Science.gov

Sample records for response letter gras

  1. Structural and Functional Analysis of the GRAS Gene Family in Grapevine Indicates a Role of GRAS Proteins in the Control of Development and Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Teixeira, Rita T.; Martinez-Zapater, Jose M.; Fortes, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    GRAS transcription factors are involved in many processes of plant growth and development (e.g., axillary shoot meristem formation, root radial patterning, nodule morphogenesis, arbuscular development) as well as in plant disease resistance and abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available concerning this gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), an economically important woody crop. We performed a model curation of GRAS genes identified in the latest genome annotation leading to the identification of 52 genes. Gene models were improved and three new genes were identified that could be grapevine- or woody-plant specific. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GRAS genes could be classified into 13 groups that mapped on the 19 V. vinifera chromosomes. Five new subfamilies, previously not characterized in other species, were identified. Multiple sequence alignment showed typical GRAS domain in the proteins and new motifs were also described. As observed in other species, both segmental and tandem duplications contributed significantly to the expansion and evolution of the GRAS gene family in grapevine. Expression patterns across a variety of tissues and upon abiotic and biotic conditions revealed possible divergent functions of GRAS genes in grapevine development and stress responses. By comparing the information available for tomato and grapevine GRAS genes, we identified candidate genes that might constitute conserved transcriptional regulators of both climacteric and non-climacteric fruit ripening. Altogether this study provides valuable information and robust candidate genes for future functional analysis aiming at improving the quality of fleshy fruits. PMID:27065316

  2. Structural and Functional Analysis of the GRAS Gene Family in Grapevine Indicates a Role of GRAS Proteins in the Control of Development and Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Teixeira, Rita T; Martinez-Zapater, Jose M; Fortes, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    GRAS transcription factors are involved in many processes of plant growth and development (e.g., axillary shoot meristem formation, root radial patterning, nodule morphogenesis, arbuscular development) as well as in plant disease resistance and abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available concerning this gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), an economically important woody crop. We performed a model curation of GRAS genes identified in the latest genome annotation leading to the identification of 52 genes. Gene models were improved and three new genes were identified that could be grapevine- or woody-plant specific. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GRAS genes could be classified into 13 groups that mapped on the 19 V. vinifera chromosomes. Five new subfamilies, previously not characterized in other species, were identified. Multiple sequence alignment showed typical GRAS domain in the proteins and new motifs were also described. As observed in other species, both segmental and tandem duplications contributed significantly to the expansion and evolution of the GRAS gene family in grapevine. Expression patterns across a variety of tissues and upon abiotic and biotic conditions revealed possible divergent functions of GRAS genes in grapevine development and stress responses. By comparing the information available for tomato and grapevine GRAS genes, we identified candidate genes that might constitute conserved transcriptional regulators of both climacteric and non-climacteric fruit ripening. Altogether this study provides valuable information and robust candidate genes for future functional analysis aiming at improving the quality of fleshy fruits. PMID:27065316

  3. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis, and Stress Responses of the GRAS Gene Family in Castor Beans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Chen, Zexi; Ahmed, Naeem; Han, Bing; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specific GRAS transcription factors play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses. Castor beans (Ricinus communis) are important non-edible oilseed plants, cultivated worldwide for its seed oils and its adaptability to growth conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a total of 48 GRAS genes based on the castor bean genome. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the castor bean GRAS members were divided into 13 distinct groups. Functional divergence analysis revealed the presence of mostly Type-I functional divergence. The gene structures and conserved motifs, both within and outside the GRAS domain, were characterized. Gene expression analysis, performed in various tissues and under a range of abiotic stress conditions, uncovered the potential functions of GRAS members in regulating plant growth development and stress responses. The results obtained from this study provide valuable information toward understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of GRAS proteins in castor beans. These findings also serve as a resource for identifying the genes that allow castor beans to grow in stressful conditions and to enable further breeding and genetic improvements in agriculture. PMID:27347937

  4. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis, and Stress Responses of the GRAS Gene Family in Castor Beans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Chen, Zexi; Ahmed, Naeem; Han, Bing; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specific GRAS transcription factors play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses. Castor beans (Ricinus communis) are important non-edible oilseed plants, cultivated worldwide for its seed oils and its adaptability to growth conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a total of 48 GRAS genes based on the castor bean genome. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the castor bean GRAS members were divided into 13 distinct groups. Functional divergence analysis revealed the presence of mostly Type-I functional divergence. The gene structures and conserved motifs, both within and outside the GRAS domain, were characterized. Gene expression analysis, performed in various tissues and under a range of abiotic stress conditions, uncovered the potential functions of GRAS members in regulating plant growth development and stress responses. The results obtained from this study provide valuable information toward understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of GRAS proteins in castor beans. These findings also serve as a resource for identifying the genes that allow castor beans to grow in stressful conditions and to enable further breeding and genetic improvements in agriculture. PMID:27347937

  5. Bacterial GRAS domain proteins throw new light on gibberellic acid response mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dapeng; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Aravind, L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Gibberellic acids (GAs) are key plant hormones, regulating various aspects of growth and development, which have been at the center of the ‘green revolution’. GRAS family proteins, the primary players in GA signaling pathways, remain poorly understood. Using sequence-profile searches, structural comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, we establish that the GRAS family first emerged in bacteria and belongs to the Rossmann fold methyltransferase superfamily. All bacterial and a subset of plant GRAS proteins are likely to function as small-molecule methylases. The remaining plant versions have lost one or more AdoMet (SAM)-binding residues while preserving their substrate-binding residues. We predict that GRAS proteins might either modify or bind small molecules such as GAs or their derivatives. Contact: aravind@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Supplementary Information: Supplementary Material for this article is available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22829623

  6. More than Mardi Gras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Telling art students to do anything they want can be dangerous. It's not something teachers often do, but this is a project where anything goes. In this article, the author describes how her students created a Mardi Gras type mask, then incorporated it into a mixed-media composition.

  7. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    child is charged. Because folk are so poor, the fees have to be very low and the resources bought are consequently minimal. Apparatus for physics lessons? Very rarely. Electricity, gas and water services to the labs? Sometimes. Physics textbooks? Very few, old and battered through much use. I visited the David Kuanda School in Lusaka, a high status technical school, and there met some very impressive teachers. Were they doing technical subjects like electronics and car maintenance? No, they could not afford to buy the required equipment, and thus did the academic subjects, physics, chemistry and maths etc, which were cheaper as they could be taught with 'chalk and talk'! Were their students bright, resourceful and keen to learn? They certainly were. Despite all these difficulties the teachers were seeking to teach, and help their students enjoy, the same physics that is common around the world—and prepare them for very similar exams at GCE and A-level, in English. If anyone would like to help a Zambian secondary school, perhaps by sending a set of physics texts no longer used here, or by providing some other resources, perhaps by forming a personal link with a school in Zambia, please contact me and I would be happy to help with arrangements. I could guarantee that you, and your students, would gain an enormous amount from such links—as well as making a real contribution to the development of a less favoured country. Brian E Woolnough Oxford University, UK brian.woolnough@edstud.ox.ac.uk Pedantry or compromise I write in response to S Wynchank's letter in the May issue entitled 'Grammar and Gender'. Many have been using 'They' as common-sex third-person pronoun for years, in order to avoid the irritating and clumsy 'Him or Her'. This commonsense compromise is logically compatible with the universal use of 'They' to include the singular... OF EITHER SEX! For example, in 'Those who ignore this instruction may lose their right to compensation.', both 'Those' and 'their

  8. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    child is charged. Because folk are so poor, the fees have to be very low and the resources bought are consequently minimal. Apparatus for physics lessons? Very rarely. Electricity, gas and water services to the labs? Sometimes. Physics textbooks? Very few, old and battered through much use. I visited the David Kuanda School in Lusaka, a high status technical school, and there met some very impressive teachers. Were they doing technical subjects like electronics and car maintenance? No, they could not afford to buy the required equipment, and thus did the academic subjects, physics, chemistry and maths etc, which were cheaper as they could be taught with 'chalk and talk'! Were their students bright, resourceful and keen to learn? They certainly were. Despite all these difficulties the teachers were seeking to teach, and help their students enjoy, the same physics that is common around the world—and prepare them for very similar exams at GCE and A-level, in English. If anyone would like to help a Zambian secondary school, perhaps by sending a set of physics texts no longer used here, or by providing some other resources, perhaps by forming a personal link with a school in Zambia, please contact me and I would be happy to help with arrangements. I could guarantee that you, and your students, would gain an enormous amount from such links—as well as making a real contribution to the development of a less favoured country. Brian E Woolnough Oxford University, UK brian.woolnough@edstud.ox.ac.uk Pedantry or compromise I write in response to S Wynchank's letter in the May issue entitled 'Grammar and Gender'. Many have been using 'They' as common-sex third-person pronoun for years, in order to avoid the irritating and clumsy 'Him or Her'. This commonsense compromise is logically compatible with the universal use of 'They' to include the singular... OF EITHER SEX! For example, in 'Those who ignore this instruction may lose their right to compensation.', both 'Those' and 'their

  9. Literary Letters: Developmental Readers' Responses to Popular Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frailey, Marty; Buck-Rodriguez, Greta; Anders, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes elaboration in "literary letters" (Atwell, 1984, 1987) written by developmental reading students. Nineteen community college students received instruction in "elaborative thought patterns," or types of elaboration, to improve the quality of their responses to popular fiction. This instruction was part of a literature-based…

  10. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  11. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  12. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  13. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Maths for physics? Help! Fire! Energy and mass Maths for physics? As a maths graduate working as a university research associate I should be well qualified to support my daughter, who has just started AS-level physics, with the maths she needs for the course. There seems to be little integration between the maths and physics departments, so that maths needed for physics has not yet been covered in maths lessons. This is a problem I remember from my own school days, but the shorter timescale and modular nature of the AS and A2 levels means that it is essential that this mismatch of knowledge is resolved now. I would like to know whether physics teachers in the UK have encountered this problem and whether there is a deficiency in the maths syllabus in relation to the requirements of the AS and A2 levels in Physics or whether this is a problem peculiar to my daughter's school. Eleanor Parent of A-level student, Sheffield, UK Help! Fire! Is there a crisis in physics education? Is physics didactics coming to an end? Yes and no. Being a delegate from Norway at the on-going conference Physics on Stage (6-10 November 2000) at CERN in Geneva, I have had the opportunity to discuss this with people from all over Europe. Yes, there is a crisis. (Look at the proceedings for details on this.) I'd like to take a broader look at this situation. Like Hari Seldon in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Trilogy, I believe that there is nothing like a real crisis to get things going... Famous is the quote from the American Patent Office around 1890: 'Everything has been invented that could be invented'. Fortunately, this spurred action. The Michelson and Morley experiment heralded a most exciting period for physics. Just a cosmic blink later we put a person on the Moon. Coming back to the crisis - I am certain that in the near future we will see an interesting development

  14. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Quantum uncertainties Reflections in a plastic box A brief history of quantum physics Correction Grammar and gender Quantum uncertainties Whilst I enjoyed Gesche Pospiech's article ('Uncertainty and complementarity: the heart of quantum physics' 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 393 9) I would like to expand on two comments he makes. Firstly the author claims that QM is linear, and a consequence of this is that any two superimposed states form an admissible third state. This is rather too sweeping, as it is true only for degenerate states. Otherwise quantum mechanics would allow a continuum of energies between states by a simple admixture of levels. The proof of this statement is trivial. For a Hamiltonian H and two orthogonal wavefunctions, ψ1 and ψ2 with energies E1 and E2 then (ψ1 + ψ2) is not an eigenfunction of that Hamiltonian as H(ψ1 + ψ2) = E1ψ1 + E2ψ2 ≠ E(ψ1 + ψ2) for any value of E, unless E1 = E2. Secondly Pospiech states that quantum objects show wave- or particle-like behaviour, depending on the measuring apparatus, and that occasionally experiments (such as Taylor's) reveal both. I would contest the validity of this type of thinking. All experiments on quantum objects reveal both types of behaviour—even ones which simply show straight line motion of photons. What is important, in addition, is our interpretation of the results. It takes an understanding of QED, for example, to see that an experiment which otherwise shows particle behaviour is, in fact, showing quantum behaviour. More contentiously though I would suggest that detection apparatus is incapable of detecting anything other than particles. Wave-like behaviour is revealed only by an analysis of the paths the particle could have taken. In other words, the interference of continuous fields sometimes predicts the same results when the detection is averaged over many events

  15. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  16. Letters to the Editor: Public Writing as a Response to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehammer, Nora

    A study conducted by the copy editor of a small daily newspaper in Porter County, Indiana examines readers' motivations for writing letters to the editor. Analysis was based on letters that appeared in "The Vidette Messenger" September 16-30, 1992. Of 75 letters, 32 were responses to information published in the paper during the last 2 weeks. All…

  17. Item Response Analysis of Uppercase and Lowercase Letter Name Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Ryan P.; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Gerde, Hope K.; Montroy, Janelle J.

    2014-01-01

    Letter name knowledge in the preschool ages is a strong predictor of later reading ability, but little is known about the psychometric characteristics of uppercase and lowercase letters considered together. Data from 1,113 preschoolers from diverse backgrounds on both uppercase and lowercase letter name knowledge were analyzed using Item Response…

  18. An early electrophysiological response associated with expertise in letter perception.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alan C N; Gauthier, Isabel; Woroch, Brion; DeBuse, Casey; Curran, Tim

    2005-09-01

    Expertise with print is likely to optimize visual processes for recognizing characters of a familiar writing system. Although brain activations have been identified for words and letter strings in contrast with other stimuli, relatively little work has focused on the neural basis of single-letter perception. English readers and Chinese-English bilinguals participated in an ERP study and performed a 1-back identity judgment on Roman letters, Chinese characters, pseudofonts, and their string versions. The Chinese-English bilinguals showed an enhanced N170 for both Roman letters and Chinese characters relative to pseudofonts. For the non-Chinese readers, the N170 amplitude was larger for Roman letters relative to Chinese characters and pseudofonts. Our results suggest that changes in relatively early visual processes underlie expert letter perception. PMID:16396092

  19. Letter to the editor of TAAP, in response to letter from Anders et al.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To the Editor, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology: We would like to address the letter to the editor submitted by Anders et al. regarding the substantive issues raised regarding our paper "Evaluation of two different metabolic hypotheses for dichloromethane toxicity using physi...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 327 - Sample DeCA Response Letter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample DeCA Response Letter A Appendix A to Part 327 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED...—Sample DeCA Response Letter Mrs. Floria Employee 551 Florida Avenue Oakland, CA 94618 Dear Mrs....

  1. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 327 - Sample DeCA Response Letter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample DeCA Response Letter A Appendix A to Part 327 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED...—Sample DeCA Response Letter Mrs. Floria Employee 551 Florida Avenue Oakland, CA 94618 Dear Mrs....

  2. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 327 - Sample DeCA Response Letter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample DeCA Response Letter A Appendix A to Part 327 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED...—Sample DeCA Response Letter Mrs. Floria Employee 551 Florida Avenue Oakland, CA 94618 Dear Mrs....

  3. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 327 - Sample DeCA Response Letter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample DeCA Response Letter A Appendix A to Part 327 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED...—Sample DeCA Response Letter Mrs. Floria Employee 551 Florida Avenue Oakland, CA 94618 Dear Mrs....

  4. Letters to the editor of the local paper: A scientific responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2011-04-01

    Our local papers often contain, from the point of view of the scientist, strange letters to the editor. As part of our duty to fellow citizens, we need to take the opportunity the bad science in the letters proffers to try to explain the scientific view to readers. In many cases, the letter writers minds are already made up; however, other readers whose heads may nod in agreement to the original letter may become more informed and change their ideas in response. I will describe some of my experiences in trying to meet this responsibility.

  5. Factors in Reading Responses to Negative Letters: Experimental Evidence for Changing What We Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locker, Kitty O.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the scholarly discussion about negative messages and reports the results of two pretests and two experiments using negative letters. Shows that buffers did not significantly affect college students' responses to simulated letters refusing credit and denying admission to graduate school and that strong "resale" was counterproductive.…

  6. The similarity structure of distributed neural responses reveals the multiple representations of letters

    PubMed Central

    Rothlein, David; Rapp, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Most cognitive theories of reading and spelling posit modality-specific representations of letter shapes, spoken letter names, and motor plans as well as abstract, amodal letter representations that serve to unify the various modality-specific formats. However, fundamental questions remain regarding the very existence of abstract letter representations, the neuro-topography of the different types of letter representations, and the degree of cortical selectivity for orthographic information. We directly test quantitative models of the similarity/dissimilarity structure of distributed neural representations of letters using Multivariate Pattern Analysis-Representational Similarity Analysis (MVPA-RSA) searchlight methods to analyze the BOLD response recorded from single letter viewing. These analyses reveal a left hemisphere ventral temporal region selectively tuned to abstract letter representations as well as substrates tuned to modality-specific (visual, phonological and motoric) representations of letters. The approaches applied in this research address various shortcoming of previous studies that have investigated these questions and, therefore, the findings we report serve to advance our understanding of the nature and format of the representations that occur within the various sub- regions of the large-scale networks used in reading and spelling. PMID:24321558

  7. Black Greek-Lettered Organizations and Civic Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article discuss the potential impact of Black Greek-Lettered Organizations (BGLOs) in advancing African American civil and political rights. During the antebellum years and Jim Crow era, barriers to Black voting included enslavement, anti-literacy laws, violence and intimidation, grandfather clauses, gerrymandering, literacy requirements,…

  8. The elicitor-responsive gene for a GRAS family protein, CIGR2, suppresses cell death in rice inoculated with rice blast fungus via activation of a heat shock transcription factor, OsHsf23.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shigeru; Onodera, Haruko; Hara, Naho; Ishii-Minami, Naoko; Day, Brad; Fujisawa, Yukiko; Hagio, Takashi; Toki, Seiichi; Shibuya, Naoto; Nishizawa, Yoko; Minami, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    We show that a rice GRAS family protein, CIGR2, is a bonafide transcriptional activator, and through this function, targets the B-type heat shock protein-encoding gene OsHsf23 (Os09g0456800). CIGR2 (Os07g0583600) is an N-acetylchitooligosaccharide elicitor-responsive gene whose activity, through the direct transcriptional control of OsHsf23, is required for mediating hypersensitive cell death activation during pathogen infection. RNAi lines of CIGR2 and OsHsf23 similarly exhibited the higher level of granulation in the epidermal cells of leaf sheath inoculated with an avirulent isolate of rice blast fungus. Interestingly, we did not observe altered levels of resistance, suggesting that CIGR2 suppresses excessive cell death in the incompatible interaction with blast fungus via activation of OsHsf23. PMID:26287768

  9. Knockdown of a JmjC domain-containing gene JMJ524 confers altered gibberellin responses by transcriptional regulation of GRAS protein lacking the DELLA domain genes in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhua; Yu, Chuying; Wu, Hua; Luo, Zhidan; Ouyang, Bo; Cui, Long; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao

    2015-01-01

    Plants integrate responses to independent hormonal and environmental signals to survive adversity. In particular, the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) regulates a variety of developmental processes and stress responses. In this study, the Jumonji-C (JmjC) domain-containing gene JMJ524 was characterized in tomato. JMJ524 responded to circadian rhythms and was upregulated by GA treatment. Knockdown of JMJ524 by RNAi caused a GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype with shrunken leaves and shortened internodes. However, in these transgenic plants, higher levels of endogenous GAs were detected. A genome-wide gene expression analysis by RNA-seq indicated that the expression levels of two DELLA-like genes, SlGLD1 (‘GRAS protein Lacking the DELLA domain’) and SlGLD2, were increased in JMJ524-RNAi transgenic plants. Nevertheless, only the overexpression of SlGLD1 in tomato resulted in a GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype, suggesting that SlGLD1 acts as a repressor of GA signalling. This study proposes that JMJ524 is required for stem elongation by altering GA responses, at least partially by regulating SlGLD1. PMID:25680796

  10. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 327 - Sample DeCA Response Letter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample DeCA Response Letter A Appendix A to Part 327 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 327, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  11. Effects of an Introductory Letter on Response Rates to a Teen/Parent Telephone Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Susan I.; Mayer, Joni A.; Clapp, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a pilot study in preparation for a larger investigation that will rely on telephone surveys to assess select health behaviors of teens and their parents, with a focus on indoor tanning. This study used a randomized design to assess the impact of a presurvey letter on response rates to a telephone survey, as well as prevalence…

  12. GRAS NRT Precise Orbit Determination: Operational Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MartinezFadrique, Francisco M.; Mate, Alberto Agueda; Rodriquez-Portugal, Francisco Sancho

    2007-01-01

    EUMETSAT launched the meteorological satellite MetOp-A in October 2006; it is the first of the three satellites that constitute the EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) space segment. This satellite carries a challenging and innovative instrument, the GNSS Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding (GRAS). The goal of the GRAS instrument is to support the production of atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity with high accuracy, in an operational context, based on the bending of the GPS signals traversing the atmosphere during the so-called occultation periods. One of the key aspects associated to the data processing of the GRAS instrument is the necessity to describe the satellite motion and GPS receiver clock behaviour with high accuracy and within very strict timeliness limitations. In addition to these severe requirements, the GRAS Product Processing Facility (PPF) must be integrated in the EPS core ground segment, which introduces additional complexity from the data integration and operational procedure points of view. This paper sets out the rationale for algorithm selection and the conclusions from operational experience. It describes in detail the rationale and conclusions derived from the selection and implementation of the algorithms leading to the final orbit determination requirements (0.1 mm/s in velocity and 1 ns in receiver clock error at 1 Hz). Then it describes the operational approach and extracts the ideas and conclusions derived from the operational experience.

  13. Learning to write letters: examination of student and letter factors.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Petscher, Yaacov; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Learning to write the letters of the alphabet is an important part of learning how to write conventionally. In this study, we investigated critical factors in the development of letter-writing skills using exploratory item response models to simultaneously account for variance in responses due to differences between students and between letters. Letter-writing skills were assessed in 415 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years. At the student level, we examined the contribution of letter-name knowledge, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness to letter-writing skills. At the letter level, we examined seven intrinsic and extrinsic factors in understanding how preschool children learn to write alphabet letters: first letter of name, letters in name, letter order, textual frequency, number of strokes, symmetry, and letter type. Results indicated that variation in letter-writing skills was accounted for more by differences between students rather than by differences between letters, with most of the variability accounted for by letter-name knowledge and age. Although significant, the contribution of letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness was relatively small. Student-level mechanisms underlying the acquisition of letter-writing skills are similar to the mechanisms underlying the learning of letter sounds. However, letter characteristics, which appear to play a major role in the learning of letter names and letter sounds, did not appear to influence learning how to write letters in a substantial way. The exception was if the letter was in the child's name. PMID:25181463

  14. The Effects of Cover Letter Appeal and Nonmonetary Incentives on University Professors' Response to a Mail Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Margaret M.

    Educational researchers find mail questionnaires a convenient and relatively inexpensive way to conduct a survey, but response rate remains a crucial issue. This research examines the effects of two manipulated variables, the appeal of the introductory letter and a nonmonetary incentive, on survey response rate. Gender was also used as an…

  15. A characterization of grapevine of GRAS domain transcription factor gene family.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Xie, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Cheng; Mu, Qian; Wu, Weimin; Wang, Baoju; Fang, Jinggui

    2016-07-01

    GRAS domain genes are a group of important plant-specific transcription factors that have been reported to be involved in plant development. In order to know the roles of GRAS genes in grapevine, a widely cultivated fruit crop, the study on grapevine GRAS (VvGRAS) was carried out, and from which, 43 were identified from 12× assemble grapevine genomic sequences. Further, the genomic structures, synteny, phylogeny, expression profiles in different tissues of these genes, and their roles in response to stress were investigated. Among the genes, two potential target genes (VvSCL15 and VvSCL22) for VvmiR171 were experimentally verified by PPM-RACE and RLM-RACE, in that not only the cleavage sites of miR171 on the target mRNA were mapped but also the cleaved fragments and their expressing patterns were detected. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants over expression VvSCL15 showed lower tolerance to drought and salt treatments. PMID:26842940

  16. On letter frequency effects.

    PubMed

    New, Boris; Grainger, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    In four experiments we examined whether the frequency of occurrence of letters affects performance in the alphabetic decision task (speeded letter vs. pseudo-letter classification). Experiments 1A and 1B tested isolated letters and pseudo-letters presented at fixation, and Experiments 2A and 2B tested the same stimuli inserted at the 1st, 3rd, or 5th position in a string of Xs. Significant negative correlations between letter frequency and response times to letter targets were found in all experiments. The correlations were found to be stronger for token frequency counts compared with both type frequency and frequency rank, stronger for frequency counts based on a book corpus compared with film subtitles, and stronger for measures counting occurrences as the first letter of words compared with inner letters and final letters. Correlations for letters presented in strings of Xs were found to depend on letter case and position-in-string. The results are in favor of models of word recognition that implement case-specific and position-specific letter representations. PMID:21855049

  17. Functional characterisation of letter-specific responses in time, space and current polarity using magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Gwilliams, L; Lewis, G A; Marantz, A

    2016-05-15

    Recent neurophysiological evidence suggests that a hierarchical neural network of low-to-high level processing subserves written language comprehension. While a considerable amount of research has identified distinct regions and stages of processing, the relations between them and to this hierarchical model remain unclear. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a technique frequently employed in such investigations; however, no studies have sought to test whether the conventional method of reconstructing currents at the source of the magnetic field is best suited for such across-subject designs. The present study details the results of three MEG experiments addressing these issues. Neuronal populations supporting responses to low-level orthographic properties were housed posteriorly near the primary visual cortex. More anterior regions along the fusiform gyrus encoded higher-level processes and became active ~80ms later. A functional localiser of these early letter-specific responses was developed for the production of functional regions of interest in future studies. Previously established response components were successfully grouped based on proximity to the localiser, which characterised location, latency and functional sensitivity. Unconventional anatomically constrained signed minimum norm estimates of MEG data were most sensitive to the primary experimental manipulation, suggesting that the conventional unsigned unconstrained method is sub-optimal for studying written word processing. PMID:26926792

  18. 41 CFR 102-75.670 - What responsibilities does DOI have after receiving the disposal agency's assignment letter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... does DOI have after receiving the disposal agency's assignment letter? 102-75.670 Section 102-75.670... Property for Use As Public Park Or Recreation Areas § 102-75.670 What responsibilities does DOI have after..., the Secretary may proceed with the transfer. DOI must take all necessary actions to accomplish...

  19. Electrical Connections: Letters to Thomas Edison in Response to His Claim of Solving Incandescent Lighting, 1878.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazerman, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the way in which letters sent to Thomas Edison following the report that he had solved the problem of incandescent lighting reveal the many discursive worlds that Edison's work touched. Claims these letters indicate how a technological accomplishment is also a multiple, complex social, and communicative accomplishment, creating place and…

  20. Anthrax letters in an open office environment: effects of selected CDC response guidelines on personal exposure and building contamination.

    PubMed

    Kournikakis, Bill; Martinez, Kenneth F; McCleery, Robert E; Shadomy, Sean V; Ramos, Gabriel

    2011-02-01

    In 2001, letters filled with a powder containing anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) spores were delivered by mail to a number of governmental and media locations within the United States. In response, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provided guidelines for office personnel who might encounter a letter containing suspicious powder. These guidelines were developed during the crisis and in the absence of experimental data from laboratory or field investigations. An obvious need thus exists for quantitative and scientific verification for validation of these guidelines. This study attempts to address this need, adapting earlier work that used a multiple small office test site to create a model system in an open office test site in a vacated office building in which Bacillus atrophaeus spores (as a simulant for B. anthracis spores) were released by opening a letter. Using SF(6) as a tracer gas, smoke tubes (containing stannic chloride) to visualize airflow, culturable aerosol sampling, and aerosol spectrometry we were able to characterize airflow and unmitigated spore aerosol dissemination within the office test site. Subsequently, two scripted test scenarios were used to reproduce selected portions of the existing CDC response guidelines and a modified version where the contaminated letter opener warned co-workers to evacuate then waited 5 min before doing so himself. By not leaving together with other co-workers, the risk of the letter opener cross-contaminating others was eliminated. The total potential spore aerosol exposure of the letter opener was not affected by remaining still and waiting 5 min to allow co-workers to escape first before leaving the office. Closing office doors and quickly deactivating the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system significantly reduced spore aerosol concentrations outside the main open office in which they had been released. PMID:21253984

  1. GRAS radio occultation on-board of Metop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Engeln, A.; Andres, Y.; Marquardt, C.; Sancho, F.

    2011-01-01

    The GRAS radio occultation instrument is flying on Metop-A and belongs to the EPS (EUMETSAT Polar System). GRAS observes GPS satellites in occultation. Within this work, validation of GRAS closed-loop bending angle data against co-located ECMWF profiles extracted from model fields and occultations from the COSMIC constellation of radio occultation instruments is shown. Results confirm the high data quality and robustness, where GRAS shows lower bending angle noise against ECMWF than COSMIC and in terms of occultations per day, one GRAS ≈ two COSMIC satellites. This is partly due to the operational setup of EPS. For the investigation we focus on two observation periods where updates in the ECMWF (March 2009) and COSMIC processing (October 2009) have improved the statistics further. Bending angles biases agree to within 0.5% against ECMWF and to within 0.1% against COSMIC after the updates for altitudes between 8 and 40 km. In addition, we also analyze the impact of the Metop orbit processing on the derived GRAS bending angle data, where different GPS and Metop orbit solutions are analyzed. Results show that a batch based orbit processing would improve in particular the bending angle bias behavior at higher altitudes. Requirements for the operational processing of GRAS data are briefly outlined, options to ease the use of other positioning system satellites in the near future are discussed. A simplified analysis on the observation of several of these systems, e.g. GPS and Galileo, from one platform shows that about 16% of occultations are found within 300 km, ±3 h, thus providing similar information. A constellation of 2 GRAS like instruments would have only about 10% close-by.

  2. The cross-sectional GRAS sample: A comprehensive phenotypical data collection of schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is the collective term for an exclusively clinically diagnosed, heterogeneous group of mental disorders with still obscure biological roots. Based on the assumption that valuable information about relevant genetic and environmental disease mechanisms can be obtained by association studies on patient cohorts of ≥ 1000 patients, if performed on detailed clinical datasets and quantifiable biological readouts, we generated a new schizophrenia data base, the GRAS (Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia) data collection. GRAS is the necessary ground to study genetic causes of the schizophrenic phenotype in a 'phenotype-based genetic association study' (PGAS). This approach is different from and complementary to the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on schizophrenia. Methods For this purpose, 1085 patients were recruited between 2005 and 2010 by an invariable team of traveling investigators in a cross-sectional field study that comprised 23 German psychiatric hospitals. Additionally, chart records and discharge letters of all patients were collected. Results The corresponding dataset extracted and presented in form of an overview here, comprises biographic information, disease history, medication including side effects, and results of comprehensive cross-sectional psychopathological, neuropsychological, and neurological examinations. With >3000 data points per schizophrenic subject, this data base of living patients, who are also accessible for follow-up studies, provides a wide-ranging and standardized phenotype characterization of as yet unprecedented detail. Conclusions The GRAS data base will serve as prerequisite for PGAS, a novel approach to better understanding 'the schizophrenias' through exploring the contribution of genetic variation to the schizophrenic phenotypes. PMID:21067598

  3. Response to the Letter to the Editor of Crop Science from Donald R. Davis regarding our research article published in Crop Science (2011: 51:2721-2727)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This letter serves as a response to the Letter to the Editor submitted by Donald R. Davis regarding our research article entitled “Mineral Concentration of Broccoli Florets in Relation to Year of Cultivar Release” published in Crop Science (2011, 51:2721-2727). In our manuscript, we clearly stated ...

  4. Comprehensive analysis of multi-tissue transcriptome data and the genome-wide investigation of GRAS family in Phyllostachys edulis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hansheng; Dong, Lili; Sun, Huayu; Li, Lichao; Lou, Yongfeng; Wang, Lili; Li, Zuyao; Gao, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    GRAS family is one of plant specific transcription factors and plays diverse roles in the regulation of plant growth and development as well as in the plant disease resistance and abiotic stress responses. However, the investigation of GRAS family and multi-tissue gene expression profiles still remains unavailable in bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis). Here, we applied RNA-Seq analysis to monitor global transcriptional changes and investigate expression patterns in the five tissues of Ph. edulis, and analyzed a large-scale transcriptional events and patterns. Moreover, the tissue-specific genes and DEGs in different tissues were detected. For example, DEGs in panicle and leaf tissues were abundant in photosynthesis, glutathione, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, whereas those in shoot and rhizome were majority in glycerophospholipid metabolism. In the portion of Ph. edulis GRAS (PeGRAS) analyses, we performed the analysis of phylogenetic, gene structure, conserved motifs, and analyzed the expression profiles of PeGRASs in response to high light and made a co-expression analysis. Additionally, the expression profiles of PeGRASs were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Thus, PeGRASs based on dynamics profiles of gene expression is helpful in uncovering the specific biological functions which might be of critical values for bioengineering to improve bamboo breeding in future. PMID:27325361

  5. Comprehensive analysis of multi-tissue transcriptome data and the genome-wide investigation of GRAS family in Phyllostachys edulis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hansheng; Dong, Lili; Sun, Huayu; Li, Lichao; Lou, Yongfeng; Wang, Lili; Li, Zuyao; Gao, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    GRAS family is one of plant specific transcription factors and plays diverse roles in the regulation of plant growth and development as well as in the plant disease resistance and abiotic stress responses. However, the investigation of GRAS family and multi-tissue gene expression profiles still remains unavailable in bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis). Here, we applied RNA-Seq analysis to monitor global transcriptional changes and investigate expression patterns in the five tissues of Ph. edulis, and analyzed a large-scale transcriptional events and patterns. Moreover, the tissue-specific genes and DEGs in different tissues were detected. For example, DEGs in panicle and leaf tissues were abundant in photosynthesis, glutathione, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, whereas those in shoot and rhizome were majority in glycerophospholipid metabolism. In the portion of Ph. edulis GRAS (PeGRAS) analyses, we performed the analysis of phylogenetic, gene structure, conserved motifs, and analyzed the expression profiles of PeGRASs in response to high light and made a co-expression analysis. Additionally, the expression profiles of PeGRASs were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Thus, PeGRASs based on dynamics profiles of gene expression is helpful in uncovering the specific biological functions which might be of critical values for bioengineering to improve bamboo breeding in future. PMID:27325361

  6. A Letter of Apology Nearly 50 Years in the Making: How We've Failed to Solve the Cultural Bind of the American Male. Response to "The Cultural Bind of the American Male"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCandless, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's letter of apology as a response to "The Cultural Bind of the American Male". In the letter, the author offers his apologies because educators have failed to solve the cultural bind of the American male.

  7. 60 FR 54505 - Amoco Bioproducts Corp.; Filing of Petition for Affirmation of GRAS Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-10-24

    ... 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 be affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a source of vitamin D 3... GRAS as a source of vitamin D 3 activity in broiler chicken feed. -The petition has been placed...

  8. Risk assessment of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum in canned foie gras.

    PubMed

    Membré, Jeanne-Marie; Diao, Moctar; Thorin, Chantal; Cordier, Grégoire; Zuber, François; André, Stéphane

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a risk assessment of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum in canned foie gras was performed, the number of illnesses per year in France due to C. botulinum in foie gras was estimated. Data on initial level in raw materials were collected at manufacturers and analysed using a Negative Binomial distribution. The effect of the usual foie gras heat treatment (equivalent time at 121 °C: F0=0.5 min) was considered at two levels: first, it led to an inactivation (estimated to 2.3 log); second it led to a spore injury and then to a spore inhibition. This latter effect was assessed by analysing data from a challenge test study carried out with Clostridium sporogenes spores in the foie gras product. The probability of spore recovering after thermal inhibition was estimated to 9.5×10(-8) (corresponding to 7.0 log). The data on the consumption pattern were collected on the French market. The Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) model and all the assumptions are reported in detail in the study. The initial contamination of raw materials, effect of thermal treatment on microbial inactivation and spore inhibition were handled mathematically using a probabilistic framework, considering only the variability dimension. The model was implemented in Excel and run through Monte Carlo simulation, using @Risk software. In parallel, epidemiological data collected from the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance during the period 2001-2012 were used to estimate an Appropriate Level Of Protection (ALOP) and then a Food Safety Objective (FSO): ALOP equalled to 2.5×10(-3) illnesses per million inhabitant per year, FSO equalled to 1.4×10(-9) foie gras portions containing C. botulinum spore (expressed in decimal logarithm, FSO=-8.9). The QMRA model output values were smaller, but on the same order of magnitude as these two figures: 8.0×10(-4) illnesses per million inhabitants per year, and, 4.5×10(-10) (-9.3 log) foie gras portions containing C

  9. Genome-wide identification and characterization of GRAS transcription factors in sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Zhou, Yu; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The GRAS gene family is one of the most important plant-specific gene families, which encodes transcriptional regulators and plays an essential role in plant development and physiological processes. The GRAS gene family has been well characterized in many higher plants such as Arabidopsis, rice, Chinese cabbage, tomato and tobacco. In this study, we identified 38 GRAS genes in sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), analyzed their physical and chemical characteristics and performed phylogenetic analysis using the GRAS genes from eight representative plant species to show the evolution of GRAS genes in Planta. In addition, the gene structures and motifs of the sacred lotus GRAS proteins were characterized in detail. Comparative analysis identified 42 orthologous and 9 co-orthologous gene pairs between sacred lotus and Arabidopsis, and 35 orthologous and 22 co-orthologous gene pairs between sacred lotus and rice. Based on publically available RNA-seq data generated from leaf, petiole, rhizome and root, we found that most of the sacred lotus GRAS genes exhibited a tissue-specific expression pattern. Eight of the ten PAT1-clade GRAS genes, particularly NnuGRAS-05, NnuGRAS-10 and NnuGRAS-25, were preferentially expressed in rhizome and root. In summary, this is the first in silico analysis of the GRAS gene family in sacred lotus, which will provide valuable information for further molecular and biological analyses of this important gene family.

  10. Acides gras oméga-3 et dyslexie

    PubMed Central

    Zelcer, Michal; Goldman, Ran D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question À la lumière de la hausse du nombre d’enfants d’âge scolaire ayant reçu un diagnostic de dyslexie, quel est le rôle des suppléments d’acides gras oméga-3 dans la prise en charge de cette affection? Réponse La dyslexie est le trouble d’apprentissage le plus répandu et elle est connue pour ses causes multifactorielles. De récentes données probantes pointent vers une corrélation entre le métabolisme défectueux des acides gras polyinsaturés et les troubles de neurodéveloppement, tels que la dyslexie. Bien que l’administration de suppléments d’acides gras oméga-3 aux enfants dyslexiques ait fait l’objet d’études, les données probantes sont limitées. Les critères diagnostiques homogènes de dyslexie, les mesures objectives de carence en acides gras et la surveillance étroite de l’apport alimentaire ne sont que quelques-uns des facteurs pouvant améliorer la qualité de la recherche dans ce domaine.

  11. Advice and recommendations to the US Department of Energy in response to the charge letter of September 20, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    In Jan. 1996, the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC) provided recommendations to DOE on how to restructure the fusion program in light of compressional guidance and budget realities. DOE endorsed these recommendations and prepared a strategic plan. The FEAC report concluded that the goals of the restructured program could most effectively be accomplished at a funding level of $275 million per year, including Federal government management costs. DOE requested that Congress appropriate $255.6 million in FY97 for the fusion energy sciences program exclusive of Federal government management costs (about $8 million). On Sept. 11, 1996, the Energy and Water Development Conference Committee settled on a FY97 appropriation for the fusion energy sciences program of $232.5 million. This report contains the response to the charge letter, on how the program described in the strategic plan could be changed to make it consistent with the $232.5 million appropriation.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of the GRAS gene family in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    PubMed

    Wu, Z Y; Wu, P Z; Chen, Y P; Li, M R; Wu, G J; Jiang, H W

    2015-01-01

    GRAS proteins play vital roles in plant growth and development. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) was found to have a total of 48 GRAS family members (JcGRAS), 15 more than those found in Arabidopsis. The JcGRAS genes were divided into 12 subfamilies or 15 ancient monophyletic lineages based on the phylogenetic analysis of GRAS proteins from both flowering and lower plants. The functions of GRAS genes in 9 subfamilies have been reported previously for several plants, while the genes in the remaining 3 subfamilies were of unknown function; we named the latter families U1 to U3. No member of U3 subfamily is present in Arabidopsis and Poaceae species according to public genome sequence data. In comparison with the number of GRAS genes in Arabidopsis, more were detected in physic nut, resulting from the retention of many ancient GRAS subfamilies and the formation of tandem repeats during evolution. No evidence of recent duplication among JcGRAS genes was observed in physic nut. Based on digital gene expression data, 21 of the 48 genes exhibited differential expression in four tissues analyzed. Two members of subfamily U3 were expressed only in buds and flowers, implying that they may play specific roles. Our results provide valuable resources for future studies on the functions of GRAS proteins in physic nut. PMID:26782574

  13. NASA/DoD Aerospace knowledge diffusion research project. III - The impact of a sponsor letter on mail survey response rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the impact of two interventions in the design of mail surveys. The interventions were devised to increase response rates and to clarify sample eligibility. To test their effectiveness, interventions occurred at different points in each of three surveys. One intervention was a letter from the research sponsor (NASA) supporting the research. The other intervention was the inclusion of a postcard that could be used by the respondent to indicate that the questionnaire was not appropriate for him/her. The sample was drawn from the membership of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics research society. The results indicate that the sponsor letter improved response rates under certain conditions described in the paper. The postcards assisted in identifying noneligible persons particularly when they accompanied a pre-survey letter. The implications for survey costs are discussed.

  14. Improving Responsiveness to Intervention for English-Language Learners: A Comparison of Instructional Pace on Letter Naming Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbertson, Donna; Bluck, John

    2006-01-01

    An alternating treatments design was used to compare the effects of a 1-s and a 5-s paced intervention on rates of letter naming by English Language Learners (ELL). Participants were four kindergarten students performing below the average letter naming level and learning rate than other ELL classmates. The fast paced intervention consisted of a…

  15. Letter Imperfect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    In this essay, the author, a 5th-grade teacher, questions how well a standardized test can measure his students. This article presents a letter he wrote for the Washington state science test scorer regarding his students' test scores. He shares stories about some of the students in his class. He points out that tests can turn out to be more like…

  16. Competency Is Not Guaranteed by the Letters that Follow Your Name: A Response to My Critics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Robin E.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a formal response to those that authored critiques of the author's research. Each author has provided a thoughtful and critical perspective highlighting the perceived merits and demerits of the research questions posed, theoretical assumptions underlying the inquiry, study design and methodology, and interpretations garnered from…

  17. Network of GRAS Transcription Factors Involved in the Control of Arbuscule Development in Lotus japonicus1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Li; Cui, Haitao; Buer, Benjamin; Vijayakumar, Vinod; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Junkermann, Stefanie; Bucher, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, in symbiosis with plants, facilitate acquisition of nutrients from the soil to their host. After penetration, intracellular hyphae form fine-branched structures in cortical cells termed arbuscules, representing the major site where bidirectional nutrient exchange takes place between the host plant and fungus. Transcriptional mechanisms underlying this cellular reprogramming are still poorly understood. GRAS proteins are an important family of transcriptional regulators in plants, named after the first three members: GIBBERELLIC ACID-INSENSITIVE, REPRESSOR of GAI, and SCARECROW. Here, we show that among 45 transcription factors up-regulated in mycorrhizal roots of the legume Lotus japonicus, expression of a unique GRAS protein particularly increases in arbuscule-containing cells under low phosphate conditions and displays a phylogenetic pattern characteristic of symbiotic genes. Allelic rad1 mutants display a strongly reduced number of arbuscules, which undergo accelerated degeneration. In further studies, two RAD1-interacting proteins were identified. One of them is the closest homolog of Medicago truncatula, REDUCED ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZATION1 (RAM1), which was reported to regulate a glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase that promotes cutin biosynthesis to enhance hyphopodia formation. As in M. truncatula, the L. japonicus ram1 mutant lines show compromised AM colonization and stunted arbuscules. Our findings provide, to our knowledge, new insight into the transcriptional program underlying the host’s response to AM colonization and propose a function of GRAS transcription factors including RAD1 and RAM1 during arbuscule development. PMID:25560877

  18. Coloring only a single letter does not eliminate color-word interference in a vocal-response Stroop task: automaticity revealed.

    PubMed

    Marmurek, Harvey H C

    2003-04-01

    The presence of an interference effect in naming the print color of color words (J. R. Stroop, 1935) suggests that responses associated with the irrelevant-word dimension of the display are activated involuntarily. In the present study, the author examined the conditions under which coloring a single letter in a word reduced interference in vocal responding (D. Kahneman & A. Henik, 1981) or eliminated it in manual responding (D. Besner, J. A. Stolz, & C. Boutilier, 1997). In Experiment 1, color-word interference was significant under vocal responding for the Besner et al. displays. In Experiment 2, the author replicated the Kahneman and Henik effect with the Besner et al. stimuli. The results of Experiment 3 showed that semantic effects are not eliminated by coloring only a single letter. Coloring a single letter does not prevent the activation of the irrelevant-word dimension of the colored color word. PMID:12773021

  19. LETTER On the nonlinear response of a particle interacting with fermions in a 1D lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotos, X.

    2010-12-01

    By the Bethe ansatz method we study the energy dispersion of a particle interacting by a local interaction with fermions (or hard core bosons) of equal mass in a one-dimensional lattice. We focus on the period of the Bloch oscillations, which turns out to be related to the Fermi wavevector of the Fermi sea and in particular on how this dispersion emerges as a collective effect in the thermodynamic limit. We also discuss the adiabatic coherent collective response of the system to an applied field.

  20. Polyamide Nanogels from GRAS Components and Their Toxicity in Mouse Pre-implantation Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Priyaa; Molla, Mijanur Rahaman; Cui, Wei; Canakci, Mine; Osborne, Barbara; Mager, Jesse; Thayumanavan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Safe delivery systems that can not only encapsulate hydrophobic drug molecules, but also release them in response to specific triggers, are important in several therapeutic and biomedical applications. In this paper, we have designed a nanogel based on molecules that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). We have shown that the resultant polymeric nanogels exhibit responsive molecular release, and also show high in vitro cellular viability on HEK 293T, HeLa, MCF 7 and A549 cell lines. The toxicity of these nanogels was further evaluated with a highly sensitive assay using mouse preimplantation embryo development, where blastocysts were formed after four days of in vitro culture and live pups were born when morulae/early blastocysts were transferred to the uteri of surrogate recipients. Our results indicate that these nanogels are non-toxic during mammalian development and do not alter normal growth or early embryo success rate. PMID:26367020

  1. 21 CFR 170.30 - Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 170.30 Section 170.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). (a) General recognition of safety may be based only on...

  2. 21 CFR 570.30 - Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 570.30 Section 570.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Additive Safety § 570.30 Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). (a)...

  3. Neural systems supporting lexical search guided by letter and semantic category cues: a self-paced overt response fMRI study of verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Birn, Rasmus M; Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Caravella, Rachel; Jones, Tyler B; Bandettini, Peter A; Martin, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Verbal fluency tasks have been widely used to evaluate language and executive control processes in the human brain. FMRI studies of verbal fluency, however, have used either silent word generation (which provides no behavioral measure) or cued generation of single words in order to contend with speech-related motion artifacts. In this study, we use a recently developed paradigm design to investigate the neural correlates of verbal fluency during overt, free recall, word generation so that performance and brain activity could be evaluated under conditions that more closely mirror standard behavioral test demands. We investigated verbal fluency to both letter and category cues in order to evaluate differential involvement of specific frontal and temporal lobe sites as a function of retrieval cue type, as suggested by previous neuropsychological and neuroimaging investigations. In addition, we incorporated both a task switching manipulation and an automatic speech condition in order to modulate the demand placed on executive functions. We found greater activation in the left hemisphere during category and letter fluency tasks, and greater right hemisphere activation during automatic speech. We also found that letter and category fluency tasks were associated with differential involvement of specific regions of the frontal and temporal lobes. These findings provide converging evidence that letter and category fluency performance is dependent on partially distinct neural circuitry. They also provide strong evidence that verbal fluency can be successfully evaluated in the MR environment using overt, self-paced, responses. PMID:19632335

  4. Neural systems supporting lexical search guided by letter and semantic category cues: A self-paced overt response fMRI study of verbal fluency

    PubMed Central

    Birn, Rasmus M.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Caravella, Rachel; Jones, Tyler B.; Bandettini, Peter A.; Martin, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Verbal fluency tasks have been widely used to evaluate language and executive control processes in the human brain. FMRI studies of verbal fluency, however, have used either silent word generation (which provides no behavioral measure) or cued generation of single words in order to contend with speech-related motion artifacts. In this study, we use a recently developed paradigm design to investigate the neural correlates of verbal fluency during overt, free recall, word generation so that performance and brain activity could be evaluated under conditions that more closely mirror standard behavioral test demands. We investigated verbal fluency to both letter and category cues in order to evaluate differential involvement of specific frontal and temporal lobe sites as a function of retrieval cue type, as suggested by previous neuropsychological and neuroimaging investigations. In addition, we incorporated both a task switching manipulation and an automatic speech condition in order to modulate the demand placed on executive functions. We found greater activation in the left hemisphere during category and letter fluency tasks, and greater right hemisphere activation during automatic speech. We also found that letter and category fluency tasks were associated with differential involvement of specific regions of the frontal and temporal lobes. These findings provide converging evidence that letter and category fluency performance is dependent on partially distinct neural circuitry. They also provide strong evidence that verbal fluency can be successfully evaluated in the MR environment using overt, self-paced, responses. PMID:19632335

  5. Letter to the Editor: Appropriate selection of dose coefficients in radiological assessments: C-14 and Cl-36: response to the letter of G Smith and M Thorne (2015 J. Radiol. Prot. 35 737-40)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Harrison, John D.; Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This letter to the editor of Journal of Radiological Protection is in response to a letter to the editor from G. M. Smith and M. C. Thorne of Great Britain concerning the appropriate selection of dose coefficients for ingested carbon-14 and chlorine-36, two of the most important long-lived components of radioactive wastes. Smith and Thorne argue that current biokinetic models of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for carbon and chlorine are overly cautious models from the standpoint of radiation dose estimates for C-14 and Cl-36, and that more realistic models are needed for evaluation of the hazards ofmore » these radionuclides in nuclear wastes. We (Harrison and Leggett) point out that new biokinetic models for these and other elements (developed at ORNL) will soon appear in ICRP Publications. These new models generally are considerably more realistic than current ICRP models. Here, examples are given for C-14 inhaled as carbon dioxide or ingested in water as bicarbonate, carbonate, or carbon dioxide.« less

  6. Letter to the Editor: Appropriate selection of dose coefficients in radiological assessments: C-14 and Cl-36: response to the letter of G Smith and M Thorne (2015 J. Radiol. Prot. 35 737-40)

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, John D.; Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This letter to the editor of Journal of Radiological Protection is in response to a letter to the editor from G. M. Smith and M. C. Thorne of Great Britain concerning the appropriate selection of dose coefficients for ingested carbon-14 and chlorine-36, two of the most important long-lived components of radioactive wastes. Smith and Thorne argue that current biokinetic models of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for carbon and chlorine are overly cautious models from the standpoint of radiation dose estimates for C-14 and Cl-36, and that more realistic models are needed for evaluation of the hazards of these radionuclides in nuclear wastes. We (Harrison and Leggett) point out that new biokinetic models for these and other elements (developed at ORNL) will soon appear in ICRP Publications. These new models generally are considerably more realistic than current ICRP models. Here, examples are given for C-14 inhaled as carbon dioxide or ingested in water as bicarbonate, carbonate, or carbon dioxide.

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 3: The impact of a sponsor letter on mail survey response rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    We describe the impact of two interventions in the design of mail surveys. The interventions were devised to increase response rates and to clarify sample eligibility. To test their effectiveness, the interventions occurred at different points in each of three surveys. One intervention was a letter from the research sponsor (NASA) supporting the research. The other intervention was the inclusion of a postcard that could be used by the respondent to indicate that the questionnaire was not appropriate for him/her. The sample was drawn from the membership of a professional aerospace research society, the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Scientists and engineers are difficult to survey for two reasons. First, there are significant problems with the definition of scientists and engineers. Second, typically there are low response rates in surveys of this group. These two problems were found in the NASA surveys. The results indicate that the sponsor letter improved response rates under certain conditions described here. The postcards assisted in identifying non-eligible persons, particularly when the postcards accompanied a pre-survey letter. The implications for survey costs are discussed.

  8. Letters of Recommendation/Verbal References Should Not Become Endangered Communications: an Analysis of Rights, Responsibilities, and Duties of References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James D.

    In view of the dramatic increase in the numbers of laws and lawsuits since the 1960s, teachers must become aware of the privacy considerations and potential legal problems that may arise when writing a letter of recommendation or giving a verbal reference. They should become familiar with present common law doctrine and recent legislation…

  9. TaSCL14, a novel wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) GRAS gene, regulates plant growth, photosynthesis, tolerance to photooxidative stress, and senescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunmei; Li, Hongwei; Chen, Yaofeng; Zheng, Qi; Li, Bin; Li, Zhensheng

    2015-01-20

    Rates of photosynthesis, tolerance to photooxidative stress, and senescence are all important physiological factors that affect plant development and thus agricultural productivity. GRAS proteins play essential roles in plant growth and development as well as in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. So far few GRAS genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have been characterized. A previous transcriptome analysis indicated that the expression of a GRAS gene (TaSCL14) was induced by high-light stress in Xiaoyan 54 (XY54), a common wheat cultivar with strong tolerance to high-light stress. In this study, TaSCL14 gene was isolated from XY54 and mapped on chromosome 4A. TaSCL14 was expressed in various wheat organs, with high levels in stems and roots. Our results confirmed that TaSCL14 expression was indeed responsive to high-light stress. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of TaSCL14 in wheat was performed to help characterize its potential functions. Silencing of TaSCL14 resulted in inhibited plant growth, decreased photosynthetic capacity, and reduced tolerance to photooxidative stress. In addition, silencing of TaSCL14 in wheat promoted leaf senescence induced by darkness. These results suggest that TaSCL14 may act as a multifunctional regulator involved in plant growth, photosynthesis, tolerance to photooxidative stress, and senescence. PMID:25619599

  10. Fusion Energy Advisory Committee: Advice and recommendations to the US Department of Energy in response to the charge letter of September 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This document is a compilation of the written records that relate to the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee`s deliberations with regard to the Letter of Charge received from the Director of Energy Research, dated September 1, 1992. During its sixth meeting, held in March 1993, FEAC provided a detailed response to the charge contained in the letter of September 1, 1992. In particular, it responded to the paragraph: ``I would like the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC) to evaluate the Neutron Interactive Materials Program of the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE). Materials are required that will satisfy the service requirements of components in both inertial and magnetic fusion reactors -- including the performance, safety, economic, environmental, and recycle/waste management requirements. Given budget constraints, is our program optimized to achieve these goals for DEMO, as well as to support the near-term ITER program?`` Before FEAC could generate its response to the charge in the form of a letter report, one member, Dr. Parker, expressed severe concerns over one of the conclusions that the committee had reached during the meeting. It proved necessary to resolve the issue in public debate, and the matter was reviewed by FEAC for a second time, during its seventh meeting, held in mid-April, 1993. In order to help it to respond to this charge in a timely manner, FEAC established a working group, designated Panel No. 6, which reviewed the depth and breadth of the US materials program, and its interactions and collaborations with international programs. The panel prepared background material, included in this report as Appendix I, to help FEAC in its deliberations.

  11. Representation of Letter Position in Spelling: Evidence from Acquired Dysgraphia

    PubMed Central

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; McCloskey, Michael; Rapp, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The graphemic representations that underlie spelling performance must encode not only the identities of the letters in a word, but also the positions of the letters. This study investigates how letter position information is represented. We present evidence from two dysgraphic individuals, CM and LSS, who perseverate letters when spelling: that is, letters from previous spelling responses intrude into subsequent responses. The perseverated letters appear more often than expected by chance in the same position in the previous and subsequent responses. We used these errors to address the question of how letter position is represented in spelling. In a series of analyses we determined how often the perseveration errors produced maintain position as defined by a number of alternative theories of letter position encoding proposed in the literature. The analyses provide strong evidence that the grapheme representations used in spelling encode letter position such that position is represented in a graded manner based on distance from both edges of the word. PMID:20378104

  12. Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firor, John W.

    1994-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

  13. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  14. All About Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post Office Dept., Washington, DC.

    This booklet, designed to promote the letter writing habit, provides information about writing letters in a variety of situations. It is divided into several short sections with illustrations. Reasons to write letters and postcards are offered by several authors and celebrites including Stevie Wonder, Darryl Stingley, and "Dear Abby." Addresses…

  15. Writing Letters of Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withers, Jennie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to instruct teachers how to write a letter of recommendation for their students. It includes when to say no, what the student needs to provide the teacher and how to write a strong letter. I am a teacher with sixteen years experience and therefore have written many letters for students. This instructional essay will…

  16. Developing a Standardized Letter of Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Alyssa M.; Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Plante, Janice W.

    2006-01-01

    The Standardized Letter of Recommendation (SLR) is a Web-based admission tool designed to replace traditional, narrative letters of recommendation with a more systematic and equitable source of information about applicants to institutions of higher education. The SLR includes a rating scale and open-ended response space that prompt evaluators to…

  17. Response to letter "Electron correlation and relativity of the 5f electrons in the Usbnd Zr alloy system"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wei; Marianetti, Chris A.; Morgan, Dane

    2016-08-01

    In the Letter [Söderlind et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 444, 356 (2014)], Söderlind et al. state their interpretation that 1) we view electron correlation to be strong and including spin-orbit coupling (SOC) to be necessary for U metal and Usbnd Zr alloy in our article [Xiong et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 443, 331 (2013)]. Further, they argue that 2) density functional theory (DFT) without adding the Hubbard U potential, especially when solved using all electron methods, already models U and Usbnd Zr accurately, and 3) adding the Hubbard U potential to DFT in DFT + U models U and Usbnd Zr worse than DFT according to volume, bulk modulus, and magnetic moments predicted from their calculations of the γU phase of elemental U metal. With respect to Söderlind et al.'s interpretation 1), we clarify that our opinions are that U and Usbnd Zr are not strongly, but weakly to moderately correlated and that including SOC is beneficial but not necessary for modeling most ground state properties of U and Usbnd Zr. With respect to Söderlind et al.'s argument 2) we demonstrate that previously neglected and very recent experimental data suggest that DFT in Söderlind's full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital calculations [Söderlind, Phys. Rev. B 66, 085113 (2002)] in fact models the bulk modulus and elastic constants of αU with errors considerably larger than other related elements, e.g., most transition metals. With respect to Söderlind et al.'s argument 3) we argue that they have inappropriately focused on just one phase (the BCC γU phase of U metal), neglecting the other phases which represent the majority of our evidence, and made overgeneralizations based on results at only one Ueff value of 2 eV. We therefore maintain our original conclusion that the accuracy of DFT for modeling U and Usbnd Zr has room for improvement and DFT + U can be of value for this purpose on at least some ground state properties.

  18. 21 CFR 170.35 - Affirmation of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.35 Affirmation of generally recognized as... convincing evidence that the substance is GRAS and that it should be considered a food additive subject to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Affirmation of generally recognized as safe...

  19. 21 CFR 170.30 - Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 170.30 Section 170.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.30 Eligibility...

  20. 21 CFR 170.35 - Affirmation of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Affirmation of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. 170.35 Section 170.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.35 Affirmation of generally recognized...

  1. 21 CFR 170.30 - Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 170.30 Section 170.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.30 Eligibility...

  2. 21 CFR 170.35 - Affirmation of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Affirmation of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. 170.35 Section 170.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.35 Affirmation of generally recognized...

  3. 76 FR 7701 - Special Local Regulations; Krewe of Charleston Mardi Gras Boat Parade, Charleston Harbor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... consist of a series of buffer zones around vessels participating in the Krewe of Charleston Mardi Gras Boat Parade. These buffer zones are as follows: (1) All waters within 500 yards in front of the lead... from entering, transiting through, anchoring, or remaining within the buffer zones unless...

  4. Effective Business Letters, Business Education: 5128.41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Juanita

    This course is designed to review business letter parts, placement, and punctuation and to study the qualities of effective business letters; application in the composition of business letters; remittance, order, acknowledgment, general response, claim and adjustment, credit and collection, sales, employment, public relations, and social-business…

  5. An open letter to the 2008 presidential candidates: get the facts right on what's responsible for global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, Henry R.

    2008-07-15

    The two remaining presidential candidates have adopted policies for reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions that address factors that are mistakenly held responsible as the primary cause of global warming. Here's what they need to keep in mind in order to craft genuinely efficacious policies. (author)

  6. The time course of visual influences in letter recognition.

    PubMed

    Madec, Sylvain; Le Goff, Kévin; Riès, Stéphanie K; Legou, Thierry; Rousselet, Guillaume; Courrieu, Pierre; Alario, F-Xavier; Grainger, Jonathan; Rey, Arnaud

    2016-06-01

    This study builds on a specific characteristic of letters of the Roman alphabet-namely, that each letter name is associated with two visual formats, corresponding to their uppercase and lowercase versions. Participants had to read aloud the names of single letters, and event-related potentials (ERPs) for six pairs of visually dissimilar upper- and lowercase letters were recorded. Assuming that the end product of processing is the same for upper- and lowercase letters sharing the same vocal response, ERPs were compared backward, starting from the onset of articulatory responses, and the first significant divergence was observed 120 ms before response onset. Given that naming responses were produced at around 414 ms, on average, these results suggest that letter processing is influenced by visual information until 294 ms after stimulus onset. This therefore provides new empirical evidence regarding the time course and interactive nature of visual letter perception processes. PMID:26742753

  7. Response to "using of 'pseudo-second-order model' in adsorption", comment letter on "phenol removal from wastewater by adsorption on zeolitic composite" [Bizerea Spiridon et al., Environ Sci Pollut Res (2013) 20:6367-6381].

    PubMed

    Bizerea Spiridon, Otilia; Pitulice, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This letter is a response to the issues put forth by Dr. Y.S. Ho with regard to the article "Phenol removal from wastewater by adsorption on zeolitic composite" as reported by Bizerea Spiridon et al. (Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:6367-6381, 2013). The response proposes to clarify the error slipped in the typewritten linearized equation of the pseudo-second-kinetic model and the reason for using secondary reference regarding this model. PMID:24638835

  8. Metamorphopsia and letter recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C.; Bex, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Acuity is the most commonly used measure of visual function, and reductions in acuity are associated with most eye diseases. Metamorphopsia—a perceived distortion of visual space—is another common symptom of visual impairment and is currently assessed qualitatively using Amsler (1953) charts. In order to quantify the impact of metamorphopsia on acuity, we measured the effect of physical spatial distortion on letter recognition. Following earlier work showing that letter recognition is tuned to specific spatial frequency (SF) channels, we hypothesized that the effect of distortion might depend on the spatial scale of visual distortion just as it depends on the spatial scale of masking noise. Six normally sighted observers completed a 26 alternate forced choice (AFC) Sloan letter identification task at five different viewing distances, and the letters underwent different levels of spatial distortion. Distortion was controlled using spatially band-pass filtered noise that spatially remapped pixel locations. Noise was varied over five spatial frequencies and five magnitudes. Performance was modeled with logistic regression and worsened linearly with increasing distortion magnitude and decreasing letter size. We found that retinal SF affects distortion at midrange frequencies and can be explained with the tuning of a basic contrast sensitivity function, while object-centered distortion SF follows a similar pattern of letter object recognition sensitivity and is tuned to approximately three cycles per letter (CPL). The interaction between letter size and distortion makes acuity an unreliable outcome for metamorphopsia assessment. PMID:25453116

  9. The Business Letter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 9-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Business. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: This guide, designed for direct student use, indicates the parts of a business letter, a placement guide, and steps for typing letters. Worksheets and illustrations indicate forms of block and indented styles; open, closed, and mixed punctuation; the…

  10. Letters from a Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Donna Holland; Lawal-Solarin, Foluso Williams; Lester, David

    2007-01-01

    There has been no published study on personal letters written before an individual's suicidal death hitherto, although studies have been done using diaries. The purpose of this study was to search for trends in the use of particular linguistic categories in a series of personal letters written before an individual's suicidal death. A linguistic…

  11. Letters in the forest: global precedence effect disappears for letters but not for non-letters under reading-like conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lachmann, Thomas; Schmitt, Andreas; Braet, Wouter; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Normally skilled reading involves special processing strategies for letters, which are habitually funneled into an abstract letter code. On the basis of previous studies we argue that this habit leads to the preferred usage of an analytic strategy for the processing of letters, while non-letters are preferably processed via a holistic strategy. The well-known global precedence effect (GPE) seems to contradict to this assumption, since, with compound, hierarchical figures, including letter items, faster responses are observed to the global than to the local level of the figure, as well as an asymmetric interference effect from global to local level. We argue that with letters these effects depend on presentation conditions; only when they elicit the processing strategies automatized for reading, an analytic strategy for letters in contrast to non-letters is to be expected. We compared the GPE for letters and non-letters in central viewing, with the global stimulus size close to the functional visual field in whole word reading (6.5° of visual angle) and local stimuli close to the critical size for fluent reading of individual letters (0.5° of visual angle). Under these conditions, the GPE remained robust for non-letters. For letters, however, it disappeared: letters showed no overall response time advantage for the global level and symmetric congruence effects (local-to-global as well as global-to-local interference). We interpret these results as according to the view that reading is based on resident analytic visual processing strategies for letters. PMID:25101012

  12. Letters in the forest: global precedence effect disappears for letters but not for non-letters under reading-like conditions.

    PubMed

    Lachmann, Thomas; Schmitt, Andreas; Braet, Wouter; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Normally skilled reading involves special processing strategies for letters, which are habitually funneled into an abstract letter code. On the basis of previous studies we argue that this habit leads to the preferred usage of an analytic strategy for the processing of letters, while non-letters are preferably processed via a holistic strategy. The well-known global precedence effect (GPE) seems to contradict to this assumption, since, with compound, hierarchical figures, including letter items, faster responses are observed to the global than to the local level of the figure, as well as an asymmetric interference effect from global to local level. We argue that with letters these effects depend on presentation conditions; only when they elicit the processing strategies automatized for reading, an analytic strategy for letters in contrast to non-letters is to be expected. We compared the GPE for letters and non-letters in central viewing, with the global stimulus size close to the functional visual field in whole word reading (6.5° of visual angle) and local stimuli close to the critical size for fluent reading of individual letters (0.5° of visual angle). Under these conditions, the GPE remained robust for non-letters. For letters, however, it disappeared: letters showed no overall response time advantage for the global level and symmetric congruence effects (local-to-global as well as global-to-local interference). We interpret these results as according to the view that reading is based on resident analytic visual processing strategies for letters. PMID:25101012

  13. Authors' response to the letter to the editor: "Effects of acoustic feedback training in elite-standard Para-Rowing" by Schaffert and Mattes (2015).

    PubMed

    Schaffert, Nina; Mattes, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Our article in the Journal of Sports Sciences was designed to examine effects of auditory feedback on mean boat speed during on-water training of visually impaired athletes in elite-standard Para-Rowing. This aim is stated explicitly in the title, abstract, introduction and discussion section. The effects were analysed on the basis of a conservative approach to using inferential statistics by emphasising measures that communicate meaningful differences and effect sizes to help interpret the data's practical importance for sport competition. Biomechanical measurements have been combined with standardised questionnaires to assess the athletes' perceived experience during rowing with acoustic feedback. An application for high-performance rowing has already been used to successfully investigate the effects of acoustic feedback on the time structure of the rowing cycle during the recovery phase. In this response, we provide our comments to the concerns presented in the 'Letter to the Editor' along with a brief description of the issues that relate to research in high-performance sport. PMID:25599408

  14. A review of human anti-globulin antibody (HAGA, HAMA, HACA, HAHA) responses to monoclonal antibodies. Not four letter words.

    PubMed

    Mirick, G R; Bradt, B M; Denardo, S J; Denardo, G L

    2004-12-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved unconjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for immunotherapy (IT) of B-cell lymphoma, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. More recently, approval has been given for conjugated ZevalinTM ((90)yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA) and BexxarTM ((131)I-tositumomab, Corixa, Corp., Seattle, WA and GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, PA) anti-CD20 MAbs for use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), thus redefining the standard care of cancer patients. Because of, and despite a lack of basis for concern about allergic reactions due to human antibody responses to these foreign proteins, assays were developed to determine HAGA (human anti-globulin antibody) levels that developed in patient sera following treatment with MAbs. Strategies were also devised to ''humanize'' MAbs and to temporarily block patient immune function with drugs in order to decrease the seroconversion rates, with considerable success. On the other hand, a survival advantage has been observed in some patients who developed a HAGA following treatment. This correlates with development of an anti-idiotype antibody cascade directed toward the MAbs used to treat these patients. What follows is a selective review of HAGA and its effect on cancer treatment over the past 2 decades. PMID:15640788

  15. Which Children Benefit from Letter Names in Learning Letter Sounds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Boada, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Typical U.S. children use their knowledge of letters' names to help learn the letters' sounds. They perform better on letter sound tests with letters that have their sounds at the beginnings of their names, such as v, than with letters that have their sounds at the ends of their names, such as m, and letters that do not have their sounds in their…

  16. Mental rotation of letters and shapes in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Rusiak, Patrycja; Lachmann, Thomas; Jaskowski, Piotr; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2007-01-01

    Extending the work of Corballis et al (1985, Cortex 21 225-236), we investigated mental rotation of letters (experiment 1), and of letters and shapes (experiment 2) in normal readers and developmental dyslexics. Whereas the overall response times were equal for shapes in both groups, for letters they were slower in dyslexics. For letters as well as for shapes, however, the same mental-rotation effects were obtained between the groups. The results are interpreted as support for the notion of developmental dyslexia as a deficit in functional coordination between graphemic and phonological letter representations. PMID:17564205

  17. Teaching Letter Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; Madan, Avi J.

    1981-01-01

    The authors describe a remedial technique for teaching letter formation to students with handwriting difficulties. The approach blends traditional procedures (modeling, physical prompts, tracing, self correction, etc.) with cognitive behavior modification principles. (CL)

  18. IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW LETTERS, 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following letters provide a summary of the Environmental Protection Agencys comments regarding 2002 Implementation Review of nineteen estuary programs in the National Estuary Program. Various strengths within the programs included use of implementation progress and tracking s...

  19. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal. PMID:26853862

  20. Students as Letter Writers: How Letters Inform Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirms, Lynn M.

    2004-01-01

    Letters from students, serve to enhance the insight toward students at a personal level while adding a familiar form and friendly voice to the classroom community. The biographical letter and study-skill letter are the two sets of students' letters discussed. It is found that one needs to know one's student better versus the time needed for this…

  1. Name-letter branding under scrutiny: real products, new algorithms, and the probability of buying.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    People like letters matching their own first and last name initials more than nonname letters. This name-letter effect has also been found for brands, i.e., people like brands resembling their own name letters (initial or first three). This has been termed name-letter branding effect. In the present study of 199 participants, ages 12 to 79 years, this name-letter branding effect was found for a modified design (1) using real products, (2) concentrating on product names rather than brand names, (3) using five different products for each letter of the Roman alphabet, (4) asking for the buying probability, and (5) using recently introduced algorithms, controlling for individual response tendencies (i.e., liking all letters more or less) and general normative popularity of particular letters (i.e., some letters are generally preferred more than other letters). PMID:20865997

  2. Students' Perceptions of Reference Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Brian K.; Appel, Jonathan; Smith, Donald H.; Hoofnagle, Kara

    2006-01-01

    This study examines students' perceptions of reference letters. Students (n = 444) were asked to describe how they perceived reference letters. Four themes were uncovered. First, some students perceived reference letters as useful for employers. Second, some students perceived the letters as important for students seeking employment or admission…

  3. Letter Names, Letter Sounds and Phonological Awareness: An Examination of Kindergarten Children across Letters and of Letters across Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann; Bell, Michelle; Shaw, Deborah; Moretti, Shelley; Page, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    In this study 149 kindergarten children were assessed for knowledge of letter names and letter sounds, phonological awareness, and cognitive abilities. Through this it examined child and letter characteristics influencing the acquisition of alphabetic knowledge in a naturalistic context, the relationship between letter-sound knowledge and…

  4. Just a Spoonful of Sugar Will Land You Six Feet Underground: Should the Food and Drug Administration Revoke Added Sugar's GRAS Status?

    PubMed

    Card, Melissa Marie; Abela, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses whether added sugar meets FDA's standard to be generally recognized as safe ("GRAS"). If added sugar is not GRAS, then manufacturers are subject to premarket approval prior to using added sugar in their products. This article advocates that FDA should issue a Federal Register notice determining that added sugar is not GRAS, allowing FDA to regulate the amount of added sugar used in processed foods, decreasing the health adversities that stem from added sugar consumption. PMID:26630822

  5. Neural Correlates of Letter Reversal in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Priya; Yee, Debbie; Sinha, Pawan; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Children often make letter reversal errors when first learning to read and write, even for letters whose reversed forms do not appear in normal print. However, the brain basis of such letter reversal in children learning to read is unknown. The present study compared the neuroanatomical correlates (via functional magnetic resonance imaging) and the electrophysiological correlates (via event-related potentials or ERPs) of this phenomenon in children, ages 5–12, relative to young adults. When viewing reversed letters relative to typically oriented letters, adults exhibited widespread occipital, parietal, and temporal lobe activations, including activation in the functionally localized visual word form area (VWFA) in left occipito-temporal cortex. Adults exhibited significantly greater activation than children in all of these regions; children only exhibited such activation in a limited frontal region. Similarly, on the P1 and N170 ERP components, adults exhibited significantly greater differences between typical and reversed letters than children, who failed to exhibit significant differences between typical and reversed letters. These findings indicate that adults distinguish typical and reversed letters in the early stages of specialized brain processing of print, but that children do not recognize this distinction during the early stages of processing. Specialized brain processes responsible for early stages of letter perception that distinguish between typical and reversed letters may develop slowly and remain immature even in older children who no longer produce letter reversals in their writing. PMID:24859328

  6. Thoughts on the condolence letter.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, B M

    2000-11-15

    Genuine, specific, timely emotional support of caregivers at the time of euthanasia is an important part of the veterinary professional obligation. Such support helps ease client pain during the grieving process. However, caution and sensitivity are essential when assessing and responding to caregiver-companion animal relationships.(1) For example, some caregivers are highly bonded but conceal their emotions, so our perceptions and responses must be thoughtful and discerning. My veterinary technician and I are supportive of our clients during euthanasia. I later write the condolence letter according to our perceptions of that particular human-companion animal bond. The only exceptions to our attempt to be thoroughly supportive at the time of euthanasia are those instances when we perceive that there has been obvious and willful abuse or neglect. At such times, we try to maintain emotional neutrality. The condolence letter and its variations described here are intended to serve as a guide. We send the condolence letter to caregivers within 24 hours of euthanasia, and it is addressed to the entire family. In addition, a euthanasia packet is provided at the time of euthanasia. The packet includes 2 brochures on coping with the loss of a companion animal, (2,3) contact information for a pet loss support hotline and a pet loss support group, an essay and a poem about the death of a companion animal, and a how-to article on dealing with children and their emotions on the loss of a pet. (4) My veterinary technician almost always phones the caregiver 1 to 3 days after euthanasia of their companion animal. The timing of the call depends on the circumstances of death and our judgment as to the emotional needs of the caregiver and family. Where emotions around euthanasia and loss are especially deep, the follow-up call may be made as early as that night or the next morning, with a second call 2 to 3 days later. The nature of the conversation depends on the technician

  7. Harvard Education Letter, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David T., Editor

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 6 issues in volume 18 of the Harvard Education Letter, a bimonthly newsletter addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January/February--"Curriculum Access in the Digital Age" (David T. Gordon) and "Using Charters To Improve Urban Schools"…

  8. Letter to Doxiadis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Buckminster

    1969-01-01

    The second half of a lengthy letter to Dr. Constantine Doxiadis (published in full in Main Currents in Modern Thought, XXV, March-April 1969) summarizes Buckminster Fuller's personal reflections on the impact of industrialization and on the effect of technological change in uniting mankind. (MF)

  9. Letters and American Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevis, David E.

    The work itself should help a person who is going to teach reading and writing. Practical suggestions are offered in the final two chapters, while the opening three give intellectual perspectives. A theme binds the work of letting the consciousness of writing as a visual system be increased and of breaking the spell by which letter phonetics can…

  10. Harvard Education Letter, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves-Desai, Kelly, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of the six issues in volume 15 of the Harvard Education Letter, a bimonthly newsletter addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Retention vs. Social Promotion: Schools Search for Alternatives" (Kelly), and "School Design Can Say…

  11. Inside the Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Roger; Graham, Alan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how a Java applet can help to build learners' intuitions about basic ideas of algebra. "Matchbox Algebra" is a Java applet the authors have designed to enable learners to grasp a key idea in learning algebra: that the letter "x" may be thought of as representing an as-yet-unknown number. They describe the…

  12. Four-Letter Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Robert G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a computer program (for Apple II) that tests knowledge of four-letter words. The program, which includes four games and a dictionary, can be used in one of two modes (inquiry or game) by students at any level depending on version of dictionary selected. Dictionary operations and classroom applications are discussed. (JN)

  13. Five Long Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bone, Eric

    1990-01-01

    Describes the life of former Louisiana governor Huey Long through five fictitious letters. Discusses Long's experiences as a state public service commissioner, governor, and senator. Attributes Long's assassination to his killer's personal motives. Concludes that Long's life showed how much personal power could be gained even in a democracy. (SG)

  14. Harvard Education Letter, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David, T., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document is comprised of the six issues in volume 17 of the Harvard Education Letter, a bimonthly newsletter addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Charters and Districts: Three Stages in an Often Rocky Relationship" (Kelly) and "'We Don't Allow…

  15. Harvard Education Letter, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David T., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document is comprised of the six issues in volume 16 of the Harvard Education Letter, a bimonthly newsletter addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Grade Inflation: What's Really behind All Those A's?" (Birk) and "Every Friday was Fight Day"…

  16. The Fuzzy Scarlet Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallas, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Critics of the public release of teacher evaluation scores sometimes liken these ratings to the scarlet letter worn by Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's classic novel. The comparison is apt. But public school teachers who are subjected to public shaming because of their students' test scores can rarely expect the opportunities for redemption…

  17. Letters in this Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    Reforming the General Chemistry Textbook individual letters by Edward T. Samulski; Stephen J. Hawkes; Stephen J. Fisher; J. Stephen Hartman; A. R. H. Cole; Stanley Pine, Ronald Archer, and Herbert Kaesz; Jimmy Reeves; Robert Hill; and Brock Spencer, C. Bradley Moore and Nedah Rose. Re: article by R. J. Gillespie The author replies

  18. President Nixon's Letter of Resignation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Mary; Childress, Marilyn

    1982-01-01

    Contains a primary source document--President Nixon's resignation letter--and suggests teaching strategies for its use with secondary level students. To refresh students' memories of the events surrounding the letter, a selective chronology is also presented. (RM)

  19. On the Interaction of Letter Transpositions and Morphemic Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Rueckl, Jay G.; Rimzhim, Anurag

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of the impact of morphemic boundaries on transposed-letter priming effects have yielded conflicting results. Five masked priming lexical decision experiments were conducted to examine the interaction of letter transpositions and morphemic boundaries with English suffixed derivations. Experiments 1-3 found that responses to monomorphemic target words (e.g., SPEAK) were facilitated to the same extent by morphologically related primes containing letter transpositions that did (SPEAEKR) or did not (SPEKAER) cross a morphemic boundary. This pattern was also observed in Experiments 4 and 5, in which the targets (e.g. SPEAKER) were the base forms of the transposed-letter primes. Thus, in these experiments the influence of the morphological structure of a transposed-letter prime did not depend on whether the letter transposition crossed a morphological boundary. PMID:22933829

  20. New Insights about Letter Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of alphabetic knowledge (letter names, letter sounds, and letter forms) is an important predictor of later literacy achievement. This article describes research findings that provide new insights about how children learn the alphabetic principle and the implications for effective and efficient instruction of the alphabet. Teachers…

  1. Feelings...the Way to Better Letter Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memphis State Univ., TN. Early Childhood Education Center.

    This booklet provides guidelines to produce effective, responsive business letter writing, which promotes public relations, gives plain answers to questions, clearly states requests for additional information, and increases office efficiency and economy. Four major characteristics of such letters are discussed: (1) brevity and the avoidance of…

  2. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents The equivalence of mass and energy Peter Stansbury Head of Physics, Christ Church Grammar School, Claremont, Western Australia 6010 Comment on `A simple experiment to study parabolic surfaces' N Gauthier Department of Physics, The Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4, Canada

  3. Letter of the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    A recent decision by the 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in a case from Arkansas centered on a vicious letter written by an 8th-grade boy about his former girlfriend and turned over to school officials. The court ruled for the school district in expelling the student for the year, without allowing him to attend an alternative school. Argues that…

  4. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Criticisms of hands-on pseudoscience David J Fisher 27 Elderberry Road, Cardiff CF5 3RG, UK Measuring varying fields Don Koks Adelaide University, Australia Relativity at A-level: a comment David Sang 3 Ellasdale Road, Bognor Regis, PO21 2SG, UK

  5. 21 CFR 186.1 - Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 186.1 Section 186.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1 - Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 184.1 Section 184.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1 - Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances added directly to human food affirmed as..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD... human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). (a) The direct human food ingredients...

  8. 21 CFR 186.1 - Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED... added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). (a) The indirect...

  9. 21 CFR 186.1 - Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed... added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). (a) The indirect human... ingredient in this part does not authorize the use of such substance for the purpose of adding the...

  10. 21 CFR 186.1 - Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed... added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). (a) The indirect human... ingredient in this part does not authorize the use of such substance for the purpose of adding the...

  11. Assessment of the Readability of Genetic Counseling Patient Letters.

    PubMed

    Brown, Emily; Skinner, Megan; Ashley, Stephanie; Reed, Kate; Dixon, Shannan DeLany

    2016-06-01

    Patient letters are a powerful tool that genetic counselors use to communicate with their patients. Patient letters are often sent to provide information on a new diagnosis, reiterate test results, and to serve as a permanent record of the visit. Patient letters, however, are only helpful if the patients can understand them. More than 50 % of the US population reads below a 9th grade reading level and over one-third of the population has low health literacy skills. In this study we evaluate the readability of genetic counseling patient letters by assessing reading level, image use, and terminology use. One hundred forty-nine genetic counselors participated in the survey and of these, 79 submitted a sample patient letter. Analyses of the letters revealed a mean reading level of 10.93. On average, 6 genetic terms were included in each letter, and only 25 % of these terms were defined. Analyses of survey responses revealed over 75 % of the genetic counselors did not include images in their patient letters. These results indicate there is room for improvement in order to make genetic counseling patient letters more accessible to the general population. PMID:26416185

  12. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Heat and temperature Kevin Carlton Canterbury Christ Church University College, North Holmes Road, Canterbury, Kent CT1 1QU, UK James Bond's shoes J Oliver Linton Head of Physics, Wolverhampton Grammar School, Compton Road, Wolverhampton WV3 9RB, UK Of springs and strings Ronald Newburgh Extension School, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Clarifying the concept Keith Atkin 14 Cortworth Road, Ecclesall, Sheffield S11 9LP, UK

  13. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Physics and history Arthur I Miller Department of Science & Technology Studies, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Physics and history: a reply David Miller Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Cathode rays, the electron and Thomson's discovery John Harris 33 Glentham Road, London SW13 9JD, UK Vectors: swallow them whole! David Wheeler Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand

  14. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Comment on `Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances' José Luis Giordano Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, CPSI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Twins paradox S R Carson Norton College, Malton, North Yorkshire, UK On alternative ways of finding the ratio of specific heats of gases Tomas Ficker Physics Department, Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic

  15. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Narrow-band interference filters for lecture demonstrations A P Ovcharenko, B M Valiyov and V D Yegorenkov Kharkov State University, Ukraine Static electricity and the gas lift chair P Cooke Department of Physics, University of South Australia, Levels Campus, Pooraka, South Australia Relativistic mass Simon Carson Norton College, Langton Road, Norton, Malton, North Yorkshire YO17 9PT, UK Magazine or journal? Philip Britton Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School, UK

  16. The letter height superiority illusion.

    PubMed

    New, Boris; Doré-Mazars, Karine; Cavézian, Céline; Pallier, Christophe; Barra, Julien

    2016-02-01

    Letters are identified better when they are embedded within words rather than within pseudowords, a phenomenon known as the word superiority effect (Reicher in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 275-280, 1969). This effect is, inter alia, accounted for by the interactive-activation model (McClelland & Rumelhart in Psychological Review, 88, 375-407, 1981) through feedback from word to letter nodes. In this study, we investigated whether overactivation of features could lead to perceptual bias, wherein letters would be perceived as being taller than pseudoletters, or words would be perceived as being taller than pseudowords. In two experiments, we investigated the effects of letter and lexical status on the perception of size. Participants who had to compare the heights of letters and pseudoletters, or of words and pseudowords, indeed perceived the former stimuli as being taller than the latter. Possible alternative interpretations of this height superiority effect for letters and words are discussed. PMID:26370216

  17. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters AGENCY: Government... Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health IT Policy Committee) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility for appointing 13 of its...

  18. 78 FR 2407 - Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters AGENCY: Government Accountability Office... the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility...

  19. 76 FR 81503 - Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters AGENCY: Government Accountability Office... the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility...

  20. 76 FR 5591 - Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Medicare Payment Advisory Commission Nomination Letters AGENCY: Government Accountability Office... the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility...

  1. The letters of John Dastin.

    PubMed

    Thiesen, Wilfred

    2008-07-01

    John Dastin, a noted alchemist who lived ca. 1300, followed the lead of many of his contemporaries and predecessors in using letters to propagate his views on alchemy. This article identifies a number of letters that Dastin wrote, and includes one text addressed to a cardinal of the city of Naples. This letter is virtually a copy of a work by Arnold of Villanova. I believe that other works ascribed to Dastin will also show a great dependence on Arnold's works. PMID:19048973

  2. IRTs of the ABCs: children's letter name acquisition.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Beth M; Piasta, Shayne B; Anthony, Jason L; Lonigan, Christopher J; Francis, David J

    2012-08-01

    We examined the developmental sequence of letter name knowledge acquisition by children from 2 to five years of age. Data from 2 samples representing diverse regions, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds (ns = 1074 and 500) were analyzed using item response theory (IRT) and differential item functioning techniques. Results from factor analyses indicated that letter name knowledge represented a unidimensional skill; IRT results yielded significant differences between letters in both difficulty and discrimination. Results also indicated an approximate developmental sequence in letter name learning for the simplest and most challenging to learn letters--but with no clear sequence between these extremes. Findings also suggested that children were most likely to first learn their first initial. We discuss implications for assessment and instruction. PMID:22710016

  3. What Can Reduce Letter Migrations in Letter Position Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Naama; Rahamim, Einav

    2014-01-01

    Letter position dyslexia (LPD) is a peripheral dyslexia that causes errors of letter position within words, such as reading "cloud" as "could." In this study, we assessed the effect of various display manipulations and reading methods on the reading of 10 Hebrew readers with developmental LPD. These manipulations included…

  4. Visually discriminating upper case letters, lower case letters and numbers.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Janet; Waugh, Russell F; Konza, Deslea

    2015-01-01

    English and number literacy are important for successful learning and testing student literacy and numeracy standards enables early identification and remediation of children who have difficulty. Rasch measures were created with the RUMM2020 computer program for the perceptual constructs of visual discrimination upper case letters, lower case letters and numbers. Thirty items for Visual Discrimination of Upper Case Letters (VDUCL), 36 for Lower Case Letters (VDLCL) and 20 for Visual Discrimination of Numbers (VDN) were presented to 324 Pre-Primary through Year 4 children, aged 4-9 years old. All students attended school in Perth, Western Australia. Eighteen of the initial 30 items for VDUCL, thirty-one of the original 36 items for VDLCL and thirteen of the original 20 items for VDN were used to create linear scales (the others were deleted due to misfit) and these clearly showed which letters and numbers children said were easy and which were hard. PMID:25562334

  5. Neurotic love letters.

    PubMed

    Tierra, Tatiana De La

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The intensity of falling in love is expressed through sexual longing and is focused on pleasures of the body. Fresh fruits and vegetables and other elements of nature-wind, birds, foliage-form part of the setting of seduction. Being in love with another woman makes the entire world beautiful. But the lesbian paradise is eventually eclipsed by bitter realities that intrude upon the relationship-the ever-present ex-lover (still in the picture), family ties (with homophobic overtones), business connections (that imperil lesbian economic independence), and issues of commitment and honesty that eventually lead to betrayal and a bittersweet breakup. Based on correspondence originally written in Spanish, "Neurotic Love Letters" is a testament to an unfortunate fact-that all the love and lust between two women cannot always conquer dubious circumstances and harsh realities unique to lesbian relationships. PMID:24821038

  6. Letters in Biographies and Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterra, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    This is an annotated bibliography of biographies, historical fiction, contemporary stories, and discussion questions related to letter writing. A sidebar suggests an activity that involves reading a book about Ludwig van Beethoven, listening to Beethoven's music, and discussing letters in the story. (DGM)

  7. Treatments with gras compounds to keep fig fruit (Ficus carica L.) quality during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Venditti, T; Molinu, M G; Dore, A; D'Hallewin, G; Fiori, P; Tedde, M; Agabbio, M

    2005-01-01

    The trade of fresh fig fruit is restricted by its high perishability and numerous attempts have been done to extend the postharvest life. The main difficulties can be found in the fast ripening and the easiness of pathogen spread. Although the ripening can be slowed by low storage temperatures (close to 0 degrees C) the control of pathogens remains still unsolved since no pesticide treatments are allowed. Generally Recognized As Save Compounds (G.R.A.S.) are possible candidates to fulfil this void. Sodium carbonate (SC) solutions (0.5, 1, 2 and 3%) and acetic acid (AAC) vapours (25, 50 and 100 ppm) have been used as postharvest treatments to control Botrytis cinerea on black (Craxiou de Porcu) and white (Rampelina) fig varieties. Fruit was subsequently stored at 2 or 8 degrees C and 90% relative humidity for two weeks. At the end of the experiment decay, weight loss, pH, acidity, total soluble solids and visual assessment were performed. SC treatment at 1% reduced significantly the decay while, lower and higher concentrations did not. Between the two studied varieties the lowest decay percentage (9.8%) was found for the Craxiou de Porcu. Using AAC a good efficacy was achieved only with 100 ppm, this treatment decrease to 2.4% the incidence of decay irrespective to storage temperature. Lower concentrations were lesser effective and the efficacy was strictly dependent on the storage temperature, being higher at 2 degrees C. No treatment damages were observed following SC or AAC applications. Regarding fruit weight loss all treatments did not affect this parameter that was 10.1% and 16.9% at 2 and 8 degrees C, respectively. Chemical analyses performed at the end of the storage period did not evidenced differences among the treatments and slight ones if compared to initial values. Visual score of the fruit at the end of storage evidenced a better keeping quality for Craxiou de Porcu especially when stored at 2 degrees C. Both G.R.A.S. compounds are promising, but in

  8. Gastro-resistant characteristics of GRAS-grade enteric coatings for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products.

    PubMed

    Czarnocka, Justyna K; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    The use of naturally derived excipients to develop enteric coatings offers significant advantages over conventional synthetic polymers. Unlike synthetic polymers, they are biodegradable, relatively abundant, have no daily intake limits or restrictions on use for dietary and nutraceutical products. However, little information is available on their dissolution properties under different gastrointestinal conditions and in comparison to each other. This work investigated the gastric resistance properties of commercially available GRAS-based coating technologies. Three coating systems were evaluated: ethyl cellulose+carboxymethyl cellulose (EC-CMC), ethyl cellulose+sodium alginate (EC-Alg) and shellac+sodium alginate (Sh-Alg) combinations. The minimum coating levels were optimized to meet USP pharmacopoeial criteria for delayed release formulations (<10% release after 2h in pH 1.2 followed by >80% release after 45 min of pH change). Theophylline 150 mg tablets were coated with 6.5%, 7%, and 2.75% coating levels of formulations EC-CMC, EC-Alg and Sh-Alg, respectively. In vitro dissolution test revealed a fast release in pH 6.8 for ethyl cellulose based coatings: t80% value of 65 and 45 min for EC-CMC and EC-Alg respectively, while a prolonged drug release from Sh-Alg coating was observed in both pH 6.8 and 7.4 phosphate buffers. However, when more biologically relevant bicarbonate buffer was used, all coatings showed slower drug release. Disintegration test, carried out in both simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, confirmed good mechanical resistance of EC-CMC and EC-Alg coating, and revealed poor durability of the thinner Sh-Alg. Under elevated gastric pH conditions (pH 2, 3 and 4), EC-CMC and EC-Alg coatings were broken after 70, 30, 55 min and after 30, 15, 15 min, respectively, while Sh-Alg coated tablets demonstrated gastric resistance at all pH values. In conclusion, none of the GRAS-grade coatings fully complied with the different biological demands of delayed

  9. Sexual risk behavior in men attending Mardi Gras celebrations in New Orleans, Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Benotsch, Eric G; Nettles, Christopher D; Wong, Felicia; Redmann, Jean; Boschini, Jill; Pinkerton, Steven D; Ragsdale, Kathleen; Mikytuck, John J

    2007-10-01

    Previous research with travelers points to higher risk behaviors during vacations. Relative to their day-to-day lives, leisure travelers have more free time to pursue sexual activities and are likely to engage in higher rates of substance use than when at home. Risk behaviors during vacation have not been thoroughly examined in men who have sex with men (MSM), a key group at risk for HIV. The present investigation examined substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and components of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model in MSM attending Mardi Gras celebrations in New Orleans. Almost half of the sexually active men reported having sex with a partner of unknown HIV status while in New Orleans and a similar number did not disclose their own HIV status to all of their sexual partners. Drug use and excessive alcohol use were associated with unprotected sex (ps < .05). Components of the IMB model also predicted sexual risk behavior: individuals with more accurate HIV transmission information reported fewer unprotected sex acts, and motivation to engage in sexual activity on vacation was associated with more unprotected sex (ps < .05). Findings suggest that some MSM on vacation are placing themselves at risk for HIV. Traditional HIV prevention interventions do not readily lend themselves for use with transient populations. New intervention approaches are needed to reduce sexual risk behaviors in persons traveling for leisure. PMID:17922205

  10. The FEMA GRAS assessment of furfural used as a flavour ingredient. Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association.

    PubMed

    Adams, T B; Doull, J; Goodman, J I; Munro, I C; Newberne, P; Portoghese, P S; Smith, R L; Wagner, B M; Weil, C S; Woods, L A; Ford, R A

    1997-08-01

    The Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association (FEMA) has assessed the safety of furfural for its continued use as a flavour ingredient. The safety assessment takes into account the current scientific information on exposure, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, carcinogenicity and genotoxicity. Furfural was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) as a flavour ingredient under conditions of intended use based on: (1) its mode of metabolic detoxication in humans; (2) its low level of flavour use compared with higher intake levels as a naturally occurring component of food; (3) the safety factor calculated from results of subchronic and chronic studies, (4) the lack of reactivity with DNA; and (5) the conclusion that the only statistically significant finding in the 2-year NTP bioassays, an increased incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in the high-dose group of male mice, was secondary to pronounced hepatotoxicity. Taken together, these data do not indicate any risk to human health under conditions of use as a flavour ingredient. This evidence of safety is supported by the occurrence of furfural as a natural component of traditional foods, at concentrations in the diet resulting in a 'natural intake' that is at least 100 times higher than the intake of furfural from use as a flavour ingredient. PMID:9350219

  11. Production of 2,3-butanediol from glucose by GRAS microorganism Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taowei; Rao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; Lin, Qing; Xia, Haifeng; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shangtian

    2011-12-01

    In the current study, a GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens producing 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) designated as B10-127 was isolated in our lab. The strain B10-127 produced 2,3-BD effectively under the condition of 20% glucose (quality concentration), showed a high-glucose tolerance. The effects of initial glucose concentration, temperature, pH and agitation on 2,3-BD production were investigated in this work and the proper parameters were identified. Accordingly, the fed-batch culture of B10-127 in larger scales (5 l) showed a remarkable 2,3-BD producing potency. The maximum 2,3-BD concentration reached 92.3 g/l at 96 h with a 2,3-BD productivity of 0.96 g/l h. To our knowledge, the results were new records on 2,3-BD fermentation by Bacillus, which shown an excellent candidate for the microbial fermentation of 2,3-BD on an industrial scale. PMID:21780143

  12. Two New Letters by Denning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Martin

    2010-06-01

    Two letters written by W. F. Denning to R. P. Greg in March and April of 1879 that had been tucked into the folds of an 1876 edition of the British Association for the Advancement of Science Reports were recently found at the Carnegie Institution in Washington D.C. The letters are wonderfully preserved, and offer us a snap-shot of the work being performed by a young Denning at the time when his influence in the field of meteor studies was in its ascendency. The contents of these two letters is analyzed and placed within context to Denning's other publications and private life.

  13. 48 CFR 42.504 - Postaward letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Postaward Orientation 42.504 Postaward letters. In some... orientation (in lieu of a conference). The letter should identify the Government representative...

  14. Author response to letter. Ref: Madsen et al. "Unnecessary work tasks and mental health: a prospective analysis of Danish human service workers".

    PubMed

    Madsen, Ida Eh; Rugulies, Reiner

    2015-03-01

    We read with interest the letter from Drs Durand-Moreau, Loddé, and Dewitte (1) regarding our article on unnecessary work tasks and mental health (2). The authors argue that: (i) the article is flawed by an imprecise one-item exposure measurement, (ii) the results may be affected by reverse causality, and (iii) ultimately the elimination of unnecessary work tasks may increase "psychic suffering". We would like to take this opportunity to address their concerns. We acknowledge, as we did in the article itself, that measuring unnecessary work tasks using only one item is less than ideal and could have increased measurement error in our analyses. The item we used to measure unnecessary work tasks assesses the employee's overall evaluation regarding the extent to which they must conduct work tasks that they, for whatever reason, deem unnecessary. We are unconvinced by the claim by Drs Durand-Moreau, Loddé, and Dewitte that this phenomenon is somehow unrelated to Semmer's definition of unnecessary tasks (3, 4), regardless of the sense-making processes underlying an individual employee's evaluation of a particular work task as unnecessary. Regarding the issue of reverse causality, the analyses were longitudinal and the effect estimates were adjusted for the baseline mental health level of the participants. Consequently, we examined changes in mental health over time, and our results cannot be explained by poorer mental health making workers think "that what they're doing is useless" as claimed in the commentary. Although causal inference is always a delicate issue when applying observational research methods, the adjustment for baseline mental health should account for reverse causality at least. Drs Durand-Moreau, Loddé, and Dewitte question that our findings suggest that the elimination of unnecessary work tasks may be beneficial to employee mental health. Instead they propose that unnecessary work tasks may be conducive to mental health because "some tasks may seem

  15. Appropriate Analytical Methods are Necessary to Assess Non-target Effects of Insecticidal Proteins in GM Crops Through Meta-Analysis (response to Andow et al.): Letter to the Editor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been an on-going debate over an article published in Environmental Entomology by Lovei et al. (Transgenic Insecticidal Crops and Natural Enemies: A Detailed Review of Laboratory Studies). A rebuttal letter was published in Transgenic Research and Lovei et al. have responded to our letter....

  16. Early predictors of letter knowledge.

    PubMed

    de Jong, P F; Olson, R K

    2004-07-01

    This study examined the influence of phonological memory and rapid naming on the development of letter knowledge. Participants were 77 Dutch children, who were followed from the start of their first kindergarten year (mean age 4 years 6.8 months) to the end of their second kindergarten year. Phonological memory was assessed by a nonword repetition test and a sentence repetition test. Rapid naming involved object naming. The study revealed found a substantial effect of phonological memory on the acquisition of letter knowledge that was particularly related to the ability to repeat nonwords. Vocabulary knowledge did not have an independent effect on letter learning after phonological memory was controlled. The study also showed a small effect of rapid naming on the acquisition of letter knowledge that was independent of the effect of phonological memory. Finally, the study also provided further evidence for a specific relation between phonological memory and vocabulary acquisition. PMID:15203300

  17. Letter from the Friends Chairman

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Letter from the Friends Chairman Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents ... FNLM Chairman Paul Rogers converse at a recent Friends function at the National Library of Medicine. Photo ...

  18. Letters to a Young Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Anne; Becker, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Presents words of encouragement to a young poet. Includes empathetic words and motivating ideas. Presents a letter including a quote from "Tintern Abbey" by William Wordsworth and ideas about that quote. (SG)

  19. LETTER TO THE EDITOR IN REBUTTAL TO "INFLUENCE OF GLYCEMIC INEX/LOAD ON GLYCEMIC RESPONSE, APPETITE, AND FOOD INTAKE IN HEALTHY HUMANS"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In their recent article, Alfenas and Mattes(1) conclude that the glycemic index values (GI) of individual foods do not predict glycemic response (GR) to mixed meals, nor influence measures of hunger. Because the observed GR did not differ between diets, the lack of effect on appetite is not surprisi...

  20. Letter to Dr. Felix Bronner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Dear Dr. Bronner: I have been reading in The Physiologist the letters from senior physiologists for many years with great interest. It is impressive that many of the respondents are still pursuing scientific endeavours in their 70's and some even in their 80's. The interesting task is to ponder the relative causative proportions of heredity and environment responsible. One wonders whether knowing something about physiology engenders longer and more productive lives? I suspect so because of the accompanying self-discipline. But another factor would seem to be the pervasive joy of working in this profession. I have been fortunate to be able to acquire the joy of physiology during my graduate studies at Illinois, and to have been able to carry it over here at NASA, Ames Research Center for the past 40 years. A truly academic style research environment at a federal research center is rare. The trick to a joyous research career is to overcome those ever-present slings and arrows of outrageous fortune with dignity whenever possible. To that end I have found solace and guidance in reading the history of warfare and its leaders, especially Sun Tsu's The Art of War and Clauswitz's On War. I became eligible for retirement in 1993, but to insure domestic tranquility and also the joy of pursuing my research hobby have continued working in the laboratory on human research. It is troubling to see that funding for individual scientists conducting human research is declining rapidly, along with their new ideas; perhaps the old ones are more comfortable. Hopefully I can provide a similar response when I'm 80! Thanks for your interest. Sincerely, John Greenleaf

  1. Strongly-motivated positive affects induce faster responses to local than global information of visual stimuli: an approach using large-size Navon letters

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Yasuki; Tomoike, Kouta

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies argue that strongly-motivated positive emotions (e.g. desire) narrow a scope of attention. This argument is mainly based on an observation that, while humans normally respond faster to global than local information of a visual stimulus (global advantage), positive affects eliminated the global advantage by selectively speeding responses to local (but not global) information. In other words, narrowing of attentional scope was indirectly evidenced by the elimination of global advantage (the same speed of processing between global and local information). No study has directly shown that strongly-motivated positive affects induce faster responses to local than global information while excluding a bias for global information (global advantage) in a baseline (emotionally-neutral) condition. In the present study, we addressed this issue by eliminating the global advantage in a baseline (neutral) state. Induction of positive affects under this state resulted in faster responses to local than global information. Our results provided direct evidence that positive affects in high motivational intensity narrow a scope of attention. PMID:26754087

  2. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that all pages are... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST... of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 115.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance...

  3. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that all pages are... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST... of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 115.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance...

  4. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... letter, the stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306...

  5. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that all pages are... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST... of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 115.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance...

  6. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... letter, the stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306...

  7. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that all pages are... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST... of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 115.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance...

  8. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... letter, the stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306...

  9. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... letter, the stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306...

  10. Letter Writing: A Tool for Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Rachel M.

    2008-01-01

    Letter writing is an integral component of narrative therapy practice. In addition to the benefits of letter writing in counseling practice, letter writing may hold interesting possibilities for use in counselor education. This article provides a brief review of the benefits of letter writing in counseling practice and discusses the potential use…

  11. 42 CFR 93.202 - Charge letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charge letter. 93.202 Section 93.202 Public Health... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.202 Charge letter. Charge letter means the written notice, as well as any... HHS administrative actions. If the charge letter includes a debarment or suspension action, it may...

  12. 19 CFR 356.16 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Charging letter. 356.16 Section 356.16 Customs... Undertaking § 356.16 Charging letter. (a) Contents of letter. The Deputy Under Secretary will initiate proceedings by issuing a charging letter to each charged party and affected party which includes: (1)...

  13. 42 CFR 93.202 - Charge letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Charge letter. 93.202 Section 93.202 Public Health... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.202 Charge letter. Charge letter means the written notice, as well as any... HHS administrative actions. If the charge letter includes a debarment or suspension action, it may...

  14. 19 CFR 356.16 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Charging letter. 356.16 Section 356.16 Customs... Undertaking § 356.16 Charging letter. (a) Contents of letter. The Deputy Under Secretary will initiate proceedings by issuing a charging letter to each charged party and affected party which includes: (1)...

  15. Embedded Picture Mnemonics to Learn Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmidman, Adina; Ehri, Linnea

    2010-01-01

    Can embedded mnemonics ease the task of learning a foreign alphabet? English-speaking preschoolers (N = 36, M = 5;2 years) were taught 10 Hebrew letter-sound relations. Experimental letters were learned with mnemonics that embedded letter shapes in drawings of objects whose shapes resembled the letters and whose English names began with the…

  16. Language General and Specific Factors in Letter Acquisition: Considering Child and Letter Characteristics in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the extent to which child level factors (i.e., phonological awareness) and letter level factors (i.e., letter name structures, letter frequency, visual similarity, and letter order) contributed to letter name and sound acquisition, using data from Korean-speaking children (N = 169) and cross-classified…

  17. Effects of Letter-Identification Training on Letter Naming in Prereading Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Schmidt, Anna C.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2013-01-01

    Three prereading children who named 0 to 3 of 20 targeted letters were taught to select the 20 printed letters when they heard spoken letter names. For all participants, letter-identification training resulted in naming for the majority of letters.

  18. Underlying Cause(s) of Letter Perseveration Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; Rapp, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Perseverations, the inappropriate intrusion of elements from a previous response into a current response, are commonly observed in individuals with acquired deficits. This study specifically investigates the contribution of failure-to activate and failure-to-inhibit deficit(s) in the generation of letter perseveration errors in acquired…

  19. Left cortical specialization for visual letter strings predicts rudimentary knowledge of letter-sound association in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Lochy, Aliette; Van Reybroeck, Marie; Rossion, Bruno

    2016-07-26

    Reading, one of the most important cultural inventions of human society, critically depends on posterior brain areas of the left hemisphere in proficient adult readers. In children, this left hemispheric cortical specialization for letter strings is typically detected only after approximately 1 y of formal schooling and reading acquisition. Here, we recorded scalp electrophysiological (EEG) brain responses in 5-y-old (n = 40) prereaders presented with letter strings appearing every five items in rapid streams of pseudofonts (6 items per second). Within 2 min of recording only, letter strings evoked a robust specific response over the left occipito-temporal cortex at the predefined frequency of 1.2 Hz (i.e., 6 Hz/5). Interindividual differences in the amplitude of this electrophysiological response are significantly related to letter knowledge, a preschool predictor of later reading ability. These results point to the high potential of this rapidly collected behavior-free measure to assess reading ability in developmental populations. These findings were replicated in a second experiment (n = 26 preschool children), where familiar symbols and line drawings of objects evoked right-lateralized and bilaterally specific responses, respectively, showing the specificity of the early left hemispheric dominance for letter strings. Collectively, these findings indicate that limited knowledge of print in young children, before formal education, is sufficient to develop specialized left lateralized neuronal circuits, thereby pointing to an early onset and rapid impact of left hemispheric reentrant sound mapping on posterior cortical development. PMID:27402739

  20. The role of Hebrew letter names in early literacy: the case of multiphonemic acrophonic names.

    PubMed

    Levin, Iris

    2007-12-01

    English-speaking children spell letters correctly more often when the letters' names are heard in the word (e.g., B in beach vs. bone). Hebrew letter names have been claimed to be less useful in this regard. In Study 1, kindergartners were asked to report and spell initial and final letters in Hebrew words that included full (CVC), partial (CV), and phonemic (C) cues derived from these letter names (e.g., kaftor, kartis, kibepsilonl, spelled with /kaf/). Correct and biased responses increased with length of congruent and incongruent cues, respectively. In Study 2, preschoolers and kindergartners were asked to report initial letters with monosyllabic or disyllabic names (e.g., /kaf/ or /samepsilonx/, respectively) that included the cues described above. Correct responses increased with cue length; the effect was stronger with monosyllabic letter names than with disyllabic letter names, probably because the cue covered a larger ratio of the letter name. Phonological awareness was linked to use of letter names. PMID:17949738

  1. Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) evaluation of 4-hexylresorcinol for use as a processing aid for prevention of melanosis in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Frankos, V H; Schmitt, D F; Haws, L C; McEvily, A J; Iyengar, R; Miller, S A; Munro, I C; Clydesdale, F M; Forbes, A L; Sauer, R M

    1991-10-01

    4-Hexylresorcinol (C12H18O2) is proposed for use as a processing aid for prevention of melanosis ("black spot") in shrimp and as an alternative to the currently approved sulfites. A safety evaluation was conducted to affirm, based upon scientific procedures, the generally recognized as safe ("GRAS") status of 4-hexylresorcinol for proposed use. The GRAS safety evaluation compiled, reviewed, and analyzed data on the following areas: chemical identity, analytical methodology, historical and proposed uses, functionality, and safety. The publicly available safety data on 4-hexylresorcinol cover a broad range of potential toxicity concerns including acute and subacute toxicity, subchronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and allergenicity. These studies, along with the aforementioned data, demonstrate that 4-hexylresorcinol presents no risk of toxicity at the levels proposed for treatment of shrimp, and the use of 4-hexylresorcinol as a processing aid to prevent melanosis in shrimp is GRAS. PMID:1792354

  2. Underlying Cause(s) of Letter Perseveration Errors

    PubMed Central

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; Rapp, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Perseverations, the inappropriate intrusion of elements from a previous response into a current response, are commonly observed in individuals with acquired deficits. This study specifically investigates the contribution of failure-to activate and failure-to-inhibit deficit(s) in the generation of letter perseveration errors in acquired dysgraphia. We provide evidence from the performance 12 dysgraphic individuals indicating that a failure to activate graphemes for a target word gives rise to letter perseveration errors. In addition, we also provide evidence that, in some individuals, a failure-to-inhibit deficit may also contribute to the production of perseveration errors. PMID:22178232

  3. Relative laterality of the N170 to single letter stimuli is predicted by a concurrent neural index of implicit processing of letter names.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Courtney; McIlraith, Autumn; Rusk, Neal; Niermeyer, Madison; Waller, Hannah

    2013-03-01

    While previous research reports a consistently left-lateralized N170 to whole words relative to control stimuli, much less is known about the nature of single letter processing. Yet single letter processing is of both theoretical and practical interest, as letters form an initial unit of literacy learning for alphabetic scripts and may be particularly useful in the study of literacy development. In the present study, adult fluent readers completed an implicit processing one-back task while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Separate blocks included single letter or matched false-font stimuli. Results indicated that single letters elicited a bilateral (rather than left-lateralized) enhancement of the N170 relative to the false font stimuli. Although participants did not make overt rhyming judgments, letters preceded by a rhyming as compared to non-rhyming letter (e.g., e-b versus e-h) also tended to elicit an N450 rhyme effect, as previously reported in explicit letter rhyme tasks. Moreover, individuals with a larger N450 rhyme effect showed greater relative left-lateralization of the response to single letters. Taken together, these findings suggest that early neural specialization for orthographic stimuli extends to the case of single letters and, further, that automatic mappings between visual symbols and phonological codes can account for at least some portion of the relative left-lateralization of early neurophysiological responses to printed text. These findings help resolve discrepancies in the existing literature concerning relative laterality of early neural responses to single letters and provide critical baseline data for future developmental neuroimaging studies. PMID:23274433

  4. Duration and periodicity of kimberlite volcanic activity in the Lac de Gras kimberlite field, Canada and some recommendations for kimberlite geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Chiranjeeb; Heaman, Larry M.; Pearson, D. G.

    2015-03-01

    Establishing the emplacement ages and distribution pattern of Central Slave kimberlites has played a key role in diamond exploration within the Lac de Gras kimberlite field. Nonetheless, emplacement age information is lacking for approximately 80% of the known kimberlites in this field making the assessment of emplacement age patterns difficult. This study expands the number and geographic coverage of kimberlite emplacement ages within the Lac de Gras field to re-assess the absolute timing, duration, and possible number of pulses of kimberlite eruption. U-Pb perovskite ages for eight previously undated kimberlites and an additional thirteen kimberlites, which were previously dated by either the Rb-Sr or U-Pb methods, fall within the age range of 75-45 Ma, as previously suggested for kimberlite magmatism in this area. We report the first Carboniferous age kimberlite in the Central Lac de Gras field - the Eddie kimberlite - with a U-Pb perovskite age of 321.0 ± 3.0 Ma. A compilation of 57 kimberlite emplacement ages from the central Lac de Gras field was evaluated using probability density and mixture modeling methods. Five short-duration (4-5 Ma) periods of kimberlite magmatism are recognized at 48, 54, 61, 66 and 72 Ma; the three younger pulses have been previously recognized and remain relatively unchanged. The 54 Ma pulse represents the major kimberlite eruption event containing ~ 40% of the currently dated kimberlites in Lac de Gras field. A detailed evaluation of the temporal-spatial evolution of Lac de Gras kimberlites reveals that the oldest diamond-poor kimberlites (75-60 Ma) were emplaced in the northern and eastern parts of the field whereas the younger (55-48 Ma) economic kimberlites are concentrated in the center of the field.

  5. A GRAS-like gene of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) alters the gibberellin content and axillary meristem outgrowth in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Fambrini, M; Mariotti, L; Parlanti, S; Salvini, M; Pugliesi, C

    2015-11-01

    The GRAS proteins belong to a plant transcriptional regulator family that function in the regulation of plant growth and development. Despite their important roles, in sunflower only one GRAS gene (HaDella1) with the DELLA domain has been reported. Here, we provide a functional characterisation of a GRAS-like gene from Helianthus annuus (Ha-GRASL) lacking the DELLA motif. The Ha-GRASL gene contains an intronless open reading frame of 1,743 bp encoding 580 amino acids. Conserved motifs in the GRAS domain are detected, including VHIID, PFYRE, SAW and two LHR motifs. Within the VHII motif, the P-H-N-D-Q-L residues are entirely maintained. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Ha-GRASL belongs to the SCARECROW LIKE4/7 (SCL4/7) subfamily of the GRAS consensus tree. Accumulation of Ha-GRASL mRNA at the adaxial boundaries from P6/P7 leaf primordia suggests a role of Ha-GRASL in the initiation of median and basal axillary meristems (AMs) of sunflower. When Ha-GRASL is over-expressed in Arabidopsis wild-type plants, the number of lateral bolts increases differently from untransformed plants. However, Ha-GRASL slightly affects the lateral suppressor (las-4-) mutation. Therefore, we hypothesise that Ha-GRASL and LAS are not functionally equivalent. The over-expression of Ha-GRASL reduces metabolic flow of gibberellins (GAs) in Arabidopsis and this modification could be relevant in AM development. Phylogenetic analysis includes LAS and SCL4/7 in the same major clade, suggesting a more recent separation of these genes with respect to other GRAS members. We propose that some features of their ancestor, as well as AM initiation and outgrowth, are partially retained in both LAS and SCL4/7. PMID:26081041

  6. Letter to the next President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotherham, Andrew J.; Mikuta, Julie; Freeland, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This article takes the form of a letter to the 44th president of the United States, urging the president to pursue an aggressive agenda to improve teacher quality. The authors assert that because teacher quality is the single most important factor shown to impact student outcomes, the next administration must dedicate resources to human capital…

  7. The Principal and Reference Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Agnes E.; Permuth, Steve; Gray, David L.

    1999-01-01

    Requests to write letters of reference for former teachers can be legally problematic. Principals should know relevant state laws; have employees sign a release from liability; provide only factual information; maintain fair personnel files; avoid telephone recommendations; disclose information on a need-to-know basis; and avoid performance…

  8. Resource Letter RC-1: Cosmology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Michael P., Jr.; Shepley, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    This is one of a series of resource letters on different topics intended to guide college physicists, astronomers, and other scientists to some of the literature and other teaching aids that may help improve course content in specified fields. (Author/CP)

  9. "The Scarlet Letter". [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel "The Scarlet Letter," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that the ending of a novel does not resolve all of the questions that may occur to readers; and that readers may imagine characters living out their lives beyond the ending the author gave to a novel. The main…

  10. The Harvard Education Letter, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This document is comprised of volume 11 of the Harvard Education Letter, published bimonthly and addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in the volume's six issues are: (1) January-February--"The Old Model of Staff Development Survives in a World Where Everything Else Has Changed" (Miller), "Giving Voice to Our…

  11. Resource Letter N-1: Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cela, Devin; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Helen Zeng, Tingying; Terrones, Mauricio; Souza Filho, Antonio G.; Ferreira, Odair P.

    2014-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on Nanotechnology. Journal articles, books, websites, and other documents are cited on the following topics: attributes of various types of nanomaterials, nanotechnology in the context of different academic fields, and the effects of nanotechnology on society.

  12. The Harvard Education Letter, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves-Desai, Kelly, Ed.; Eaton, Susan, Ed.; Walser, Nancy, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of volume 14 of the Harvard Education Letter, published bimonthly and addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in the six issues of this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Multi-Age Classrooms: An Age-Old Grouping Method Is Still Evolving" (Walser), "Teachers Wanted:…

  13. The Harvard Education Letter, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward Ed.; Graves-Desai, Kelly, Ed.; Maloney, Karen, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document is comprised of volume 12 of the Harvard Education Letter, published bimonthly and addressing current issues in elementary-secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Early Reports From Kentucky on Cash Rewards for 'Successful' Schools Reveal Many Problems" (Miller), "New Ideas Like…

  14. The Long and Short of Genetic Counseling Summary Letters: A Case-control Study.

    PubMed

    Roggenbuck, J; Temme, R; Pond, D; Baker, J; Jarvis, K; Liu, M; Dugan, S; Mendelsohn, N J

    2015-08-01

    Genetic counseling summary letters are intended to reinforce information received during genetic counseling, but little information is available on patient/family responses to these letters. We conducted a case-control study to assess the effectiveness of two different letter formats. Parents of children receiving a new diagnosis were enrolled. The control group (n = 85) received a genetic counseling summary letter in a narrative format, 4-5 pages in length. After the control enrollment period, genetic counselors were trained by a professional medical writer to develop a concise letter format. The case group (n = 64) received a concise letter, approximately 1.5 pages in length, utilizing simple sentences, lay terms, and lists/bullet points. Parents completed a survey 4 weeks after the visit to rate the letter's format, usefulness, and their emotional reaction. Results show that parents in the case group rated the letter more highly (p = 0.023), particularly in the emotional response dimension (rating changes in anxiety, depression, fear, ability to cope, and confidence in response to the letter). Parents in the case group also rated the genetic counseling session more highly (p = 0.039). In the control group, parents without a college degree were more likely to rate the letter as too long and the level of medical detail as too high. In the case group, no significant differences were seen between parents with or without a college degree. These data suggest that a short genetic counseling summary letter is rated higher by parents, and is particularly associated with a more positive emotional reaction. A short letter format highlighting the basic facts related to the genetic condition may be more useful to parents of diverse educational backgrounds, and may support a positive emotional adaptation at the time of a new diagnosis. Genetic counselors may benefit from specific instruction in medical and educational writing. PMID:25502223

  15. Letters of Reprimand: The Important Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines two legal cases involving letters of reprimand written by administrators and put in teachers' files. Shows how in these cases the letters did not constitute defamation or a violation of First or Fourteenth Amendment rights. (MD)

  16. How to write an editorial letter?

    PubMed

    Süer, Evren; Yaman, Önder

    2013-09-01

    In most journals, there are letters or answers sections. Letters to the editor are usually a type of short communication that can be written on any topic that attracts the attention of the readers. Although articles are stringently vetted before publication in a journal, some issues can still go unnoticed. In this situation, readers can offer their interpretations by writing a letter to the editor. Thus, letters are also a control mechanism that facilitates progress after an article has been published. One of the most important aspects of a letter to the editor is that it must be short. It is known that a letter is more easily accessible to readers when the message is short and brief. The letter to the editor or author must make reference to objectives or discussions on medical, scientific or general topics that may attract attention. A letter must have a purpose, and it should convey its message in a short and definitive fashion. PMID:26328135

  17. 48 CFR 3416.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Letter contracts. 3416.603... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 3416.603 Letter contracts....

  18. 48 CFR 3016.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Letter contracts. 3016.603... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 3016.603 Letter contracts....

  19. Beyond Zebra: Preschoolers' Knowledge about Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Richmond-Welty, E. Daylene; Tincoff, Ruth

    1997-01-01

    Argues that an important type of child knowledge about letters is knowledge of the phonological structure of the letters' names in English. Concludes that learning the alphabet forms the basis for generalizations about the structure of letter names. (22 references) (Author/CK)

  20. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance with § 178.210...

  1. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  2. Making Routine Letters Have Positive Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, S. M.

    While few business people dispute the importance of carefully crafting persuasive, demanding, conciliatory, and bad-news letters, the regular flow of routine communications receives very little meaningful consideration or scrutiny. These routine communications (letters, inquiries, requests, collection letters, complaints, confirmations,…

  3. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  4. Educators' Liability for Negative Letters of Recommendation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, James A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the protection of "qualified privilege" provided by the law to teachers writing letters of recommendation for students. The letter must be written in good faith and with a belief that it contains no inaccurate information. Reviews some related court decisions and provides seven recommendations for writing such letters. (MD)

  5. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  6. 19 CFR 354.7 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Charging letter. 354.7 Section 354.7 Customs... VIOLATION OF AN ANTIDUMPING OR COUNTERVAILING DUTY ADMINISTRATIVE PROTECTIVE ORDER § 354.7 Charging letter. (a) Contents of Letter. The Deputy Under Secretary will initiate proceedings by issuing a...

  7. 19 CFR 354.7 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Charging letter. 354.7 Section 354.7 Customs... VIOLATION OF AN ANTIDUMPING OR COUNTERVAILING DUTY ADMINISTRATIVE PROTECTIVE ORDER § 354.7 Charging letter. (a) Contents of Letter. The Deputy Under Secretary will initiate proceedings by issuing a...

  8. Letter Dice. Technical Note No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Jock

    Letter and syllable dice devised for a project in rural Ecuador provide inexpensive, easily reproducible learning materials for practice in basic literary skills. Eleven wooden cubes with six letters on each cube are cast onto a surface and the player constructs words from the letters on the top side of the dice. After a word is formed and…

  9. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  10. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  11. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  12. Strategy Effects on Word Searching in Japanese Letter Fluency Tests: Evidence from the NIRS Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatta, Takeshi; Kanari, Ayano; Mase, Mitsuhito; Nagano, Yuko; Shirataki, Tatsuaki; Hibino, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Strategy effects on word searching in the Japanese letter fluency test were investigated using the Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). Participants were given a Japanese letter fluency test and they were classified into two types of strategy users, based on analysis of their recorded verbal responses. One group, AIUEO-order strategy users, employed…

  13. Involving Parents through School Letters: Mothers, Fathers and Teachers Negotiating Children's Education and Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsberg, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    The present article explores home-school relations by analyzing how Swedish teachers and parents negotiate responsibility for children's education and rearing through school letters. It draws on participant observations using a video camera in families, interviews with parents, and analysis of school letters written by teachers to parents. The…

  14. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 23, Number 1, January-February 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Response to Intervention: A New Approach to Reading Instruction Aims to Catch Struggling Readers Early (Nancy Walser); (2) Getting Advisory Right: Focus and Commitment Are Keys…

  15. The Quiet Clam Is Quite Calm: Transposed-Letter Neighborhood Effects on Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    In responses time tasks, inhibitory neighborhood effects have been found for word pairs that differ in a transposition of two adjacent letters (e.g., "clam/calm"). Here, the author describes two eye-tracking experiments conducted to explore transposed-letter (TL) neighborhood effects within the context of normal silent reading. In Experiment 1,…

  16. Learning Letter Names and Sounds: Effects of Instruction, Letter Type, and Phonological Processing Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool-age children (N = 58) were randomly assigned to receive instruction in letter names and sounds, letter sounds only, or numbers (control). Multilevel modeling was used to examine letter name and sound learning as a function of instructional condition and characteristics of both letters and children. Specifically, learning was examined in…

  17. What Do Letter Migration Errors Reveal About Letter Position Coding in Visual Word Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2004-01-01

    Dividing attention across multiple words occasionally results in misidentifications whereby letters apparently migrate between words. Previous studies have found that letter migrations preserve within-word letter position, which has been interpreted as support for position-specific letter coding. To investigate this issue, the authors used word…

  18. An Attempt to Simulate Letter-by-Letter Dyslexia in Normal Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiset, Stephanie; Arguin, Martin; Fiset, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    We attempted to simulate the main features of letter-by-letter (LBL) dyslexia in normal readers through stimulus degradation (i.e. contrast reduction and removal of high spatial frequencies). The results showed the word length and the letter confusability effects characteristic of LBL dyslexia. However, the interaction of letter confusability and…

  19. IRTs of the ABCs: Children's Letter Name Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beth M.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Anthony, Jason L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Francis, David J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the developmental sequence of letter name knowledge acquisition by children from 2 to five years of age. Data from 2 samples representing diverse regions, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds (ns=1074 and 500) were analyzed using item response theory (IRT) and differential item functioning techniques. Results from factor analyses…

  20. September 2016 Letter to the Editor-in-Chief.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Letter to the Editor-in-Chief of JOSPT as follows: "One More Cause of Failure to Validate a CPR: Overfitting" with Author's Response J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):811-812. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0202. PMID:27581182

  1. Learning to Pose Cognitively Demanding Tasks through Letter Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Kastberg, Signe

    2012-01-01

    We have used letter writing as a means for preservice teachers (PSTs) to develop ability to design effective tasks, in terms of eliciting high levels of cognitive activity from students. Studies on student-dependent task analyses, by assessing the levels of cognitive demand indicated in students' responses, have demonstrated significant growth…

  2. Open letter to the Vatican.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    An open letter was published by Latin American and Caribbean women during the Special Session of the UN General Assembly on the International Conference on Population and Development. The letter generally focused on the Church¿s stand on women's reproductive rights. In particular, it questioned the Church on the following aspects of reproductive health, which include: 1) maternal death related to lack of access to reproductive health care; 2) Vatican representatives insisting that only parents can supervise their children education and health, which also lead to many cases of sexual abuse and incest; 3) women's sexual inequality and daily violence; 4) the Vatican delegation blocking the advances of contraception, sexual education, and HIV prevention; 5) problems of migrants and allocation of resources; and 6) the Church failing to recognize the capacity of young people to make decisions based on their own conscience. PMID:12178905

  3. 50 years of JETP Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastukhov, V. P.

    2015-04-01

    This paper briefly traces the 50-year history of the journal Pis'ma v Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki (JETP Letters), whose first issue was published on 1 April 1965. The journal is intended for a wide circle of physicists-readers as a fast publication channel for short communications on new results from research of the highest significance and highest priority in all areas of experimental and theoretical physics. Today, the journal celebrates numerous important contributions to the development of physics both in Russia and worldwide. Over a historically short period, JETP Letters developed into a highly authoritative and influential source for physicists engaged in a wide range of fields. Due to the wise and well-timed editorial policy, the journal continues to retain its leadership position, despite the difficulties the entire science periodical literature - and indeed the whole of science - is currently experiencing in Russia.

  4. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Susana T. L.

    2016-01-01

    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect. PMID:27088895

  5. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding.

    PubMed

    Chung, Susana T L

    2016-04-01

    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect. PMID:27088895

  6. Musical expertise affects neural bases of letter recognition.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-02-01

    It is known that early music learning (playing of an instrument) modifies functional brain structure (both white and gray matter) and connectivity, especially callosal transfer, motor control/coordination and auditory processing. We compared visual processing of notes and words in 15 professional musicians and 15 controls by recording their synchronized bioelectrical activity (ERPs) in response to words and notes. We found that musical training in childhood (from age ~8 years) modifies neural mechanisms of word reading, whatever the genetic predisposition, which was unknown. While letter processing was strongly left-lateralized in controls, the fusiform (BA37) and inferior occipital gyri (BA18) were activated in both hemispheres in musicians for both word and music processing. The evidence that the neural mechanism of letter processing differed in musicians and controls (being absolutely bilateral in musicians) suggests that musical expertise modifies the neural mechanisms of letter reading. PMID:23238370

  7. Effect of feed consumption levels on growth performance and carcass composition during the force-feeding period in foie gras production of male Mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Wen, Z G; Jiang, Y; Tang, J; Xie, M; Yang, P L; Hou, S S

    2016-09-01

    In order to avoid excess feed consumption during the force-feeding period in foie gras production, a dose-response experiment with seven feed consumption levels (450, 540, 630, 720, 810, 900, 990 g/day per bird) was conducted to evaluate the effects of feed consumption levels on growth performance and carcass composition of male Mule ducks from 91 to 102 days of age. One-day-old Mule ducklings (sterile and artificial hybrid of male Albatre Muscovy duck and female Pekin duck were fed a two-phase commercial diets for ad libitum intake from hatching to 91 days of age, followed by graded feeding levels of a corn diet by force-feeding from 91 to 102 days of age. Fifty-six 91-day-old male Mule ducks with similar BW were randomly assigned to seven treatments, with eight birds per treatment. Birds were housed in individual pens. At 102 days of age, final BW was measured and BW gain and feed conversion ratio of ducks from each treatment were calculated from day 91 to 102, and then all ducks were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of skin with subcutaneous fat, abdominal fat, breast meat (including pectoralis major and pectoralis minor), leg meat (including thigh and drum stick), and liver. Significant differences in BW gain, total liver weight and liver relative weight were observed among the treatments (P<0.001). According to the broken-line regression analysis, the optimal feed consumption levels of male Mule ducks from 91 to 102 days of age for maximum BW gain, total liver weight and liver relative weight were 217, 227 and 216 g feed/kg BW0.75·per day, respectively. PMID:26948181

  8. Writing More Informative Letters of Reference

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Scott M; Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2004-01-01

    Writing a meaningful and valuable letter of reference is not an easy task. Several factors influence the quality of any letter of reference. First, the accuracy and reliability of the writer's impressions and judgment depend on how well he knows the individual being described. Second, the writer's frame of reference, which is determined by the number of persons at the same level that he has worked with, will impact the context and significance of his beliefs and estimations. Third, the letter-writing skills of the person composing the letter will naturally affect the letter. To support the other components of a candidate's application, a letter of reference should provide specific examples of how an individual's behavior or attitude compares to a reference group and should assess “intangibles” that are hard to glean from a curriculum vitae or from test scores. This report offers suggestions that should help physicians write more informative letters of reference. PMID:15109330

  9. Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Sarah; Treiman, Rebecca; Rosales, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Learning about letters is an important component of emergent literacy. We explored the possibility that parent speech provides information about letters, and also that children’s speech reflects their own letter knowledge. By studying conversations transcribed in CHILDES (MacWhinney, 2000) between parents and children aged one to five, we found that alphabetic order influenced use of individual letters and letter sequences. The frequency of letters in children’s books influenced parent utterances throughout the age range studied, but children’s utterances only after age two. Conversations emphasized some literacy-relevant features of letters, such as their shapes and association with words, but not letters’ sounds. Describing these patterns and how they change over the preschool years offers important insight into the home literacy environment. PMID:25598577

  10. Uncovering DELLA-Independent Gibberellin Responses by Characterizing New Tomato procera Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Livne, Sivan; Lor, Vai S.; Nir, Ido; Eliaz, Natanella; Aharoni, Asaph; Olszewski, Neil E.; Eshed, Yuval; Weiss, David

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) regulates plant development primarily by triggering the degradation/deactivation of the DELLA proteins. However, it remains unclear whether all GA responses are regulated by DELLAs. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) has a single DELLA gene named PROCERA (PRO), and its recessive pro allele exhibits constitutive GA activity but retains responsiveness to external GA. In the loss-of-function mutant proΔGRAS, all examined GA developmental responses were considerably enhanced relative to pro and a defect in seed desiccation tolerance was uncovered. As pro, but not proΔGRAS, elongation was promoted by GA treatment, pro may retain residual DELLA activity. In agreement with homeostatic feedback regulation of the GA biosynthetic pathway, we found that GA20oxidase1 expression was suppressed in proΔGRAS and was not affected by exogenous GA3. In contrast, expression of GA2oxidase4 was not affected by the elevated GA signaling in proΔGRAS but was strongly induced by exogenous GA3. Since a similar response was found in Arabidopsis thaliana plants with impaired activity of all five DELLA genes, we suggest that homeostatic GA responses are regulated by both DELLA-dependent and -independent pathways. Transcriptome analysis of GA-treated proΔGRAS leaves suggests that 5% of all GA-regulated genes in tomato are DELLA independent. PMID:26036254

  11. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-04-01

    Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding by Lawrence J. Sacks and by Derek W. Smith Re: articles by R. J. Gillespie and by D. W. Smith D. W. Smith replies Capsaicin Hazard by Paul E. Vorndam Re: article by J. D. Batchelor and B. T. Jones B. T. Jones reply Editor's Note: Hazards Re: JCE 1999, 76, 240 and JCE 2000, 77, 266.

  12. Water in the Cratonic Mantle: Insights from FTIR Data on Lac De Gras Xenoliths (Slave Craton, Canada)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Brandon, Alan D.; Schaffer, Lillian Aurora; O'Reilly, Suzanne Yvette; Griffin, William L.; Morris, Richard V.; Graff, Trevor G.; Agresti, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The mantle lithosphere beneath the cratonic part of continents is the deepest (> 200 km) and oldest (>2-3 Ga) on Earth, remaining a conundrum as to how these cratonic roots could have resisted delamination by asthenospheric convection over time. Water, or trace H incorporated in mineral defects, could be a key player in the evolution of continental lithosphere because it influences melting and rheology of the mantle. Mantle xenoliths from the Lac de Gras kimberlite in the Slave craton were analyzed by FTIR. The cratonic mantle beneath Lac de Gras is stratified with shallow (<145 km) oxidized ultradepleted peridotites and pyroxenites with evidence for carbonatitic metasomatism, underlain by reduced and less depleted peridotites metasomatized by kimberlite melts. Peridotites analyzed so far have H O contents in ppm weight of 7-100 in their olivines, 58 to 255 in their orthopyroxenes (opx), 11 to 84 in their garnet, and 139 in one clinopyroxene. A pyroxenite contains 58 ppm H2O in opx and 5 ppm H2O in its olivine and garnet. Olivine and garnet from the deep peridotites have a range of water contents extending to higher values than those from the shallow ones. The FTIR spectra of olivines from the shallow samples have more prominent Group II OH bands compared to the olivines from the deep samples, consistent with a more oxidized mantle environment. The range of olivine water content is similar to that observed in Kaapvaal craton peridotites at the same depths (129-184 km) but does not extend to as high values as those from Udachnaya (Siberian craton). The Slave, Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons will be compared in terms of water content distribution, controls and role in cratonic root longevity.

  13. On Becoming a Doctor of Humane Letters.

    PubMed

    Tribble Md, Curt

    2016-01-01

    In an era of rapid, cheap, and efficient electronic communication, the practice-and art-of letter writing has faded. There are many reasons for us as physicians and surgeons to resist this evolution. And, there are many opportunities to employ letter writing to the benefit of ourselves, our patients, and our colleagues. A true Doctor of Humane Letters is an honorary degree, generally awarded for significant contributions to society.  However, given that humane can be defined as showing compassion, understanding, mercy, and tolerance, we can all strive to be worthy of such a distinction. There are many mundane letters familiar to us all, such as letters of recommendation, letters of thanks, and letters of commendation. However, I would like to offer some suggestions about other less common, but useful, types of letters that might prove valuable to physicians both in training and in practice. These include letters of inquiry, condolence, reflection, and explanation, as well as some notes about missives that are often best written but not sent. PMID:27585190

  14. Learning Letter Names and Sounds: Effects of Instruction, Letter Type, and Phonological Processing Skill

    PubMed Central

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool-aged children (n = 58) were randomly assigned to receive instruction in letter names and sounds, letter sounds only, or numbers (control). Multilevel modeling was used to examine letter name and sound learning as a function of instructional condition and characteristics of both letters and children. Specifically, learning was examined in light of letter name structure, whether letter names included cues to their respective sounds, and children’s phonological processing skills. Consistent with past research, children receiving letter name and sound instruction were most likely to learn the sounds of letters whose names included cues to their sounds, regardless of phonological processing skills. Only children with higher phonological skills showed a similar effect in the control condition. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:20097352

  15. Sequential then Interactive Processing of Letters and Words in the Left Fusiform Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Thesen, Thomas; McDonald, Carrie R.; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Cash, Syd; Sherfey, Jason; Felsovalyi, Olga; Girard, Holly; Barr, William; Devinsky, Orrin; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Halgren, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies, it is unclear if letters are identified prior to word-form encoding during reading, or if letters and their combinations are encoded simultaneously and interactively. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that a ‘letter-form’ area (responding more to consonant strings than false fonts) can be distinguished from an immediately anterior ‘visual word-form area’ in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (responding more to words than consonant strings). Letter-selective magnetoencephalographic responses begin in the letter-form area ~60ms earlier than word-selective responses in the word-form area. Local field potentials confirm the latency and location of letter-selective responses. This area shows increased high gamma power for ~400ms, and strong phase-locking with more anterior areas supporting lexico-semantic processing. These findings suggest that during reading, visual stimuli are first encoded as letters before their combinations are encoded as words. Activity then rapidly spreads anteriorly, and the entire network is engaged in sustained integrative processing. PMID:23250414

  16. Does location uncertainty in letter position coding emerge because of literacy training?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Gomez, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    In the quest to unveil the nature of the orthographic code, a useful strategy is to examine the transposed-letter effect (e.g., JUGDE is more confusable with its base word, JUDGE, than the replacement-letter nonword JUPTE). A leading explanation of this phenomenon, which is line with models of visual attention, is that there is perceptual uncertainty at assigning letters ("objects") to positions. This mechanism would be at work not only with skilled readers but also with preliterate children. An alternative explanation is that the transposed-letter effect emerges at an orthographic level of processing as a direct consequence of literacy training. To test these accounts, we conducted a same-different matching experiment with preliterate 4-year-old children using same versus different trials (created by letter transposition or replacement). Results showed a significantly larger number of false positives (i.e., "same" responses) to transposed-letter strings than to 1/2 replacement-letter strings. Therefore, the present data favor the view that the visual processing of location information is inherently noisy and rule out an interpretation of confusability in letter position coding as emerging from literacy training. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26651460

  17. Letters from the Future: Suggestions for Using Letter Writing as a School Counselling Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E.; Hinkle, Michelle Gimenez; Protivnak, Jake J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a school counselling intervention that utilises letters written from the future. Few peer-reviewed articles have addressed the use of letter writing in a school counselling context, and none have focused on the use of letters from the future as a means of school counsellor intervention. The authors present a theoretical…

  18. Letter-Name Letter-Sound and Phonological Awareness: Evidence from Greek-Speaking Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manolitsis, George; Tafa, Eufimia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of letter-sound and letter-name knowledge and their relation to each other and to various aspects of phonological awareness in a sample of Greek kindergarten children who did not know how to read. One hundred twenty children aged 58-69 months were assessed on letter-sound and…

  19. Letter Names and Phonological Awareness Help Children to Learn Letter-Sound Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea

    2011-01-01

    Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds…

  20. Letter Names: Effect on Letter Saying, Spelling, and Word Recognition in Hebrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Iris; Patel, Sigal; Margalit, Tamar; Barad, Noa

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether letter names, which bridge the gap between oral and written language among English speaking children, have a similar function in Hebrew. In findings from studies of Israeli kindergartners and first graders, children were found to rely on letter names in performing a number of letter saying, spelling, and word recognition tasks.…

  1. Osler and the Infected Letter

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The spread of infectious agents through the mail has concerned public health officials for 5 centuries. The dissemination of anthrax spores in the US mail in 2001 was a recent example. In 1901, two medical journals reported outbreaks of smallpox presumably introduced by letters contaminated with variola viruses. The stability and infectivity of the smallpox virus are reviewed from both a historical (anecdotal) perspective and modern virologic studies. Bubonic plague was the contagious disease that led to quarantines as early as the 14th century in port cities in southern Europe. Later, smallpox, cholera, typhus, and yellow fever were recognized as also warranting quarantine measures. Initially, attempts were made to decontaminate all goods imported from pestilential areas, particularly mail. Disinfection of mail was largely abandoned in the early 20th century with newer knowledge about the spread and stability of these 5 infectious agents. PMID:15890120

  2. 48 CFR 16.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Letter contracts. 16.603 Section 16.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts...

  3. 48 CFR 18.112 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Letter contracts. 18.112 Section 18.112 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.112 Letter...

  4. An Open Letter to Premier Wen Jiabao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article is an open letter of a group of early childhood education (ECE) practitioners to Premier Wen Jiabao. This open letter was written with one goal in mind: to ask Premier Wen's government to take measures to protect young children and support early childhood education. These practitioners have become worried about the many accidents that…

  5. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request the Commissioner to undertake a feasibility analysis of an equity or acquisition loan, and issue a feasibility... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Feasibility letter....

  6. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request the Commissioner to undertake a feasibility analysis of an equity or acquisition loan, and issue a feasibility... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Feasibility letter....

  7. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request the Commissioner to undertake a feasibility analysis of an equity or acquisition loan, and issue a feasibility... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Feasibility letter....

  8. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request the Commissioner to undertake a feasibility analysis of an equity or acquisition loan, and issue a feasibility... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Feasibility letter....

  9. Transmittal Letters: Communicating the Financial Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Craig L.

    1987-01-01

    The transmittal letter, part of a school district's comprehensive annual financial report, provides a creative opportunity to communicate the financial picture of a district to readers. After the introduction, the letter should include sections on (1) mission, services, and environment; (2) financial highlights; (3) systems and controls; and (4)…

  10. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request the Commissioner to undertake a feasibility analysis of an equity or acquisition loan, and issue a feasibility... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Feasibility letter....

  11. Genre Analysis of Business Letters of Negotiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, V. B. M. Pinto

    2002-01-01

    Reports findings of a survey on genre analysis of 117 commercial letters in English exchanged by fax between a Brazilian company and two European companies. The letters were analyzed in terms of shared communicative purposes and rhetorical features that together contribute to the building-up of the resulting generic structure named "Business…

  12. 19 CFR 356.16 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Charging letter. 356.16 Section 356.16 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a Disclosure Undertaking § 356.16 Charging letter....

  13. 7 CFR 1773.33 - Management letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... than as allowed under 7 CFR part 1744, subpart E; (ii) The requirement for a borrower to prepare and... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Management letter. 1773.33 Section 1773.33 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.33 Management letter. The...

  14. Statistical Learning, Letter Reversals, and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Gordon, Jessica; Boada, Richard; Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2014-01-01

    Reversal errors play a prominent role in theories of reading disability. We examined reversal errors in the writing of letters by 5- to 6-year-old children. Of the 130 children, 92 had a history of difficulty in producing speech sounds, a risk factor for reading problems. Children were more likely to reverse letter forms that face left, such as…

  15. Letter to, and Paintings by, George Catlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, David; Potter, Lee Ann; Eder, Elizabeth K.

    2008-01-01

    Letters received and sent by Secretary of War Lewis Cass in the 1830s reveal much about relations between the U.S. government and Native Americans. In the immediate aftermath of the Indian Removal Act, signed into law on May 28, 1830, by President Andrew Jackson, some letters came from interpreters and school teachers seeking payment for their…

  16. An Open Letter to Tomorrow's Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The article takes the form of a letter written to pre-service or beginning teachers at the secondary level in the public school system. The letter acknowledges the attributes they bring to the profession (enthusiasm, optimism, creativity, and open-mindedness) and calls on them to make the most of and work to sustain these traits as they begin…

  17. Letter to Editor - "Reply to RP Heaney"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A letter to the editor was submitted in reply to a letter written to the editor of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition regarding a recent publication (Hunt, CD. and Johnson, LK. Calcium requirements: new estimations for men and women by cross-sectional statistical analyses of calcium balance...

  18. Letter Writing Seminar for Word Processing Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wunsch, Alan P.

    1978-01-01

    A business letter writing seminar was developed by the Center for Executive Development at Arizona State University at the request of the American Express Company's credit card division in Phoenix. Sessions were held on company premises and included basic correspondence and writing techniques for company production form letters, pattern…

  19. Linguistic Prescriptivism in Letters to the Editor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukac, Morana

    2016-01-01

    The public's concern with the fate of the standard language has been well documented in the history of the complaint tradition. The print media have for centuries featured letters to the editor on questions of language use. This study examines a corpus of 258 language-related letters to the editor published in the English-speaking print media. By…

  20. Letters in Time and Retinotopic Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Various phenomena in tachistoscopic word identification and priming (WRODS and LTRS are confused with and prime WORDS and LETTERS) suggest that position-specific channels are not used in the processing of letters in words. Previous approaches to this issue have sought alternative matching rules because they have assumed that these phenomena reveal…

  1. Cognitive Determinants of Early Letter Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Suha; Weil-Barais, Annick

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the general cognitive determinants of alphabetic letter knowledge. It involved 60 French kindergarten children (mean age: five years six months). Two test batteries were used: the CMS to evaluate general cognitive abilities (memory, attention, and learning), and the LKT to assess letter knowledge and its various…

  2. A Stimulus Sampling Theory of Letter Identity and Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis; Kinoshita, Sachiko; van Casteren, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Early on during word recognition, letter positions are not accurately coded. Evidence for this comes from transposed-letter (TL) priming effects, in which letter strings generated by transposing two adjacent letters (e.g., "jugde") produce large priming effects, more than primes with the letters replaced in the corresponding position (e.g.,…

  3. From Numbers to Letters: Feedback Regularization in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinaro, Nicola; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Marin-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Word reading in alphabetic languages involves letter identification, independently of the format in which these letters are written. This process of letter "regularization" is sensitive to word context, leading to the recognition of a word even when numbers that resemble letters are inserted among other real letters (e.g., M4TERI4L). The present…

  4. 12 CFR 208.24 - Letters of credit and acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... section, standby letters of credit include every letter of credit (or similar arrangement however named or... default by the party procuring the issuance of the letter of credit in the performance of an obligation. 6 6 A standby letter of credit does not include: (1) Commercial letters of credit and...

  5. Evolutionary theory in letters to the editor.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eric Orion; Lowe, Clayton Cory

    2015-05-01

    This research note presents the results of a content analysis of 234 letters to the editors that discuss evolutionary theory and were published in American newspapers. We find that letters to the editor both support and hinder the cause of teaching evolutionary theory in American secondary schools. On the one hand, anti-evolutionary theory messages are marginalized in the letters section. This marginalization signals a low level of legitimacy for creationism. It might also contribute to the sense of tension that sustains creationist identities. On the other hand, relatively few letters explicitly note the fact that scientists or the scientific community accept evolution. Interestingly, the obscuration of the scientific community's support for evolutionary theory occurs both in letters supporting and opposing evolutionary theory. PMID:25540333

  6. The Petunia GRAS Transcription Factor ATA/RAM1 Regulates Symbiotic Gene Expression and Fungal Morphogenesis in Arbuscular Mycorrhiza1

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Mélanie K.

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a mutual symbiosis that involves a complex symbiotic interface over which nutrients are exchanged between the plant host and the AM fungus. Dozens of genes in the host are required for the establishment and functioning of the interaction, among them nutrient transporters that mediate the uptake of mineral nutrients delivered by the fungal arbuscules. We have isolated in a genetic mutant screen a petunia (Petunia hybrida) GIBBERELLIC ACID INSENSITIVE, REPRESSOR of GIBBERELLIC ACID INSENSITIVE, and SCARECROW (GRAS)-type transcription factor, ATYPICAL ARBUSCULE (ATA), that acts as the central regulator of AM-related genes and is required for the morphogenesis of arbuscules. Forced mycorrhizal inoculations from neighboring wild-type plants revealed an additional role of ATA in restricting mycorrhizal colonization of the root meristem. The lack of ATA, which represents the ortholog of REQUIRED FOR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA1 in Medicago truncatula, renders the interaction completely ineffective, hence demonstrating the central role of AM-related genes for arbuscule development and function. PMID:25971550

  7. Space radiation analysis: Radiation effects and particle interaction outside the Earth's magnetosphere using GRAS and GEANT4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Lisandro M.; Kingston, Jennifer

    2012-03-01

    In order to explore the Moon and Mars it is necessary to investigate the hazards due to the space environment and especially ionizing radiation. According to previous papers, much information has been presented in radiation analysis inside the Earth's magnetosphere, but much of this work was not directly relevant to the interplanetary medium. This work intends to explore the effect of radiation on humans inside structures such as the ISS and provide a detailed analysis of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar proton events (SPEs) using SPENVIS (Space Environment Effects and Information System) and CREME96 data files for particle flux outside the Earth's magnetosphere. The simulation was conducted using GRAS, a European Space Agency (ESA) software based on GEANT4. Dose and equivalent dose have been calculated as well as secondary particle effects and GCR energy spectrum. The calculated total dose effects and equivalent dose indicate the risk and effects that space radiation could have on the crew, these values are calculated using two different types of structures, the ISS and the TransHab modules. Final results indicate the amounts of radiation expected to be absorbed by the astronauts during long duration interplanetary flights; this denotes importance of radiation shielding and the use of proper materials to reduce the effects.

  8. 50 CFR 217.76 - Letter of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... suspended or revoked, will be valid for a period of time specified in the Letter of Authorization, but a Letter of Authorization may not be valid beyond the effective period of the regulations. (b) A Letter...

  9. Comparison of content of FDA letters not approving applications for new drugs and associated public announcements from sponsors: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chahal, Harinder S; Sigelman, Daniel W; Stacy, Sylvie; Sclar, Joshua; Ddamulira, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the content of non-public complete response letters issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) when they do not approve marketing applications from sponsors (drug companies) and to compare them with the content any subsequent press releases issued by those sponsors Design Cross sectional study. Data sources All applications for which FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research initially issued complete response letters (n=61) from 11 August 2008 to 27 June 2013. Complete response letters and press releases were divided into discrete statements related to seven domains and 64 subdomains and assessed to determine whether they matched. Results 48% (29) of complete response letters cited deficiencies in both the safety and efficacy domains, and only 13% cited neither safety nor efficacy deficiencies. No press release was issued for 18% (11) of complete response letters, and 21% (13) of press releases did not match any statements from the letters. Press release statements matched 93 of the 687 statements (14%), including 16% (30/191) of efficacy and 15% (22/150) of safety statements. Of 32 complete response letters that called for a new clinical trial for safety or efficacy, 59% (19) had matching press release statements. Seven complete response letters reported higher mortality rates in treated participants; only one associated press release mentioned this fact. Conclusions FDA generally issued complete response letters to sponsors for multiple substantive reasons, most commonly related to safety and/or efficacy deficiencies. In many cases, press releases were not issued in response to those letters and, when they were, omitted most of the statements in the complete response letters. Press releases are incomplete substitutes for the detailed information contained in complete response letters. PMID:26063327

  10. Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children

    PubMed Central

    Kersey, Alyssa J.; James, Karin H.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7-year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters—in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback. PMID:24069007

  11. Statistical mechanics of letters in words

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Greg J.; Bialek, William

    2013-01-01

    We consider words as a network of interacting letters, and approximate the probability distribution of states taken on by this network. Despite the intuition that the rules of English spelling are highly combinatorial and arbitrary, we find that maximum entropy models consistent with pairwise correlations among letters provide a surprisingly good approximation to the full statistics of words, capturing ~92% of the multi-information in four-letter words and even “discovering” words that were not represented in the data. These maximum entropy models incorporate letter interactions through a set of pairwise potentials and thus define an energy landscape on the space of possible words. Guided by the large letter redundancy we seek a lower-dimensional encoding of the letter distribution and show that distinctions between local minima in the landscape account for ~68% of the four-letter entropy. We suggest that these states provide an effective vocabulary which is matched to the frequency of word use and much smaller than the full lexicon. PMID:20866490

  12. Statistical mechanics of letters in words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Greg J.; Bialek, William

    2010-06-01

    We consider words as a network of interacting letters, and approximate the probability distribution of states taken on by this network. Despite the intuition that the rules of English spelling are highly combinatorial and arbitrary, we find that maximum entropy models consistent with pairwise correlations among letters provide a surprisingly good approximation to the full statistics of words, capturing ˜92% of the multi-information in four-letter words and even “discovering” words that were not represented in the data. These maximum entropy models incorporate letter interactions through a set of pairwise potentials and thus define an energy landscape on the space of possible words. Guided by the large letter redundancy we seek a lower-dimensional encoding of the letter distribution and show that distinctions between local minima in the landscape account for ˜68% of the four-letter entropy. We suggest that these states provide an effective vocabulary which is matched to the frequency of word use and much smaller than the full lexicon.

  13. Inactivation of foodborne pathogens on frankfurters using ultraviolet light and GRAS antimicrobials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is an occasional contaminant of ready-to-eat meats such as frankfurters and sausages and is responsible for foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls of the subsequently adulterated food products. Salmonellae and Staphylococus aureus are prevalent among pathogens which cause foo...

  14. Inactivation of foodborne pathogens on frankfurters using ultraviolet light (254 nm) and GRAS antimicrobials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is an occasional contaminant of ready-to-eat meats such as frankfurters and sausages and is responsible for foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls of the subsequently adulterated food products. Salmonella and Staphylococus aureus are prevalent among pathogens which cause food...

  15. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashinin, Pavel P.

    2013-01-01

    Dear readers, contributors, and members of the world laser physics community. It is a great honour for us to introduce to you our new publishing partner, IOP Publishing, a subsidiary of the Institute of Physics, United Kingdom. IOP Publishing is a world renowned authority in producing journals, magazines, websites and services that enable researchers and research organizations to present their work to a world-wide audience. Laser Physics, the first English-language scientific journal in Russia, was founded in 1990 on the initiative of Alexander M Prokhorov, a pioneer and leader in laser physics research. Professor Prokhorov served as the first Editor-in-Chief of the journal until 2002. We are proud that it is our 23rd year of publishing Laser Physics and our 10th year of publishing Laser Physics Letters. We would like to honour the memory of our friend, late Professor Igor Yevseyev, whose enthusiasm and unwavering dedication to our journals contributed most significantly to their success. It was initially his idea in 2011 to approach IOP with a partnership proposal. We deeply regret that he is no longer with us as we enter this productive alliance. Now, in partnership with IOP, we are turning a new page in providing world-wide access to the cutting-edge research results in our journals, serving our well established global audience. We see new horizons opening for our journals for years to come and hope that our readers share our enthusiasm and aspirations. Please accept our best wishes for all your new scientific endeavors in the exciting field of laser physics.

  16. 15 CFR 908.13 - Address of letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.13 Address of letters. Letters and other communications intended for the Administrator, in connection with weather modification reporting or...

  17. Neural network and letter recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hue Yeon.

    1989-01-01

    Neural net architectures and learning algorithms that recognize hand written 36 alphanumeric characters are studied. The thin line input patterns written in 32 x 32 binary array are used. The system is comprised of two major components, viz. a preprocessing unit and a Recognition unit. The preprocessing unit in turn consists of three layers of neurons; the U-layer, the V-layer, and the C-layer. The functions of the U-layer is to extract local features by template matching. The correlation between the detected local features are considered. Through correlating neurons in a plane with their neighboring neurons, the V-layer would thicken the on-cells or lines that are groups of on-cells of the previous layer. These two correlations would yield some deformation tolerance and some of the rotational tolerance of the system. The C-layer then compresses data through the Gabor transform. Pattern dependent choice of center and wavelengths of Gabor filters is the cause of shift and scale tolerance of the system. Three different learning schemes had been investigated in the recognition unit, namely; the error back propagation learning with hidden units, a simple perceptron learning, and a competitive learning. Their performances were analyzed and compared. Since sometimes the network fails to distinguish between two letters that are inherently similar, additional ambiguity resolving neural nets are introduced on top of the above main neural net. The two dimensional Fourier transform is used as the preprocessing and the perceptron is used as the recognition unit of the ambiguity resolver. One hundred different person's handwriting sets are collected. Some of these are used as the training sets and the remainders are used as the test sets.

  18. The Influence of Two Different Invitation Letters on Chlamydia Testing Participation: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hoebe, Christian JPA; van Bergen, Jan EAM; Brouwers, Elfi EHG; Ruiter, Robert AC; Kok, Gerjo

    2014-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands, screening for chlamydia (the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide) is a relatively simple and free procedure. Via an invitation letter sent by the public health services (PHS), people are asked to visit a website to request a test kit. They can then do a chlamydia test at home, send it anonymously to a laboratory, and, within two weeks, they can review their test results online and be treated by their general practitioner or the PHS. Unfortunately, the participation rates are low and the process is believed to be not (cost-) effective. Objective The objective of this study was to assess whether the low participation rate of screening for chlamydia at home, via an invitation letter asking to visit a website and request a test kit, could be improved by optimizing the invitation letter through systematically applied behavior change theories and evidence. Methods The original letter and a revised letter were randomly sent out to 13,551 citizens, 16 to 29 years old, in a Dutch municipality. Using behavior change theories, the revised letter sought to increase motivation to conduct chlamydia screening tests. The revised letter was tailored to beliefs that were found in earlier studies: risk perception, advantages and disadvantages (attitude), moral norm, social influence, and response- and self-efficacy. Revisions to the new letter also sought to avoid possible unwanted resistance caused when people feel pressured, and included prompts to trigger the desired behavior. Results No significant differences in test package requests were found between the two letters. There were also no differences between the original and revised letters in the rates of returned tests (11.80%, 581/4922 vs 11.07%, 549/4961) or positive test results (4.8%, 23/484 vs 4.1%, 19/460). It is evident that the new letter did not improve participation compared to the original letter. Conclusions It is clear that the approach of inviting the target

  19. Einstein/Roosevelt Letters: A Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodle, Walter S.

    1985-01-01

    The letters in this unit of study intended for secondary students are facsimile reproductions of the correspondence between Albert Einstein and President Roosevelt on the possibility of constructing an atomic bomb. Classroom activities are also suggested. (RM)

  20. 19 CFR 207.103 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... interim measures, as provided for in 19 CFR 207.106. The charging letter shall include: (1) Allegations... be imposed for a prohibited act; (3) A statement that a proceeding has been initiated and that an...

  1. 19 CFR 207.103 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... interim measures, as provided for in 19 CFR 207.106. The charging letter shall include: (1) Allegations... be imposed for a prohibited act; (3) A statement that a proceeding has been initiated and that an...

  2. A genetic screen in zebrafish identifies the mutants vps18, nf2 and foie gras as models of liver disease.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Kirsten C; Amsterdam, Adam; Soroka, Carol; Boyer, James; Hopkins, Nancy

    2005-08-01

    Hepatomegaly is a sign of many liver disorders. To identify zebrafish mutants to serve as models for hepatic pathologies, we screened for hepatomegaly at day 5 of embryogenesis in 297 zebrafish lines bearing mutations in genes that are essential for embryonic development. Seven mutants were identified, and three have phenotypes resembling different liver diseases. Mutation of the class C vacuolar protein sorting gene vps18 results in hepatomegaly associated with large, vesicle-filled hepatocytes, which we attribute to the failure of endosomal-lysosomal trafficking. Additionally, these mutants develop defects in the bile canaliculi and have marked biliary paucity, suggesting that vps18 also functions to traffic vesicles to the hepatocyte apical membrane and may play a role in the development of the intrahepatic biliary tree. Similar findings have been reported for individuals with arthrogryposis-renal dysfunction-cholestasis (ARC) syndrome, which is due to mutation of another class C vps gene. A second mutant, resulting from disruption of the tumor suppressor gene nf2, develops extrahepatic choledochal cysts in the common bile duct, suggesting that this gene regulates division of biliary cells during development and that nf2 may play a role in the hyperplastic tendencies observed in biliary cells in individuals with choledochal cysts. The third mutant is in the novel gene foie gras, which develops large, lipid-filled hepatocytes, resembling those in individuals with fatty liver disease. These mutants illustrate the utility of zebrafish as a model for studying liver development and disease, and provide valuable tools for investigating the molecular pathogenesis of congenital biliary disorders and fatty liver disease. PMID:16000385

  3. "Cat-gras" delusion: a unique misidentification syndrome and a novel explanation.

    PubMed

    Darby, R Ryan; Caplan, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSRACT Capgras syndrome is a distressing delusion found in a variety of neurological and psychiatric diseases where a patient believes that a family member, friend, or loved one has been replaced by an imposter. Patients recognize the physical resemblance of a familiar acquaintance but feel that the identity of that person is no longer the same. Here we describe a 73-year-old male with right posterior frontal and bilateral anterior-medial frontal damage from prior brain trauma with a similar delusion of an imposter replacing his pet cat. Misidentification syndromes for animals, as opposed to humans, have been rarely reported. Neuropsychological testing showed deficits in executive processing and memory retrieval with prominent intrusions and false positive responses. The delusional belief content in Capgras syndrome has been hypothesized to result from loss of an emotional or autonomic response to familiar stimuli, from theory of mind deficits, or from loss of self-environment distinctions. We instead propose that Capgras delusions result from a dysfunction in linking external stimuli with retrieved internal autobiographical memories pertaining to that object. This leads to an erroneously learned identity that persists as a specific delusional belief. PMID:26765326

  4. Attentional Processing of Letter Strings by Children.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Virginie; Siéroff, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Reading a letter string requires attentional orienting toward the beginning of the string (left-dominant orientation), followed by orienting along the string. These attentional-orienting processes differ according to the lexicality of the letter string: Sequential processes apply when reading nonwords or pseudowords, while words can be processed more globally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of these attentional processes involved in reading. We conducted two experiments in 6- (first grade), 7- (second grade), and 9-year-old (fourth grade) children, using a procedure that required the detection of a letter (Experiment 1) or a nonletter (Experiment 2) target in a string of five characters. The target character could occur in the second (left) or fourth (right) position in the string. Results showed an advantage for left nonletter targets as early as age 6 and of left letter targets as early as age 7. In 6-year-olds, only good readers detected a left letter target faster than a right letter target; others detected a right letter target faster. Thus, dominant orienting toward the beginning of the letter string is not fully developed in children before the second year of reading. A possibility is that beginning readers have difficulties inhibiting an attention-orienting bias toward the right visual field in linguistic tasks. The results also showed that the lexicality effect on these attentional processes develops gradually until the fourth year of reading. We believe that the procedure used in this study will be very valuable for evaluating attentional difficulties during reading acquisition. PMID:25386702

  5. Resource Letter SW1: Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel N.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2016-03-01

    This Resource Letter describes the phenomena and effects on technological systems that are known collectively as space weather. A brief history of the topic is provided, and the scientific understandings of drivers for such phenomena are discussed. The impacts of space disturbances are summarized, and the strategies for dealing with space weather threats are examined. The Resource Letter concludes with description of approaches that have been proposed to deal with threats to our increasingly technological society.

  6. How to Write a Letter of Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, George

    2005-01-01

    Letters of recommendation for students are never easy to write. All faculty feel charged with telling the truth, but they also feel compelled to go over the top far enough that the student won't seem damned with faint praise. And, as with grade point averages, the top gets higher every year. Is it possible to write too positive a letter anymore?…

  7. Letter to the Editor: Robert W. Evans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, A.

    2000-12-01

    I read the Letters page of the latest issue of the JBAA (2000 October) with some amusement. My very good friend Bob Evans had, according to the letter header, not only been elevated to the clergy, but had also transferred his nationality from Kiwi to Aussie. While he'll probably overlook the religious error he may not be so sanguine about being mistaken for an Australian.

  8. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Dandurand, Frédéric; Grainger, Jonathan; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Granier, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations) and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity. PMID:21734901

  9. 12 CFR 337.2 - Standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 337.2 Section 337.2... UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.2 Standby letters of credit. (a) Definition. As used in this section, the term standby letter of credit means any letter of credit, or similar arrangement...

  10. 12 CFR 337.2 - Standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 337.2 Section 337.2... UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.2 Standby letters of credit. (a) Definition. As used in this section, the term standby letter of credit means any letter of credit, or similar arrangement...

  11. 48 CFR 1602.170-10 - Letter of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Letter of credit. 1602.170... Terms 1602.170-10 Letter of credit. Letter of credit means the method by which certain carriers, and... available. For each carrier participating in the letter of credit arrangement for payment under this...

  12. 12 CFR 337.2 - Standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 337.2 Section 337.2... UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.2 Standby letters of credit. (a) Definition. As used in this section, the term standby letter of credit means any letter of credit, or similar arrangement...

  13. 19 CFR 177.9 - Effect of ruling letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... classification of an article under the provisions of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States will be... letter. (3) Valuation rulings. Each ruling letter setting forth the proper valuation of an article under... letter. Each ruling letter setting forth a determination as to whether or not the primary object of...

  14. 19 CFR 177.9 - Effect of ruling letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... classification of an article under the provisions of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States will be... letter. (3) Valuation rulings. Each ruling letter setting forth the proper valuation of an article under... letter. Each ruling letter setting forth a determination as to whether or not the primary object of...

  15. 12 CFR 337.2 - Standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 337.2 Section 337.2... UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.2 Standby letters of credit. (a) Definition. As used in this section, the term standby letter of credit means any letter of credit, or similar arrangement...

  16. Representation of Letter Position in Spelling: Evidence from Acquired Dysgraphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; McCloskey, Michael; Rapp, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The graphemic representations that underlie spelling performance must encode not only the identities of the letters in a word, but also the positions of the letters. This study investigates how letter position information is represented. We present evidence from two dysgraphic individuals, CM and LSS, who perseverate letters when spelling: that…

  17. 12 CFR 337.2 - Standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 337.2 Section 337.2... UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.2 Standby letters of credit. (a) Definition. As used in this section, the term standby letter of credit means any letter of credit, or similar arrangement...

  18. When Writing Impairs Reading: Letter Perception's Susceptibility to Motor Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Karin H.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The effect of writing on the concurrent visual perception of letters was investigated in a series of studies using an interference paradigm. Participants drew shapes and letters while simultaneously visually identifying letters and shapes embedded in noise. Experiments 1-3 demonstrated that letter perception, but not the perception of shapes, was…

  19. Document of the Month: Writing a Letter of Appeal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Mary; Byers, CeCe

    1979-01-01

    Secondary students examine a letter of appeal written during the Depression to President Franklin Roosevelt. The letter is from an attorney concerned with his unemployed father and his ill mother. Suggested exercises include discussion of the letter as an historical document and writing a similar letter. (KC)

  20. 12 CFR 614.4720 - Letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... conformity with the list which follows. (a) Each letter of credit shall be in writing and shall conspicuously state that it is a letter of credit, or be conspicuously entitled as such. (b) The letter of credit shall contain a specified expiration date or be for a definite term. (c) The letter of credit...

  1. 22 CFR 201.71 - Terms of letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... credit. Any letter of credit issued, confirmed or advised under an USAID letter of commitment and any agreement relating to such letter of credit or to instructions for payment issued by an approved applicant... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terms of letters of credit. 201.71 Section...

  2. 48 CFR 1602.170-10 - Letter of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Letter of credit. 1602.170... Terms 1602.170-10 Letter of credit. Letter of credit means the method by which certain carriers, and... available. For each carrier participating in the letter of credit arrangement for payment under this...

  3. Neural Correlates of Top-Down Letter Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jiangang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Hongchuan; Rieth, Cory A.; Huber, David E.; Li, Wu; Lee, Kang; Tian, Jie

    2010-01-01

    This fMRI study investigated top-down letter processing with an illusory letter detection task. Participants responded whether one of a number of different possible letters was present in a very noisy image. After initial training that became increasingly difficult, they continued to detect letters even though the images consisted of pure noise,…

  4. 50 CFR 217.66 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regulations, the USAF must apply for and obtain a Letter of Authorization. (b) A Letter of Authorization... regulations, the USAF must apply for and obtain a renewal of the Letter of Authorization. (d) In the event of... Authorization, the USAF must apply for and obtain a modification of the Letter of Authorization as described...

  5. Probability effects on stimulus evaluation and response processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehring, W. J.; Gratton, G.; Coles, M. G.; Donchin, E.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of probability information on response preparation and stimulus evaluation. Eight subjects responded with one hand to the target letter H and with the other to the target letter S. The target letter was surrounded by noise letters that were either the same as or different from the target letter. In 2 conditions, the targets were preceded by a warning stimulus unrelated to the target letter. In 2 other conditions, a warning letter predicted that the same letter or the opposite letter would appear as the imperative stimulus with .80 probability. Correct reaction times were faster and error rates were lower when imperative stimuli confirmed the predictions of the warning stimulus. Probability information affected (a) the preparation of motor responses during the foreperiod, (b) the development of expectancies for a particular target letter, and (c) a process sensitive to the identities of letter stimuli but not to their locations.

  6. Letter from President Millard Fillmore to the Emperor of Japan: The President's Letter Opened a Closed Country to the West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkert, Marvin; Potter, Lee Ann

    2004-01-01

    In 1852, Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U.S. Navy sailed to Japan with instructions to deliver a letter from President Millard Fillmore to the Emperor. The letter eventually led to the 1854 Treaty of Kanagawa and the opening of Japan to trade with Western nations. The State Department's letter book copy of the letter is featured in this…

  7. ERP Correlates of Letter Identity and Letter Position Are Modulated by Lexical Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gomez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created…

  8. Letter-Transposition Effects Are Not Universal: The Impact of Transposing Letters in Hebrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of letter-transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that…

  9. The olivine macrocryst problem: New insights from minor and trace element compositions of olivine from Lac de Gras kimberlites, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussweiler, Yannick; Foley, Stephen F.; Prelević, Dejan; Jacob, Dorrit E.

    2015-04-01

    This study presents detailed petrographical and geochemical investigations on remarkably fresh olivines in kimberlites from the EKATI Diamond Mine™ located in the Tertiary/Cretaceous Lac de Gras kimberlite field within the Slave craton of Canada. Olivine, constituting about 42 vol.% of the analyzed samples, can be divided into two textural groups: (i) macrocrystic olivines, > 100 μm sub-rounded crystals and (ii) groundmass olivines, < 100 μm subhedral crystals. Olivines from both populations define two distinct chemical trends; a "mantle trend" with angular cores, showing low Ca (< 0.1 wt.% CaO) and high Ni (0.3-0.4 wt.% NiO) at varying Mg# (0.86-0.93), contrasts with a "melt trend" typified by thin (< 100 μm) rims with increasing Ca (up to 1.0 wt.% CaO) and decreasing Ni (down to 0.1 wt.% NiO) contents at constant Mg# (~ 0.915). These findings are in agreement with recent studies suggesting that virtually all olivine is composed of xenocrystic (i.e. mantle-related) cores with phenocrystic (i.e. melt-related) overgrowths, thereby challenging the traditional view that the origin of kimberlitic olivine can be distinguished based on size and morphology. The two main trends can be further resolved into sub-groups refining the crystallization history of olivine; the mantle trend indicates a multi-source origin that samples the layered lithosphere below the Slave craton, whereas the melt trend represents multi-stage crystallization comprising a differentiation trend starting at mantle conditions and a second trend controlled by the crystallization of additional phases (e.g. chromite) and changing magma conditions (e.g. oxidation). These trends are also seen in the concentrations of trace elements not routinely measured in olivine (e.g. Na, P, Ti, Co, Sc, Zr). Trace element mapping with LA-ICP-MS reveals the distribution of these elements within olivine grains. The trace element distribution between the two trends appears to be consistent with phenocrystic olivine

  10. Letters in time and retinotopic space.

    PubMed

    Adelman, James S

    2011-10-01

    Various phenomena in tachistoscopic word identification and priming (WRODS and LTRS are confused with and prime WORDS and LETTERS) suggest that position-specific channels are not used in the processing of letters in words. Previous approaches to this issue have sought alternative matching rules because they have assumed that these phenomena reveal which stimuli are good but imperfect matches to a particular word-such imperfect matches being taken by the word recognition system as partial evidence for that word. The new Letters in Time and Retinotopic Space model (LTRS) makes the alternative assumption that these phenomena reveal the rates at which different features of the stimulus are extracted, because the stimulus is ambiguous when some features are missing from the percept. LTRS is successfully applied to tachistoscopic identification and form priming data with manipulations of duration and target-foil and prime-target relationships. PMID:21823804

  11. Reversal of multidrug resistance by the inhibition of ATP-binding cassette pumps employing "Generally Recognized As Safe" (GRAS) nanopharmaceuticals: A review.

    PubMed

    Sosnik, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Pumps of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily (ABCs) regulate the access of drugs to the intracellular space. In this context, the overexpression of ABCs is a well-known mechanism of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer and infectious diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and the human immunodeficiency virus) and is associated with therapeutic failure. Since their discovery, ABCs have emerged as attractive therapeutic targets and the search of compounds that inhibit their genetic expression and/or their functional activity has gained growing interest. Different generations of pharmacological ABC inhibitors have been explored over the last four decades to address resistance in cancer, though clinical results have been somehow disappointing. "Generally Recognized As Safe" (GRAS) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration designation for substances that are accepted as safe for addition in food. Far from being "inert", some amphiphilic excipients used in the production of pharmaceutical products have been shown to inhibit the activity of ABCs in MDR tumors, emerging as a clinically translatable approach to overcome resistance. The present article initially overviews the classification, structure and function of the different ABCs, with emphasis on those pumps related to drug resistance. Then, the different attempts to capitalize on the activity of GRAS nanopharmaceuticals as ABC inhibitors are discussed. PMID:24055628

  12. Crossmodal deficit in dyslexic children: practice affects the neural timing of letter-speech sound integration

    PubMed Central

    Žarić, Gojko; Fraga González, Gorka; Tijms, Jurgen; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Blomert, Leo; Bonte, Milene

    2015-01-01

    A failure to build solid letter-speech sound associations may contribute to reading impairments in developmental dyslexia. Whether this reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds changes over time within individual children and how this relates to behavioral gains in reading skills remains unknown. In this research, we examined changes in event-related potential (ERP) measures of letter-speech sound integration over a 6-month period during which 9-year-old dyslexic readers (n = 17) followed a training in letter-speech sound coupling next to their regular reading curriculum. We presented the Dutch spoken vowels /a/ and /o/ as standard and deviant stimuli in one auditory and two audiovisual oddball conditions. In one audiovisual condition (AV0), the letter “a” was presented simultaneously with the vowels, while in the other (AV200) it was preceding vowel onset for 200 ms. Prior to the training (T1), dyslexic readers showed the expected pattern of typical auditory mismatch responses, together with the absence of letter-speech sound effects in a late negativity (LN) window. After the training (T2), our results showed earlier (and enhanced) crossmodal effects in the LN window. Most interestingly, earlier LN latency at T2 was significantly related to higher behavioral accuracy in letter-speech sound coupling. On a more general level, the timing of the earlier mismatch negativity (MMN) in the simultaneous condition (AV0) measured at T1, significantly related to reading fluency at both T1 and T2 as well as with reading gains. Our findings suggest that the reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds in dyslexic children may show moderate improvement with reading instruction and training and that behavioral improvements relate especially to individual differences in the timing of this neural integration. PMID:26157382

  13. Resource Letter GW-2: Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Schneider, Stephen H.

    2008-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on human-induced climate change, also known as global warming [Resource Letter GW-1: Global Warming, John W. Firor, Am. J. Phys. 62, 490-495 (1994)]. After an introductory overview, journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing, detection and attribution of human-induced climate change, carbon cycle feedbacks, paleoclimate, climate models and modeling uncertainties, projections of future climate change and climate impacts, and mitigation and adaptation policy options.

  14. Mardi Gras Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eubanks-Turner, Christina; Hajj, Najat

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Christina Eubanks-Turner and Najat Hajj describe a planning process that they used to create a fun-filled eighth-grade math activity that focused on parade planning. The activity was designed to enhance and supplement the eighth-grade algebra curriculum on linear equations and functions, help students use mathematical habits of…

  15. GRAS Notice 000076: ERYTHRITOL

    Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

    ... I -----l :'f, ~~I:..xt:1> ::;: A·,,·;b:: C~('~: I·.

  16. Data-driven high-throughput prediction of the 3-D structure of small molecules: review and progress. A response to the letter by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Pierre

    2011-12-27

    A response is presented to sentiments expressed in "Data-Driven High-Throughput Prediction of the 3-D Structure of Small Molecules: Review and Progress. A Response from The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre", recently published in the Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, (1) which may give readers a misleading impression regarding significant impediments to scientific research posed by the CCDC. PMID:22107601

  17. Detection and resolution of vanishing optotype letters in central and peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Shaban; Anderson, Roger S; Dakin, Steven C; Thibos, Larry N

    2012-04-15

    Previous studies of peripheral vision have shown that detection acuity is superior to resolution acuity for gratings over a range of contrasts, which is attributed to different limiting mechanisms (contrast insufficiency and neural undersampling) for the two tasks. To extend the analysis to letters in a way that avoided luminance cues, we used "vanishing optotype" characters, conveying second-order information, and constructed from tripole strokes having the same mean luminance as the surround. We measured the minimum letter size for detection and identification tasks for two different pairs of vanishing optotype characters (O vs. + and orthogonally oriented Landolt-C's) as a function of contrast in central and peripheral vision. Foveally there was no significant difference between detection acuity and resolution acuity for either pair of letters over a range of stimulus contrasts from 20% to 100%, indicating performance is contrast-limited for both tasks. The same result was obtained at 30° eccentricity in the peripheral field for the O vs. + letters, again indicating performance is contrast-limited for both tasks. However, resolution acuity for the Landolt-C letters was significantly worse than detection acuity in the periphery over the same range of contrasts, which suggests performance is limited by neural undersampling for these letters. All of our experimental results are explained by a model of neural sampling in which detection acuity is determined by the size of neural receptive fields relative to the dimensions of the tripole responsible for spatial contrast, whereas resolution acuity is determined by the spacing of receptive fields relative to the spacing between strokes responsible for letter form. PMID:22406660

  18. An Open Letter to Ninth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Many studies and reports in recent years have argued that there's an important "expectations gap" between the skills students are typically bringing to college and what college teachers think students should be bringing with them to college. This article, presented in the form of an open letter to first-year high school students, is an attempt…

  19. Resource Letter CF-1: Casimir Force

    SciTech Connect

    Lamoreaux, S.K.

    1999-10-01

    This resource letter provides an introductory guide to the literature on the Casimir force. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: introductory articles and books, calculations, dynamical Casimir effect, mechanical analogs, applications, and experiments. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Association of Physics Teachers.}

  20. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and...

  1. Resource letter ETC-1 - Extraterrestrial civilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, Thomas B. H.; Brin, Glen David

    1989-01-01

    This resource letter provides a guide to the literature about intelligent life beyond the human sphere of exploration. It offers a starting point for professionals and academics interested in participating in the debate about the existence of other technological civilizations or in SETI. It can also serve as a reference for teaching. Several extensive bibliographies are cited.

  2. Resource Letter SE-1: Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniels, D. K.; Throop, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    This is one of a series of Resource Letters on different topics intended to guide college physicists, astronomers, and other scientists to some of the literature and other teaching aids that may help improve course contents in specified fields. (Author/CP)

  3. 7 CFR 1773.33 - Management letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... under 7 CFR part 1744, subpart E; (ii) The requirement for a borrower to prepare and furnish mortgagees... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Management letter. 1773.33 Section 1773.33... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.33...

  4. 7 CFR 1773.33 - Management letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under 7 CFR part 1744, subpart E; (ii) The requirement for a borrower to prepare and furnish mortgagees... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management letter. 1773.33 Section 1773.33... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.33...

  5. 7 CFR 1773.33 - Management letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... under 7 CFR part 1744, subpart E; (ii) The requirement for a borrower to prepare and furnish mortgagees... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Management letter. 1773.33 Section 1773.33... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.33...

  6. 7 CFR 1773.33 - Management letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... under 7 CFR part 1744, subpart E; (ii) The requirement for a borrower to prepare and furnish mortgagees... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Management letter. 1773.33 Section 1773.33... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.33...

  7. With Love, Grandma: Letters to Grandchildren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl B.; Ritter, Naomi

    Based on years of experience with intergenerational correspondence at the "Senior Partners Network," this book is designed to help grandparents (and grandchildren) to find the right topics for correspondence, all laid out in clear steps. The book also offers sample letters, cards, and e-mail messages, and provides dozens of themes. The book's goal…

  8. Suspending Damage: A Letter to Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Eve

    2009-01-01

    In this open letter, Eve Tuck calls on communities, researchers, and educators to reconsider the long-term impact of "damage-centered" research--research that intends to document peoples' pain and brokenness to hold those in power accountable for their oppression. This kind of research operates with a flawed theory of change: it is often used to…

  9. "Physical Review Letters" in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angiolillo, Paul J.; Lynch, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Ask any physicist what the preeminent journal in the field is, and I think the almost unanimous answer will be "Physical Review Letters" ("PRL"). This weekly journal of the American Physical Society publishes high-impact research from all the major subdisciplines of physics. This journal is not the one you would think is the first place a high…

  10. Resource Letter EM-1: Electromagnetic Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, David J.

    2012-01-01

    This Resource Letter surveys the literature on momentum in electromagnetic fields, including the general theory, the relation between electromagnetic momentum and vector potential, "hidden" momentum, the 4/3 problem for electromagnetic mass, and the Abraham-Minkowski controversy regarding the field momentum in polarizable and magnetizable media.

  11. A Letter From Mr. Mario M. Montessori.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Mario M.

    1998-01-01

    Reprint of 1973 letter issued by the Association Montessori Internationale to its members regarding signs that although people have been striving for greater general welfare, individual rights, freedom, and leisure, extending reduced work and more leisure to children will disrupt healthy development. Describes necessary environments for healthy…

  12. Letters of a Slave Turned Union Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humanities, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the influx of Black soldiers into the Union army following the Emancipation Proclamation. Concentrates on the case of Private Spotswood Rice. Provides a short history of Rice, including copies of Rice's letters to his enslaved daughters, the daughter's slaveholders, and an angry retort from the slaveowner to the federal commander in…

  13. [Pavlov's unknown letter to L. A. Orbely].

    PubMed

    Budko, A A; Nazartsev, B I

    2012-07-01

    The text of Ivan P. Pavlov's unknown letter addressed to Leon A. Orbely is published for the first time. The document is kept in the Fund of the Military Medical Museum of the Military Medical Academy named after Sergey M. Kirov. PMID:23074838

  14. Introduction to Literary Criticism: "The Scarlet Letter."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This course seeks to provide high school students the opportunity to sharpen their critical thinking skills and use of language through acquaintance with some ideas of literary criticism. The course features Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter," assuming that the students have just finished reading that American classic novel. The course…

  15. Letter to the Editor: reexamining Penfield's Homunculus.

    PubMed

    Ward, Zina

    2014-01-01

    Snyder and Whitaker's (2013) discussion of Penfield's homunculus in a recent issue of this journal was stimulating but I believe mistaken in several ways. This letter clarifies the diagram's supposed ambiguity, highlights a largely overlooked problem with improper scaling and challenges the authors' argument for the superiority of the 1950 version of the image. PMID:24738861

  16. Suggestopaedia-Canada. Information Letter, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racle, Gabriel

    This issue of the information letter consists of two articles, "Music Therapy" and "Research and Applications of Psychomusical Techniques"; a review of the book, "La musicotherapie et les methods nouvelles d'association des techniques" by Guilhot and Cecourt, and a bibliography of books on music therapy written in English or French. Additional…

  17. 48 CFR 216.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Letter contracts. 216.603 Section 216.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-And-Materials,...

  18. 48 CFR 216.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Letter contracts. 216.603 Section 216.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-And-Materials,...

  19. 48 CFR 216.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter contracts. 216.603 Section 216.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-And-Materials,...

  20. 48 CFR 216.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Letter contracts. 216.603 Section 216.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-And-Materials,...

  1. 48 CFR 216.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Letter contracts. 216.603 Section 216.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-And-Materials,...

  2. Text legibility and the letter superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, James E; Subbaram, Manoj V; Zimmerman, Aaron B; Hayes, John R

    2005-01-01

    Effects of font design and electronic display parameters upon text legibility were determined using a threshold size method. Participants' visual acuity (inverse of the minimum detection size, representing the threshold legibility for each condition) was measured using upper- and lowercase letters and lowercase words in combinations of 6 fonts, 3 font-smoothing modes, 4 font sizes, 10 pixel heights, and 4 stroke widths. Individual lowercase letters were 10% to 20% more legible than lowercase words (i.e., lowercase words must be 10%-20% larger to have the same threshold legibility). This letter superiority effect suggests that individual letters play a large role and word shape plays a smaller role, if any, in word identification at threshold. Pixel height, font, stroke width, and font smoothing had significant main effects on threshold legibility. Optimal legibility was attained at 9 pixels (10 points). Verdana and Arial were the most legible fonts; Times New Roman and Franklin were least legible. Subpixel rendering (ClearType) improved threshold legibility for some fonts and, in combination with Verdana, was the most legible condition. Increased stroke width (bold) improved threshold legibility but only at the thinnest width tested. Potential applications of this research include optimization of font design for legibility and readability. PMID:16553067

  3. Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Jonathan; Tydgat, Ilse; Issele, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1 through 3 compared 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by 2 other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets.…

  4. Event Related Potentials Reveal Early Phonological and Orthographic Processing of Single Letters in Letter-Detection and Letter-Rhyme Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Bann, Sewon A.; Herdman, Anthony T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: When and where phonological processing occurs in the brain is still under some debate. Most paired-rhyme and phonological priming studies used word stimuli, which involve complex neural networks for word recognition and semantics. This study investigates early (<300 ms) and late (>300 ms) orthographic and phonological processing of letters. Methods: Fifteen participants aged 20–35 engaged in three two-forced choice experiments, one letter-detection (LetterID) and two letter-rhyme (Paired-Rhyme and Letter-Rhyme) tasks. From the EEG recordings, event related potential (ERP) differences within and across task stimuli were found. We also calculated the global field power (GFP) for each participant. Accuracies and reaction times were also measured from their button presses for each task. Results: Behavioral: Reaction times were 18 ms faster to letter than pseudoletter stimuli, and 27 ms faster to rhyme than nonrhyme stimuli. ERP/GFP: In the LetterID task, grand-mean evoked potentials (EPs) showed typical P1, N1, P2, and P3 waveform morphologies to letter and pseudoletter stimuli, with GFPs to pseudoletters being greater than letters from 160–600 ms. Across both rhyme tasks, there were greater negativities for nonrhyme than for rhyme stimuli at 145 ms and 426 ms. The P2 effect for rhyme stimuli was smaller than letter stimuli when compared across tasks. Conclusion: Differences in early processing of letters vs. pseudoletters between 130–190 ms suggest that letters are processed earlier and perhaps faster in the brain than pseudoletters. The P2 effect between letter and rhyme stimuli likely reflect sublexical phonological processing. Together, findings from our study fill in evidence for the temporal dynamics of orthographic and phonological processing of single letters. PMID:27148023

  5. Faces in the mist: illusory face and letter detection

    PubMed Central

    Rieth, Cory A.; Lee, Kang; Lui, Jiangang; Tian, Jie; Huber, David E.

    2011-01-01

    We report three behavioral experiments on the spatial characteristics evoking illusory face and letter detection. False detections made to pure noise images were analyzed using a modified reverse correlation method in which hundreds of observers rated a modest number of noise images (480) during a single session. This method was originally developed for brain imaging research, and has been used in a number of fMRI publications, but this is the first report of the behavioral classification images. In Experiment 1 illusory face detection occurred in response to scattered dark patches throughout the images, with a bias to the left visual field. This occurred despite the use of a fixation cross and expectations that faces would be centered. In contrast, illusory letter detection (Experiment 2) occurred in response to centrally positioned dark patches. Experiment 3 included an oval in all displays to spatially constrain illusory face detection. With the addition of this oval the classification image revealed an eyes/nose/mouth pattern. These results suggest that face detection is triggered by a minimal face-like pattern even when these features are not centered in visual focus. PMID:23145238

  6. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  7. Changes in FDA enforcement activities following changes in federal administration: the case of regulatory letters released to pharmaceutical companies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for the protection of the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness and security of human drugs and biological products through the enforcement of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) and related regulations. These enforcement activities include regulatory letters (i.e. warning letters and notice of violation) to pharmaceutical companies. A regulatory letter represents the FDA’s first official notification to a pharmaceutical company that the FDA has discovered a product or activity in violation of the FDCA. This study analyzed trends in the pharmaceutical-related regulatory letters released by the FDA during the period 1997–2011 and assessed differences in the average number and type of regulatory letters released during the last four federal administrations. Methods Data derived from the FDA webpage. Information about the FDA office releasing the letter, date, company, and drug-related violation was collected. Regulatory letters were classified by federal administration. Descriptive statistics were performed for the analysis. Results Between 1997 and 2011 the FDA released 2,467 regulatory letters related to pharmaceuticals. FDA headquarters offices released 50.6% and district offices 49.4% of the regulatory letters. The Office of Prescription Drug Promotion released the largest number of regulatory letters (850; 34.5% of the total), followed by the Office of Scientific Investigations (131; 5.3%), and the Office of Compliance (105; 4.3%). During the 2nd Clinton Administration (1997–2000) the average number of regulatory letters per year was 242.8 ± 45.6, during the Bush Administration (2001–2008) it was 120.4 ± 33.7, and during the first three years of the Obama administration (2009–2011) it was 177.7.0 ± 17.0. The average number of regulatory letters released by the Office of Prescription Drug Promotion also varied by administration

  8. 50 CFR 216.277 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Southern California Range Complex (SOCAL Range Complex) § 216.277 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless...

  9. 50 CFR 218.7 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Virginia Capes Range Complex (VACAPES Range Complex) § 218.7 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless...

  10. 50 CFR 218.16 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Jacksonville Range Complex (JAX Range Complex) § 218.16 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless suspended...

  11. 50 CFR 218.237 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) Sonar § 218.237 Applications for Letters of... scheduled to begin conducting SURTASS LFA sonar operations or the previous Letter of Authorization...

  12. 50 CFR 218.237 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) Sonar § 218.237 Applications for Letters of... scheduled to begin conducting SURTASS LFA sonar operations or the previous Letter of Authorization...

  13. 50 CFR 216.187 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA sonar) Sonar § 216.187 Applications for Letters of... scheduled to begin conducting SURTASS LFA sonar operations or the previous Letter of Authorization...

  14. 50 CFR 216.187 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA sonar) Sonar § 216.187 Applications for Letters of... scheduled to begin conducting SURTASS LFA sonar operations or the previous Letter of Authorization...

  15. 50 CFR 218.237 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) Sonar § 218.237 Applications for Letters of... scheduled to begin conducting SURTASS LFA sonar operations or the previous Letter of Authorization...

  16. 15 CFR 908.13 - Address of letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.13 Address of letters. Letters and other communications intended for the Administrator, in connection with weather modification reporting... Administration, Environmental Modification Office, Rockville, Md. 20852....

  17. 15 CFR 908.13 - Address of letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.13 Address of letters. Letters and other communications intended for the Administrator, in connection with weather modification reporting or activities... Modification Office, Rockville, Md. 20852....

  18. 15 CFR 908.13 - Address of letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.13 Address of letters. Letters and other communications intended for the Administrator, in connection with weather modification reporting... Administration, Environmental Modification Office, Rockville, Md. 20852....

  19. Computer Systems Acquisition and the Use of Letters of Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernick, Alan S.

    1988-01-01

    Describes letters of credit and their usefulness in financing computer systems acquisition. Relevant legal policies and the different types and applications of letters of credit are discussed. (1 reference) (MES)

  20. Disk calculator indicates legible lettering size for slide projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultberg, R. R.

    1965-01-01

    Hand-operated disk calculator indicates the minimum size of letters and numbers in relation to the width and height of a working drawing. The lettering is legible when a slide of the drawing is projected.

  1. 22 CFR 92.54 - “Letters rogatory” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false âLetters rogatoryâ defined. 92.54 Section 92.54 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Depositions and Letters Rogatory § 92.54 “Letters rogatory” defined. In its broader sense in international practice, the term letters rogatory denotes...

  2. 22 CFR 92.54 - “Letters rogatory” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false âLetters rogatoryâ defined. 92.54 Section 92.54 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Depositions and Letters Rogatory § 92.54 “Letters rogatory” defined. In its broader sense in international practice, the term letters rogatory denotes...

  3. 22 CFR 92.54 - “Letters rogatory” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false âLetters rogatoryâ defined. 92.54 Section 92.54 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Depositions and Letters Rogatory § 92.54 “Letters rogatory” defined. In its broader sense in international practice, the term letters rogatory denotes...

  4. 22 CFR 92.54 - “Letters rogatory” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false âLetters rogatoryâ defined. 92.54 Section 92.54 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Depositions and Letters Rogatory § 92.54 “Letters rogatory” defined. In its broader sense in international practice, the term letters rogatory denotes...

  5. 48 CFR 49.601-2 - Letter notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Letter notice. 49.601-2 Section 49.601-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Contract Termination Forms and Formats 49.601-2 Letter notice. The following letter notice of termination is...

  6. 48 CFR 52.228-14 - Irrevocable Letter of Credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Credit. 52.228-14 Section 52.228-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....228-14 Irrevocable Letter of Credit. As prescribed in 28.204-4, insert the following clause: Irrevocable Letter of Credit (DEC 1999) (a) “Irrevocable letter of credit” (ILC), as used in this...

  7. 31 CFR 535.416 - Letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Letters of credit. 535.416 Section... § 535.416 Letters of credit. (a) Question. Prior to the effective date, a bank subject to the jurisdiction of the United States has issued or confirmed a documentary letter of credit for a...

  8. 48 CFR 52.228-14 - Irrevocable Letter of Credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Credit. 52.228-14 Section 52.228-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....228-14 Irrevocable Letter of Credit. As prescribed in 28.204-4, insert the following clause: Irrevocable Letter of Credit (DEC 1999) (a) “Irrevocable letter of credit” (ILC), as used in this...

  9. 47 CFR 54.1007 - Letter of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Letter of credit. 54.1007 Section 54.1007... SERVICE Mobility Fund § 54.1007 Letter of credit. (a) Before being authorized to receive Mobility Fund Phase I support, a winning bidder shall obtain an irrevocable standby letter of credit which shall...

  10. 31 CFR 535.416 - Letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Letters of credit. 535.416 Section 535... § 535.416 Letters of credit. (a) Question. Prior to the effective date, a bank subject to the jurisdiction of the United States has issued or confirmed a documentary letter of credit for a...

  11. 48 CFR 52.228-14 - Irrevocable Letter of Credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Credit. 52.228-14 Section 52.228-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....228-14 Irrevocable Letter of Credit. As prescribed in 28.204-4, insert the following clause: Irrevocable Letter of Credit (DEC 1999) (a) “Irrevocable letter of credit” (ILC), as used in this...

  12. 31 CFR 535.416 - Letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Letters of credit. 535.416 Section 535... § 535.416 Letters of credit. (a) Question. Prior to the effective date, a bank subject to the jurisdiction of the United States has issued or confirmed a documentary letter of credit for a...

  13. 48 CFR 52.228-14 - Irrevocable Letter of Credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Credit. 52.228-14 Section 52.228-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....228-14 Irrevocable Letter of Credit. As prescribed in 28.204-4, insert the following clause: Irrevocable Letter of Credit (MAY 2014) (a) “Irrevocable letter of credit” (ILC), as used in this...

  14. 48 CFR 52.228-14 - Irrevocable Letter of Credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Credit. 52.228-14 Section 52.228-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....228-14 Irrevocable Letter of Credit. As prescribed in 28.204-4, insert the following clause: Irrevocable Letter of Credit (DEC 1999) (a) “Irrevocable letter of credit” (ILC), as used in this...

  15. 47 CFR 54.1007 - Letter of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Letter of credit. 54.1007 Section 54.1007... SERVICE Mobility Fund § 54.1007 Letter of credit. (a) Before being authorized to receive Mobility Fund Phase I support, a winning bidder shall obtain an irrevocable standby letter of credit which shall...

  16. 48 CFR 871.201-4 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Letter contracts. 871.201... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.201-4 Letter contracts. Letter contracts are authorized for use in... formal contract with an approved educational institution before the enrollment of eligible veterans...

  17. 48 CFR 871.201-4 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Letter contracts. 871.201... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.201-4 Letter contracts. Letter contracts are authorized for use in... formal contract with an approved educational institution before the enrollment of eligible veterans...

  18. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives Permission Letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives Permission Letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives Permission Letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  19. 19 CFR 177.9 - Effect of ruling letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of ruling letters. 177.9 Section 177.9 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS General Ruling Procedure § 177.9 Effect of ruling letters. (a) Effect of ruling letters generally. A...

  20. 46 CFR 78.12-1 - Posting of stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Posting of stability letter. 78.12-1 Section 78.12-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Information § 78.12-1 Posting of stability letter. If a stability letter is issued under § 170.120 of...

  1. 46 CFR 35.08-1 - Posting of stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Posting of stability letter. 35.08-1 Section 35.08-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Information § 35.08-1 Posting of stability letter. If a stability letter is issued under § 170.120 of this chapter,...

  2. 46 CFR 35.08-1 - Posting of stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Posting of stability letter. 35.08-1 Section 35.08-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Information § 35.08-1 Posting of stability letter. If a stability letter is issued under § 170.120 of this chapter,...

  3. 46 CFR 78.12-1 - Posting of stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Posting of stability letter. 78.12-1 Section 78.12-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Information § 78.12-1 Posting of stability letter. If a stability letter is issued under § 170.120 of...

  4. 46 CFR 78.12-1 - Posting of stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Posting of stability letter. 78.12-1 Section 78.12-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Information § 78.12-1 Posting of stability letter. If a stability letter is issued under § 170.120 of...

  5. 46 CFR 35.08-1 - Posting of stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Posting of stability letter. 35.08-1 Section 35.08-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Information § 35.08-1 Posting of stability letter. If a stability letter is issued under § 170.120 of this chapter,...

  6. 46 CFR 35.08-1 - Posting of stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Posting of stability letter. 35.08-1 Section 35.08-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Information § 35.08-1 Posting of stability letter. If a stability letter is issued under § 170.120 of this chapter,...

  7. 46 CFR 78.12-1 - Posting of stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Posting of stability letter. 78.12-1 Section 78.12-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Information § 78.12-1 Posting of stability letter. If a stability letter is issued under § 170.120 of...

  8. 46 CFR 78.12-1 - Posting of stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Posting of stability letter. 78.12-1 Section 78.12-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Information § 78.12-1 Posting of stability letter. If a stability letter is issued under § 170.120 of...

  9. Transposed-Letter and Laterality Effects in Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perea, Manuel; Fraga, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    Two divided visual field lexical decision experiments were conducted to examine the role of the cerebral hemispheres in transposed-letter similarity effects. In Experiment 1, we created two types of nonwords: nonadjacent transposed-letter nonwords ("TRADEGIA"; the base word was "TRAGEDIA," the Spanish for "TRAGEDY") and two-letter different…

  10. 31 CFR 535.416 - Letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Letters of credit. 535.416 Section 535... § 535.416 Letters of credit. (a) Question. Prior to the effective date, a bank subject to the jurisdiction of the United States has issued or confirmed a documentary letter of credit for a...

  11. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives Permission Letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives Permission Letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives Permission Letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  12. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives Permission Letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives Permission Letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives Permission Letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  13. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives Permission Letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives Permission Letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives Permission Letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  14. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives permission letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives permission letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives permission letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  15. Exploring Corporate Rhetoric: Metadiscourse in the CEO's Letter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Examines how metadiscourse is used to create a positive corporate image in 137 CEOs' letters, showing how CEOs use nonpropositional material to realize rational, credible, and affective appeals. Reveals the essentially rhetorical nature of CEOs' letters by comparing the frequency and distribution of metadiscourse in their letters and directors'…

  16. The Relationship between Letter Fluency Measures and Arabic GPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated two widely-used early literacy skill's indicators in reflecting growth in first-grade language achievement skills. It compared two curriculum-based assessments of letter knowledge: Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) and Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) in the Arabic language. A sample of 125 first-grade students, 100 average…

  17. The Predictive Validity of Teacher Candidate Letters of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Richard W.; Schroeder, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Letters of reference are widely used as an essential part of the hiring process of newly licensed teachers. While the predictive validity of these letters of reference has been called into question it has never been empirically studied. The current study examined the predictive validity of the quality of letters of reference for forty-one student…

  18. Covert Reading of Letters in a Case of Global Alexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpato, Chiara; Bencini, Giulia; Meneghello, Francesca; Piron, Lamberto; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the case of a global alexic patient with a severe reading deficit affecting words, letters and Arabic numbers, following a left posterior lesion. The patient (VA) could not match spoken letters to their graphic form. A preserved ability to recognize shape and canonical orientation of letters indicates intact access to the…

  19. 19 CFR 162.4 - Search for letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Search for letters. 162.4 Section 162.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Inspection, Examination, and Search § 162.4 Search for letters. A Customs officer may search vessels for letters which may be on board or may have been conveyed contrary...

  20. 19 CFR 162.4 - Search for letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Search for letters. 162.4 Section 162.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Inspection, Examination, and Search § 162.4 Search for letters. A Customs officer may search vessels for letters which may be on board or may have been conveyed contrary...

  1. 19 CFR 162.4 - Search for letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Search for letters. 162.4 Section 162.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Inspection, Examination, and Search § 162.4 Search for letters. A Customs officer may search vessels for letters which may be on board or may have been conveyed contrary...

  2. 19 CFR 162.4 - Search for letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Search for letters. 162.4 Section 162.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Inspection, Examination, and Search § 162.4 Search for letters. A Customs officer may search vessels for letters which may be on board or may have been conveyed contrary...

  3. 19 CFR 162.4 - Search for letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Search for letters. 162.4 Section 162.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Inspection, Examination, and Search § 162.4 Search for letters. A Customs officer may search vessels for letters which may be on board or may have been conveyed contrary...

  4. The Distribution of Information within Letters. Technical Report No. 215.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navon, David; Shimron, Joseph

    Two experiments were designed to study the relative importance of various letter segments in letter recognition. One experiment was conducted with 24 subjects and the English alphabet, the other with 15 subjects and the Hebrew alphabet. In each experiment a letter was presented for identification, but was preceded by a brief presentation of either…

  5. 22 CFR 92.54 - “Letters rogatory” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âLetters rogatoryâ defined. 92.54 Section 92.54 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Depositions and Letters Rogatory § 92.54 “Letters rogatory” defined. In its broader sense in...

  6. 48 CFR 871.201-4 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter contracts. 871.201... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.201-4 Letter contracts. Letter contracts are authorized for use in... formal contract with an approved educational institution before the enrollment of eligible veterans...

  7. 50 CFR 216.257 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.257 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless suspended or revoked... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letters of Authorization. 216.257...

  8. 50 CFR 216.257 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.257 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless suspended or revoked... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Letters of Authorization. 216.257...

  9. 50 CFR 216.258 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.258 Renewal of Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING...

  10. 50 CFR 216.258 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.258 Renewal of Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING...

  11. 46 CFR 169.219 - Renewal of letter of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal of letter of designation. 169.219 Section 169.219 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Letter of Designation § 169.219 Renewal of letter of designation....

  12. 46 CFR 169.219 - Renewal of letter of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of letter of designation. 169.219 Section 169.219 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Letter of Designation § 169.219 Renewal of letter of designation....

  13. 46 CFR 169.219 - Renewal of letter of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Renewal of letter of designation. 169.219 Section 169.219 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Letter of Designation § 169.219 Renewal of letter of designation....

  14. 46 CFR 169.219 - Renewal of letter of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal of letter of designation. 169.219 Section 169.219 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Letter of Designation § 169.219 Renewal of letter of designation....

  15. 46 CFR 169.219 - Renewal of letter of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Renewal of letter of designation. 169.219 Section 169.219 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Letter of Designation § 169.219 Renewal of letter of designation....

  16. 33 CFR 181.17 - Label numbers and letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label numbers and letters. 181.17...) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer Certification of Compliance § 181.17 Label numbers and letters. Letters and numbers on each label must: (a) Be no less than one-eighth of an inch...

  17. 33 CFR 181.17 - Label numbers and letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label numbers and letters. 181.17...) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer Certification of Compliance § 181.17 Label numbers and letters. Letters and numbers on each label must: (a) Be no less than one-eighth of an inch...

  18. 33 CFR 181.17 - Label numbers and letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Label numbers and letters. 181.17...) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer Certification of Compliance § 181.17 Label numbers and letters. Letters and numbers on each label must: (a) Be no less than one-eighth of an inch...

  19. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Marella de Angelis and her colleagues on precision gravimetry using atomic sensors and from Dr Peter Becker on determination of the Avogadro constant via enriched silicon-28. I recommend setting up a free e-mail alert so that you can read them as soon as they are published! As many of you are already aware, our impact factor (a measure of the average number of times recent papers are referred to by others) has risen again to 1.297. This is often taken as an indication of the quality and relevance of recently published research, and although as readers we develop our own instinct for journals of high quality, it is gratifying as an Editor to see the data from an independent organization (Thomson ISI) agreeing with my own assessment. Of course the publication of high quality articles in the journal is dependent both on you the authors who trust us with the publication of your best work and on our referees and Editorial Board Members who we depend on to maintain the high standards you have grown to expect. I must also thank our referees for their rapid response when asked to review papers for Measurement Science and Technology. On average, authors receive a decision on their article in 45 days. Therefore I would like to end this message by saying thank you again to all those who have contributed to our success in the past year, and wish you all the best for a successful 2009!

  20. Black Greek-Letter Organizations: A Legacy of African American Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Keiwana O'Neal

    2012-01-01

    The education of African American adults evolved in response to the changing social, economic, and political needs of the Black community. To address these needs, Black Greek-Letter Organizations (BGLOs) created and implemented initiatives at the local, national, and international levels using education as a catalyst to change aspects of African…

  1. Powerful Letter Writing: Students Discover the Power of the Pen(cil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhauser, Sandra P.

    Students can better experience the impact of written words by the response of a real audience. This paper describes a letter-writing activity for sixth graders in which the students first identified and discussed real-life happenings which had caused disappointments with companies that had produced faulty items. They then obtained all the…

  2. Adults' Knowledge of Phoneme-Letter Relationships Is Phonology Based and Flexible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Annukka; Treiman, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of phonemic awareness in beginning literacy, several studies have demonstrated that adults, including teacher trainees, have surprisingly poor phonemic skills. Three experiments investigated whether adults' responses in phonemic awareness and spelling segmentation tasks are based on units larger than single letters and…

  3. Measuring Task Posing Cycles: Mathematical Letter Writing between Algebra Students and Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Rutledge, Zachary

    2006-01-01

    In a secondary school mathematics teaching methods course, a research team engaged 22 preservice secondary teachers (PSTs) in designing and posing tasks to algebra students through weekly letter writing. The goal of the tasks was for PSTs to elicit responses that would indicate student engagement in the mathematical processes described by NCTM…

  4. Half a Century of Physical Review Letters

    ScienceCinema

    Garisto, Robert

    2010-01-08

    Fifty years ago, Sam Goudsmit started an experiment: the journal Physical Review Letters.  Since 1958, the experiment has thrived. PRL has gone through many changes, published many important papers, and become a leader in international scientific publication.  I will trace the rise of PRL from its early 20th century roots as "Letters to the Editor," through changes in editorial process and advents of new technology. Along the way I'll show what has gone on behind the scenes, and give a glimpse of our plans for the future.  I'll also give some advice to would-be authors and referees, illustrated with interesting correspondence we've received.

  5. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    PubMed

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony. PMID:25241502

  6. Resource Letter: PEs-1: Physical eschatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćirković, Milan M.

    2003-02-01

    This Resource Letter treats the nascent discipline of physical eschatology, which investigates the future evolution of astrophysical objects, including the universe itself, and is thus both a counterpart and a complement to conventional cosmology. While sporadic interest in these topics has flared up from time to time during the entire history of humanity, a truly physical treatment of these issues has only become possible during the last quarter century. This Resource Letter deals with these recent developments. It offers a starting point for understanding what the physical sciences might say about the future of our universe and its constituents. Journal articles, books, and web sites are provided for the following topics: history and epistemology of physical eschatology, the future of the Solar system, the future of stars and stellar systems, the global future of the universe, information processing and intelligent communities, as well as some side issues, like the possible vacuum phase transition and the so-called Doomsday Argument.

  7. In vitro growth-inhibitory effect of ethanol GRAS plant and supercritical CO₂ hop extracts on planktonic cultures of oral pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Pilna, J; Vlkova, E; Krofta, K; Nesvadba, V; Rada, V; Kokoska, L

    2015-09-01

    Conventional chemical antiseptics used for treatment of oral infections often produce side-effects, which restrict their long-term use. Plants are considered as perspective sources of novel natural antiseptics. However, little is still known about their inhibitory properties against oral pathogens. The objective of this study was to test in vitro antimicrobial activities of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) species against planktonic cultures of cariogenic, periodontal and candidal microorganisms and identify active compounds of the most active extracts. Growth-inhibitory effects of ethanol extracts from 109 GRAS plant species, six Humulus lupulus cultivars and two hop supercritical CO2 extracts were evaluated using broth microdilution method. The chemical analysis was done through high-performance liquid chromatography. Best results were obtained for supercritical CO2 and ethanol extracts of H. lupulus with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ≥8 μg/mL and ≥16 μg/mL, respectively. The chemical analysis of supercritical CO2H. lupulus extracts revealed that α- and β-acids were their main constituents. Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens showed antibacterial effect against Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus salivarius (MIC=64-128 μg/mL). These strains were further inhibited by Zanthoxylum clava-herculis (MIC=64-128 μg/mL) and Myristica fragrans (both MIC≥128 μg/mL). The latter also exhibited antimicrobial activity against Fusobacterium nucleatum (MIC=64 μg/mL). Punica granatum possessed inhibitory effects against Candida albicans (MIC=128 μg/mL) and F. nucleatum (MIC=64 μg/mL). The results indicate that supercritical CO2H. lupulus extracts together with ethanol extracts of C. annuum, C. frutescens, M. fragrans, P. granatum and Z. clava-herculis are promising materials for further investigation on new antiseptic agents of oral care products. PMID:26232134

  8. 31 CFR 29.511 - Demand letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative costs as set forth in 31 CFR part 5, the FCCS, and 31 U.S.C. 3717, including a statement that such... 31 CFR 902.2); and (m) The fact that a timely filing of a request for reconsideration, waiver and/or... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demand letters. 29.511 Section...

  9. Resource Letter QI-1: Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, Frederick W.

    2016-07-01

    This Resource Letter surveys the history and modern developments in the field of quantum information. It is written to guide advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and other new researchers to the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. The topics covered include quantum states and processes, quantum coding and cryptography, quantum computation, the experimental implementation of quantum information processing, and the role of quantum information in the fundamental properties and foundations of physical theories.

  10. Parent and Child References to Letters during Alphabet Book Reading: Relations to Child Age and Letter Name Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachner, William; Zevenbergen, Andrea; Zevenbergen, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of extratextual references to letters made by parents and preschoolers during shared reading of an alphabet book. The frequency of letter references was also examined in relation to child age and knowledge of letter names. Participants consisted of 44 preschoolers and their…

  11. Letter-case information and the identification of brand names.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Talero, Fernanda; López-Cañada, Soraya

    2015-02-01

    A central tenet of most current models of visual-word recognition is that lexical units are activated on the basis of case-invariant abstract letter representations. Here, we examined this assumption by using a unique type of words: brand names. The rationale of the experiments is that brand names are archetypically printed either in lowercase (e.g., adidas) or uppercase (e.g., IKEA). This allows us to present the brand names in their standard or non-standard case configuration (e.g., adidas, IKEA vs. ADIDAS, ikea, respectively). We conducted two experiments with a brand-decision task ('is it a brand name?'): a single-presentation experiment and a masked priming experiment. Results in the single-presentation experiment revealed faster identification times of brand names in their standard case configuration than in their non-standard case configuration (i.e., adidas faster than ADIDAS; IKEA faster than ikea). In the masked priming experiment, we found faster identification times of brand names when they were preceded by an identity prime that matched its standard case configuration than when it did not (i.e., faster response times to adidas-adidas than to ADIDAS-adidas). Taken together, the present findings strongly suggest that letter-case information forms part of a brand name's graphemic information, thus posing some limits to current models of visual-word recognition. PMID:24766365

  12. 124 High-Impact Letters for Busy Principals: A Guide to Handling Difficult Correspondence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.

    This work's 124 sample letters and accompanying CD-ROM provide templates for important letters busy principals often do not have time to prepare. Chapter 1, "Thank-You Letters," includes 14 letters for staff, students, parents, guest and conference speakers, and donations. Chapter 2, "Appreciation Letters," contains seven letters for staff,…

  13. Learning of Letter Names and Sounds and Their Contribution to Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Iris; Shatil-Carmon, Sivan; Asif-Rave, Ornit

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated knowledge of letter names and letter sounds, their learning, and their contributions to word recognition. Of 123 preschoolers examined on letter knowledge, 65 underwent training on both letter names and letter sounds in a counterbalanced order. Prior to training, children were more advanced in associating letters with their…

  14. DOE Advanced Scientific Advisory Committee (ASCAC): Workforce Subcommittee Letter

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Barbara; Calandra, Henri; Crivelli, Silvia; Dongarra, Jack; Hittinger, Jeffrey; Lathrop, Scott A.; Sarkar, Vivek; Stahlberg, Eric; Vetter, Jeffrey S.; Williams, Dean

    2014-07-23

    Simulation and computing are essential to much of the research conducted at the DOE national laboratories. Experts in the ASCR ¬relevant Computing Sciences, which encompass a range of disciplines including Computer Science, Applied Mathematics, Statistics and domain Computational Sciences, are an essential element of the workforce in nearly all of the DOE national laboratories. This report seeks to identify the gaps and challenges facing DOE with respect to this workforce. This letter is ASCAC’s response to the charge of February 19, 2014 to identify disciplines in which significantly greater emphasis in workforce training at the graduate or postdoctoral levels is necessary to address workforce gaps in current and future Office of Science mission needs.

  15. The Overlap Model: A Model of Letter Position Coding

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Roger; Perea, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has shown that letter identity and letter position are not integral perceptual dimensions (e.g., jugde primes judge in word-recognition experiments). Most comprehensive computational models of visual word recognition (e.g., the interactive activation model, J. L. McClelland & D. E. Rumelhart, 1981, and its successors) assume that the position of each letter within a word is perfectly encoded. Thus, these models are unable to explain the presence of effects of letter transposition (trial-trail), letter migration (beard-bread), repeated letters (moose-mouse), or subset/superset effects (faulty-faculty). The authors extend R. Ratcliff's (1981) theory of order relations for encoding of letter positions and show that the model can successfully deal with these effects. The basic assumption is that letters in the visual stimulus have distributions over positions so that the representation of one letter will extend into adjacent letter positions. To test the model, the authors conducted a series of forced-choice perceptual identification experiments. The overlap model produced very good fits to the empirical data, and even a simplified 2-parameter model was capable of producing fits for 104 observed data points with a correlation coefficient of .91. PMID:18729592

  16. Algoritmi matematici nelle lettere di Gerbert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, P.

    The content of Gerbert's "scientific" letters is analyzed in detail, with special emphasis on arithmetical and geometrical issues, such as multiplication and division rules related to the use of abacus, superparticular numbers and evaluation of the area of an equilateral triangle. It is shown that Gerbert's area formula, albeit based on rational fractions, could hardly be conceived without knowledge of Pythagoras' theorem. This fact casts a light also on the astronomical tools created by Gerbert, where the didactical aspect cannot be separated from the accuracy of the demonstrations and of the measurements.

  17. Letter report: Ari Patrinos -- ARM summary

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, G.J.; Ruderman, M.A.; Treiman, S.B.

    1995-07-27

    This letter report provides a summary of the authors` views on ARM. ARM is a highly focused program designed to improve understanding of the transport of infrared and solar radiation through the atmosphere. The program pays particular attention to the interaction of radiation with the three phases of water. The goals of ARM are usually articulated in terms of improvements in climate models. The authors agree that ARM can indeed make significant contributions to the understanding of climate change. In addition they believe that the results of the program will have wide applicability to a broad range of problems, including more accurate short-term and seasonal weather forecasting.

  18. Resource Letter QCD-1: Quantum chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronfeld, Andreas S.; Quigg, Chris

    2010-11-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the relativistic quantum field theory of the strong interactions. Journal articles, books, and other documents are cited for the following topics: Quarks and color, the parton model, Yang-Mills theory, experimental evidence for color, QCD as a color gauge theory, asymptotic freedom, QCD for heavy hadrons, QCD on the lattice, the QCD vacuum, pictures of quark confinement, early and modern applications of perturbative QCD, the determination of the strong coupling and quark masses, QCD and the hadron spectrum, hadron decays, the quark-gluon plasma, the strong nuclear interaction, and QCD's role in nuclear physics.

  19. Eye Exercises Enhance Accuracy and Letter Recognition, but Not Reaction Time, in a Modified Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Task

    PubMed Central

    Di Noto, Paula; Uta, Sorin; DeSouza, Joseph F. X.

    2013-01-01

    Eye exercises have been prescribed to resolve a multitude of eye-related problems. However, studies on the efficacy of eye exercises are lacking, mainly due to the absence of simple assessment tools in the clinic. Because similar regions of the brain are responsible for eye movements and visual attention, we used a modified rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) to assess any measurable effect of short-term eye exercise in improvements within these domains. In the present study, twenty subjects were equally divided into control and experimental groups, each of which performed a pre-training RSVP assessment where target letters, to which subjects were asked to respond to by pressing a spacebar, were serially and rapidly presented. Response time to target letters, accuracy of correctly responding to target letters, and correct identification of target letters in each of 12 sessions was measured. The experimental group then performed active eye exercises, while the control group performed a task that minimized eye movements for 18.5 minutes. A final post-training RSVP assessment was performed by both groups and response time, accuracy, and letter identification were compared between and within subject groups both pre- and post-training. Subjects who performed eye exercises were more accurate in responding to target letters separated by one distractor and in letter identification in the post-training RSVP assessment, while latency of responses were unchanged between and within groups. This suggests that eye exercises may prove useful in enhancing cognitive performance on tasks related to attention and memory over a very brief course of training, and RSVP may be a useful measure of this efficacy. Further research is needed on eye exercises to determine whether they are an effective treatment for patients with cognitive and eye-related disorders. PMID:23527146

  20. The Continuity of American Letters in "The Scarlet Letter" and "The Beast in the Jungle."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottschalk, Jane

    1967-01-01

    Fictional works, of different literary periods, which share a common perception of man can be explicated and compared with each other to illustrate a continuing tradition in American literature. Such a basis for comparison exists between Hawthorne's romance, "The Scarlet Letter," which appeared in 1850, and Henry James' fantasy, "The Beast in the…

  1. Letter report: Cold crucible melter assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, M.L.

    1996-03-01

    One of the activities of the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project is to assist the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program in determining which melter systems should be performance tested for potential implementation in the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant. The Richland Operations Office (RL) has recommended that the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) be evaluated as a candidate ``next generation`` melter. As a result, the CCM System Evaluation cost account was established under the PVTD Project so that the CCM could be initially assessed on a high-priority basis. This letter report summarizes a brief initial review and assessment of the CCM. Using the recommendations made in this document, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and RL will make a decision regarding the urgency of performance testing the CCM. If the decision is favorable, a subcontract will be negotiated for performance testing of a CCM using Hanford HLW simulants in a pilot-scale facility. Because of the aggressive nature of the schedule, the CCM evaluation was not rigorous. The evaluation consisted of a literature review and interviews with proponents of the technology during a recent trip to France. This letter report summarizes the evaluation and makes recommendations regarding further work in this area.

  2. The Temporal Dynamics of Implicit Processing of Non-Letter, Letter, and Word-Forms in the Human Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; Liotti, Mario; Perez, Ricardo; Fox, Sarabeth P.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2009-01-01

    The decoding of visually presented line segments into letters, and letters into words, is critical to fluent reading abilities. Here we investigate the temporal dynamics of visual orthographic processes, focusing specifically on right hemisphere contributions and interactions between the hemispheres involved in the implicit processing of visually presented words, consonants, false fonts, and symbolic strings. High-density EEG was recorded while participants detected infrequent, simple, perceptual targets (dot strings) embedded amongst a of character strings. Beginning at 130 ms, orthographic and non-orthographic stimuli were distinguished by a sequence of ERP effects over occipital recording sites. These early latency occipital effects were dominated by enhanced right-sided negative-polarity activation for non-orthographic stimuli that peaked at around 180 ms. This right-sided effect was followed by bilateral positive occipital activity for false-fonts, but not symbol strings. Moreover the size of components of this later positive occipital wave was inversely correlated with the right-sided ROcc180 wave, suggesting that subjects who had larger early right-sided activation for non-orthographic stimuli had less need for more extended bilateral (e.g., interhemispheric) processing of those stimuli shortly later. Additional early (130–150 ms) negative-polarity activity over left occipital cortex and longer-latency centrally distributed responses (>300 ms) were present, likely reflecting implicit activation of the previously reported ‘visual-word-form’ area and N400-related responses, respectively. Collectively, these results provide a close look at some relatively unexplored portions of the temporal flow of information processing in the brain related to the implicit processing of potentially linguistic information and provide valuable information about the interactions between hemispheres supporting visual orthographic processing. PMID:20046826

  3. 46 CFR 35.08-1 - Posting of stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Posting of stability letter. 35.08-1 Section 35.08-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Information § 35.08-1 Posting of stability letter. If a stability letter is issued under § 170.120 of this chapter, it must be posted under glass or other...

  4. 39 CFR 320.6 - Suspension for extremely urgent letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension for extremely urgent letters. 320.6 Section 320.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE RESTRICTIONS ON PRIVATE CARRIAGE OF LETTERS SUSPENSION OF THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 320.6 Suspension for extremely urgent letters. (a) The operation of 39 U.S.C. 601(a) (1) through (6) and...

  5. Writing effective consultation letters: 12 tips for teachers.

    PubMed

    Keely, Erin; Dojeiji, Suzan; Myers, Kathryn

    2002-11-01

    Written correspondence is the standard mode of communication between healthcare providers. Despite the importance of this skill and increased emphasis on ambulatory care, communication skills and professionalism in training programs, there has been very little written on the teaching and evaluation of consultation letter writing. Consultation letter writing is an essential skill that cannot be learned simply by reading others' letters and should be taught in a formal manner. This article describes the authors' experience in teaching the skill of writing effective consultation letters to residents and describes strategies for evaluating this skill. PMID:12623449

  6. Insights from letter position dyslexia on morphological decomposition in reading

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Naama; Gvion, Aviah; Nisim, Roni

    2015-01-01

    We explored morphological decomposition in reading, the locus in the reading process in which it takes place and its nature, comparing different types of morphemes. We assessed these questions through the analysis of letter position errors in readers with letter position dyslexia (LPD). LPD is a selective impairment to letter position encoding in the early stage of word reading, which results in letter migrations (such as reading “cloud” for “could”). We used the fact that migrations in LPD occur mainly in word-interior letters, whereas exterior letters rarely migrate. The rationale was that if morphological decomposition occurs prior to letter position encoding and strips off affixes, word-interior letters adjacent to an affix (e.g., signs-signs) would become exterior following affix-stripping and hence exhibit fewer migrations. We tested 11 Hebrew readers with developmental LPD and 1 with acquired LPD in 6 experiments of reading aloud, lexical decision, and comprehension, at the single word and sentence levels (compared with 25 age-matched control participants). The LPD participants read a total of 12,496 migratable words. We examined migrations next to inflectional, derivational, or bound function morphemes compared with migrations of exterior letters. The results were that root letters adjacent to inflectional and derivational morphemes were treated like middle letters, and migrated frequently, whereas root letters adjacent to bound function morphemes patterned with exterior letters, and almost never migrated. Given that LPD is a pre-lexical deficit, these results indicate that morphological decomposition takes place in an early, pre-lexical stage. The finding that morphologically complex nonwords showed the same patterns indicates that this decomposition is structurally, rather than lexically, driven. We suggest that letter position encoding takes place before morphological analysis, but in some cases, as with bound function morphemes, the complex word

  7. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Response to March Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Peter

    2000-05-01

    Most of what Bob Kibble wrote in `The how of physics' (2000 Phys. Educ. 35 79) is both true and important. How we teach physics makes a profound difference to student learning and to progression in physics-related subjects. This is why it has played a big part in designing the Advancing Physics publications. These include a printed Course Guide and, on the CD, chapter-by-chapter Teacher Guides together with Teaching Note `pop-up's which accompany every teaching resource. The Course Guide includes an overview of teaching and learning Advancing Physics; for example, encouraging student initiative and groupwork, recommending variety in tasks and approaches. The Teacher Guide and Teaching Notes then go into detail about what might work and what does not. Suggestions are made about how to introduce topics and how to choose between resources as you plan your lessons. Specific practical information and guidance is provided to help teachers with experiments and software. Several times during this past year, teachers in Advancing Physics pilot schools and colleges have met locally, face-to-face. They also have access to an e-mail list where they can ask questions and exchange ideas to make their teaching more effective. Similar support will be available to teachers starting the course in September 2000. When it is fully operational, the AP website will allow teachers to post their suggestions for routes through the course, suggest amendments to existing resources and submit new resources which they have created. Text, images and software will be exchanged. We hope that this network of mutual support will contribute to a sense of both the excitement and the social nature of physics. And I agree with Bob: physics teachers need space and time to join in networks where they can share their classroom experiences.

  8. Different Effects of Hypoxia on Mental Rotation of Normal and Mirrored Letters: Evidence from the Rotation-Related Negativity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Hu, Linfeng; Li, Jiaojie; Hu, Yue; Xia, Ling; Chen, Xiaojian; Hu, Wendong

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the neural mechanism underlying the effect of moderate and transient hypoxic exposure on mental rotation of two-dimensional letters in both normal and mirror versions. Event-related potential data and behavioral data were acquired in the task of discrimination between normal and mirrored versions separately in conditions of normoxia (simulated sea level) and hypoxia conditions (simulated 5000 meter altitude). The behavioral results revealed no significant difference between the normoxia and hypoxia conditions both in response time and error rate. However, obvious differences between these two conditions in ERP were found. First, enlarged P300 and Rotation-related Negativity (RRN) were observed in the hypoxia condition compared to the normoxia condition only with normal letters. Second, the angle effect on the amplitude of RRN was more evident with normal letters in the hypoxia condition than that in the normoxia condition. However, this angle effect nearly disappeared with the mirrored letters in the hypoxia condition. Third, more bilateral parietal activation was observed in the hypoxia condition than the normoxia condition. These results suggested that the compensation mechanism existed in the hypoxia condition and was effective with normal letters but had little effect on the mirrored letters. This study extends the research about the hypoxic effect on spatial ability of humans by employing a mental rotation task and further provides neural evidence for this effect. PMID:27144444

  9. Different Effects of Hypoxia on Mental Rotation of Normal and Mirrored Letters: Evidence from the Rotation-Related Negativity

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qingguo; Hu, Linfeng; Li, Jiaojie; Hu, Yue; Xia, Ling; Chen, Xiaojian; Hu, Wendong

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the neural mechanism underlying the effect of moderate and transient hypoxic exposure on mental rotation of two-dimensional letters in both normal and mirror versions. Event-related potential data and behavioral data were acquired in the task of discrimination between normal and mirrored versions separately in conditions of normoxia (simulated sea level) and hypoxia conditions (simulated 5000 meter altitude). The behavioral results revealed no significant difference between the normoxia and hypoxia conditions both in response time and error rate. However, obvious differences between these two conditions in ERP were found. First, enlarged P300 and Rotation-related Negativity (RRN) were observed in the hypoxia condition compared to the normoxia condition only with normal letters. Second, the angle effect on the amplitude of RRN was more evident with normal letters in the hypoxia condition than that in the normoxia condition. However, this angle effect nearly disappeared with the mirrored letters in the hypoxia condition. Third, more bilateral parietal activation was observed in the hypoxia condition than the normoxia condition. These results suggested that the compensation mechanism existed in the hypoxia condition and was effective with normal letters but had little effect on the mirrored letters. This study extends the research about the hypoxic effect on spatial ability of humans by employing a mental rotation task and further provides neural evidence for this effect. PMID:27144444

  10. "Test" is a Four Letter Word

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, G M

    2005-05-03

    For a number of years I had the pleasure of teaching Testing Seminars all over the world and meeting and learning from others in our field. Over a twelve year period, I always asked the following questions to Software Developers, Test Engineers, and Managers who took my two or three day seminar on Software Testing: 'When was the first time you heard the word test'? 'Where were you when you first heard the word test'? 'Who said the word test'? 'How did the word test make you feel'? Most of the thousands of responses were similar to 'It was my third grade teacher at school, and I felt nervous and afraid'. Now there were a few exceptions like 'It was my third grade teacher, and I was happy and excited to show how smart I was'. But by and large, my informal survey found that 'testing' is a word to which most people attach negative meanings, based on its historical context. So why is this important to those of us in the software development business? Because I have found that a preponderance of software developers do not get real excited about hearing that the software they just wrote is going to be 'tested' by the Test Group. Typical reactions I have heard over the years run from: 'I'm sure there is nothing wrong with the software, so go ahead and test it, better you find defects than our customers'. to these extremes: 'There is no need to test my software because there is nothing wrong with it'. 'You are not qualified to test my software because you don't know as much as I do about it'. 'If any Test Engineers come into our office again to test our software we will throw them through the third floor window'. So why is there such a strong negative reaction to testing? It is primitive. It goes back to grade school for many of us. It is a negative word that congers up negative emotions. In other words, 'test' is a four letter word. How many of us associate 'Joy' with 'Test'? Not many. It is hard for most of us to reprogram associations learned at an early age. So what can

  11. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2010-05-01

    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  12. Boscovich: scientist and man of letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proverbio, E.

    Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich (1711-1781) is known as one of the most important scientists of the second half of XVIII century, but he was active also as a man of letters, especially through an abundant production of poems in Latin verse. We try to interpret these two, apparently antinomic, aspects of his character in the framework of the culture of his epoch, in which science and literary productions were not considered as two separate or opposite fields, but only two different aspects of human knowledge. In particular we review the field of his poetic production in which this fundamental unity of knowledge is most evident, namely his poems with didactic-scientific subjects, which are examples of high-level popularization of the latest progresses in science (in particular astronomy and Newtonian physics) by means of elegant Latin verse.

  13. Analysis of Letter Name Knowledge Using Rasch Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Justice, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Letter name knowledge (LNK) is a key predictor of later reading ability and has been emphasized strongly in recent educational policy. Studies of LNK have implicitly treated it as a unidimensional construct with all letters equally relevant to its measurement. However, some empirical research suggests that contextual factors can affect the…

  14. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 310 - Sample Notification Letter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample Notification Letter B Appendix B to Part 310 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Pt. 310, App. B Appendix B to Part 310—Sample Notification Letter (See § 310.14 of subpart C) Dear Mr....

  15. 48 CFR 432.406 - Letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Letters of credit. 432.406... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 432.406 Letters of credit. The HCA is... of credit....

  16. 12 CFR 614.4720 - Letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Letters of credit. 614.4720 Section 614.4720 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4720 Letters of credit....

  17. 48 CFR 432.406 - Letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letters of credit. 432.406... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 432.406 Letters of credit. The HCA is... of credit....

  18. 40 CFR 280.99 - Letter of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the requirements of 40 CFR 280.93. This letter of credit is effective as of and shall expire on , but... credit is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 280.99(b) as such regulations were constituted on... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Letter of credit. 280.99 Section...

  19. 40 CFR 280.99 - Letter of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the requirements of 40 CFR 280.93. This letter of credit is effective as of and shall expire on , but... credit is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 280.99(b) as such regulations were constituted on... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Letter of credit. 280.99 Section...

  20. Exploring Nonfiction through Depression-Era Letter Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ousley, Denise M.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that by exploring Depression-era teens' letter writing, language arts teachers can enjoy more fruitful uses of nonfiction with their students. Discusses how reading, analyzing, and responding to the letters could help minimize the widening gap between the 1930s and the twenty-first century. Concludes that researching everyday Americans'…

  1. 26 CFR 601.201 - Rulings and determinations letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rulings and determinations letters. 601.201 Section 601.201 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Rulings and Other Specific Matters § 601.201 Rulings and determinations letters. (a)...

  2. 26 CFR 601.201 - Rulings and determinations letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rulings and determinations letters. 601.201 Section 601.201 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Rulings and Other Specific Matters § 601.201 Rulings and determinations letters. (a)...

  3. 26 CFR 601.201 - Rulings and determinations letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rulings and determinations letters. 601.201 Section 601.201 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Rulings and Other Specific Matters § 601.201 Rulings and determinations letters. (a)...

  4. 26 CFR 601.201 - Rulings and determinations letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rulings and determinations letters. 601.201 Section 601.201 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Rulings and Other Specific Matters § 601.201 Rulings and determinations letters. (a)...

  5. Letter Directionality Test, Word Directionality Test, and Sentence Directionality Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Brian T.

    Designed to measure the subject's ability to discriminate among alphabetic letters varied over three spatial dimensions (left-right, vertical, and combination left-right and vertical), the tests can be administered in groups and take about twenty minutes to complete. Ten letters of the alphabet were selected for assymetry (for example, b-d) and…

  6. Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Sexuality Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education" reinforces scriptural and theological commitments to truth-telling in calling for "full and honest education about sexual and reproductive health." This "Open Letter" was published in 2002, at about the midpoint of a decade-long federal government commitment to…

  7. 33 CFR 157.142 - Letter of acceptance: Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Letter of acceptance: Inspections. 157.142 Section 157.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.142 Letter of...

  8. 33 CFR 157.142 - Letter of acceptance: Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Letter of acceptance: Inspections. 157.142 Section 157.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.142 Letter of...

  9. 33 CFR 157.204 - Letter of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Letter of acceptance. 157.204 Section 157.204 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.204 Letter of acceptance. The Coast...

  10. 33 CFR 157.204 - Letter of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Letter of acceptance. 157.204 Section 157.204 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.204 Letter of acceptance. The Coast...

  11. Strengthening the Ethics and Visual Rhetoric of Sales Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Linda Stallworth

    2008-01-01

    This article provides details about a comprehensive assignment for teaching sales letters in a business communication course. During the past 5 years, this assignment has evolved, moving beyond one that focused almost exclusively on strategies for making the letter persuasive, and therefore effective, to an expanded form that devotes time and…

  12. Teaching Braille Letters, Numerals, Punctuation, and Contractions to Sighted Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Brittany C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also…

  13. 44 CFR 70.5 - Letter of Map Amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program PROCEDURE FOR MAP CORRECTION Mapping Deficiencies Unrelated to Community-Wide Elevation Determinations § 70.5 Letter of Map... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Letter of Map Amendment....

  14. 44 CFR 70.5 - Letter of Map Amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program PROCEDURE FOR MAP CORRECTION Mapping Deficiencies Unrelated to Community-Wide Elevation Determinations § 70.5 Letter of Map... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Letter of Map Amendment....

  15. 44 CFR 70.5 - Letter of Map Amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program PROCEDURE FOR MAP CORRECTION Mapping Deficiencies Unrelated to Community-Wide Elevation Determinations § 70.5 Letter of Map... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Letter of Map Amendment....

  16. Trends in the Employment Process: Resumes and Job Application Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, Neld; Wells, Barron

    1999-01-01

    Surveys of Fortune 500 companies in 1978, 1985, and 1995 revealed trends and preferences in content of resumes and cover letters. Compared to earlier years, current preferences were for both letters and resumes in the initial contact, more emphasis on grammar and spelling, and acceptance of two-page resumes. (SK)

  17. 40 CFR 280.99 - Letter of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the requirements of 40 CFR 280.93. This letter of credit is effective as of and shall expire on , but... credit is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 280.99(b) as such regulations were constituted on... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Letter of credit. 280.99 Section...

  18. 48 CFR 432.406 - Letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Letters of credit. 432.406... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 432.406 Letters of credit. The HCA is... of credit....

  19. Professional Citation Practices in Child Maltreatment Forensic Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schryer, Catherine F.; Bell, Stephanie; Mian, Marcellina; Spafford, Marlee M.; Lingard, Lorelei

    2011-01-01

    Using rhetorical genre theory and research on reported speech, this study investigates the citation practices in 81 forensic letters written by paediatricians and nurse practitioners that provide their opinion for the courts as to whether a child has experienced maltreatment. These letters exist in a complex social situation where a lack of…

  20. 44 CFR 70.5 - Letter of Map Amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Letter of Map Amendment. 70.5... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program PROCEDURE FOR MAP CORRECTION Mapping Deficiencies Unrelated to Community-Wide Elevation Determinations § 70.5 Letter of...

  1. Communication in Latin America: An Analysis of Guatemalan Business Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conaway, Roger N.; Wardrope, William J.

    2004-01-01

    The format and structure of 150 Spanish-language letters written by business administrators in Guatemalan firms were analyzed to help determine how Latin American business writers organize and present information in various types of routine letters. Findings suggest that Latin American businesspeople follow some, but not all, of the format…

  2. 50 CFR 218.35 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applications for Letters of Authorization. 218.35 Section 218.35 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Range Complex § 218.35 Applications for Letters of Authorization. To incidentally take marine...

  3. 48 CFR 816.7001 - Letters of availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to the Government, the prospective contractor, or both. If the author of the letter of availability... the action is contrary to sound procurement practices and/or fiscal regulations. If the author of the... seek to hold the unauthorized author personally liable. (iii) The issuance of a letter of...

  4. 48 CFR 816.7001 - Letters of availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to the Government, the prospective contractor, or both. If the author of the letter of availability... the action is contrary to sound procurement practices and/or fiscal regulations. If the author of the... seek to hold the unauthorized author personally liable. (iii) The issuance of a letter of...

  5. Character Invention in the Letters of Maimie Pinzer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, A. Cheree

    1995-01-01

    Presents a case study of autobiographical letters written by a turn-of-the-century prostitute to a Boston matron. Shows how, in creating a narrative of her life, the author of the letters uses several rhetorical strategies to recreate her character to persuade her audience (and herself) that she is worthy of respect. (SR)

  6. Vamos a Jugar con Letras (Let's Play with Letters).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadilla de Ruibal, Carmen Alicia

    This Spanish language workbook is intended to help elementary school children learn the Spanish alphabet. Each page presents a letter of the alphabet, a number of Spanish words beginning with that letter, and pen and ink drawings illustrating some of the words. The drawings are suitable for coloring. (AMH)

  7. 44 CFR 70.5 - Letter of Map Amendment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter of Map Amendment. 70.5... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program PROCEDURE FOR MAP CORRECTION Mapping Deficiencies Unrelated to Community-Wide Elevation Determinations § 70.5 Letter of...

  8. Mud, Blood, and Bullet Holes: Teaching History with War Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    From handwritten letters of the American Revolution to typed emails from Iraq and Afghanistan, correspondence from U.S. troops offers students deep insight into the specific conflicts and experiences of soldiers. Over 100,000 correspondences have been donated to the Legacy Project, a national initiative launched in 1998 to preserve war letters by…

  9. Phonological Awareness, Speech Development, and Letter Knowledge in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Virginia A.; Foy, Judith G.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the interrelations of speech skills and letter knowledge to the phonological awareness and early reading skills of 99 preschool children. Findings indicated that phoneme awareness, but not rhyme awareness, correlated with early reading measures and that phoneme manipulation was closely associated with letter knowledge and with…

  10. 48 CFR 432.406 - Letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Letters of credit. 432.406... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 432.406 Letters of credit. The HCA is... of credit....

  11. 48 CFR 432.406 - Letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Letters of credit. 432.406... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 432.406 Letters of credit. The HCA is... of credit....

  12. The Overlap Model: A Model of Letter Position Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Pablo; Ratcliff, Roger; Perea, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has shown that letter identity and letter position are not integral perceptual dimensions (e.g., jugde primes judge in word-recognition experiments). Most comprehensive computational models of visual word recognition (e.g., the interactive activation model, J. L. McClelland & D. E. Rumelhart, 1981, and its successors) assume that…

  13. 12 CFR 614.4720 - Letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Letters of credit. 614.4720 Section 614.4720 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4720 Letters of credit....

  14. Letter Names Help Children to Connect Print and Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Two studies examined young children's ability to name the first letter of spoken words, finding that although children were good at telling that "beech" and "beaver" began with "b," some stated that "wife" began with "y" and that "seem" began with "c." These errors reflect the letter names at the beginnings of the spoken words. (MDM)

  15. Transposed-Letter Priming of Prelexical Orthographic Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A prime generated by transposing two internal letters (e.g., jugde) produces strong priming of the original word (judge). In lexical decision, this transposed-letter (TL) priming effect is generally weak or absent for nonword targets; thus, it is unclear whether the origin of this effect is lexical or prelexical. The authors describe the Bayesian…

  16. Secondary Students' Internalization of Letter-Sound Correspondences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Randall J.; Graves, Michael F.

    1980-01-01

    A study of seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-grade students' ability to apply letter-sound correspondence to synthetic words indicates that, although by seventh grade, students have largely mastered letter-sound correspondences, low ability students do not approach the same mastery as average and high ability students until the eleventh grade. (JMF)

  17. Letter order is not coded by open bigrams

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Open bigram (OB) models (e.g., SERIOL: Whitney, 2001, 2008; Binary OB, Grainger & van Heuven, 2003; Overlap OB, Grainger et al., 2006; Local combination detector model, Dehaene et al., 2005) posit that letter order in a word is coded by a set of ordered letter pairs. We report three experiments using bigram primes in the same-different match task, investigating the effects of order reversal and the number of letters intervening between the letters in the target. Reversed bigrams (e.g., fo-OF, ob-ABOLISH) produced robust priming, in direct contradiction to the assumption that letter order is coded by the presence of ordered letter pairs. Also in contradiction to the core assumption of current open bigram models, non-contiguous bigrams spanning three letters in the target (e.g., bs-ABOLISH) showed robust priming effects, equivalent in size to contiguous bigrams (e.g., bo-ABOLISH). These results question the role of open bigrams in coding letter order. PMID:23914048

  18. 78 FR 26573 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Irrevocable Letters of Credit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... of Federal Procurement Policy Letters, 65 FR 36014) removed the FAR references to OFPP Policy Letter... (see 65 FR 16968). However, the reference to OFPP Pamphlet No. 7 remained in FAR Part 28 because the... the SEC. (3) The rating services listed in the Web site above use different rating scales (e.g.,...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 310 - Sample Notification Letter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Notification Letter B Appendix B to Part...) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Pt. 310, App. B Appendix B to Part 310—Sample Notification Letter (See... place an initial fraud alert on your credit file. The Fraud alert is for a period of 90 days,...

  20. Learning about the Civil War through Soldiers' Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how students in an American history class learned about the Civil War through soldiers' letters. Letters from the Civil War era come in a variety of styles and syntax. Some are easy to read while others are extremely difficult to transcribe. But every one of them speaks to the reader, revealing an unknown entity from another…