Ono, S; Yoshimura, Y; Yasutake, K; Imamura, Y; Oya, M; Matsushita, K

    1990-10-20

    We studied the endoscopic features in 6 cases of advanced gastric cancer responded to chemotherapy. Patient characteristics were as follows. [table; see text] Age 43-77 (mean 63 years old) Endoscopic type Mean duration of PR was 26.6 weeks. The process of the improvement of primary lesion as judged by endoscopic findings were as follows. Firstly getting flat of wall, secondly reduction in size of ulcer, and lastly changing into scar. Number of reported cases including our case No. 6 which are diagnosed as scar endoscopically after chemotherapy and are operated successfully has been increasing. Most of them showed scar macroscopically with wide and irregular surface. Especially our case No. 6 showed keloidal scar. In these cases, the histological improvement into grade 2-3 was observed in scared tissue. Sooner or later, such a process of endoscopic improvement was observed 4-8 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy. Unless the endoscopic improvement was observed 8 weeks after initiation, regimen of chemotherapy should be changed into others. PMID:2148178

  1. Responding to symptoms suggestive of lung cancer: a qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Birt, Linda; Hall, Nicky; Emery, Jon; Banks, Jon; Mills, Katie; Johnson, Margaret; Hamilton, Willie; Walter, Fiona M

    2014-01-01

    Background Late diagnosis of lung cancer can impact on survival rates. Patients delay seeking help for a number of reasons. This study explored symptom appraisal and help-seeking decisions among patients referred to specialist respiratory services with symptoms suggestive of lung cancer. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews with patients as soon as possible after referral, ideally before diagnosis and mainly within 10 weeks, explored factors impacting on their pathways prior to referral. Framework analysis, underpinned by the Model of Pathways to Treatment, was used to explore the data with particular focus on patients’ beliefs and experiences, disease factors and healthcare professional influences. Results 35 patients were interviewed (aged 41–88 years, 15 women, 17 with lung cancer). All described similar presenting symptoms and triggers to seek help. Appraisal of symptoms was influenced by whether they had a lung comorbidity; seriousness of symptoms was interpreted within the context of previous illness experiences. Help-seeking was triggered when: symptoms failed to respond as expected; there was an increased awareness of symptoms of lung cancer; the public nature of a cough meant others were able to endorse help-seeking. Almost half visited the general practitioner (GP) two or more times before referral; during this period they reinterpreted initial symptoms and appraised new symptoms. The meaning given to symptoms changed over time and many became increasingly concerned they may have lung cancer. The GP played a role in ensuring timely further help-seeking but often there was little guidance on how to monitor symptoms or when to reconsult. Conclusions Patients diagnosed with and without lung cancer had similar symptom pathways. Findings provide guidance for lung cancer awareness campaigns on the importance of social networks in endorsing patient help-seeking. The importance of appropriate advice, monitoring and safety-netting procedures by GPs for

  2. Mixed Methods Study of Help Seekers and Self-Changers Responding to an Online Recovery Survey

    PubMed Central

    Witbrodt, Jane; Borkman, Thomasina J.; Stunz, Aina; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To compare self-changers (natural recovery) with help seekers on demographics, pre-recovery problem severity, and recovery beliefs and behaviors; and to augment these quantitative findings with information extracted from the qualitative stories of a subset of self-changers to explore themes in recovery paths as informed by a nascent natural recovery literature. Methods: Quantitative secondary analyses were conducted with persons who had responded to a US nationwide online survey called ‘What Is Recovery’ (WIR) and who reported a prior lifetime alcohol problem (n = 5495). Six men and six women (with longer-term recoveries) interviewed later were asked to tell their ‘recovery story from the beginning up to now’. These were coded using a narrative approach. Results: Compared with help seekers, self-changers were younger and never married: they did not differ on problem severity, gender, ethnicity or education. Self-changers identified with ‘used to have a problem’ more than in recovery/recovered, reported fewer years in that status, and reported more current, non-problematic substance use. A new concept of shadow help and shadow obstacles to help-seeking emerged from the qualitative analysis. Though self-changers believed that they had overcome their alcohol problem on their own, change actually occurred within a social context that allowed access to information, normative expectations, relationships, and other opportunities that provided important resources for change. Conclusion: Findings imply that the concept of help-seeking needs to be re-conceptualized to include the informal help we found in this study. PMID:25381088

  3. Hitting Reply: A Qualitative Study to Understand Student Decisions to Respond to Online Discussion Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Diane D.; Storberg-Walker, Julia; Stone, Sophia J.

    2008-01-01

    Providing tools for dialogue exchange does not ensure that students will respond to team mate postings or that online groups will grow in cohesiveness. Students decide whether or not to reply, and it is increasingly important to understand how students make these decisions due to the increase in distance education, millenials, and asynchronous…

  4. A Phenomenological Study of Urban Search and Rescue Members Who Responded to a Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    The complicated world of disaster management requires urban search and rescue (US&R) members to be well trained to respond to complex, unpredictable, and difficult to manage disasters anywhere in the world on short notice. Disasters are becoming more complex and difficult to manage as was witnessed by the multi-faceted disaster in Japan in…

  5. Hitting Reply: A Qualitative Study to Understand Student Decisions to Respond to Online Discussion Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Diane D.; Storberg-Walker, Julia; Stone, Sophia J.

    2007-01-01

    Providing tools for dialogue exchange does not ensure that students will respond to teammate postings or that online groups will grow in cohesiveness (Murphy, 2004). Students decide whether or not to reply, and it is increasingly important to understand how students make these decisions due to the increase in distance education, Millennials, and…

  6. How Institutional and University Counselor Policies Effectively Respond to Victims of Cyber Violent Acts: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gretchen M.

    2012-01-01

    This multisite case study examined how institutional and university counselor policies effectively respond to cyber violent acts. Stake's (2006) multisite case study methodology was used to identify seven themes from current literature. Two sites with four participants were selected. The participants included two counseling directors and the…

  7. Developing Specific Self-Efficacy and Resilience as First Responders among Students of Social Work and Stress and Trauma Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farchi, Moshe; Cohen, Ayala; Mosek, Atalia

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the challenging task of preparing baccalaureate social work students to master proficiency as first responders in stress and trauma situations. We begin with a brief description of the context, goals, admission procedure, structure, and process of a stress and trauma studies (STS) program. We then compare the development of…

  8. High-Dimensional Gene Expression Profiling Studies in High and Low Responders to Primary Smallpox Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Haralambieva, Iana H.; Oberg, Ann L.; Dhiman, Neelam; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Grill, Diane E.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The mechanisms underlying smallpox vaccine-induced variations in immune responses are not well understood, but are of considerable interest to a deeper understanding of poxvirus immunity and correlates of protection. Methods. We assessed transcriptional messenger RNA expression changes in 197 recipients of primary smallpox vaccination representing the extremes of humoral and cellular immune responses. Results. The 20 most significant differentially expressed genes include a tumor necrosis factor–receptor superfamily member, an interferon (IFN) gene, a chemokine gene, zinc finger protein genes, nuclear factors, and histones (P ≤ 1.06E−20, q ≤ 2.64E−17). A pathway analysis identified 4 enriched pathways with cytokine production by the T-helper 17 subset of CD4+ T cells being the most significant pathway (P = 3.42E−05). Two pathways (antiviral actions of IFNs, P = 8.95E−05; and IFN-α/β signaling pathway, P = 2.92E−04), integral to innate immunity, were enriched when comparing high with low antibody responders (false discovery rate, < 0.05). Genes related to immune function and transcription (TLR8, P = .0002; DAPP1, P = .0003; LAMP3, P = 9.96E−05; NR4A2, P ≤ .0002; EGR3, P = 4.52E−05), and other genes with a possible impact on immunity (LNPEP, P = 3.72E−05; CAPRIN1, P = .0001; XRN1, P = .0001), were found to be expressed differentially in high versus low antibody responders. Conclusion. We identified novel and known immunity-related genes and pathways that may account for differences in immune response to smallpox vaccination. PMID:22949304

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Rivastigmine in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease Not Responding Adequately to Donepezil: An Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Figiel, Gary S.; Sadowsky, Carl H.; Strigas, John; Koumaras, Barbara; Meng, Xiangyi; Gunay, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Switching patients with Alzheimer's disease from one cholinesterase inhibitor to another represents a viable option for patients not responding to current therapy. The objective of this large U.S.-based study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a treatment switch to rivastigmine in patients not responding adequately to or declining on treatment with donepezil. Method: In this 26-week, prospective, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study conducted from April 24, 2003, to June 25, 2004, patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (DSM-IV-TR criteria) who were not responding to donepezil were treated with rivastigmine 3–12 mg/day. Safety and tolerability were measured by the occurrence of adverse events and patient disposition. Treatment effects on global functioning were assessed using the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) scale. Results: Two hundred seventy patients with a mean age of 78.5 (SD = 7.56) years and a mean duration of dementia of 3.5 (SD = 2.06) years were included in the study. Sixty-nine percent of patients completed the study with 17.8% discontinuing due to adverse events. Eighty-three percent of patients reported at least 1 adverse event, with the most frequently occurring adverse events affecting the gastrointestinal system (54%). The majority of patients were reported to have either improvement or no decline on the CGIC. A limitation of the study is that the interpretation of the results is based on an overall completion rate of 69%. Conclusion: Immediately switching patients from donepezil to rivastigmine without a washout period was safe and well tolerated in the current study. Additionally, these results suggest that patients not responding adequately to or declining while taking donepezil may improve or stabilize after switching to rivastigmine. PMID:18787673

  10. Perception, Experience, and Response to Genetic Discrimination in Huntington Disease: The International RESPOND-HD Study

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Cheryl; Williams, Janet K.; Juhl, Andrew R.; Mengeling, Michelle; Mills, James A.; Bombard, Yvonne; Hayden, Michael R.; Quaid, Kimberly; Shoulson, Ira; Taylor, Sandra; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic discrimination—defined as the denial of rights, privileges, or opportunities or other adverse treatment based solely on genetic information (including family history)—is an important concern to patients, healthcare professionals, lawmakers, and family members at risk for carrying a deleterious gene. Data from the United States, Canada, and Australia were collected from 433 individuals at risk for Huntington disease (HD) who have tested either positive or negative for the gene that causes HD and family members of affected individuals who have a 50% risk for developing the disorder but remain untested. Across all three countries, a total of 46.2% of respondents report genetic discrimination or stigma based on either their family history of HD or genetic testing for the HD gene mutation. We report on the overall incidence of discrimination and stigma in the domains of insurance (25.9%), employment (6.5%), relationships (32.9%), and other transactions (4.6%) in the United States, Canada, and Australia combined. The incidence of self-reported discrimination is less than the overall worry about the risk of discrimination, which is more prevalent in each domain. Despite a relatively low rate of perceived genetic discrimination in the areas of health insurance and employment, compared to the perception of discrimination and stigma in personal relationships, the cumulative burden of genetic discrimination across all domains of experience represents a challenge to those at risk for HD. The effect of this cumulative burden on daily life decisions remains unknown. PMID:20468061

  11. Perception, Experience, and Response to Genetic Discrimination in Huntington's Disease: The Australian Results of the International RESPOND-HD Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Edmond; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; Erwin, Cheryl; Williams, Janet K.; Juhl, Andrew R.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This study examines elements of genetic discrimination among an at-risk, clinically undiagnosed Huntington's disease (HD) population. Methods: Sixty at-risk individuals, either positive or negative for the HD genetic mutation, completed a survey regarding their experiences of genetic discrimination, adverse and unfair treatment, and knowledge about existing laws and policies surrounding genetic discrimination. Results: Sixty eight percent of participants reported feeling “Great benefit” from knowing their genetic test results. Reported benefits of knowledge included planning for the future, making decisions, and many individuals found meaning in active participation in the HD community and in advocating for themselves or families at risk for HD. Many individuals found personal meaning and a sense of community from knowledge of this information and from the ability to participate in research. Despite these positive feelings toward gene testing, results demonstrated that 33% of participants perceived experiences of genetic discrimination, which occurred repeatedly and caused great self-reported distress. Significantly, more gene-positive respondents reported experiencing incidents of genetic discrimination, compared to gene-negative respondents. At least 58 separate incidents of discrimination were reported, the number of incidents ranged from 1 to 10, with 45% of individuals (9/20 respondents) indicating more than one event. Of the most significant events of discrimination, 58% were related to insurance, 21% to employment, 16% to transactions of daily life, and 5% to relationships. Conclusion: Results contribute toward validation of empirical data regarding genetic discrimination. PMID:23289616

  12. Respondent-driven sampling for an adolescent health study in vulnerable urban settings: a multi-country study.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michele R; Marshall, Beth Dail; Emerson, Mark; Kalamar, Amanda; Covarrubias, Laura; Astone, Nan; Wang, Ziliang; Gao, Ersheng; Mashimbye, Lawrence; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Acharya, Rajib; Olumide, Adesola; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Blum, Robert W; Sonenstein, Freya L

    2014-12-01

    The global adolescent population is larger than ever before and is rapidly urbanizing. Global surveillance systems to monitor youth health typically use household- and school-based recruitment methods. These systems risk not reaching the most marginalized youth made vulnerable by conditions of migration, civil conflict, and other forms of individual and structural vulnerability. We describe the methodology of the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments survey, which used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit male and female youth aged 15-19 years and living in economically distressed urban settings in Baltimore, MD; Johannesburg, South Africa; Ibadan, Nigeria; New Delhi, India; and Shanghai, China (migrant youth only) for a cross-sectional study. We describe a shared recruitment and survey administration protocol across the five sites, present recruitment parameters, and illustrate challenges and necessary adaptations for use of RDS with youth in disadvantaged urban settings. We describe the reach of RDS into populations of youth who may be missed by traditional household- and school-based sampling. Across all sites, an estimated 9.6% were unstably housed; among those enrolled in school, absenteeism was pervasive with 29% having missed over 6 days of school in the past month. Overall findings confirm the feasibility, efficiency, and utility of RDS in quickly reaching diverse samples of youth, including those both in and out of school and those unstably housed, and provide direction for optimizing RDS methods with this population. In our rapidly urbanizing global landscape with an unprecedented youth population, RDS may serve as a valuable tool in complementing existing household- and school-based methods for health-related surveillance that can guide policy. PMID:25454005

  13. Fish mucus as a rapid responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  14. Fish mucus as a rapidly responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  15. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR ENSURING CONFIDENTIALITY OF RESPONDENTS' RECORDS (G02)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide procedures designed to ensure respondent confidentiality while maintaining access to records cross-referenced to the individual. In order to minimize any reluctance of the respondents towards participation because of confidentiality consider...

  16. Non-response in a nationwide follow-up postal survey in Finland: a register-based mortality analysis of respondents and non-respondents of the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) Study

    PubMed Central

    Koskenvuo, Karoliina; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Vahtera, Jussi; Korkeila, Katariina; Kivimäki, Mika; Mattila, Kari J; Virtanen, Pekka; Sumanen, Markku; Rautava, Päivi; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine difference in mortality between postal survey non-respondents and respondents. Design A prospective cohort study with baseline survey in 1998 and comprehensive linkage to national mortality registers until 2005, the Health and Social Support study. Setting A population-based postal survey of the working-aged population in Finland in 1998. Participants The original random sample comprised 64 797 working-aged individuals in Finland (20–24, 30–34, 40–44, 50–54 years of age; 32 059 women and 32 716 men), yielding 25 898 (40.0%) responses in the baseline postal survey in 1998. Primary outcome measure Registry-based primary causes of death encoded with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Results In women, HR for total mortality was 1.75 (95% CI 1.40 to 2.19) times higher among the non-respondents compared with the respondents. In men, non-response was associated with a 1.41-fold (1.21–1.65) excess risk of total mortality. Non-response associated in certain age groups with deaths due to diseases in women and with deaths due to external causes in men. The most prominent excess mortality was seen for total mortality for both genders and for mortality due to external causes among men. Conclusions Postal surveys result in slight underestimation of illness prevalence. PMID:22422917

  17. Traumatic Responding in Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Peter; Elliston, Ellen J.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined posttraumatic stress disorder in Mexican, Mexican American, and non-Mexican American children exposed to domestic violence. Surveys of 68 mothers with children in shelters in Mexico and Texas revealed no ethnic differences in children's overall trauma symptoms. Mothers' experience of physical and sexual abuse predicted greater…

  18. Between Guru and Deceiver? Responding to Unchosen Metaphors in the Religious Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Amy; Simmons, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Two troublesome portraits of religious studies professors often exist in the minds of some students at any given time: the Guru, or wise spiritual teacher, and the Deceiver. These metaphors capture student perceptions of us that may be ill-informed and beyond our control. We will examine and compare how our own chosen metaphors for…

  19. Teachers' and Students' Beliefs about Responding to ESL Writing: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diab, Rula L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ESL instructors' feedback techniques and the rationales behind these techniques, to explore ESL students' beliefs about the relative effectiveness of various types of feedback, and to compare students' beliefs with those of their instructors. A university-level ESL instructor and two of her students…

  20. Coordinated Community Efforts to Respond to Sexual Assault: A National Study of Sexual Assault Response Team Implementation.

    PubMed

    Greeson, Megan R; Campbell, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) bring together sexual assault responders (e.g., police, prosecutors, medical/forensic examiners, rape victim advocates) to coordinate and improve the response to sexual assault. Ultimately, SARTs seek to improve sexual assault victims' experiences of seeking help and sexual assault case outcomes in the criminal justice system. To date, there are hundreds of SARTs across the United States and yet, there has been no nationally representative study of how SARTs are implemented. Therefore, the current study used a multistep process to create the first sampling frame of SARTs and then studied how SARTs are structured and function within a random sample of SARTs. Findings reveal commonalities as well as variation across SARTs. Most SARTs rated improving legal outcomes, improving victims' help-seeking experiences, and prevention/education as important goals, yet most prioritized their time and energy toward victims' experiences. SARTs' membership varied, with an average of 12 organizations involved in the SART, and 75% of SARTs having active membership from police, prosecutors, rape victim advocates, and medical/forensic examiners. SARTs were moderately formalized and most SARTs engaged in most collaborative processes (e.g., multidisciplinary cross-training, case review, policy/protocol development, and review) on an as needed basis. Finally, results revealed that some types of cross-system coordination in responding to victims/cases were quite frequent, whereas other types of coordination were quite infrequent. Implications for future research and supporting the development and sustainability of SARTs are discussed. PMID:25315485

  1. Responding to aggression; the role of significant others for student psychiatric nurses, an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Farrell, G A

    1989-10-01

    There is much quantitative information on the level and type of aggression towards hospital staff. Junior staff are said to be particularly at risk. In an attempt to add to our knowledge on this important subject a qualitative perspective was chosen to investigate the experiences of student psychiatric nurses when on clinical placements. This paper draws on interview data to highlight the importance significant others play for students before, during and following incidents of aggression. An ethnographic methodology was chosen as it is particularly suited to small-scale research when the research focus is not fully articulated. The validity of ethnographic evidence is discussed and suggestions made for the improvement of validity in further studies while remaining within an ethnographic perspective. PMID:2811826

  2. A transcranial Doppler sonography study of shoot/don't-shoot responding.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Natasha B; Matthews, Gerald; Warm, Joel S; Washburn, David A

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between changes in cerebral blood-flow velocity and performance on a speeded shoot/don't-shoot task. Brain activity as indicated by cerebral blood-flow velocity (hemovelocity) was recorded using the transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. A shoot/don't-shoot decision-making task presented participants with threat/nonthreat stimuli in the form of bull's-eye images of various colors. Participants were required to shoot threat targets using a laser-modified handgun. Results support a vigilance decrement in both the performance measures and hemovelocity. Performance, as measured by reaction time, number of hits, and marksmanship, decreased across the length of the vigil. Hemovelocity slowed across the left and right hemispheres as the task progressed, and hemovelocity was slower in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. PMID:19587168

  3. Feasibility of using fMRI to study mothers responding to infant cries.

    PubMed

    Lorberbaum, J P; Newman, J D; Dubno, J R; Horwitz, A R; Nahas, Z; Teneback, C C; Bloomer, C W; Bohning, D E; Vincent, D; Johnson, M R; Emmanuel, N; Brawman-Mintzer, O; Book, S W; Lydiard, R B; Ballenger, J C; George, M S

    1999-01-01

    While parenting is a universal human behavior, its neuroanatomic basis is currently unknown. Animal data suggest that the cingulate may play an important function in mammalian parenting behavior. For example, in rodents cingulate lesions impair maternal behavior. Here, in an attempt to understand the brain basis of human maternal behavior, we had mothers listen to recorded infant cries and white noise control sounds while they underwent functional MRI (fMRI) of the brain. We hypothesized that mothers would show significantly greater cingulate activity during the cries compared to the control sounds. Of 7 subjects scanned, 4 had fMRI data suitable for analysis. When fMRI data were averaged for these 4 subjects, the anterior cingulate and right medial prefrontal cortex were the only brain regions showing statistically increased activity with the cries compared to white noise control sounds (cluster analysis with one-tailed z-map threshold of P < 0.001 and spatial extent threshold of P < 0.05). These results demonstrate the feasibility of using fMRI to study brain activity in mothers listening to infant cries and that the anterior cingulate may be involved in mothers listening to crying babies. We are currently replicating this study in a larger group of mothers. Future work in this area may help (1) unravel the functional neuroanatomy of the parent-infant bond and (2) examine whether markers of this bond, such as maternal brain response to infant crying, can predict maternal style (i.e., child neglect), offspring temperament, or offspring depression or anxiety. PMID:10604082

  4. Self-folding of Polymer Sheets Responding to Light: Applications and Mechanistic Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Dickey, Michael; Genzer, Jan

    2013-03-01

    We describe a simple approach to self-folding that uses localized light absorption on a pre-stressed polymer sheet. Self-folding takes advantage of 2D patterning techniques (e.g., lithography, inkjet printing) and converts predefined 2D templates into 3D structures. Self-folding is useful for packaging, actuation, and sensing. Most approaches to self-folding use hinges (regions that fold) that have unique chemical composition from the rest of the sheet, which requires photolithography or other multiple fabrication steps. Our approach employs homogeneous polymer sheets and inkjet printing. The black ink (i.e., the hinge) is patterned using a desktop printer on the sheet. Hinges absorb selectively the light to locally heat the underlying polymer and cause the shrinkage. We study experimentally the key physical parameters (hinge geometry, line width and support temperature) which affect the folding. We also explore various light and ink sources for folding complex 3D structures. Moreover, we model thermal profiles inside the polymer film, and investigate folding dynamics based on thermal shrinkage and rheological properties of polymer networks.

  5. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR ASSURANCE OF RESPONDENT CONFIDENTIALITY (UA-G-3.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to design respondent privacy and confidentiality for all participants of the Arizona Border Study. This SOP covers verbal, written and electronic data references to respondents. This procedure was followed to ensure consistent data retrieval during th...

  6. Reconceptualising public acceptability: A study of the ways people respond to policies aimed to reduce alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The issue of public acceptability of health policies is key if they are to have significant and lasting impact. This study, based on focus groups conducted in England, examines the ways people responded to, and made sense of, policy ideas aimed at reducing alcohol consumption. Although effective policies were supported in the abstract, specific proposals were consistently rejected because they were not thought to map onto the fundamental causes of excessive drinking, which was not attributed to alcohol itself but instead its cultural context. Rather than being influenced by the credibility of evidence, or assessed according to likely gains set against possible losses, such responses were established dynamically as people interacted with others to make sense of the topic. This has significant implications for policy-makers, suggesting that existing beliefs and knowledge need to be taken into account as potentially productive rather than obstructive resources. PMID:25769693

  7. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR ASSURANCE OF RESPONDENT CONFIDENTIALITY (UA-G-3.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to design respondent privacy and confidentiality for all participants of the NHEXAS Arizona project. This SOP covers verbal, written and electronic data references to respondents. This procedure was followed to ensure consistent data retrieval during ...

  8. Skin substitutes based on allogenic fibroblasts or keratinocytes for chronic wounds not responding to conventional therapy: a retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Pajardi, Giorgio; Rapisarda, Vicenzo; Somalvico, Francesco; Scotti, Andrea; Russo, Giulia Lo; Ciancio, Francesco; Sgrò, Arturo; Nebuloni, Manuela; Allevi, Raffaele; Torre, Maria L; Trabucchi, Emilio; Marazzi, Mario

    2016-02-01

    Chronic wounds are an expression of underlying complex pathologies and have a high incidence. Skin substitutes may represent an alternative approach to treat chronic ulcers. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to evaluate the wound reduction using skin substitutes based on allogenic fibroblasts or keratinocytes in 30 patients not responding to conventional therapy. Wound bed was prepared, then keratinocytes on Laserskin(®) to treat superficial wounds or fibroblasts on Hyalograft 3D(R) to treat deep leg ulcers were applied, and finally wounds were treated with a secondary dressing composed of nanocrystalline silver. Once a week constructs were removed and new bioengineered products were applied, as well as nanocrystalline silver medication. In none of the cases under examination did any complications arise relating to the treatment. We also achieved a reduction in wound dimension and exudates, and an increase in wound bed score. Postoperative assessment shows a degree of healing that is statistically higher in the group treated with keratinocytes as compared with the fibroblast group. This retrospective study improves our understanding and defines the clinical indications for the various uses of the two types of skin substitutes. PMID:24517418

  9. Exceptional Responders Initial Feasibility Results

    Cancer.gov

    A pilot study evaluating identification of cancer patients who respond to treatment that is ineffective in at least 90 percent of patients found that it was indeed able to confirm a majority of proposed patients as exceptional responders based on clinical

  10. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  11. Pre-hospital assessment by a single responder: The Swedish ambulance nurse in a new role: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Carl; Källenius, Christofer; Knutsson, Susanne; Herlitz, Johan; Axelsson, Christer

    2016-05-01

    When a person with vague symptoms calls 112, the dispatchers often have difficulty prioritising the severity of the call. Their only alternative has been to send an ambulance. In Gothenburg, Sweden, a nurse-manned single responder (SR) was initiated to assess this patient group. The study aims to describe patient characteristics and assessment level made by the SR nurse among patients assessed by the dispatcher as low priority and/or vague symptoms. A consecutive journal review was conducted. During six months, 529 patients were assessed; 329 (62%) attended the emergency department (ED) or inpatient care (IC). Of these, 85 patients (26%) were assessed as high priority. Only 108 were assessed as being in need of ambulance transport. ED/IC patients were significantly older. Two hundred (38%) stayed at the scene (SS) (n = 142) or were referred to primary care (PC) (n = 58). Of the 200 SS/PC patients, 38 (19%) attended the ED within 72 hrs with residual symptoms, 20 of whom were admitted to a ward. Nine patients (4% of 200 SS/PC patients) required inpatient treatment and 11 patients stayed overnight for observation. These results suggest a relatively high level of patient safety and the usefulness of an SR among patients assessed by the dispatcher as low priority. PMID:26472522

  12. Online Respondent-Driven Sampling for Studying Contact Patterns Relevant for the Spread of Close-Contact Pathogens: A Pilot Study in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Mart L.; van Steenbergen, Jim E.; Chanyasanha, Charnchudhi; Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Buskens, Vincent; van der Heijden, Peter G. M.; Sabaiwan, Wasamon; Bengtsson, Linus; Lu, Xin; Thorson, Anna E.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E. E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Information on social interactions is needed to understand the spread of airborne infections through a population. Previous studies mostly collected egocentric information of independent respondents with self-reported information about contacts. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a sampling technique allowing respondents to recruit contacts from their social network. We explored the feasibility of webRDS for studying contact patterns relevant for the spread of respiratory pathogens. Materials and Methods We developed a webRDS system for facilitating and tracking recruitment by Facebook and email. One-day diary surveys were conducted by applying webRDS among a convenience sample of Thai students. Students were asked to record numbers of contacts at different settings and self-reported influenza-like-illness symptoms, and to recruit four contacts whom they had met in the previous week. Contacts were asked to do the same to create a network tree of socially connected individuals. Correlations between linked individuals were analysed to investigate assortativity within networks. Results We reached up to 6 waves of contacts of initial respondents, using only non-material incentives. Forty-four (23.0%) of the initially approached students recruited one or more contacts. In total 257 persons participated, of which 168 (65.4%) were recruited by others. Facebook was the most popular recruitment option (45.1%). Strong assortative mixing was seen by age, gender and education, indicating a tendency of respondents to connect to contacts with similar characteristics. Random mixing was seen by reported number of daily contacts. Conclusions Despite methodological challenges (e.g. clustering among respondents and their contacts), applying RDS provides new insights in mixing patterns relevant for close-contact infections in real-world networks. Such information increases our knowledge of the transmission of respiratory infections within populations and can be used to

  13. Responding to racism: insights on how racism can damage health from an urban study of Australian Aboriginal people.

    PubMed

    Ziersch, Anna M; Gallaher, Gilbert; Baum, Fran; Bentley, Michael

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines responses to racism and the pathways through which racism can affect health and wellbeing for Aboriginal people living in an urban environment. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2006/07 with 153 Aboriginal people living in Adelaide, Australia. Participants were asked about their experience of, and responses to, racism, and the impact of these experiences on their health. Racism was regularly experienced by 93% of participants. Almost two thirds of people felt that racism affected their health. Using a thematic analysis with a particular focus on how agency and structure interacted, a number of key reactions and responses to racism were identified. These included: emotional and physiological reactions; and responses such as gaining support from social networks; confronting the person/situation; ignoring it; avoiding situations where they might experience racism; 'minimising' the significance or severity of racism or questioning whether incidents were racist; and consuming alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. A further theme was a conscious decision to not 'allow' racism to affect health. Our study found that most people used more than one of these coping strategies, and that strategies were selected with an awareness of positive and negative health impacts. While individuals demonstrated substantial agency in their responses, there were clear structural constraints on how they reacted and responded. We found that not only was racism potentially detrimental to health, but so too were some responses. However, while some strategies appeared 'healthier' than others, most strategies entailed costs and benefits, and these depended on the meanings of responses for individuals. This paper concludes that initiatives to promote health-protective responses to racism need to consider structural constraints and the overarching goal of reducing systemic racism. PMID:21835522

  14. Respondent-driven sampling in a study of drug users in New York City: notes from the field.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Courtney; Des Jarlais, Don; Bramson, Heidi; Tower, Lisa; Abdul-Quader, Abu S; Nemeth, Chris; Heckathorn, Douglas

    2006-11-01

    Beth Israel Medical Center (BIMC), in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in a study of HIV seroprevalence among drug users in New York City in 2004. We report here on operational issues with RDS including recruitment, coupon distribution, storefront operations, police and community relations, and the overall lessons we learned. Project staff recruited eight seeds from a syringe exchange in Lower Manhattan to serve as the initial study participants. Upon completion of the interview that lasted approximately 1 h and a blood draw, each seed was given three coupons to recruit three drug users into the study. Each of the subsequent eligible participants was also given three coupons to recruit three of their drug-using acquaintances. Eligible participants had to have: injected, smoked or snorted an illicit drug in the last 6 months (other than marijuana), aged 18 or older, adequate English language knowledge to permit informed consent and complete questionnaire. From April to July 2004, 618 drug users were interviewed, including 263 (43%) current injectors, 119 (19%) former injectors, and 236 (38%) never injectors. Four hundred sixty nine (76%) participants were men, 147 (24%) were women, and two (<1%) were transgender. By race/ethnicity, 285 (46%) were black, 218 (35%) Hispanic, 88 (14%) white, 23 (4%) mixed/not specified, and four (<1%) native American. Interviews were initially done on a drop-in basis but this system changed to appointments 1 month into the study due to the large volume of subjects coming in for interviews. Data collection was originally proposed to last for 1 year with a target recruitment of 500 drug users. Utilizing RDS, we were able to recruit and interview 118 more drug users than originally proposed in one quarter of the time. RDS was efficient with respect to time and economics (we did not have to hire an outreach worker) and

  15. Respondent-Driven Sampling with Hard-to-Reach Emerging Adults: An Introduction and Case Study with Rural African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Slater, LaTrina M.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining representative samples from populations of emerging adults who do not attend college is challenging for researchers. This article introduces respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a method for obtaining representative samples of hard-to-reach but socially interconnected populations. RDS combines a prescribed method for chain referral with a…

  16. The Relations of Parental Warmth and Positive Expressiveness to Children's Empathy-Related Responding and Social Functioning: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Losoya, Sandra H.; Fabes, Richard A.; Reiser, Mark; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Cumberland, Amanda J.; Shepard, Stephanie A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the concurrent and cross-time relations of parents' warmth and positive expressivity to elementary school children's situational facial and self-reported empathic responding, social competence, and externalizing problems. Found that parents' positive expressivity mediated the relation between parental warmth and children's empathy, and…

  17. Factors that Influence the Way Communities Respond to Proposals for Major Changes to Local Emergency Services: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, Helen; Harrison, David A.; Fulop, Naomi J.; Raine, Rosalind

    2015-01-01

    Objective According to policy commentators, decisions about how best to organise care involve trade-offs between factors relating to care quality, workforce, cost, and patient access. In England, proposed changes such as Emergency Department closures often face public opposition. This study examined the way communities respond to plans aimed at reorganising emergency services, including the trade-offs inherent in such decisions. Design Cross-sectional study involving in-depth interviews. Participants selected their priorities for emergency care, including aspects they might be prepared to have ‘less’ of (e.g. rapid access) if it meant having ‘more’ of another (e.g. consultant-delivered care). A thematic analysis was carried out, combining inductive and deductive approaches, drawing on theories about risk perception. Setting Two urban areas of England; one where changes to emergency services were under consideration (‘Greenville’), and one where they were not (‘Hilltown’). Participants 28 participants in total. Greenville interviewees included more common emergency service users - parents of young children (n=5) and older people (n=6) - plus patient representatives and individuals campaigning against service closures (n=9). Hilltown interviewees (n=8) received outpatient care for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, an important cause of emergency admission. Results Most participants, in both areas, were not willing to accommodate the trade-offs involved in consolidating emergency services, principally because of the belief that timely access is associated with better outcomes. Participants did not consider the proposed improvements as gains worth having; interviewees believed care quality would be adversely impact, partly because increased patient numbers would place staff under greater pressure and result in longer waiting times. Conclusions Visible clinical leadership and detailed explanation of the case for change were insufficient to overcome

  18. Expecting the unexpected: A mixed methods study of violence to EMS responders in an urban fire department

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Brittany; Davis, Andrea L.; Wright, Jasmine; Widman, Shannon; LeVasseur, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Struck by injuries experienced by females were observed to be higher compared to males in an urban fire department. The disparity was investigated while gaining a grounded understanding of EMS responder experiences from patient‐initiated violence. Methods A convergent parallel mixed methods design was employed. Using a linked injury dataset, patient‐initiated violence estimates were calculated comparing genders. Semi‐structured interviews and a focus group were conducted with injured EMS responders. Results Paramedics had significantly higher odds for patient‐initiated violence injuries than firefighters (OR 14.4, 95%CI: 9.2–22.2, P < 0.001). Females reported increased odds of patient‐initiated violence injuries compared to males (OR = 6.25, 95%CI 3.8–10.2), but this relationship was entirely mediated through occupation (AOR = 1.64, 95%CI 0.94–2.85). Qualitative data illuminated the impact of patient‐initiated violence and highlighted important organizational opportunities for intervention. Conclusions Mixed methods greatly enhanced the assessment of EMS responder patient‐initiated violence prevention. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:150–163, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26725756

  19. What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

  20. Basic and applied research on choice responding.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, W W; Mazur, J E

    1997-01-01

    Choice responding refers to the manner in which individuals allocate their time or responding among available response options. In this article, we first review basic investigations that have identified and examined variables that influence choice responding, such as response effort and reinforcement rate, immediacy, and quality. We then describe recent bridge and applied studies that illustrate how the results of basic research on choice responding can help to account for human behavior in natural environments and improve clinical assessments and interventions. PMID:9316255

  1. SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS WITH RESPONDENT-DRIVEN SAMPLING DATA: A STUDY OF RACIAL INTEGRATION ON CAMPUS1

    PubMed Central

    Wejnert, Cyprian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) as a viable method of sampling and analyzing social networks with survey data. RDS is a network based sampling and analysis method that provides a middle ground compliment to ego-centric and saturated methods of social network analysis. The method provides survey data, similar to ego-centric approaches, on individuals who are connected by behaviorally documented ties, allowing for macro-level analysis of network structure, similar to that supported by saturated approaches. Using racial interaction of university undergraduates as an empirical example, the paper examines whether and to what extent racial diversity at the institutional level is reflected as racial integration at the interpersonal level by testing hypotheses regarding the quantity and quality of cross-race friendships. The primary goal of this article, however, is to introduce RDS to the network community and to stimulate further research toward the goal of expanding the analytical capacity of RDS. Advantages, limitations, and areas for future research to network analysis using RDS are discussed. PMID:20383316

  2. How Do the Laurentian Great Lakes Water Levels Respond to Climate Change? A Regional Climate Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Vavrus, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain twenty percent of the world's surface freshwater. Over the past century, inter-annual water levels have fluctuated in a primarily cyclic pattern with amplitudes from 0.2 m in Lake Superior to 0.7 m in Lake Erie. These changes in water levels result in more significant changes in coastlines of the Great Lakes and alter shoreline erosion, pollutant concentrations, and shoreline habitat. As climate changes, we are interested in how lake levels will respond. Global scale climate models do not depict the Great Lakes, and thus, are unlikely to accurately capture the mechanisms impacting water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model 4 at 20 km horizontal resolution with an improved, explicit lake model, a groundwater module, and a channel routing model. We simulate the past regional climate (1978-present) using NCEP Reanalysis to evaluate model performance and biases. We then simulate present and future water levels using boundary conditions from the global Community Climate System Model. Model evaluation and preliminary findings for future water levels will be presented.

  3. Contactable Non-responders Show Different Characteristics Compared to Lost to Follow-Up Participants: Insights from an Australian Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shu-Kay; Scott, Rani; Scuffham, Paul A

    2016-07-01

    Objective This research aims to identify predictors of attrition in a longitudinal birth cohort study in Australia and assess differences in baseline characteristics and responses in subsequent follow-up phases between contactable non-responders and uncontactable non-responders deemed "lost to follow-up (LTF)". Methods 3368 women recruited from three public hospitals in Southeast Queensland and Northern New South Wales during antenatal visits in 2006-2011 completed a baseline questionnaire to elicit information on multiple domains of exposures. A follow-up questionnaire was posted to each participant at 1 year after birth to obtain mother's and child's health and development information. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the association between exposures and respondents' status at 1 year. The effect of an inverse-probability-weighting method to adjust for non-response was studied. Results Overall attrition at 1-year was 35.4 %; major types of attrition were "contactable non-response" (27.6 %) and "LTF" (6.7 %). These two attrition types showed different responses at the 3-year follow-up and involved different predictors. Besides shared predictors (first language not English, higher risk of psychological distress, had smoked during pregnancy, higher levels of family conflict), distinguishable predictors of contactable non-responders were younger age, having moved home in the past year and having children under 16 in the household. Attrition rates increased substantially from 20 % in 2006 to 54 % in 2011. Conclusions This observed trend of increased attrition rates raises concern about the use of traditional techniques, such as "paper-based" questionnaires, in longitudinal cohort studies. The supplementary use of electronic communications, such as online survey tools and smart-device applications, could provide a better alternative. PMID:26976281

  4. Responding to Children's Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to explore the issues that face primary school teachers when responding to children's drawings. Assessment in art and design is an ongoing concern for teachers with limited experience and confidence in the area and, although children's drawings continue to be a focus of much research, the question of what it is that teachers say…

  5. Experience and Responding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Responds to critiques of an article comparing Dewey and Vygotsky. The critiques argued that Dewey did not promote process over product in the classroom and that Dewey and Vygotsky are more similar than the original article suggested. Focuses on critiques regarding the process product relationship, concrete curriculum issues, student diversity, and…

  6. Responding to Misbehavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kathryn; Forton, Mary Beth; Porter, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    As they learn to negotiate social expectations, children test limits, get carried away, forget, and make mistakes. In fact, having these experiences--and seeing how adults respond to them--is one way children learn about how to behave. Just as when they teach academics, teachers can use students' behavioral mistakes as opportunities for learning.…

  7. Responding to Tragedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coopman, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author, a superintendent of Clark-Pleasant School Corporation in Whiteland, Indiana, relates how she and the school community responded to a car accident that killed two students. The author stresses the need to develop a comprehensive crisis plan. It is also important to be sensitive to the needs of family members who are…

  8. "Cigarettes Are Priority": A Qualitative Study of How Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers Respond to Rising Cigarette Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite substantial modelling research assessing the impact of cigarette taxes on smoking rates across income groups, few studies have examined the broader financial effects and unintended consequences on very low-income smokers. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers in a high-income country manage smoking costs on…

  9. Connected Coaching: How Three Middle School Teachers Responded to the Challenge to Integrate Social Studies and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkley, Russell; Keiser, Megan; Strahan, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examined three teachers' responses to professional development initiatives designed to support them in integrating literacy strategies with their social studies curriculum. Data from participant observation, interviews, archival records, and email exchanges provided insights regarding participants' efforts to weave together literacy…

  10. A Study of Some Conditions Relating to the Retarded Adult's Stereotyped Responding in a Binary-Choice Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Siegel, Paul S.

    1977-01-01

    Examined in a longitudinal study were the effects of conditions on alternation and perseveration of eight moderately and severely mentally retarded institutionalized adults. Available from: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, New Jersey 07648. (CL)

  11. Responding to Mechanical Antigravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.; Thomas, Nicholas E.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the experiences of the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project, suggestions are offered for constructively responding to proposals that purport breakthrough propulsion using mechanical devices. Because of the relatively large number of unsolicited submissions received (about 1 per workday) and because many of these involve similar concepts, this report is offered to help the would-be submitters make genuine progress as well as to help reviewers respond to such submissions. Devices that use oscillating masses or gyroscope falsely appear to create net thrust through differential friction or by misinterpreting torques as linear forces. To cover both the possibility of an errant claim and a genuine discovery, reviews should require that submitters meet minimal thresholds of proof before engaging in further correspondence; such as achieving sustained deflection of a level-platform pendulum in the case of mechanical thrusters.

  12. The Effect of Active Student Responding during Computer-Assisted Instruction on Social Studies Learning by Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerome, Annamaria; Barbetta, Patricia M.

    2005-01-01

    An alternating treatments design with a best treatments phase was used to compare two active student response (ASR) conditions and one on-task (OT) condition on the acquisition and maintenance of social studies facts during computer-assisted instruction. Each week for six weeks, five students were provided daily computer-assisted instruction on 21…

  13. Head Start Evaluation and Research Center, University of Kansas. Report No. IIA, a Study of Auditory Discrimination and Verbal Responding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Thomas A.

    An auditory discrimination procedure was used in this study to attempt to correct the speech problem of a 4-year-old girl. The major characteristic of that speech problem was the consistent use of inappropriate first consonant sounds in some words, like "gog" for "dog." The child was given 25 training sessions and two posttraining sessions. The…

  14. Responding to User's Expectation in the Library: Innovative Web 2.0 Applications at JUIT Library: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Shri; Anbu K., John Paul; Kataria, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to provide an insight into the implementation of some of the innovative Web 2.0 applications at Jaypee University of Information Technology with the aim of exploring the expectations of the users and their awareness and usage of such applications. Design/methodology/approach: The study was undertaken at the Learning…

  15. A transcriptomic study reveals differentially expressed genes and pathways respond to simulated acid rain in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Niu, Li; Fu, Bin; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; He, Jun-Xian; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Acid rain, as a worldwide environmental issue, can cause serious damage to plants. In this study, we provided the first case study on the systematic responses of arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) to simulated acid rain (SiAR) by transcriptome approach. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the expression of a set of genes related to primary metabolisms, including nitrogen, sulfur, amino acid, photosynthesis, and reactive oxygen species metabolism, were altered under SiAR. In addition, transport and signal transduction related pathways, especially calcium-related signaling pathways, were found to play important roles in the response of arabidopsis to SiAR stress. Further, we compared our data set with previously published data sets on arabidopsis transcriptome subjected to various stresses, including wound, salt, light, heavy metal, karrikin, temperature, osmosis, etc. The results showed that many genes were overlapped in several stresses, suggesting that plant response to SiAR is a complex process, which may require the participation of multiple defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study will help us gain further insights into the response mechanisms of plants to acid rain stress. PMID:23379338

  16. The Trier Social Stress Test as a paradigm to study how people respond to threat in social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Johanna U.; Häusser, Jan A.; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In our lives, we face countless situations in which we are observed and evaluated by our social interaction partners. Social-evaluative threat is frequently associated with strong neurophysiological stress reactions, in particular, an increase in cortisol levels. Yet, social variables do not only cause stress, but they can also buffer the neurophysiological stress response. Furthermore, social variables can themselves be affected by the threat or the threat-induced neurophysiological stress response. In order to study this complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses, a paradigm is needed that (a) reliably induces high levels of social-evaluative threat and (b) is extremely adaptable to the needs of the researcher. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a well-established paradigm in biopsychology that induces social-evaluative threat in the laboratory by subjecting participants to a mock job-interview. In this review, we aim at demonstrating the potential of the TSST for studying the complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses. PMID:25698987

  17. Executive attention control and emotional responding in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder — A functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Soonjo; White, Stuart F.; Nolan, Zachary T.; Craig Williams, W.; Sinclair, Stephen; Blair, R.J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background There are suggestions that patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show impairment in executive attention control and emotion regulation. This study investigated emotion regulation as a function of the recruitment of executive attention in patients with ADHD. Methods Thirty-five healthy children/adolescents (mean age = 13.91) and twenty-six children/adolescents with ADHD (mean age = 14.53) participated in this fMRI study. They completed the affective Stroop paradigm viewing positive, neutral and negative images under varying cognitive loads. A 3-way ANOVA (diagnosis-by-condition-by-emotion) was conducted on the BOLD response data. Following this, 2 3-way ANOVAs (diagnosis-by-condition-by-emotion) were applied to context-dependent psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analyses generated from a dorsomedial frontal cortex and an amygdala seed (identified from the BOLD response ANOVA main effects of condition and emotion respectively). Results A diagnosis-by-condition interaction within dorsomedial frontal cortex revealed reduced recruitment of dorsomedial frontal cortex as a function of increased task demands in the children/adolescents with ADHD relative to healthy children/adolescents. The level of reduction in recruitment of dorsomedial frontal cortex was significantly correlated with symptom severity (total and hyperactivity) measured by Conner's Parent Report Scale in the children/adolescents with ADHD. In addition, analysis of gPPI data from a dorsomedial frontal cortex seed revealed significant diagnosis-by-condition interactions within lateral frontal cortex; connectivity between dorsomedial frontal cortex and lateral frontal cortex was reduced in the patients with ADHD relative to comparison youth during congruent and incongruent task trials relative to view trials. There were no interactions of group, or main effect of group, within the amygdala in the BOLD response ANOVA (though children/adolescents with ADHD showed

  18. Reducing the trigger dose of recombinant hCG in high-responder patients attending an assisted reproductive technology program: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Tiboni, Gian Mario; Colangelo, Enrica Concetta; Ponzano, Adalisa

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the dose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) used to trigger final oocyte maturation in assisted reproductive technology programs is regarded as a useful intervention in the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, but the minimal effective dose has not been yet identified. In this study, the capacity of a reduced dose of recombinant hCG (r-hCG) to provide adequate oocyte maturation was tested for the first time. Thirty-five high-responder patients received a dose of 125 µg (half of the standard dose) of r-hCG for triggering final oocyte maturation. The number of oocytes retrieved per patient and the proportion of mature oocytes were evaluated. As a result, a mean number of 14 oocytes were retrieved, of which 85% were found to be mature (MII). There was only one patient developing a moderate form of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and not requiring hospitalization. It is suggested that r-hCG at 125 µg can be effective in triggering final oocyte maturation in high-responder patients. Additional properly powered and controlled studies are needed to support this contention. PMID:27274202

  19. Successful use of "Hour 1" transfer of sperm microinjected oocytes in natural cycles of poor responder women: a prospective randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aragona, Cesare; Linari, Antonella; Micara, Giulietta; Tranquilli, Daniela; Gambaro, Agnese Maria Lourdes; Bezerra Espinola, Maria Salome

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate the successful use of "Hour 1" transfer of sperm microinjected oocytes in natural cycles of poor responder women. Seventy women were selected from 92 consecutive poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) in a natural cycle at our Sterility and Assisted Reproduction Unit from September 2009 to July 2013, and randomly distributed in two homogeneous groups: Group A or B. Women in Group A (35) underwent transfer within 1 h after ICSI; Group B (35, control group) underwent transfer 3 days after ICSI. In Group A, seven clinical pregnancy and one miscarriage occurred; in Group B, eight clinical pregnancies and two miscarriages were observed. Pregnancy, miscarriage, term pregnancy and overall live birth rates' difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Difference between the two groups in terms of timing, type of delivery and newborn birthweight was not observed. Neither ectopic pregnancy nor multiple pregnancies occurred. "Hour 1" uterine transfer of ICSI oocytes, still to be considered with caution because of the relatively low number of observations of the pilot study, deserves further attention on a larger scale, and might be evaluated for clinical and financial effectiveness in other clinical settings. PMID:26654862

  20. Stress field respond to massive injection of cold water into a geothermal reservoir study by geomechanical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanne, P.; Rutqvist, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study the evolution and distribution of the stress tensor within the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field during 9 years of injection (from 2003 to 2012). Based on a refined 3D structural model, developed by Calpine Corporation, where the horizon surfaces are mapped, we use the GMS™ GUI to construct a realistic three-dimensional geologic model of the Northwest Geysers geothermal field. This model includes a low permeability graywacke layer that forms the caprock for the reservoir, an isothermal steam zone (the Normal Temperature Reservoir) within metagraywacke, a hornfels zone (the High Temperature Reservoir), and a felsite layer that is assumed to extend downward to the magmatic heat source. This model is mapped into a rectangular grid for use with the TOUGH-FLAC numerical simulator. Then, we reproduce the injection history of seven active wells between 2003 and 2012. Finally, our results are compared with previous works where the stress tensor was studied from the inversion of focal plane mechanism in the same area and during the same period. As in these publications we find that: (1) changes in the orientation of principal horizontal stress are very small after one decade of injection, and (2) at injection depth significant rotations of the initially vertically oriented maximum compressive principal stress occur in response to changes in the fluid injection rates. As observed in the field, we found that σ1 tilted towards the σ2 direction by approximately 15° when injection rates were at their peak level. Such a rotation consequently results in a local change in the state stress from a normal stress regime (Sv > SHmax> > Shmin) to a strike slip regime (SHmax> Sv > > Shmin) above and below the injection zone. Our results show that thermal processes are the principal cause for the stress tensor rotation.

  1. Factors that influence the way local communities respond to consultation processes about major service change: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, Helen; Harrison, David A.; Raine, Rosalind; Fulop, Naomi J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In England, proposed service changes such as Emergency Department closures typically face local opposition. Consequently, public consultation exercises often involve protracted, hostile debates. This study examined a process aimed at engaging a community in decision-making about service reconfiguration, and the public response to this process. Methods A documentary analysis was conducted to map consultation methods used in an urban area of England where plans to consolidate hospital services on fewer sites were under discussion. In-depth interviews (n = 20) were conducted with parents, older people, and patient representatives. The analysis combined inductive and deductive approaches, informed by risk communication theories. Results The commissioners provided a large volume of information about the changes, alongside a programme of public events. However, the complexity of the process, together with what members of the public perceived to be the commissioners’ dismissal of their concerns, led the community to question their motivation. This was compounded by a widespread perception that the proposals were financially driven. Discussion Government policy emphasises the importance of clinical leadership and ‘evidence’ in public consultation. However, an engagement process based on this approach fuelled hostility to the proposals. Policymakers should not assume communities can be persuaded to accommodate service change which may result in reduced access to care. PMID:25975768

  2. The marriage of surgical simulation and telementoring for damage-control surgical training of operational first responders: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Tien, Homer; LaPorta, Anthony T.; Lavell, Kit; Keillor, Jocelyn; Wright Beatty, Heather E.; McKee, Jessica Lynn; Brien, Susan; Roberts, Derek J.; Wong, Jonathan; Ball, Chad G.; Beckett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable posttraumatic death. Many such deaths may be potentially salvageable with remote damage-control surgical interventions. As recent innovations in information technology enable remote specialist support to point-of-care providers, advanced interventions, such as remote damage-control surgery, may be possible in remote settings. METHODS An anatomically realistic perfused surgical training mannequin with intrinsic fluid loss measurements (the “Cut Suit”) was used to study perihepatic packing with massive liver hemorrhage. The primary outcome was loss of simulated blood (water) during six stages, namely, incision, retraction, direction, identification, packing, and postpacking. Six fully credentialed surgeons performed the same task as 12 military medical technicians who were randomized to remotely telementored (RTM) (n = 7) or unmentored (UTM) (n=5) real-time guidance by a trauma surgeon. RESULTS There were no significant differences in fluid loss between the surgeons and the UTM group or between the UTM and RTM groups. However, when comparing the RTM group with the surgeons, there was significantly more total fluid loss (p = 0.001) and greater loss during the identification (p = 0.002), retraction (p = 0.035), direction (p = 0.014), and packing(p = 0.022) stages. There were no significant differences in fluid loss after packing between the groups despite differences in the number of sponges used; RTM group used more sponges than the surgeons and significantly more than the UTM group (p = 0.048). However, mentoring significantly increased self-assessed nonsurgeon procedural confidence (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION Perihepatic packing of an exsanguinating liver hemorrhage model was readily performed by military medical technicians after a focused briefing. While real-time telementoring did not improve fluid loss, it significantly increased nonsurgeon procedural confidence, which may augment the feasibility of the

  3. Social networks of men who have sex with men: a study of recruitment chains using Respondent Driven Sampling in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila Denise; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Kerr, Lígia R F S

    2015-11-01

    Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil), one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree) and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks' structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention. PMID:26648372

  4. Understanding the HIV/AIDS epidemic in transgender women of Lima, Peru: results from a sero-epidemiologic study using respondent driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Raymond, H Fisher; Salazar, Ximena; Villayzan, Jana; Leon, Segundo; McFarland, Willi; Caceres, Carlos F

    2012-05-01

    In Latin America, transgender women (transwomen or male to female transgenders) have been included in MSM research but without addressing their specific needs in terms of the HIV/AIDS. We present results of the first seroepidemiologic study designed for transwomen in Peru. We conducted a study using respondent driven sampling to recruit transwomen from Lima. Our survey explored sociodemographic characteristics, gender enhancement procedures and sexual behavior. In addition, we conducted laboratory based HIV, genital herpes (HSV2) and syphilis testing. A total of 450 transwomen were recruited between April and July 2009. HIV prevalence was 30%, HSV2: 79% and syphilis: 23%. Sex-work was the main economic activity (64%). Gender enhancement procedures were reported by 70% of the population. Multivariable analysis showed HIV infection to be associated with being older than 35 recent, syphilis infection and HSV2 infection. Transwomen are the group most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS in Peru. PMID:21983694

  5. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Tuan Anh, Tran; Rocklöv, Joacim; Bao Giang, Kim; Trang, Le Quynh; Sahlen, Klas-Göran; Nilsson, Maria; Weinehall, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. Objective This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. Design This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions) were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. Results 1) Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2) Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3) Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4) Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5) Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological data) were largely

  6. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH): Scientific Understanding of Arctic Environmental Change to Help Society Understand and Respond to a Rapidly Changing Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Myers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a U.S. program with a mission to provide a foundation of Arctic change science through collaboration with the research community, funding agencies, and other stakeholders. To achieve this mission, SEARCH: Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes Arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. Identifies emerging issues in Arctic environmental change. Provides scientific information to Arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them understand and respond to arctic environmental change. Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales, with an emphasis on addressing needs of decision-makers. Collaborates with national and international science programs integral to SEARCH goals. This poster presentation will present SEARCH activities and plans, highlighting those focused on providing information for decision-makers. http://www.arcus.org/search

  7. Observational Study to Assess the Therapeutic Value of Four Ovarian Hyperstimulation Protocols in IVF After Pituitary Suppression with GnRH Antagonists in Normally Responding Women

    PubMed Central

    Ana, Monzó; Vicente, Montañana; María, Rubio José; Trinidad, García-Gimeno; Alberto, Romeu

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical results of four different protocols of COH for IVF-ICSI in normovulatory women, using in all cases pituitary suppression with GnRH antagonists. Materials/methods A single center, open label, parallel-controlled, prospective, post-authorization study under the approved conditions for use where 305 normal responders women who were candidates to COH were assigned to r-FSH +hp-hMG (n = 51, Group I), hp-hMG (n = 61, Group II), fixed-dose r-FSH (n = 118, Group III), and r-FSH with potential dose adjustment (n = 75, Group IV) to subsequently undergo IVF-ICSI. Results During stimulation, Group IV needed significantly more days of stimulation as compared to Group II [8.09 ± 1.25 vs. 7.62 ± 1.17; P < 0.05], but was the group in which more oocytes were recovered [Group I: 9.43 ± 4.99 vs. Group II: 8.96 ± 4.82 vs. Group III: 8.78 ± 3.72 vs. Group IV: 11.62 ± 5.80; P < 0.05]. No significant differences were seen between the groups in terms of clinical and ongoing pregnancy, but among patients in whom two embryos with similar quality parameters (ASEBIR) were transferred, the group treated with hp-hMG alone achieved a significantly greater clinical pregnancy rate as compared to all other groups [Group I: 31.6%, Group II: 56.4%, Group III: 28.7%, Group IV: 32.7%; P < 0.05]. Conclusions Although randomized clinical trials should be conducted to achieve a more reliable conclusion, these observations support the concept that stimulation with hp-hMG could be beneficial in normal responders women undergoing pituitary suppression with GnRH antagonists. PMID:24453506

  8. Responders to Wide-Pulse, High-Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Show Reduced Metabolic Demand: A 31P-MRS Study in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Wegrzyk, Jennifer; Fouré, Alexandre; Le Fur, Yann; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Vilmen, Christophe; Guye, Maxime; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Place, Nicolas; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Conventional (CONV) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) (i.e., short pulse duration, low frequencies) induces a higher energetic response as compared to voluntary contractions (VOL). In contrast, wide-pulse, high-frequency (WPHF) NMES might elicit–at least in some subjects (i.e., responders)–a different motor unit recruitment compared to CONV that resembles the physiological muscle activation pattern of VOL. We therefore hypothesized that for these responder subjects, the metabolic demand of WPHF would be lower than CONV and comparable to VOL. 18 healthy subjects performed isometric plantar flexions at 10% of their maximal voluntary contraction force for CONV (25 Hz, 0.05 ms), WPHF (100 Hz, 1 ms) and VOL protocols. For each protocol, force time integral (FTI) was quantified and subjects were classified as responders and non-responders to WPHF based on k-means clustering analysis. Furthermore, a fatigue index based on FTI loss at the end of each protocol compared with the beginning of the protocol was calculated. Phosphocreatine depletion (ΔPCr) was assessed using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Responders developed four times higher FTI’s during WPHF (99 ± 37 ×103 N.s) than non-responders (26 ± 12 ×103 N.s). For both responders and non-responders, CONV was metabolically more demanding than VOL when ΔPCr was expressed relative to the FTI. Only for the responder group, the ∆PCr/FTI ratio of WPHF (0.74 ± 0.19 M/N.s) was significantly lower compared to CONV (1.48 ± 0.46 M/N.s) but similar to VOL (0.65 ± 0.21 M/N.s). Moreover, the fatigue index was not different between WPHF (-16%) and CONV (-25%) for the responders. WPHF could therefore be considered as the less demanding NMES modality–at least in this subgroup of subjects–by possibly exhibiting a muscle activation pattern similar to VOL contractions. PMID:26619330

  9. Investigation of alcohol-related social norms among youth aged 14–17 years in Perth, Western Australia: protocol for a respondent-driven sampling study

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Janina; Maycock, Bruce; Howat, Peter; Burns, Sharyn; Allsop, Steve; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Lobo, Roanna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use among young people is a major public health concern in Australia and internationally. Research elucidating social norms influencing alcohol use supports the desire to conform to peers. However, there is a lack of evidence on how social norms are transmitted from the community to young people and between family members and peers, as previous studies are limited to mainly school and university environments. This article describes the proposed process to investigate common alcohol-related norms held by 14-year-olds to 17-year-olds in Perth, Western Australia, and to clarify the process and pathways through which proalcohol norms are transmitted to adolescents. Methods and analysis This cross-sectional quantitative study will use respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit a sample of 672 adolescents from sporting groups, youth programmes and the community in Perth. Data will be collected with a previously developed and validated multidimensional online survey instrument. A variety of strategies will be explored to aid participation including face-to-face recruitment and survey administration, web-based RDS and a ‘mature minor’ consent assessment protocol. Data analysis will include descriptive statistics of demographic characteristics, as well as social network and dyadic analyses, to explore the connections between shared understanding of norms and behaviours among individuals and how these translate into reported practices. Ethics and dissemination This research is expected to extend our understanding of normative development pathways to inform future interventions, and will be widely disseminated through conference presentations, peer-reviewed papers, media channels and community seminars. A study reference group of key health industry stakeholders will be established to encourage integration of study findings into policy and practice, and results will guide the development of community interventions. The Curtin University Human

  10. How Do Medical Students Respond to Emotional Cues and Concerns Expressed by Simulated Patients during OSCE Consultations? – A Multilevel Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuefang; Collinson, Alex; Laidlaw, Anita; Humphris, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Objectives How medical students handle negative emotions expressed by simulated patients during Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) has not been fully investigated. We aim to explore (i) whether medical students respond differently to different types of patients’ emotional cues; and (2) possible effects of patients’ progressive disclosure of emotional cues on students’ responses. Methods Forty OSCE consultations were video recorded and coded for patients’ expressions of emotional distress and students’ responses using a validated behavioural coding scheme (the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequence). Logistic multilevel regression was adopted to model the probability of the occurrence of student reduce space response behaviour as a function of the number of patients’ expressions of emotional cues. Results We found that medical students offered responses that differed to emotional cue types expressed by simulated patients. Students appeared to provide space to emotional cues when expressed in vague and unspecific words and reduce space to cues emphasizing physiological or cognitive correlates. We also found that medical students were less likely to explore patients’ emotional distress nearer the end of the consultation and when the duration of a patient speech turn got larger. Cumulative frequency of patients’ emotional cues also predicted students’ reduce space behaviour. Practical Implications Understanding how medical students manage negative emotions has significant implications for training programme development focusing on emotion recognition skills and patient-centred communication approach. In addition, the statistical approaches adopted by this study will encourage researchers in healthcare communication to search for appropriate analytical techniques to test theoretical propositions. PMID:24194960

  11. Genetically-based behavioral traits influence the effects of Shuttle Box avoidance overtraining and extinction upon intertrial responding: a study with the Roman rat strains.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Raúl; Gil, Luis; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Tobeña, Adolf

    2004-04-30

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of extended exposure procedures to contextual fear cues as a way of reducing intertrial responses (ITRs), a characteristic stereotyped behavior displayed in 2-way Shuttle Box avoidance overtraining. We used rat strains psychogenetically selected for efficient (Roman high-avoidance; RHA) versus poor 2-way Shuttle Box performance (Roman low-avoidance; RLA), the former being fearless/impulsive relative to the latter. Additionally, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were compared with RHAs to have a measure of the ITRs exhibited by another, non-selected group of animals. The main findings were that after extended exposure RHAs diminished their ITRs without affecting avoidance performance, although they emitted a pattern of ITRs somewhat excessive as compared with SDs. We concluded that three factors could influence the expression of ITRs in RHA rats: (1) the repetitive and stereotyped responding induced by 2-way Shuttle Box overtraining; (2) contextual fear conditioning; and (3) a genetic background associated with high impulsiveness. PMID:15062972

  12. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  13. Clinical-biochemical correlates of migraine attacks in rizatriptan responders and non-responders.

    PubMed

    Sarchielli, P; Pini, L A; Zanchin, G; Alberti, A; Maggioni, F; Rossi, C; Floridi, A; Calabresi, P

    2006-03-01

    The present study was aimed at verifying the clinical characteristics of a typical attack in 20 migraine patients, 10 responders and 10 non-responders to rizatriptan, and at investigating any differences in the levels of neuropeptides of the trigeminovascular or parasympathetic systems [calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neurokinin A (NKA) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) measured by radioimmunoassay methods in external jugular blood] between responders and non-responders. In all responders to rizatriptan, pain was unilateral, severe, and pulsating, and in five of them at least one sign suggestive of parasympathetic system activation was recorded. Five patients who were non-responders to rizatriptan referred bilateral and non-pulsating pain, even though severe in most of them. CGRP and NKA levels measured before rizatriptan administration were significantly higher in responders than in non-responders (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.002, respectively). In the five patients with autonomic signs among rizatriptan responders, detectable VIP levels were found at baseline. One hour after rizatriptan administration, a decrease in CGRP and NKA levels was evident in the external jugular venous blood of rizatriptan responders, and this corresponded to a significant pain relief and alleviation of accompanying symptoms. VIP levels were also significantly reduced at the same time in the five patients with autonomic signs. After rizatriptan administration, CGRP and NKA levels in non-responder patients showed less significant variations at all time points after rizatriptan administration compared with rizatriptan responders. The present study, although carried out on a limited number of patients, supports recent clinical evidence of increased trigeminal activation associated with a better triptan response in migraine patients accompanied by parasympathetic activation in a subgroup of patients with autonomic signs. In contrast, the poor response seems to be correlated with a

  14. Integrated respondent-driven sampling and peer support for persons who inject drugs in Haiphong, Vietnam: a case study with implications for interventions.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don; Duong, Huong Thi; Pham Minh, Khue; Khuat, Oanh Hai Thi; Nham, Thanh Tuyet Thi; Arasteh, Kamyar; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Heckathorn, Douglas D; Peries, Marianne; Moles, Jean Pierre; Laureillard, Didier; Nagot, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    Combined prevention for HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWID) has led to greatly reduced HIV transmission among PWID in many high-income settings, but these successes have not yet been replicated in resource-limited settings. Haiphong, Vietnam experienced a large HIV epidemic among PWID, with 68% prevalence in 2006. Haiphong has implemented needle/syringe programs, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), and anti-retroviral treatment (ART), but there is an urgent need to identify high-risk PWID and link them to services. We examined integration of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and strong peer support groups as a mechanism for identifying high-risk PWID and linking them to services. The peer support staff performed the key tasks that required building and maintaining trust with the participants, including recruiting the RDS seeds, greeting and registering participants at the research site, taking electronic copies of participant fingerprints (to prevent multiple participation in the study), and conducting urinalyses. A 6-month cohort study with 250 participants followed the RDS cross-sectional study. The peer support staff maintained contact with these participants, tracking them if they missed appointments, and providing assistance in accessing methadone and ART. The RDS recruitment was quite rapid, with 603 participants recruited in three weeks. HIV prevalence was 25%, Hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence 67%, and participants reported an average of 2.7 heroin injections per day. Retention in the cohort study was high, with 86% of participants re-interviewed at 6-month follow-up. Assistance in accessing services led to half of the participants in need of methadone enrolled in methadone clinics, and half of HIV-positive participants in need of ART enrolled in HIV clinics by the 6-month follow-up. This study suggests that integrating large-scale RDS and strong peer support may provide a method for rapidly linking high-risk PWID to combined prevention and care, and

  15. Relational Responding in Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Amy R.; Wilson, Kelly G.; LaBorde, Cicely T.; Drake, Chad E.; Rogers, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parenting stress and relational conditioning. Fourteen students who were not mothers, 14 mothers who reported high parenting stress and 14 mothers with low parenting stress completed two matching-to-sample (MTS) computer tasks, each requiring formation of three 3-member classes. The first MTS task…

  16. Thinking It Through: A Study of How Pre-Service Teachers Respond to Children Who Present with Possible Mental Health Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, David; Price, Deborah; Crowley, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are key professionals in responding to children and adolescents with possible mental health difficulties and who exhibit social, emotional or behavioural difficulties in the classroom. Health and education policy increasingly positions teachers as vital agents in connecting mental health services with affected young people. A growing…

  17. Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Anti-Müllerian Hormone per Oocyte in Predicting in vitro Fertilization Pregnancy in High Responders: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Weghofer, Andrea; Kim, Ann; Barad, David H.; Gleicher, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) are utilized to differentiate between good and poor response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Their respective roles in defining functional ovarian reserve remain, however, to be elucidated. To better understand those we investigated AMH and FSH per oocyte retrieved (AMHo and FSHo). Methodology/Principal Findings Three-hundred and ninety-six women, undergoing first in vitro fertilization cycles, were retrospectively evaluated. Women with oocyte yields >75th percentile for their age group were identified as high responders. In a series of logistic regression analyses, AMHo and FSHo levels were then evaluated as predictive factors for pregnancy potential in high responders. Patients presented with a mean age of 38.0±5.0 years, mean baseline FSH of 11.8±8.7 mIU/mL and mean AMH of 1.6±2.1 ng/mL. Those 88 women, who qualified as high responders, showed mean FSH of 9.7±6.5 mIU/mL, AMH of 3.1±3.1 ng/mL and oocyte yields of 15.8±7.1. Baseline FSH and AMH did not predict pregnancy in high responders. However, a statistically significant association between FSHo and pregnancy was observed in high responders, both after univariate regression (p = 0.02) and when adjusted for age, percentage of usable embryos, and number of embryos transferred (p = 0.03). Rate of useable embryos also significantly affected pregnancy outcome independently of FSHo (p = 0.01). AMHo was also associated with clinical pregnancy chances in high responders (p = 0.03) and remained significant when adjusted for usable embryos and number of embryos transferred (p = 0.04). Conclusions AMHo and FSHo are predictive of pregnancy potential in high responders, but likely reflect different responsibilities in recruitment and maturation of growing follicle cohorts. PMID:22545082

  18. Genome-Wide Association Studies Reveal that Diverse Heading Date Genes Respond to Short and Long Day Lengths between Indica and Japonica Rice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhongmin; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Hu; Ayaad, Mohammed; Xing, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a short-day plant. Short-day length promotes heading, and long-day length suppresses heading. Many studies have evaluated rice heading in field conditions in which some individuals in the population were exposed to various day lengths, including short and long days, prior to a growth phase transition. In this study, we investigated heading date under natural short-day conditions (SD) and long-day conditions (LD) for 100s of accessions and separately conducted genome-wide association studies within indica and japonica subpopulations. Under LD, three and four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified in indica and japonica subpopulations, respectively, two of which were less than 80 kb from the known genes Hd17 and Ghd7. But no common QTLs were detected in both subpopulations. Under SD, six QTLs were detected in indica, three of which were less than 80 kb from the known heading date genes Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1. But no QTLs were detected in japonica subpopulation. qHd3 under SD and qHd4 under LD were two novel major QTLs, which deserve isolation in the future. Eleven known heading date genes were used to test the power of association mapping at the haplotype level. Hd17, Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1 were again detected at more significant level and three additional genes, Hd3a, OsMADS56, and Ghd7.1, were detected. However, of the detected seven genes, only one gene, Hd17, was commonly detected in both subpopulations and two genes, Ghd7 and Ghd7.1, were commonly detected in indica subpopulation under both conditions. Moreover, haplotype analysis identified favorable haplotypes of Ghd7 and OsMADS56 for breeding design. In conclusion, diverse heading date genes/QTLs between indica and japonica subpopulations responded to SD and LD, and haplotype-level association mapping was more powerful than SNP-level association in rice. PMID:27621738

  19. Genome-Wide Association Studies Reveal that Diverse Heading Date Genes Respond to Short and Long Day Lengths between Indica and Japonica Rice.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhongmin; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Hu; Ayaad, Mohammed; Xing, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a short-day plant. Short-day length promotes heading, and long-day length suppresses heading. Many studies have evaluated rice heading in field conditions in which some individuals in the population were exposed to various day lengths, including short and long days, prior to a growth phase transition. In this study, we investigated heading date under natural short-day conditions (SD) and long-day conditions (LD) for 100s of accessions and separately conducted genome-wide association studies within indica and japonica subpopulations. Under LD, three and four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified in indica and japonica subpopulations, respectively, two of which were less than 80 kb from the known genes Hd17 and Ghd7. But no common QTLs were detected in both subpopulations. Under SD, six QTLs were detected in indica, three of which were less than 80 kb from the known heading date genes Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1. But no QTLs were detected in japonica subpopulation. qHd3 under SD and qHd4 under LD were two novel major QTLs, which deserve isolation in the future. Eleven known heading date genes were used to test the power of association mapping at the haplotype level. Hd17, Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1 were again detected at more significant level and three additional genes, Hd3a, OsMADS56, and Ghd7.1, were detected. However, of the detected seven genes, only one gene, Hd17, was commonly detected in both subpopulations and two genes, Ghd7 and Ghd7.1, were commonly detected in indica subpopulation under both conditions. Moreover, haplotype analysis identified favorable haplotypes of Ghd7 and OsMADS56 for breeding design. In conclusion, diverse heading date genes/QTLs between indica and japonica subpopulations responded to SD and LD, and haplotype-level association mapping was more powerful than SNP-level association in rice. PMID:27621738

  20. Emergency responders' critical infrared (ERCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konsin, Larry S.

    2004-08-01

    Emergency Responders (Fire, Police, Medical, and Emergency Management) face a high risk of injury or death. Even before September 11, 2001, public and private organizations have been driven to better protect Emergency Responders through education, training and improved technology. Recent research on Emergency Responder safety, health risks, and personal protective requirements, shows infrared (IR) imaging as a critical need. Today"s Emergency Responders are increasingly challenged to do more, facing demands requiring technological assistance and/or solutions. Since the introduction of Fire Service IR imaging in the mid 1990s, applications have increased. Emergency response IR is no longer just seeing through smoke to find victims or the seat of a fire. Many more mission critical needs now exist across the broad spectrum of emergency response. At the same time, Emergency Responder injuries and deaths are increasing. The Office of Domestic Preparedness (ODP) has also recognized IR imaging as critical in protecting our communities -- and in preventing many of the injuries and deaths of Emergency Responders. Currently, only 25% of all fire departments (or less than 7% of individual firefighters) have IR imaging. Availability to Police, EMS and Emergency Management is even lower. Without ERCI, Emergency Responders and our communities are at risk.

  1. School Principals and Racism: Responding to Aveling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Claire; Mahoney, Caroline; Fox, Brandi; Halse, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study responds to Nado Aveling's call in "Anti-racism in Schools: A question of leadership?" ("Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education," 2007, 28(1), 69-85) for further investigation into racism in Australian schools. Aveling's interview study concluded that an overwhelming number of school principals…

  2. Responder Technology Alert (February 2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-04-10

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  3. The Impact of Limited School Choice on Public School Districts: Case Studies of How School Districts in Michigan's Largest County Are Responding to Competition from Charter Schools and Public "Schools-of-Choice."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladner, Matthew; Brouillette, Matthew J.

    This study sought to determine whether increased competition among Michigan public schools, resulting from charter schools and the state's "schools-of-choice" program, has improved educational opportunities for children and whether competition encourages or discourages schools to respond to the needs and demands of students and parents. The…

  4. Operant and nonoperant vocal responding in the mynah: Complex schedule control and deprivation-induced responding

    PubMed Central

    Hake, D. F.; Mabry, J.

    1979-01-01

    Several recent studies have been concerned with operant responses that are also affected by nonoperant factors, (e.g., biological constraints, innate behavior patterns, respondent processes). The major reason for studying mynah vocal responding concerned the special relation of avian vocalizations to nonoperant emotional and reflexive systems. The research strategy was to evaluate operant and nonoperant control by comparing the schedule control obtained with the vocal response to that characteristic of the motor responses of other animals. We selected single, multiple, and chain schedules that ordinarily produce disparate response rates at predictable times. In multiple schedules with one component where vocal responding (“Awk”) was reinforced with food (fixed-ratio or fixed-interval schedule) and one where the absence of vocal responding was reinforced (differential reinforcement of other behavior), response rates never exceeded 15 responses per minute, but clear schedule differences developed in response rate and pause time. Nonoperant vocal responding was evident when responding endured across 50 extinction sessions at 25% to 40% of the rate during reinforcement. The “enduring extinction responding” was largely deprivation induced, because the operant-level of naive mynahs under food deprivation was comparable in magnitude, but without deprivation the operant level was much lower. Food deprivation can induce vocal responding, but the relatively precise schedule control indicated that operant contingencies predominate when they are introduced. PMID:16812153

  5. Assessing respondent-driven sampling

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Sharad; Salganik, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a network-based technique for estimating traits in hard-to-reach populations, for example, the prevalence of HIV among drug injectors. In recent years RDS has been used in more than 120 studies in more than 20 countries and by leading public health organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Despite the widespread use and growing popularity of RDS, there has been little empirical validation of the methodology. Here we investigate the performance of RDS by simulating sampling from 85 known, network populations. Across a variety of traits we find that RDS is substantially less accurate than generally acknowledged and that reported RDS confidence intervals are misleadingly narrow. Moreover, because we model a best-case scenario in which the theoretical RDS sampling assumptions hold exactly, it is unlikely that RDS performs any better in practice than in our simulations. Notably, the poor performance of RDS is driven not by the bias but by the high variance of estimates, a possibility that had been largely overlooked in the RDS literature. Given the consistency of our results across networks and our generous sampling conditions, we conclude that RDS as currently practiced may not be suitable for key aspects of public health surveillance where it is now extensively applied. PMID:20351258

  6. Assessing respondent-driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Goel, Sharad; Salganik, Matthew J

    2010-04-13

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a network-based technique for estimating traits in hard-to-reach populations, for example, the prevalence of HIV among drug injectors. In recent years RDS has been used in more than 120 studies in more than 20 countries and by leading public health organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Despite the widespread use and growing popularity of RDS, there has been little empirical validation of the methodology. Here we investigate the performance of RDS by simulating sampling from 85 known, network populations. Across a variety of traits we find that RDS is substantially less accurate than generally acknowledged and that reported RDS confidence intervals are misleadingly narrow. Moreover, because we model a best-case scenario in which the theoretical RDS sampling assumptions hold exactly, it is unlikely that RDS performs any better in practice than in our simulations. Notably, the poor performance of RDS is driven not by the bias but by the high variance of estimates, a possibility that had been largely overlooked in the RDS literature. Given the consistency of our results across networks and our generous sampling conditions, we conclude that RDS as currently practiced may not be suitable for key aspects of public health surveillance where it is now extensively applied. PMID:20351258

  7. In their own words: Reports of stigma and genetic discrimination by people at risk for Huntington disease in the International RESPOND-HD study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Janet K; Erwin, Cheryl; Juhl, Andrew R; Mengeling, Michelle; Bombard, Yvonne; Hayden, Michael R; Quaid, Kimberly; Shoulson, Ira; Taylor, Sandra; Paulsen, Jane S

    2011-01-01

    Genetic discrimination may be experienced in the day-to-day lives of people at risk for Huntington Disease (HD), encompassing occurrences in the workplace, when seeking insurance, within social relationships, and during other daily encounters. At-risk individuals who have tested either positive or negative for the genetic expansion that causes HD, as well as at-risk persons with a 50% chance for developing the disorder but have not had DNA testing completed the International RESPOND-HD (I-RESPOND-HD) survey. One of the study’s purposes was to examine perceptions of genetic stigmatization and discrimination. A total of 412 out of 433 participants provided narrative comments, and 191 provided related codable narrative data. The core theme, Information Control, refers to organizational policies and interpersonal actions. This theme was found in narrative comments describing genetic discrimination perceptions across employment, insurance, social, and other situations. These reports were elaborated with five themes: What they encountered, What they felt, What others did, What they did, and What happened. Although many perceptions were coded as hurtful, this was not true in all instances. Findings document that reports of genetic discrimination are highly individual, and both policy as well as interpersonal factors contribute to the outcome of potentially discriminating events. PMID:20468062

  8. Responding to Hate at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes a publication from Teaching Tolerance that is designed to help schools prepare for and respond effectively to bias incidents so that they can become catalysts for positive change. Presents two of the guidelines: (1) create an unwelcome environment for hate speech and symbols; and (2) put the lid on graffiti and other vandalism. (SLD)

  9. Responding to Bullying: What Works?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra; Blais, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Children who are bullied are often told to "solve the problems themselves"; however, when bullying is repeated over time, it becomes increasingly difficult for victimized children to stop the torment because of their relative lack of power. We examine the ways in which children respond to bullying and their evaluations of the effectiveness of…

  10. Learning as Calling and Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jons, Lotta

    2014-01-01

    According to Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue, our being-in-the-world is to be conceived of as an existential dialogue. Elsewhere, I have conceptualized the teacher-student-relation accordingly (see Jons 2008), as a matter of calling and responding. The conceptualization rests on a secularised notion of vocation, paving way for…

  11. Finding Respondents from Minority Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mier, Nelda; Medina, Alvaro A.; Bocanegra-Alonso, Anabel; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Acosta-Gonzalez, Rosa I.; Ramirez, Jose A.

    2006-01-01

    The recruitment of respondents belonging to ethnic minorities poses important challenges in social and health research. This paper reflects on the enablers and barriers to recruitment that we encountered in our research work with persons belonging to ethnic minorities. Additionally, we applied the Matching Model of Recruitment, a theoretical…

  12. 37 CFR 41.68 - Respondent's brief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respondent's brief. 41.68... Respondent's brief. (a)(1) Respondent(s) in an appeal may once, within the time limit for filing set forth in § 41.66, file a respondent brief and serve the brief on all parties in accordance with § 1.903 of...

  13. What does the answer mean? A qualitative study of how palliative cancer patients interpret and respond to the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Irmelin; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin; Aass, Nina; Hjermstad, Marianne Jensen

    2011-10-01

    The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) is a well-known self-reporting tool for symptom assessment in palliative care. Research has shown that patients experience difficulties in the scoring and interpretation, which may lead to suboptimal treatment. The aims were to examine how palliative care cancer patients interpreted and responded to the ESAS. Eleven patients (3 F/8 M), median age 65 (34-95) with mixed diagnoses were interviewed by means of cognitive interviewing, immediately after having completed the ESAS. The highest mean scores were found with tiredness (6.3) and oral dryness (5.7). The results showed that sources of error were related to interpretation of symptoms and differences in the understanding and use of the response format. The depression and anxiety symptoms were perceived as difficult to interpret, while the appetite item was particularly prone to misunderstandings. Contextual factors, such as mood and time of the day, influenced the answers. Lack of information and feedback from staff influenced the scores. Some patients stated that they scored at random because they did not understand why and how the ESAS was used. The patients' interpretation must be considered in order to minimize errors. The ESAS should always be reviewed with the patients after completion to improve symptom management, thereby strengthening the usability of the ESAS. PMID:21248179

  14. Responding to the codependent employee.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R

    1992-06-01

    Codependence is an important human disorder that is disturbingly prevalent. When codependence is viewed as a psychological concept, it offers a useful framework for evaluating and responding to problematic behavior. While nursing the addicted and codependent patient and family is an emerging specialty that is helping address the national health care problem of addictions, until now the nursing literature has provided little assistance with the need to recognize codependency from a broad perspective in nursing management. This field offers important and unexplored terrain for the creative and scholarly nurse to assist in developing nursing knowledge. This article has summarized key information about the general problem of codependency and suggests how to apply this information to the setting of the nurse manager. When a nurse manager responds to codependent behavior with understanding and firm control, feelings of security for codependent individuals can be increased and optimum performance will be facilitated. PMID:10171014

  15. Prevalence of HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Risk Behaviours Among Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya: Results of a Respondent Driven Sampling Study

    PubMed Central

    Kellogg, Timothy A.; Geibel, Scott; Muraguri, Nicholas; Okal, Jerry; Tun, Waimar; Raymond, H. Fisher; Dadabhai, Sufia; Sheehy, Meredith; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a respondent driven sampling survey to estimate HIV prevalence and risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Women aged 18 years and older who reported selling sex to a man at least once in the past 3 months were eligible to participate. Consenting FSWs completed a behavioral questionnaire and were tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adjusted population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS analysis tool. Factors significantly associated with HIV infection were assessed using log-binomial regression analysis. A total of 596 eligible participants were included in the analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was 29.5 % (95 % CI 24.7–34.9). Median age was 30 years (IQR 25–38 years); median duration of sex work was 12 years (IQR 8–17 years). The most frequent client-seeking venues were bars (76.6 %) and roadsides (29.3 %). The median number of clients per week was seven (IQR 4–18 clients). HIV testing was high with 86.6 % reported ever been tested for HIV and, of these, 63.1 % testing within the past 12 months. Of all women, 59.7 % perceived themselves at ‘great risk’ for HIV infection. Of HIV-positive women, 51.0 % were aware of their infection. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, inconsistent condom use with paying clients, and use of a male condom as a method of contraception were independently associated with unrecognized HIV infection. Prevalence among STIs was low, ranging from 0.9 % for syphilis, 1.1 % for gonorrhea, and 3.1 % for Chlamydia. The data suggest high prevalence of HIV among FSWs in Nairobi. Targeted and routine HIV and STI combination prevention strategies need to be scaled up or established to meet the needs of this population. PMID:25428282

  16. Prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and risk behaviours among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya: results of a respondent driven sampling study.

    PubMed

    Musyoki, Helgar; Kellogg, Timothy A; Geibel, Scott; Muraguri, Nicholas; Okal, Jerry; Tun, Waimar; Fisher Raymond, H; Dadabhai, Sufia; Sheehy, Meredith; Kim, Andrea A

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a respondent driven sampling survey to estimate HIV prevalence and risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Women aged 18 years and older who reported selling sex to a man at least once in the past 3 months were eligible to participate. Consenting FSWs completed a behavioral questionnaire and were tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adjusted population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS analysis tool. Factors significantly associated with HIV infection were assessed using log-binomial regression analysis. A total of 596 eligible participants were included in the analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was 29.5 % (95 % CI 24.7-34.9). Median age was 30 years (IQR 25-38 years); median duration of sex work was 12 years (IQR 8-17 years). The most frequent client-seeking venues were bars (76.6 %) and roadsides (29.3 %). The median number of clients per week was seven (IQR 4-18 clients). HIV testing was high with 86.6 % reported ever been tested for HIV and, of these, 63.1 % testing within the past 12 months. Of all women, 59.7 % perceived themselves at 'great risk' for HIV infection. Of HIV-positive women, 51.0 % were aware of their infection. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, inconsistent condom use with paying clients, and use of a male condom as a method of contraception were independently associated with unrecognized HIV infection. Prevalence among STIs was low, ranging from 0.9 % for syphilis, 1.1 % for gonorrhea, and 3.1 % for Chlamydia. The data suggest high prevalence of HIV among FSWs in Nairobi. Targeted and routine HIV and STI combination prevention strategies need to be scaled up or established to meet the needs of this population. PMID:25428282

  17. Corifollitropin alfa followed by hpHMG in GnRH agonist protocols. Two prospective feasibility studies in poor ovarian responders.

    PubMed

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Corona, Roberta; Van De Vijver, Arne; Blockeel, Christophe; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Vloeberghs, Veerle; De Vos, Michel; Camus, Michel; Humaidan, Peter; Tournaye, Herman

    2015-01-01

    In two prospective uncontrolled feasibility trials, we examined the effect of corifollitropin alfa (CFA) followed by highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin (hpHMG) in a short flare-up gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a long GnRH agonist protocol for women with poor ovarian response. Overall, 45 patients were treated with short flare-up and 47 patients with the long agonist protocol. All patients received a single dose of 150 μg CFA, followed by 300 IU hpHMG 7 days later, triggering with 10 000 IU hCG, CSI and day 3 embryo transfer. Ongoing pregnancy rates (OPRs) did not differ between the short 15.6% and the long 17% agonist protocol (p = 0.85). Among patients treated with the short flare-up protocol, OPRs were 20% for younger patients (<40 years old) and 12% in older women (≥40 years old), p = 0.68. Similarly, in patients treated with the long agonist protocol younger women had an OPR of 26.7% versus 12.5% in older women, p = 0.23. Among patients treated with the short flare-up, live births rate were 15% and 4.3% for younger (<40 years old) and older patients (≥40 years old), respectively, p = 0.32. Similarly, in patients treated with the long agonist protocol, live births rate were 25% and 12.9% for younger (<40 years old) and older patients (≥40 years old), respectively, p = 0.41. None of the patients reported any serious adverse event related to treatment. According to our results, CFA followed by hpHMG in a short flare-up or long GnRH agonist protocol appears to be a feasible option for poor ovarian responders. Large phase III trials are mandatory prior to introduction in clinical practice. PMID:26172925

  18. Emotional Risks to Respondents in Survey Research: Some Empirical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Labott, Susan M.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Fendrich, Michael; Feeny, Norah C.

    2014-01-01

    Some survey research has documented distress in respondents with pre-existing emotional vulnerabilities, suggesting the possibility of harm. In this study, respondents were interviewed about a personally distressing event; mood, stress, and emotional reactions were assessed. Two days later, respondents participated in interventions to either enhance or alleviate the effects of the initial interview. Results indicated that distressing interviews increased stress and negative mood, although no adverse events occurred. Between the interviews, moods returned to baseline. Respondents who again discussed a distressing event reported moods more negative than those who discussed a neutral or a positive event. This study provides evidence that, among nonvulnerable survey respondents, interviews on distressing topics can result in negative moods and stress, but they do not harm respondents. PMID:24169422

  19. Protecting Respondent Confidentiality in Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Karen

    2009-01-01

    For qualitative researchers, maintaining respondent confidentiality while presenting rich, detailed accounts of social life presents unique challenges. These challenges are not adequately addressed in the literature on research ethics and research methods. Using an example from a study of breast cancer survivors, I argue that by carefully considering the audience for one’s research and by re-envisioning the informed consent process, qualitative researchers can avoid confidentiality dilemmas that might otherwise lead them not to report rich, detailed data. PMID:19843971

  20. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Seiner, Derrick R.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2012-10-24

    In a white powder scenario, there are a large number of field-deployable assays that can be used to determine if the suspicious substance contains biological material and warrants further investigation. This report summarizes commercially available technologies that are considered hand portable and can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor do the authors endorse any of the technologies described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use.

  1. 37 CFR 41.68 - Respondent's brief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respondent's brief. 41.68... Respondent's brief. (a)(1) Respondent(s) in an appeal may once, within the time limit for filing set forth in... title. (2) The brief must be signed by the party, or the party's duly authorized attorney or agent,...

  2. Responding to Climate Change Interactive Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Matter, J. M.; Callahan, P.; Schlosser, P.

    2011-12-01

    While many institutions now have courses that teach climate from an earth or biological systems perspective, it is more challenging to address how to respond to climate change. Implementing adaptation and mitigation measures requires an interdisciplinary approach of involving stakeholders, identifying needs, resolving conflicts and taking action at levels ranging from local, to national and global. Through the upper level undergraduate course "Responding to Climate Change" taught at Barnard College and Columbia University, students engage in a variety of hands-on activities that help them navigate potential options. Activities include games, role play, case studies, scenario development, spatial planning, exploration of analogies, and conflict resolution exercises. Evaluation indicates that this interactive approach empowers students with scientific and technical knowledge, an understanding of how to deal with complexity, and optimism in their capacity to problem solve.

  3. Chicana/o Students Respond to Arizona's Anti-Ethnic Studies Bill, SB 1108: Civic Engagement, Ethnic Identity, and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Anna Ochoa; Romero, Andrea J.

    2011-01-01

    Arizona Senate Bill 1108, the "anti-ethnic studies bill," proposed to eliminate ethnic studies programs and ethnic-based organizations from state-funded education. Along with other anti-immigrant legislation, this bill is creating an oppressive climate of discrimination against individuals of Mexican descent in Arizona. This study investigates the…

  4. Habituation of salivation and motivated responding for food in children.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Saad, Frances G; Handley, Elizabeth A; Roemmich, James N; Hawk, Larry W; McSweeney, Frances K

    2003-12-01

    Repeated presentation of food cues results in habituation in adults, as demonstrated by a decrement in salivary responding that is reversed by presenting a new food cue in adults. Food reinforced behavior in animals shows the same pattern of responding, with a decrease in responding to obtain the food, followed by a recovery of responding when a new food is presented. The present study assessed whether children would show the same pattern of a decrement of food reinforced responding followed by recovery of responding when a new food is presented for both salivation and food reinforcement tasks. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups that differed in the trial that the new food stimulus was presented to ensure recovery was specific to the introduction of the new food stimulus. In the salivation task, subjects were provided repeated olfactory presentations of a cheeseburger with apple pie as the new food stimulus, while in the food reinforcement task subjects worked for the opportunity to consume a cheeseburger, followed by the opportunity to work for consumption of apple pie. Subjects in both groups showed a decrement in salivary and food reinforced responding to repeated food cues followed by immediate recovery of responding on the trial when a new food was presented. Subjects increased their energy intake by over 30% in the food reinforcement task when a new food was presented. These results are consistent with the general process theory of motivation that suggests that changes in food reinforced responding may be due in part to habituation. PMID:14637327

  5. Agriculture Emergencies: A Primer for First Responders

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Regens, James L.; Burden, Ray W.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several years, the primary focus of emergency preparedness has been on terrorism, and how a CBRNE event would directly affect human health. Limited emphasis has been placed on the direct (eg, zoonotic infections) and indirect (eg, mental health, financial loss) effects that an agricultural emergency event can have on human health outcomes, and how they relate to emergency preparedness. We critically reviewed the resources and information readily accessible to our target audience, emergency responders; the resources included military and civilian books, personal communications, internet sites, GAO reports, and peer-reviewed journals. Among more than 2,000 bioterrorism-related articles, we found 51 that addressed either agroterrorism and/or veterinary public health: 2 cross-sectional studies, 28 review papers, and 21 commentary papers. In order to properly respond to future agriculture emergencies, emergency response professionals need to understand the nature and implications of the event as well as their roles and responsibilities, but the availability of educational and training opportunities is limited. The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that more resources, education, and training opportunities should be available to responders as well as to producers, importers and shippers, international travelers, and the general public. Increased education and training will raise awareness among these groups of the relationship between animal and human health. PMID:19635003

  6. Agriculture emergencies: a primer for first responders.

    PubMed

    Gilpen, Johnnie L; Carabin, Hélène; Regens, James L; Burden, Ray W

    2009-06-01

    Over the past several years, the primary focus of emergency preparedness has been on terrorism, and how a CBRNE event would directly affect human health. Limited emphasis has been placed on the direct (eg, zoonotic infections) and indirect (eg, mental health, financial loss) effects that an agricultural emergency event can have on human health outcomes, and how they relate to emergency preparedness. We critically reviewed the resources and information readily accessible to our target audience, emergency responders; the resources included military and civilian books, personal communications, internet sites, GAO reports, and peer-reviewed journals. Among more than 2,000 bioterrorism-related articles, we found 51 that addressed either agroterrorism and/or veterinary public health: 2 cross-sectional studies, 28 review papers, and 21 commentary papers. In order to properly respond to future agriculture emergencies, emergency response professionals need to understand the nature and implications of the event as well as their roles and responsibilities, but the availability of educational and training opportunities is limited. The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that more resources, education, and training opportunities should be available to responders as well as to producers, importers and shippers, international travelers, and the general public. Increased education and training will raise awareness among these groups of the relationship between animal and human health. PMID:19635003

  7. Bubbles Responding to Ultrasound Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Bubble and Drop Nonlinear Dynamics (BDND) experiment was designed to improve understanding of how the shape and behavior of bubbles respond to ultrasound pressure. By understanding this behavior, it may be possible to counteract complications bubbles cause during materials processing on the ground. This 12-second sequence came from video downlinked from STS-94, July 5 1997, MET:3/19:15 (approximate). The BDND guest investigator was Gary Leal of the University of California, Santa Barbara. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced fluid dynamics experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (435KB, 13-second MPEG, screen 160 x 120 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300162.html.

  8. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include ‘one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. Method: This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Results: Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02–7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90

  9. Using Multiple Imputation to Assign Pesticide Use for Non-Responders in the Follow-Up Questionnaire in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a large prospective cohort, was designed to elucidate associations between pesticide use and other agricultural exposures and health outcomes. The cohort includes 57,310 pesticide applicators who were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and...

  10. Implementing an Audience-Specific Small-Group Gatekeeper Training Program to Respond to Suicide Risk among College Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimini, M. Dolores; Rivero, Estela M.; Bernier, Joseph E.; Stanley, Judith A.; Murray, Andrea D.; Anderson, Drew A.; Wright, Heidi R.; Bapat, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This case study evaluated the effectiveness of an audience-specific, single-session, small-group interactive gatekeeper training program conducted at a large northeastern public university. Participants: Participants were 335 faculty, staff, and students completing gatekeeper training programs tailored to their group needs. Methods:…

  11. Identifying Anglo, Mexican American and American Indian Respondents for a Study of Recent Widows: Suggestions for Future Researchers. Working Paper No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Cynthia L.; And Others

    Innovative methods devised to obtain the desired number of Anglo, Mexican American and American Indian women for a study of the health of recently widowed low income women are explored. Social and health service agencies proved generally unable to assist by contacting their clients. Different techniques were found to be successful for recruiting…

  12. HIV testing experience and risk behavior among sexually active Black young adults: a CBPR-based study using respondent-driven sampling in Durham, North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    MacQueen, Kathleen M.; Chen, Mario; Jolly, David; Mueller, Monique P.; Okumu, Eunice; Eley, Natalie T.; Laws, Michelle; Isler, Malika Roman; Kalloo, Allison; Rogers, Randy C.

    2015-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic inclusive of men who have sex with men, heterosexual men, and women. As part of a community-based participatory research study we assessed HIV testing experience among sexually active 18 to 30 year old Black men and women in Durham, North Carolina. Of 508 participants, 173 (74%) men and 236 (86%; p=.0008) women reported ever being tested. Barriers to testing (e.g., perceived risk and stigma) were the same for men and women, but men fell behind mainly because a primary facilitator of testing---routine screening in clinical settings---was more effective at reaching women. Structural and behavioral risk factors associated with HIV infection were prevalent but did not predict HIV testing experience. Reduced access to health care services for low income Black young adults may exacerbate HIV testing barriers that already exist for men and undermine previous success rates in reaching women. PMID:25893817

  13. HIV Testing Experience and Risk Behavior Among Sexually Active Black Young Adults: A CBPR-Based Study Using Respondent-Driven Sampling in Durham, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Chen, Mario; Jolly, David; Mueller, Monique P; Okumu, Eunice; Eley, Natalie T; Laws, Michelle; Isler, Malika Roman; Kalloo, Allison; Rogers, Randy C

    2015-06-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic inclusive of men who have sex with men, heterosexual men, and women. As part of a community-based participatory research study we assessed HIV testing experience among sexually active 18-30 year old Black men and women in Durham, NC. Of 508 participants, 173 (74 %) men and 236 (86 %; p = 0.0008) women reported ever being tested. Barriers to testing (e.g., perceived risk and stigma) were the same for men and women, but men fell behind mainly because a primary facilitator of testing-routine screening in clinical settings-was more effective at reaching women. Structural and behavioral risk factors associated with HIV infection were prevalent but did not predict HIV testing experience. Reduced access to health care services for low income Black young adults may exacerbate HIV testing barriers that already exist for men and undermine previous success rates in reaching women. PMID:25893817

  14. Changes in empathy-related cry responding as a function of time: A time course study of adult's responses to infant crying.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Chu; Manuel, Jessica; McFatter, Robert; Cech, Claude

    2016-02-01

    Describing temporal relations between perceptual and emotional elements underlying responses to infant crying is important to our understanding of sensitive parenting. Prior research on adults' responses to infant crying has mostly relied on playback and snapshot approaches to obtaining recall of responses following exposure to relatively short cry stimuli. This study documented continuous temporal relations in the perception of the infant's distress and affect-related processes in response to a 4-min-long bout of crying. Three visual-analog slider scales were used to collect 90 participants' real-time responses on perceived aversiveness of the cry, empathic concern for the infant, and personal distress elicited by the cry, respectively. The results highlighted a moderating role of empathic concern at certain second in the relation between personal distress and empathic concern at the following second. In addition, personal distress moderated the relation between concurrent perceived aversiveness and empathic concern. The findings carry potentially important implications for cognitive and emotional regulation in adaptive parenting. PMID:26705932

  15. Factor Associated with Neutral Sphingomyelinase Activity Mediates Navigational Capacity of Leukocytes Responding to Wounds and Infection: Live Imaging Studies in Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Boecke, Alexandra; Sieger, Dirk; Neacsu, Cristian Dan; Kashkar, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Factor associated with neutral sphingomyelinase activity (FAN) is an adaptor protein that specifically binds to the p55 receptor for TNF (TNF-RI). Our previous investigations demonstrated that FAN plays a role in TNF-induced actin reorganization by connecting the plasma membrane with actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that FAN may impact on cellular motility in response to TNF and in the context of immune inflammatory conditions. In this study, we used the translucent zebrafish larvae for in vivo analysis of leukocyte migration after morpholino knockdown of FAN. FAN-deficient zebrafish leukocytes were impaired in their migration toward tail fin wounds, leading to a reduced number of cells reaching the wound. Furthermore, FAN-deficient leukocytes show an impaired response to bacterial infections, suggesting that FAN is generally required for the directed chemotactic response of immune cells independent of the nature of the stimulus. Cell-tracking analysis up to 3 h after injury revealed that the reduced number of leukocytes is not due to a reduction in random motility or speed of movement. Leukocytes from FAN-deficient embryos protrude pseudopodia in all directions instead of having one clear leading edge. Our results suggest that FAN-deficient leukocytes exhibit an impaired navigational capacity, leading to a disrupted chemotactic response. PMID:22802420

  16. An open-label pilot study of aripiprazole for male and female veterans with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder who respond suboptimally to antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nagy A; Marx, Christine E; Bradford, Daniel W; Zinn, Sandra; Hertzberg, Michael A; Kilts, Jason D; Naylor, Jennifer C; Butterfield, Marian I; Strauss, Jennifer L

    2012-07-01

    Emerging data suggest that second-generation antipsychotics such as aripiprazole may be effective in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, few clinical trials have used aripiprazole in PTSD, and data are limited on its use in Veterans with PTSD. The objective of this pilot trial was to investigate the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole in Veterans with PTSD. Ten individuals (five men and five women) meeting the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed., PTSD criteria participated in this 12-week, open-label, flexibly dosed monotherapy trial. The dose range of aripiprazole was 5-30 mg/day, titrated to tolerability and clinical response. The primary outcome measure was the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Additional outcomes included the Short PTSD Rating Interview, the Treatment Outcome PTSD Scale (Top-8), the Davidson Trauma Scale, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen, and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement. Eight participants completed the study, and aripiprazole was generally well tolerated and associated with a significant improvement in PTSD symptoms, as measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (primary outcome measure) and by the Short PTSD Rating Interview, the Treatment Outcome PTSD Scale, and the Davidson Trauma Scale. An improvement was also observed on all three Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale subscales and the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen, and the average Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement ratings indicated that patients were 'much improved'. These promising initial results merit further investigation in a larger, randomized-controlled trial. PMID:22475888

  17. Immune response to a new hepatitis B vaccine in healthcare workers who had not responded to standard vaccine: randomised double blind dose-response study.

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, J. N.; Sabin, C.; Craig, F. M.; Williams, A.; Zuckerman, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a new triple S recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in a cohort of healthy people in whom currently licensed hepatitis B vaccines had persistently not induced an immune response. DESIGN: Single centre, randomised, double blind, dose-response study. SETTING: Research vaccine evaluation centre at a teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 100 healthcare workers aged 18-70 years with a history of failure to seroconvert after at least four doses of a licensed hepatitis B vaccine containing the S component. INTERVENTION: Each subject was randomly allocated two doses of 5, 10, 20, or 40 micrograms of a new hepatitis B vaccine two months apart. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Immunogenicity of the four doses. Seroconversion and seroprotection were defined as an antibody tire > 10 IU/l and > 100 IU/l respectively against an international antibody standard. RESULTS: 69 subjects seroconverted after a single dose of the vaccine. After the booster vaccination one other subject seroconverted, bringing the overall seroconversion rate to 70%. Fifteen subjects given 5 micrograms of vaccine, 19 given 10 micrograms, 16 given 20 micrograms, and 20 given 40 micrograms seroconverted. Seroconversion rates in the four antigen dose groups were 60% (15/25), 76% (19/25), 64% (16/25), and 80% (20/25). After the booster dose there was no significant dose-response effect on the overall seroconversion rate, although the small sample size meant that a clinically important dose-response could not be ruled out. CONCLUSION: A single dose of 20 micrograms of the vaccine was as effective as two doses of either 40 micrograms or 20 micrograms of this vaccine formulation in terms of seroconversion, seroprotection, and geometric mean titres. PMID:9040320

  18. Responding changes systematically within sessions during conditioning procedures.

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, F K; Roll, J M

    1993-01-01

    When the procedure is held constant within an experimental session, responding often changes systematically within that session. Many of these within-session changes in responding cannot be dismissed as learning curves or by-products of satiation. They have been observed in studies of positive reinforcement, avoidance, punishment, extinction, discrimination, delayed matching to sample, concept formation, maze and alley running, and laboratory analogues of foraging, as well as in the unconditioned substrates of conditioned behavior. When aversive stimuli are used, responding usually increases early in the session. When positive reinforcers are used, responding changes in a variety of ways, including increasing, decreasing, and bitonic functions. Both strong and minimal reinforcement procedures produce within-session decreases in positively reinforced behavior. Within-session changes in responding have substantial theoretical and methodological implications for research in conditioning. PMID:8283153

  19. Let's Get Personal: Responding to Creative Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Suzanne

    In hopes of discovering how to respond to her students' work in a way that heads them toward meaningful revision, a creative writing teacher singles out several categories of student fiction she has trouble responding to and pinpoints common shortcomings of students' early drafts, the way students respond to comments regarding revisions, and genre…

  20. "Responding to Climate Change" Course: Research Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bowman, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The "Responding to Climate Change" Barnard/Columbia course integrates current research as well as hands-on research-based activities modified for a classroom environment. The course covers the major response themes of adaptation, mitigation and communication. In the spring of 2015 the course was oriented around Arctic and Antarctic case studies. Each week a different theme is addressed, such as the physical setting, changing ecosystems, governance issues, perspectives of residents and indigenous peoples, geoengineering, commercial interests, security, and health and developmental issues. Frequent guest lectures from thematic experts keep the course grounded in realities and present the students with cutting edge issues. Activities match the weekly theme, for example during the week on Arctic development, students engage with the marine spatial planning simulation Arctic SMARTIC (Strategic Management of Resources in Times of Change) based on research on Arctic sea ice trends and projections coupled with current and projected developmental interests of stakeholders. Created under the Polar Learning and Responding: PoLAR Climate Change Education Partnership (thepolarhub.org), a complete set of SMARTIC resources is available on line for use by others (http://www.camelclimatechange.org/view/article/175297/). The Responding to Climate Change course is designed to be current and respond to events. For the Arctic case study, students developed proposals for the US State Department as the upcoming Chair of the Arctic Council. Student evaluations indicated that they appreciated the opportunity to connect science with policy and presentation of preliminary proposals in a workshop format was valued as a way to develop and hone their ideas. An additional finding was that students were surprisingly tolerant of technical issues when guest lecturers were linked in via Skype, allowing interaction with thematic experts across the US. Students commented positively on this exposure to

  1. Hydrogen Safety Training for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    The use of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies is emerging in the U.S. through vehicle demonstration programs and early deployments of fuel cells for onsite power generation, materials handling, and other applications. To help first responders prepare for hydrogen and fuel cell use in their communities, the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program has developed hydrogen safety training for first responders. A web-based awareness-level course, 'Introduction to Hydrogen Safety for First Responders,' launched in 2007, is available at http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/FirstResponders/. Approximately 17,000 first responders have accessed the online training.

  2. Some 9/11 First Responders Suffer Severe Sinus Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... responded on the third day, when rain reduced air pollution levels, the study found. Firefighters who worked at ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Air Pollution Occupational Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  3. Schedule-induced mirror responding in the pigeon1

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Perrin S.; Looney, Thomas A.

    1973-01-01

    Two pigeons that were previously exposed to a multiple schedule of reinforcement in the presence of a stuffed and a live pigeon, and two of three naive pigeons, responded on a mirror during exposure to multiple fixed-ratio, fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement for key pecking. Both the topography and temporal pattern of mirror responding were comparable to schedule-induced “attack” on live and stuffed targets. Rate of target responding was reduced when either the mirror was covered with paper or when the multiple schedule was removed. A reversal in the relationship between reinforcement schedules and discriminative stimuli demonstrated that mirror responding was controlled by the stimulus correlated with the higher fixed-ratio schedule. With one component of the multiple schedule held constant at fixed ratio 25 and the ratio requirement of the other component varying from 25 to 150, there was an inverted U-shaped relationship between rate of mirror responding and fixed-ratio schedule in the varied component. As in Flory's study (1969b) there was an inverted U-shaped relationship between target responding and inter-food intervals. The combined results of these studies suggest that the relationship between rate of target responding and reinforcement schedules is controlled primarily by the inter-food intervals resulting from the schedules. PMID:16811671

  4. Programmed Instruction: Construction Responding, Discrimination Responding, and Highlighted Keywords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew L.; Malott, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    Skinner (1958) expressed the need for an increase in the effectiveness and efficiency of education. In particular, he suggested that programmed instruction could provide such efficiency. The present study used a within-subject design to compare the effects of four types of instructional materials; those requiring overt construction responses,…

  5. Hazard perception in emergency medical service responders.

    PubMed

    Johnston, K A; Scialfa, C T

    2016-10-01

    The perception of on-road hazards is critically important to emergency medical services (EMS) professionals, the patients they transport and the general public. This study compared hazard perception in EMS and civilian drivers of similar age and personal driving experience. Twenty-nine EMS professionals and 24 non-professional drivers were given a dynamic hazard perception test (HPT). The EMS group demonstrated an advantage in HPT that was independent of simple reaction time, another indication of the validity of the test. These results are also consistent with the view that professional driving experience results in changes in the ability to identify and respond to on-road hazards. Directions for future research include the development of a profession-specific hazard perception tool for both assessment and training purposes. PMID:27415813

  6. Journeying: Children Responding to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Kathleen E., Ed.; And Others

    Based on Louise Rosenblatt's transactional theory of reader response, the studies collected in this book present findings and recommendations that contribute to the understanding of how children create meaning from stories, how they acquire literacy skills to express that meaning, and what role educators play in these literary processes. The book…

  7. Pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills to identify poor responders that may benefit from rLH supplementation during GnRH-antagonist treatment for IVF: A pilot perspective study proposal

    PubMed Central

    GIZZO, SALVATORE; ANDRISANI, ALESSANDRA; NOVENTA, MARCO; GANGEMI, MICHELE; NARDELLI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA; AMBROSINI, GUIDO

    2015-01-01

    Controlled ovarian stimulation, using a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, is a potential treatment option for women with a low response to other fertility treatments as it appears to be at least as effective as GnRH agonists (long protocol). However, previous studies have indicated that the administration of GnRH antagonist may cause an excessive reduction in endogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The use of recombinant LH (rLH) supplementation during ovarian stimulation is controversial. The present article proposes a future study focused on women aged ≥40 years old, with the aim of identifying patients who are poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment that may benefit from rLH supplementation. We hypothesize that patients with suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may benefit from rLH supplementation, as GnRH-antagonist administration has the potential to induce a marked reduction in LH levels in such patients compared with that in patients that exhibit a regular recovery following the administration of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Furthermore, patients with hyper-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may be affected by ‘low-gonadotropin-responsiveness’, similar to that observed in patients with any mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor, who are known to benefit from rLH supplementation. The proposed pilot study would include 120 women who are predicted to be poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment. All subjects will be allocated at random (using 2:1 computerized randomization) into two study groups: Group A (OCP-treated) and group B (control). For all patients, the serum values of FSH, LH and 17β estradiol (E2) will be detected on day 3 of the menstrual cycle preceding OCP treatment (baseline) and at day 4 following OCP treatment. The Δ-variation from baseline levels for all markers, the FSH/LH ratio and the E2/FSH ratio will be determined. Δ-variation from the baseline

  8. Who cares and who is careless? Insufficient effort responding as a reflection of respondent personality.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Nathan A; Huang, Jason L; Bragg, Caleb B; Khazon, Steve; Liu, Mengqiao; Blackmore, Caitlin E

    2016-08-01

    Insufficient effort responding (IER) to surveys, which occurs when respondents fail to carefully read questionnaire instructions or item content, has recently gained attention as a source of inaccuracy in self-report data (Huang, Curran, Keeney, Poposki, & DeShon, 2012; Johnson, 2005; Maniaci & Rogge, 2014; Meade & Craig, 2012). Whereas previous studies have focused on IER as a methodological nuisance, the current studies examined IER as a substantive variable. Specifically, we hypothesized that IER is a reflection of enduring individual differences. In Study 1, we found that IER displayed rank-order consistency over the course of 13 months; in Studies 2 and 3, we found that IER displayed rank-order consistency across multiple research situations; in Study 4, we found that acquaintance-reported conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, and emotional stability were each negatively related to IER; and in Study 5, we found that IER was related to college grade point average and class absences. Together, these 5 studies suggest that IER is in part a manifestation of enduring individual differences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26927958

  9. HOW PEOPLE RESPOND TO CONTINGENT VALUATION QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the project is to understand better how individuals interpret and respond to contingent valuation (CV) questions. The research will address three issues: the reliability of the referendum questions format, the importance of reminding respondents about subst...

  10. 37 CFR 41.68 - Respondent's brief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., file a respondent brief and serve the brief on all parties in accordance with § 1.903 of this title. (2... (b)(1)(ii) of this section. (x) Certificate of service. A certification that a copy of the respondent... non-compliance and given a non-extendable time period within which to file an amended brief....

  11. DECONTAMINATION WIPES FOR FIRST RESPONDERS - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The threat of chemical or biological (CB) attack is real, and there is a recognized need for improved technologies to better respond to these situations. During a CB emergency, first responder units are critical for handling the emergency, and then restoring the environment wh...

  12. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth’s magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  13. Evaluation of Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda Ndagire; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Background Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex-workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total-population data. Methods Total-population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household-heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, employing current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). Results We recruited 927 household-heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples under-represented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven-sampling statistical-inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven-sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Conclusions Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected non-hidden population. However, current respondent-driven-sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience

  14. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (January 2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-02-01

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  15. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (December 2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-02-13

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  16. Enhancing Academic Engagement: Providing Opportunities for Responding and Influencing Students to Choose to Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Christopher H.; Pappas, Danielle N.; Davis, Kai A.

    2005-01-01

    Although educators often provide opportunities for students to engage in active academic responding, in many situations, students either cannot or will not respond. In the current article, we analyze the reasons students fail to respond. Practical procedures educators can use to prevent "can't do" problems are provided. "Won't do" problems are…

  17. The Effect of Missing Data on Estimating a Respondent's Location Using Ratings Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Ayala, R. J.

    In social science research there are a number of instruments that use a rating scale such as a Likert response scale. For a number of reasons, a respondent's response vector may not contain responses to each item. This study investigated the effect on a respondent's location estimate when a respondent is presented an item, has ample time to answer…

  18. Using Video Modeling to Teach Children with PDD-NOS to Respond to Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axe, Judah B.; Evans, Christine J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit delays in responding to facial expressions, and few studies have examined teaching responding to subtle facial expressions to this population. We used video modeling to train 3 participants with PDD-NOS (age 5) to respond to eight facial expressions: approval, bored, calming, disapproval,…

  19. 34 CFR 85.1000 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 85.1000 Respondent. Respondent means a person against whom an agency has initiated a debarment or suspension action. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec. 2455, Pub. L. 103-355, 108 Stat. 3243...

  20. Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Responding in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Horan, William P.; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Kring, Ann M.; Simons, Robert F.; Green, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    People with schizophrenia consistently report normal levels of pleasant emotion when exposed to evocative stimuli, suggesting intact consummatory pleasure. However, little is known about the neural correlates and time course of emotion in schizophrenia. This study used a well-validated affective picture viewing task that elicits a characteristic pattern of Event Related Potentials (ERP) from early to later processing stages (i.e., P1, P2, P3, and Late Positive Potentials (LPP)). Thirty eight stabilized schizophrenia outpatients and 36 healthy controls viewed standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neural pictures while ERPs were recorded, and subsequently rated their emotional responses to the stimuli. Patients and controls responded to the pictures similarly in terms of their valence ratings, as well as the initial ERP components (P1, P2, and P3). However, at the later LPP component (500 – 1000 ms), patients displayed diminished electrophysiological discrimination between pleasant versus neutral stimuli. This pattern suggests that patients demonstrate normal self-reported emotional experience and intact initial sensory processing of and resource allocation to emotional stimuli. However, they show a disruption in a later component associated with sustained attentional processing of emotional stimuli. PMID:20141239

  1. Musical hallucinations responding to a further increase of carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Saeko; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Ishii, Nobuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman outpatient with mild cognitive impairment, parasomnia and depressive state with musical hallucinations failed to respond to 400 mg/day of valproate. Once she was admitted to a university hospital, her musical hallucinations partially responded to 1 mg/day of clonazepam and sufficiently improved on 100 mg/day of carbamazepine. Two months after discharge, however, her musical hallucinations recurred probably as a consequence of psychological stress. The increase of carbamazepine from 100 to 200 mg/day completely remitted her musical hallucinations. This case suggests that musical hallucinations respond in a dose-dependent manner to increasing carbamazepine, and that gradual titration from small doses of carbamazepine is required because optimal doses appear to be smaller than those required for epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Further studies are warranted to determine the therapeutic levels of carbamazepine for musical hallucinations. PMID:25253486

  2. The meaning of occupational stress items to survey respondents.

    PubMed

    Jex, S M; Beehr, T A; Roberts, C K

    1992-10-01

    This study tested the effect of using the word stress in the measurement of self-reported occupational stressors and strains. Employees from two organizations responded to a questionnaire that included specific occupational stressors, strains, and 16 items in which the word stress was used. Survey respondents tended to interpret the word stress to refer both to employees' strains or reactions to the work environment and to job stressors or elements of the environment itself. Implications of these findings for occupational stress research are discussed. PMID:1429346

  3. Responding to Students' Learning Preferences in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Wiebe, Rick

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on a teacher's and his students' responsiveness to a new tetrahedral-oriented (Mahaffy in J Chem Educ 83(1):49-55, 2006) curriculum requiring more discursive classroom practices in the teaching of chemistry. In this instrumental case study, we identify the intentions of this learner-centered curriculum and a teacher's development in response to this curriculum. We also explore the tensions this teacher experiences as students subsequently respond to his adjusted teaching. We use a Chemistry Teacher Inventory (Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Res Sci Educ 40(11):667-689, 2011; Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Can J Math Sci Technol Educ 12(1):36-61, 2012; Lewthwaite in Chem Educ Res Pract. doi:10.1039/C3RP00122A, 2014) to assist the teacher in monitoring how he teaches and how he would like to improve his teaching. We also use a student form of the instrument, the Chemistry Classroom Inventory and Classroom Observation Protocol (Lewthwaite and Wiebe 2011) to verify the teacher's teaching and perception of student preferences for his teaching especially in terms of the discursive processes the curriculum encourages. By so doing, the teacher is able to use both sets of data as a foundation for critical reflection and work towards resolution of the incongruence in data arising from students' preferred learning orientations and his teaching aspirations. Implications of this study in regards to the authority of students' voice in triggering teachers' pedagogical change and the adjustments in `teachering' and `studenting' required by such curricula are considered.

  4. Transfer of Aversive Respondent Elicitation in Accordance with Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Miguel Rodriguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the…

  5. Supporting Children's Counterfactual Thinking with Alternative Modes of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Sarah R.; Carroll, Daniel J.; Brunsdon, Victoria E. A.; Gryg, Charlotte K.

    2011-01-01

    To speculate about counterfactual worlds, children need to ignore what they know to be true about the real world. Prior studies yielding individual differences data suggested that counterfactual thinking may be related to overcoming prepotent responses. In two experiments, we manipulated how 3- to 5-year-olds responded to counterfactual…

  6. Meta-Analysis and Inadequate Responders to Intervention: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Hughes, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    In a recently published meta-analysis, Tran, Sanchez, Arellano, and Swanson (2011) synthesized 13 studies that permitted assessment of characteristics of children who were adequate and inadequate responders to instruction. The authors indicated that "[t]he central question addressed in this review is whether individual differences in…

  7. African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

  8. Variational Pragmatics and "Responding to Thanks"--Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieswanger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, Klaus P. Schneider published a fascinating article with the title "'No problem, you're welcome, anytime': Responding to thanks in Ireland, England, and the U.S.A." Adopting the then emerging and now established framework of variational pragmatics, Schneider's pioneering paper presents the results of a study on differences…

  9. Chondrogenic Progenitor Cells Respond to Cartilage Injury

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Hyeonghun; Zheng, Hongjun; Yu, Yin; Jang, Keewoong; Walter, Morgan W.; Lehman, Abigail D.; Ding, Lei; Buckwalter, Joseph A.; Martin, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hypocellularity resulting from chondrocyte death in the aftermath of mechanical injury is thought to contribute to posttraumatic osteoarthritis. However, we observed that nonviable areas in cartilage injured by blunt impact were repopulated within 7–14 days by cells that appeared to migrate from the surrounding matrix. The aim of this study was to assess our hypothesis that the migrating cell population included chondrogenic progenitor cells that were drawn to injured cartilage by alarmins. Methods Osteochondral explants obtained from mature cattle were injured by blunt impact or scratching, resulting in localized chondrocyte death. Injured sites were serially imaged by confocal microscopy, and migrating cells were evaluated for chondrogenic progenitor characteristics. Chemotaxis assays were used to measure the responses to chemokines, injury-conditioned medium, dead cell debris, and high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1). Results Migrating cells were highly clonogenic and multipotent and expressed markers associated with chondrogenic progenitor cells. Compared with chondrocytes, these cells overexpressed genes involved in proliferation and migration and underexpressed cartilage matrix genes. They were more active than chondrocytes in chemotaxis assays and responded to cell lysates, conditioned medium, and HMGB-1. Glycyrrhizin, a chelator of HMGB-1 and a blocking antibody to receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), inhibited responses to cell debris and conditioned medium and reduced the numbers of migrating cells on injured explants. Conclusion Injuries that caused chondrocyte death stimulated the emergence and homing of chondrogenic progenitor cells, in part via HMGB-1 release and RAGE-mediated chemotaxis. Their repopulation of the matrix could promote the repair of chondral damage that might otherwise contribute to progressive cartilage loss. PMID:22777600

  10. Modeling Socially Desirable Responding and Its Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Matthias; Buehner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The impact of socially desirable responding or faking on noncognitive assessments remains an issue of strong debate. One of the main reasons for the controversy is the lack of a statistical method to model such response sets. This article introduces a new way to model faking based on the assumption that faking occurs due to an interaction between…

  11. Resurgence of Temporal Patterns of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancado, Carlos R. X.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2011-01-01

    The resurgence of temporal patterns of key pecking by pigeons was investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, positively accelerated and linear patterns of responding were established on one key under a discrete-trial multiple fixed-interval variable-interval schedule. Subsequently, only responses on a second key produced reinforcers…

  12. Responding to Children Victimized by Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Brock, Stephen E.; Chang, Yiping; O'Malley, Meagan D.

    2006-01-01

    Because victimization results from the dynamic interplay between the victim and his or her parents, peers, and teachers, responding to this problem should involve both direct and indirect interventions. This paper describes and reviews empirically supported direct interventions with victims, as well as indirect interventions with parents, peers,…

  13. Helping Your Children Respond to Global Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFarge, Phyllis

    1992-01-01

    Discusses what it is like for children to grow up with an awareness that they live in a world in which unrestrained technological prowess has created vulnerabilities on a global scale. The article examines how parents and teachers can help their children cope with and respond to world issues. (SM)

  14. ASA24® Respondent Website Features

    Cancer.gov

    The ASA24 Respondent Website guides the participant through the completion of either a 24-hour recall for the previous day (from midnight-to-midnight or for the past 24-hours) or for a single or multiple day food record.

  15. Methods for Handling Missing Secondary Respondent Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rebekah; Johnson, David

    2013-01-01

    Secondary respondent data are underutilized because researchers avoid using these data in the presence of substantial missing data. The authors reviewed, evaluated, and tested solutions to this problem. Five strategies of dealing with missing partner data were reviewed: (a) complete case analysis, (b) inverse probability weighting, (c) correction…

  16. Responding to Accountability Mandates. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outcalt, Charles; Rabin, Joel

    In recent years, community colleges have developed innovative assessment programs to respond to more explicit state guidelines and mandates for greater accountability. In California, for example, the State Assembly began requiring community colleges to address specific educational and fiscal performance issues in assessments in 1989, while…

  17. Suspected Child Maltreatment: Recognize and Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemple, Kristen Mary; Kim, Hae Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood educators spend extensive amounts of time with young children, so they are often the first adults to notice signs that a child may be abused or neglected. All educators are required by law to report suspected maltreatment, and can play an important role in preventing and responding to abuse and neglect of young children. What is…

  18. Criticisms and Concerns: How Do You Respond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joy

    1994-01-01

    Montessorians respond to the following criticisms and concerns about Montessori education: (1) accessibility by all racial and socioeconomic groups; (2) evaluation of children's progress; (3) the noisiness of Montessori classrooms; (4) the inclusion or exclusion of humanities and physical education in Montessori curriculum; and (5) transition…

  19. Timely Completion of Paperwork: Are Some Residents Consistently Late Responders?

    PubMed Central

    Metheny, William P.

    2014-01-01

    Background One element of competence in professionalism entails the timely completion of paperwork. Early identification of residents who are consistently late in completing their assignments might be the first step in helping them change this habit. Objective This study sought to determine if program coordinators' ratings of residents' response habits to completing assignments were associated with existing measures of resident response times tracked by the institution. Methods Program coordinators rated residents as early, mid, or late responders based on their experience with them. We compared coordinators' ratings with the response time of these same residents in returning orientation materials to the institution, completing a patient safety survey and duty hour logs, and providing their required countersignature on telephone and verbal orders. A total of 196 residents enrolled at this institution were eligible for this comparison in the 2012–2013 academic year. Results Program coordinators rated 23% (40 of 177) of the residents as late responders. These ratings were significantly associated with the response time of residents in returning orientation materials and the completed patient safety survey. Residents identified as late responders were 2.45 times (confidence interval, 1.09 ± 5.64) more likely to have delinquent medical records. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that residents who are late responders can be identified as early as orientation and that they likely maintain this response habit in completing assignments throughout residency. To address this professionalism issue, programs should track and counsel residents on their timeliness in completing paperwork. PMID:24949137

  20. Visual Motor Integration as a Screener for Responders and Non-Responders in Preschool and Early School Years: Implications for Inclusive Assessment in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Visual motor integration (VMI) is the ability of the eyes and hands to work together in smooth, efficient patterns. In Oman, there are few effective methods to assess VMI skills in children in inclusive settings. The current study investigated the performance of preschool and early school years responders and non-responders on a VMI test. The full…

  1. Responder individuality in red blood cell alloimmunization.

    PubMed

    Körmöczi, Günther F; Mayr, Wolfgang R

    2014-11-01

    Many different factors influence the propensity of transfusion recipients and pregnant women to form red blood cell alloantibodies (RBCA). RBCA may cause hemolytic transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and may be a complication in transplantation medicine. Antigenic differences between responder and foreign erythrocytes may lead to such an immune answer, in part with suspected specific HLA class II associations. Biochemical and conformational characteristics of red blood cell (RBC) antigens, their dose (number of transfusions and pregnancies, absolute number of antigens per RBC) and the mode of exposure impact on RBCA rates. In addition, individual circumstances determine the risk to form RBCA. Responder individuality in terms of age, sex, severity of underlying disease, disease- or therapy-induced immunosuppression and inflammation are discussed with respect to influencing RBC alloimmunization. For particular high-risk patients, extended phenotype matching of transfusion and recipient efficiently decreases RBCA induction and associated clinical risks. PMID:25670932

  2. Preventing and responding to medical identity theft.

    PubMed

    Amori, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Medical identity theft is a crime with two victims: patients and providers. It is easy to commit and lucrative because healthcare record keeping and business interactions are complex and mainly electronic. Patients whose identity has been stolen are vulnerable to both medical error and financial loss. Providers may suffer both reputation loss and financial loss. There are steps to help prevent and to respond appropriately to medical identity theft. PMID:20200908

  3. Evidence of More Immanent Justice Responding in Adults than Children: A Challenge to Traditional Developmental Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Lakshmi; Winer, Gerald A.

    2004-01-01

    Three studies investigated developmental changes in immanent justice responding by asking participants to respond to vignettes in which a person's bad behaviour was followed by a negative consequence. Study 1 consisted of 152 sixth graders and 128 college students and presented participants with a vignette that examined the notion of bad people…

  4. Liquid-Flow Controller Responds To Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Mechanism controls flow of liquid in fuel-spraying head in combustion chamber responds nonlinearly to pressure of liquid. Shell of spraybar expands or contracts laterally as its internal pressure rises or falls, forcing collar down or up on entry tube. Area of window formed by slots in collar and entry tube thus increases or decreases. Drop in pressure through variable-area orifice increases much more with flow through orifice than does corresponding drop in pressure with flow through fixed-area orifice. In practical terms, lower pump pressure needed with variable orifice for given flow of liquid. Principle of operation applicable to spraying heads for other fluids.

  5. Diagnostics for Respondent-driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a widely used method for sampling from hard-to-reach human populations, especially populations at higher risk for HIV. Data are collected through peer-referral over social networks. RDS has proven practical for data collection in many difficult settings and is widely used. Inference from RDS data requires many strong assumptions because the sampling design is partially beyond the control of the researcher and partially unobserved. We introduce diagnostic tools for most of these assumptions and apply them in 12 high risk populations. These diagnostics empower researchers to better understand their data and encourage future statistical research on RDS. PMID:27226702

  6. 15 CFR 904.107 - Joint and several respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint and several respondents. 904.107... PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.107 Joint and several respondents. (a) A NOVA may assess a civil penalty against two or more respondents jointly and severally. Each joint and several respondent is liable for...

  7. 15 CFR 904.107 - Joint and several respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint and several respondents. 904.107... PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.107 Joint and several respondents. (a) A NOVA may assess a civil penalty against two or more respondents jointly and severally. Each joint and several respondent is liable for...

  8. To respond or not to respond, the recurring question in plant mechanosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc-Fournier, Nathalie; Martin, Ludovic; Lenne, Catherine; Decourteix, Mélanie

    2014-01-01

    In nature, terrestrial plants experience many kinds of external mechanical stimulation and respond by triggering a network of signaling events to acclimate their growth and development. Some environmental cues, especially wind, recur on time scales varying from seconds to days. Plants thus have to adapt their sensitivity to such stimulations to avoid constitutive activation of stress responses. The study of plant mechanosensing has been attracting more interest in the last two decades, but plant responses to repetitive mechanical stimulation have yet to be described in detail. In this mini review, alongside classic experiments we survey recent descriptions of the kinetics of plant responses to recurrent stimulation. The ability of plants to modulate their responses to recurrent stimulation at the molecular, cellular, or organ scale is also relevant to other abiotic stimuli. It is possible that plants reduce their responsiveness to environmental signals as a function of their recurrence, recovering full sensitivity several days later. Finally, putative mechanisms underlying mechanosensing regulation are discussed. PMID:25177327

  9. Characteristics of the traumatic stressors experienced by rural first responders.

    PubMed

    Regambal, Marci J; Alden, Lynn E; Wagner, Shannon L; Harder, Henry G; Koch, William J; Fung, Klint; Parsons, Carly

    2015-08-01

    First responders routinely experience work-related events that meet the definition of a traumatic stressor. Despite the high exposure to traumatic events, prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are relatively low. This discrepancy points to the potential value of identifying factors that distinguish those traumatic stressors that produce ongoing traumatic stress symptoms from those that do not. The present study surveyed 181 first responders from rural settings. A repeated-measures design was used to compare characteristics of traumatic stressors that were or were not associated with ongoing PTSD symptoms. A factor analysis revealed that distressing events were characterized by chaos and resource limitations. Consistent with contemporary models, two mediational analyses revealed that each event characteristic predicted peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic cognitions, which in turn predicted PTSD symptoms. Moreover, the effect of each event characteristic on PTSD symptoms was partially mediated by these cognitive processes. PMID:26188614

  10. How tree roots respond to drought

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Ivano; Herzog, Claude; Dawes, Melissa A.; Arend, Matthias; Sperisen, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing climate change is characterized by increased temperatures and altered precipitation patterns. In addition, there has been an increase in both the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events such as drought. Episodes of drought induce a series of interconnected effects, all of which have the potential to alter the carbon balance of forest ecosystems profoundly at different scales of plant organization and ecosystem functioning. During recent years, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of how aboveground parts of trees respond to drought and how these responses affect carbon assimilation. In contrast, processes of belowground parts are relatively underrepresented in research on climate change. In this review, we describe current knowledge about responses of tree roots to drought. Tree roots are capable of responding to drought through a variety of strategies that enable them to avoid and tolerate stress. Responses include root biomass adjustments, anatomical alterations, and physiological acclimations. The molecular mechanisms underlying these responses are characterized to some extent, and involve stress signaling and the induction of numerous genes, leading to the activation of tolerance pathways. In addition, mycorrhizas seem to play important protective roles. The current knowledge compiled in this review supports the view that tree roots are well equipped to withstand drought situations and maintain morphological and physiological functions as long as possible. Further, the reviewed literature demonstrates the important role of tree roots in the functioning of forest ecosystems and highlights the need for more research in this emerging field. PMID:26284083

  11. Smart physiological monitoring of first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Anurag; Kaiser, William; Tamminedi, Tejaswi; Yadegar, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    Today's state-of-the-art medical vests and shirts for health status monitoring are inflexible and expensive. The high cost and the lack of flexibility and integral-unity of the current vests are prohibiting factors for their use in first responder applications. The vests also lack an in-built intelligence to accurately determine the health status of the person wearing the vest. We present a hardware plus software solution for monitoring the health status of first responders in pressurized and adversarial missions. The technology consists of two main components. The first component is a physiological vest consisting of a suite of physiological sensors interfaced with energy management units designed to prolong the life of the sensors. The sensors communicate wirelessly with a personal server consisting of a Decision Support Software (DSS), which forms the second major component of our technology. The DSS (1) integrates the physiologic sensors readings for global assessment of the individual's health status; (2) recommends medical Alerts and Actions based on the fusion of the sensor readings; and (3) applies cognitive computation to personalize the medical vest to the specific physiologic and motion characteristics of the individual wearing the vest, in the theater of the operation or during exercise.

  12. Changes in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate during Fixed-Interval Responding in Squirrel Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWeese, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Episodic and sustained increases in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure can occur with recurring patterns of schedule-controlled behavior. Most previous studies were conducted under fixed-ratio schedules, which maintained a consistent high rate of responding that alternated with periods of no responding during times when the schedule was…

  13. Responding to Literature through Storytelling, Artifacts and Multigenre Writing Practices: Explorations of Cultures and Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga-Dobai, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes how innovative literacy practices such as multigenre writing and artifactual critical literacy have been used to tap into pre-service teachers' cultural identities while responding to literature. In the process of responding to literature, personal experience is crucial; therefore, in this study, I focused on the…

  14. Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

  15. Academic Responding during Instruction and Reading Outcomes for Kindergarten Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the academic responding of students at-risk for reading difficulties in beginning reading instruction. Opportunities for kindergarten students at-risk for reading difficulties to respond academically during teacher-facilitated reading instruction in the general education classroom were examined in…

  16. Affective and Cardiovascular Responding to Unpleasant Events from Adolescence to Old Age: Complexity of Events Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Muller, Viktor; Wagner, Gert G.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the "overpowering hypothesis" as a possible explanation for the currently inconclusive empirical picture on age differences in affective responding to unpleasant events. The overpowering hypothesis predicts that age differences in affective responding are particularly evident in highly resource-demanding situations that…

  17. Empathic Responding in Toddlers at Risk for an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Nicole M.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Empathy deficits represent an important social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little is known about the early development of empathy prior to diagnosis. This study examined empathic responding to parental distress in toddlers at risk for an ASD. Children later diagnosed with an ASD engaged in less empathic responding at 24 and…

  18. Space-Dynamically Responding Ultrasonic Matrix System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guigne, Jacques; Yi, Hu Chun

    2008-01-01

    Space-Dynamically Responding Ultrasonic Matrix System (SpaceDRUMS) comprises a suite of hardware that enables containerless processing (samples of experimental materials can be processed without ever touching a container wall). Using a collection of 20 acoustic beam emitters, SpaceDRUMS can completely suspend a baseball-sized solid or liquid sample during combustion or heat-based synthesis. Because the samples never contact the container walls, materials can be produced in microgravity with an unparalleled quality of shape and composition. The ultimate goal of the SpaceDRUMS hardware is to assist with the development of advanced materials of a commercial quantity and quality, using the space-based experiments to guide development of manufacturing processes on Earth. T

  19. Responding to chemical attack. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, R.W.

    1991-02-11

    In view of Iraq's stated intention of using chemical weapons in the Persian Gulf War, the Coalition forces must be prepared to respond. Iraq is capable of conducting such an attack. While the use of chemical weapons may not be militarily significant, the political effect of the use and the response to it may be very significant. Responses including the use of chemical and nuclear weapons are assessed in terms of their legality, political cost, and military effectiveness and found unacceptable. Reliance on diplomatic protests and on post-war criminal sanctions are judged ineffective. A response in the form of increased conventional attack on the Iraqi chemical infrastructure is recommended because that response will preserve the present Coalition, effectively counter the chemical attack, contribute to regional stability, and enhance the reputation of the United States for lawfulness and dependability.

  20. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders: 2014 Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Ozanich, Richard M.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2014-03-28

    This report summarizes commercially-available, hand-portable technologies that can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, this report is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use. Information listed in this report is primarily vendor-provided; however, where possible it has been supplemented with additional information obtained from publications, reports, and websites. Manufacturers were given the chance to review summaries of their technologies from August through November 2013 to verify the accuracy of technical specifications, available references, and pricing.

  1. Hailey-hailey disease responding to thalidomide.

    PubMed

    Nanda, K Bala; Saldanha, Celia Soni; Jacintha, Martis; Kamath, Ganesh

    2014-03-01

    Familial benign chronic pemphigus or Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of recurrent blisters and erosions in the intertriginous areas. Various topical and systemic treatment options include corticosteroids, topical 5-fluorouracil, topical vitamin D analogs, topical zinc oxide, dapsone, psoralen plus ultraviolet A, systemic retinoids, cyclosporine, methotrexate, and photodynamic therapy. In recalcitrant cases, further options including, invasive methods such as grenz ray therapy, carbon dioxide laser abrasion, and erbium: YAG laser ablation, dermabrasion, electron beam therapy, botulinum toxin, and full-thickness excision of affected skin with repair by split-thickness grafting have been reported as useful in treatment of HHD. We describe a case of HHD who was treated with several treatment modalities including antibiotics, corticosteroids, and dapsone earlier and when presented to us had a severe recalcitrant disease. Thalidomide, as a modality of treatment has been successfully used in few cases earlier. Our patient responded well to thalidomide. PMID:24700941

  2. Hailey-Hailey Disease Responding to Thalidomide

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, K Bala; Saldanha, Celia Soni; Jacintha, Martis; Kamath, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Familial benign chronic pemphigus or Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of recurrent blisters and erosions in the intertriginous areas. Various topical and systemic treatment options include corticosteroids, topical 5-fluorouracil, topical vitamin D analogs, topical zinc oxide, dapsone, psoralen plus ultraviolet A, systemic retinoids, cyclosporine, methotrexate, and photodynamic therapy. In recalcitrant cases, further options including, invasive methods such as grenz ray therapy, carbon dioxide laser abrasion, and erbium: YAG laser ablation, dermabrasion, electron beam therapy, botulinum toxin, and full-thickness excision of affected skin with repair by split-thickness grafting have been reported as useful in treatment of HHD. We describe a case of HHD who was treated with several treatment modalities including antibiotics, corticosteroids, and dapsone earlier and when presented to us had a severe recalcitrant disease. Thalidomide, as a modality of treatment has been successfully used in few cases earlier. Our patient responded well to thalidomide. PMID:24700941

  3. How to define responders in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Cyrus; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Bardin, Thomas; Berenbaum, Francis; Flamion, Bruno; Jonsson, Helgi; Kanis, John A.; Pelousse, Franz; Lems, Willem F.; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Reiter, Susanne; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Rizzoli, René; Bruyère, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a clinical syndrome of failure of the joint accompanied by varying degrees of joint pain, functional limitation, and reduced quality of life due to deterioration of articular cartilage and involvement of other joint structures. Scope Regulatory agencies require relevant clinical benefit on symptoms and structure modification for registration of a new therapy as a disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD). An international Working Group of the European Society on Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) and International Osteoporosis Foundation was convened to explore the current burden of osteoarthritis, review current regulatory guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials, and examine the concept of responder analyses for improving drug evaluation in osteoarthritis. Findings The ESCEO considers that the major challenges in DMOAD development are the absence of a precise definition of the disease, particularly in the early stages, and the lack of consensus on how to detect structural changes and link them to clinically meaningful endpoints. Responder criteria should help identify progression of disease and be clinically meaningful. The ideal criterion should be sensitive to change over time and should predict disease progression and outcomes such as joint replacement. Conclusion The ESCEO considers that, for knee osteoarthritis, clinical trial data indicate that radiographic joint space narrowing >0.5 mm over 2 or 3 years might be a reliable surrogate measure for total joint replacement. On-going research using techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and biochemical markers may allow the identification of these patients earlier in the disease process. PMID:23557069

  4. Imagination and dissociation in hypnotic responding.

    PubMed

    Bowers, K S

    1992-10-01

    A neodissociative model of mind is better equipped than a social-psychological model to deal with the complexities of hypnosis, and of human behavior generally. It recognizes, as Coe's (1992) model does not, that behavior can be more automatically activated than strategically enacted. In particular, Coe's emphasis on human behavior as purposeful and goal directed does not distinguish between goal-directed behavior that serves a purpose, and goal-directed behavior that is performed on purpose. It is this distinction that permits goal-directed behavior to be dissociated from a person's conscious plans and intentions. In addition to offering a critique of Coe's "limited process" view of hypnosis, 4 main points are made in the interest of developing a slightly modified, neodissociation view of hypnosis. First, it is argued that goal-directed fantasies are more limited in their ability to mediate hypnotic responding than is commonly appreciated; as well, they do not seem to account for the nonvolitional quality of hypnotic responding. Second, it is argued that hypnotic ability is not unidimensional, with compliance and social influence more apt to account for the low than for the high hypnotizable's responsiveness to suggestion. Third, compared to low hypnotizables, the hypnotic responsiveness of high hypnotizables seems more likely to result from dissociated control. In other words, for high hypnotizables, hypnotic suggestions may often directly activate subsystems of cognitive control. Consequently, the need for executive initiative and effort to produce hypnotically suggested behavior is minimized, and such responses are therefore experienced as nonvolitional. Fourth and finally, while goal-directed fantasies typically accompany hypnotically suggested responses, they are in many cases more a marker of dissociated control than a mediator of suggested effects. PMID:1468834

  5. Ecosystem Greenhouse Gas Fluxes Respond Directly to Weather Not Climate: A Case Study on the Relationship of Global Atmospheric Circulation, Foehn Frequency, and Winter Weather to Northern Alps Regional Grassland Phenology and Carbon Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, A. R.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Zeeman, M. J.; Katata, G.; Mauder, M.; Schmid, H. P. E.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of climate change on regional ecosystem structure and biogeochemical cycling has two important aspects that require better elaboration to improve projections of these effects. The first is that ecosystems don't respond directly to climate, but indirectly via frequency and occurrence of weather systems, which are driven by climatic shifts in global circulation and radiative processes. The second is that many responses of ecosystems to these weather patterns and extremes are lagged in time. Here, we examine these aspects for northern Alpine grasslands. Long-term eddy covariance flux tower and phenology observations in Austria and Germany and biophysical models reveal a strong influence of winter air temperature, snowfall, and snowmelt frequency on winter grass mortality and spring grassland carbon uptake. Further, the mode of climate variability that drives winter air temperature and snow depth patterns is primarily the frequency of strong regional southerly Foehn flow that promotes warm, dry conditions in winter. Finally, we demonstrate that much of the interannual variance in Foehn frequency and southerly flow is driven by statistics and climatic trends of 500 hPa pressure patterns in Greenland, part of the Arctic Oscillation. However, a few years, including the unusually warm and dry winter of 2013-2014 appear to have secondary, possibly local thermotopographic circulation factors that promoted its weather conditions regionally, which also included primarily cool and wet conditions in northern Europe and the southern Alps. These findings demonstrate that the regional response of ecosystems to climate change is modulated by how large-scale circulation patterns influence local meteorology and topographic flows both during and outside the growing season and provides a framework for future assessment and climate model improvements of linkages of climate change, weather patterns, and ecosystem responses.

  6. 33 CFR 20.1311 - Admissions by respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Supplementary Evidentiary Rules for Suspension and Revocation Hearings § 20.1311 Admissions by respondent. No person may testify regarding admissions made by the respondent during an investigation under 46 CFR...

  7. Improving Situational Awareness for First Responders via Mobile Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; Del Mundo, Rommel; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This project looks to improve first responder situational awareness using tools and techniques of mobile computing. The prototype system combines wireless communication, real-time location determination, digital imaging, and three-dimensional graphics. Responder locations are tracked in an outdoor environment via GPS and uploaded to a central server via GPRS or an 802.11 network. Responders can also wirelessly share digital images and text reports, both with other responders and with the incident commander. A pre-built three dimensional graphics model of a particular emergency scene is used to visualize responder and report locations. Responders have a choice of information end points, ranging from programmable cellular phones to tablet computers. The system also employs location-aware computing to make responders aware of particular hazards as they approach them. The prototype was developed in conjunction with the NASA Ames Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team and has undergone field testing during responder exercise at NASA Ames.

  8. 76 FR 9039 - Emergency Responder Field Operations Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Emergency Responder Field Operations Guide AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Emergency Management Agency is requesting public comments on the Emergency Responder Field Operations...

  9. Improving Situational Awareness for First Responders via Mobile Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; Del Mundo, Rommel; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This project looks to improve first responder incident command, and an appropriately managed flow of situational awareness using mobile computing techniques. The prototype system combines wireless communication, real-time location determination, digital imaging, and three-dimensional graphics. Responder locations are tracked in an outdoor environment via GPS and uploaded to a central server via GPRS or an 802. II network. Responders can also wireless share digital images and text reports, both with other responders and with the incident commander. A pre-built three dimensional graphics model of the emergency scene is used to visualize responder and report locations. Responders have a choice of information end points, ranging from programmable cellular phones to tablet computers. The system also employs location-aware computing to make responders aware of particular hazards as they approach them. The prototype was developed in conjunction with the NASA Ames Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team and has undergone field testing during responder exercises at NASA Ames.

  10. Software Assists in Responding to Anomalous Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark; Kronbert, F.; Weiner, A.; Morgan, T.; Stroozas, B.; Girouard, F.; Hopkins, A.; Wong, L.; Kneubuhl, J.; Malina, R.

    2004-01-01

    Fault Induced Document Retrieval Officer (FIDO) is a computer program that reduces the need for a large and costly team of engineers and/or technicians to monitor the state of a spacecraft and associated ground systems and respond to anomalies. FIDO includes artificial-intelligence components that imitate the reasoning of human experts with reference to a knowledge base of rules that represent failure modes and to a database of engineering documentation. These components act together to give an unskilled operator instantaneous expert assistance and access to information that can enable resolution of most anomalies, without the need for highly paid experts. FIDO provides a system state summary (a configurable engineering summary) and documentation for diagnosis of a potentially failing component that might have caused a given error message or anomaly. FIDO also enables high-level browsing of documentation by use of an interface indexed to the particular error message. The collection of available documents includes information on operations and associated procedures, engineering problem reports, documentation of components, and engineering drawings. FIDO also affords a capability for combining information on the state of ground systems with detailed, hierarchically-organized, hypertext- enabled documentation.

  11. Please respond ASAP: workplace telepressure and employee recovery.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larissa K; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2015-04-01

    Organizations rely heavily on asynchronous message-based technologies (e.g., e-mail) for the purposes of work-related communications. These technologies are primary means of knowledge transfer and building social networks. As a by-product, workers might feel varying levels of preoccupations with and urges for responding quickly to messages from clients, coworkers, or supervisors--an experience we label as workplace telepressure. This experience can lead to fast response times and thus faster decisions and other outcomes initially. However, research from the stress and recovery literature suggests that the defining features of workplace telepressure interfere with needed work recovery time and stress-related outcomes. The present set of studies defined and validated a new scale to measure telepressure. Study 1 tested an initial pool of items and found some support for a single-factor structure after problematic items were removed. As expected, public self-consciousness, techno-overload, and response expectations were moderately associated with telepressure in Study 1. Study 2 demonstrated that workplace telepressure was distinct from other personal (job involvement, affective commitment) and work environment (general and ICT work demands) factors and also predicted burnout (physical and cognitive), absenteeism, sleep quality, and e-mail responding beyond those factors. Implications for future research and workplace practices are discussed. PMID:25365629

  12. The relational responding task: toward a new implicit measure of beliefs

    PubMed Central

    De Houwer, Jan; Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; Roets, Arne; Hughes, Sean

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the Relational Responding Task (RRT) as a tool for capturing beliefs at the implicit level. Flemish participants were asked to respond as if they believed that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants (e.g., respond “true” to the statement “Flemish people are wiser than immigrants”) or to respond as if they believed that immigrants are more intelligent than Flemish people (e.g., respond “true” to the statement “Flemish people are dumber than immigrants”). The difference in performance between these two tasks correlated with ratings of the extent to which participants explicitly endorsed the belief that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants and with questionnaire measures of subtle and blatant racism. The current study provides a first step toward validating RRT effects as a viable measure of implicit beliefs. PMID:25852624

  13. Academic Responding During Instruction and Reading Outcomes for Kindergarten Students At-risk for Reading Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the academic responding of students at-risk for reading difficulties in beginning reading instruction. Opportunities for kindergarten students at-risk for reading difficulties to respond academically during teacher-facilitated reading instruction in the general education classroom were examined in relation to student reading achievement as well as social behaviors. Student academic responding during teacher-facilitated instruction significantly predicted end of year reading achievement. Teacher perceptions of students’ social skills (positive correlation) and problem behaviors (negative correlation) were significantly correlated with academic responding. When academic responding and teacher perceptions of social behaviors were examined together, only teacher perceptions of academic competence and problem behaviors predicted spring outcomes. PMID:24665162

  14. 39 CFR 962.11 - Respondent access to information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respondent access to information. 962.11 Section... RELATIVE TO THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 962.11 Respondent access to information. (a)(1) Except... § 962.6, the Respondent shall be entitled to obtain all exculpatory information in the possession of...

  15. 31 CFR 595.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 595.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director of the Office of Foreign Assets Control. (b) Form and contents of...

  16. 31 CFR 560.704 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 560.704 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of the written presentation. The written presentation...

  17. 31 CFR 575.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 575.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of written presentation. The written presentation need...

  18. 31 CFR 535.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 535.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of written presentation. The written presentation need...

  19. 19 CFR 162.78 - Presentations responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presentations responding to prepenalty notice. 162... Violations § 162.78 Presentations responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. Unless a... notice to make a written and an oral presentation. The Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer...

  20. 77 FR 56622 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting... First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet). DATES: The meeting will be held on September 25, 2012... the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) as an independent authority within the...

  1. 78 FR 15357 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone...

  2. 78 FR 57843 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... Washington, DC See First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting, Notice of Open Public Meetings, 77 FR... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting... (NTIA) will convene an open public meeting of the Board of the First Responder Network Authority...

  3. 78 FR 38014 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone...

  4. 78 FR 26323 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone...

  5. 78 FR 57621 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting...: Notice of special meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Board meeting via teleconference on September...

  6. 78 FR 72666 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting...: Notice of Open Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will convene open public meetings of the Board Committees on...

  7. 78 FR 54241 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone...

  8. 78 FR 63168 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone...

  9. Per cent of patients with chronic migraine who responded per onabotulinumtoxinA treatment cycle: PREEMPT

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Stephen D; Dodick, David W; Aurora, Sheena K; Diener, Hans-Christoph; DeGryse, Ronald E; Lipton, Richard B; Turkel, Catherine C

    2015-01-01

    Objective The approved use of onabotulinumtoxinA for prophylaxis of headaches in patients with chronic migraine (CM) involves treatment every 12 weeks. It is currently unknown whether patients who fail to respond to the first onabotulinumtoxinA treatment cycle will respond to subsequent treatment cycles. To help inform decisions about treating non-responders, we examined the probability of treatment cycle 1 non-responders responding in cycle 2, and cycle 1 and 2 non-responders responding in cycle 3. Methods Pooled PREEMPT data (two studies: a 24-week, 2-cycle, double-blind, randomised (1:1), placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase, followed by a 32-week, 3-cycle, open-label phase) evaluated onabotulinumtoxinA (155–195 U) for prophylaxis of headaches in persons with CM (≥15 days/month with headache ≥4 h/day). End points of interest included the proportion of study patients who first achieved a ≥50% reduction in headache days, moderate/severe headache days, total cumulative hours of headache on headache days, or a ≥5-point improvement in Headache Impact Test (HIT)-6. For treatment cycle 1, all eligible participants were included. For subsequent cycles, responders in a previous cycle were no longer considered first responders. Results Among onabotulinumtoxinA-treated patients (n=688) 49.3% had a ≥50% reduction in headache-day frequency during treatment cycle 1, with 11.3% and 10.3% of patients first responding during cycles 2 and 3, respectively. 54.2%, 11.6% and 7.4% of patients first responded with a ≥50% reduction in cumulative hours of headache, and 56.3%, 14.5% and 7.7% of patients first responded with a ≥5-point improvement in total HIT-6 during treatment cycles 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Conclusions A meaningful proportion of patients with CM treated with onabotulinumtoxinA who did not respond to the first treatment cycle responded in the second and third cycles of treatment. Trial registration number NCT00156910, NCT00168428. PMID

  10. Smart radio: spectrum access for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvius, Mark D.; Ge, Feng; Young, Alex; MacKenzie, Allen B.; Bostian, Charles W.

    2008-04-01

    This paper details the Wireless at Virginia Tech Center for Wireless Telecommunications' (CWT) design and implementation of its Smart Radio (SR) communication platform. The CWT SR can identify available spectrum within a pre-defined band, rendezvous with an intended receiver, and transmit voice and data using a selected quality of service (QoS). This system builds upon previous cognitive technologies developed by CWT for the public safety community, with the goal of providing a prototype mobile communications package for military and public safety First Responders. A master control (MC) enables spectrum awareness by characterizing the radio environment with a power spectrum sensor and an innovative signal detection and classification module. The MC also enables spectrum and signal memory by storing sensor results in a knowledge database. By utilizing a family radio service (FRS) waveform database, the CWT SR can create a new communication link on any designated FRS channel frequency using FM, BPSK, QPSK, or 8PSK modulations. With FM, it supports analog voice communications with legacy hand-held FRS radios. With digital modulations, it supports IP data services, including a CWT developed CVSD-based VoIP protocol. The CWT SR coordinates spectrum sharing between analog primary users and digital secondary users by applying a simple but effective channel-change protocol. It also demonstrates a novel rendezvous protocol to facilitate the detection and initialization of communications links with neighboring SR nodes through the transmission of frequency-hopped rendezvous beacons. By leveraging the GNU Radio toolkit, writing key modules entirely in Python, and utilizing the USRP hardware front-end, the CWT SR provides a dynamic spectrum test bed for future smart and cognitive radio research.

  11. Respondent driven sampling of wheelchair users: A lack of traction?

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, John A.; Schluter, Philip J.; Hay-Smith, E. Jean C.; Snell, Deborah L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Internationally, wheelchair users are an emerging demographic phenomenon, due to their increased prevalence and rapidly increasing life-span. While having significant healthcare implications, basic robust epidemiological information about wheelchair users is often lacking due, in part, to this population’s ‘hidden’ nature. Increasingly popular in epidemiological research, Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) provides a mechanism for generating unbiased population-based estimates for hard-to-reach populations, overcoming biases inherent within other sampling methods. This paper reports the first published study to employ RDS amongst wheelchair users. Methods: Between October 2015 and January 2016, a short, successfully piloted, internet-based national survey was initiated. Twenty seeds from diverse organisations were invited to complete the survey then circulate it to peers within their networks following a well-defined protocol. A predetermined reminder protocol was triggered when seeds or their peers failed to respond. All participants were entered into a draw for an iPad. Results: Overall, 19 people participated (nine women); 12 initial seeds, followed by seven second-wave participants arising from four seeds . Completion time for the survey ranged between 7 and 36 minutes. Despite repeated reminders, no further people were recruited. Discussion: While New Zealand wheelchair user numbers are unknown, an estimated 14% of people have physical impairments that limited mobility. The 19 respondents generated from adopting the RDS methodology here thus represents a negligible fraction of wheelchair users in New Zealand, and an insufficient number to ensure equilibrium required for unbiased analyses. While successful in other hard-to-reach populations, applying RDS methodology to wheelchair users requires further consideration. Formative research exploring areas of network characteristics, acceptability of RDS, appropriate incentive options, and seed

  12. Sunlight upon a Dark Sky Haiti's Urban Poor Responds to Socio-Political and Socio-Cultural Conflicts: A Case Study of the Grande Ravine Community Human Rights Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmett, Deborah Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This case study investigates the organizational characteristics of a Haitian grassroots community human rights council (CHRC) that emerged as a response to three politically motivated massacres. The impromptu grassroots response of this poor urban community is at the core of the following research question investigated in this study: "What…

  13. CALIBRATION OF OBSERVATIONAL MEASUREMENT OF RATE OF RESPONDING

    PubMed Central

    Mudford, Oliver C; Zeleny, Jason R; Fisher, Wayne W; Klum, Molly E; Owen, Todd M

    2011-01-01

    The quality of measurement systems used in almost all natural sciences other than behavior analysis is usually evaluated through calibration study rather than relying on interobserver agreement. We demonstrated some of the basic features of calibration using observer-measured rates of free-operant responding from 10 scripted 10-min calibration samples on video. Five novice and 5 experienced observers recorded (on laptop computers) response samples with a priori determined response rates ranging from 0 to 8 responses per minute. Observer records were then compared with these predetermined reference values using linear regression and related graphical depiction. Results indicated that all of the observers recorded rates that were accurate to within ±0.4 responses per minute and 5 were accurate to within ±0.1 responses per minute, indicating that continuous recording of responding on computers can be highly accurate and precise. Additional research is recommended to investigate conditions that affect the quality of direct observational measurement of behavior. PMID:21941386

  14. First aid skill retention of first responders within the workplace

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent literature states that many necessary skills of CPR and first aid are forgotten shortly after certification. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill and knowledge decay in first aid in those who are paid to respond to emergency situations within a workplace. Methods Using a choking victim scenario, the sequence and accuracy of events were observed and recorded in 257 participants paid to act as first responders in large industrial or service industry settings. A multiple choice exam was also written to determine knowledge retention. Results First aid knowledge was higher in those who were trained at a higher level, and did not significantly decline over time. Those who had renewed their certificate one or more times performed better than those who had learned the information only once. During the choking scenario many skills were performed poorly, regardless of days since last training, such as hand placement and abdominal thrusts. Compressions following the victim becoming unconscious also showed classic signs of skill deterioration after 30 days. Conclusions As many skills deteriorate rapidly over the course of the first 90 days, changing frequency of certification is not necessarily the most obvious choice to increase retention of skill and knowledge. Alternatively, methods of regularly "refreshing" a skill should be explored that could be delivered at a high frequency - such as every 90 days. PMID:21303536

  15. Effects of oxytocin on aggressive responding in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Alcorn, Joseph L; Green, Charles E; Schmitz, Joy; Lane, Scott D

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of oxytocin (OT) on human aggression using a well-established laboratory measure of state (reactive) aggression to test the hypothesis that OT would decrease the frequency of aggressive responding. In a within-subject design, 17 healthy male volunteers received placebo or 24 IU of intranasal OT. Aggression was measured using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm at 30 min before and 30, 60, and 90 min after dose. Acute OT did not produce a significant main effect on aggressive behavior. OT attenuated the expected rise in diastolic blood pressure from morning to early afternoon observed under placebo, providing a possible indication of biological activity. Examination of individual differences showed that aggressive responding following OT dosing (but not placebo) was positively correlated with psychometric measures of interpersonal manipulation and anger (Pearson's r=0.57), indicating that higher scores on these antisocial personality traits were related to increased aggressive behavior following OT administration. These preliminary results stand in contrast to previous work on the prosocial effects of OT and highlight the need for further understanding of individual differences in aggression following OT administration. Such individual differences may have implications for the therapeutic use of OT in individuals with psychiatric disorders and dysfunctional social behavior. PMID:26241153

  16. A Simple Evacuation Modeling and Simulation Tool for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B; Payne, Patricia W

    2015-01-01

    Although modeling and simulation of mass evacuations during a natural or man-made disaster is an on-going and vigorous area of study, tool adoption by front-line first responders is uneven. Some of the factors that account for this situation include cost and complexity of the software. For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively developing the free Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) to address these issues. One of the components of IMPACT is a multi-agent simulation module for area-based and path-based evacuations. The user interface is designed so that anyone familiar with typical computer drawing tools can quickly author a geospatially-correct evacuation visualization suitable for table-top exercises. Since IMPACT is designed for use in the field where network communications may not be available, quick on-site evacuation alternatives can be evaluated to keep pace with a fluid threat situation. Realism is enhanced by incorporating collision avoidance into the simulation. Statistics are gathered as the simulation unfolds, including most importantly time-to-evacuate, to help first responders choose the best course of action.

  17. Language Generativity, Response Generalization, and Derived Relational Responding

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John; Ming, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Language generativity can be described as the ability to produce sentences never before said, and to understand sentences never before heard. One process often cited as underlying language generativity is response generalization. However, though the latter seems to promise a technical understanding of the former at a process level, an investigation of definitions and approaches to the term “response generalization” that appear in the literature suggests that it does not do so. We argue that a more promising candidate for the role of key process underlying language generativity is derived relational responding. We introduce the latter concept and describe empirical research showing its connection with language. We subsequently present a relational frame theory (RFT) conceptualization of derived relations as contextually controlled generalized relational responding. We then review a series of recent studies on derived manding in developmentally delayed children and adults that arguably demonstrate the applied utility of a derived relations-based approach with respect to the phenomenon of generative language. PMID:23814374

  18. CIRUN: Climate Information Responding to User Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busalacchi, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth System will experience real climate change over the next 50 years, exceeding the scope of natural climate variability. A paramount question facing society is how to adapt to this certainty of climate variability and change. In response, OSTP and NOAA are considering how comprehensive climate services would best inform decisions about adaptation. Similarly, NASA is considering the optimal configuration of the next generation of Earth, environmental, and climate observations to be deployed over the coming 10-20 years. Moreover, much of the added-value information for specific climate-related decisions will be provided by private, academic and non-governmental organizations. In this context, over the past several years the University of Maryland has established the CIRUN (Climate Information: Responding to User Needs) initiative to identify the nature of national needs for climate information and services from a decision support perspective. To date, CIRUN has brought together decisionmakers in a number of sectors to help understand their perspectives on climate with the goal of improving the usefulness of climate information, observations and prediction products to specific user communities. CIRUN began with a major workshop in October 2007 that convened 430 participants in agriculture, parks and recreation, terrestrial ecosystems, insurance/investment, energy, national security, state/local/municipal, water, human health, commerce and manufacturing, transportation, and coastal/marine sectors. Plenary speakers such as Norman Augustine, R. James Woolsey, James Mahoney, and former Senator Joseph Tydings, breakout panel sessions, and participants provided input based on the following: - How would you characterize the exposure or vulnerability to climate variability or change impacting your organization? - Does climate variability and/or change currently factor into your organization's objectives or operations? - Are any of your existing plans being affected by

  19. Certified first responder: a comprehensive model for pediatric training.

    PubMed

    Markenson, D; Foltin, G; Tunik, M; Cooper, A; Treiber, M; Welborn, C; Clappin, J; Fitton, A; Giordano, L

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a general approach to educating the First Responder in Emergency Pediatric Care. The First Responder is especially important in the emergency care of the sick or injured child. The majority of mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric emergencies is a result of airway and ventilatory compromise. In addition, most airway and ventilation problems can be corrected with only basic life support interventions that are within the scope of practice of the First Responder. As a result, it is of paramount importance to assure that the First Responder is adequately trained in the initial care of the pediatric patient. This document will review some of the key objectives and topics which the First Responder needs to understand in order to adequately care for children until further emergency care arrives. Templates for lesson plans and suggested activities for training the First Responder are also presented. PMID:9127426

  20. Long-Term, Open-Label, Safety Study of Edivoxetine 12 to 18 mg Once Daily as Adjunctive Treatment for Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Who Are Partial Responders to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ball, Susan G; Atkinson, Sarah; Sparks, JonDavid; Bangs, Mark; Goldberger, Celine; Dubé, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    Long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of adjunctive edivoxetine hydrochloride (hereafter edivoxetine), a highly selective and potent norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was assessed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experiencing partial response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. Data are from a multicenter, 54-week, open-label trial of adjunctive edivoxetine 12 to 18 mg once daily in patients with MDD who had experienced partial response by history to 6 or more weeks of current selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy and who had a 17-item GRID Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score 16 or higher at study entry. Safety measures included discontinuation rate, treatment-emergent adverse events, serious adverse events, and vital signs. Efficacy measures included the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Of 608 patients, 328 (54%) completed the open-label adjunctive treatment. Study discontinuation due to adverse events occurred in 17.0%, and there were 13 serious adverse events (1 death). Treatment-emergent adverse events 5% or higher were nausea, hyperhidrosis, constipation, headache, dry mouth, dizziness, vomiting, insomnia, and upper respiratory tract infection. Mean increases were observed in systolic blood pressure (range, 0.0-2.3 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (range, 1.9-3.3 mm Hg), and pulse (range, 5.9-8.4 beats per minute). Mean improvements on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (-17.0) were observed from baseline to week 54. The safety profile from this study provides an overview of outcomes associated with edivoxetine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition as an adjunctive treatment in patients with MDD who were treated up to 1 year. PMID:25815754

  1. The Discrimination of Fully Randomized and Partially Randomized Responding from Nonrandomized Responding on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire-Fifth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrzak, Dale; Korcuska, James S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the detection of various rates of noncontent responding on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire-Fifth Edition (R. Cattell, H. Eber, & M. Tatsuoka, 1970). The study used a sample of 237 adult volunteers. New scales were developed and tested. (Contains 3 tables.)

  2. An integrated command control and communications center for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messner, Richard A.; Hludik, Frank; Vidacic, Dragan; Melnyk, Pavlo

    2005-05-01

    First responders to a major incident include many different agencies. These may include law enforcement officers, multiple fire departments, paramedics, HAZMAT response teams, and possibly even federal personnel such as FBI and FEMA. Often times multiple jurisdictions respond to the incident which causes interoperability issues with respect to communication and dissemination of time critical information. Accurate information from all responding sources needs to be rapidly collected and made available to the current on site responders as well as the follow-on responders who may just be arriving on scene. The creation of a common central database with a simple easy to use interface that is dynamically updated in real time would allow prompt and efficient information distribution between different jurisdictions. Such a system is paramount to the success of any response to a major incident. First responders typically arrive in mobile vehicles that are equipped with communications equipment. Although the first responders may make reports back to their specific home based command centers, the details of those reports are not typically available to other first responders who are not a part of that agencies infrastructure. Furthermore, the collection of information often occurs outside of the first responder vehicle and the details of the scene are normally either radioed from the field or written down and then disseminated after significant delay. Since first responders are not usually on the same communications channels, and the fact that there is normally a considerable amount of confusion during the first few hours on scene, it would be beneficial if there were a centralized location for the repository of time critical information which could be accessed by all the first responders in a common fashion without having to redesign or add significantly to each first responders hardware/software systems. Each first responder would then be able to provide information

  3. The Exceptional Responders Initiative: Welcoming More Cases

    Cancer.gov

    The initiative is studying tissue, clinical, and genomic data from patients with cancer who have had dramatic and long-lasting responses to standard and experimental treatments that were not seen in similar patients who received the same treatment.

  4. Radar detection of drones responding to honeybee queen pheromone.

    PubMed

    Loper, G M; Wolf, W W; Taylor, O R

    1993-09-01

    The response of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) drones to queen pheromone(s) (either natural from a mated queen, or synthetic from a lure) was recorded using an X-band, ground-based radar. The distribution of drones (insect targets on the radar screen) changed from a scattered distribution to a line concentration (downwind) when the pheromone was released. Displacement within the line concentration was toward the pheromone. This response was seen as far as 800±15 m downwind from a lure with 10 mg of synthetic 9-oxodec-trans-2-enoic acid (9-ODA) and as far as 420±15 m from a mated queen. These studies demonstrate that queen pheromone can be detected by drones at much greater distances than previously believed and illustrate how X-band radar may be used to establish the distances at which insects of similar or larger size respond to pheromones. PMID:24249369

  5. Racism and Sexism: Responding to the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Richard L., Ed.; Contreras, Gloria, Ed.

    Five essays examine the responses of the social studies to racism and sexism in the 1960s and 1970s. The first essay discusses the general concept of pluralism and its relationship to racism and sexism. Textbook and curricular response and legislation relevant to racism and sexism are also considered. The second essay deals with racism in terms of…

  6. How Institutions Respond to Training Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Andrew

    The impact of the transition to training packages (TPs) on institutionally based training in Australia was examined. Information was gathered from 14 case studies of registered trade organizations (RTOs) delivering qualifications to institutionally based students in TPs in the following areas: administration, beauty therapy, community services,…

  7. Smart Bodies: Louisiana Responds to Youth Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ellen P.; Holston, Denise; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2005-01-01

    In Louisiana, it is estimated that almost 33% of school-age children are at risk for becoming overweight or are already overweight (Louisiana Office of Public Health, 2004). Studies have shown that poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and weight problems often associated with being overweight adversely affect academic performance in school…

  8. Responding to Literature: Theme 2, Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rexford

    This study presents the second of four reports of the results of the 1970-71 National Assessment of Literature. The educational attainments of nine-year-olds, thirteen-year-olds, seventeen-year-olds, and adults (ages 26-35) were surveyed according to the subjects' ability to become engaged in, find meanings in, and evaluate a work of literature.…

  9. Transit Economy Market Challenge and University Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiulis, Algirdas Vaclovas

    2003-01-01

    In an ever-changing labour market, university tries to make efforts to estimate the free labour market demands for university graduates. The strength of Engineering Education lies in the range and depth of fundamental knowledge the students acquire during their studies, but the abilities like: taking risk, taking initiative, teamwork,…

  10. Responding to Diversity? Refugee Families and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol; Warren, Simon

    This paper reports on a small-scale, recently completed qualitative project conducted in the United Kingdom that focuses on links between refugee families and the schools their children attend. The project attempted to study the relationships between refugee parents and education professionals in order to identify factors that encourage or hinder…