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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington – Feasibility Assessment  

SciTech Connect

A hydrodynamic and hydrologic modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of restoring natural estuarine functions and tidal marine wetlands habitat in the Chinook River estuary, located near the mouth of the Columbia River in Washington. The reduction in salmonid populations is attributable primarily to the construction of a Highway 101 overpass across the mouth of the Chinook River in the early 1920s with a tide gate under the overpass. This construction, which was designed to eliminate tidal action in the estuary, has impeded the upstream passage of salmonids. The goal of the Chinook River Restoration Project is to restore tidal functions through the estuary, by removing the tide gate at the mouth of the river, filling drainage ditches, restoring tidal swales, and reforesting riparian areas. The hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) was used to compute Chinook River and tributary inflows for use as input to the hydrodynamic model at the project area boundary. The hydrodynamic model (RMA-10) was used to generate information on water levels, velocities, salinity, and inundation during both normal tides and 100-year storm conditions under existing conditions and under the restoration alternatives. The RMA-10 model was extended well upstream of the normal tidal flats into the watershed domain to correctly simulate flooding anddrainage with tidal effects included, using the wetting and drying schemes. The major conclusion of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling study was that restoration of the tidal functions in the Chinook River estuary would be feasible through opening or removal of the tide gate. Implementation of the preferred alternative (removal of the tide gate, restoration of the channel under Hwy 101 to a 200-foot width, and construction of an internal levee inside the project area) would provide the required restorations benefits (inundation, habitat, velocities, and salinity penetration, etc.) and meet flood protection requirements. The alternative design included design of storage such that relatively little difference in the drainage or inundation upstream of Chinook River Valley Road would occur as a result of the proposed restoration activities.

Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Kristanovich, Felix C.

2006-01-01

2

Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington – Feasibility Assessment  

SciTech Connect

A hydrodynamic and hydrologic modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of restoring natural estuarine functions and tidal marine wetlands habitat in the Chinook River estuary, located near the mouth of the Columbia River in Washington. The reduction in salmonid populations is attributable primarily to the construction of a Highway 101 overpass across the mouth of the Chinook River in the early 1920s with a tide gate under the overpass. This construction, which was designed to eliminate tidal action in the estuary, has impeded the upstream passage of salmonids. The goal of the Chinook River Restoration Project is to restore tidal functions through the estuary, by removing the tide gate at the mouth of the river, filling drainage ditches, restoring tidal swales, and reforesting riparian areas. The hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) was used to compute Chinook River and tributary inflows for use as input to the hydrodynamic model at the project area boundary. The hydrodynamic model (RMA-10) was used to generate information on water levels, velocities, salinity, and inundation during both normal tides and 100-year storm conditions under existing conditions and under the restoration alternatives. The RMA-10 model was extended well upstream of the normal tidal flats into the watershed domain to correctly simulate flooding and drainage with tidal effects included, using the wetting and drying schemes. The major conclusion of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling study was that restoration of the tidal functions in the Chinook River estuary would be feasible through opening or removal of the tide gate. Implementation of the preferred alternative (removal of the tide gate, restoration of the channel under Hwy 101 to a 200-foot width, and construction of an internal levee inside the project area) would provide the required restorations benefits (inundation, habitat, velocities, and salinity penetration, etc.) and meet flood protection requirements. The alternative design included design of storage such that relatively little difference in the drainage or inundation upstream of Chinook River Valley Road would occur as a result of the proposed restoration activities.

Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Kristanovich, Felix C.

2006-08-03

3

Preconstruction water quality monitoring of the Upper Susquehanna River Watershed-Cooperstown Area Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study And Integrated Environmental Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

From March to September 2003, the Biological Field Station conducted weekly pre-construction water quality monitoring at three sites selected in the United States Army Corps of Engineers Upper Susquehanna River Watershed-Cooperstown Area Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study And Integrated Environmental Assessment. The sites monitored were Daley, Palumbo and Rum Hill (the latter serving as a reference site). Monitoring consisted of chemical,

S. S. Fickbohm

4

Compliance work for food contact materials: feasibility of the legally required safety assessment of an epoxy/amine-based coating for domestic water pipe restoration.  

PubMed

Options were explored for fulfilling the legally required safety assessment for a widely applied epoxy/amine coating used for restoring corroded domestic drinking water supply systems. The coating was made up of two components mixed shortly before application, the first mainly consisting of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), the second of various amines. The analytically identified starting substances were all authorised, but only constituted a small proportion of the low molecular mass material left after curing and potentially migrating into water. Reaction products synthesised from constituents of the starting components (expected oligomers) could not be eluted from GC even after derivatisation, indicating that standard GC-MS screening would miss most potential migrants. They were detectable by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) after acetylation. HPLC with MS or fluorescence detection was possible for constituents including a BADGE moiety, but phenalkamines could not be detected with adequate sensitivity. Possibilities for determining long-term migration relevant for chronic toxicity are discussed. Analysis in water shortly after application of the coating overestimates migration if migration decreases over time and requires detection limits far out of reach. Analysis of a solvent extract of the coating is easier and provides an upper estimate of what could migrate into the drinking water over the years. However, to satisfy the regulatory requirements, components of the complex mixture need to be identified at lower proportions than those accessible. In vitro testing of the whole mixture for genotoxicity is expected to fail because of the required sensitivity and the glycidyl functions probably wrongly resulting in positive tests. The difficulties in dealing with this situation are discussed. PMID:24761990

Tillner, Jocelyn; Grob, Koni

2014-07-01

5

Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the feasibility study project phase  

SciTech Connect

Feasibility studies (FS) determine what remedial alternatives are presented to regulators for site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best remedial option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user in incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FS phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments.

Not Available

1993-09-01

6

78 FR 16656 - Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for Natural Resource...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for...Availability of the Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for...entitled, ``Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment...

2013-03-18

7

Feasibility Assessment of the Service Delivery Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this component of the evaluation, the Circles of Care grantees assessed the feasibility of their model systems of care. The goal of the Feasibility Assessment was to assure that each model system of care was well designed with careful consideration of project goals, community resources and readiness, cultural competence and measurable outcomes.

Coll, Kenneth M.; Mohatt, Gerald; LeMaster, Pamela L.

2004-01-01

8

Authentic Assessment for Restorative Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developmental Audit[R] is a comprehensive means of assessment and treatment planning that identifies the coping strategies underlying a youth's maladaptive and self-defeating behavior. This is a strength-based assessment that engages youth in conflict in the process of generating solutions rather than focusing on deficits. This process…

Doerr, Allison

2008-01-01

9

NTRE extended life feasibility assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a feasibility analysis of a long life, reusable nuclear thermal rocket engine are presented in text and graph form. Two engine/reactor concepts are addressed: the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) design and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) concept. Engine design, integration, reliability, and safety are addressed by various members of the NTRE team from Aerojet Propulsion Division, Energopool (Russia), and Babcock & Wilcox.

1993-01-01

10

PATHOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT FEASIBILITY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report evaluates the practicality of formulating guidelines to assess the risk associated with exposure to pathogens in sludge. Risk assessment may be used to determine the likelihood that an environmental agent may cause human disease (that is, potential to cause human cance...

11

A High Resolution Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound to Support Nearshore Restoration Feasibility Analysis and Design  

SciTech Connect

Estuarine and coastal hydrodynamic processes are sometimes neglected in the design and planning of nearshore restoration actions. Despite best intentions, efforts to restore nearshore habitats can result in poor outcomes if circulation and transport which also affect freshwater-saltwater interactions are not properly addressed. Limitations due to current land use can lead to selection of sub-optimal restoration alternatives that may result in undesirable consequences, such as flooding, deterioration of water quality, and erosion, requiring immediate remedies and costly repairs. Uncertainty with achieving restoration goals, such as recovery of tidal exchange, supply of sediment and nutrients, and establishment of fish migration pathways, may be minimized by using numerical models designed for application to the nearshore environment. A high resolution circulation and transport model of the Puget Sound, in the state of Washington, was developed to assist with nearshore habitat restoration design and analysis, and to answer the question “can we achieve beneficial restoration outcomes at small local scale, as well as at a large estuary-wide scale?” The Puget Sound model is based on an unstructured grid framework to define the complex Puget Sound shoreline using a finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM). The capability of the model for simulating the important nearshore processes, such as circulation in complex multiple tidal channels, wetting and drying of tide flats, and water quality and sediment transport as part of restoration feasibility, are illustrated through examples of restoration projects in Puget Sound.

Khangaonkar, Tarang; Yang, Zhaoqing

2011-01-01

12

Survival of ART restorations assessed using selected FDI and modified ART restoration criteria.  

PubMed

A new set of criteria for assessing the quality of restorations using modern restorative materials, named FDI criteria, was recently introduced. This study tested the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in survival estimate percentages of ART restorations assessed using selected FDI and modified ART criteria after 1 and 5 years. One operator placed a total of 60 class I and 30 Class II high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART restorations in ninety 14- to 15-year-olds. Two calibrated and independent evaluators using both criteria evaluated restorations on diestone replicas at baseline and after 1 and 5 years. Statistical analyses were done using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. The survival results of ART restorations assessed using both sets of criteria after 1 and 5 years (p?=?0.27) did not differ significantly. Three ART restorations were assessed as failures according to the ART criteria, while they were assessed as survived using the FDI criteria. We conclude that the modified ART criteria enable reliable assessment of ART restorations in permanent teeth from diestone replicas and that there was no significant difference in survival estimates of ART restorations assessed using both sets of criteria. The null hypothesis was accepted. PMID:20372951

Farag, Abeer; van der Sanden, Wil J M; Abdelwahab, Hisran; Frencken, Jo E

2011-06-01

13

Integrated Assessment of Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in desertification and land degradation research have provided valuable conceptual and analytical frameworks, degradation indicators, assessment tools and surveillance systems with respect to desertification drivers, processes, and impacts. These findings, together with stakeholders’ perceptions and local/regional knowledge, have helped to define and propose measures and strategies to combat land degradation. However, integrated and comprehensive assessment and evaluation of prevention and restoration strategies and techniques to combat desertification is still lacking, and knowledge on the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the proposed strategies over a wide range of environmental and socio-economic conditions is very scarce. To address this challenge, we have launched a multinational project (PRACTICE - Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification. An Integrated Assessment), funded by the European Commission, in order to link S & T advances and traditional knowledge on prevention and restoration practices to combat desertification with sound implementation, learning and adaptive management, knowledge sharing, and dissemination of best practices. The key activities for pursuing this goal are (1) to establish a platform and information system of long-term monitoring sites for assessing sustainable management and actions to combat desertification, (2) to define an integrated protocol for the assessment of these actions, and (3) to link project assessment and evaluation with training and education, adaptive management, and knowledge sharing and dissemination through a participatory approach involving scientists, managers, technicians, financial officers, and members of the public who are/were impacted by the desertification control projects. Monitoring sites are distributed in the Mediterranean Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal), Africa (Morocco, Namibia, South Africa), Middle East (Israel), China, and South and North America (Chile, Mexico, and USA). PRACTICE integrated assessment protocol (IAPro) assumes the mutual human-environment interactions in land-use/cover change at multiple scales, and therefore adopts an integrated approach, which simultaneously considers both biophysical and socio-economic attributes, for assessing actions to combat desertification. IAPro mostly relies on critical slow variables and particularly exploits long-term monitoring data. Integration of biophysical and socio-economic assessment indicators and stakeholder preferences is based on a participatory multi-criteria decision making process. The process is iterative and provides a framework for knowledge exchange and a path to consensus building.

Bautista, S.; Orr, B. J.; Vallejo, R.

2009-12-01

14

78 FR 16655 - Draft Damage Assessment, Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Draft Damage Assessment, Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for...Availability of a Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for...written a Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental...

2013-03-18

15

ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RESTORATION TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous stream and riparian restoration projects are being undertaken across the nation at a variety of scales and for disparate reasons. Unfortunately, there are very few studies associated with these restoration efforts which provide a consistent and practical methodology to e...

16

Trailing Ballute Aerocapture: Concept and Feasibility Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trailing Ballute Aerocapture offers the potential to obtain orbit insertion around a planetary body at a fraction of the mass of traditional methods. This allows for lower costs for launch, faster flight times and additional mass available for science payloads. The technique involves an inflated ballute (balloon-parachute) that provides aerodynamic drag area for use in the atmosphere of a planetary body to provide for orbit insertion in a relatively benign heating environment. To account for atmospheric, navigation and other uncertainties, the ballute is oversized and detached once the desired velocity change (Delta V) has been achieved. Analysis and trades have been performed for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of the technique including aerophysics, material assessments, inflation system and deployment sequence and dynamics, configuration trades, ballute separation and trajectory analysis. Outlined is the technology development required for advancing the technique to a level that would allow it to be viable for use in space exploration missions.

Miller, Kevin L.; Gulick, Doug; Lewis, Jake; Trochman, Bill; Stein, Jim; Lyons, Daniel T.; Wilmoth, Richard G.

2003-01-01

17

Feasibility of a femoral nerve motor branch for transfer to the pudendal nerve for restoring continence: a cadaveric study  

PubMed Central

Object Nerve transfers are an effective means of restoring control to paralyzed somatic muscle groups and, recently, even denervated detrusor muscle. The authors performed a cadaveric pilot project to examine the feasibility of restoring control to the urethral and anal sphincters using a femoral motor nerve branch to reinnervate the pudendal nerve through a perineal approach. Methods Eleven cadavers were dissected bilaterally to expose the pudendal and femoral nerve branches. Pertinent landmarks and distances that could be used to locate these nerves were assessed and measured, as were nerve cross-sectional areas. Results A long motor branch of the femoral nerve was followed into the distal vastus medialis muscle for a distance of 17.4 ± 0.8 cm, split off from the main femoral nerve trunk, and transferred medially and superiorly to the pudendal nerve in the Alcock canal, a distance of 13.7 ± 0.71 cm. This was performed via a perineal approach. The cross-sectional area of the pudendal nerve was 5.64 ± 0.49 mm2, and the femoral nerve motor branch at the suggested transection site was 4.40 ± 0.41 mm2. Conclusions The use of a femoral nerve motor branch to the vastus medialis muscle for heterotopic nerve transfer to the pudendal nerve is surgically feasible, based on anatomical location and cross-sectional areas.

Barbe, Mary F.; Brown, Justin M.; Pontari, Michel A.; Dean, Gregory E.; Braverman, Alan S.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

2012-01-01

18

76 FR 61089 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal Years 2009 and 2010...Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal Years 2009 and 2010...Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program (DARRP) is announcing...

2011-10-03

19

78 FR 53425 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY...Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 2012...Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program (DARRP) is announcing...

2013-08-29

20

76 FR 65182 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal Years 2009 and 2010...Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program (DARRP) is announcing new...natural resource damage assessment and restoration activities for fiscal years (FY)...

2011-10-20

21

77 FR 57074 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY...Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 2011...Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program (DARRP) is announcing...

2012-09-17

22

75 FR 22737 - Final Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan for the Bayou Verdine and Calcasieu River  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Final Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan for the Bayou Verdine and Calcasieu...entitled, ``Final Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for...The Final DARP/EA identifies the restoration project that the Trustees have...

2010-04-30

23

Command Oil Spill. Final Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final Restoration Plan (RP) and Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information regarding the affected environment, natural resource and human use injuries resulting from the Command Spill into the waters off of the San Mateo coast. This document ...

2004-01-01

24

Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

Not Available

1993-10-01

25

Integrating natural resource damage assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

NONE

1993-10-01

26

77 FR 37432 - Final Springfield Plateau Regional Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment and Finding of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Final Springfield Plateau Regional Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment and...the Final Springfield Plateau Regional Restoration Plan (Plan) and Environmental Assessment...provides for natural resource--based restoration using a tiered project selection...

2012-06-21

27

Wind Resource and Feasibility Assessment Report for the Lummi Reservation  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the wind resource on the Lummi Indian Reservation (Washington State) and presents the methodology, assumptions, and final results of the wind energy development feasibility assessment, which included an assessment of biological impacts and noise impacts.

DNV Renewables (USA) Inc.; J.C. Brennan & Associates, Inc.; Hamer Environmental L.P.

2012-08-31

28

A Preliminary Stream Assessment for Watershed Restoration1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of Laurel Run, Indiana County, was conducted in the summer of 2001 through a partnership effort between the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and Stream Restoration Inc. The purpose of the assessment was to evaluate the potential recoverability of a stream affected by abandoned mine drainage (AMD) before construction of a passive treatment system in the headwaters of

Scott Alexander; Shaun L. Busler; Cliff Denholm; Timothy Danehy; Margaret Dunn

29

Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study  

SciTech Connect

Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

Yang, Zhaoqing; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Thom, Ronald M.; Fuller, Roger

2010-04-10

30

77 FR 23741 - DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY...the Framework Agreement for Early Restoration Addressing Injuries Resulting from the...Trustees) have approved the Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental...

2012-04-20

31

76 FR 78016 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY...and the Framework Agreement for Early Restoration Addressing Injuries Resulting from the...Trustees) have prepared a Draft Early Restoration Plan and Environmental...

2011-12-15

32

Feasibility assessment of electromechanical batteries for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have assessed the current feasibility of substituting multi-shell composite flywheel motor-generators (electromechanical batteries) for electrochemical batteries in electric vehicles. We present two conceptual designs using the latest materials and technology. Feasibility was evaluated in terms of performance predictions based upon consistent and optimistic analytical models of components for these conceptual designs. We review various approaches for performance improvement. The

W. J. Comfort; S. E. Bumpas; T. A. Edmunds; A. R. Hall; A. D. Lamont; H. K. McCue; E. Zywicz

1992-01-01

33

A RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR SOCIAL ASSESSMENT OF LAKE RESTORATION PROGRAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The research was initiated in order to examine the social implications of lake restoration programs and to develop a standardized methodology for social impact assessment. A cultural ecological model is employed since it provides perspectives on the relationship of human adaptati...

34

RESTORING HAZARDOUS SPILL-DAMAGED AREAS: TECHNIQUE IDENTIFICATION/ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this study was to identify and assess methods that could be used to accelerate the restoration of lands damaged by spills of hazardous materials. The literature was reviewed to determine what response methods had been used in the past to clean up spills on land and id...

35

Cle Elum Lake Sockeye Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study, 1987-1989 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes research activities conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) from July 1988 through March 1989 relating to the Cle Elum Lake sockeye salmon restoration feasibility study. During this period, efforts focused on collection and spawning of adult sockeye salmon from the Wenatchee River, incubation of eggs from the 1988-brood, and the rearing of juveniles from the 1987-brood. In late July and early August 1988, 520 adult sockeye salmon were captured at fishways on the Wenatchee River and transferred to net-pens in Lake Wenatchee. Fish were held to maturity in late September and early October, spawned, and eggs incubated at a quarantine hatchery in Seattle, WA. The 336 sockeye salmon successfully spawned from the net-pens at Lake Wenatchee were surveyed for the presence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) and other replicating viruses. In addition, 13 and 5 sockeye salmon spawners were surveyed from spawning grounds on the White and Little Wenatchee Rivers, respectively, from within the Lake Wenatchee system. 12 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Flagg, Thomas A.

1990-02-01

36

Technical Feasibility of Tele-Assessments for Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical feasibility was evaluated for conducting standard motor assessment instruments in a remote setting. Remote assessment was compared to co-located assessment for five evaluation instruments. Developing teleassessment methods is important for delivering rehabilitation services to those whose access is limited by distance or the ability to travel to comprehensive rehabilitation clinics. The five clinical measures utilized were joint range of

William K. Durfee; Lynda Savard; Samantha Weinstein

2006-01-01

37

Remedidal investigation and feasibility study report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the remedial investigation (RI) is to collect data necessary to adequately characterize the site for the purpose of developing and evaluating effective remedial alternatives. To characterize the site, the lead agency shall, as appropriate, conduct field investigations, including treatability studies, and conduct a baseline risk assessment. The RI provides information to assess the risks to human health and the environment and to support the development, evaluation, and selection of appropriate response alternatives. The primary objective of the feasibility study (FS) is to ensure that appropriate remedial alternatives are developed and evaluated such that relevant information concerning the remedial action options can be presented to a decision-maker and an appropriate remedy selected. The lead agency may develop a feasibility study to address a specific site problem or the entire site. The development and evaluation of alternatives shall reflect the scope and complexity of the remedial action under consideration and the site problems being addressed. Development of alternatives shall be fully integrated with the site characterization activities of the remedial investigation described in paragraph (d) of this section. The lead agency shall include an alternatives screening step, when needed, to select a reasonable number of alternatives for detailed analysis.

Roeck, F.V.

1994-06-01

38

Feasibility of modern airships - Preliminary assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to the NASA program, Feasibility Study of Modern Airships, initiated to investigate potential research and technology programs associated with airship development. A historical survey of the program is presented, including the development of past airship concepts, aerodynamical and design improvements, structure and material concepts, and research in controls, avionics, instrumentation, flight operations, and ground handling. A mission analysis was carried out which considered passenger and cargo transportation, heavy-lift, short-haul applications, surveillance missions, and the transportation of natural gas. A vehicle parametric analysis examined the entire range of airship concepts, discussing both conventional airships and hybrids. Various design options were evaluated, such as choice of structural materials, use of boundary-layer control, and choice of lifting gas.

Ardema, M. D.

1977-01-01

39

MRS feasibility assessment grant technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

On January 13, 1993, Governor of the State of Utah, Mike Leavitt officially announced that he was opposing a MRS Facility in the State of Utah and informed San Juan County of his decision which will preclude the County from applying for a Phase IIa feasibility grant. A copy of the policy statement made by Governor Leavitt is included in this report. Additionally, a bill in the State House of Representative has been filed opposing the facility. A copy of the bill is also included. The work accomplished under Phase I, indicated that there was about an equal amount of residents in San Juan County opposed and in favor of the facility. There were many concerns and issues presented during the Phase I grant period that would have been continued to Phase IIa, if allowed, including the citizen committee.

Not Available

1993-01-01

40

Designing and Assessing Restored Meandering River Planform Using RVR Meander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ongoing modification and resulting reduction in water quality of U.S. rivers have led to a significant increase in river restoration projects over the last two decades. The increased interest in restoring degraded streams, however, has not necessarily led to improved stream function. Palmer and Allan (2005) found that many restoration projects fail to achieve their objectives due to the lack of policies to support restoration standards, to promote proven methods and to provide basic data needed for planning and implementation. Proven models of in-stream and riparian processes could be used not only to guide the design of restoration projects but also to assess both pre- and post-project indicators of ecological integrity. One of the most difficult types of river restoration projects concern reconstructing a new channel, often with an alignment and channel form different from those of the degraded pre-project channel. Recreating a meandering planform to provide longitudinal and lateral variability of flow and bed morphology to improve in-stream aquatic habitat is often desired. Channel meander planform is controlled by a multitude of variables, for example channel width to depth ratio, radius of curvature to channel width ratio, bankfull discharge, roughness, bed-material physical characteristics, bed material transport, resistance to erosion of the floodplain soils, riparian vegetation, etc. Therefore, current practices that use simple, empirically based relationships or reference reaches have led to failure in several instances, for example a washing out of meander bends or a highly unstable planform, because they fail to address the site-specific conditions. Recently, progress has been made to enhance a physically- and process-based model, RVR Meander, for rapid analysis of meandering river morphodynamics with reduced empiricism. For example, lateral migration is based on measurable physical properties of the floodplain soils and riparian vegetation versus the driving forces of the river hydrodynamics. The model can also be used in a Monte Carlo framework to statistically describe the long-term evolution of the meander planform. RVR Meander has been successfully used to evaluate migration rates of restored meandering streams and bends on the Big Sioux River, SD and Trout Creek, CA at engineering time scales. It has also been used to assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the alignment of the meandering low-flow channel of the planned diversion of the Red River of the North around the metropolitan area of Fargo, ND and Moorhead, MN. Palmer MA, Allan JD. 2005. Restoring rivers, Issues in Science and Technology, Winter 2006, Published by National Academy of Sciences, 22: 40-48.

Langendoen, E. J.; Abad, J. D.; Motta, D.; Frias, C. E.; Wong, M.; Barnes, B. J.; Anderson, C. D.; Garcia, M. H.; MacDonald, T. E.

2013-12-01

41

76 FR 59731 - Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the M/V Cosco Busan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...81420-9812-0520-Y4-FY11] Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for...written a Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan/Environmental Assessment (draft...seek written comments on our proposed restoration alternatives in the draft...

2011-09-27

42

Methodology for an Integrative Assessment of China's Ecological Restoration Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

While research projects have been conducted to examine the impacts and effectiveness of China's ecological restoration programs,\\u000a few of them represent integrated, systematic efforts. The objective of this chapter is thus to articulate and outline a methodology\\u000a for an integrative assessment, which, we believe, should embrace both the environmental and socioeconomic changes and engage\\u000a investigations at multiple scales. Further, these

Runsheng Yin; David Rothstein; Jiaguo Qi; Shuguang Liu

43

Feasibility of Telecognitive Assessment in Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Videoconferencing (VC) technology has been used successfully to provide psychiatric services to patients in rural and otherwise underserved settings. VC-based diagnostic interviewing has shown good agreement with conventional face-to-face diagnosis of dementia in several investigations, but extension of this technology to neurocognitive assessment

Cullum, C. Munro; Weiner, Myron F.; Gehrmann, Helena R.; Hynan, Linda S.

2006-01-01

44

Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at several sites owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120(a) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act also subjects DOE to liability under Section 107 of CERCLA for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. The Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process, by which natural resource injuries are determined and compensatory monetary damages are calculated, is not well known or understood by DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. Nevertheless, natural resource liabilities are potentially a significant source of additional monetary claims for CERCLA hazardous substance releases. This paper describes the requirements of NRDA and explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, in order to more quickly restore environmental services at the lowest total cost to the public. The first section of the paper explains the statutory and regulatory mandates for the NRDA process. The second section briefly describes the four phases of the NRDA process, while the third section examines the three steps in the assessment phase in considerable detail. Finally, the last section focuses on the integration of the CERCLA and NRDA processes.

Bascietto, J.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (US). RCRA/CERCLA Div.; Dunford, R.W. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (US); Sharples, F.E.; Suter, G.W. II [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US)

1993-06-01

45

Big Lagoon Wetland and Creek Restoration Project. Part II. Feasibility Analysis Report, February 27, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Park Service (NPS), in collaboration with Marin County and the San Francisco Zen Center, is developing conceptual restoration design alternatives for the project site known as Big Lagoon. The Big Lagoon site includes the wetlands, floodplain,...

2004-01-01

46

Cle Elum Lake Sockeye Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study, 1986-1988 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1986, a multi-year project to evaluate the biological feasibility of reestablishing anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs to Cle Elum Lake in the Yakima River Basin was established between the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). This program involves the capture, spawning, and rearing of disease-free donor stock in 1987 and 1988 and assessment of juvenile outmigration and survival from Cle Elum Lake in 1989 and 1990. Work in 1987--1988 involved collection of adult sockeye salmon from the Lake Wenatchee run and incubation and rearing of progeny as donor stock. In July 1987, 263 adults were captured at the Dryden fishway on the Wenatchee River and transferred to net-pens in Lake Wenatchee. Adults were held approximately 90 days and spawned, and the eggs were transferred to a quarantine hatchery. Pre-spawning survival was 95.1%, and all spawners were certified as being free of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHN) and other replicating viruses. Egg viability averaged about 40%; however, eyed egg to hatch survival was over 99%. Juveniles are being reared in quarantine, and survival to date is about 92%. The NMFS currently has over 131,000 fry (0.7 g average weight) in culture. Fry have been certified twice (at 0.12 g and 0.25 g average weight) as being free of IHN and other replicating viruses. Viral certification will continue throughout rearing. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Flagg, Thomas A.

1988-10-01

47

Anatomical feasibility of performing intercostal and ilioinguinal nerve to pelvic nerve transfer: a possible technique to restore lower urinary tract innervation  

PubMed Central

Object Nerve transfers are effective for restoring control to paralyzed somatic muscle groups and, recently, even to denervated detrusor muscle in a canine model. A pilot project was performed in cadavers to examine the feasibility of transferring somatic nerves to vesical branches of the pelvic nerve as a method for potentially restoring innervation to control the detrusor muscle in humans. Methods Eleven cadavers were dissected bilaterally to expose intercostal, ilioinguinal, and iliohypogastric nerves, along with vesical branches of the pelvic nerve. Ease of access and ability to transfer the former 3 nerves to the pelvic vesical nerves were assessed, as were nerve cross-sectional areas. Results The pelvic vesical nerves were accessed at the base of the bladder, inferior to the ureter and accompanied by inferior vesical vessels. The T-11 and T-12 intercostal nerves were too short for transfer to the pelvic vesical nerves without grafting. Ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves (L-1 origin) were identified retroperitoneally and, with full dissection, were easily transferred to the pelvic vesical nerves intraabdominally. The mean cross-sectional area of the dominant pelvic vesical branch was 2.60 ± 0.169 mm2; ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric branches at the suggested transection site were 2.38 ± 0.32 mm2 (the means are expressed ± SEM). Conclusions Use of the ilioinguinal or iliohypogastric nerves for heterotopic transfer to pelvic vesical nerves is surgically feasible, based on anatomical location and cross-sectional areas.

Brown, Justin M.; Barbe, Mary F.; Albo, Michael E.; Lai, H. Henry; Ruggieri, Michael R.

2013-01-01

48

A fuzzy quality index for the environmental assessment of a restored wetland.  

PubMed

This paper describes the feasibility study for the restoration of agricultural land with a tendency to become waterlogged into a natural wetland, conceived to mitigate floods and to remove nutrients from the water drained from the cultivated plots. The wetland model, developed in aquatox, includes the nutrient dynamics both in the water and in the sediment, and the vegetation that is expected to develop as a consequence of flooding. The model inputs were synthesized from historical time series of rainfall and chemical data collected over the last decade. The model outputs are used to compute a synthetic fuzzy quality index (FQI) to assess the removal efficiency of the wetland. This FQI is based on three main variables describing the ecosystem quality: chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen and total suspended solids. This index has the merit of being simple enough to be immediately grasped by non-technical people, like managers and stakeholders, to whom the restoration project is proposed. The simulations, performed under five differing loading scenarios demonstrate the feasibility of this solution, which is robust enough to accommodate a 50% increase in either nitrogen, phosphorous or organic matter. PMID:21902050

Giusti, E; Marsili-Libelli, S; Mattioli, S

2011-01-01

49

The assessment of restoration of habitat in urban wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands in urban areas are often restored in an attempt to reduce the loss of such habitats. Unfortunately, the success, or otherwise, of programmes of restoration has rarely been systematically gauged. Through not knowing whether programmes of restoration are successful or not, valuable resources potentially continue to be wasted, wetland habitats remain degraded and the methods of restoration are not

J. E Grayson; M. G Chapman; A. J Underwood

1999-01-01

50

Cle Elum Lake Sockeye Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study, 1987-1988: Annual Report, FY 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1986, a multi-year project to evaluate the biological feasibility of reestablishing anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs to Cle Elum Lake in the Yakima River Basin was established between the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the...

T. A. Flagg J. L. Mighell E. Slatick L. W. Harrell

1988-01-01

51

Remedial investigation and feasibility study report for the environmental restoration disposal facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) evaluates alternatives for placement of remediation waste generated during remediation of CERCLA past-practice sites on the Hanford Reservation. With the exception of the no action alternative, all of ...

1994-01-01

52

Assessing Success of Instream Structures for Salmonid Stream Restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream restoration is a billion dollar industry in North America; despite this expenditure there remain questions regarding the effectiveness of current techniques such as the installation of instream structures. Assessing the effect that such structures have on physical habitat and on salmonid density are key ways of determining project success. The objectives of this research were to assess the impact of instream structures on physical habitat in the Nicolet River (Quebec) and to analyze physical habitat and fish density data from many stream restoration projects in North America. Results of intensive surveys of the Nicolet River show that the installation of weirs and deflectors results in a greater frequency of pools. These pools have significantly greater depths, lower velocities, larger sediment size and higher percent cover than those without structures. Meta analysis of data from 187 stream restoration projects in North America also show significant increases in percent pool area, average depth, and percent cover as well as decreases in channel width following the installation of structures. The physical changes observed in the Nicolet River resulted in improved trout habitat, as measured by applying habitat preference curves, but uneven stocking practices and fishing pressure confounded attempts to verify differences in trout density based on presence or absence of structures. The meta analysis, however, shows significant increases in salmonid density, measured as fish/m2, following the installation of structures. On average, density increased by 161%. Different structure types result in significantly different changes in physical habitat, with weir structures providing the largest density increase. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the combination of change in relative pool area and in width is the best predictor of change in salmonid density (r2=0.511). Instream structures are significantly more successful at increasing brook trout density than cutthroat and steelhead trout or coho salmon. Furthermore, salmonids over 15cm in length show significantly higher increases in density than smaller fish. These results highlight that restoration structures can play an important role in creating better habitat for salmonids and increasing their densities, but much work is needed to determine the best way to rehabilitate disturbed streams for various species.

Whiteway, S.; Biron, P.

2009-05-01

53

A framework for assessing the feasibility of malaria elimination  

PubMed Central

The recent scale-up of malaria interventions, the ensuing reductions in the malaria burden, and reinvigorated discussions about global eradication have led many countries to consider malaria elimination as an alternative to maintaining control measures indefinitely. Evidence-based guidance to help countries weigh their options is thus urgently needed. A quantitative feasibility assessment that balances the epidemiological situation in a region, the strength of the public health system, the resource constraints, and the status of malaria control in neighboring areas can serve as the basis for robust, long-term strategic planning. Such a malaria elimination feasibility assessment was recently prepared for the Minister of Health in Zanzibar. Based on the Zanzibar experience, a framework is proposed along three axes that assess the technical requirements to achieve and maintain elimination, the operational capacity of the malaria programme and the public health system to meet those requirements, and the feasibility of funding the necessary programmes over time. Key quantitative and qualitative metrics related to each component of the assessment are described here along with the process of collecting data and interpreting the results. Although further field testing, validation, and methodological improvements will be required to ensure applicability in different epidemiological settings, the result is a flexible, rational methodology for weighing different strategic options that can be applied in a variety of contexts to establish data-driven strategic plans.

2010-01-01

54

Assessment of hydraulic restoration of San Pablo Marsh, California.  

PubMed

Inter-tidal marshes are dynamic diverse ecosystems at the transition zone between terrestrial and ocean environments. Geomorphologically, inter-tidal salt marshes are vegetated land-forms at elevations slightly greater than mean tidal levels that have distributed channels formed under ebb (drainage) tidal flows that widen and deepen in the seaward direction. The drainage channels enable tidal flows to circulate sediments and nutrients through the marsh system during normal tidal events, while depositing sediments during storm or seismic events. This dynamic system encourages considerable biodiversity while simultaneously providing water quality enhancement features that service marsh terrestrial life and marine life in the estuary. Reservoir creation limiting sediment transport, anticipated large increases in sea levels as well as agricultural and urban development have resulted in significant loss of inter-tidal marshes and subsequent adverse impacts on waterfowl, infauna and fisheries. The complex and continuously changing marsh channel hydraulics and sedimentary processes have severely constrained quantitative modeling of these marsh systems such that restoration/creation efforts remain something of an empirical science and further assessments are needed. The purpose of this paper is to outline current understanding of salt marsh hydrodynamics, sediment accretion processes and subsequent response of marsh vegetation to set the stage for assessment of a marsh restoration effort along San Pablo Bay near San Francisco, California. Several kilometers of drainage channels were constructed in a 624 ha disturbed salt marsh to restore tidal circulation and vegetation so as to enhance habitat for threatened species (e.g. clapper rail, harvest mouse, delta smelt and potentially anadromous fish species). Two distinct drainage channel systems ('east' and 'west') were installed having similar channel dimensions common to salt marshes in the region, but having design bankfull tidal prism volumes differing by a factor of two. Following channel excavation, main channel tidal flows and sediment loads as well as marsh sediment accretion rates were monitored to assess the relative success of the excavation in restoring tidal circulation and vegetation (Salicornia spp.) to the marsh. Annual aerial surveys corroborated with ground-truthing indicated that marsh vegetation rapidly expanded, from 40 to 85% coverage several years following excavation. The 'east' channel intake was nearly completely silted in within three years. However, channel surveys and flow measurements indicated that the 'east' channel system tidal prism was only about 1200 m3, more than an order of magnitude less than that of the stable 'west' channel system. Marsh sediment accretion rates were on the order of 7-8 mm yr(-1), a rate common to the Pacific coast region that exceeds estimated sea level rise rates of approximately 2 mm yr(-1). East channel network siltation resulted in storm and spring tidal flood ponding such that marsh vegetation coverage decreased to 51% of the marsh area and related habitat expansion decreased. These results are considered in terms of the primary inter-tidal marsh factors affecting possible restoration/creation strategies. PMID:15473530

Grismer, Mark E; Kollar, J; Syder, J

2004-11-01

55

Market assessment and technical feasibility study of PFBC ash use  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this study are to determine the market potential and the technical feasibility of using PFBC ash in high volume ash use applications. The information will be of direct use to the utility industry in assessing the economics of PFBC power generation in light of ash disposal avoidance through ash marketing. In addition, the research is expected to result in the generation of generic data on the use of PFBC ash that could lead to novel processing options and procedures. The specific objectives of the proposed research and demonstration effort are: Define resent and future market potential of PFBC ash for a range of applications (Phase I); assess the technical feasibility of PFBC ash use in construction, civil engineering and agricultural applications (Phase II); and demonstrate the most promising of the market and ash use options in full-scale field demonstrations (Phase III).

Smith, V.E.; Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Georgiou, D.N. [Jacques, Whitford and Associates Ltd., Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Wheeldon, J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1994-10-01

56

Preliminary assessment of soil erosion impact during forest restoration process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan has a fragile geology and steep terrain. The 921 earthquake, Typhoon Toraji, Typhoon Morakot, and the exploitation and use of the woodland by local residents have severely damaged the landscape and posed more severe challenges to the montane ecosystem. A land conservation project has been implemented by the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University which reclaimed approximately 1,500 hectares of leased woodland from 2008 to 2010, primarily used to grow bamboo, tea trees, betel nut, fruit, and vegetable and about 1,298 hectares have been reforested. The process of forest restoration involves clear cutting, soil preparation and a six-year weeding and tending period which may affect the amount of soil erosion dramatically. This study tried to assess the impact of forest restoration from the perspective of soil erosion through leased-land recovery periods and would like to benefit the practical implementation of reforestation in the future. A new plantation reforested in the early 2013 and a nearby 29-year-old mature forest were chosen as experimental and comparison sites. A self-designed weir was set up in a small watershed of each site for the runoff and sediment yield observation. According to the observed results from May to August 2013, a raining season in Taiwan, the runoff and erosion would not as high as we expected, because the in-situ soil texture of both sites is sandy loam to sandy with high percentage of coarse fragment which increased the infiltration. There were around 200 kg to 250 kg of wet sand/soil yielded in mature forest during the hit of Typhoon Soulik while the rest of the time only suspended material be yielded at both sites. To further investigate the influence of the six-year weeding and tending period, long term observations are needed for a more completed assessment of soil erosion impact.

Lai, Yen-Jen; Chang, Cheng-Sheng; Tsao, Tsung-Ming; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Chiang, Po-Neng; Wang, Ya-Nan

2014-05-01

57

Feasibility of bone assessment with ultrasonic backscatter signals in neonates.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the value of ultrasonic backscatter signals and the backscatter coefficient (BSC) in the analysis of bone status in neonates and to analyze the relationships between the BSC and gestational age, birth weight, length, head circumference and gender. A total of 122 neonates participated in the study, including 83 premature infants and 39 full-term infants. Their BSCs were measured by ultrasound after birth. The results revealed a significant correlation between the BSC and gestational age (R = 0.47, p < 0.001), birth weight (R = 0.47, p < 0.0001) and length at birth (R = 0.43, p < 0.001) at a frequency of 5.0 MHz. This study suggests that the use of ultrasonic backscattering and the BSC is feasible for assessment of the bone status of neonates. PMID:23932274

Zhang, Rong; Ta, Dean; Liu, Chengcheng; Chen, Chao

2013-10-01

58

Feasibility studies for assessing internal exposure to 233U.  

PubMed

The potential internal occupational exposure encountered as a consequence of the 232Th-233U fuel cycle are likely to arise predominantly from the inhalation of 232Th, 233U and (232Th + 233U) compounds of absorption Types M and S. In the past, although direct and indirect methods for assessments of internal exposure to 232Th and its daughters were developed, standardised and employed, no such attempts have been made with regard to 233U and 233U + 232Th. Therefore, feasibility studies for assessing internal exposure to 233U have been conducted using three methods: urine bioassay, in vivo counting and measurement of thoron gas in the exhaled breath of a worker. This paper describes details of these studies and discusses the results obtained. PMID:14526988

Mehta, D J; Sharma, R C; Ramanujam, A; Haridasan, T K; Sawant, P D; Rathinam, M

2003-01-01

59

Goree Island Hotel. Feasibility Study for the Planned Restoration of Historic Buildings on Goree Island, Dakar, Senegal, as an 86-Unit Luxury Hotel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, conducted by Henderson Associates, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. It examines the feasibility of restoring historic building into a luxury hotel on Goree Island, Senegal. The report contains information on the site...

1997-01-01

60

A feasibility study of perennial/annual plant species to restore soils contaminated with heavy metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study was carried out to evaluate the application of perennial/annual plant species in a phytoextraction process of a previously washed industrial urban soil contaminated by nickel, arsenic and cupper. The plant species selected for this study were Ipomea (Ipomea variada); grass (Poa pratensis); grass mixture (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum sp.); Monks Cress (Tropaeolum majus); ficus (Ficus benajamina) and fern (Pteris cretica). Soil was characterized and it presented the following heavy metals concentrations (dry weight): 80 mg of Ni/kg, 456-656 mg of As/kg and 1684-3166 mg of Cu/kg. Germination and survival in contaminated soil tests were conducted, from these, P. pratensis was discarded and the rest of plant species tested were used for the phytoextraction selection test. After 4 months of growth, biomass production was determined, and content of Ni, As and Cu was analyzed in plant’s tissue. Metal biological absorption coefficient (BAC), bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF), were calculated. Regarding to biomass generation it was observed, in every case, an inhibition of the plant growth compared with blanks sown in a non contaminated soil; inhibition ranged from 22.5% for the Monk cress to 98% for Ipomea. Even though the later presented high BAC, BCF and TF, its growth was severely inhibited, and therefore, due its low biomass generation, it is not recommended for phytoextraction under conditions for this study. Heavy metals concentrations in plant’s tissue (dry weight) were as high as 866 mg Cu/kg and 602 mg As/kg for grass mixture; and 825 mg As/kg was observed for Monks cress. Grass mixture and monks cress had high BAC, BCF and TF, also they had high metal concentrations in its plants tissues and the lowest growth inhibition rates; hence the application in phytoextraction processes of these plants is advisable.

Zacarías, Montserrat; Beltrán, Margarita; Gilberto Torres, Luis; González, Abelardo

61

Floodplain Habitat Restoration at Thunder Ranch, Utah. Final Environmental Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program (Recovery Program) is proposing to restore endangered fish habitat at 330 acres of Green River bottomlands located on the Thunder Ranch near Jensen, Utah. The Recovery Program acquired a total of 4...

2004-01-01

62

Assessing Restoration Potential of Semi-natural Grasslands by Landscape Change Trajectories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species-rich semi-natural grasslands have rapidly declined and become fragmented in Northern Europe due to ceased traditional agricultural practices and animal husbandry. Restoration actions have been introduced in many places to improve the habitat conditions and increase the area to prevent any further losses of their ecological values. However, given the limited resources and long time span needed for successful restoration, it is essential to target activities on sites having a suitable initial state and where the effects of restoration are most beneficial for the habitat network. In this paper we present a conceptual framework for evaluating the restoration potential of partially overgrown and selectively managed semi-natural grasslands in a moderately transformed agricultural environment in south-western Finland. On the basis of the spatio-temporal landscape trajectory analysis, we construct potential restoration scenarios based on expected semi-natural grassland characteristics that are derived from land productivity, detected grassland continuum, and date of overgrowth. These scenarios are evaluated using landscape metrics, their feasibility is discussed and the effects of potential restoration are compared to the present extent of open semi-natural grasslands. Our results show that landscape trajectory analysis and scenario construction can be valuable tools for the restoration planning of semi-natural grasslands with limited resources. The approach should therefore be considered as an essential tool to find the most optimal restoration sites and to pre-evaluate the effects.

Pitkänen, Timo P.; Mussaari, Maija; Käyhkö, Niina

2014-04-01

63

A comparison of radiological risk assessment methods for environmental restoration  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of risks to human health from exposure to ionizing radiation at radioactively contaminated sites is an integral part of the decision-making process for determining the need for remediation and selecting remedial actions that may be required. At sites regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a target risk range of 10{sup {minus}4} to 10{sup {minus}6} incremental cancer incidence over a lifetime is specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as generally acceptable, based on the reasonable maximum exposure to any individual under current and future land use scenarios. Two primary methods currently being used in conducting radiological risk assessments at CERCLA sites are compared in this analysis. Under the first method, the radiation dose equivalent (i.e., Sv or rem) to the receptors of interest over the appropriate period of exposure is estimated and multiplied by a risk factor (cancer risk/Sv). Alternatively, incremental cancer risk can be estimated by combining the EPA`s cancer slope factors (previously termed potency factors) for radionuclides with estimates of radionuclide intake by ingestion and inhalation, as well as radionuclide concentrations in soil that contribute to external dose. The comparison of the two methods has demonstrated that resulting estimates of lifetime incremental cancer risk under these different methods may differ significantly, even when all other exposure assumptions are held constant, with the magnitude of the discrepancy depending upon the dominant radionuclides and exposure pathways for the site. The basis for these discrepancies, the advantages and disadvantages of each method, and the significance of the discrepant results for environmental restoration decisions are presented.

Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Peterson, J.M.

1993-09-01

64

Reliability and Feasibility of Methods to Quantitatively Assess Peripheral Edema  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate methods to assess peripheral edema for reliability, feasibility and correlation with the classic clinical assessment of pitting edema. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Setting: Large primary care clinic in Marshfield, Wisconsin, USA. Participants: Convenience sample of 20 patients with type 2 diabetes and a range of edema severity, including patients without edema. Methods: Eight methods of edema assessment were evaluated: (1) clinical assessment of pit depth and recovery at three locations, (2) patient questionnaire, (3) ankle circumference, (4) figure-of-eight (ankle circumference using eight ankle/foot landmarks), (5) edema tester (plastic card with holes of varying size pressed to the ankle with a blood pressure cuff), (6) modified edema tester (edema tester with bumps), (7) indirect leg volume (by series of ankle/leg circumferences), and (8) foot/ankle volumetry by water displacement. Patients were evaluated independently by three nurse examiners. Results: Water displacement and ankle circumference had high inter-examiner agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.93, 0.96 right; 0.97, 0.97 left). Agreement was inconsistent for figure-of-eight (0.64, 0.86), moderate for indirect leg volume (0.53, 0.66), and low for clinical assessments at all locations. Agreement was low for the edema testers but varied by the pressure administered. Correlation with the classic, subjective clinical assessment was good for the nurse-performed assessments and patient questionnaire. Ankle circumference and patient questionnaires each took 1 minute to complete. Other tools took >5 minutes to complete. Conclusions: Water displacement and ankle circumference showed excellent reliability; however, water displacement is a time-consuming measure and may pose implementation challenges in the clinical and clinical trial environments. Patient-reported level and frequency of edema, based on an unvalidated questionnaire, was generally well correlated with the physician assessment of edema severity and may prove to be another reliable and accurate method of assessing edema. Additional study is needed to evaluate the validity and responsiveness of these methods.

Brodovicz, Kimberly G.; McNaughton, Kristin; Uemura, Naoto; Meininger, Gary; Girman, Cynthia J.; Yale, Steven H.

2009-01-01

65

Assessing Binocular Interaction in Amblyopia and Its Clinical Feasibility  

PubMed Central

Purpose To measure binocular interaction in amblyopes using a rapid and patient-friendly computer-based method, and to test the feasibility of the assessment in the clinic. Methods Binocular interaction was assessed in subjects with strabismic amblyopia (n?=?7), anisometropic amblyopia (n?=?6), strabismus without amblyopia (n?=?15) and normal vision (n?=?40). Binocular interaction was measured with a dichoptic phase matching task in which subjects matched the position of a binocular probe to the cyclopean perceived phase of a dichoptic pair of gratings whose contrast ratios were systematically varied. The resulting effective contrast ratio of the weak eye was taken as an indicator of interocular imbalance. Testing was performed in an ophthalmology clinic under 8 mins. We examined the relationships between our binocular interaction measure and standard clinical measures indicating abnormal binocularity such as interocular acuity difference and stereoacuity. The test-retest reliability of the testing method was also evaluated. Results Compared to normally-sighted controls, amblyopes exhibited significantly reduced effective contrast (?20%) of the weak eye, suggesting a higher contrast requirement for the amblyopic eye compared to the fellow eye. We found that the effective contrast ratio of the weak eye covaried with standard clincal measures of binocular vision. Our results showed that there was a high correlation between the 1st and 2nd measurements (r?=?0.94, p<0.001) but without any significant bias between the two. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that abnormal binocular interaction can be reliably captured by measuring the effective contrast ratio of the weak eye and quantitative assessment of binocular interaction is a quick and simple test that can be performed in the clinic. We believe that reliable and timely assessment of deficits in a binocular interaction may improve detection and treatment of amblyopia.

Kwon, MiYoung; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Miller, Alexandra; Kazlas, Melanie; Hunter, David G.; Bex, Peter J.

2014-01-01

66

Application of personalized medicine to chronic disease: a feasibility assessment  

PubMed Central

Personalized Medicine has the potential to improve health outcomes and reduce the cost of care; however its adoption has been slow in Canada. Bridgepoint Health is a complex continuous care provider striving to reduce the burden of polypharmacy in chronic patients. The main goal of the study was to explore the feasibility of utilizing personalized medicine in the treatment of chronic complex patients as a preliminary institutional health technology assessment. We analyzed stroke treatment optimization as a clinical indication that could serve as a “proof of concept” for the widespread implementation of pharmacogenetics. The objectives of the study were three-fold: 1. Review current practice in medication administration for stroke treatment at Bridgepoint Health 2. Critically analyze evidence that pharmacogenetic testing could (or could not) enhance drug selection and treatment efficacy for stroke patients; 3. Assess the cost-benefit potential of a pharmacogenetic intervention for stroke. Review current practice in medication administration for stroke treatment at Bridgepoint Health Critically analyze evidence that pharmacogenetic testing could (or could not) enhance drug selection and treatment efficacy for stroke patients; Assess the cost-benefit potential of a pharmacogenetic intervention for stroke. We conducted a review of stroke treatment practices at Bridgepoint Health, scanned the literature for drug-gene and drug-outcome interactions, and evaluated the potential consequences of pharmacogenetic testing using the ACCE model. There is a substantial body of evidence suggesting that pharmacogenetic stratification of stroke treatment can improve patient outcomes in the long-term, and provide substantial efficiencies for the healthcare system in the short-term. Specifically, pharmacogenetic stratification of antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies for stroke patients may have a major impact on the risk of disease recurrence, and thus should be explored further for clinical application. Bridgepoint Health, and other healthcare institutions taking this path, should consider launching pilot projects to assess the practical impact of pharmacogenetics to optimize treatment for chronic continuous care.

2013-01-01

67

Ecological issues related to wetland preservation, restoration, creation and assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of local, state, federal, and private programs are available to support the national (USA) policy of wetland ‘No Net Loss’. Implementation of programs, however, has resulted in the continued loss of natural wetlands on the premise that restored or created wetlands will replace the functions and values lost by destruction of natural wetlands. What are the ecological

Dennis F Whigham

1999-01-01

68

Log Sort Yard Economics, Planning, and Feasibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication discusses basic marketing and economic concepts, planning approach, and feasibility methodology for assessing log sort yard operations. Special attention is given to sorting small-diameter and underutilized logs from forest restoration, f...

J. R. Dramm R. Govett T. Bilek G. L. Jackson

2004-01-01

69

Assessment and evaluation of technologies for environmental restoration. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration objectives of the Department of Energy are being evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objective of the environmental restoration effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

Uzochukwu, G.A.

1999-01-15

70

Restoring coastal wetlands that were ditched for mosquito control: A preliminary assessment of hydro-leveling as a restoration technique  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The wetlands surrounding Tampa Bay, Florida were extensively ditched for mosquito control in the 1950s. Spoil from ditch construction was placed adjacent to the wetlands ditches creating mound-like features (spoil-mounds). These mounds represent a loss of 14% of the wetland area in Tampa Bay. Spoil mounds interfere with tidal flow and are locations for non-native plants to colonize (e.g., Schinus terebinthifolius). Removal of the spoil mounds to eliminate exotic plants, restore native vegetation, and re-establish natural hydrology is a restoration priority for environmental managers. Hydro-leveling, a new technique, was tested in a mangrove forest restoration project in 2004. Hydro-leveling uses a high pressure stream of water to wash sediment from the spoil mound into the adjacent wetland and ditch. To assess the effectiveness of this technique, we conducted vegetation surveys in areas that were hydro-leveled and in non-hydro-leveled areas 3 years post-project. Adult Schinus were reduced but not eliminated from hydro-leveled mounds. Schinus seedlings however were absent from hydro-leveled sites. Colonization by native species was sparse. Mangrove seedlings were essentially absent (???2 m-2) from the centers of hydro-leveled mounds and were in low density on their edges (17 m-2) in comparison to surrounding mangrove forests (105 m-2). Hydro-leveling resulted in mortality of mangroves adjacent to the mounds being leveled. This was probably caused by burial of pneumatophores during the hydro-leveling process. For hydro-leveling to be a useful and successful restoration technique several requirements must be met. Spoil mounds must be lowered to the level of the surrounding wetlands. Spoil must be distributed further into the adjacent wetland to prevent burial of nearby native vegetation. Finally, native species may need to be planted on hydro-leveled areas to speed up the re-vegetation process. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

Smith, III, T. J.; Tiling, G.; Leasure, P. S.

2007-01-01

71

Landscape scale assessment of stream channel and riparian habitat restoration needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human modifications of streams and rivers have caused extensive stream channel and riparian degradation. Cost-effective, rapid\\u000a assessment tools can be used to better manage such areas by identifying the status of habitats for restoration planning and\\u000a protection. We used a spatially explicit, reach-scale geographic information system modeling strategy to examine stream channel\\u000a and riparian condition and prioritize restoration actions. The

Marcia S. Meixler; Mark B. Bain

2010-01-01

72

Mineral Transportation and Handling Feasibility Assessment. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was conducted on behalf of Minero Peru Commercial (MINPECO). The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of alternative approaches to increasing shiploading efficiency at the Port of Salaverry, Matarani, and Punta Pejerrey. It ...

1983-01-01

73

Assessing the restorative value of the environment: A study on the elderly in comparison with young adults and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nature is not only appreciated for its aesthetic characteristics, but is also a useful resource for people. It plays an important role in the process of attention restoration and recovery from stress. Young adults and adolescents assess natural environments as being more restorative than built environments. This study sought to test whether natural environments are more restorative than built environments

Rita Berto

2007-01-01

74

United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group, 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska Final Health and Safety Plan. Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Kotzebue Long Range, Radar Station, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The site-specific health and safety plan establishes policies and procedures to protect Tetra Tech personnel from the potential hazards posed by the Installation Restoration Program. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) conducted at the United...

1994-01-01

75

Integrated Assessment of Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in desertification and land degradation research have provided valuable conceptual and analytical frameworks, degradation indicators, assessment tools and surveillance systems with respect to desertification drivers, processes, and impacts. These findings, together with stakeholders' perceptions and local\\/regional knowledge, have helped to define and propose measures and strategies to combat land degradation. However, integrated and comprehensive assessment and evaluation of

S. Bautista; B. J. Orr; R. Vallejo

2009-01-01

76

Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical\\/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of

Joanna Burger

2008-01-01

77

Initial Feasibility Assessment of a High Altitude Long Endurance Airship.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high altitude solar powered airship provides the ability to carry large payloads to high altitudes and remain on station for extended periods of time. This study examines the feasibility of this concept. Factors such as time of year, latitude, wind spee...

A. Colozza J. Dolce

2003-01-01

78

Integrated monitoring and assessment of soil restoration treatments in the Lake Tahoe Basin.  

PubMed

Revegetation and soil restoration efforts, often associated with erosion control measures on disturbed soils, are rarely monitored or otherwise evaluated in terms of improved hydrologic, much less, ecologic function and longer term sustainability. As in many watersheds, sediment is a key parameter of concern in the Tahoe Basin, particularly fine sediments less than about ten microns. Numerous erosion control measures deployed in the Basin during the past several decades have under-performed, or simply failed after a few years and new soil restoration methods of erosion control are under investigation. We outline a comprehensive, integrated field-based evaluation and assessment of the hydrologic function associated with these soil restoration methods with the hypothesis that restoration of sustainable function will result in longer term erosion control benefits than that currently achieved with more commonly used surface treatment methods (e.g. straw/mulch covers and hydroseeding). The monitoring includes cover-point and ocular assessments of plant cover, species type and diversity; soil sampling for nutrient status; rainfall simulation measurement of infiltration and runoff rates; cone penetrometer measurements of soil compaction and thickness of mulch layer depths. Through multi-year hydrologic and vegetation monitoring at ten sites and 120 plots, we illustrate the results obtained from the integrated monitoring program and describe how it might guide future restoration efforts and monitoring assessments. PMID:18483773

Grismer, M E; Schnurrenberger, C; Arst, R; Hogan, M P

2009-03-01

79

Assessment of interfacial defects at composite restorations by swept source optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT. In clinical dental practice, it is often difficult or even impossible to detect and assess interfacial adhesive defects at adhesive restorations by means of visual inspection or other established diagnostic methods. However, nondestructive optical coherence tomography (OCT) may provide a better picture in this diagnostic scenario. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of swept source OCT (SS-OCT) for the nondestructive assessment of interfacial deficiencies at composite restorations and the evaluation of cohesive defects within composite material. Ten class V composite restorations that were not adhesively luted were taken as validation objects and examined for frequency of interfacial gaps, air entrapments, and defects between composite layers using SS-OCT with a 1325-nm center wavelength. Light microscopy was used to inspect for inherent structures. SS-OCT detected 79.5%±1.8% of the total gap lengths at the enamel interface and 70.9%±0.4% at the dentin interface. Additionally, defective structures in composite restorations were displayed. It was shown that OCT imaging has the potential to nondestructively assess the interfacial adaptation of composite restorations and to detect internal defects in the layered composite material. PMID:23877771

Park, Kyung-Jin; Schneider, Hartmut; Haak, Rainer

2013-01-01

80

Factors in International Space Station Integration Feasibility Assessments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station, ISS, is a growing vehicle. The ISS configuration changes internally and externally with each ISS flight. Each flight adds resources and capabilities such as docking/berthing ports, power, stowage volume, heat rejection, and data processing capability. The configuration, capabilities and performance characteristics of the vehicle will be in flux until assembly complete. At the same time the knowledge about what is required to support humans involved in long duration space flight is also being greatly expanded. In addition to the changes occurring on-orbit, the situation on the ground is also very dynamic. Proposals for new ISS elements, proposed deletions of elements, changes to the ISS requirements, and changes to the planned configuration are always under evaluation. Furthermore, budgetary issues have driven the need to explore alternative options for the ISS . This environment has made the role of the technical integrator in the ISS program unique in that the baseline against which proposals are evaluated is always changing. The nature of the International Space Station Program adds another dimension to the integrators task. ISS program activities are spread across several centers: KSC, MSFC, GRC, DFRC, ARC and JSc. There are six International Partners/participants each with their own unique organizations. The prime contractor is in Texas, California and Alabama. And, the Space Shuttle Program as the launch vehicle provider is another major interface. In spite of the fluidity of the technical baseline, projections and organizational complexity, in the course of evaluating proposals and producing feasibility assessments there are factors, which frequently emerge as significant. These factors tend to be the limiting conditions when they come into play. The finite resources, which tend to limit the options for ISS are: upmass, life support and crew rescue capability, crew time, utilities, exercise equipment, and docking/berthing ports. Upmass requirements need to be developed for each option proposed. Short term and long term impacts to upmass are the result of the implementation and long term operations. The upmass requirements need to be met by the existing launch vehicles and any change in flight rate will be a significant cost driver. In addition, when any item is brought to the ISS careful consideration must be given to the on-board stowage and crew time available to unpack, transfer, stow and use these items. If stowage is not available then something must be returned, use of non-standard stowage negotiated or the item in question stays on the ground. Additional crew time requirements will impact available utilization time or crew off-duty time. When the human element is affected, such as, by increasing the number of crew members or changing the duration of the crew stay (longer or shorter) there is an additional set of factors that come into play. The main considerations are: rescue capability, exercise requirements and availability of equipment, resupply, and life support capability.

Watson, Patricia M.; Dunn, James

2002-01-01

81

Assessing Commercial Feasibility: A Practical and Ethical Prerequisite for Human Clinical Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes that an assessment of commercial feasibility should be integrated as a prerequisite for human clinical testing to improve the quality and relevance of materials being investigated, as an ethical aspect for human subject protection, and as a means of improving accountability where clinical development is funded on promises of successful translational research. A commercial feasibility analysis is

DWAYNE D. KIRK; JASON SCOTT ROBERT

2005-01-01

82

Application of EPA wetland research program approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment.  

SciTech Connect

Kolka, R.K., C.C. Trettin, E.A. Nelson, C.D. Barton, and D.E. Fletcher. 2002. Application of the EPA Wetland Research Program Approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment. J. Env. Monitoring & Restoration 1(1):37-51. Forested wetland restoration assessment is difficult because of the timeframe necessary for the development of a forest ecosystem. The development of a forested wetland ecosystem includes the recovery of hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities. To assess forested wetland restoration projects, measures need to be developed that are sensitive to early changes in community development and are predictive of future conditions. In this study we apply the EPS's Wetland Research Program's (WRP) approach to assess the recovery of two thermally altered riparian wetland systems in South Carolina. In one of the altered wetland systems, approximately 75% of the wetland was planted with bottomland tree seedlings in an effort to hasten recovery. Individual studies addressing hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities indicate variable recovery responses.

Kolka, R., K.; Trettin, C., C.; Nelson, E., A.; Barton, C., D.; Fletcher, D., E.

2002-01-01

83

Emergency Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment Pago Pago Harbor American Samoa, September 1, 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural resource Trustees are authorized to act on behalf of the public to assess and recover natural resource damages, and to plan and implement actions to restore natural resources and resource services injured or lost as a result of an incident involvi...

1999-01-01

84

Feasibility of Using Virtual Reality to Assess Nicotine Cue Reactivity during Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cue reactivity assessments have been widely used to assess craving and attention to cues among cigarette smokers. Cue reactivity has the potential to offer insights into treatment decisions; however, the use of cue reactivity in treatment studies has been limited. This study assessed the feasibility of using a virtual reality-based cue reactivity…

Kaganoff, Eili; Bordnick, Patrick S.; Carter, Brian Lee

2012-01-01

85

FEASIBILITY FOR PERFORMING A RISK ASSESSMENT ON PATHOGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper evaluates the practicality of formulating guidelines to assess the risk associated with exposure to pathogens in sludge. Risk assessment may be used to determine the likelihood that an environmental agent may cause human disease (that is, potential to cause human cancer...

86

Restoring the Garden of Eden: An Ecological Assessment of the Marshes of Iraq  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience is on the need for restoring marshes in Iraq. The Mesopotamian marshes of southern Iraq had been all but destroyed by Saddam Hussein's regime by the year 2000. Earlier assessments suggested that poor water quality, the presence of toxic materials, and high saline soil conditions in the drained marshes would prevent their ecological restoration and doom the reestablishment of the Marsh Arab culture of fishing and agriculture. However, the high volume of good-quality water entering the marshes from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, a result of two record years of snowpack melt in Turkey and Iran, allowed 39% of the former marshes to be reflooded by September 2005. Although reflooding does not guarantee restoration success, our recent field surveys have found a remarkable rate of reestablishment of native macroinvertebrates, macrophytes, fish, and birds in reflooded marshes. However, the future availability of water for restoration is in question, which suggests that only a portion of the former marshes may be restored. Also, landscape connectivity between marshes is greatly reduced, causing concern about local species extinctions and lower diversity in isolated wetlands.

CURTIS J. RICHARDSON and NAJAH A. HUSSAIN (;)

2006-06-01

87

MRS feasibility assessment grant technical progress report. Final report  

SciTech Connect

On January 13, 1993, Governor of the State of Utah, Mike Leavitt officially announced that he was opposing a MRS Facility in the State of Utah and informed San Juan County of his decision which will preclude the County from applying for a Phase IIa feasibility grant. A copy of the policy statement made by Governor Leavitt is included in this report. Additionally, a bill in the State House of Representative has been filed opposing the facility. A copy of the bill is also included. The work accomplished under Phase I, indicated that there was about an equal amount of residents in San Juan County opposed and in favor of the facility. There were many concerns and issues presented during the Phase I grant period that would have been continued to Phase IIa, if allowed, including the citizen committee.

Not Available

1993-02-01

88

Initial Feasibility Assessment of a High Altitude Long Endurance Airship  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high altitude solar powered airship provides the ability to carry large payloads to high altitudes and remain on station for extended periods of time. This study examines the feasibility of this concept. Factors such as time of year, latitude, wind speeds and payload are considered in establishing the capabilities of a given size airship. East and West coast operation were evaluated. The key aspect to success of this type of airship is the design and operation of the propulsion and power system. A preliminary propulsion/power system design was produced based on a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system and solar photovoltaic array for energy production. A modular system design was chosen with four independent power/propulsion units utilized by the airship. Results on payload capacity and flight envelope (latitude and time of year) were produced for a range of airship sizes.

Colozza, Anthony; Dolce, James (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

89

Floristic Quality Index: An assessment tool for restoration projects and monitoring sites in coastal Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) program was established to assess the effectiveness of individual coastal restoration projects and the cumulative effects of multiple projects at regional and coastwide scales. In order to make these assessments, analytical teams have been assembled for each of the primary data types sampled under the CRMS program, including vegetation, hydrology, landscape, and soils. These teams consist of scientists and support staff from the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration, and university academics. Each team is responsible for developing or identifying parameters, indices, or tools that can be used to assess coastal wetlands at various scales. The CRMS Vegetation Analytical Team has developed a Floristic Quality Index for coastal Louisiana to determine the quality of a wetland based on its plant species composition and abundance.

Cretini, K.F.; Steyer, G.D

2011-01-01

90

Assessing the feasibility of native fish reintroductions: a framework applied to threatened bull trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Translocations to recover native fishes have resulted in mixed success. One reason for the failure of these actions is inadequate assessments of their feasibility prior to implementation. Here, we provide a framework developed to assess the feasibility of one type of translocation-reintroduction. The framework was founded on two simple components of feasibility: the potential for recipient habitats to support a reintroduction and the potential of available donor populations to support a reintroduction. Within each component, we developed a series of key questions. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that incorporated consideration of uncertainty in available information. The result was a simple yet transparent system for assessing reintroduction feasibility that can be rapidly applied in practice. We applied this assessment framework to the potential reintroduction of threatened bull trout Salvelinus confluentus into the Clackamas River, Oregon. In this case, the assessment suggested that the degree of feasibility for reintroduction was high based on the potential of recipient habitats and available donor populations. The assessment did not provide a comprehensive treatment of all possible factors that would drive an actual decision to implement a reintroduction,

Dunham, Jason; Gallo, Kirsten; Shively, Dan; Allen, Chris; Goehring, Brad

2011-01-01

91

Technology Assessment and Equipment Management Feasibility Study. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the project is to upgrade the quality, safety, and cost-effectiveness of healthcare technology in the Republic of Turkey and thereby improve public health by addressing the following five processes: Technology assessment, planning, and prio...

1992-01-01

92

Floristic quality assessment of one natural and three restored wetland complexes in North Dakota, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Floristic quality assessment is potentially an important tool for conservation efforts in the northern Great Plains of North America, but it has received little rigorous evaluation. Floristic quality assessments rely on coefficients assigned to each plant species of a region's flora based on the conservatism of each species relative to others in the region. These coefficients of conservatism (C values) are assigned by a panel of experts familiar with a region's flora. The floristic quality assessment method has faced some criticism due to the subjective nature of these assignments. To evaluate the effect of this subjectivity on floristic quality assessments, we performed separate evaluations of the native plant communities in a natural wetland complex and three restored wetland complexes. In our first assessment, we used C values assigned subjectively by the Northern Great Plains Floristic Quality Assessment Panel. We then performed an independent assessment using the observed distributions of species among a group of wetlands that ranged from highly disturbed to largely undisturbed (data-generated C values). Using the panel-assigned C values, mean C values ( ) of the restored wetlands rarely exceeded 3.4 and never exceeded 3.9, with the highest values occurring in the oldest restored complex; all but two wetlands in the natural wetland complex had a greater than 3.9. Floristic quality indices (FQI) for the restored wetlands rarely exceeded 22 and usually reached maximums closer to 19, with higher values occurring again in the oldest restored complex; only two wetlands in the natural complex had an FQI less than 22. We observed that 95% confidence limits for species richness and percent natives overlapped greatly among wetland complexes, whereas confidence limits for both and FQI overlapped little. and FQI values were consistently greater when we used the data-generated C values than when we used the panel-assigned C values; nonetheless, conclusions reached based on these two independent assessment techniques were virtually identical. Our results are consistent with the opinion that coefficients assigned subjectively by expert botanists familiar with a region's flora provide adequate information to perform accurate floristic quality assessments.

Mushet, D. M.; Euliss, N. H., Jr.; Shaffer, T. L.

2002-01-01

93

Assessing significant geomorphic changes and effectiveness of dynamic restoration in a coastal dune ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shift from restoring coastal dunes as stabilized landscapes toward more morphodynamic ecosystems is underway. This paper uses results from a recent case study where invasive vegetation was removed from a coastal dune complex in western Canada as a first step in a dynamic ecosystem restoration project. Spatial statistical methods, used in the natural sciences to quantify patterns of significant spatial-temporal changes, are reviewed and the local Moran's Ii spatial autocorrelation statistic is explored for detecting and assessing significant changes. Cluster maps of positive (depositional) and negative (erosional) changes were used to derive statistically significant volumetric changes within discrete geomorphic units (beach, foredune, transgressive dune) over one year following vegetation removal. All units experienced net increases in sediment budgets compared to a pre-restoration surface. The beach experienced the highest episodic erosion and volumetric change and greatest net annual sediment budget. Compared to the beach, the annual sediment budget of the foredune was 19% whereas the transgressive dune was 33%. The foredune recovered rapidly to initial erosion during restoration and subsequent natural events with consistently positive sediment volumes and attained a form similar to that pre-restoration. Aeolian deflation and sand bypassing through the foredune was greatest in the two months following vegetation removal and peak accretion in the transgressive dune resulted from depositional lobes extending from the foredune, smaller dunes migrating within the complex, and growth of a precipitation ridge along the eastern margin. Several methodological and logistical considerations for detecting significant change in dynamic dune landscapes are discussed including sampling strategy design, data normalization and control measures, and incorporating uncertainty and inherent spatial relations within acquired datasets to ensure accuracy and comparability of results. Generally underutilized in coastal geomorphology, spatial autocorrelation methods (e.g., local Moran's Ii) are recommended over spatially uniform threshold approaches for the ability to detect local change processes and explore hypotheses on spatial-temporal dynamics. Finally, several key geomorphic indicators, that are believed to aid in re-establishing ecological conditions and processes that favor more resilient and natural dune ecosystems, are identified for assessing the effectiveness of dynamic restoration projects including: increased aeolian activity, enlarged active sand surface area, positive sediment budgets, increased dune morphodynamics, improved geomorphic diversity, and enhanced geomorphic resilience. Although limited in temporal scope, the case study results show that the initial phase of the restoration treatment was effective in enhancing all indicators except for increasing sand surface area. Given decadal scale observations of climatic changes and longer-term eco-geomorphic trajectory toward stabilization in the region, however, it is unlikely that the geomorphic effectiveness of this restoration effort will continue without continued frequent treatment interventions.

Walker, Ian J.; Eamer, Jordan B. R.; Darke, Ian B.

2013-10-01

94

Feasibility assessment of low temperature voltaic energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

An experimental and theoretical investigation of the feasibility of thermo voltaic (TV) power generation in the temperature range 800{degrees}C - 1000{degrees}C has been performed. In this concept, voltaic cells of Indium-Galium-Arsenide (InGaAs) were employed to convert thermal radiation directly into electric power. The advantage of this concept over previous thermo photo voltaic concepts (TPV) is the reduced materials issues associated with a lower heat source temperature, and applicability to a wider range of fossil fuels. A numerical model was constructed and used to analyze test data, demonstrating good agreement and understanding of process physics. The key functional parameters were found to be dark current coefficient and spectral efficiency. A conversion efficiency of 25% was measured at 900{degrees}C, with potential for 30% in optimized devices. The limiting issue for a practical TV power converter below 900{degrees}C is the required power density, which is a strong function of heat source temperature.

Baldasaro, P.F.; Campbell, B.C.; Depoy, D.M.; Parrington, J.

1994-04-01

95

Thermal hydraulic feasibility assessment for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project  

SciTech Connect

A series of scoping analyses have been completed investigating the thermal-hydraulic performance and feasibility of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Integrated Process Strategy (IPS). The SNFP was established to develop engineered solutions for the expedited removal, stabilization, and storage of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The subject efforts focused on independently investigating, quantifying, and establishing the governing heat production and removal mechanisms for each of the IPS operations and configurations, obtaining preliminary results for comparison with and verification of other analyses, and providing technology-based recommendations for consideration and incorporation into the design bases for the SNFP. The goal was to develop a series fo thermal-hydraulic models that could respond to all process and safety-related issues that may arise pertaining to the SNFP. A series of sensitivity analyses were also performed to help identify those parameters that have the greatest impact on energy transfer and hence, temperature control. It is anticipated that the subject thermal-hydraulic models will form the basis for a series of advanced and more detailed models that will more accurately reflect the thermal performance of the IPS and alleviate the necessity for some of the more conservative assumptions and oversimplifications, as well as form the basis for the final process and safety analyses.

Heard, F.J.; Cramer, E.R.; Beaver, T.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Thurgood, M.J. [Marvin (John), Inc. (United States)

1996-01-01

96

Ultrasound as a feasible method for the assessment of malrotation  

PubMed Central

Summary Background In malrotation the position of third portion of duodenum (D3) is always intramesenteric. Demonstration of normal retromesenteric-retroperitoneal position of D3 on ultrasound (US) can rule out malrotation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of US in demonstrating the retroperitoneal D3. Material/Methods Abdominal US study was done for various indications in 60 newborns and infants (mean age: 33 days [range: 4–100 days]; 56.7% male) by an expert pediatric radiologist. The position of D3 and its adjacent structures was evaluated in axial and longitudinal planes by linear and curved transducers. Results A normal retromesenteric-retroperitoneal D3 located between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta was seen on US in all patients, including those with extensive gas in the bowel. The mean time of D3 observation was 47.8 s (10–180 s). Ultrasound was also capable of demonstrating D3 structure, diameter, content, adjacent structures, relative position of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. Conclusions Ultrasound is a simple, fast and highly accurate tool to confirm the retroperitoneal position of D3. Ultrasound can be used as a screening method for malrotation eliminating the need for unnecessary barium studies.

Khatami, Alireza; Mahdavi, Kiarash; Karimi, Mohammad Ali

2014-01-01

97

The Restoration Rapid Assessment Tool: An Access/Visual Basic application  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Managers of parks and natural areas are increasingly faced with difficult decisions concerning restoration of disturbed lands. Financial and workforce resources often limit these restoration efforts, and rarely can a manager afford to address all concerns within the region of interest. With limited resources, managers and scientists have to decide which areas will be targeted for restoration and the restoration treatments to use in these areas. A broad range of approaches are used to make such decisions, from well-researched expert opinions (Cipollini et al. 2005) to gut feeling, with variable degrees of input from site visits, data collection, and data analysis used to support the decision. A standardized approach including an analytical assessment of site characteristics based on the best information available, with a written or electronic record of all the steps taken along the way, would make comparisons among a group of sites easier and lend credibility through use of common, documented criteria at all sites. In response to these concerns, we have developed the Restoration Rapid Assessment Tool (RRAT). RRAT is based on field observations of key indicators of site degradation, stressors influencing the site, value of the site with respect to larger management objectives, likelihood of achieving the management goals, and logistical constraints to restoration. The purpose of RRAT is not to make restoration decisions or prescribe methods, but rather to ensure that a basic set of pertinent issues are considered for each site and to facilitate comparisons among sites. Several concepts have been central to the development of RRAT. First, the management goal (also known as desired future condition) of any site under evaluation should be defined before the field evaluation begins. Second, the evaluation should be based upon readily observable indicators so as to avoid cumbersome field methods. Third, the ease with which site stressors can be ameliorated must be factored into the evaluation. Fourth, intrinsic site value must be assessed independently of current condition. Finally, logistical considerations must also be addressed. Our initial focus has been on riparian areas because they are among the most heavily impacted habitat types, and RRAT indicators reflect this focus.

Hiebert, Ron; Larson, D. L.; Thomas, K.; Tancreto, N.; Haines, D.; Richey, A.; Dow, T.; Drees, L.

2009-01-01

98

Geomatics and bioenergy feasibility assessments: Taking stock and looking forward  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy resources are spatially distributed, and their potential to contribute to societal energy supplies is dependent on local geographic nuances. To provide relevant and robust baseline information, these spatial qualities must be considered when assessing resource availability or technology performance. This is the impetus behind the application of geomatics in the field of renewable energy. Given that each renewable

K. Calvert

2011-01-01

99

POLITICAL SCIENCE TOOLS FOR ASSESSING FEASIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF REFORMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We were asked by the Independent Evaluation Office to outline political science methods for assessing the chances of reform implementation in an ex-ante fashion. We agreed to illustrate how these tools 'work' by using Pakistan as a case study. The recent literature on IMF-sponsored reforms points out that successful implementation not only depends on the nature and severity of the

Andreas Wimmer; Indra de Soysa; Christian Wagner

2003-01-01

100

Feasibility Study of Continuous Comprehensive Assessment of Primary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Educational Measurement and Evaluation (DEME) of the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), New Delhi, India prepared a scheme of assessment for primary classes based on the concept of continuous and comprehensive evaluation. This scheme was finalized by an expert group before actual tryout. Primary…

Rajput, Saria; Tewari, A. D.; Kumar, Santosh

2005-01-01

101

Developing Computer Model-Based Assessment of Chemical Reasoning: A Feasibility Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a feasibility study on developing computer model-based assessments of chemical reasoning at the high school level. Computer models are flash and NetLogo environments to make simultaneously available three domains in chemistry: macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic. Students interact with computer models to answer assessment

Liu, Xiufeng; Waight, Noemi; Gregorius, Roberto; Smith, Erica; Park, Mihwa

2012-01-01

102

Feasibility Study for the PISA ICT Literacy Assessment: Report to Network A  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the findings of a study conducted to explore the feasibility of developing and delivering an assessment of information and communication technology (ICT) literacy for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The study was conducted at the request of an expert panel convened by Network A and was funded in…

Lennon, Marylou; Kirsch, Irwin; Von Davier, Matthias; Wagner, Michael; Yamamoto, Kentaro

2003-01-01

103

System dynamic modelling to assess economic viability and risk trade-offs for ecological restoration in South Africa.  

PubMed

Can markets assist by providing support for ecological restoration, and if so, under what conditions? The first step in addressing this question is to develop a consistent methodology for economic evaluation of ecological restoration projects. A risk analysis process was followed in which a system dynamics model was constructed for eight diverse case study sites where ecological restoration is currently being pursued. Restoration costs vary across each of these sites, as do the benefits associated with restored ecosystem functioning. The system dynamics model simulates the ecological, hydrological and economic benefits of ecological restoration and informs a portfolio mapping exercise where payoffs are matched against the likelihood of success of a project, as well as a number of other factors (such as project costs and risk measures). This is the first known application that couples ecological restoration with system dynamics and portfolio mapping. The results suggest an approach that is able to move beyond traditional indicators of project success, since the effect of discounting is virtually eliminated. We conclude that systems dynamic modelling with portfolio mapping can guide decisions on when markets for restoration activities may be feasible. PMID:23524327

Crookes, D J; Blignaut, J N; de Wit, M P; Esler, K J; Le Maitre, D C; Milton, S J; Mitchell, S A; Cloete, J; de Abreu, P; Fourie nee Vlok, H; Gull, K; Marx, D; Mugido, W; Ndhlovu, T; Nowell, M; Pauw, M; Rebelo, A

2013-05-15

104

IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE FOR NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT, RESTORATION, AND REHABILITATION  

PubMed Central

Various international and national regulations hold polluters liable for the cleanup of released hazardous substances and the restoration/rehabilitation of natural resources to preincident baseline conditions, a process often referred to as natural resource damage assessment and restoration (NRDAR). Here, we, the authors, describe how global climate change (GCC) will challenge each of the steps of NRDAR processes and offer eight recommendations to improve these processes in light of GCC. First, we call for a better understanding of the net effects of GCC and contaminants on natural resources. Second, we urge facilities and environmental managers to plan for GCC-related factors that are expected to increase the probability of contaminant releases. Third, we suggest re-evaluating definitions of baseline and reference conditions given that GCC will alter both their trajectories and variability. Fourth, we encourage long-term monitoring to improve the quantification of baseline conditions that will change as climate changes. This will enhance the accuracy of injury assessments, the effectiveness of restoration, and the detection of early warning signs that ecosystems are approaching tipping points. Fifth, in response to or anticipation of GCC, restoration projects may need to be conducted in areas distant from the site of injury or focused on functionally equivalent natural resources; thus, community involvement in NRDAR processes will be increasingly important. Sixth, we promote using NRDAR restoration projects as opportunities to mitigate GCC-related impacts. Seventh, we recommend adaptive management approaches to NRDAR processes and communication of successes and failures widely. Finally, we recommend focusing on managing the stressors that might be exacerbated by GCC, such as pollution and habitat loss, because there is a long history of successfully mitigating these stressors, which can be more easily managed on local scales than climate change. We believe that adoption of these recommendations will lead to a more efficacious NRDAR process, despite the challenges posed by climate change. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:93–101. © 2012 SETAC

Rohr, Jason R; Johnson, Philip; Hickey, Christopher W; Helm, Roger C; Fritz, Alyce; Brasfield, Sandra

2013-01-01

105

Habitat-mediated size selection in endangered Atlantic salmon fry: selectional restoration assessment  

PubMed Central

Preservation of adaptive variation is a top priority of many species restoration programs, but most restoration activities are conducted without direct knowledge of selection that might foster or impair adaptation and restoration goals. In this study, we quantified geographic variation in selection on fry size of endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during the 6-week period immediately following stocking in the wild. We also used a model selection approach to assess whether habitat variables influence patterns of such selection. We found evidence for significant size-selection in five out of six selection trials. Interestingly, the strength and pattern of selection varied extensively among sites, and model selection suggested that this variation in phenotypic selection was related to geographic variation in the presence of large woody debris and the slope of the stream gradient. The strong selection differentials we observed should be a concern for endangered salmon restoration, whether they reflect natural processes and an opportunity to maintain adaptation, or an indicator of the potentially deleterious phenotypic consequences of hatchery practices.

Bailey, Michael M; Kinnison, Michael T

2010-01-01

106

Quality assessment of restored soils: combination of classical soil science methods with ground penetrating radar and near infrared aerial photography?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Switzerland agricultural land is usually restored after gravel exploitation. In order to minimize soil damage, the quality of restored soils should be checked by the authorities. To assess the physical soil properties, a combination of classical soil science methods with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and near infrared (IR) aerial photography was tested in 1994–1995. GPR profiles were recorded in the

B. Friedli; S. Tobias; M. Fritsch

1998-01-01

107

A Retrospective Assessment of Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Pulpectomies in Vital Maxillary Primary Incisors Successfully Restored With Composite Resin Crowns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate, via clinical and radio- graphic assessments, the treatment outcome of zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) pulpectomies performed in vital maxillary primary incisors successfully restored with composite resin crowns. Methods: Pulpectomized vital primary incisors were treated by a uniformed technique, filled with ZOE paste, and successfully restored with composite resin crowns. Those that

Robert E. Primosch; Anissa Ahmadi; Barry Setzer

2005-01-01

108

Information theoretical assessment of image gathering and coding for digital restoration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process of image-gathering, coding, and restoration is presently treated in its entirety rather than as a catenation of isolated tasks, on the basis of the relationship between the spectral information density of a transmitted signal and the restorability of images from the signal. This 'information-theoretic' assessment accounts for the information density and efficiency of the acquired signal as a function of the image-gathering system's design and radiance-field statistics, as well as for the information efficiency and data compression that are obtainable through the combination of image gathering with coding to reduce signal redundancy. It is found that high information efficiency is achievable only through minimization of image-gathering degradation as well as signal redundancy.

Huck, Friedrich O.; John, Sarah; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

1990-01-01

109

Using Maryland's Stream Corridor Assessment Survey to Prioritize Watershed Restoration Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stream Corridor Assessment survey has been developed by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources as a watershed management tool to identify environmental problems and to help prioritize restoration opportunities on a watershed basis. Potential environmental problems commonly identified during the survey include: stream channel alterations, excessive bank erosion, exposed pipes, inadequate stream buffers, fish migration blockages, trash dumping sites, near stream construction, pipe outfalls, and unusual conditions. In addition, the survey records information on the location of potential wetlands creation sites and collects data on the general condition of instream and riparian habitats. Over the past several years, in collaboration with the Maryland Conservation Corps, watershed associations, and local governments, more than 3,293 km (2,046 miles) of Maryland streams have been surveyed. Overall, the survey has proven to be a cost effective starting point for many watershed restoration efforts.

Yetman, Kenneth T.

2002-08-01

110

Aquatic ecosystem protection and restoration: Advances in methods for assessment and evaluation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many methods and criteria are available to assess aquatic ecosystems, and this review focuses on a set that demonstrates advancements from community analyses to methods spanning large spatial and temporal scales. Basic methods have been extended by incorporating taxa sensitivity to different forms of stress, adding measures linked to system function, synthesizing multiple faunal groups, integrating biological and physical attributes, spanning large spatial scales, and enabling simulations through time. These tools can be customized to meet the needs of a particular assessment and ecosystem. Two case studies are presented to show how new methods were applied at the ecosystem scale for achieving practical management goals. One case used an assessment of biotic structure to demonstrate how enhanced river flows can improve habitat conditions and restore a diverse fish fauna reflective of a healthy riverine ecosystem. In the second case, multitaxonomic integrity indicators were successful in distinguishing lake ecosystems that were disturbed, healthy, and in the process of restoration. Most methods strive to address the concept of biological integrity and assessment effectiveness often can be impeded by the lack of more specific ecosystem management objectives. Scientific and policy explorations are needed to define new ways for designating a healthy system so as to allow specification of precise quality criteria that will promote further development of ecosystem analysis tools.

Bain, M. B.; Harig, A. L.; Loucks, D. P.; Goforth, R. R.; Mills, K. E.

2000-01-01

111

78 FR 20298 - Restoration and Compensation Determination Plan and Environmental Assessment: Aluminum Production...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Restoration and Compensation Determination Plan...ACTION: Notice of Availability of the Restoration and Compensation Determination Plan...entitled, ``St. Lawrence Environment Restoration and Compensation Determination...

2013-04-04

112

The feasibility and utility of grocery receipt analyses for dietary assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To establish the feasibility and utility of a simple data collection methodology for dietary assessment. DESIGN: Using a cross-sectional design, trained data collectors approached adults (~20 – 40 years of age) at local grocery stores and asked whether they would volunteer their grocery receipts and answer a few questions for a small stipend ($1). METHODS: The grocery data were

Sarah Levin Martin; Teresa Howell; Yan Duan; Michele Walters

2006-01-01

113

The feasibility of self-assessment of dysphoric mania in the French national EPIMAN study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is presently considerable uncertainty on how to best assess mixed mania. The present contribution explores the feasibility of discriminating manic and dysphoric manic states on the basis of self-rating in the acute phase of the illness. Methods: In the French four-site national EPIMAN study of 104 patients devoted to the clinical evaluation and subclassification of mania, we used

E. G Hantouche; J. P Allilaire; M. L Bourgeois; J. M Azorin; D Sechter; L Chatenêt-Duchêne; S Lancrenon; H. S Akiskal

2001-01-01

114

Feasibility study of Coal Gasification\\/Fuel Cell\\/Cogeneration economic and financing assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to describe the economic and financing feasibility assessment carried out for a Coal Gasification\\/Fuel Cell\\/Cogeneration (GFC) Project for 4 specific sites: Scranton Army Ammunition Plant in Pennsylvania, Ft. Greely Army Base in Alaska, Ft. Hood Army Base in Texas, and Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. The assessment presented in this document is part of

P. Bos; B. Rossi; P. Estreich

1985-01-01

115

Environmental Restoration Program waste minimization and pollution prevention self-assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. is currently developing a more active waste minimization and pollution prevention program. To determine areas of programmatic improvements within the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program, the ER Program required an evaluation of the program across the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site, and the Portsmouth Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site. This document presents the status of the overall program as of fourth quarter FY 1994, presents pollution prevention cost avoidance data associated with FY 1994 activities, and identifies areas for improvement. Results of this assessment indicate that the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is firmly established and is developing rapidly. Several procedural goals were met in FY 1994 and many of the sites implemented ER waste minimization options. Additional growth is needed, however, for the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program.

Not Available

1994-10-01

116

A Levels-of-Evidence Approach for Assessing Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Estuary and River Restoration Programs  

SciTech Connect

Even though large-scale ecological restoration programs are beginning to supplement isolated projects implemented on rivers and tidal waterways, the effects of restoration success often continue to be evaluated at project scales or by integration in an additive manner. Today our scientific understanding is sufficient that we can begin to apply lessons learnt from assessing cumulative impacts of anthropogenic stressors on ecosystems to the assessment of ecological restoration. Integration of this knowledge has the potential to increase the efficacy of restoration projects conducted at several locations but co-managed within the confines of a larger integrative program. We introduce here a framework based on a levels-of-evidence approach that facilitates assessment of the cumulative landscape effects of individual restoration actions taken at many different locations. It incorporates data collection at restoration and reference sites, hydrodynamic modeling, geographic information systems, and meta-analyses in a five-stage process: design, data, analysis, synthesis and evaluation, and application. This framework evolved from the need to evaluate the efficacy of restoration projects designed to increase rearing habitat for outmigrating juvenile salmonids, which are being implemented in numerous wetlands on the 235-km tidal portion of the Columbia River, U.S.A.

Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Vogt, Kristiina A.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Dawley, Earl

2011-03-01

117

Environmental Restoration and Waste Management manpower needs assessment: US Department of Energy complex  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc. to assess the supply and demand for 53 scientific, engineering, and technical occupations relevant to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM). These assessments were made by examining budget projections and the input of program/project and human resources managers throughout the DOE complex. Quantitative projections of full-time equivalent employees slots for each occupation have been developed for the 1993--1997 time frame. Qualitative assessments of the factors that affect recruitment, staffing, and retention are also reported. The implications of the study are discussed within the likely skills mix of the future workforce and the education and organization interventions most likely to address the needs of the DOE complex.

Holmes, C.W.; Lewis, R.E.; Hunt, S.T. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Finn, M.G. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States))

1992-06-01

118

Environmental Restoration and Waste Management manpower needs assessment: US Department of Energy complex  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc. to assess the supply and demand for 53 scientific, engineering, and technical occupations relevant to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM). These assessments were made by examining budget projections and the input of program/project and human resources managers throughout the DOE complex. Quantitative projections of full-time equivalent employees slots for each occupation have been developed for the 1993--1997 time frame. Qualitative assessments of the factors that affect recruitment, staffing, and retention are also reported. The implications of the study are discussed within the likely skills mix of the future workforce and the education and organization interventions most likely to address the needs of the DOE complex.

Holmes, C.W.; Lewis, R.E.; Hunt, S.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Finn, M.G. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

1992-06-01

119

Preliminary assessment report for National Guard Facility, Installation 25255, Rehoboth, Massachusetts. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Massachusetts Army National Guard (MAARNG) property known as the Rehoboth National Guard Facility (RNGF) in Rehoboth, Massachusetts. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for ftirther action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the RNGF property, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities under the control of the MAARNG and the past activities contained within that area.

Haffenden, R.; Flaim, S.; Krokosz, M.

1993-08-01

120

Appalachian Rivers II Conference: Technology for Monitoring, Assessing, and Restoring Streams, Rivers, and Watersheds  

SciTech Connect

On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.

None available

1999-07-29

121

Conceptual Assessment Framework for Forested Wetland Restoration: The Pen Branch Experience. Restoration of a Severely Impacted Riparian Wetland System - The Pen Branch Project  

SciTech Connect

Development of an assessment framework and indicators can be used to evaluate effectiveness of wetland restoration. Example of these include index of biotic integrity and the hydrogeomorphic method. Both approaches provide qualitative ranks. We propose a new method based on the EPA wetland research program. Similar to other methods, indexes are compared to reference communities; however, the comparisons are quantitative. In this paper we discuss the results of our framework using the Pen Branch riparian wetland system as an example.

Kolka, R.; Nelson, E.A.; Trettin, C.C.

2000-10-01

122

A dynamic reference model: a framework for assessing biodiversity restoration goals in a fire-dependent ecosystem.  

PubMed

The use of reference models as templates of historical or natural conditions to assess restoration progress is inherently logical; however, difficulties occur in application because of the need to incorporate temporal variation in ecosystems caused by disturbance and succession, as well as seasonal, interannual, or decadal variability. The landscape-scale restoration of the globally threatened and fire-dependent longleaf pine ecosystem in the southeastern United States is an example in which restoration efforts are even more complicated by the limited availability of extant reference sites. This study uses the dynamic reference conceptual framework to assess the direction and rate of recovery with respect to biodiversity restoration goals using a 15-year vegetation data set from an experimental restoration treatment in fire-excluded, hardwood-encroached longleaf pine sandhills. We compared ground-cover vegetation response to midstory hardwood removal through herbicide application, mechanical removal, and fire only. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordinations and proportional similarity analyses suggest that, while vegetation changed in all treatments over time, no differences in species composition or hardwood density in the ground cover were attributable to hardwood reduction treatments after 15 years with frequent prescribed fire. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that considerable variability is associated with reference sites over time. Sites identified in 1994 as attainable restoration targets had become a moving target themselves, changing in magnitude consistent with alterations in restoration plots attributable to treatment effects and shaped by the modest increase in fire frequency imposed since 1998. In a broad restoration context, this study demonstrates a conceptual framework to better understand and integrate the range of spatial and temporal variation associated with the best available reference sites. It also illustrates a practical tool for statistically defining reference sites and for measuring restoration success in continually changing conditions that should be widely applicable to other ecosystems and restoration goals. PMID:24261041

Kirkman, L Katherine; Barnett, Analie; Williams, Brett W; Hiers, J Kevin; Pokswinski, Scottrr M; Mitchell, Robert J

2013-10-01

123

Model-based assessment of the meadow restoration in Last Chance Creek watershed in the Sierra Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The restoration of meadowland using the pond and plug technique of gully elimination was performed in a nine-mile segment along Last Chance Creek, Feather River Basin, California. The field measurements suffer in assessment of the restoration impact since the atmospheric and hydrological conditions evolved over the restoration period. In this presentation, physically-based models are used for environmental assessment based on the simulated watershed responses with and without the meadowland restoration effect under an identical atmospheric condition. The atmospheric conditions over the sparsely-gauged Last Chance Creek watershed during the combined historical critical dry and wet period (1982-1993) were reconstructed over the whole watershed using the MM5 (The Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model) atmospheric model driven with the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data. Using the dynamically downscaled atmospheric data as its input, Watershed Environmental Hydrology (WEHY) model was applied to this watershed. All physical parameters of the model were derived from the existing GIS and satellite driven data sets. By comparing the pre-restoration and post-restoration simulation results under the identical atmospheric conditions, a more complete environmental assessment of the restoration project was made. The model results indicated that the flood peak may be reduced by 10-20 % during the wet year and the baseflow may be enhanced by 10-20 % during the following dry seasons (summer to fall) in the after restoration condition. The model results also showed that the hydrologic impact of the land management associated with the restoration mitigates bank erosion and sediment discharge during winter storm events.

Ohara, N.; Kavvas, M. L.; Chen, Z.; Liang, L.; Anderson, M.

2013-12-01

124

Assessment of Effectiveness and Limitations of Habitat Suitability Models for Wetland Restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat suitability index (HSI) models developed for wildlife in the Louisiana Coastal Area Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan (LCA study) have been assessed for parameter and overall model quality. The success of the suitability models from the South Florida Water Management District for The Everglades restoration project and from the Spatially Explicit Species Index Models (SESI) of the Across Trophic Level System Simulation (ATLSS) Program of Florida warranted investigation with possible application of modeling theory to the current LCA study. General HSI models developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service were also investigated. This report presents examinations of theoretical formulae and comparisons of the models, performed by using diverse hypothetical settings of hydrological/biological ecosystems to highlight weaknesses as well as strengths among the models, limited to the American alligator and selected wading bird species (great blue heron, great egret, and white ibis). Recommendations were made for the LCA study based on these assessments. An enhanced HSI model for the LCA study is proposed for the American alligator, and a new HSI model for wading birds is introduced for the LCA study. Performance comparisons of the proposed models with the other suitability models are made by using the aforementioned hypothetical settings.

Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.

2008-01-01

125

Image Registered Gastroscopic Ultrasound (IRGUS) in Human Subjects: A Pilot Study to Assess Feasibility  

PubMed Central

Background and study aims EUS is a complex procedure due to subtleties of ultrasound interpretation, the small field of observation, and the uncertainty of probe position and orientation. Animal studies demonstrated that Image Registered Gastroscopic Ultrasound (IRGUS) is feasible and may be superior to conventional EUS in efficiency and image interpretation. This study explores whether these attributes of IRGUS will be evident in human subjects with an aim of assessing the feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of IRGUS in patients with suspected pancreatic lesions. Patients and methods Prospective feasibility study at a tertiary care academic medical center in human patients withpancreatic lesions on CT scan who were scheduled to undergo conventional EUS were randomly chosen to undergo their procedure with IRGUS. Main outcome measures include feasibility, ease of use, systemfunction, validated task load (TLX) assessment instrument and IRGUS experience questionnaire. Results Five subjects underwent IRGUS without complication. Localization of pancreatic lesions was accomplished efficiently and accurately (TLX temporal demand 3.7%; TLX effort 8.6%). Image synchronization and registration was accomplished in real-time without procedure delay. Mean assessment score for endoscopist experience with IRGUS was positive (66.6±29.4). Real-time display of CT images in the EUS plane and echoendoscope orientation were the most beneficial characteristic. Conclusions IRGUS appears feasible and safe in human subjects, and efficient and accurate at identification of probe position and image interpretation. IRGUS has the potential to broaden adoption of EUS techniques and shorten EUS learning curves. Clinical studies comparing IRGUS to conventional EUS are ongoing.

Obstein, Keith L.; Estepar, Raul San Jose; Jayender, Jagadeesan; Patil, Vaibhav D.; Spofford, Inbar S.; Ryan, Michele B.; Lengyel, Balazs I.; Shams, Ramtin; Vosburgh, Kirby G.; Thompson, Christopher C.

2014-01-01

126

Preliminary assessment report for Waiawa Gulch, Installation 15080, Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Hawaii Army National Guard (HIARNG) property near Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Waiawa Gulch property, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

Not Available

1993-08-01

127

Preliminary assessment report for Camp Swift Military Reservation, Installation 48070, Bastrop County, Texas. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Texas Army National Guard property in Bastrop County, Texas. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Camp Swift property, the requirement of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The review of both historical and current practices at the property indicated that the activities at Camp Swift include no operations considered to have an adverse impact to the environment. The recommendation, therefore, is that no further IRP action is necessary at this property.

Dennis, C.B.

1993-08-01

128

A Conceptual Framework for Post-Project Assessment Applied to the Provo River Restoration Project, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive assessment of stream restoration projects necessitates evaluation of: 1) the actual pre-project condition in relation to the public perception of impairment, 2) the project concept, goals, and objectives, 3) the project design, 4) the project as actually built, and 5) the project performance. We applied this framework in assessing the recently completed Provo River Restoration Project (PRRP). Begun in 1999 and completed in 2007, the PRRP's budget was 10 million for construction of approximately 16 km of channel and adjacent floodplain wetlands. We analyzed project planning documents, design documents, and made field measurements of the Provo River channel before and after channel re-alignment. Although the impaired, pre-project channel was never explicitly measured by restoration designers, our measurements demonstrate that the bed material organization and floodplain inundation frequency was perturbed from those attributes typical of channels in similar physiographic settings. Project designers did not develop quantitative project goals, and there were no metrics by which performance success was to be measured. Design documents demonstrate that the realigned channel has the potential to re-establish channel and floodplain connection. Surprisingly, there were significant differences between design and as-built channel geometry. These discrepancies have the potential to adversely impact project performance in re-establishing the ecosystem benefits provided by a naturalized channel/floodplain connection. However, field construction of a channel whose capacity is larger than designed has been compensated by a hydrologic regime whose common floods have been larger than anticipated. In addition, the original channel design did not explicitly consider sediment supply, which has the potential to rearrange reconstructed channel elements in the downstream part of the project. Collectively, this analysis demonstrates the degree of uncertainty and ambiguity associated with channel restoration design, the potentially significant differences between design and as-built channels, and the critical need to evaluate project performance by metrics such as changes in the distribution and characteristics of spawning gravels, frequency of floodplain disturbance, impact on in-stream temperature, and changes in hyporheic function.

Goetz, R. R.; Schmidt, J. C.; Erwin, S.; Gooseff, M. N.

2007-12-01

129

Feasibility of assessment of coronary stent patency using 16-slice computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracoronary stent implantation is a frequently performed procedure in the treatment of stenoses in coronary arteries, but in-stent restenosis occurs in ?10% to 15% of patients. A noninvasive diagnostic procedure to evaluate in-stent restenosis would therefore be of great benefit. We investigated the feasibility of assessing stent patency with 16-slice computed tomography. Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) was performed in 22

Joanne D. Schuijf; Jeroen J. Bax; J. Wouter Jukema; Hildo J. Lamb; Hazem M. A. Warda; Hubert W. Vliegen; Albert de Roos; Ernst E. van der Wall

2004-01-01

130

Restoring Consistency In Subjective Information For Groundwater Driven Health Risk Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an earlier work (Ozbek and Pinder, 2003), we constructed a fuzzy rule-based knowledge base that uses subjective expert opinion to calculate risk-based design constraints (i.e., dose and pattern of exposure) to sustain the groundwater-driven individual health risk at a desired level. Ideally, our system must be capable to produce for any individual a meaningful risk result or for any given risk a meaningful design constraint, in the sense that the result is neither the empty set nor the whole domain of the variable of interest. Otherwise we consider our system as inconsistent. We present a method based on fuzzy similarity relations to restore consistency in our implicative fuzzy rule based system used for the risk-based groundwater remediation design problem. Both a global and a local approach are considered. Even though straightforward and computationally less demanding, the global approach can affect pieces of knowledge negatively by inducing unwarranted imprecision into the knowledge base. On the other hand, the local approach, given a family of parameterized similarity relations, determines a parameter for each inference such that consistent results are computed which may not be feasible in real time applications of our knowledge base. Several scenarios are considered for comparing the two approaches that suggest that for specific applications one or several approaches ranging from a completely global to a completely local one will be more suitable than others while calculating the design constraints.

Ozbek, M. M.; Pinder, G. F.

2004-12-01

131

Assessing Stream Restoration Potential of Recreational Enhancements on an Urban Stream, Springfield, OH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restoration potential of urban streams is inherently constrained by urban infrastructure. Roads and built structures may necessitate a static stream planform while water, sewage, and electrical utilities buried in the stream channel require a stable grade. A privately-led initiative to improve the recreational potential of a 9-km reach of Buck Creek and its tributary Beaver Creek in Springfield, Ohio, includes the modification of four lowhead dams with hydraulic heights up to 3 m. Modifications to the dams include replacing their hydraulic height with a series of drop structures engineered to create hydraulics conducive to kayak play. Two of the lowhead dams have been modified to date. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential benefits of modifications designed for their recreational value for stream restoration. The drop structure is a constructed channel constriction comprised of a hard step in the long stream profile immediately upstream of a scour pool, forming a morphologic sequence of constriction, step, and pool. Up to 4 drop structures are used along a given stream reach, constructed in the area of the former dam, its scour pool and a portion of the impounded area. Though not designed for stream restoration purposes, these structures potentially act as series a riffle-pool sequences. Changes in the stream habitat, water chemistry, and macroinvertebrates in response to dam modification highlight the potential for incorporating stream restoration into the engineering design. Following modification of two of the dams, the in-stream habitat quality, as measured by physical and biological indices, increased at one site and decreased at the other site, depending on whether the uppermost drop structure at the site reduced or expanded the impounded area. In the best case, channel sands and gravels, free of fine sand, silt, and organics, have deposited in a crescentic-shaped bar paralleling and grading to the constriction and step. Greater abundance and diversity of pollution-intolerant macroinvertebrates, supported by higher dissolved oxygen in the substrate, characterizes riffles at these sites.

Ritter, J. B.; Evelsizor, A.; Minter, K.; Rigsby, C.; Shaw, K.; Shearer, K.

2010-12-01

132

Robot-assisted home hazard assessment for fall prevention: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

We examined the feasibility of using a remotely manoeuverable robot to make home hazard assessments for fall prevention. We employed use-case simulations to compare robot assessments with in-person assessments. We screened the homes of nine elderly patients (aged 65 years or more) for fall risks using the HEROS screening assessment. We also assessed the participants' perspectives of the remotely-operated robot in a survey. The nine patients had a median Short Blessed Test score of 8 (interquartile range, IQR 2-20) and a median Life-Space Assessment score of 46 (IQR 27-75). Compared to the in-person assessment (mean?=?4.2 hazards identified per participant), significantly more home hazards were perceived in the robot video assessment (mean?=?7.0). Only two checklist items (adequate bedroom lighting and a clear path from bed to bathroom) had more than 60% agreement between in-person and robot video assessment. Participants were enthusiastic about the robot and did not think it violated their privacy. The study found little agreement between the in-person and robot video hazard assessments. However, it identified several research questions about how to best use remotely-operated robots. PMID:24352900

Sadasivam, Rajani S; Luger, Tana M; Coley, Heather L; Taylor, Benjamin B; Padir, Taskin; Ritchie, Christine S; Houston, Thomas K

2014-01-01

133

Feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository  

SciTech Connect

This report discussed progress made during the second year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Corrosion testing in potentially corrosive irradiated environments received emphasis during the feasibility study. Results of experiments to evaluate the effect of a radiation field on the uniform corrosion rate of the copper-base materials in repository-relevant aqueous environments are given as well as results of an electrochemical study of the copper-base materials in normal and concentrated J-13 water. Results of tests on the irradiation of J-13 water and on the subsequent formation of hydrogen peroxide are given. A theoretical study was initiated to predict the long-term corrosion behavior of copper in the repository. Tests were conducted to determine whether copper would adversely affect release rates of radionuclides to the environment because of degradation of the Zircaloy cladding. A manufacturing survey to determine the feasibility of producing copper containers utilizing existing equipment and processes was completed. The cost and availability of copper was also evaluated and predicted to the year 2000. Results of this feasibility assessment are summarized.

Acton, C.F.; McCright, R.D.

1986-09-30

134

Guidance Document for Natural Resource Damage Assessment under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Restoration Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Restoration Guidance Document provides guidance for developing restoration plans under OPA that comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) procedural requirements. The focus of this document is to more fully describe the processes and pr...

E. Reinharz L. B. Burlington

1996-01-01

135

Pilot In Command: A Feasibility Assessment of Autonomous Flight Management Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several years of NASA research have produced the air traffic management operational concept of Autonomous Flight Management with high potential for operational feasibility, significant system and user benefits, and safety. Among the chief potential benefits are demand-adaptive or scalable capacity, user flexibility and autonomy that may finally enable truly successful business strategies, and compatibility with current-day operations such that the implementation rate can be driven from within the user community. A concept summary of Autonomous Flight Management is provided, including a description of how these operations would integrate in shared airspace with existing ground-controlled flight operations. The mechanisms enabling the primary benefits are discussed, and key findings of a feasibility assessment of airborne autonomous operations are summarized. Concept characteristics that impact safety are presented, and the potential for initially implementing Autonomous Flight Management is discussed.

Wing, David J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

2004-01-01

136

Assessing the feasibility, cost, and utility of developing models of human performance in aviation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the effort outlined in this briefing was to determine whether models exist or can be developed that can be used to address aviation automation issues. A multidisciplinary team has been assembled to undertake this effort, including experts in human performance, team/crew, and aviation system modeling, and aviation data used as input to such models. The project consists of two phases, a requirements assessment phase that is designed to determine the feasibility and utility of alternative modeling efforts, and a model development and evaluation phase that will seek to implement the plan (if a feasible cost effective development effort is found) that results from the first phase. Viewgraphs are given.

Stillwell, William

1990-01-01

137

Fast stochastic Wiener filter for superresolution image restoration with information theoretic visual quality assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Super-resolution (SR) refers to reconstructing a single high resolution (HR) image from a set of subsampled, blurred and noisy low resolution (LR) images. The reconstructed image suffers from degradations such as blur, aliasing, photo-detector noise and registration and fusion error. Wiener filter can be used to remove artifacts and enhance the visual quality of the reconstructed images. In this paper, we introduce a new fast stochasticWiener filter for SR reconstruction and restoration that can be implemented efficiently in the frequency domain. Our derivation depends on the continuous-discrete-continuous (CDC) model that represents most of the degradations encountered during the image-gathering and image-display processes. We incorporate a new parameter that accounts for LR images registration and fusion errors. Also, we speeded up the performance of the filter by constraining it to work on small patches of the images. Beside this, we introduce two figures of merits: information rate and maximum realizable fidelity, which can be used to assess the visual quality of the resultant images. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate that the derived Wiener filter that can be implemented efficiently in the frequency domain can reduce aliasing, blurring, and noise and result in a sharper reconstructed image. Also, Quantitative assessment using the proposed figures coincides with the visual qualitative assessment. Finally, we evaluate our filter against other SR techniques and its results were very competitive.

Yousef, Amr H.; Li, Jiang; Karim, Mohammad

2012-05-01

138

Assessment of gene expression in peripheral blood using RNAseq before and after weight restoration in anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

We examined gene expression in the blood of six females with anorexia nervosa (AN) before and after weight restoration using RNAseq. AN cases (aged 19-39) completed clinical assessments and had blood drawn for RNA at hospital admission (T1,<~75% ideal body weight, IBW) and again at discharge (T2,? ~ 85% IBW). To examine the relationship between weight restoration and differential gene expression, normalized gene expression levels were analyzed using a paired design. We found 564 genes whose expression was nominally significantly different following weight restoration (p<0.01, 231 increased and 333 decreased). With a more stringent significance threshold (false discovery rate q<0.05), 67 genes met criteria for differential expression. Of the top 20 genes, CYP11A1, C16orf11, LINC00235, and CPA3 were down-regulated more than two-fold after weight restoration while multiple olfactory receptor genes (OR52J3, OR51L1, OR51A4, and OR51A2) were up-regulated more than two-fold after weight restoration. Pathway analysis revealed up-regulation of two broad pathways with largely overlapping genes, one related to protein secretion and signaling and the other associated with defense response to bacterial regulation. Although results are preliminary secondary to a small sample size, these data provide initial evidence of transcriptional alterations during weight restoration in AN. PMID:23778302

Kim, Yunjung; Trace, Sara E; Crowley, James J; Brownley, Kimberly A; Hamer, Robert M; Pisetsky, David S; Sullivan, Patrick F; Bulik, Cynthia M

2013-11-30

139

Assessing societal impacts when planning restoration of large alluvial rivers: a case study of the Sacramento River project, California.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that ecological restoration projects are more likely to gain public support if they simultaneously increase important human services that natural resources provide to people. River restoration projects have the potential to influence many of the societal functions (e.g., flood control, water quality) that rivers provide, yet most projects fail to consider this in a comprehensive manner. Most river restoration projects also fail to take into account opportunities for revitalization of large-scale river processes, focusing instead on opportunities presented at individual parcels. In an effort to avoid these pitfalls while planning restoration of the Sacramento River, we conducted a set of coordinated studies to evaluate societal impacts of alternative restoration actions over a large geographic area. Our studies were designed to identify restoration actions that offer benefits to both society and the ecosystem and to meet the information needs of agency planning teams focusing on the area. We worked with local partners and public stakeholders to design and implement studies that assessed the effects of alternative restoration actions on flooding and erosion patterns, socioeconomics, cultural resources, and public access and recreation. We found that by explicitly and scientifically melding societal and ecosystem perspectives, it was possible to identify restoration actions that simultaneously improve both ecosystem health and the services (e.g., flood protection and recreation) that the Sacramento River and its floodplain provide to people. Further, we found that by directly engaging with local stakeholders to formulate, implement, and interpret the studies, we were able to develop a high level of trust that ultimately translated into widespread support for the project. PMID:16523370

Golet, Gregory H; Roberts, Michael D; Larsen, Eric W; Luster, Ryan A; Unger, Ron; Werner, Gregg; White, Gregory G

2006-06-01

140

A GIS based European Hydro Power Atlas: a tool for technical and economical feasibility assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The service consists of a tool for quick technical and economic feasibility assessment of small hydropower sites, based on topography, hydrology, environmental flows and other constraints such as distance from existing electric grids. The system works in a web-mapping wrap and allows analysis at a scale comparable to common geo-browsing tools (such Google Earth ©), just like e.g. popular JRC's PVGIS for the estimation of photovoltaic potential. The system provides basically two levels of operation: (1) mapping of the hydropower potential at Europe or regional scale, and (2) preliminary assessment of hydropower production at a site specific level. In the first level, a map of the potential production is provided taking into account a predefined length of the diversion of water (derivation channel and penstock) and calculating related Hydraulic jump; the system combines then topographic information together with flow duration curve information for the whole European/regional stream network and operative hypothesis on maximum derivable flow and other relevant derivation parameters. In the second level user defines in detail project parameters (amount of withdrawal, length of derivation, distance from connection grid, type of turbine, local feed in tariff) and the system evaluates preliminary feasibility check (size of the plat, maximum allowed investment for a fixed for a payback time). Interface via Google Map/Earth © or similar geo-browsing tools will be provided. This tool is expected to play a role in promoting investment in pico-to micro-hydropower plants by making preliminary feasibility assessment much quicker and affordable, and providing reliable estimation of potential available resource, which may be a critical aspect in the development of small plants and for site scouting activity The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme under Grant Agreement No. 603587 (SWITCH-ON).

Bagli, Stefano; Mazzoli, Paolo

2014-05-01

141

Feasibility of bone assessment with leaky Lamb wave in bovine cortical bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) technique is now widely used for non-invasive assessment of osteoporosis. The use of leaky Lamb wave is very attractive since it propagates throughout the cortical thickness of long bones, which means that the entire thickness of bones is interrogated. Feasibility of bone assessment with leaky Lamb wave is investigated in a bone phantom and bovine tibia in vitro using the axial transmission method commonly used to characterize human long bones. The bone phantom consists of Lucite plates with thicknesses of 1, 3, and 5 mm. The results obtained from the bone phantom show that the peak frequencies and amplitudes of excited Lamb modes are strongly dependent on the frequency-thickness product. In the case of the bovine tibia, the S0 Lamb mode may be more sensitive to any change of elastic properties inside the bone plate due to damage or to cortical thickness changes with aging and osteoporosis. This study suggests that leaky Lamb wave is feasible to ultrasonic bone assessment. [Work supported by BK21 Program in Korea.

Lee, Kang Il; Yoon, S. W.

2003-10-01

142

Microwave tomography for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues: feasibility assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important to assess the viability of extremity soft tissues, as this component is often the determinant of the final outcome of fracture treatment. Microwave tomography (MWT) and sensing might be able to provide a fast and mobile assessment of such properties. MWT imaging of extremities possesses a complicated, nonlinear, high dielectric contrast inverse problem of diffraction tomography. There is a high dielectric contrast between bone and soft tissue in the extremities. A contrast between soft tissue abnormalities is less pronounced when compared with the high bone-soft tissue contrast. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of MWT for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues, i.e. to detect a relatively small contrast within soft tissues in closer proximity to high contrast boney areas. Both experimental studies and computer simulation were performed. Experiments were conducted using live pigs with compromised blood flow and compartment syndrome within an extremity. A whole 2D tomographic imaging cycle at 1 GHz was computer simulated and images were reconstructed using the Newton, MR-CSI and modified Born methods. Results of experimental studies demonstrate that microwave technology is sensitive to changes in the soft tissue blood content and elevated compartment pressure. It was demonstrated that MWT is feasible for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues, circulatory-related changes, blood flow and elevated compartment pressure.

Semenov, Serguei; Kellam, James; Althausen, Peter; Williams, Thomas; Abubakar, Aria; Bulyshev, Alexander; Sizov, Yuri

2007-09-01

143

Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands  

PubMed Central

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public.

Burger, Joanna

2014-01-01

144

INVENTORY OF ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION PROJECTS WITHIN THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) REGION, NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

In cooperation with the Office of Water, the Office of Research and Development's National Risk Management Research Laboratory is developing an inventory of ecosystem restoration projects within the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Region. The MAIA Region includes five s...

145

Restoration of competency to stand trial: Assessment with the Georgia Court Competency Test and the Competency Screening Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluations of the Georgia Court Competency Test—Mississippi Version Revised (GCCT-MSH) and the Competency Screening Test (CST) have supported their use with pretrial defendants in initial assessment of competency to stand trial. The present study evaluated the efficacy of these measures, as well as the Texas Competency Instrument, with an inpatient sample of defendants involved in a competency restoration program. Both

Karen L. Ustad; Richard Rogers; Kenneth W. Sewell; Charles A. Guarnaccia

1996-01-01

146

Value Assessment of Ecosystem Services in Nature Reserves in Ningxia, China: A Response to Ecological Restoration  

PubMed Central

Changes in land use can cause significant changes in the ecosystem structure and process variation of ecosystem services. This study presents a detailed spatial, quantitative assessment of the variation in the value of ecosystem services based on land use change in national nature reserves of the Ningxia autonomous region in China. We used areas of land use types calculated from the remote sensing data and the adjusted value coefficients to assess the value of ecosystem services for the years 2000, 2005, and 2010, analyzing the fluctuations in the valuation of ecosystem services in response to land use change. With increases in the areas of forest land and water bodies, the value of ecosystem services increased from 182.3×107 to 223.8×107 US$ during 2000–2010. Grassland and forest land accounted for 90% of this increase. The values of all ecosystem services increased during this period, especially the value of ecosystem services for biodiversity protection and soil formation and protection. Ecological restoration in the reserves had a positive effect on the value of ecosystem services during 2000–2010.

Wang, Yan; Gao, Jixi; Wang, Jinsheng; Qiu, Jie

2014-01-01

147

Risk assessment - The future trend. [Environmental regulations and restoration risk assessment of the oil industry  

SciTech Connect

Many organizations today are faced with cleaning a site or facility, selecting appropriate remedial alternatives, or explaining the potential effects on human health and the environment caused by the releases of toxic compounds into the air, soil, and water, The use of risk assessment (RA) as a management tool is increasing because it offers an integrated approach to the analysis of toxicological, geological, physio-chemical, meteorological, statistical, and biological parameters that must be evaluated in the assessment of potential impacts to human health. The regulatory atmosphere in the 1990s is leaning toward the adoption of further laws requiring the completion of the RA process. Any industry involved in submitting permit applications to Air Quality Management Districts or complying with California's Proposition 65 and AB 2588 will be required to prepare RAs. Several guidance documents are available that support the RA process including the California Site Mitigation Decision Tree Manual published by the State Department of Health Services (DHS), which bases its approach on developing cleanup objectives (Applied Action Levels) on RA. This presentation focuses on the applications RA can have to the petroleum industry and the kinds of data that each case should develop to make maximum use of the RA process.

Marks, G.A. (Mittlehauser Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States))

1991-02-01

148

15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.53 Restoration selectionâdeveloping restoration alternatives...restoration actions, including a natural recovery alternative....

2009-01-01

149

15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.53 Restoration selectionâdeveloping restoration alternatives...restoration actions, including a natural recovery alternative....

2010-01-01

150

74 FR 69335 - An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: The Feasibility of Incorporating Climate Change...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The Feasibility of Incorporating Climate Change Information Into Land Protection...The Feasibility of Incorporating Climate Change Information into Land Protection...the feasibility of incorporating climate change impacts information into the...

2009-12-31

151

Feasibility, Reproducibility, and Agreement between Different Speckle Tracking Echocardiographic Techniques for the Assessment of Longitudinal Deformation  

PubMed Central

Background. Left ventricular (LV) longitudinal deformation can be assessed with new echocardiographic techniques like triplane echocardiography (3PE) and four-dimensional echocardiography (4DE). We aimed to assess the feasibility, reproducibility, and agreement between these different speckle-tracking techniques for the assessment of longitudinal deformation. Methods. 101 consecutive subjects underwent echocardiographic examination. 2D cine loops from the apical views, a triplane view, and an LV 4D full volume were acquired in all subjects. LV longitudinal strain was obtained for each imaging modality. Results. 2DE analysis of LV strain was feasible in 90/101 subjects, 3PE strain in 89/101, and 4DE strain in 90/101. The mean value of 2DE and 3PE longitudinal strains was significantly higher with respect to 4DE. The relationship between 2DE and 3PE derived strains (r = 0.782) was significantly higher (z = 3.72, P < 0.001) than that between 2DE and 4DE (r = 0.429) and that between 3PE and 4DE (r = 0.510; z = 3.09, P = 0.001). The mean bias between 2DE and 4DE strains was ?6.61 ± 7.31% while ?6.42 ± 6.81% between 3PE and 4DE strains; the bias between 2DE and 3PE strain was of 0.21 ± 4.16%. Intraobserver and interobserver variabilities were acceptable among the techniques. Conclusions. Echocardiographic techniques for the assessment of longitudinal deformation are not interchangeable, and further studies are needed to assess specific reference values.

Mangiafico, Sarah; Bottari, Vera; Tamburino, Corrado

2013-01-01

152

Safety culture assessment in community pharmacy: development, face validity, and feasibility of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a framework that could be used by community pharmacies to self-assess their current level of safety culture maturity, which has high face validity and is both acceptable and feasible for use in this setting. Design: An iterative review process in which the framework was developed and evaluated through a series of 10 focus groups with a purposive sample of 67 community pharmacists and support staff in the UK. Main outcome measures: Development of the framework and qualitative process feedback on its acceptability, face validity, and feasibility for use in community pharmacies. Results: Using this process, a version of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework (MaPSAF) was developed that is suitable for application to community pharmacies. The participants were able to understand the concepts, recognised differences between the five stages of safety culture maturity, and concurred with the descriptions from personal experience. They also indicated that they would be willing to use the framework but recognised that staff would require protected time in order to complete the assessment. Conclusions: In practice the MaPSAF is likely to have a number of uses including raising awareness about patient safety and illustrating any differences in perception between staff, stimulating discussion about the strengths and weaknesses of patient safety culture within the pharmacy, identifying areas for improvement, and evaluating patient safety interventions and tracking changes over time. This will support the development of a mature safety culture in community pharmacies.

Ashcroft, D; Morecroft, C; Parker, D; Noyce, P

2005-01-01

153

Defining an ecological baseline for restoration and natural resource damage assessment of contaminated sites: The case of the Department of Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective ecological risk assessment, restoration, natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) and managing ecosystems all require having a baseline. This policy and practice paper explores the factors that influence baseline selection, and it is suggested that ecological resources would best be served by: (1) integrating NRDA considerations into both future land-use planning and remediation\\/restoration; (2) selecting a baseline for NRDA that

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld; Charles W. Powers; Michael Greenberg

2007-01-01

154

A feasibility assessment of nuclear reactor power system concepts for the NASA Growth Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth Space Station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational, disposition and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of Space Station - attached concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide a feasibility of each combination.

Bloomfield, H. S.; Heller, J. A.

1986-01-01

155

Assessing ex vivo dental biofilms and in vivo composite restorations using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cross-polarization 1310-nm optical coherence tomography system (CP-OCT), using a beam splitter based design, was used to assess ex vivo growth of complex multi-species dental biofilms. These biofilm microcosms were derived from plaque samples along the interface of composite or amalgam restoration in children with a history of early childhood caries. This paper presents a method of measuring the mean biofilm height of mature biofilms using CP-OCT. For our in vivo application, the novel swept source based CP-OCT intraoral probe (Santec Co. Komaki, Japan) dimensions and system image acquisition speed (20 image frames/second) allowed imaging pediatric subjects as young as 4 years old. The subsurface enamel under the interface of composite resin restorations of pediatric subjects were imaged using CP-OCT. Cavitated secondary caries is clearly evident from sound resin composite restorations.

Jones, R.; Aparicio, C.; Chityala, R.; Chen, R.; Fok, A.; Rudney, J.

2012-02-01

156

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STREAM RESTORATION AT USEPA  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous stream and riparian restoration projects are being undertaken across the nation at a variety of scales and for disparate reasons. Unfortunately, there are very few studies associated with these restoration efforts which provide a consistent and practical methodology to e...

157

Assessing grassland restoration success: relative roles of seed additions and native ungulate activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Grassland restorations often lack rare forb and grass species that are found in intact grasslands. The possible reasons for low diversity include seed limitation, microsite limitation and a combination of both. Native ungulates may create microsites for seedling establishment in tallgrass prairie restorations by grazing dominant species or through trampling activities, but this has never been tested in

LEANNE M. MARTIN; BRIAN J. WILSEY

158

Immune Restoration  

MedlinePLUS

... 2013 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 481 Immune Restoration WHAT IS IMMUNE RESTORATION? HOW CAN THE IMMUNE SYSTEM BE RESTORED? ARE ... CELLS AS GOOD AS OLD? WHAT IS IMMUNE RESTORATION? Immune restoration means repairing the damage done to ...

159

Nature versus nurture: functional assessment of restoration effects on wetland services using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land-use change has altered the ability of wetlands to provide vital services such as nutrient retention. While compensatory practices attempt to restore degraded wetlands and their functions, it is difficult to evaluate the recovery of soil biogeochemical functions that are critical for restoration of ecosystem services. Using solution 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, we examined the chemical forms of phosphorus (P) in soils from wetlands located across a land-use gradient. We report that soil P diversity, a functional attribute, was lowest in farmland, and greatest in native wetlands. Soil P diversity increased with age of restoration, indicating restoration of biogeochemical function. The trend in soil P diversity was similar to documented trends in soil bacterial taxonomic composition but opposite that of soil bacterial diversity at our study sites. These findings provide insights into links between ecosystem structure and function and provide a tool for evaluating the success of ecosystem restoration efforts. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

Sundareshwar, P. V.; Richardson, C. J.; Gleason, R. A.; Pellechia, P. J.; Honomichl, S.

2009-01-01

160

National fire danger assessment and ecosystem restoration using remote sensing and ecological modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hazardous fuel reduction, ecosystem rehabilitation and restoration, and firefighting safety, are land management priorities emphasized by recent national fire policies such as the National Fire Plan. Implementation of these policies requires geospatial data of vegetation conditions, fire fuels, risks, and ecosystem status developed consistently nationwide that can be used at multiple scales (i.e., local, regional, and national). A new research and development project called LANDFIRE is being conducted to develop an integrated methodology to produce geospatial fire data and predictive models for the land management community and a broad range of other applications. Main deliverables include mapped potential and existing vegetation types and vegetation structure parameters, various biophysical data layers, fire fuels models, fire risk layers, as well as state-of-the-art computer models for assessing fire risk, behavior and effects. In this presentation, we will review research results and findings of the LANDFIRE project using results from a prototype study covering central Utah Uinta and Wasatch ecosystems. Particularly we will describe how a consistent and operational vegetation mapping component may be achieved by integrating machine-learning algorithms, field reference data, satellite imagery, and ecologically significant biophysical variables. We will discuss how remotely sensed vegetation cover types and structure can be successfully converted to fire fuel classes and risk layers which are necessary input into fire behavior and fire effect models. Finally we will discuss challenges and opportunities for national implementation of the methodology.

Zhu, Z.; Rollins, M.

161

Installation-Restoration Program Preliminary Assessment Kalakaket Creek Radio Relay Station, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

The Hazardous Materials Technical Center (HMTC) was retained in January 1988 to conduct the Installation-Restoration Program (IRP) Preliminary Assessment of Kalakaket Creek Radio Relay Station (RRS), Alaska. DoD policy is to identify and fully evaluate suspected problems associated with past hazardous-material disposal sites on DoD facilities, control the migration of hazardous-contamination from such facilities, and control hazards to health and welfare that may have resulted from these past operations. The major operations of the installation that used and disposed of hazardous materials/hazardous wastes (HM/HW) included vehicle maintenance; power production; petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) management; and management of batteries, electrical equipment, and paints. Small quantities of waste transformer fluid containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lube oils, PD-680 solvent, synthetic oil, transmission fluid, motor gasoline, lead-acid batteries, fuel oil, aviation gasoline, diesel fuel, ethylene glycol, trichloroethane, paints, strippers, and thinners were generated by these activities. Asbestos was also used as a construction material at the facility. At the time of the site visit, no evidence of contamination was visible at the RRS. However, as it was a common practice at similar facilities to bury drums and waste liquids, a landfill may exist in the vicinity of the RRS. In addition, asbestos was observed within the buildings at the RRS.

Not Available

1989-04-01

162

Two dimensional restoration of seismic reflection profiles from Mozambique: technique for assessing rift extension histories  

SciTech Connect

Seismic reflection data from offshore Mozambique between longitudes 25/sup 0/ and 26/sup 0/ and latitudes 34/sup 0/ and 35/sup 0/ reveals a V-shaped rift, the apex of which points northward, toward the coast. This study retraces the rift's extensional history by geometric reconstruction of seismic profiles, selected perpendicular to tectonic strike. Depth conversions are performed, followed by bed length and volume balancing to test the interpretations and calculate a total extension value for the extension factor. The sediments are then backstripped in sedimentary sequences, restoring the increments of throw on faults accordingly. After each sequence is removed, the sediments are decompacted in an attempt to recover the original volume prior to the sequence deposition. The extension factor is again calculated. This process is repeated down the sequences until the result is the pre-rift state of the basin. This analysis results in an extension estimate for each sequence-time increment, as a percentage of the total extension. From this method, a detailed crustal extension history is deduced, which, when coupled to the thermal history from subsidence backstripping and paleoheatflow studies, could be used in the basin analysis assessment of the oil potential of this and other rifts.

Iliffe, J.E.; Debuyl, M.; Kendall, C.G.St.C.; Lerche, I.

1986-05-01

163

Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Induced Transgression of the Chandeleur Islands for Restoration and Wildlife Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chandeleur Islands are the first line of defense against tropical storms and hurricanes for coastal Louisiana. They provide habitats for birds species and are a wildlife refuge; however, distressingly, they are eroding and transgressing at an alarming rate. In 1998, Hurricane Georges caused severe damage to the chain, prompting restoration and monitoring efforts by both Federal and State agencies. Since then, storm events have steadily diminished the condition of the islands. Quantification of shoreline erosion, vegetation, and land loss, from 1979 to 2009, was achieved through the analysis of imagery from Landsat 2-4 Multispectral Scanner, Landsat 4 & 5 Thematic Mapper, and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer sensors. QuickBird imagery was used to validate the accuracy of these results. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data to assist in tracking the transgression of the Chandeleur Islands. The use of near infrared reflectance calculated from MOD09 surface reflectance data from 2000 to 2009 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool. The scope of this project includes not only assessments of the tropical cyclonic events during this time period, but also the effects of tides, winds, and cold fronts on the spatial extent of the islands. Partnering organizations, such as the Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Research, will utilize those results in an effort to better monitor and address the continual change of the island chain.

Mitchell, Brandie; Reahard, Ross; Billiot, Amanda; Brown, Tevin; Childs, Lauren

2009-01-01

164

Feasibility of asymmetric stretch assessment in the ascending aortic wall with DENSE cardiovascular magnetic resonance  

PubMed Central

Background Vessel diameter is the principal imaging parameter assessed clinically for aortic disease, but adverse events can occur at normal diameters. Aortic stiffness has been studied as an additional imaging-based risk factor, and has been shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality. Reports suggest that some aortic pathology is asymmetric around the vessel circumference, a feature which would not be identified with current imaging approaches. We propose that this asymmetry may be revealed using Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE). The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of assessing asymmetric stretch in healthy and diseased ascending aortas using DENSE. Methods Aortic wall displacement was assessed with DENSE cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in 5 volunteers and 15 consecutive patients. Analysis was performed in a cross-sectional plane through the ascending aorta at the pulmonary artery. Displacement data was used to determine the wall stretch between the expanded and resting states of the aorta, in four quadrants around the aortic circumference. Results Analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not only show significant differences in stretch between groups of volunteers (p?feasible in the ascending aorta with DENSE CMR. Clear differences in stretch are seen between patients and volunteers, with asymmetric patterns demonstrated around the aortic circumference.

2014-01-01

165

Dissolved oxygen requirements for hatching success of two ambystomatid salamanders in restored ephemeral ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess feasibility of reintroduction of extirpated spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in restored flatwoods wetlands, hatching rates were monitored using pond enclosures.Ambystoma maculatum hatching success was compared to that of conspecifics in source ponds and to blue-spotted salamanders (Ambystoma laterale) that had persisted in restored ponds despite habitat degradation. Restored ephemeral ponds with hypoxic conditions had consistent\\u000a hatching failure forA.

Allison B. Sacerdote; Richard B. King

2009-01-01

166

Assessing the feasibility and fidelity of an intervention for women with violent offenses.  

PubMed

Women convicted of assaultive or violent offenses represent a small but important subpopulation of adults involved in the criminal justice system. The limited treatment and rehabilitation programs that are available for these women are usually developed for male offenders and do not consider factors that are especially relevant to women, such as higher rates of mental health and substance use disorders as well as their likely histories of interpersonal violence. Moreover, women's trajectories into violent behavior - as well as their trajectories out - may differ from their male counterparts. Due to the absence of programs available for this unique population, a new gender-specific and trauma informed intervention, Beyond Violence, was developed. This paper describes a pilot study with a mixed-methods approach that assesses the feasibility and fidelity of the intervention within a state prison for women. Overall, various components of feasibility (i.e. engaging the target population, gaining institutional support, and finding skilled treatment staff), were realized, as were fidelity elements such as adherence to the intervention material, and high attendance and satisfaction by participants. The positive results of this pilot study increase the likelihood of dissemination of the intervention and a randomized control trial is currently underway. PMID:24055731

Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Fedock, Gina; Tillander, Elizabeth; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah

2014-02-01

167

Market Assessment and Technical Feasibility Study of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash Use  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Center (METC), has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) ashes. The assessment is designed to address six applications, including: (1) structural fill, (2) road base construction, (3) supplementary cementing materials in portland cement, (4) synthetic aggregate, and (5) agricultural/soil amendment applications. Ash from low-sulfur subbituminous coal-fired Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, and ash from the high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired American Electric Power (AEP) bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC unit using low- sulfur coal and limestone sorbent (karhula ash) and high-sulfur coal and dolomite sorbents (AEP Tidd ash).

Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

1996-12-31

168

Assessment of Feasibility of the Beneficial Use of Waste Heat from the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This report investigates the feasibility of using waste heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). A proposed glycol waste heat recovery system was assessed for technical and economic feasibility. The system under consideration would use waste heat from the ATR secondary coolant system to preheat air for space heating of TRA-670. A tertiary coolant stream would be extracted from the secondary coolant system loop and pumped to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, where heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air in the heating and ventilation system. Historical data from Advanced Test Reactor operations over the past 10 years indicates that heat from the reactor coolant was available (when needed for heating) for 43.5% of the year on average. Potential energy cost savings by using the waste heat to preheat intake air is $242K/yr. Technical, safety, and logistics considerations of the glycol waste heat recovery system are outlined. Other opportunities for using waste heat and reducing water usage at ATR are considered.

Donna P. Guillen

2012-07-01

169

Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project. Final environmental assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement pertaining to the Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Yakama Indian Na...

1994-01-01

170

Assessing the Feasibility of Controlling Aedes aegypti with Transgenic Methods: A Model-Based Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Suppression of dengue and malaria through releases of genetically engineered mosquitoes might soon become feasible. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes carrying a conditionally lethal transgene have recently been used to suppress local vector populations in small-scale field releases. Prior to releases of transgenic insects on a wider scale, however, most regulatory authorities will require additional evidence that suppression will be effective in natural heterogeneous habitats. We use a spatially explicit stochastic model of an Ae. aegypti population in Iquitos, Peru, along with an uncertainty analysis of its predictions, to quantitatively assess the outcome of varied operational approaches for releases of transgenic strains with conditional death of females. We show that population elimination might be an unrealistic objective in heterogeneous populations. We demonstrate that substantial suppression can nonetheless be achieved if releases are deployed in a uniform spatial pattern using strains combining multiple lethal elements, illustrating the importance of detailed spatial models for guiding genetic mosquito control strategies.

Legros, Mathieu; Xu, Chonggang; Okamoto, Kenichi; Scott, Thomas W.; Morrison, Amy C.; Lloyd, Alun L.; Gould, Fred

2012-01-01

171

Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

1999-04-01

172

Evaluating Urban Wetland Restorations: Case Studies for Assessing Connectivity and Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Restoration of urban intertidal wetlands such as the Hackensack Meadowlands,of New Jersey typically involves the return of tidal flow to diked or gated land, the removal of dredge spoils to lower elevations, and\\/or the replacement of invasive plant species (e.g., Phragmites australis) with preferred marsh plants. Restoration of preferred vegetation and hydrology is expected to net

Lisamarie Windham; Mark S. Laska; Jennifer Wollenberg

173

Historical Ecology as a Tool for Assessing Landscape Change and Informing Wetland Restoration Priorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vast resources are devoted annually to watershed management and wetland restoration. Historical wetland losses are often cited\\u000a as a motivation for prioritizing ambitious wetland restoration efforts. However, analysis of historical conditions is often\\u000a underutilized in the planning process. In this paper we demonstrate historical ecological analysis of the San Gabriel River\\u000a watershed in southern California. We integrate multiple disparate data

Eric D. Stein; Shawna Dark; Travis Longcore; Robin Grossinger; Nicholas Hall; Michael Beland

2010-01-01

174

Feasibility and Pilot Study of the Pediatric Anesthesia NeuroDevelopment Assessment (PANDA) Project  

PubMed Central

Background Animal studies have documented that exposure of the developing brain to commonly used anesthetic agents induce neurotoxicity and late abnormal neurobehavioral functions as adults. Results from clinical studies have all been performed using existing datasets, and produced inconsistent results. To provide more definitive evidence to address the clinical relevance of anesthetic neurotoxicity in children, an interdisciplinary team of investigators designed and developed the Pediatric Anesthesia NeuroDevelopment Assessment (PANDA) project. We present pilot study results in 28 sibling pairs recruited and tested at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and Children’s Hospital of Boston (CHB) for the PANDA project. Methods The PANDA project uses an ambi-directional cohort design. We performed prospective neuropsychological assessment in 28 exposed-unexposed sibling pairs ages 6–11 years old. The exposed siblings were ASA 1 or 2 and had received a single episode of anesthesia for inguinal hernia repair prior to age 36 months and the unexposed siblings had no anesthesia before age 36 months. All sibling pairs were English speaking and were 36 weeks gestational age or greater. Each sibling pair underwent direct testing using WASI and NEPSY II, and the parents completed questionnaires related to behavior using CBCL and Conners’ rating. Data are presented as means ± SD. We conducted descriptive analyses of demographic data. We compared exposed and unexposed sibling groups on WASI and NEPSY II, and total and T-scores from CBCL and Conners’ as continuous data by paired t test between. A P< 0.05 was considered significant. Results Following IRB approval for the study at both CUMC and CHB, the full PANDA study protocol was implemented to perform a pilot feasibility study. Our success rate was 96.7% in obtaining detailed medical and anesthesia records in our historical cohort. Scores for verbal IQ (Exposed=106.1±16.3,Unexposed=109.2±17.9), performance IQ (Exposed=109.1±16.0, Unexposed=113.9±15.9) and full IQ (Exposed=108.2±14.0, Unexposed=112.8±16.8) were comparable between siblings. There were no differences between the two groups in T scores for any of the NEPSY II sub-domains, CBCL or Conners’. An abstraction protocol with web-based electronic data capture forms also was developed in conjunction with the International Center for Health Outcomes and Innovation Research (InCHOIR). Conclusions The pilot study provided useful information for feasibility to recruit the sample size and to obtain relevant clinical data. For the final study protocol, both the neuropsychological battery and the age range for testing were revised. Our results confirmed the feasibility of our study approach, and yielded pilot data from neuropsychological testing.

Sun, Lena S.; Li, Guohua; DiMaggio, Charles J.; Byrne, Mary W.; Ing, Caleb; Miller, Tonya LK; Bellinger, David C.; Han, Sena; McGowan, Francis X.

2012-01-01

175

Evaluation of restoration alternatives for natural resources injured by oil spills, first edition, October 1991  

SciTech Connect

This book builds upon previous work in the field of oil spill impact assessment and habitat restoration to assess the technical feasibility and practicability of proactive restoration following oil spills and presents an approach for evaluating tradeoffs between natural recovery and active restoration. The scenarios developed to represent a broad spectrum of possible oil spills were based on selected case studies. The report concludes that in general, available restoration techniques are not very effective for enhancing natural recovery and may in certain cases cause more severe impacts than the oil spill alone.

Not Available

1992-01-01

176

A comparative assessment of genetic diversity among differently-aged populations of Spartina alterniflora on restored versus natural wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected naturally recolonizing Spartina alterniflora (smooth cord grass) from each of three restored sites and one undisturbed reference site in southwestern Louisiana to assess the impact of wetland restoration on genetic diversity. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to produce 94 polymorphic genetic markers, which were used to characterize genetic diversity as average heterozygosity and the proportion of polymorphic loci . Overall our findings indicate that restored populations of S. alterniflora maintain levels of genetic diversity comparable to natural populations, which should provide some measure of resistance against environmental disturbances. Diversity estimates were lowest for the natural reference site ( = 0.1059; = 0.2763), whereas estimates for the three restored sites ranged from = 0.1148 to 0.1256 and = 0.3114 to 0.3202. All sites maintained sufficiently high diversity levels to suggest significant rates of outcrossing. Overall, genetic differentiation among populations was small (Weir and Cockerham's ?? = 0.0645), with the values from each pairwise comparison among the populations increasing with the geographic distance between sites (range = 0.0490-0.1101). These values indicate an average migration rate of 3.6 migrants, either pollen or seeds, per generation.

Travis, S. E.; Proffitt, C. E.; Lowenfeld, R. C.; Mitchell, T. W.

2002-01-01

177

Feasibility of bone assessment by using the nonlinear parameter in trabecular bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of assessing bone status and osteoporosis by using the nonlinear parameter B/A in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The B/A values measured in 18 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using a finite-amplitude through-transmission method ranged from 63.3 to 122.6. The apparent bone density was highly correlated with the B/A and with the existing quantitative ultrasound parameters of the speed of sound (SOS) and the normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation (nBUA), with Pearson's correlation coefficients of r = 0.83 to 0.96. The best univariate predictor of the apparent bone density was the B/A, with an adjusted squared correlation coefficient of r 2 = 0.91. These results suggest that the B/A, in addition to the SOS and the nBUA, may have potential as an index for the assessment of bone status and osteoporosis.

Lee, Kang Il

2013-04-01

178

Feasibility of ecological momentary assessment of hearing difficulties encountered by hearing aid users  

PubMed Central

Objectives Measurement of outcomes has become increasingly important to assess the benefit of audiologic rehabilitation, including hearing aids, in adults. Data from questionnaires, however, are based on retrospective recall of events and experiences, and often can be inaccurate. Questionnaires also do not capture the daily variation that typically occurs in relevant events and experiences. Clinical researchers in a variety of fields have turned to a methodology known as ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess quotidian experiences associated with health problems. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using EMA to obtain real-time responses from hearing aid users describing their experiences with challenging hearing situations. Design This study required three phases: (1) develop EMA methodology to assess hearing difficulties experienced by hearing aid users; (2) utilize focus groups to refine the methodology; and (3) test the methodology with 24 hearing aid users. Phase 3 participants carried a personal digital assistant (PDA) 12 hr per day for 2 wk. The PDA alerted participants to respond to questions four times a day. Each assessment started with a question to determine if a hearing problem was experienced since the last alert. If “yes,” then up to 23 questions (depending on contingent response branching) obtained details about the situation. If “no,” then up to 11 questions obtained information that would help to explain why hearing was not a problem. Each participant completed the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE) both before and after the 2-wk EMA testing period to evaluate for “reactivity” (exacerbation of self-perceived hearing problems that could result from the repeated assessments). Results Participants responded to the alerts with a 77% compliance rate, providing a total of 991 completed momentary assessments (mean = 43.1 per participant). A substantial amount of data was obtained with the methodology. Notably, participants reported a “hearing problem situation since the last alert” 37.6% of the time (372 responses). The most common problem situation involved “face-to-face conversation” (53.8% of the time). The next most common problem situation was “telephone conversation” (17.2%) followed by “TV, radio, iPod, etc.” (15.3%), “environmental sounds” (9.7%), and “movies, lecture, etc.” (4.0%). Comparison of pre- and post-EMA mean HHIE scores revealed no significant difference (p>.05), indicating that reactivity did not occur for this group. It should be noted, however, that 37.5% of participants reported a greater sense of awareness regarding their hearing loss and use of hearing aids. Conclusions Results showed participants were compliant, gave positive feedback, and did not demonstrate reactivity based on pre- and post-HHIE scores. We conclude that EMA methodology is feasible with patients who use hearing aids and could potentially inform hearing healthcare (HHC) services. The next step is to develop and evaluate EMA protocols that provide detailed daily patient information to audiologists at each stage of HHC. The advantages of such an approach would be to obtain real-life outcome measures, and to determine within- and between-day variability in outcomes and associated factors. Such information currently is not available from patients who seek and use HHC services.

Galvez, Gino; Turbin, Mitchel B.; Thielman, Emily J.; Istvan, Joseph A.; Andrews, Judy A.; Henry, James A.

2012-01-01

179

Investigation and Feasibility Assessment of TOPAZ-2 Derivations for Space Power Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to provide continuous power at significant levels is of utmost importance for many space missions, from simple satellite operations to manned Mars missions. One of the main problems faced in delivering solar or chemical space power in the tens of kW range, is the increasingly massive nature of the power source and the costs associated with its launch, operation and maintenance. A national program had been initiated to study the feasibility of using certain advanced technologies in developing an efficient lightweight space power source. The starting point for these studies has been the Russian TOPAZ-2 space reactor system, with the ultimate goal to aid in the development of a TOPAZ-2 derivative which will be ready for flight by the year 2000. The main objective of this project has been to perform feasibility assessment and trade studies which would allow the development of an advanced space nuclear power system based on the in-core thermionic fuel element technology currently used in the Russian TOPAZ-2 reactor. Two of the important considerations in developing the concept are: (1) compliance of the current TOPAZ-2 and of any advanced designs with U.S. nuclear safety expectations, and (2) compliance of the design with the seven years lifetime requirement. The project was composed of two major phases. The initial phase of the project has concentrated on understanding the TOPAZ-2 thermionic reactor in sufficient detail to allow several follow-on tasks. The primary interest during this first phase has been given on identifying the potential of the TOPAZ-2 design for further improvements. The second phase of the project has focused on the feasibility of a TOPAZ-2 system capable of delivering 30-50 kWe. Towards the elimination of single-point failures in the load voltage regulation system an active voltage regulator has been designed to be used in conjunction with the available shunt load voltage regulator. The possible use of a dual-loop, model-based adaptive control system for load-following in the TOPAZ-2 has also been investigated. The objective of this fault-tolerant, autonomous control system is to deliver the demanded electric power at the desired voltage level, by appropriately manipulating the neutron power through the control drums. As a result, sufficient thermal power is produced to meet the required demand in the presence of dynamically changing system operating conditions and potential sensor failures. The designed controller is proposed for use in combination with the currently available shunt regulators, or as a back-up controller when other means of power system control, including some of the sensors, fail.

Parlos, Alexander G.; Peddicord, Kenneth L.

1998-01-01

180

Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma in weightlessness: a feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: The Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) examines for fluid in gravitationally dependent regions. There is no prior experience with this technique in weightlessness, such as on the International Space Station, where sonography is currently the only diagnostic imaging tool. STUDY DESIGN: A ground-based (1 g) porcine model for sonography was developed. We examined both the feasibility and the comparative performance of the FAST examination in parabolic flight. Sonographic detection and fluid behavior were evaluated in four animals during alternating weightlessness (0 g) and hypergravity (1.8 g) periods. During flight, boluses of fluid were incrementally introduced into the peritoneal cavity. Standardized sonographic windows were recorded. Postflight, the video recordings were divided into 169 20-second segments for subsequent interpretation by 12 blinded ultrasonography experts. Reviewers first decided whether a video segment was of sufficient diagnostic quality to analyze (determinate). Determinate segments were then analyzed as containing or not containing fluid. A probit regression model compared the probability of a positive fluid diagnosis to actual fluid levels (0 to 500 mL) under both 0-g and 1.8-g conditions. RESULTS: The in-flight sonographers found real-time scanning and interpretation technically similar to that of terrestrial conditions, as long as restraint was maintained. On blinded review, 80% of the recorded ultrasound segments were considered determinate. The best sensitivity for diagnosis in 0 g was found to be from the subhepatic space, with probability of a positive fluid diagnosis ranging from 9% (no fluid) to 51% (500 mL fluid). CONCLUSIONS: The FAST examination is technically feasible in weightlessness, and merits operational consideration for clinical contingencies in space.

Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Nicolaou, Savvas; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Campbell, Mark R.; Feiveson, Alan; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Melton, Shannon; Beck, George; Dawson, David L.

2003-01-01

181

Analysis of deforestation patterns in the Baekdudaegan preservation area using land cover classification and change detection techniques; the feasibility of restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baekdudaegan Mountain Range is a backbone of the Korean Peninsula which has special spiritual and sentimental significance for Koreans and significant ecological value to diverse organisms. Despite the importance of this region, however, the natural environment of Baekdudaegan has been severely threatened by a variety of human activity and tremendous forest fires. To make management and restoration plans for

Hui-Cheul Jung; Dong-Kun Lee; Seong-Woo Jeon; Won-Kyong Song

2005-01-01

182

Digital restoration of multichannel images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wiener solution of a multichannel restoration scheme is presented. Using matrix diagonalization and block-Toeplitz to block-circulant approximation, the inversion of the multichannel, linear space-invariant imaging system becomes feasible by utilizing a fast iterative matrix inversion procedure. The restoration uses both the within-channel (spatial) and between-channel (spectral) correlation; hence, the restored result is a better estimate than that produced by independent channel restoration. Simulations are also presented.

Galatsanos, Nikolas P.; Chin, Roland T.

1989-01-01

183

Momentary Assessment of Adults' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Feasibility and Validity  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Mobile phones are ubiquitous and easy to use, and thus have the capacity to collect real-time data from large numbers of people. Research tested the feasibility and validity of an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) self-report protocol using electronic surveys on mobile phones to assess adults’ physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Methods: Adults (N?=?110; 73% female, 30% Hispanic, 62% overweight/obese) completed a 4-day signal-contingent EMA protocol (Saturday–Tuesday) with eight surveys randomly spaced throughout each day. EMA items assessed current activity (e.g., Watching TV/Movies, Reading/Computer, Physical Activity/Exercise). EMA responses were time-matched to minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary activity (SA) measured by accelerometer immediately before and after each EMA prompt. Results: Unanswered EMA prompts had greater MVPA (±15?min) than answered EMA prompts (p?=?0.029) for under/normal weight participants, indicating that activity level might influence the likelihood of responding. The 15-min. intervals before versus after the EMA-reported physical activity (n?=?296 occasions) did not differ in MVPA (p?>?0.05), suggesting that prompting did not disrupt physical activity. SA decreased after EMA-reported sedentary behavior (n?=?904 occasions; p?

Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Liao, Yue; Kawabata, Keito; Intille, Stephen

2012-01-01

184

A genetic assessment of bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) restoration efforts in Florida’s Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a comprehensive bay scallop restoration plan in Florida, we implemented a genetic monitoring program to evaluate the impact of shellfish restoration. Restoration involved the deployment of hatchery-produced scallops in cages (the restoration stock), which created spawner aggregations in locations that exhibited low densities of wild scallops. The success of the restorations was evaluated by comparing the genetic

A. E. Wilbur; S. Seyoum; T. M. Bert; W. S. Arnold

2005-01-01

185

Ecosystem Restoration as Community Economic Development? An Assessment of the Possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decline of the primary economy over the past two decades has had devastating socioeconomic effects on rural communities and people across the American West. However, it has also opened up an opportunity to restore ecosystem health while rebuilding local communities - by organizing resource management efforts so that their objectives include not only environmental health but also the creation

Michael Hibbard; Kristen Karle

2002-01-01

186

Utilizing Web-Enabled GIS for Effective Storm Damage Assessment and Restoration Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for information during the recent typhoons that devastated Manila Electric Company's (MERALCO) distribution facilities had proven the need for robust outage management process supported by integrated information systems that will help in the restoration efforts being performed by several organizations across the Company. It was observed that the ability to capture storm-related damage reports from customers and to

Ferdinand T. Balagtas

187

A feasibility study on assessing public health impacts of cumulative air pollution reduction activities in a small geographic area  

EPA Science Inventory

Background and Objective: The rnain objective ofthis study was to examine the feasibility ofconducting a local (e.g., city level) assessment ofthe public health impacts ofcumulative air pollution reduction activities (a.k.a. accountability) from the federal, state, local and vo...

188

Alto Malema hydroelectric project: Executive summary for pre-feasibility study including environmental screening assessment. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The report assesses the feasibility of the proposed Alto Malema hydroelectric Facility, which will be located in Mozambique`s Zambezia Province. The Executive Summary is divided into the following sections: (1) Preamble; (2) Introduction; (3) Previous Studies; (4) Electric Power Sector; (5) Project Description; (6) Construction Cost Estimate and Schedule; (7) Economic and Financial Analysis; (8) Environmental Screening.

NONE

1997-07-01

189

43 CFR 11.92 - Post-assessment phase-restoration account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase...recoveries. (1) All sums (damage claim and assessment costs) recovered...Treasury. (2) All sums (damage claim and assessment costs) recovered...

2013-10-01

190

15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration plans. 990.55 Section 990.55 Commerce...REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration...

2009-01-01

191

15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration plans. 990.55 Section 990.55 Commerce...REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration...

2010-01-01

192

Refining restoration strategies: assessing M-type Phragmites australis removal in Long Island Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Connecticut's Long Island Sound, removal of an invasive genotype (M-type) of the tidal wetland species, Phragmites australis is part of a wetlands restoration strategy, implemented by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. This type of invasive species removal, accomplished by herbicidal spraying and mowing of M-type is resource-intensive and increasingly supported. But, little is known about the unintended consequences

Kate Boicourt

193

Assessing data quality for a federal environmental restoration project: Rationalizing the requirements of multiple clients  

SciTech Connect

Most environmental restoration projects at federal facilities face the difficult task of melding the quality assurance (QA) requirements of multiple clients, as well as dealing with historical data that are often of unknown quality. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we have successfully integrated the requirements of our multiple clients by carefully developing a QA program that efficiently meets our clients` needs. The Site 300 Experimental Test Site is operated by LLNL in support of its national defense program. The responsibility for conducting environmental contaminant investigations and restoration at Site 300 is vested in the Site 300 Environmental Restoration Project (Site 300 ERP) of LLNL`s Environmental Restoration Division. LLNL Site 300 ERP must comply with the QA requirements of several clients, which include: the LLNL Environmental Protection Department, the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region IX (EPA), the California Regional Water Quality Control Board -- Central Valley Region, and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. This comprehensive QA program was used to determine the acceptability of historical data. The Site 300 ERP began soil and ground water investigations in 1982. However, we did not begin receiving analytical quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) data until 1989; therefore, the pre-1989 data that were collected are of unknown quality. The US EPA QAMS-005/80 defines data quality as the totality of features and characteristics of data that bears on its ability to satisfy a given purpose. In the current context, the characteristics of major importance are accuracy, precision, completeness, representativeness, and comparability. Using our established QA program, we determined the quality of this historical data based on its comparability to the post-1989 data. By accepting this historical data, we were able to save a considerable amount of money in recharacterization costs.

Kiszka, V.R.; Carlsen, T.M.

1994-07-01

194

An assessment of structural attributes and ecosystem function in restored Virginia coalfield streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

As human populations continue to grow, expanding energy needs enhance freshwater resource conservation challenges. Mining\\u000a for coal has significantly altered the landscape in the United States’ Appalachian region, with significant negative effects\\u000a on downstream water quality and ecosystem function. With recent policy changes concerning the impacts of coal mining on aquatic\\u000a ecosystems, many coal companies choose to restore sections of

Robert M. NorthingtonErnest; Ernest F. Benfield; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; Anthony J. Timpano; Jackson R. Webster; Carl Zipper

2011-01-01

195

Assessing health-related fitness tests in the school setting: reliability, feasibility and safety; the ALPHA Study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the reliability, feasibility and safety of a health-related fitness test battery administered by Physical Education (PE) teachers in the school setting. Six PE teachers, from three primary schools and three secondary schools, assessed twice (7 days apart) the 20 m shuttle run, handgrip and standing long jump tests, as well as weight, stature, triceps and subscapular thickness and waist circumference in 58 children (age: 6-11 yr) and 80 adolescents (age: 12-18 yr). Feasibility and safety were assessed by researches by means of direct observation. Significant inter-trial differences were found for the standing long jump test (3.8+/-12.7 cm, P<0.05) and for stature (0.73+/-0.8 cm, P<0.001) in children, and for waist circumference in both children and adolescents (-0.82+/-1.2 cm and -0.35+/-0.8 cm respectively, P=0.001). The feasibility and safety items assessed presented a successful answer. Therefore, the results indicate that health-related fitness tests administered by PE teachers are reliable, feasible and safe to be performed in the school setting. PMID:20432194

España-Romero, V; Artero, E G; Jimenez-Pavón, D; Cuenca-Garcia, M; Ortega, F B; Castro-Piñero, J; Sjöstrom, M; Castillo-Garzon, M J; Ruiz, J R

2010-07-01

196

Restoration of phagocytosis and oxidative metabolism by Piracetam in failing human neutrophils: a qualitative assessment.  

PubMed

By the use of immunobeads, a convenient clinical laboratory test is available which detects, in metabolically stressed leukocytes, failing or absent phagocytosis and/or impaired to absent oxidative metabolic activity. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that Piracetam, 2-oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide, will restore such compromised neutrophils to normal functional status. In 4 of 19 patients, all with a variety of serious diseases, a range from impaired to total failure of neutrophilic phagocytic and metabolic oxidative activities was detected by the test. Piracetam, as shown by qualitative methods, restored to optimal activity the two impaired neutrophil functions in these 4 patients. Quantitative techniques are available currently to establish the beneficial effect of Piracetam on such defective neutrophils. Piracetam merits additional study to determine its efficacy in enhancement of restorative effects on compromised neutrophils which have been observed. The clinical promise of this investigation offers benefit to some patients now jeopardized by certain stressful diseases in part due to agonal failure of neutrophils. PMID:6409487

Nalbandian, R M; Murayama, M; Henry, R L

1983-08-01

197

Assessing the feasibility of native fish reintroductions: a framework and example applied to bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In a species conservation context, translocations can be an important tool, but they frequently fail to successfully establish new populations. We consider the case of reintroductions for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a federally-listed threatened species with a widespread but declining distribution in western North America. Our specific objectives in this work were to: 1) develop a general framework for assessing the feasibility of reintroduction for bull trout, 2) provide a detailed example of implementing this framework to assess the feasibility of reintroducing bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon, and 3) discuss the implications of this effort in the more general context of fish reintroductions as a conservation tool. Review of several case histories and our assessment of the Clackamas River suggest that an attempt to reintroduce bull trout could be successful, assuming adequate resources are committed to the subsequent stages of implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Dunham, Jason; Gallo, Kirsten

2008-01-01

198

43 CFR 11.93 - Post-assessment phase-restoration plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.93 Post-assessment phaseârestoration plan. (a...amount of the award of a natural resource damage claim as authorized by...

2013-10-01

199

Container/Chassis Identification Reporting System (CCIRS) Interface and Feasibility Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of integrating the Container/Chassis Identification Reporting System (CCIRS) with existing and projected cargo movement-management subsystems of the Terminal Operation and Movement-Management Systems ...

K. J. Dean H. H. Ellis W. H. Chen T. J. White

1980-01-01

200

Technological Feasibility Assessment and Economic Impact Statement of the Proposed Beryllium Regulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technological feasibility, benefits, costs of compliance, and economic impact of complying with the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard for exposure to beryllium of 2-micrograms/cu m, with the proposed 1 microgram/cu ...

1977-01-01

201

High Solids Anaerobic Digestion (HSAD) Feasibility Assessment for the Municipality of Ajka in Hungary. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, prepared by Alpha-Gamma Technologies, Inc. and AP International Finance Corporation, examines the feasibility of a high solids anaerobic digestion system as a means of solid waste eco-processing. The study examines increasing the available was...

2002-01-01

202

High Solids Anaerobic Digestion (HSAD) Feasibility Assessment for the Municipality of Ajka in Hungary. Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, prepared by Alpha-Gamma Technologies, Inc. and AP International Finance Corporation, examines the feasibility of a high solids anaerobic digestion system as a means of solid waste eco-processing. The study examines increasing the available was...

2002-01-01

203

Preliminary assessment report for Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana Army National Guard, Helena, Montana. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at a Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) property near Helena, Montana. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort William Henry Harrison property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

DuWaldt, J.; Meyer, T.

1993-07-01

204

Habitat restoration across large areas: Assessing wildlife responses in the Clearwater basin, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the past century, fire suppression and prevention have altered disturbance regimes across the Pacific Northwest, resulting in a significant divergence of historical and current conditions in forested habitats. To address this continuing trend in habitat changes and begin restoring historical patterns of disturbance, the Clearwater Basin Elk Habitat Initiative (CEI) proposes relatively extensive management actions in the Clearwater basin of north-central Idaho. We attempted to evaluate potential effects of such management actions on selected wildlife species using extant data sets and suggest ways to improve such projects with respect to a multispecies and adaptive management approach. Although there is increased interest in ecosystem management over large areas, the increased scale of analysis and implementation require a substantial increase in the level of species information beyond what currently exists. We conclude that baseline information required for an effective multispecies land-management policy in the Clearwater basin does not exist for many terrestrial wildlife species. To implement a true multispecies or ecosystem approach, wildlife and land managers should cooperate to increase existing population data and modeling efforts for wildlife species in the basin and develop a sustainable monitoring program to evaluate habitat management changes and their influence on wildlife populations within the context of adaptive management theory. Management actions to restore disturbance patterns should attempt spatial and temporal scales that are biologically relevant to the population ecology of species being affected. ?? 2004 by the Society of American Foresters.

Scanvara, L. K.; Servheen, G.; Melquist, W.; Davis, D.; Scott, J. M.

2004-01-01

205

Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Induced Transgression of the Chandeleur Islands for Restoration and Wildlife Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Barrier Islands are the first line of defense against tropical storms and hurricanes for coastal areas. Historically, tropical cyclonic events have had a great impact on the transgression of barrier islands, especially the Chandeleur Island chain off the eastern coast of Louisiana. These islands are of great importance, aiding in the protection of southeastern Louisiana from major storms, providing habitat for nesting and migratory bird species, and are part of the second oldest wildlife refuge in the country. In 1998, Hurricane Georges caused severe damage to the chain, prompting restoration and monitoring efforts by both federal and state agencies. Since then, multiple storm events have steadily diminished the integrity of the islands. Hurricane Katrina in 2005 thwarted all previous restoration efforts, with Hurricane Gustav in 2008 exacerbating island erosion and vegetation loss. Data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat 2-4 Multispectral Scanner (MSS), and Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) will be utilized to detect land loss, island transgression, and vegetation change from 1979 to 2009. This study looks to create a more synoptic view of the transgression of the Chandeleur Islands and correlate weather and sea surface phenomena with erosion trends over the past 30 years, so that partnering organizations such as the Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES) can better monitor and address the continual change of the island chain.

Reahard, Ross; Mitchell, Brandie; Brown, Tevin; Billiot, Amanda

2010-01-01

206

Assessment of atrial regional and global electromechanical function by tissue velocity echocardiography: a feasibility study on healthy individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The appropriate evaluation of atrial electrical function is only possible by means of invasive electrophysiology techniques, which are expensive and therefore not suitable for widespread use. Mechanical atrial function is mainly determined from atrial volumes and volume-derived indices that are load-dependent, time-consuming and difficult to reproduce because they are observer-dependent. AIMS: To assess the feasibility of tissue velocity echocardiography

Miguel Quintana; Peter Lindell; Samir K Saha; Francesca del Furia; Britta Lind; Satish Govind; Lars-Åke Brodin

2005-01-01

207

Single-Well-Gas-Sparging Tests for Assessing the Feasibility of In-situ Aerobic Treatment of CAH Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-well-gas-sparge tests were performed to assess the feasibility of in-situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), using propane and methane as growth substrates. The tests were performed in the saturate zone at the McClellan Air Force Base, CA. The effectiveness of gas sparging to stimulate indigenous propane-utilizers or methane-utilizers was evaluated in

Y. Kim; J. Istok; L. Semprini

2002-01-01

208

Feasibility of quantitative ultrasound measurements on the humerus of newborn infants for the assessment of the skeletal status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative ultrasound (QUS), although widely used in adults has, so far, been scarcely employed in newborn infants and children. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of the use of QUS in newborn children and the factors influencing QUS parameters. In 140 consecutive healthy full-term newborn babies (76 male and 64 female; gestational age: 39.5±1.5 weeks) QUS parameters were assessed

S. Gonnelli; A. Montagnani; L. Gennari; S. Martini; D. Merlotti; C. Cepollaro; S. Perrone; G. Buonocore; R. Nuti

2004-01-01

209

Electric power distribution network restoration: a survey of papers and a review of the restoration problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey addresses the problem of supply restoration following an outage in an electric distribution system. Operator decision support for the restoration of supply after an outage is an active research area. This is significant for enhancing supply continuity and achieving better efficiency. It is important for operators to reach a feasible and speedily implementable restoration plan to restore the

S ?ur?i?; C. S Özveren; L Crowe; P. K. L Lo

1995-01-01

210

A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND FEASIBILITY EVALUATION OF NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW MEASUREMENT ALTERNATIVES  

SciTech Connect

Deregulation and open access in the natural gas pipeline industry has changed the gas business environment towards greater reliance on local energy flow rate measurement. What was once a large, stable, and well-defined source of natural gas is now a composite from many small suppliers with greatly varying gas compositions. Unfortunately, the traditional approach to energy flow measurement [using a gas chromatograph (GC) for composition assay in conjunction with a flow meter] is only cost effective for large capacity supplies (typically greater than 1 to 30 million scfd). A less costly approach will encourage more widespread use of energy measurement technology. In turn, the US will benefit from tighter gas inventory control, more efficient pipeline and industrial plant operations, and ultimately lower costs to the consumer. An assessment of the state and direction of technology for natural gas energy flow rate measurement is presented. The alternative technologies were ranked according to their potential to dramatically reduce capital and operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, while improving reliability and accuracy. The top-ranked technologies take an unconventional inference approach to the energy measurement problem. Because of that approach, they will not satisfy the fundamental need for composition assay, but have great potential to reduce industry reliance on the GC. Technological feasibility of the inference approach was demonstrated through the successful development of data correlations that relate energy measurement properties (molecular weight, mass-based heating value, standard density, molar ideal gross heating value, standard volumetric heating value, density, and volume-based heating value) to three inferential properties: standard sound speed, carbon dioxide concentration, and nitrogen concentration (temperature and pressure are also required for the last two). The key advantage of this approach is that inexpensive on-line sensors may be used to measure the inferential variables, which can then be applied (through the data correlations) to convert existing flow meters (ultrasonic, orifice, turbine, rotary, Coriolis, diaphragm, etc.) for on-line energy measurement. The practical issues for field development were evaluated using two transducers extracted from a $100 ultrasonic domestic gas meter, and a $400 infrared sensor.

Kendricks A. Behring II; Eric Kelner; Ali Minachi; Cecil R. Sparks; Thomas B. Morrow; Steven J. Svedeman

1999-01-01

211

Differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry for landslide monitoring: a priori GIS based assessment of feasibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last two decades differential radar interferometry (D-InSAR) has proven to be a powerful remote sensing technique for detection and deformation monitoring of landslides with an accuracy of a few millimeters. However, due to the inclined imaging geometry, areas with a topographic relief (where landslides usually occur) appear heavily distorted in the radar image. Thereby slopes inclined towards the radar sensor appear shortened (foreshortening) and in extreme even can cause an overlapping of different radar signals (layover effect); slopes oriented away from the radar seem stretched (elongation) or even can be shadowed by a steep mountain (shadowing). These effects limit or even prohibit the use of a radar image for interferometric applications. Besides these geometric distortions, the land cover has great influence on the applicability of differential radar interferometry. For example vegetation-free areas such as buildings and rocks show high coherence values over a long time period (high stability of their backscattering properties), whereas areas covered by vegetation, especially forests, have varying backscattering properties at different times (e.g. due to wind; temporal decorrelation). Areas with high coherence values in the radar interferogram are better suited for D-InSAR applications. To date prior to an investigation using D-InSAR these limiting effects usually are only roughly estimated, sometimes leading to disappointing results when the actual radar images are analyzed. Therefore we present a GIS routine, which based on freely available digital elevation model (DEM) data (SRTM) not only accurately predicts the areas in which layover and shadowing will occur, but also determines the percentage of measurability of the movement of a landslide (portion oriented in radar line of sight) for a given radar acquisition geometry. Additionally land cover classification data (e.g. CORINE) is used to evaluate the influence of the landslide's land cover on D-InSAR deformation measurements. This GIS routine is very flexible as each type of DEM data and land cover data available for the area of interest can be used. For instance by using a high resolution lasercan DEM, we were able to show a very high accurate prediction of areas affected by layover and shadowing, even exceeding the accuracy of the layover/shadow calculations of DLR's standard method (Geocoded Incidence Angle Mask). Thus by using this new GIS application, it is possible to assess the feasibility of D-InSAR landslide deformation measurements in a certain region quite accurately prior to the expensive actual radar data is ordered.

Plank, S.; Singer, J.; Minet, Ch.; Thuro, K.

2012-04-01

212

Feasibility Assessment of an Innovative Isolation Bearing System with Shape Memory Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to investigate the feasibility of a new seismic isolation device concept based on the superelastic effect given by shape memory alloys. Seismic isolation is one of the most effective options for passive protection of structure, which modifies the global response and improves performances, in particular regularizing the structural response, shifting the fundamental period of

Gabriele Attanasi; Ferdinando Auricchio; Gregory L. Fenves

2009-01-01

213

A landscape approach for assessing the ecological feasibility of a black bear population recovery  

EPA Science Inventory

There is great interest in recovering populations of large carnivores in locations where they previously were extirpated or severely reduced in size as a result of human activity. Determining the ecological feasibility (i.e., is adequate habitat available?) of a species is diffi...

214

Feasibility Study of the Itezhi Tezhi Hydroelectric Project. Volume 4. Environmental Impact Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increasing electricity demand in Zambia and surrounding countries has prompted the reopening of studies of new hydropower resources. As a result, a feasibility study of the the 1,600-MW Batoka Hydroelectric Project was completed in 1993, followed by a fea...

1999-01-01

215

Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

2014-01-01

216

e-business cases assessment: from business value to system feasibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovative e-commerce initiatives present a new way of doing business. Since short time to market is a major requirement in e-commerce, and typically multiple parties (enterprises) are involved, multiple stakeholders have to be convinced quickly that the new way of doing business is technically feasible and economically profitable for them. Consequently, a lightweight approach is required for defining, deriving and

Ziv Baida; Hans De Bruin; Jaap Gordijn

2003-01-01

217

Assessing the Feasibility of Family Loans for Early Care and Education. Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that one of the objectives of the Learning between Systems project was to design family loan programs as a potential form of financing to help families pay for early care and education, two studies examined the feasibility of such loan programs. First, focus groups were conducted in five American cities, wherein parents were asked to…

Davis, Jerry S.; Wohlford, Jill K.

218

Feasibility assessment of offshore wave and tidal current power production: a collaborative public\\/private partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and EPRIsolutions are conducting collaborative power production feasibility definition studies on offshore wave energy and tidal current energy on behalf of a number of public and private entities. The outcome of the offshore wave study, which began in 2004, is a compelling techno-economic case for investing in the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) of

O. Siddiqui; R. Bedard

2005-01-01

219

Using conservation value to assess land restoration and management alternatives across a degraded oak savanna landscape  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Managers considering restoration of landscapes often face a fundamental challenge - what should be the habitat composition of the restored landscape? We present a method for evaluating an important conservation trade-off inherent in making that decision. 2. Oak savannas and grasslands were historically widespread across central North America but are now rare. Today, in north-west Indiana, USA, habitats spanning a range of woody vegetation density, from nearly treeless open habitats to forests, occur across the conserved landscape where savannas probably once dominated. To understand the benefits of different potential landscape compositions, we evaluated how different proportions of five habitats - open, savanna, woodland, scrub and forest - might affect the conservation value of the north-west Indiana landscape for birds. Two variables of potential conservation importance were examined: species diversity, a measure of avian community richness, and conservation index, the percentage of a bird species' global population occurring on a hectare of landscape, summed across all bird species present. Higher values of conservation index were associated with higher local densities of globally more rare and more threatened species. 3. Conservation index and species diversity were correlated negatively across hypothetical landscapes composed of different proportions of the five habitats. Therefore, a management trade-off existed between conservation index and species diversity because landscapes that maximized species diversity differed from landscapes that maximized conservation index. 4. A landscape of 50% open, 22% savanna, 15% scrub and 13% forest was predicted to represent a compromise at which conservation index and species diversity reached the same percentage of their maxima. In contrast, the current landscape is dominated by forest. 5. Synthesis and applications. We quantified the trade-off between two potential aspects of a landscape's conservation value for birds - the landscape's ability to promote avian species diversity and the landscape's use by threatened avian species. This quantification allowed us to evaluate the ability of different landscape compositions to achieve preferable trade-off compromises, such as maximizing diversity for a given level of landscape use by threatened species. Managers can use these trade-off results to determine which landscape compositions are associated with particular conservation and management priorities.

Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N. B.

2008-01-01

220

Is pain assessment feasible as a performance indicator for Dutch nursing homes? A cross-sectional approach.  

PubMed

Quality of care gains transparency with the help of performance indicators. For Dutch nursing homes, the current set of performance indicators does not include pain. To determine the feasibility of pain assessment as performance indicator, information about pain prevalence and analgesic prescription in one nursing home was collected. Within the time span of 3 days, pain intensity was measured in 91% of the residents (201 out of 221), either with a numeric rating scale, a verbal rating scale, or the Rotterdam Elderly Pain Observation Scale (REPOS). Numerical rating was used for 72%, verbal rating for 3%, and REPOS observation for 25% of the residents. Pain was substantial in 65 residents (32%), who received the following analgesic prescription: World Health Organization (WHO) step 1, 45%; WHO step 3, 12%; and neuroactive agents, 5%. Thirty-eight percent of these residents were in pain and received no analgesics. Residents with substantial pain significantly more often received analgesics (p = .007). Results suggest that pain assessment is feasible in a nursing home and would stimulate staff attention to pain. Further investigation is necessary to find out if a pain algorithm is feasible and will lead to improved pain treatment. PMID:23452525

Boerlage, Anneke A; Masman, Anniek D; Hagoort, Jacobus; Tibboel, Dick; Baar, Frans P M; van Dijk, Monique

2013-03-01

221

Annual report of the Environmental Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for FY 1992. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of the investigations and monitoring, conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented can be used to develop a conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This information forms a basis for prioritizing sites and for selecting, implementing, and evaluating remedial actions. Groundwater, soils, sediments, and surface water monitoring results are described.

Clapp, R.B. [ed.

1992-09-01

222

A hierarchical approach to ecosystem assessment of restoration planning at regional, catchment and local scales in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hierarchical approach to restoration planning at the regional, catchment and local scales is proposed and examined. Restoration projects limited to a local scale and focused on habitat improvement for individual species ended in failure, which has led to the recognition that there is a need for ecosystem-based management at the landscape level. The first landscape-level restoration in Japan is

Futoshi Nakamura; Satomi Inahara; Masami Kaneko

2005-01-01

223

A feasibility study of carotid elastography for risk assessment of atherosclerotic plaques validated by magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stroke is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. One of its main reasons is rupture of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Conventional B-mode ultrasound images and Doppler/color flow measurements are mostly used to evaluate degree of stenosis, which underestimates plaque vulnerability. Alternatively, the correspondence between multi-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, plaque composition and histology has been well established. In this study, the feasibility of ultrasound carotid elastography in risk assessment of carotid atherosclerotic plaques is investigated. Preliminarily in-vivo results on a small number of human subjects are initially validated by multi-contrast, highresolution MRI, and it shows that maximum strain rate might be feasible to evaluate the plaque vulnerability.

Pan, Xiaochang; Huang, Lingyun; Huang, Manwei; Zhao, Xihai; He, Le; Yuan, Chun; Bai, Jing; Luo, Jianwen

2014-03-01

224

The effect of iterative image reconstruction algorithms on the feasibility of automated plaque assessment in coronary CT angiography.  

PubMed

To evaluate the effect of adaptive statistical (ASIR) and model based (MBIR) iterative reconstruction algorithms on the feasibility of automated plaque assessment in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) compared to filtered back projection reconstruction (FBPR) algorithm. Three ex vivo human donor hearts were imaged by CCTA and reconstructed with FBPR, ASIR and MBIR. Commercial plaque assessment software was applied for the automated delineation of the outer and inner vessel-wall boundaries. Manually corrections were performed where necessary and the percentages were compared between the reconstruction algorithms. In total 2,295 CCTA cross-sections with 0.5 mm increments were assessed (765 co-registered FBPR/ASIR/MBIR triplets). Any boundary corrections were performed in 31.0% of all cross-sections (N = 712). The percentage of corrected crosssections was lower for MBIR (24.1%) as compared to ASIR (32.4%, p = 0.0003) and FBPR (36.6%, p <0.0001), and marginal between ASIR/FBPR (p = 0.09). The benefit of MBIR over FBPR was associated with the presence of moderate and severe calcification (OR 2.9 and 5.7, p <0.0001; respectively). Using MBIR significantly reduced the need for vessel-wall boundary corrections compared to other reconstruction algorithms, particular at the site of calcifications. Thus, MBIR may improve the feasibility of automated plaque assessment in CCTA and potentially its clinical applicability. PMID:23990390

Puchner, Stefan B; Ferencik, Maros; Karolyi, Mihaly; Do, Synho; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hoffmann, Udo; Schlett, Christopher L

2013-12-01

225

Watershed Restoration Project  

SciTech Connect

In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

2007-09-27

226

Floristic quality assessment of one natural and three restored wetland complexes in North Dakota, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floristic quality assessment is potentially an important tool for conservation efforts in the northern Great Plains of North\\u000a America, but it has received little rigorous evaluation. Floristic quality assessments rely on coefficients assigned to each\\u000a plant species of a region’s flora based on the conservatism of each species relative to others in the region. These “coefficients\\u000a of conservatism” (C values)

David M. Mushet; Ned H. Euliss; Terry L. Shaffer

2002-01-01

227

Facility assessment summary report for project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations  

SciTech Connect

The Facility Assessment Summary Report (FSAR) is a key element in the systems engineering document hierarchy, and provides an evaluation overview of the physical conditions and requirements for upgrading facility systems, subsystems, and/or components (SSC). This Project W- 314 FASR was prepared to address the evaluations, inspections, and assessments conducted on the Tank Farm facilities associated with the preliminary Project W-314 scope, and to provide requirements for specifying necessary upgrades.

Jacobson, R.W.

1996-06-13

228

Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment benchmarking: Recommendations for Hanford`s environmental restoration mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most people agree that Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (P2OAs) are a critical first step in any pollution prevention activity. P2OAs are used to identify waste streams, examine the processes which generate waste, and discover ways to reduce this waste. Formerly called Process Waste Assessments (PWAs), P2OAs were originally developed by the Environmental Protection Agency for use by companies to examine

1994-01-01

229

Feasibility assessment of burnup credit in the criticality analysis of shipping casks with boiling water reactor spent fuel  

SciTech Connect

Considerable interest in the allowance of reactivity credit for the exposure history of power reactor fuel currently exists. This burnup credit'' issue has the potential to greatly reduce risk and cost when applied to the design and certification of spent fuel casks used for transportation and storage. Recently, analyses have demonstrated the technical feasibility and estimated the risk and economic incentives for allowing burnup credit in pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel shipping cask applications. This report summarizes the extension of the previous PWR technical feasibility assessment to boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel. This feasibility analysis aims to apply simple methods that adequately characterize the time-dependent isotopic compositions of typical BWR fuel. An initial analysis objective was to identify a simple and reliable method for characterizing BWR spent fuel. Two different aspects of fuel characterization were considered:l first, the generation of burn- up dependent material interaction probabilities; second, the prediction of material inventories over time (depletion). After characterizing the spent fuel at various stages of exposure and decay, three dimensional (3-D) models for an infinite array of assemblies and, in several cases, infinite arrays of assemblies in a typical shipping cask basket were analyzed. Results for assemblies without a basket provide reactivity control requirements as a function of burnup and decay, while results including the basket allow assessment of typical basket configurations to provide sufficient reactivity control for spent BWR fuel. Resulting basket worths and reactivity trends over time are then evaluated to determine whether burnup credit is needed and feasible in BWR applications.

Broadhead, B.L.

1991-08-01

230

Feasibility study using non-contact ultrasonic sensors for assessing reservoir fill state  

SciTech Connect

The change out of reservoirs in weapon systems can pose a significant safety threat if the reservoir has inadvertently transferred its contents. While the possibility of this occurring is very remote, the consequence can be extremely severe. There is therefore a need for equipment and procedures to determine the gas containment status before the component is removed from the weapon during normal maintenance procedures. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of using ultrasonics to detect a change in stress states of a filled and unfilled reservoir. Electromagnetic-acoustic transducers (EMATs) and laser ultrasonics (LU), two non-contact ultrasonic techniques, were examined. A second approach which measures the changes in modal resonances was also explored. This report summarizes the experimental results from an initial feasibility study aimed at demonstrating the use of acoustics to determine the gas containment status of GTS reservoirs.

Min, S.; Wei-yang Lu

1995-12-01

231

Assessment of the advantages and feasibility of a nuclear rocket for a manned Mars mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of rebuilding and testing a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) for the Mars mission was investigted. Calculations indicate that an NTR would substantially reduce the Earth-orbit assemble mass compared to LOX/LH2 systems. The mass savings were 36 and 65% for the cases of total aerobraking and of total propulsive braking respectively. Consequently, the cost savings for a single mission of using an NTR, if aerobraking is feasible, are probably insufficient to warrant the NTR development. If multiple missions are planned or if propulsive braking is desired at Mars and/or at Earth, then the savings of about $7 billion will easily pay for the NTR. Estimates of the cost of rebuilding a NTR were based on the previous NERVA program's budget plus additional costs to develop a flight ready engine. The total cost to build the engine would be between $4 to 5 billion. The concept of developing a full-power test stand at Johnston Atoll in the Pacific appears very feasible. The added expense of building facilities on the island should be less than $1.4 billion.

Howe, Steven D.

1986-05-01

232

Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and sustainability.

Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

2013-10-01

233

Environmental assessment of the Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of the Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land controlled by DOE within the boundaries of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. This report provides an environmental assessment of proposed remedial action activities at the solid waste management units at SNL/NM. A risk assessment of health hazards is also discussed.

NONE

1996-03-01

234

An introductory guide to uncertainty analysis in environmental and health risk assessment. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

To compensate for the potential for overly conservative estimates of risk using standard US Environmental Protection Agency methods, an uncertainty analysis should be performed as an integral part of each risk assessment. Uncertainty analyses allow one to obtain quantitative results in the form of confidence intervals that will aid in decision making and will provide guidance for the acquisition of additional data. To perform an uncertainty analysis, one must frequently rely on subjective judgment in the absence of data to estimate the range and a probability distribution describing the extent of uncertainty about a true but unknown value for each parameter of interest. This information is formulated from professional judgment based on an extensive review of literature, analysis of the data, and interviews with experts. Various analytical and numerical techniques are available to allow statistical propagation of the uncertainty in the model parameters to a statement of uncertainty in the risk to a potentially exposed individual. Although analytical methods may be straightforward for relatively simple models, they rapidly become complicated for more involved risk assessments. Because of the tedious efforts required to mathematically derive analytical approaches to propagate uncertainty in complicated risk assessments, numerical methods such as Monte Carlo simulation should be employed. The primary objective of this report is to provide an introductory guide for performing uncertainty analysis in risk assessments being performed for Superfund sites.

Hoffman, F.O.; Hammonds, J.S.

1992-10-01

235

Assessing Feigned Cognitive Impairment in Defendants Hospitalized for Competency Restoration: Further Validation of the TOMI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valid screens for feigned cognitive impairment are a fundamental component of any forensic assessment. The TOMI is a verbally administered, two-alternative forced-choice screen for feigned cognitive impairment in competence to stand trial (CST) evaluations. The present study provided further validation for the use of this tool in a sample of 82 forensic inpatients, the second investigation of the TOMI in

Lori H. Colwell; Kevin Colwell

2011-01-01

236

Restoring Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from Nature learn how removal of old dams and river restoration is occurring all over the northwestern United States in an attempt to restore the natural environment and make salmon populations viable once again.

Wnet

2011-12-09

237

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Damage Assessment and Restoration Program: Damage Assessment Center Fiscal Year 2004 Indirect Cost Rate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to provide the Damage Assessment Center (DAC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with the results of Cotton & Company's (contractor) review of Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 costs and development of an indir...

2004-01-01

238

The Imperial Stress Assessment Tool (ISAT): A Feasible, Reliable and Valid Approach to Measuring Stress in the Operating Room  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Stress can impair surgical performance and may compromise patient safety. This prospective, cross-sectional study describes\\u000a the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Imperial Stress Assessment Tool (ISAT) as an approach to measuring stress\\u000a during surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 54 procedures were observed with 11 surgeons (4 attendings, 4 senior residents and 3 junior residents) in a large\\u000a university teaching hospital

Sonal Arora; Tanya Tierney; Nick Sevdalis; Rajesh Aggarwal; Debra Nestel; Maria Woloshynowych; Ara Darzi; Roger Kneebone

2010-01-01

239

U.S. Department of Energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments.

Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Risk Management; Simek, M.A.; Sutherland, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Scofield, P.A. [Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation (United States)

1995-06-01

240

Assessment of Myocardial Metabolism in Diabetic Rats Using Small-Animal PET: A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This feasibility study was undertaken to determine whether kinetic modeling in conjunction with small-animal PET could noninvasively quantify alterations in myocardial perfusion and substrate metabolism in rats. Methods: All small-animal PET was performed on either of 2 tomographs. Myocardial blood flow and substrate metabolism were measured in 10 male Zucker diabeticfattyrats(ZDF,fa\\/fa)and10leanlittermates(Lean,Fa\\/1) using 15O-water, 1-11C-glucose, 1-11C-acetate, and 1-11C- palmitate. Animals were

Michael J. Welch; Jason S. Lewis; Joonyoung Kim; Terry L. Sharp; Carmen S. Dence; Robert J. Gropler; Pilar Herrero

241

MARKET ASSESSMENT AND TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH USE  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute, in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler International, Inc. and the US Department of Energy, has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC ashes. Ashes from the Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot-scale circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, combusting (1) low-sulfur subbituminous and (2) high-sulfur bituminous coal, and ash from the AEP's high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing at WR1. The technical feasibility study examined the use of PFBC ash in construction-related applications, including its use as a cementing material in concrete and use in cement manufacturing, fill and embankment materials, soil stabilization agent, and use in synthetic aggregate production. Testing was also conducted to determine the technical feasibility of PFBC ash as a soil amendment for acidic and sodic problem soils and spoils encountered in agricultural and reclamation applications. The results of the technical feasibility testing indicated the following conclusions. PFBC ash does not meet the chemical requirements as a pozzolan for cement replacement. However, it does appear that potential may exist for its use in cement production as a pozzolan and/or as a set retardant. PFBC ash shows relatively high strength development, low expansion, and low permeability properties that make its use in fills and embankments promising. Testing has also indicated that PFBC ash, when mixed with low amounts of lime, develops high strengths, suitable for soil stabilization applications and synthetic aggregate production. Synthetic aggregate produced from PFBC ash is capable of meeting ASTM/AASHTO specifications for many construction applications. The residual calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate in the PFE3C ash has been shown to be of value in making PFBC ash a suitable soil amendment for acidic and sodic problem soils and mine spoils. In conclusion, PFBC ash represents a viable material for use in currently established applications for conventional coal combustion ashes. As such, PFBC ash should be viewed as a valuable resource, and commercial opportunities for these materials should be explored for planned PFBC installations.

A.E. Bland; T.H. Brown

1997-04-01

242

Restoration Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While not a panacea, the emerging field of restoration ecology provides an important tool for environmental conservation and contributes greatly to our understanding of ecology.The first Web site is the home page of the Society for Ecological Restoration, offering a good starting point for exploring this relatively new discipline (1). The next site (2) provides an overview of the University of Wisconsin's Center for Restoration Ecology, "the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary research team assembled to advance the science and technology of ecosystem restoration." The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration outlines its plans for coastal and estuarine restoration in this Web site (3). The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois has implemented one of the largest tallgrass prairie restorations to date (4). The Kissimmee River Restoration Web site (5) provides a detailed look at this incredibly ambitious dam removal and wetland restoration project in Florida. The next Web site (6) offers a visually-attractive introduction to the restoration efforts of the nonprofit organization RESTORE, focusing on the forests of Maine. The Wildlands Project, another restoration-oriented nonprofit organization, describes its vision of ecosystem conservation in this Web site, which includes a personal brief from distinguished biologist E. O. Wilson. (7). The Wildwood project of the Scottish organization Carrifran offers an interesting contrast to restoration efforts in the US, as much of Scotland has been denuded of its original forests for thousands of years (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

243

Feasibility of assessing dermal exposure to PAHs of workers on gaswork sites--the SOLEX study.  

PubMed

Population exposure to pollutants in soil is an important public health concern. Difficult to measure, it is usually estimated using multimedia models. Modeling data predict that the skin surface is a predominant exposure route in roughly 15% of the US Superfund sites. Nonetheless, no study has confirmed these predictions. The SOLEX study was an opportunity to study the feasibility of estimating the cutaneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: all 16 of the United States Environmental Protection Agency list) load of workers at three former manufactured gas sites, one of those being under remediation. Over two measurement periods (November 1997 and June 1998), 30 and 28 volunteers, respectively, were equipped for a single day work with five pads that collected soil particles and were placed at the neck, shoulder, wrist, groin, and ankle. Pad contamination was observed for six of the nine workers on the site being remediated but not on other sites. The wrist pad was most often affected, followed by the neck pad, these are, the exposed regions of the body. The PAHs most frequently identified were anthracene, fluoranthene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, at concentrations relatively high. In conclusion, this study showed that estimating skin exposure to soil pollutants is feasible. Secondly, it suggested that only subjects in close contact with the soil had a detectable exposure to PAHs. Extension of this approach to other exposure settings is warranted, especially among children playing in polluted public or private gardens, because their games lead to frequent contact with the soil. PMID:11194162

Dor, F; Jongeneelen, F; Zmirou, D; Empereur-Bissonnet, P; Nedellec, V; Haguenoer, J M; Person, A; Ferguson, C; Dab, W

2000-12-18

244

Assessing the Feasibility of Renewable Energy Development and Energy Efficiency Deployment on Tribal Lands  

SciTech Connect

The Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (KBIC) is committed to preserving our natural environment and reducing the amount of fossil fuels consumed while developing "green" business manufacturing jobs on tribal lands. The Tribe's Comprehensive Strategic Plan seeks to diversify the Tribal Economy through the creation of alternative energy businesses, such as wind, solar and bio-mass facilities while protecting the waters of Lake Superior, tribal inland lakes and streams. In addition, the Community desired to utilize clean/green energy resources to promote the self-sufficiency of the Tribal Nation. The objective of the study is to preserve our environment and maintain our cultural goals of using the resources of the land wisely. To reduce our consumption of fossil fuels, mercury and carbon dioxide emissions, which harm our water and land; we have decided to evaluate the opportunities of utilizing wind power. Preliminary projections show that we may eliminate pollution from our land in a cost effective manner. This study will evaluate wind capacity and our current energy consumption while projecting the feasibility of converting to wind power for operations at our major facilities. This project will study the feasibility of wind power at two locations for the purpose of reducing the Tribe's reliance upon fossil fuels and creating business opportunities, jobs and revenue for the community.

Nominelli, Gregg R.

2012-12-17

245

An introductory guide to uncertainty analysis in environmental and health risk assessment. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents guidelines for evaluating uncertainty in mathematical equations and computer models applied to assess human health and environmental risk. Uncertainty analyses involve the propagation of uncertainty in model parameters and model structure to obtain confidence statements for the estimate of risk and identify the model components of dominant importance. Uncertainty analyses are required when there is no a priori knowledge about uncertainty in the risk estimate and when there is a chance that the failure to assess uncertainty may affect the selection of wrong options for risk reduction. Uncertainty analyses are effective when they are conducted in an iterative mode. When the uncertainty in the risk estimate is intolerable for decision-making, additional data are acquired for the dominant model components that contribute most to uncertainty. This process is repeated until the level of residual uncertainty can be tolerated. A analytical and numerical methods for error propagation are presented along with methods for identifying the most important contributors to uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation with either Simple Random Sampling (SRS) or Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) is proposed as the most robust method for propagating uncertainty through either simple or complex models. A distinction is made between simulating a stochastically varying assessment endpoint (i.e., the distribution of individual risks in an exposed population) and quantifying uncertainty due to lack of knowledge about a fixed but unknown quantity (e.g., a specific individual, the maximally exposed individual, or the mean, median, or 95%-tile of the distribution of exposed individuals). Emphasis is placed on the need for subjective judgement to quantify uncertainty when relevant data are absent or incomplete.

Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; Bartell, S.M.

1994-12-01

246

Feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly.  

PubMed

While considerable knowledge has been gained through the use of established cognitive and motor assessment tools, there is a considerable interest and need for the development of a battery of reliable and validated assessment tools that provide real-time and remote analysis of cognitive and motor function in the elderly. Smartphones appear to be an obvious choice for the development of these "next-generation" assessment tools for geriatric research, although to date no studies have reported on the use of smartphone-based applications for the study of cognition in the elderly. The primary focus of the current study was to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone-based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly. A total of 57 non-demented elderly individuals were administered a newly developed smartphone application-based Color-Shape Test (CST) in order to determine its utility in measuring cognitive processing speed in the elderly. Validity of this novel cognitive task was assessed by correlating performance on the CST with scores on widely accepted assessments of cognitive function. Scores on the CST were significantly correlated with global cognition (Mini-Mental State Exam: r?=?0.515, p<0.0001) and multiple measures of processing speed and attention (Digit Span: r?=?0.427, p<0.0001; Trail Making Test: r?=?-0.651, p<0.00001; Digit Symbol Test: r?=?0.508, p<0.0001). The CST was not correlated with naming and verbal fluency tasks (Boston Naming Test, Vegetable/Animal Naming) or memory tasks (Logical Memory Test). Test re-test reliability was observed to be significant (r?=?0.726; p?=?0.02). Together, these data are the first to demonstrate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using a smartphone-based application for the purpose of assessing cognitive function in the elderly. The importance of these findings for the establishment of smartphone-based assessment batteries of cognitive and motor function in the elderly is discussed. PMID:23776570

Brouillette, Robert M; Foil, Heather; Fontenot, Stephanie; Correro, Anthony; Allen, Ray; Martin, Corby K; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Keller, Jeffrey N

2013-01-01

247

Can we import quality tools? a feasibility study of European practice assessment in a country with less organised general practice  

PubMed Central

Background Quality is on the agenda of European general practice (GP). European researchers have, in collaboration, developed tools to assess quality of GPs. In this feasibility study, we tested the European Practice Assessment (EPA) in a one-off project in Belgium, where general practice has a low level of GP organisation. Methods A framework for feasibility analysis included describing the recruiting of participants, a brief telephone study survey among non-responders, organisational and logistic problems. Using field notes and focus groups, we studied the participants' opinions. Results In this study, only 36 of 1000 invited practices agreed to participate. Co-ordination, administrative work, practice visits and organisational problems required several days per practice. The researchers further encountered technical problems, for instance when entering the data and uploading to the web-based server. In subsequent qualitative analysis using two focus groups, most participant GPs expressed a positive feeling after the EPA procedure. In the short period of follow-up, only a few GPs reported improvements after the visit. The participant GPs suggested that follow-up and coaching would probably facilitate the implementation of changes. Conclusion This feasibility study shows that prior interest in EPA is low in the GP community. We encountered a number of logistic and organisational problems. It proved attractive to participants, but it can be augmented by coaching of participants in more than a one-off project to identify and achieve targets for quality improvement. In the absence of commitment of the government, a network of universities and one scientific organisation will offer EPA as a service to training practices.

Remmen, Roy; Seuntjens, Luc; Paulus, Dominique; Pestiaux, Dominique; Knops, Klaus; Bruel, Ann Van den

2009-01-01

248

Using Performance Tests in State Assessment--It's Real and It's Feasible.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) tests all 4th, 7th, and 10th grade students in reading and mathematics and one or more subject areas. Because MEAP has lost funding for test development, experienced assessment staff and a volunteer team of local educators and college and university specialists develop, administer, and…

Roeber, Edward D.

249

Feasibility of assessing quality of care at the end of life in two cluster trials using an after-death approach with multiple assessments  

PubMed Central

Background In 2009 two randomised cluster trials took place to assess the introduction of the Italian Version of the Liverpool Care Pathway in hospitals and hospices. Before and after data were gathered. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a combination of assessment methods aimed at different proxy respondents to create a means of measuring quality of care at the end of life. We also aim to explore whether there are differences in response to this approach between the hospice and hospital inpatient settings. Methods A retrospective design was used. Eligible deaths were traced through death registries, and proxies were used to give information. Four procedures of assessment were used to measure different dimensions. Feasibility was assessed through compliance and adherence to the study instruments, and measured against standards derived from previous after-death studies. The proxy caregiver’s rating of the study tools was also measured, to gauge feasibility and effectiveness. All consecutive cancer deaths that occurred in the study period were eligible. In both trials, deaths were excluded if the patient was a relative of hospital/hospice staff. 145 patients were recruited from the Hospital setting, and 127 from Hospice. Results A high proportion of non-professional caregivers were interviewed – in both hospital (76.6%) and hospice (74.8%). There was no significant difference in the median number of days in each setting. 89.0% of hospital patients’ GPs and 85.0% of hospice patients’ GPs were interviewed. Care procedures were recorded in all hospice cases, and were missing in only 1 hospital case.52.7% of Hospital patients’ relatives and 64.12% Hospice relatives were assessed to have been caused a low level of distress through the study. Conclusions The data shows high levels of compliance and adherence to the study instruments. This suggests that this approach to assessing quality of care is feasible, and this coupled with low levels of distress caused by the study instruments suggest effectiveness. There were no substantial differences between the hospice and hospital settings.

2014-01-01

250

The feasibility of a new intake routine to assess substance use disorders by means of a structured interview.  

PubMed

A structured interview, ADDIS (Alkohol Drog Diagnos InStrument), designed to assess substance use disorders, was included as a part of the intake protocol in a department of orthopedics at a general hospital. To evaluate both the effectiveness and feasibility of the new procedure, the attitudes of 29 staff members were sampled during follow-up interviews. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to 254 patients to examine their opinions about the interview. The staff made a global evaluation of the new routine on a 10-point scale, ranging from completely negative (1) to completely positive (10). The mean rating was 8.2 (range 5-10). The evaluations made by the staff members in the interviews were very positive. Of the 254 patients, 177 (70%) returned the questionnaire. More than 90% of the patients appreciated being asked about their use of analgesics and sedatives, and 77% felt it was positive to be asked about their alcohol use. The result of the patient questionnaire supports the feasibility of the routine, suggesting that a structured interview can be included in the intake protocol in order to improve the assessment of substance use disorders. PMID:9034810

Jonasson, B; Jonasson, U; Ekselius, L; von Knorring, L

1997-01-01

251

Feasibility Study of a Wearable System Based on a Wireless Body Area Network for Gait Assessment in Parkinson's Disease Patients  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) alters the motor performance of affected individuals. The dopaminergic denervation of the striatum, due to substantia nigra neuronal loss, compromises the speed, the automatism and smoothness of movements of PD patients. The development of a reliable tool for long-term monitoring of PD symptoms would allow the accurate assessment of the clinical status during the different PD stages and the evaluation of motor complications. Furthermore, it would be very useful both for routine clinical care as well as for testing novel therapies. Within this context we have validated the feasibility of using a Body Network Area (BAN) of wireless accelerometers to perform continuous at home gait monitoring of PD patients. The analysis addresses the assessment of the system performance working in real environments.

Cancela, Jorge; Pastorino, Matteo; Arredondo, Maria T.; Konstantina, Nikita S.; Villagra, Federico; Pastor, Maria A.

2014-01-01

252

Feasibility of the Assessment of Cholesterol Crystals in Human Macrophages Using Micro Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

The presence of cholesterol crystals is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, but until recently, such crystals have been considered to be passive components of necrotic plaque cores. Recent studies have demonstrated that phagocytosis of cholesterol crystals by macrophages may actively precipitate plaque progression via an inflammatory pathway, emphasizing the need for methods to study the interaction between macrophages and crystalline cholesterol. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of detecting cholesterol in macrophages in situ using Micro-Optical Coherence Tomography (µOCT), an imaging modality we have recently developed with 1-µm resolution. Macrophages containing cholesterol crystals frequently demonstrated highly scattering constituents in their cytoplasm on µOCT imaging, and µOCT was able to evaluate cholesterol crystals in cultured macrophage cells. Our results suggest that µOCT may be useful for the detection and characterization of inflammatory activity associated with cholesterol crystals in the coronary artery.

Kashiwagi, Manabu; Liu, Linbo; Chu, Kengyeh K.; Sun, Chen-Hsin; Tanaka, Atsushi; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

2014-01-01

253

Feasibility and early clinical assessment of flattening filter free (FFF) based stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatments  

PubMed Central

Purpose To test feasibility and safety of clinical usage of Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beams for delivering ablative stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) doses to various tumor sites, by means of Varian TrueBeam™ (Varian Medical Systems). Methods and Materials Seventy patients were treated with SBRT and FFF: 51 lesions were in the thorax (48 patients),10 in the liver, 9 in isolated abdominal lymph node, adrenal gland or pancreas. Doses ranged from 32 to 75 Gy, depending on the anatomical site and the volume of the lesion to irradiate. Lung lesions were treated with cumulative doses of 32 or 48 Gy, delivered in 4 consecutive fractions. The liver patients were treated in 3 fractions with total dose of 75 Gy. The isolated lymph nodes were irradiated in 6 fractions with doses of 45 Gy. The inclusion criteria were the presence of isolated node, or few lymph nodes in the same lymph node region, in absence of other active sites of cancer disease before the SBRT treatment. Results All 70 patients completed the treatment. The minimum follow-up was 3 months. Six cases of acute toxicities were recorded (2 Grade2 and 2 Grade3 in lung and 2 Grade2 in abdomen). No patient experienced acute toxicity greater than Grade3. No other types or grades of toxicities were observed at clinical evaluation visits. Conclusions This study showed that, with respect to acute toxicity, SBRT with FFF beams showed to be a feasible technique in 70 consecutive patients with various primary and metastatic lesions in the body.

2011-01-01

254

Preliminary assessment report for Camp Carroll Training Center, Installation 02045, Anchorage, Alaska. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Alaska Army National Guard property known as Camp Carroll Training Center, located on the Fort Richardson Army facility near Anchorage, Alaska. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for the completion of preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing, corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances used, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The primary environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) the Alaska Air National Guard storage area behind Building S57112 (Organizational Maintenance Shop [OMS] 6); (2) the state of Alaska maintenance facility and the soil/tar-type spill north of the state of Alaska maintenance facility; (3) the waste storage area adjacent to OMS 6; (4) the contaminated area from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) and the oil-water separator; and (5) soil staining in the parking area at the Camp Carroll Headquarters Building. Camp Carroll appears to be in excellent condition from an environmental standpoint, and current practices are satisfactory. Argonne recommends that the Alaska Department of Military Affairs consider remediation of soil contamination associated with all storage areas, as well as reviewing the practices of other residents of the facility. Argonne also recommends that the current methods of storing waste material behind Building S57112 (OMS 6) be reviewed for alternatives.

Krokosz, M.; Sefano, J.

1993-08-01

255

A Multiple Watershed Approach to Assessing the Effects of Habitat Restoration Actions on Anadromous and Resident Fish Populations, Technical Report 2003-2004.  

SciTech Connect

Habitat protection and restoration is a cornerstone of current strategies to restore ecosystems, recover endangered fish species, and rebuild fish stocks within the Columbia River Basin. Strategies featuring habitat restoration include the 2000 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS BiOp) developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the 2000 Biological Opinion on Bull Trout developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Sub-Basin Plans developed under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NWPCC). There is however little quantitative information about the effectiveness of different habitat restoration techniques. Such information is crucial for helping scientists and program managers allocate limited funds towards the greatest benefits for fish populations. Therefore, it is critical to systematically test the hypotheses underlying habitat restoration actions for both anadromous and resident fish populations. This pilot project was developed through a proposal to the Innovative Projects fund of the NWPCC (ESSA 2002). It was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) following reviews by the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP 2002), the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA 2002), the NWPCC and BPA. The study was designed to respond directly to the above described needs for information on the effectiveness of habitat restoration actions, including legal measures specified in the 2000 FCRPS BiOp (RPA 183, pg. 9-133, NMFS 2000). Due to the urgency of addressing these measures, the timeline of the project was accelerated from a duration of 18 months to 14 months. The purpose of this pilot project was to explore methods for evaluating past habitat restoration actions and their effects on fish populations. By doing so, the project will provide a foundation of retrospective analyses, on which to build prospective, multi-watershed designs for future habitat restoration actions. Such designs are being developed concurrently with this project by several other groups in the Columbia Basin (RME Workgroup 2003, NMFS 2003, Hillman and Paulsen 2002, Hillman 2003). By addressing questions about habitat restoration and monitoring (in coordination with other related efforts), we hope that this project will catalyze a shift in the Basin's paradigm of habitat restoration, moving from implementation of individual watershed projects towards rigorously designed and monitored, multiwatershed, adaptive management experiments. The project involved three phases of work, which were closely integrated with various related and ongoing efforts in the region: (1) Scoping - We met with a Core Group of habitat experts and managers to scope out a set of testable habitat restoration hypotheses, identify candidate watersheds and recommend participants for a data evaluation workshop. (2) Data Assembly - We contacted over 80 scientists and managers to help evaluate the suitability of each candidate watershed's historical data for assessing the effectiveness of past restoration actions. We eventually settled on the Yakima, Wenatchee, Clearwater, and Salmon subbasins, and began gathering relevant data for these watersheds at a workshop with habitat experts and managers. Data assembly continued for several months after the workshop. (3) Data Analysis and Synthesis - We explored statistical approaches towards retrospectively analyzing the effects of restoration 'treatments' at nested spatial scales across multiple watersheds (Chapters 2-5 of this report). These analyses provided a foundation for identifying existing constraints to testing restoration hypotheses, and opportunities to overcome these constraints through improved experimental designs, monitoring protocols and project selection strategies (Chapters 6 and 7 of this report). Finally, we developed a set of recommendations to improve the design, implementation, and monitoring of prospective habitat restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin (Chapter 8).

Marmorek, David

2004-03-01

256

Feasibility Assessment of a Risk-Based Approach to Technical Specifications. Main Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To assess the potential use of risk and reliability techniques for improving the effectiveness of the technical specifications to control plant operational risk, the Technical Specifications Branch (OTSB) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiat...

B. Atefi D. W. Gallagher

1991-01-01

257

Feasibility of Performing Cumulative Risk Assessments for Mixtures of Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Assessment of potential human health risk(s) from disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water is needed because of widespread oral, dermal and inhalation exposures to this complex mixture and because positive data from both epidemiologic and toxicol...

G. E. Rice J. C. Lipscomb L. K. Teuschler

2003-01-01

258

ASSESSMENT OF NEAR-STREAM GROUND WATER-SURFACE WATER INTERACTION (GSI) OF A DEGRADED STREAM BEFORE RESTORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

In Fall 2001, EPA undertook an intensive collaborative research effort with the USGS and the Institute of Ecosystem Studies (IES) to evaluate the impact of restoration on water quality at a degraded stream in an urban watershed using a before/after stream restoration study design...

259

Assessing the feasibility of harm reduction services for MSM: the late night breakfast buffet study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the leveling off in new HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco, new evidence suggests that many recent HIV infections are linked with the use of Methamphetamine (MA). Among anonymous HIV testers in San Francisco, HIV incidence among MA users was 6.3% compared to 2.1% among non-MA users. Of particular concern for prevention programs are frequent users and HIV positive men who use MA. These MSM pose a particular challenge to HIV prevention efforts due to the need to reach them during very late night hours. Methods The purpose of the Late Night Breakfast Buffet (LNBB) was to determine the feasibility and uptake of harm reduction services by a late night population of MSM. The "buffet" of services included: needle exchange, harm reduction information, oral HIV testing, and urine based sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing accompanied by counseling and consent procedures. The study had two components: harm reduction outreach and a behavioral survey. For 4 months during 2004, we provided van-based harm reduction services in three neighborhoods in San Francisco from 1 – 5 a.m. for anyone out late at night. We also administered a behavioral risk and service utilization survey among MSM. Results We exchanged 2000 needles in 233 needle exchange visits, distributed 4500 condoms/lubricants and provided 21 HIV tests and 12 STI tests. Fifty-five MSM enrolled in the study component. The study population of MSM was characterized by low levels of income and education whose ages ranged from 18 – 55. Seventy-eight percent used MA in the last 3 months; almost 25% used MA every day in the same time frame. Of the 65% who ever injected, 97% injected MA and 13% injected it several times a day. MA and alcohol were strong influences in the majority of unprotected sexual encounters among both HIV negative and HIV positive MSM. Conclusion We reached a disenfranchised population of MA-using MSM who are at risk for acquiring or transmitting HIV infection through multiple high risk behaviors, and we established the feasibility and acceptability of late night harm reduction for MSM and MSM who inject drugs.

Rose, Valerie J; Raymond, H Fisher; Kellogg, Timothy A; McFarland, Willi

2006-01-01

260

Third annual environmental restoration monitoring and assessment report for FY 1994 of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of environmental monitoring, field investigations, and assessments conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report focuses on the watershed scale, providing an ORNL site-wide perspective on types, distribution, and transport of contamination. The results presented are used to enhance the conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This information forms a basis for prioritizing sites and for selecting, implementing, and evaluating remedial actions. This report summarizes the efforts of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 and Site Investigations (SI) Project. WAG 2 is the lower portion of the White Oak Creek system which drains the major contaminated sites at ORNL and discharges to the Clinch River where public access is allowed. The Remedial Investigation Plan (DOE 1992) for WAG 2 includes a long-term multimedia environmental monitoring effort that takes advantage of WAG 2`s role as an integrator and the major conduit of contaminants from the ORNL site. During FY 1992, the remedial investigation activities were integrated with a series of environmental monitoring and SI activities at ORNL that address pathways and processes important for contaminant movement to gain a more integrated perspective of contamination movement at the watershed scale.

Clapp, R.B.; Watts, J.A.; Guth, M.A.S. [eds.

1994-09-01

261

ASSESSING THE FEASIBILITY OF COSMIC-RAY ACCELERATION BY MAGNETIC TURBULENCE AT THE GALACTIC CENTER  

SciTech Connect

The presence of relativistic particles at the center of our Galaxy is evidenced by the diffuse TeV emission detected from the inner {approx}2 Degree-Sign of the Galaxy. Although it is not yet entirely clear whether the origin of the TeV photons is due to hadronic or leptonic interactions, the tight correlation of the intensity distribution with the distribution of molecular gas along the Galactic ridge strongly points to a pionic-decay process involving relativistic protons. In previous work, we concluded that point-source candidates, such as the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* (identified with the High-Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) source J1745-290) or the pulsar wind nebulae dispersed along the Galactic plane, could not account for the observed diffuse TeV emission from this region. Motivated by this result, we consider here the feasibility that the cosmic rays populating the Galactic center region are accelerated in situ by magnetic turbulence. Our results indicate that even in a highly conductive environment, this mechanism is efficient enough to energize protons within the intercloud medium to the {approx}>TeV energies required to produce the HESS emission.

Fatuzzo, M. [Physics Deparment, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH 45207 (United States); Melia, F., E-mail: fatuzzo@xavier.edu, E-mail: fmelia@email.arizona.edu [Department of Physics, Applied Math Program, and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, AZ 85721 (United States)

2012-05-01

262

Pain-QuILT: Clinical Feasibility of a Web-Based Visual Pain Assessment Tool in Adults With Chronic Pain  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic pain is a prevalent and debilitating problem. Accurate and timely pain assessment is critical to pain management. In particular, pain needs to be consistently tracked over time in order to gauge the effectiveness of different treatments. In current clinical practice, paper-based questionnaires are the norm for pain assessment. However, these methods are not conducive to capturing or tracking the complex sensations of chronic pain. Pain-QuILT (previously called the Iconic Pain Assessment Tool) is a Web-based tool for the visual self-report and tracking of pain (quality, intensity, location, tracker) in the form of time-stamped records. It has been iteratively developed and evaluated in adolescents and adults with chronic pain, including usability testing and content validation. Clinical feasibility is an important stepping-stone toward widespread implementation of a new tool. Our group has demonstrated Pain-QuILT clinical feasibility in the context of a pediatric chronic pain clinic. We sought to extend these findings by evaluating Pain-QuILT clinical feasibility from the perspective of adults with chronic pain, in comparison with standard paper-based methods (McGill Pain Questionnaire [MPQ] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]). Objective The goal of our study was to assess Pain-QuILT for (1) ease of use, (2) time for completion, (3) patient preferences, and (4) to explore the patterns of self-reported pain across the Pain-QuILT, MPQ, and BPI. Methods Participants were recruited during a scheduled follow-up visit at a hospital-affiliated pain management and physical rehabilitation clinic in southwestern Ontario. Participants self-reported their current pain using the Pain-QuILT, MPQ, and BPI (randomized order). A semistructured interview format was used to capture participant preferences for pain self-report. Results The sample consisted of 50 adults (54% female, 27/50) with a mean age of 50 years. Pain-QuILT was rated as significantly easier to use than both the MPQ and BPI (P<.01) and was also associated with the fewest difficulties in completion. On average, the time to complete each tool was less than 5 minutes. A majority of participants (58%, 29/50) preferred Pain-QuILT for reporting their pain over alternate methods (16%, 8/50 for MPQ; 14%, 7/50 for BPI; 12%, 6/50 for “other”). The most commonly chosen pain descriptors on MPQ were matched with Pain-QuILT across 91% of categories. There was a moderate-to-high correlation between Pain-QuILT and BPI scores for pain intensity (r=.70, P<.01). Conclusions The results of this clinical feasibility study in adults with chronic pain are consistent with our previously published pediatric findings. Specifically, data indicate that Pain-QuILT is (1) easy to use, (2) quick to complete, (3) preferred by a majority of patients, and (4) correlated as expected with validated pain measures. As a digital, patient-friendly method of assessing and tracking pain, we conclude that Pain-QuILT has potential to add significant value as one standard component of chronic pain management.

Kumbhare, Dinesh; Stinson, Jennifer N; Henry, James L

2014-01-01

263

EVALUATION OF PHYSIOLOGY COMPUTER MODELS, AND THE FEASIBILITY OF THEIR USE IN RISK ASSESSMENT.  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will evaluate the current state of quantitative models that simulate physiological processes, and the how these models might be used in conjunction with the current use of PBPK and BBDR models in risk assessment. The work will include a literature search to identify...

264

Investigating the Feasibility of Using Digital Representations of Work for Performance Assessment in Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the results of a 3-year study conducted at the Centre for Schooling and Learning Technologies (CSaLT) at Edith Cowan University in collaboration with the Curriculum Council of Western Australia which concerns the potential to use digital technologies to represent the output from assessment tasks in the senior secondary…

Williams, P. John

2012-01-01

265

15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.56 Restoration selectionâuse of a Regional Restoration...the equivalent of the injured natural resources and services...

2010-01-01

266

A feasibility assessment of automated FISH image and signal analysis to assist cervical cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology provides a promising molecular imaging tool to detect cervical cancer. Since manual FISH analysis is difficult, time-consuming, and inconsistent, the automated FISH image scanning systems have been developed. Due to limited focal depth of scanned microscopic image, a FISH-probed specimen needs to be scanned in multiple layers that generate huge image data. To improve diagnostic efficiency of using automated FISH image analysis, we developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme. In this experiment, four pap-smear specimen slides were scanned by a dual-detector fluorescence image scanning system that acquired two spectrum images simultaneously, which represent images of interphase cells and FISH-probed chromosome X. During image scanning, once detecting a cell signal, system captured nine image slides by automatically adjusting optical focus. Based on the sharpness index and maximum intensity measurement, cells and FISH signals distributed in 3-D space were projected into a 2-D con-focal image. CAD scheme was applied to each con-focal image to detect analyzable interphase cells using an adaptive multiple-threshold algorithm and detect FISH-probed signals using a top-hat transform. The ratio of abnormal cells was calculated to detect positive cases. In four scanned specimen slides, CAD generated 1676 con-focal images that depicted analyzable cells. FISH-probed signals were independently detected by our CAD algorithm and an observer. The Kappa coefficients for agreement between CAD and observer ranged from 0.69 to 1.0 in detecting/counting FISH signal spots. The study demonstrated the feasibility of applying automated FISH image and signal analysis to assist cyto-geneticists in detecting cervical cancers.

Wang, Xingwei; Li, Yuhua; Liu, Hong; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy R.; Zheng, Bin

2012-02-01

267

The feasibility of replacing animal testing for assessing consumer safety: a suggested future direction.  

PubMed

At present, we are unable to use much of the data derived from alternative (non-animal) tests for human health risk assessment. This brief Comment outlines why it is plausible that new paradigms could be developed to enable risk assessment to support consumer safety decisions, without the need to generate data in animal tests. The availability of technologies that did not exist 10 years ago makes this new approach possible. The approach is based on the concept that data and information derived from applying existing and new technologies to non-animal models can be interpreted in terms of harm and disease in man. A prerequisite is that similar data and information generated in a clinical setting are available to permit this "translation". The incorporation of this additional translation step should make it possible to use data and information generated in non-animal models as inputs to risk assessment. The new technologies include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics. Their application to in vitro and human "models" enables large amounts of data to be generated very quickly. The processing, interpretation and translation of these data need to be supported by powerful informatics capabilities and statistical tools. The use of integrated "systems biology" approaches will further support the interpretation by providing better understanding of the underlying biological complexity and mechanisms of toxicity. Clinical medicine is using the opportunities offered by the new "omics" technologies to advance the understanding of disease. The application of these technologies in clinical medicine will generate massive amounts of data that will need processing and interpretation to allow clinicians to better diagnose disease and understand the patients' responses to therapeutic interventions. Support from clinical epidemiology will be essential. If these data and information can be made generally accessible in an ethical and legal way, they should also permit the "translation" of experimental non-animal data, so that they can then be used in risk assessment. PMID:15757499

Fentem, Julia; Chamberlain, Mark; Sangster, Bart

2004-12-01

268

Assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of coal sludge slurries  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two decades, there has been considerable progress made in the technical developments relating to the utilization of coal in the form of a coal water slurry (CWS) both as a gasifier feedstock and as a furnace fuel. A very promising approach to utilizing CWS in an economical and cost effective manner is to use its basic technical advantage over coal, i.e. its behavior as a fluid as a method of introducing other ordinary unusable fuel sources such as sewage sludge or other solid Btu containing wastes. This can provide an economic advantage to CWS via waste disposal fees income as well as solving a vexing disposal problem. Sewage sludge presents severe disposal problems for municipalities across the country. The problem of sewage sludge disposal has reached crisis proportions in many areas of the country. Although the benefit of concentrating the sludge slurry for combustion is evident, there is a major technical barrier, which is related to the rheological properties of the sludge. It would appear that the solids in a sludge slurry consist of both colloidal-sized particles and larger open-structures which trap a significant amount of water. As the sludge is concentrated, it begins to lose its fluid properties at about 10% solids and becomes a filter cake at 15% solids which must be handled as a solid, i.e. belt feeders, etc. This poses problems for incineration because feeding concentrated sludge requires mechanical feeders and combustion of the sludge requires a considerable amount of excess air (40--50%) and significant quantities of auxiliary fuels. Direct combustion of sludge in a resource recovery facility or an incinerator also leads to high levels of uncontrolled emissions including particulates and metals such as cadmium, mercury, etc. Expensive emission controls are required to meet EPA limits. The net result is a considerable add-on expense to sludge disposal with little recovery of the inherent Btu value. The overall goal of this project was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of supplementing the fuel cycle by incorporating combustion of waste material as a component of a coal water slurry. The specific goals included: conduct a sewage treatment plant survey to select a sample for testing; determine the physical and chemical characteristics of hydrothermally treated material; develop an optimum coal water sludge slurry; and provide an economic analysis of the operating expenses and order of magnitude capital cost estimates.

Dooher, J.

1999-07-01

269

A pilot study to assess feasibility of value based pricing in Cyprus through pharmacoeconomic modelling and assessment of its operational framework: sorafenib for second line renal cell cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The continuing increase of pharmaceutical expenditure calls for new approaches to pricing and reimbursement of pharmaceuticals. Value based pricing of pharmaceuticals is emerging as a useful tool and possess theoretical attributes to help health system cope with rising pharmaceutical expenditure. Aim To assess the feasibility of introducing a value-based pricing scheme of pharmaceuticals in Cyprus and explore the integrative framework. Methods A probabilistic Markov chain Monte Carlo model was created to simulate progression of advanced renal cell cancer for comparison of sorafenib to standard best supportive care. Literature review was performed and efficacy data were transferred from a published landmark trial, while official pricelists and clinical guidelines from Cyprus Ministry of Health were utilised for cost calculation. Based on proposed willingness to pay threshold the maximum price of sorafenib for the indication of second line renal cell cancer was assessed. Results Sorafenib value based price was found to be significantly lower compared to its current reference price. Conclusion Feasibility of Value Based Pricing is documented and pharmacoeconomic modelling can lead to robust results. Integration of value and affordability in the price are its main advantages which have to be weighed against lack of documentation for several theoretical parameters that influence outcome. Smaller countries such as Cyprus may experience adversities in establishing and sustaining essential structures for this scheme.

2014-01-01

270

Preservation & Restoration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on preservation and restoration presents selected resources for elementary and secondary education that include Web sites, CD-ROM and software, videos, books, magazines, and professional resources as well as classroom activities. Age levels are specified for most materials. I Sidebars discuss restoring a masterpiece, a bug's life,…

Online-Offline, 2000

2000-01-01

271

Assessing Societal Impacts When Planning Restoration of Large Alluvial Rivers: A Case Study of the Sacramento River Project, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that ecological restoration projects are more likely to gain public support if they simultaneously increase\\u000a important human services that natural resources provide to people. River restoration projects have the potential to influence\\u000a many of the societal functions (e.g., flood control, water quality) that rivers provide, yet most projects fail to consider\\u000a this in a comprehensive manner. Most

Gregory H. Golet; Michael D. Roberts; Eric W. Larsen; Ryan A. Luster; Ron Unger; Gregg Werner; Gregory G. White

2006-01-01

272

Feasibility of a radiation dose conserving CT protocol for myocardial function assessment.  

PubMed

Objective: Assessment of myocardial function can be performed at higher noise levels than necessary for coronary arterial evaluation. We evaluated image quality and radiation exposure of a dose-conserving function-only acquisition vs retrospectively electrocardiogram(ECG)-gated coronary CTA with automatic tube current modulation. Methods: Of 26 patients who underwent clinically indicated coronary CTA for coronary and function evaluation, 13 (Group I) underwent prospectively ECG-triggered coronary CTA, followed by low-dose retrospectively ECG-gated scan for function (128-slice dual-source, 80?kVp; reference tube current, 100?mA; 8-mm-thick multiplanar reformatted reconstructions) performed either immediately (n?=?6) or after 5- to 10-min delay for infarct assessment (n?=?7). 13 corresponding controls (Group II) underwent retrospectively ECG-gated protocols (automatic tube potential selection with CARE kV/CARE Dose 4D; Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) with aggressive dose modulation. Image quality assessment was performed on the six Group I subjects who underwent early post-contrast dedicated function scan and corresponding controls. Radiation exposure was based on dose-length product. Results: Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was preserved throughout the cardiac cycle in Group I and varied according to dose modulation in Group II. Visual image quality indices were similar during end systole but were better in Group II at end diastole. Although the total radiation exposure was equivalent in Group I and Group II (284 vs 280?mGy?cm), the median radiation exposure associated with only the dedicated function scan was 138 mGy?cm (interquartile range, 116-203?mGy?cm). Conclusion: A low-dose retrospective ECG-gated protocol permits assessment of myocardial function at a median radiation exposure of 138?mGy?cm and offers more consistent multiphase CNR vs traditional ECG-modulation protocols. This is useful for pure functional evaluation or as an adjunct to single-phase scan modes. Advances in knowledge: Radiation exposure can be limited with a tailored myocardial function CT protocol while maintaining preserved images. PMID:24884727

Pursnani, A; Lee, A; Mayrhofer, T; Panagia, M; Sharma, U; Abbara, S; Hoffmann, U; Ghoshhajra, B B

2014-08-01

273

Recruiting clinical personnel as research participants: a framework for assessing feasibility.  

PubMed

Increasing numbers of research studies test interventions for clinicians in addition to or instead of interventions for patients. Although previous studies have enumerated barriers to patient enrolment in clinical trials, corresponding barriers have not been identified for enrolling clinicians as subjects. We propose a framework of metrics for evidence-based estimation of time and resources required for recruiting clinicians as research participants, and present an example from a federally funded study. Our framework proposes metrics for tracking five steps in the recruitment process: gaining entry into facilities, obtaining accurate eligibility and contact information, reaching busy clinicians, assessing willingness to participate, and scheduling participants for data collection. We analyzed recruitment records from a qualitative study exploring performance feedback at US Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs); five recruiters sought to reach two clinicians at 16 facilities for a one-hour interview. Objective metrics were calculable for all five steps; metric values varied considerably across facilities. Obtaining accurate contact information slowed down recruiting the most. We conclude that successfully recruiting even small numbers of employees requires considerable resourcefulness and more calendar time than anticipated. Our proposed framework provides an empirical basis for estimating research-recruitment timelines, planning subject-recruitment strategies, and assessing the research accessibility of clinical sites. PMID:24153049

Hysong, Sylvia J; Smitham, Kristen Broussard; Knox, Melissa; Johnson, Khai-El; SoRelle, Richard; Haidet, Paul

2013-01-01

274

Preliminary feasibility assessment for Earth-to-space electromagnetic (Railgun) launchers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Earth to space electromagnetic (railgun) launcher (ESRL) for launching material into space was studied. Potential ESRL applications were identified and initially assessed to formulate preliminary system requirements. The potential applications included nuclear waste disposal in space, Earth orbital applications, deep space probe launchers, atmospheric research, and boost of chemical rockets. The ESRL system concept consisted of two separate railgun launcher tubes (one at 20 deg from the horizontal for Earth orbital missions, the other vertical for solar system escape disposal missions) powered by a common power plant. Each 2040 m launcher tube is surrounded by 10,200 homopolar generator/inductor units to transmit the power to the walls. Projectile masses are 6500 kg for Earth orbital missions and 2055 kg for nuclear waste disposal missions. For the Earth orbital missions, the projectile requires a propulsion system, leaving an estimated payload mass of 650 kg. For the nuclear waste disposal in space mission, the high level waste mass was estimated at 250 kg. This preliminary assessment included technical, environmental, and economic analyses.

Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Earhart, R. W.

1982-01-01

275

Recruiting clinical personnel as research participants: a framework for assessing feasibility  

PubMed Central

Increasing numbers of research studies test interventions for clinicians in addition to or instead of interventions for patients. Although previous studies have enumerated barriers to patient enrolment in clinical trials, corresponding barriers have not been identified for enrolling clinicians as subjects. We propose a framework of metrics for evidence-based estimation of time and resources required for recruiting clinicians as research participants, and present an example from a federally funded study. Our framework proposes metrics for tracking five steps in the recruitment process: gaining entry into facilities, obtaining accurate eligibility and contact information, reaching busy clinicians, assessing willingness to participate, and scheduling participants for data collection. We analyzed recruitment records from a qualitative study exploring performance feedback at US Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs); five recruiters sought to reach two clinicians at 16 facilities for a one-hour interview. Objective metrics were calculable for all five steps; metric values varied considerably across facilities. Obtaining accurate contact information slowed down recruiting the most. We conclude that successfully recruiting even small numbers of employees requires considerable resourcefulness and more calendar time than anticipated. Our proposed framework provides an empirical basis for estimating research-recruitment timelines, planning subject-recruitment strategies, and assessing the research accessibility of clinical sites.

2013-01-01

276

Assessment of aortic pulse wave velocity by ultrasound: a feasibility study in mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness and could be useful for characterizing cardiovascular disease progression even in mouse models. Aim of this study was to develop an image process algorithm for assessing arterial PWV in mice using ultrasound (US) images only and test it on the evaluation of age-associated differences in abdominal aorta PWV (aaPWV). US scans were obtained from six adult (7 months) and six old (19 months) wild type male mice (strain C57BL6) under gaseous anaesthesia. For each mouse, diameter and flow velocity instantaneous values were achieved from abdominal aorta B-mode and PW-Doppler images; all measurements were obtained using edge detection and contour tracking techniques. Single-beat mean diameter and velocity were calculated and time-aligned, providing the lnD-V loop. aaPWV values were obtained from the slope of the linear part of the loop (the early systolic phase), while relative distension (relD) measurements were calculated from the mean diameter signal. aaPWV values for young mice (3.5±0.52 m/s) were lower than those obtained for older ones (5.12±0.98 m/s) while relD measurements were higher in young (25%±7%) compared with older animals evaluations (15%±3%). All measurements were significantly different between the two groups (P<0.01 both). In conclusion, the proposed image processing technique well discriminate between age groups. Since it provides PWV assessment just from US images, it could represent a simply and useful system for vascular stiffness evaluation at any arterial site in the mouse, even in preclinical small animal models.

Faita, Francesco; Di Lascio, Nicole; Stea, Francesco; Kusmic, Claudia; Sicari, Rosa

2014-03-01

277

Assessing Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and Principal Tributaries, 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a baseline release of 1,300 cfs to a maximum release of 25,530 cfs with an overall temperature depression in the lower Clearwater River exceeding 10 C. With continued Dworshak Dam operations as those documented in 1994, there is potential risk to the continued existence of the endangered fall chinook salmon in the Clearwater River. Additional data and conclusions will be contained in successive years` annual reports.

Arnsberg, Billy D.; Statler, David P.

1995-08-01

278

Role of Geomechanics in Assessing the Feasibility of CO2 Sequestration in Depleted Hydrocarbon Sandstone Reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in depleted sandstone hydrocarbon reservoirs could be complicated by a number of geomechanical problems associated with well drilling, completions, and CO2 injection. The initial production of hydrocarbons (gas or oil) and the resulting pressure depletion as well as associated reduction in horizontal stresses (e.g., fracture gradient) narrow the operational drilling mud weight window, which could exacerbate wellbore instabilities while infill drilling. Well completions (casing, liners, etc.) may experience solids flowback to the injector wells when injection is interrupted due to CO2 supply or during required system maintenance. CO2 injection alters the pressure and temperature in the near wellbore region, which could cause fault reactivation or thermal fracturing. In addition, the injection pressure may exceed the maximum sustainable storage pressure, and cause fracturing and fault reactivation within the reservoirs or bounding formations. A systematic approach has been developed for geomechanical assessments for CO2 storage in depleted reservoirs. The approach requires a robust field geomechanical model with its components derived from drilling and production data as well as from wireline logs of historical wells. This approach is described in detail in this paper together with a recent study on a depleted gas field in the North Sea considered for CO2 sequestration. The particular case study shows that there is a limitation on maximum allowable well inclinations, 45° if aligning with the maximum horizontal stress direction and 65° if aligning with the minimum horizontal stress direction, beyond which wellbore failure would become critical while drilling. Evaluation of sanding risks indicates no sand control installations would be needed for injector wells. Fracturing and faulting assessments confirm that the fracturing pressure of caprock is significantly higher than the planned CO2 injection and storage pressures for an ideal case, in which the total field horizontal stresses increase with the reservoir re-pressurization in a manner opposite to their reduction with the reservoir depletion. However, as the most pessimistic case of assuming the total horizontal stresses staying the same over the CO2 injection, faulting could be reactivated on a fault with the least favorable geometry once the reservoir pressure reaches approximately 7.7 MPa. In addition, the initial CO2 injection could lead to a high risk that a fault with a cohesion of less than 5.1 MPa could be activated due to the significant effect of reduced temperature on the field stresses around the injection site.

Fang, Zhi; Khaksar, Abbas

2013-05-01

279

Feasibility assessment of optical technologies for reliable high capacity feeder links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space telecom scenarios like data relay satellite and broadband/broadcast service providers require reliable feeder links with high bandwidth/data rate for the communication between ground station and satellite. Free space optical communication (FSOC) is an attractive alternative to microwave links, improving performance by offering abundant bandwidth at small apertures of the optical terminals. At the same time Near-Earth communication by FSOC avoids interference with other services and is free of regulatory issues. The drawback however is the impairment by the laser propagation through the atmosphere at optical wavelengths. Also to be considered are questions of eye safety for ground personnel and aviation. In this paper we assess the user requirements for typical space telecom scenarios and compare these requirements with solutions using optical data links through the atmosphere. We suggest a site diversity scheme with a number of ground stations and a switching scheme using two optical terminals on-board the satellite. Considering the technology trade-offs between four different optical wavelengths we recommend the future use of 1.5 µm laser technology and calculate a link budget for an atmospheric condition of light haze on the optical path. By comparing link budgets we show an outlook to the future potential use of 10 µm laser technology.

Witternigg, Norbert; Schönhuber, Michael; Leitgeb, Erich; Plank, Thomas

2013-08-01

280

Electrochemical Disinfection Feasibility Assessment Materials Evaluation for the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) Program recognizes the risk of microbial contamination in their potable and non-potable water sources. The end of the Space Shuttle Program limited the ability to send up shock kits of biocides in the event of an outbreak. Currently, the United States Orbital Segment water system relies primarily on iodine to mitigate contamination concerns, which has been successful in remediating the small cases of contamination documented. However, a secondary method of disinfection is a necessary investment for future space flight. Over the past year, NASA Johnson Space Center has investigated the development of electrochemically generated systems for use on the ISS. These systems include: hydrogen peroxide, ozone, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid. To use these biocides on deployed water systems, NASA must understand of the effect these biocides have on current ISS materials prior to proceeding forward with possible on-orbit applications. This paper will discuss the material testing that was conducted to assess the effects of the biocides on current ISS materials.

Rodriquez, Branelle; Shindo, David; Montgomery, Eliza

2013-01-01

281

Feasibility and Significance of in vivo Mean Spleen Stiffness Measurement by Magnetic Resonance Elastography for Assessing Portal Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background Liver stiffness measurement is associated with portal hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease. However, the relationship between spleen stiffness and clinically significant portal hypertension remains unknown. Aims To determine the feasibility of measuring spleen stiffness with magnetic resonance (MR) elastography and to prospectively test this technique in healthy volunteers and patients with liver fibrosis. Methods Following Institutional Review Board approval, spleen stiffness was measured with MR elastography in 12 healthy volunteers (mean age, 37 years; age range, 25-82 years) and 38 patients with various etiologies of chronic liver disease (mean age, 56 years; age range, 36–60 years). Various statistical analyses were performed to assess all measurements. Results MR elastography of the spleen was successfully performed in all volunteers and patients. The mean spleen stiffness was significantly lower in volunteers (mean, 3.6 kPa ± 0.3) than it was in patients with liver fibrosis (mean, 5.6 kPa ± 5.0, range, 2.7–19.2 kPa; p < .001). In addition, a significant correlation between liver and spleen stiffness was observed for the entire cohort (r2=.75, p<0.001). Predictors of spleen stiffness were splenomegaly, spleen volume, and platelet count. In the setting of cirrhosis, the presence of esophageal varices was observed in 100% of patients with mean spleen stiffness values ? 10.5 kPa. Conclusion MR elastography of the spleen is feasible and shows promise as a quantitative method for predicting the presence of esophageal varices in patients with advanced hepatic fibrosis.

Talwalkar, Jayant A.; Yin, Meng; Venkatesh, Sudhakar; Rossman, Phillip J.; Grimm, Roger C.; Manduca, Armando; Romano, Anthony; Kamath, Patrick S.; Ehman, Richard L.

2010-01-01

282

A process for assessing the feasibility of a network meta-analysis: a case study of everolimus in combination with hormonal therapy versus chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to outline a general process for assessing the feasibility of performing a valid network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to synthesize direct and indirect evidence for alternative treatments for a specific disease population. Methods Several steps to assess the feasibility of an NMA are proposed based on existing recommendations. Next, a case study is used to illustrate this NMA feasibility assessment process in order to compare everolimus in combination with hormonal therapy to alternative chemotherapies in terms of progression-free survival for women with advanced breast cancer. Results A general process for assessing the feasibility of an NMA is outlined that incorporates explicit steps to visualize the heterogeneity in terms of treatment and outcome characteristics (Part A) as well as the study and patient characteristics (Part B). Additionally, steps are performed to illustrate differences within and across different types of direct comparisons in terms of baseline risk (Part C) and observed treatment effects (Part D) since there is a risk that the treatment effect modifiers identified may not explain the observed heterogeneity or inconsistency in the results due to unexpected, unreported or unmeasured differences. Depending on the data available, alternative approaches are suggested: list assumptions, perform a meta-regression analysis, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analyses, or summarize why an NMA is not feasible. Conclusions The process outlined to assess the feasibility of an NMA provides a stepwise framework that will help to ensure that the underlying assumptions are systematically explored and that the risks (and benefits) of pooling and indirectly comparing treatment effects from RCTs for a particular research question are transparent.

2014-01-01

283

Stream Restoration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explores how Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest near Louisville, Kentucky has restored a channelized or straightened stream to its original meandering path, thereby improving the stream’s water quality and creating a better habitat for wildlife.

Ket

2011-01-11

284

A feasibility assessment of the potential for occupational exposure assessment and epidemiologic studies of a possible cancer risk from exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

It is feasible to conduct an epidemiologic study of potential carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields. The study will have to be large and should be preceded by a rigorous development activity directed to occupational exposure assessment. A coordinated, multi-center approach is recommended in order to achieve the sample size required. Several large urban states provide excellent research opportunities because of large utilities and existing cancer databases (e.g., California, Florida, Georgia, Michigan, New Jersey, Texas), other study populations are candidates as well (e.g., Maine, New Mexido, Tennessee, Utah, Washington). Exploratory analyses with basic research data suggests that if an EMF exposure effect exists, it may be neither dose nor duration dependent. Results from meta analysis offer evidence for consistency with the site of action suggested from epidemiologic studies. 31 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Aldrich, T.E.

1987-03-30

285

Multicenter Feasibility Study To Assess External Quality Assessment Panels for Xpert MTB/RIF Assay in South Africa.  

PubMed

External quality assessment (EQA) for the Xpert MTB/RIF assay is part of the quality system required for clinical and laboratory practice. Five newly developed EQA panels that use different matrices, including a lyophilized sample (Vircell, Granada, Spain), a dried tube specimen (CDC), liquid (Maine Molecular Quality Control, Inc. [MMQCI], Scarborough, ME), artificial sputum (Global Laboratory Initiative [GLI]), and a dried culture spot (National Health Laboratory Services [NHLS]), were evaluated at 11 GeneXpert testing sites in South Africa. The panels comprised Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC)-negative, MTBC-positive (including rifampin [RIF] susceptible and RIF resistant), and nontuberculosis mycobacterial material that was inactivated and safe for transportation. Twelve qualitative and quantitative variables were scored as acceptable (1) or unacceptable (0); the overall panel performance score for the Vircell, CDC, GLI, and NHLS panels was 9 of 12, while the MMQCI panel scored 6 of 12 (owing to the need for cold chain maintenance). All panels showed good compatibility with Xpert MTB/RIF testing, and none showed PCR inhibition. The use of a liquid or dry matrix did not appear to be a distinguishing criterion, as both matrices had reduced scores on insufficient volumes, a need for extra consumables, and the ability to transfer to the Xpert MTB/RIF cartridge. EQA is an important component of the quality system required for diagnostic testing programs, but it must be complemented by routine monitoring of performance indicators and instrument verification. This study aims to introduce EQA concepts for Xpert MTB/RIF testing and evaluates five potential EQA panels. PMID:24789182

Scott, Lesley; Albert, Heidi; Gilpin, Chris; Alexander, Heather; DeGruy, Kyle; Stevens, Wendy

2014-07-01

286

Comparative assessment of the value of papyrus and cocoyams for the restoration of the Nakivubo wetland in Kampala, Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nakivubo wetland, located on the northern shores of Lake Victoria, separates the city of Kampala from the Inner Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria (the sole raw water supply for Kampala). It provides tertiary treatment for the secondary effluent from the Bugolobi sewage treatment works, and heavily polluted wastewater (run-off, domestic and industrial effluents) from the Nakivubo channel. However, more than half of the wetland has been drained for agriculture and the natural papyrus vegetation ( Cyperus papyrus) has been progressively replaced by cocoyams ( Colocasia esculenta). In order to provide information that could be used in the restoration of Nakivubo wetland, a pilot study was carried out to assess the ecological characteristics (nutrient retention and growth characteristics) of the two plants. The plants were grown in wastewater effluent from the Bugolobi sewage treatment works, in experimental buckets under floating and rooted conditions. The wastewater was replaced every seven days. Papyrus plants were more efficient at removing NH 4-N while growing floating in wastewater or rooted in gravel (maximum values being 89.4% and 79%, respectively) than were cocoyams (67.7% and 68.3%) or the controls without plants (11% and 9%, respectively). The removal of orthophosphate by papyrus was also greater under the two growing conditions (values being 80% and 73%) than by cocoyams (66% and 63%) or the controls (11% and 14%). Biomass densities of papyrus were also higher (16.9 kg Dw/m 2 for the floating plants and 18.7 kg Dw/m 2 for the rooted ones) than of yams (5.9 kg DW/m 2 and 6.8 kg DW/m 2, respectively). It was also observed that the rhizomes of yams did not develop well under the floating conditions and were often rotten. It is concluded that, since papyrus has better wastewater treatment efficiency and superior growth characteristics, it should be encouraged to grow again in the wetland. It was also noted that if encroachment of the wetland by agricultural activities is halted, papyrus would eventually out-compete the yams. Keeping Nakivubo wetland inundated would offer papyrus a competitive advantage, since yams grow poorly when floating in water.

Kansiime, F.; Oryem-Origa, H.; Rukwago, S.

287

The RESTORE program of restorative justice for sex crimes: vision, process, and outcomes.  

PubMed

The article reports empirical evaluation of RESTORE, a restorative justice (RJ) conferencing program adapted to prosecutor-referred adult misdemeanor and felony sexual assaults. RESTORE conferences included voluntary enrollment, preparation, and a face-to-face meeting where primary and secondary victims voice impacts, and responsible persons acknowledge their acts and together develop a re-dress plan that is supervised for 1 year. Process data included referral and consent rates, participant characteristics, observational ratings of conferences compared with program design, services delivered, and safety monitoring. Outcome evaluation used 22 cases to assess (a) pre-post reasons for choosing RESTORE, (b) preparation and conference experiences, (c) overall program and justice satisfaction, and (d) completion rates. This is the first peer-reviewed quantitative evaluation of RJ conferencing for adult sexual assault. Although the data have limitations, the results support cautious optimism regarding feasibility, safety, and satisfactory outcomes. They help envision how conferencing could expand and individualize justice options for sexual assault. PMID:24368680

Koss, Mary P

2014-06-01

288

Technical Feasibility of Reporting YITS 2010 Skill Assessment Results on the PISA 2000 Reading Scale. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 69  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the feasibility of reporting scores of a test based on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000 instrument that was administered to a sample of 25-year-old Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) respondents on the PISA scale. Each of these respondents also participated in PISA 2000. The study examines the…

Cartwright, Fernando

2012-01-01

289

Feasibility of mitral flow assessment by echo-contrast ultrasound, part II: experimental study on a mechanical model of the left heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of assessing mitral flow by means of ultrasonic monitoring of backscattered power from an echo-contrast agent in the left atrium and left ventricle was studied. A mechanical model of the left heart was built in which two thin rubber balloons connected to each other in a feedback loop via two artificial heart valves mimicked the left atrium and

Bronislav Herman; Shmuel Einav; Zvi Vered

2000-01-01

290

The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of creating a valid and reliable checklist with the following features: appropriate for assessing both randomised and non-randomised studies; provision of both an overall score for study quality and a profile of scores not only for the quality of reporting, internal validity (bias and confounding) and power, but also for external validity. DESIGN: A pilot

S. H. Downs; N. Black

1998-01-01

291

Postmyocardial infarction left ventricular dysfunction - Assessment and follow up of patients undergoing surgical ventricular restoration by the endoventricular patchplasty  

PubMed Central

Background Surgical ventricular restoration with endoventricular patchplasty improves left ventricular function and restores left ventricular shape. Method The study included patients who presented with transmural anterior myocardial infarctions between June 2007 and May 2008. Briefly the technique included – coronary revascularization, resection of the endocardial scar, left ventricular reconstruction using an endoventricular synthetic patch. Left ventricular geometric parameters were studied preoperatively, early postoperatively, at 3 and 6 months and statistically analyzed by SPSS 14 software package. Results The ejection fraction increased from 33.5 ± 5.02 to 37.77 ± 7.17 immediate postoperatively. The preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction – a mean of 33.25% (±5.02%), increased by 10.3%–11% at the third and fourth follow up respectively after surgical ventricular restoration (p ? 0.001). The left ventricular end systolic volume index improved from a mean of 48.84 ± 11.37 preoperatively to 24.66 ± 5.92 postoperatively (p ? 0.001). Conclusions Surgical ventricular restoration in our study has clearly demonstrated a positive effect on LV geometry.

D'Mello, Margaret; Kurudamannil, Abraham A.; Reddy, Degapudi J.; Raju, Penumatsa S.

2013-01-01

292

Assessing microleakage of composite restorations in class V cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser irradiation or diamond bur  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The aim of this study was to make a comparison between microleakage of conventionally restored class V cavities using bur and acid etchant and, the ones prepared and conditioned by Er:YAG laser. Materials and Methods: 30 recently extracted intact caries and filling free human permanent molars were used for this study. Then, Cold cure acrylic resin was used to seal the apices. The samples were randomly assigned to 5 groups of six each. Class V cavities were prepared one on buccal and one on lingual surface of each sample. Group 1: cavity preparation by diamond bur and turbine + acid etch, Group 2: cavity preparation by Er:YAG laser + acid etch, Group 3: cavity preparation by Er:YAG laser + Laser etching, Group 4: cavity preparation by diamond bur and turbine + laser etching, Group 5: cavity preparation by Er:YAG laser with no conditioning procedure. The cavities restored with restorative composite resin. Samples were then immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 24 hours. The data were then analyzed using Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests. Results: The Kruskal Wallis test showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) between enamel and cementum margin microleakage, while the higher microleakage was related to the cementum margin of restorations. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in evaluating microleakeage degree of cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser and diamond bur.

Arami, Sakineh; Shahabi, Sima; Tabatabaie, Masomeh; Chiniforush, Nasim; Morshedi, Ehsan; Torabi, Sara

2014-01-01

293

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RIPARIAN ZONE RESTORATION IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS BY ASSESSING SOIL MICROBIAL POPULATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Microbial biomass, nitrifiers and denitrifiers in surface soil (0?10 cm) were quantified in a riparian zone restoration project at Coweeta, North Carolina, USA. Four treatments are included in this study: (1) a degraded (+N) riparian zone with continued compaction, vegetation rem...

294

Assessing the reduction of the hydrological connectivity of gully systems through vegetation restoration: field experiments and numerical modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoration of degraded land in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes has led to alterations in the functioning of degraded catchments. Recovery of vegetation on areas affected by overgrazing, as well as the reforestation or afforestation of gully areas have given rise to modifications of hydrological connectivity within the catchments. Recent research has highlighted the ability of gully channels to trap sediment

A. Molina; G. Govers; A. van den Putte; J. Poesen; V. Vanacker

2009-01-01

295

Clinical Evaluation of Dental Restorative Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report represents the results of controlled clinical studies involving 5,727 dental restorations in 1,154 patients which were placed under recorded standardized conditions and were assessed annually for 19 years. The restorations were evaluated...

A. A. Lugassy

1989-01-01

296

Feasibility of intracoronary frequency domain optical coherence tomography derived fractional flow reserve for the assessment of coronary artery stenosis.  

PubMed

Frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) provides cross-sectional images of coronary arteries and deployed stents with micron resolution and measures lumen dimensions with excellent reproducibility. FD-OCT combined with a blood flow resistances model can overcome many limitations of conventional measures of stenosis severity based on quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the relationship between pressure derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) and FD-OCT derived FFR, a new method for quantitative measure of stenosis severity that estimates the blood flow resistance and microvascular resistance of the vessel segments imaged by FD-OCT. A total of 26 coronary stenoses in 20 patients were studied consecutively with QCA, pressure derived FFR, and FD-OCT. There was a moderate but significant correlation between pressure derived FFR and FD-OCT derived FFR (r = 0.69, P < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the mean differences between pressure derived FFR and FD-OCT derived FFR were 0.05 ± 0.14 (limits of agreement: -0.09 to 0.19). The root mean square error (RMSE) between FD-OCT derived FFR and pressure derived FFR was found to be ± 0.087 FFR units. FD-OCT derived FFR has the potential to become a valuable tool for the assessment of coronary artery stenosis. PMID:24909988

Zafar, Haroon; Sharif, Faisal; Leahy, Martin J

2014-07-10

297

2-D strain assessment in the mouse through spatial compounding of myocardial velocity data: in vivo feasibility.  

PubMed

Ultrasound assessment of myocardial strain can provide valuable information on regional cardiac function. However, Doppler-based methods often used in practice for strain estimation suffer from angle dependency. In this study, a partial solution to that fundamental limitation is presented. We have previously reported using simulated data sets that spatial compounding of axial velocities obtained at three steering angles can theoretically outperform 2-D speckle tracking for 2-D strain estimation in the mouse heart. In this study, the feasibility of the method was analyzed in vivo using spatial compounding of Doppler velocities on six mice with myocardial infarction and five controls, and results were compared with those of tagged microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (?MRI). Circumferential estimates quantified by means of both ultrasound and ?MRI could detect regional dysfunction. Between echocardiography and ?MRI, a good regression coefficient was obtained for circumferential strain estimates (r = 0.69), whereas radial strain estimates correlated only moderately (r = 0.37). A second echocardiography was performed after ?MRI to test the reproducibility of the compounding method. This yielded a higher correlation coefficient for the circumferential component than for the radial component (r = 0.74 circumferentially, r = 0.49 radially). PMID:23830981

Kremer, Florence; Dresselaers, Tom; Heyde, Brecht; Ferferieva, Vesselina; Caluwé, Ellen; Choi, Hon Fai; Claus, Piet; Oosterlinck, Wouter; Janssens, Stefan; Himmelreich, Uwe; D'hooge, Jan

2013-10-01

298

Daily life functioning of community-dwelling elderly couples: an investigation of the feasibility and validity of Ecological Momentary Assessment.  

PubMed

Although ambulatory data collection techniques have been used in elderly populations, their feasibility and validity amongst elderly individuals with cognitive impairment and amongst couples remains unexplored. The main objective of this study is to examine the validity of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in elderly persons with or without cognitive impairment and their spouses. The sample included 58 retired farmers (mean 77.3?years, standard deviation [SD] 5.5) with or without cognitive impairment, recruited within a French cohort and 60 spouses (mean 73.4?years, SD 6.9). The presence of cognitive impairment determining by a panel of specialized neurologists permitted to define two groups: "The Cognitive Impairment Group" and "The Control Group". EMA procedures consisted of repeated telephone interviews five times per day during four days for each spouse. Our results demonstrate the validity of EMA procedures through a 92.1% level of compliance, the absence of fatigue effects, and the lack of evidence for major reactivity to the methods. However, the specificity of our sample may explain the acceptance (42%) and response (75%) rates and may reduce the generalizability of the results to the general population of elderly individuals. Finally, the validation of such techniques may contribute to future research examining community-dwelling elderly individuals and their spouses. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24375556

Rullier, Laetitia; Atzeni, Thierry; Husky, Mathilde; Bouisson, Jean; Dartigues, Jean-François; Swendsen, Joel; Bergua, Valerie

2014-06-01

299

Feasibility and Value of PatientViewpoint: A Web System for Patient-Reported Outcomes Assessment in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The PatientViewpoint website collects patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and links them with the electronic health record to aid patient management. This pilot-test evaluated PatientViewpoint’s use, usefulness, and acceptability to patients and clinicians. METHODS This was a single-arm prospective study that enrolled breast and prostate cancer patients undergoing treatment and the clinicians who managed them. Patients completed PROs every two weeks, and clinicians could access the results for patient visits. Scores that were poor relative to norms or substantially worse than the previous assessment were highlighted. After three on-study visits, we assessed patient and clinician perspectives on PatientViewpoint using close-ended and open-ended questions. RESULTS 11/12 eligible clinicians (92%) and 52/76 eligible patients (68%) enrolled. Patients completed a median of 71% of assigned questionnaires; clinicians reported using the information for 79% of patients, most commonly as a source of additional information (51%). At the median, score reports identified 3 potential issues, of which 1 was discussed during the visit. Patients reported the system was easy to use (92%), useful (70%), aided recall of symptoms/side effects (72%), helped them feel more in control of their care (60%), improved discussions with their provider (49%), and improved care quality (39%). Patients and clinicians desired more information on score interpretation and minor adjustments to site navigation. CONCLUSIONS These results support the feasibility and value of PatientViewpoint. An ongoing study is using a continuous quality improvement approach to further refine PatientViewpoint. Future studies will evaluate its impact on patient care and outcomes.

Snyder, Claire F.; Blackford, Amanda L.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Carducci, Michael A.; Herman, Joseph M.; Wu, Albert W.

2012-01-01

300

A national survey of consultants, specialists and specialist registrars in restorative dentistry for the assessment and treatment planning of oral cancer patients.  

PubMed

Aims To investigate the approach of restorative dentists towards the assessment and treatment planning of oral cancer patients in the UK.Material and methods The survey was conducted at the annual meeting of the Association of Consultants in Restorative Dentistry (ACSRD) and Specialist Registrar in Restorative Dentistry group (SRRDG) in September 2011. Delegates were requested to fill in a two-section questionnaire; the first section included 16 questions, evaluating cancer service provision in their units, and the second included five questions based on a clinical scenario evaluating dental management of a patient undergoing pre-radiotherapy treatment.Results Ninety-four questionnaires were distributed; 65 (69.1%) were returned. Thirty (46.1%) respondents were consultants, 27 (41.5%) were specialist registrars and the remaining 8 (12.3%) were either specialist practitioners or trust grade dentists working in the speciality of restorative dentistry. Forty-eight (73%) of the respondents worked in NHS posts and the remaining 17 (27%) worked in academic posts. A total of 50 (77%) respondents carried out clinical work which regularly included the dental assessment or treatment of head and neck (H&N) oncology patients, before or post radiotherapy. Among the respondents who were involved in the dental assessment of oncology patients, 32% of them did not have a protocol for review appointments in their units. Ninety-one percent of respondents said that they used dental implants for rehabilitation post cancer surgery and 80% also used implants either always or sometimes in irradiated bone. Answers to scenario questions highlighted that all the respondents would extract very poorly prognostic tooth (that is, root stumps) before radiotherapy, irrespective of it being at the side of the planned radiotherapy field. Fifty-eight percent of respondents preferred to extract a non-functional, heavily restored, non-carious, distal maxillary molar tooth which was not in the area of radiotherapy beam and the majority (84%) chose to carry out root canal treatment (RCT) of a functional premolar tooth if considered non vital.Conclusion This study highlights the variability in the approach of clinicians in dental and oral rehabilitation of patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment for oral cancer patients. PMID:24970541

Dewan, K; Kelly, R D; Bardsley, P

2014-06-27

301

Randomized controlled trial of Family Nurture Intervention in the NICU: assessments of length of stay, feasibility and safety  

PubMed Central

Background While survival rates for preterm infants have increased, the risk for adverse long-term neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes remains very high. In response to the need for novel, evidence-based interventions that prevent such outcomes, we have assessed Family Nurture Intervention (FNI), a novel dual mother-infant intervention implemented while the infant is in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Here, we report the first trial results, including the primary outcome measure, length of stay in the NICU and, the feasibility and safety of its implementation in a high acuity level IV NICU. Methods The FNI trial is a single center, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial at Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital for mothers and their singleton or twin infants of 26–34 weeks gestation. Families were randomized to standard care (SC) or (FNI). FNI was implemented by nurture specialists trained to facilitate affective communication between mother and infant during specified calming interactions. These interactions included scent cloth exchange, sustained touch, vocal soothing and eye contact, wrapped or skin-to-skin holding, plus family-based support interactions. Results A total of 826 infants born between 26 and 34 weeks during the 3.5 year study period were admitted to the NICU. After infant and mother screening plus exclusion due to circumstances that prevented the family from participating, 373 infants were eligible for the study. Of these, we were unable to schedule a consent meeting with 56, and consent was withheld by 165. Consent was obtained for 150 infants from 115 families. The infants were block randomized to groups of N?=?78, FNI and N?=?72, SC. Sixteen (9.6%) of the randomized infants did not complete the study to home discharge, 7% of those randomized to SC and 12% of FNI infants. Mothers in the intervention group engaged in 3 to 4 facilitated one- to two-hour sessions/week. Intent to treat analyses revealed no significant difference between groups in medical complications. The mean length of stay was not significantly affected by the intervention. Conclusion There was no significant effect demonstrated with this intervention amount on the primary short-term outcome, length of stay. FNI can be safely and feasibly implemented within a level IV NICU. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01439269

2013-01-01

302

Constructing power system restoration strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

System restoration is an integral part of the overall defense system against catastrophic outages. The nature of system restoration problem involves status assessment, optimization of generation capability and load pickup. The optimization problem needs to take into numerous practical considerations and, therefore, it cannot be formulated as one single optimization problem. The other critical consideration for the development of decision

Yunhe Hou; Chen-Ching Liu; Pei Zhang; Kai Sun

2009-01-01

303

Field and laboratory tests for assessing the feasibility on the use of municipal treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

he scarcity of water resources in many regions of the planet in the XXIst century is a challenge which concerns the current societies. Water use has been growing during the last decades. Therefore, different strategies of water management in many water-deficient regions are being carried out, especially in densely populated areas, in coastal zones or in regions under arid or semi-arid climate. During the last years, there has been a growing interest in the use of the subsurface for water storage though shallow percolating ponds. Moreover, on a best-practices basis, the use of reclaimed wastewater for different purposes is becoming more usual. The irrigation with municipal treated wastewater (MTWW) is an interesting strategy especially in the agricultural sector, which represents the main water user in contrast with other socioeconomic activities. The study area is located near Castellbisbal, on the lower stretches of the Llobregat River close to the Metropolitan area of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). The site consists on a percolating pond and agricultural fields around. In order to assess the feasibility of using reclaimed wastewater for different uses in this site, several experiments both on field and at the laboratory were carried out. First of all, a detailed non-destructive geophysical survey was conducted using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) technique. Geophysical data were constrained by geological and hydrogeological properties from boreholes and water wells. On the other hand, laboratory experiments were carried out through batch and column assays, focused on the detailed water-mineral particles interrelationships that can occur at the vadose zone. Soil samples from the crop fields around and water samples from the nearest well, as from the municipal wastewater treatment plant were used. Chemical and mineralogical composition of the soils were determined by using non-destructive spectroscopic techniques as x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), respectively. Water chemistry, both input water and leachates obtained after experiments, was assessed by means of multielemental inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. The objective of this experiment was to observe whether differences about soil- water interactions exist by using either groundwater and reclaimed wastewater. To conclude, this study aims to support the development and assessment of using MTWW for different potential uses on this area, as a strategy of water management.

Gallardo, Helena; Lovera, Raúl; Himi, Mahjoub; Sendrós, Alexandre; Marguí, Eva; Tapias, Josefina C.; Queralt, Ignasi; Casas, Albert

2014-05-01

304

Annual report of the Environmental Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for FY 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of the investigations and monitoring, conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented can be used to develop a conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This information forms a basis for prioritizing sites and for selecting, implementing, and evaluating remedial actions. Groundwater, soils, sediments, and surface water monitoring results are described.

Clapp, R.B. (ed.)

1992-09-01

305

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

Connolly, Patrick J. (US Geological Survey, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Western Fisheries Research Center, Cook, WA)

2003-12-01

306

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Effors; US Geological Survey Reports, 2003-2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the third year of at least a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie S. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

2006-02-01

307

77 FR 1717 - Notice of Availability; Draft Springfield Plateau Regional Restoration Plan and Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Draft Springfield Plateau Regional Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY...a Draft Springfield Plateau Regional Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment...Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration (NRDAR) regulations and NEPA...

2012-01-11

308

78 FR 57875 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Southeast Missouri Ozarks Regional Restoration Plan and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Draft Southeast Missouri Ozarks Regional Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY...a Draft Southeast Missouri Regional Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment...Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration (NRDAR) regulations and NEPA...

2013-09-20

309

Feasibility of an intracranial EEG-fMRI protocol at 3T: risk assessment and image quality.  

PubMed

Integrating intracranial EEG (iEEG) with functional MRI (iEEG-fMRI) may help elucidate mechanisms underlying the generation of seizures. However, the introduction of iEEG electrodes in the MR environment has inherent risk and data quality implications that require consideration prior to clinical use. Previous studies of subdural and depth electrodes have confirmed low risk under specific circumstances at 1.5T and 3T. However, no studies have assessed risk and image quality related to the feasibility of a full iEEG-fMRI protocol. To this end, commercially available platinum subdural grid/strip electrodes (4×5 grid or 1×8 strip) and 4 or 6-contact depth electrodes were secured to the surface of a custom-made phantom mimicking the conductivity of the human brain. Electrode displacement, temperature increase of electrodes and surrounding phantom material, and voltage fluctuations in electrode contacts were measured in a GE Discovery MR750 3T MR scanner during a variety of imaging sequences, typical of an iEEG-fMRI protocol. An electrode grid was also used to quantify the spatial extent of susceptibility artifact. The spatial extent of susceptibility artifact in the presence of an electrode was also assessed for typical imaging parameters that maximize BOLD sensitivity at 3T (TR=1500 ms; TE=30 ms; slice thickness=4mm; matrix=64×64; field-of-view=24 cm). Under standard conditions, all electrodes exhibited no measurable displacement and no clinically significant temperature increase (<1°C) during scans employed in a typical iEEG-fMRI experiment, including 60 min of continuous fMRI. However, high SAR sequences, such as fast spin-echo (FSE), produced significant heating in almost all scenarios (>2.0°C) that in some cases exceeded 10°C. Induced voltages in the frequency range that could elicit neuronal stimulation (<10 kHz) were well below the threshold of 100 mV. fMRI signal intensity was significantly reduced within 20mm of the electrodes for the imaging parameters used in this study. Thus, for the conditions tested, a full iEEG-fMRI protocol poses a low risk at 3T; however, fMRI sensitivity may be reduced immediately adjacent to the electrodes. In addition, high SAR sequences must be avoided. PMID:22902923

Boucousis, Shannon M; Beers, Craig A; Cunningham, Cameron J B; Gaxiola-Valdez, Ismael; Pittman, Daniel J; Goodyear, Bradley G; Federico, Paolo

2012-11-15

310

A groundwater-vegetation interaction model for assessing the impacts of water transfer on ecological restoration in the lower Tarim River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions between groundwater and vegetation is apparently important in hyper-arid area where groundwater is a vitally limiting factor for plants. Since the 1970s, the lower Tarim River (the largest inland basin of China) had suffered drying of river flow and ecosystem degradation. Water was released to the lower reaches to restore the ecosystem after 2000. It is important to understand the interactions between groundwater and vegetation for assessing the impacts of the water release on the ecological restoration. In this study a groundwater-vegetation interaction model was proposed which coupled the simulations of groundwater movement and vegetation dynamics. The model was used to simulate the changes of groundwater table and vegetation coverage at Yingsu section in the lower Tarim River from 2000 to 2006. The model was validated with groundwater observations and satellite-observed vegetation coverage. The effects of the water transfer on the ecological restoration were assessed. The results show that average groundwater raised 2.91 m and vegetation coverage increased from about 0.11 to 0.12-0.25 in the 40-1100 m belts aside the river because of the water release. Groundwater table. Solid line is ground surface. Dashed line is the simulated groundwater table on 2006-12-20. Circles are the observed groundwater table on 2006-12-20 at observation wells, i.e. C3, C4, C5, C6, C7. Vegetation coverage. Solid line is the simulated vegetation coverage on 2006-12-31. Circles are the observed vegetation coverage on 2000-2-18, derived from satellite-observed NDVI.

Liu, D.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.; Lin, M.; Cong, Z.

2010-12-01

311

Restoring Ancestral Language, Restoring Identity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Cherokee Language Renewal Program that was designed to help Cherokee elementary school children learn to function in the dominant culture without sacrificing their own cultural heritage. Explains how the program got started, and reports on how it helps restore a cultural identify to a people who are at risk of losing their identity.…

Bannon, Kay T.

1999-01-01

312

Assessment of Darkling Beetle Fauna after Implementation of an Environmental Restoration Program in the Southern Iberian Peninsula Affected by the Aznalc?llar Toxic Spill  

PubMed Central

This study is part of the Follow up Restoration Program of animal communities that colonize the Guadiamar River Basin. In 1998, the area was affected by a release of toxic sludge after the retention walls of the Aznalcóllar Mines (southern Iberian Peninsula) broke. The main objective of this study was to assess the current state of the population of Tenebrionidae, one of the most representative groups of edaphic Coleoptera inhabiting the Guadiamar River Basin. This paper analyses the progress made by the darkling beetle community six years after the disaster occurred and the Restoration Program was implemented. The study is based on faunistic data from systematic sampling carried out for six years to monitor plots distributed across the damaged area. To make an overall assessment of the tenebrionid fauna in relation to adjacent areas qualitative and quantitative ecological indices were applied, and temporal follow up and biogeographical comparisons were also made. The results indicate that, on the whole, tenebrionid fauna was somewhat affected by the Aznalcóllar Mine spill, and that a greater loss of fauna was detected closer to the accident site. The analysis of the temporal population dynamic suggests that the most affected zones are undergoing a process of re-colonization. However, this process varies widely by species and has not yet reached the expected levels of a non-affected river basin in the southern Iberian Peninsula.

Cardenas, Ana M.; Bujalance, Jose L.; Hidalgo, Juan M.

2011-01-01

313

Restoration Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

1979-01-01

314

Quality of life assessment in radionuclide therapy: a feasibility study of the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire in palliative 131 I-lipiodol therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The good tolerance of radionuclide therapy has frequently been proposed as a major advantage. This study explored the feasibility of using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire in palliative iodine-131 lipiodol therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Questionnaires were completed during interviews in which all symptoms, co-morbidity and medication were assessed at baseline within 1 week before 131I-lipiodol therapy, and subsequently after 1 and

B. Brans; B. Lambert; E. De Beule; F. De Winter; S. Van Belle; H. Van Vlierberghe; B. de Hemptinne; R. Dierckx

2002-01-01

315

Liver fibrosis assessment using transient elastography guided with real-time B-mode ultrasound imaging: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

Liver fibrosis is a kind of chronic damage of the liver and can lead to cirrhosis, one of the top 10 causes of death in the Western world. However, there is still a lack of noninvasive methods for diagnosing liver fibrosis. Fibroscan (Echosens, Paris, France), a device based on A-mode transient elastography, has shown promising results. In this study, a transient elastography system with real-time B-mode imaging for non-invasive liver fibrosis assessment, named Liverscan, was developed; its performance was tested and compared with that of the Fibroscan. A specific measurement probe was designed and fabricated with a B-mode ultrasound transducer fixed along the axis of a mechanical vibrator. It was integrated with the Liverscan to measure liver stiffness based on the shear wave propagation in liver tissues. The system was validated by mechanical indentation test using custom-made agar-gelatin phantoms with different stiffness. To further test its feasibility, in vivo measurements were conducted in 67 volunteers (age, 34 ± 3 years; body mass index, 21.3 ± 2.8 kg/m(2); Mean ± SD., 34 male and 33 female), including 20 patients with various liver diseases, and 28 (19 male and 9 female) being tested by both Liverscan and Fibroscan. A significant linear correlation between the stiffness measured by the mechanical indentation test and that by the Liverscan (r = 0.973; p < 0.001) was obtained. The in vivo liver stiffness measured by Liverscan was also correlated with that by Fibroscan significantly (r = 0.886; p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in liver stiffness between the 20 patients and the other healthy subjects (14.1 ± 3.4 kPa vs. 10.5 ± 2.1 kPa; p = 0.001). The intra- and inter-observer tests indicated that the measurements were repeatable with intra-class correlation coefficients being 0.987 (p < 0.001) and 0.988 (p < 0.001), respectively. This study demonstrated that Liverscan with a specifically designed probe was able to measure and differentiate liver of different stiffness using the established measurement protocol under the guidance of real-time B-mode ultrasound imaging. PMID:23562022

Mak, Tak-Man; Huang, Yan-Ping; Zheng, Yong-Ping

2013-06-01

316

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2001-2002.  

SciTech Connect

The White Salmon River Watershed Enhancement Project (WSRWEP) began in 1993 through efforts of the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), local stakeholders and various agencies. Early accomplishments of the project included the formation of a multi-stakeholder watershed management committee (WMC) and technical advisory committee (TAC), completion of several baseline assessments, drafting of a watershed management plan, and beginning implementation of the plan. Since inception, the effort has utilized the support of various government/private grants, and local in-kind contributions to accomplish project goals. The WMC and its partners utilize a four-pronged approach for achieving watershed enhancement: on-ground restoration, extension of technical and financial assistance to cooperators, community and environmental education, and assessment/monitoring to develop strategies and track the success of ongoing work. Project activities are generally targeted to sub-basins and stream reaches within the White Salmon watershed that exhibit important water quality and fish/wildlife habitat problems. Such project prioritization is being conducted with the active input of both the White Salmon WMC and TAC. An important current phase of the WSRWEP targets detailed monitoring and assessment of the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin, and is the focus of this report. The 'Assessment of Rattlesnake Creek in Relation to Restoration Efforts' project (BPA Project ID Number 21009) was identified and prioritized for accomplishment by the White Salmon River TAC in January of 2000. Rationale for the project stemmed from the group's realization that Condit Dam on the lower White Salmon is scheduled for removal, or fish passage retrofitting, within the near future. Given this eventuality, the TAC identified the current lack of understanding regarding both potential anadromous habitat and existing native fish and habitat conditions above Condit Dam (RM 3.2) as an important need. In response to the TAC's determination, the US Geological Survey (USGS), Yakama Nation (YN) and UCD began work to develop the current project that is intended to address the above. The overall goal of the Rattlesnake Creek assessment is to document existing riparian habitat and water quality conditions, native fish populations, and future restoration sites before future return of anadromous fish to the basin above RM 3.2. Since the project is jointly enacted by the USGS, YN and UCD, a high degree of shared planning and joint implementation is applied during completion of tasks. In general, the USGS and YN are cooperatively working to monitor and assess fish populations and riparian habitat conditions within the drainage and adjacent sections of the White Salmon. The UCD is generally responsible for assessing water quality, mapping stream channel geomorphology to enable future restoration planning, and measuring the ratios of carbon and nitrogen isotopes at various trophic levels The remainder of this report provides a summary of significant activities achieved by the UCD under BPA Project 21009 during the first project year. The report follows the FY 2001 UCD/BPA contract Statement of Work (SOW) format. Discussion of major problems encountered, changes in the work plan and schedule deviations are noted in italics after the description of accomplishments for each task.

Stampfli, Steve

2004-02-01

317

Positive evolution features in soil restoration assessed by means of glomalin and its relationship to aggregate stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restoration of limestone quarries in arid environments mainly consists of regenerating a highly degraded soil and/or creating a soil-like substrate with minimal physico-chemical and biological properties. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion, 18 plots 15 x 5 m were prepared to test organic amendments (sludge, compost, control) and different mulches (gravel, chopped forest residue, control). In order to evaluate the soil quality of the different treatments, their chemical, physical and biological properties were analyzed. Among the most efficient biological indicators are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). AMF play an important role in aggregate stability due to the production of a glycoprotein called glomalin. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify, 5 years after the start the experiment, the content of total glomalin (TG) and to analyze its relationship with other soil parameters such as organic matter (OM) and aggregate stability soil (AE). Results indicated a remarkable effect of organic amendments on glomalin content, which was higher in the treatments with compost (6.96 mg g -1) than in sludge and control (0.54 and 0.40 mg g-1, respectively). Amendments also significantly influenced aggregate stability: the highest values were recorded in treatments with sludge and compost (23.14 and 25.09%, respectively) compared to control (13.37%). The gravel mulch had a negative influenced on AE: an average of 16% compared to 23.4% for chopped forest residues and 23.1% of control. Data showed a positive and significant correlation between values of TG and OM content (r = 0.95). We also found a positive and significant correlation between abundance of TG and AE when OM contents were lower than 4% (r = 0.93), however, there was no significant correlation to higher OM when it was higher than 4% (r = 0.34). This suggests that all protein sources which are different to glomalin have not been removed by the extraction process with sodium citrate. Other studies have shown that the ratio between proteins associated to glomalin and AE is curvilinear, meaning that increases in aggregate stability are not detected if the amount of these proteins is very high. In soil restoration, glomalin is an adequate indicator of soil/substrate evolution when organic amendments deliver low to medium OM contents. Nevertheless, further studies are necessary to improve the knowledge about AMF activity on soil aggregate formation and stability.

Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Gispert Negrell, María; Pardini, Giovanni; Solé Benet, Albert

2014-05-01

318

Characteristics of families of soldiers who return prematurely from overseas deployments: an assessment from Operation Restore Hope (Somalia).  

PubMed

Nearly 500 wives, married to enlisted soldiers who deployed to Somalia for Operation Restore Hope, participated in a postdeployment study in the summer of 1993. About 10% of their husbands had returned early from Somalia for family reasons. Analysis of their wives' reports suggests that early returns were associated most often with childbirth or problematic pregnancies rather than other factors such as inexperience with deployments, negative attitudes towards the military, a lack of support services, or lower coping abilities. However, in hindsight, our results probably reflect compliance with military policy at that time for that deployment, under which pregnancy-related concerns were one of the most legitimate reasons for permitting an early return. The results support sociological theories that highlight the importance of macrosocial factors in influencing the lives of individual families somewhat independently of the microsocial environment of the families. PMID:10932593

Schumm, W R; Bell, D B; Knott, B

2000-06-01

319

Feasibility Assessment for Hydroelectric Power Development at O'Shaughnessy Dam and Griggs Dam Near Columbus, Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study considered the feasibility of developing hydroelectric plants at two water supply dams, O'Shaughnessy and Griggs, both located on the Scioto River. O'Shaughnessy Dam, about 16 miles north of Columbus, Ohio, is approximately 65 feet high, impound...

1979-01-01

320

Thermal processing of waste organic substrates: Developing and applying an integrated framework for feasibility assessment in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the background of global climate change and increasing prices of fossil fuel, the importance of producing sustainable renewable energy increases significantly. CO2-neutral energy generation using biomass or organic waste is an alternative option that deserves attention particularly in developing countries. Aim of this paper is to provide an integrated framework for the preparation of feasibility studies for the renewable

A. Karagiannidis; M. Wittmaier; S. Langer; B. Bilitewski; A. Malamakis

2009-01-01

321

Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians: Assessing the Feasibility of Renewable Energy Development and Energy Efficiency Deployment on Tribal Lands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evaluation of facility- and commercial-scale solar energy projects on the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians Reservation in Palm Springs, CA. The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI) conducted a feasibility and pre-development study of poten...

2011-01-01

322

A Pilot Study To Assess the Feasibility of Measuring the Prevalence of Slow Colon Transit or Evacuation Disorder in Palliative Care  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context Constipation is prevalent in palliative care. Whilst numerous factors contribute to this problem, opioid analgesia remains the most quoted aetiology. However, in gastroenterology, constipation is classified as a problem of prolonged transit times of colonic contents, impaired function of the structures of defecation or both. Little work in palliative care has used these assessments. Aims The report aims to describe the feasibility of assessing the colon transit times and pelvic floor structures of constipated palliative care patients and to report the results of a pilot study of 10 people who underwent these investigations. Methods Colon transit times were measured with a combination of orally administered radio-opaque markers and a single plain radiograph of the abdomen at day 5. Anal manometry plus rectal balloon expulsion was used to assess the pelvic floor. The results of the investigations were used to allocate people to one of four constipation subcategories: 1). slow colonic transit; 2) evacuation disorders; 3) mixed disorder or 4) normal transit. Results Two people had slow transit only, 2 people had evacuation disorders only and 5 had both. Only person had neither problem. The investigations were well tolerated and took a small amount of people's time. Conclusion These pilot data strongly support the feasibility of undertaking comprehensive assessments of the colon and pelvic floor in palliative care patients with the results, although preliminary, highlighting the complexity of the problem of constipation. The results of this work underpin the need to progress to a much larger study.

Currow, David C.

2013-01-01

323

A Multiple Watershed Approach to Assessing the Effects of Habitat Restoration Actions on Anadromous and Resident Fish Populations, Technical Report 2003-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat protection and restoration is a cornerstone of current strategies to restore ecosystems, recover endangered fish species, and rebuild fish stocks within the Columbia River Basin. Strategies featuring habitat restoration include the 2000 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS BiOp) developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the 2000 Biological Opinion on Bull

2004-01-01

324

A strategic analysis study-based approach to integrated risk assessment: Occupational health risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The goal of environmental restoration and waste management activities is to reduce public health risks or to delay risks to the future when new technology will be available for improved cleanup solutions. Actions to remediate the wastes on the Hanford Site will entail risks to workers, the public, and the environment that do not currently exist. In some circumstances, remediation activities will create new exposure pathways that are not present without cleanup activities. In addition, cleanup actions will redistribute existing health risks over time and space, and will likely shift health risks to cleanup workers in the short term. This report describes an approach to occupational risk assessment based on the Hanford Strategic Analysis Study and illustrates the approach by comparing worker risks for two options for remediation of N/K fuels, a subcategory of unprocessed irradiated fuels at Hanford.

Mahaffey, J.A.; Doctor, P.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Glantz, C.S.; Daling, P.M.; Sever, L.E.; Vargo, G.J. Jr.; Strachan, D.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Pajunen, A.L.; Hoyt, R.C.; Ludowise, J.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-06-01

325

Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Stage 3. Finding of no significant impact, operable Unit B. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis - environmental assessment and removal action. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of the Air Force has prepared an Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis and assessment of environmental impact to respond to contaminated ground water in Operable Unit (OU) B at McClellan AFB, California. Proposed action involves: (1) installation of extraction wells; (2) extraction of contaminated ground water; (3) treatment of extracted groundwater; and (4) release of the treated groundwater. Additional ground water monitoring, abandonment of a contaminated production well, continued extraction from a production well, and restriction on the use of a third production well are also proposed as integral parts of the restoration and water reclamation activity. This action only covers short-term measures to reduce the potential for increased health risks from the migration of higher concentrations of contaminants to on- and off-base water supply wells.

Not Available

1991-04-01

326

78 FR 2685 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; East Hobble Creek Restoration Project Draft Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project Completion Act; East Hobble Creek Restoration Project Draft Environmental Assessment...assessment for the East Hobble Creek Restoration Project is available for public review...environmental effects of a proposed restoration effort on a portion of Lower...

2013-01-14

327

FY 1985 status report on feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses progress made during the first year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. The expected corrosion and oxidation performances of oxygen-free copper, aluminum bronze, and 70% copper-30% nickel

McCright

1985-01-01

328

Feasibility of a longitudinal study of women anticipating first pregnancy and assessed by multiple pelvic exams: Recruitment and retention challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo better understand the relationship between childbirth and pelvic floor disorders the ideal study design would begin with data collection prior to but close in time to first pregnancy and follow participants through postpartum. We conducted a feasibility study to determine the following: a) whether women desiring to get pregnant would agree to pre-pregnancy data collection including a one-time urethral

Ruth Zielinski; Kelly Ackerson; Ruta B. Misiunas; Janis M. Miller

2010-01-01

329

Stream habitat assessment project: Afognak Island. Restoration study number 47. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

The Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Habitat and Restoration Division, conducted surveys of anadromous fish streams on Afognak Island from July 6 to September 1, 1992. These surveys focused on Afognak Native Corporation and Afognak Joint Venture lands in order to document anadromous fish distribution and habitat on private lands throughout the spill area. 167 new anadromous fish streams were documented totalling approximately 56 km (35 miles). Dolly Varden and coho salmon were the principal fish species found, followed by pink salmon, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, rainbow trout, stickleback and sculpin. The study additionally found 34 streams that have a high potential for rehabilitation.

Kuwada, M.N.; Sundet, K.

1993-02-01

330

Final Environmental Assessment: Recirculation of Recaptured Water Year 2013-2017 San Joaquin River Restoration Program Flows.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act, the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) is preparing this Final Environmental Assessment for the Recirculation of Recaptured Water Year 2013-2017 (Final WY 2013-2017 Recirculat...

2013-01-01

331

Feasibility of Assessing the Prevalence of Rickets. Inclusive Dates: 05/01/06 - 10/31/08.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report is to assess the compliance with recommendations for supplemental vitamin D for breastfed infants among parents and pediatricians participating in a regional practice-based research network, and to assess the utility of alkaline ...

J. A. Taylor

2008-01-01

332

Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Evaluation of selected feasibility studies of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) hazardous waste sites  

SciTech Connect

Congress and the public have mandated much closer scrutiny of the management of chemically hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes. Legislative language, regulatory intent, and prudent technical judgment, call for using scientifically based studies to assess current conditions and to evaluate and select costeffective strategies for mitigating unacceptable situations. The NCP requires that a Remedial Investigation (RI) and a Feasibility Study (FS) be conducted at each site targeted for remedial response action. The goal of the RI is to obtain the site data needed so that the potential impacts on public health or welfare or on the environment can be evaluated and so that the remedial alternatives can be identified and selected. The goal of the FS is to identify and evaluate alternative remedial actions (including a no-action alternative) in terms of their cost, effectiveness, and engineering feasibility. The NCP also requires the analysis of impacts on public health and welfare and on the environment; this analysis is the endangerment assessment (EA). In summary, the RI, EA, and FS processes require assessment of the contamination at a site, of the potential impacts in public health or the environment from that contamination, and of alternative RAs that could address potential impacts to the environment. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Whelan, G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Hartz, K.E.; Hilliard, N.D. (Beck (R.W.) and Associates, Seattle, WA (USA))

1990-04-01

333

Assessment of Myocardial Contractile Function Using Global and Segmental Circumferential Strain following Intracoronary Stem Cell Infusion after Myocardial Infarction: MRI Feature Tracking Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strain analysis is a sensitive method to assess myocardial function. Our objective was to define the feasibility of MRI circumferential strain (?cc) analysis in assessing subtle changes in myocardial function following stem cell therapy. Methods and Results. Patients in the Amorcyte Phase I trial were randomly assigned to treatment with either autologous bone-marrow-derived stem cells infused into the infarct-related artery 5 to 11 days following primary PCI or control. MRI studies were obtained at baseline, 3, and 6 months. ?cc was measured in the short axis views at the base, mid and apical slices of the left ventricle (LV) for each patient (13 treatments and 10 controls). Mid-anterior LV ?cc improved between baseline ?18.5 ± 8.6 and 3 months ?22.6 ± 7.0, P = 0.03. There were no significant changes in ?cc at 3 months and 6 months compared to baseline for other segments. There was excellent intraobserver and interobserver agreement for basal and mid circumferential strain. Conclusion. MRI segmental strain analysis is feasible in assessment of regional myocardial function following cell therapy with excellent intra- and inter-observer variability's. Using this method, a modest interval change in segmental ?cc was detected in treatment group.

Bhatti, Sabha; Al-Khalidi, Hussein; Hor, Kan; Hakeem, Abdul; Taylor, Michael; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Oshinski, John; Pecora, Andrew L.; Kereiakes, Dean; Chung, Eugene; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Miszalski-Jamka, Tomasz; Mazur, Wojciech

2013-01-01

334

Integrating Multi-criteria Analysis and GIS for Land Condition Assessment: Part I - Evaluation and Restoration of Military Training Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes multiple criteria models that can be used to assess land condition in general, and military training areas in particular. Three measures of land condition are used, namely: 1) erosion status, which is estimated based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), 2) percent vegetative cover, and 3) range condition. In addition, the paper also describes site-specific

Guillermo A. Mendoza; Alan B. Anderson; George Z. Gertner

2002-01-01

335

Use of compost to restore a contaminated site in Southern Italy: preliminary study to assess compost efficiency in remediating a heavily polluted soil in Taranto city.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil pollution is one of the most soil relevant threats recognized in the world. Contamination affects soil quality and soil capacity to react against several land degradation processes (erosion, organic depletion, desertification, etc.). The identification of opportune strategies to hinder pollution is a fundamental requirement to restore soil quality. In particular, large attentions have got the techniques, which promote the decontamination, and at the same time, improve fertility allowing a new use of a soil restored. In this work we present a preliminary study to assess the use of compost (an organic fertilizer produced through a process of transformation and controlled stabilization of selected organic waste at the source) in remediating a heavily polluted soil in southern Italy. The study site is located in Taranto city (Apulia Region) and is contaminated predominantly by heavy metals and lightly by organic toxic compounds such us polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). An exhaustive chemical characterization has been carried out on soil samples and then, a treatment with compost was applied on the study site. Successively, two data acquisition campaigns have been realized (after 4 and 7 months by compost treatment, respectively). Soil chemical analyses of texture, electrical conductivity, pH, organic carbon content, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, carbonate and water content have been carried out to investigate soil properties. In the polluted site chemical analyses of characterization showed low content of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and high level of carbonate. Heavy metals screenings, carried out through ICP-MS equipment, evidenced a massive contamination by Be, Se, Sn, Pb, Cr, Zn, while GC-MS investigations revealed a lower pollution by PCBs. The results of the monitoring campaigns showed a consistent reduction of the heavy metals concentrations: a higher decrease is observed after 7 months by compost treatment. At the same time, a considerable increase of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus is also registered. The overall results suggest that the use of compost contributed to improve soil physico-chemical properties and promote a relevant decrease of pollution suggesting that a process of soil quality restoration is performing.

Ancona, Valeria; Campanale, Claudia; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Vito Felice, Uricchio; Simona, Regano

2014-05-01

336

Assessing occupational and domestic ELF magnetic field exposure in the uk adult brain tumour study: results of a feasibility study.  

PubMed

The feasibility of measuring exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) in the UK Adult Brain Tumour Study (UKABTS) was examined. During the study, 81 individuals and 30 companies were approached with 79 individuals and 25 companies agreeing to participate. Exposure data were collected using EMDEX II dosemeters worn by the participants for 3-4 consecutive days. Data were collected over a total of 321 d, including non-occupational periods. The results showed occupational exposure to be the main determinant of overall exposure. Moderate to strong correlations were found between arithmetic mean exposure and all other metrics with the possible exception of maximum exposure. Significant differences in exposure were found between job categories with large variability in certain categories. Highest average exposures were found for security officers (arithmetic mean, AM: 0.78 micro T), secretaries (AM: 0.48 micro T) and dentists (AM: 0.42 micro T). Welding and working near high-voltage power lines were associated with elevated exposure. In summary, acceptably precise measures of ELF MF exposure are feasible at relatively moderate cost. The results were used to develop a protocol for data collection from subjects in the UKABTS. PMID:15031444

van Tongeren, Martie; Mee, Terry; Whatmough, Pamela; Broad, Lisa; Maslanyj, Myron; Allen, Stuart; Muir, Ken; McKinney, Patricia

2004-01-01

337

Probabilistic assessment of cloud fraction using Bayesian blending of independent datasets: Feasibility study of a new method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

describe and evaluate a novel method to blend two observed cloud fraction (CF) datasets through Bayesian posterior estimation. The research reported here is a feasibility study designed to explore the method. In this proof-of-concept study, we illustrate the approach using specific observational datasets from the U. S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Southern Great Plains site in the central United States, but the method is quite general and is readily applicable to other datasets. The total sky image (TSI) camera observations are used to determine the prior distribution. A regression model and the active remote sensing of clouds (ARSCL) radar/lidar observations are used to determine the likelihood function. The posterior estimate is a probability density function (pdf) of the CF whose mean is taken to be the optimal blend of the two observations. The data at hourly, daily, 5-day, monthly, and annual time scales are considered. Some physical and probabilistic properties of the CFs are explored from radar/lidar, camera, and satellite observations and from simulations using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5). Our results imply that (a) the Beta distribution is a reasonable model for CF for both short- and long-time means, the 5-day data are skewed right, and the annual data are almost normally distributed, and (b) the Bayesian method developed successfully yields a pdf of CF, rather than a deterministic CF value, and it is feasible to blend the TSI and ARSCL data with a capability for bias correction.

Shen, Samuel S. P.; Velado, Max; Somerville, Richard C. J.; Kooperman, Gabriel J.

2013-05-01

338

FY 1985 status report on feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses progress made during the first year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. The expected corrosion and oxidation performances of oxygen-free copper, aluminum bronze, and 70% copper-30% nickel are presented; a test plan for determining whether copper or one of the alloys can meet the containment requirements is outlined. Some preliminary corrosion test data are presented and discussed. Fabrication and joining techniques for forming waste package containers are descibed. Preliminary test data and analyses indicate that copper and copper-base alloys have several attractive features as waste package container materials, but additional work is needed before definitive conclusions can be made on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy for containers. Plans for work to be undertaken in the second year are indicated.

McCright, R.D.

1985-09-30

339

Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis of Tidal Wetland Restoration in Snohomish River, Washington  

SciTech Connect

To re-establish the intertidal wetlands with full tidal interaction and improve salmonid rearing habitat in the Lower Snohomish River estuary, a diked wetland along Union Slough of the Snohomish River was restored by breaching the existing dike and constructing bridges across the breaches. However, post-restoration monitoring indicated that the restored project site could not drain as efficiently as desired. To improve the drainage conditions at the restoration site during low tides, a modeling study was conducted to evaluate additional restoration scenarios and to provide recommendations for finish-grade ground elevations to achieve the desired drainage. To accurately simulate the drainage of the project site, an unstructured-grid hydrodynamic model with fine-grid resolution down to a few meters was used in this study. The model was first validated with observed water level data collected in the project site and then applied to assess the feasibility of different proposed restoration scenarios. A spatial varying bottom roughness option in the model is also implemented to better represent the high roughness due to the presence of dense vegetation in the project site. The methodology, error statistics of model validation and uncertainty of the modeling analysis are presented and discussed.

Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

2012-03-07

340

Feasibility Study of an Express Assessment Protocol for the Indoor Air Quality of Air-conditioned Offices  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is costly to sample all major toxic pollutants in community air. Sampling should be conducted based on an assessment strategy and monitoring planning. Assessment methods that rely on monitoring some representative pollutants have been proposed variously at different times. In Hong Kong, the Environmental Protection Department (HKEPD) launched an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) certification scheme to grade the IAQ

P. S. Hui; L. T. Wong; K. W. Mui

2006-01-01

341

Basic research for environmental restoration  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-01

342

JV Task 109 - Risk Assessment and Feasibility of Remedial Alternatives for Coal Seam at Garrison, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted an evaluation of alternative technologies for remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated coal seam, including impacted soils and groundwater in Garrison, North Dakota. Geotechnical characteristics of the impacted fractured coal seam provide for rapid off-site contaminant transport, with the currently identified impacted zone covering an area of about 40 acres. Regardless of the exposure mechanism (free, dissolved, or vapor phase), results of laboratory tests confirmed secondary release of gasoline-based compounds from contaminated coal to water reaching concentrations documented from the impacted areas. Coal laboratory tests confirmed low risks associated with spontaneous ignition of gasoline-contaminated coal. High contaminant recovery efficiency for the vacuum-enhanced recovery pilot tests conducted at three selected locations confirmed its feasibility for full-scale remediation. A total of 3500 gallons (13.3 m{sup 3}) of contaminated groundwater and over 430,000 ft{sup 3} (12,200 m{sup 3}) of soil vapor were extracted during vacuum-enhanced recovery testing conducted July 17-24, 2007, resulting in the removal of about 1330 lb (603 kg) of hydrocarbons, an equivalent of about 213 gallons of product. The summary of project activities is as follows: (1) Groundwater and vapor monitoring for existing wells, including domestic wells, conducted on a monthly basis from December 12, 2006, to June 6, 2007. This monitoring activity conducted prior to initiation of the EERC field investigation was requested by NDDH in a letter dated December 1, 2006. (2) Drilling of 20 soil borings, including installation of extraction and monitoring wells conducted April 30-May 4 and May 14-18, 2007. (3) Groundwater sampling and water-table monitoring conducted June 11-13, 2007. (4) Evaluation of the feasibility of using a camera survey for delineation of mining voids conducted May 16 and September 10-11, 2007. (5) Survey of all wells at the site. (6) Laboratory testing of the coal samples conducted from August to October 2007. (7) Vacuum-enhanced pilot tests at three locations: Cenex corner, Tesoro corner, and cavity area, conducted July 17-24, 2007. (8) Verification of plume delineation for a full-scale design and installation of six monitoring wells September 10-13, 2007. (9) Groundwater sampling and monitoring conducted September 11-12, September 26, and October 3, 2007. (10) Feasibility evaluation of alternative technologies/strategies for the subject site.

Jarda Solc

2008-01-01

343

A feasibility assessment of installation, operation and disposal options for nuclear reactor power system concepts for a NASA growth space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth space station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational disposition, and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of space station - attached concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide the feasibility of each combination.

Bloomfield, Harvey S.; Heller, Jack A.

1987-01-01

344

Feasibility assessment of coal-integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power technology for India. Final report. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The document is the final report of a feasibility study conducted by Fluor Daniel for the Petroleum Authority of India. The purpose of the study was to determine the high priority projects for gas pipeline expansion. The high priority projects identified as a result of the study are: a new pipeline from the Erawan Complex to Khanow; a new pipeline from the 'B' structure to the Erawon Complex; and the modernization of the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)/Telecommunications system. The document discusses the economic and technical feasbility of each of these projects. In addition, other topics, such as current and projected gas supply, projected gas demand and sources of additional gas, are discussed.

Not Available

1991-06-01

345

A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from grown and waste organics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anticipated depletion of our resources of natural gas and petroleum in a few decades has caused a search for renewable sources of fuel. Among the possibilities is the chemical conversion of waste and grown organic matter into gaseous or liquid fuels. The overall feasibility of such a system is considered from the technical, economic, and social viewpoints. Although there are a number of difficult problems to overcome, this preliminary study indicates that this option could provide between 4 and 10 percent of the U.S. energy needs. Estimated costs of fuels derived from grown organic material are appreciably higher than today's market price for fossil fuel. The cost of fuel derived from waste organics is competitive with fossil fuel prices. Economic and social reasons will prohibit the allocation of good food producing land to fuel crop production.

Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y. Y.

1976-01-01

346

Assessment of Fine Needle Aspiration Feasibility and Specimen Adequacy for Molecular Diagnostics of Benign Vocal Fold Lesions  

PubMed Central

Objectives/Hypothesis The use of molecular testing is becoming more significant for the diagnosis and classification of disease. The application of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy as the means of sampling lesions in union with molecular testing could be a powerful combination in laryngology. The objectives of this study were to investigate 1) if FNA was feasible to sample benign vocal fold lesions; 2) if FNA samples provided sufficient RNA quality for molecular analysis; and 3) if gene expression of FNA samples matched paired surgical excised specimens. Study Design Prospective cross-sectional. Methods Fifteen vocal fold specimens were obtained from adult patients undergoing routine surgical removal for benign vocal fold lesions using FNA and surgical excision. Comparisons were made between FNA and excision biopsies for RNA quality. Correlative analysis was completed for RNA expression of nine genes, including decorin (DCN), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), collagen type VI alpha 3 (COL6A3), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), glutathione S-transferase (GST2), collagen type I alpha 2 (COL1A2), ATP binding cassette (ABC), and procollagen I alpha 1 (COL1A1). Results FNA and excision samples demonstrated similar RNA quality (P > 0.05). Per gene expression, four out of nine genes were moderately correlated between the paired samples (P < 0.05). Conclusions FNA of the vocal fold lamina propria is technically feasible to perform. Further improvement in the FNA technology is desirable to optimize RNA quality for reliable gene expression analysis.

Li, Nicole Y. K.; Dailey, Seth; Thibeault, Susan L.

2014-01-01

347

RAMP (Rebuilding Agricultural Markets) in Afghanistan Program: Preliminary Feasibility Assessment for Exporting Produce from Afghanistan to United Arab Emirates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this report is to assess the potential of establishing reliable market contacts between Afghan produce exporters and possible buyers in Dubai and other cities in United Arab Emirates (UAE). It became apparent to the Rebuilding Agriculture...

2004-01-01

348

Application of Markov-chain model for vegetation restoration assessment at landslide areas caused by a catastrophic earthquake in Central Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 921 earthquake caused a catastrophic disaster in Central Taiwan. Ten years have passed since the earthquake occurred. Vegetation succession is the basis for establishing a restoration reference which plays an important role in vegetation restoration at landslide sites. Generally, growth conditions for grass are easier and the growth rate is faster than that for trees. Therefore, grass can be

Chin-Wei Chuang; Chao-Yuan Lin; Chang-Hai Chien; Wen-Chieh Chou

2011-01-01

349

Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the Colonie site, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

This work plan has been prepared to document the scoping and planning process performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support remedial action activities at the Colonie site. The site is located in eastern New York State in the town of Colonie near the city of Albany. Remedial action of the Colonie site is being planned as part of DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The DOE is responsible for controlling the release of all radioactive and chemical contaminants from the site. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) must be prepared to support the decision-making process for evaluating remedial action alternatives. This work plan contains a summary of information known about the site as of January 1988, presents a conceptual site model that identifies potential routes of human exposure to site containments, identifies data gaps, and summarizes the process and proposed studies that will be used to fill the data gaps. In addition, DOE activities must be conducted in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires consideration of the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of its decision-making process. This work also describes the approach that will be used to evaluate potential remedial action alternatives and includes a description of the organization, project controls, and task schedules that will be employed to fulfill the requirements of both CERCLA and NEPA. 48 refs., 18 figs., 25 tabs.

Not Available

1990-06-01

350

Feasibility Evaluation Model for Toll Highways.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development of a Feasibility Evaluation Model for Toll Highways (FEMTH). FEMTH is a financial feasibility and risk analysis computer model developed to assess the degree of financial risk associated with a toll highway project in...

B. F. McCullough R. L. Tucker R. M. A. Sanchez

2005-01-01

351

Feasibility study on the solidification of liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

A literature survey was conducted to help determine the feasibility of solidifying a liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this report is to facilitate a decision on the disposition of these wastes by identifying any waste constituents that might (1) compromise the strength or stability of the waste form or (2) be highly leachable. Furthermore, its goal is to identify ways to circumvent interferences and to decrease the leachability of the waste constituents. This study has sought to provide an understanding of inhibition of cement set by identifying the fundamental chemical mechanisms by which this inhibition takes place. From this fundamental information, it is possible to draw some conclusions about the potential effects of waste constituents, even in the absence of particular studies on specific compounds.

Trussell, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Spence, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-01-01

352

Assessing the Accuracy and Feasibility of a Refractive Error Screening Program Conducted by School Teachers in Pre-Primary and Primary Schools in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Introduction As part of the development of a system for the screening of refractive error in Thai children, this study describes the accuracy and feasibility of establishing a program conducted by teachers. Objective To assess the accuracy and feasibility of screening by teachers. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted in 17 schools in four provinces representing four geographic regions in Thailand. A two-staged cluster sampling was employed to compare the detection rate of refractive error among eligible students between trained teachers and health professionals. Serial focus group discussions were held for teachers and parents in order to understand their attitude towards refractive error screening at schools and the potential success factors and barriers. Results The detection rate of refractive error screening by teachers among pre-primary school children is relatively low (21%) for mild visual impairment but higher for moderate visual impairment (44%). The detection rate for primary school children is high for both levels of visual impairment (52% for mild and 74% for moderate). The focus group discussions reveal that both teachers and parents would benefit from further education regarding refractive errors and that the vast majority of teachers are willing to conduct a school-based screening program. Conclusion Refractive error screening by health professionals in pre-primary and primary school children is not currently implemented in Thailand due to resource limitations. However, evidence suggests that a refractive error screening program conducted in schools by teachers in the country is reasonable and feasible because the detection and treatment of refractive error in very young generations is important and the screening program can be implemented and conducted with relatively low costs.

Teerawattananon, Kanlaya; Myint, Chaw-Yin; Wongkittirux, Kwanjai; Teerawattananon, Yot; Chinkulkitnivat, Bunyong; Orprayoon, Surapong; Kusakul, Suwat; Tengtrisorn, Supaporn; Jenchitr, Watanee

2014-01-01

353

Assessment of radiopacity of restorative composite resins with various target distances and exposure times and a modified aluminum step wedge  

PubMed Central

Purpose ANSI/ADA has established standards for adequate radiopacity. This study was aimed to assess the changes in radiopacity of composite resins according to various tube-target distances and exposure times. Materials and Methods Five 1-mm thick samples of Filtek P60 and Clearfil composite resins were prepared and exposed with six tube-target distance/exposure time setups (i.e., 40 cm, 0.2 seconds; 30 cm, 0.2 seconds; 30 cm, 0.16 seconds, 30 cm, 0.12 seconds; 15 cm, 0.2 seconds; 15 cm, 0.12 seconds) performing at 70 kVp and 7 mA along with a 12-step aluminum stepwedge (1 mm incremental steps) using a PSP digital sensor. Thereafter, the radiopacities measured with Digora for Windows software 2.5 were converted to absorbencies (i.e., A=-log (1-G/255)), where A is the absorbency and G is the measured gray scale). Furthermore, the linear regression model of aluminum thickness and absorbency was developed and used to convert the radiopacity of dental materials to the equivalent aluminum thickness. In addition, all calculations were compared with those obtained from a modified 3-step stepwedge (i.e., using data for the 2nd, 5th, and 8th steps). Results The radiopacities of the composite resins differed significantly with various setups (p<0.001) and between the materials (p<0.001). The best predicted model was obtained for the 30 cm 0.2 seconds setup (R2=0.999). Data from the reduced modified stepwedge was remarkable and comparable with the 12-step stepwedge. Conclusion Within the limits of the present study, our findings support that various setups might influence the radiopacity of dental materials on digital radiographs.

Poorsattar Bejeh Mir, Morvarid

2012-01-01

354

Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Project. The project proposes to continue to carry out harvest monitoring and stock status updates coordinated with fisheries management planning, annual young-of-the year recruitment indexing, research, experimental artificial propagation, and transport of white sturgeon to less densely populated areas of the river(s). Additionally, release of hatchery-reared juveniles is proposed to evaluate release strategies. Actions will take place in the following Columbia River mainstem reaches: Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Reservoirs; Hanford Reach, as well as the Wanapum and Rock Island Reservoirs; and the following Snake River mainstem reaches: Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental and Little Goose Reservoirs. Spawning and rearing are undertaken at established hatcheries at McNary Dam and also the Abernathy Fish Technology Center. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1367, April 2003) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

N /A

2003-04-23

355

Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was initially chartered on October 1, 1989, as a ``entral Environmental Restoration Division`` to manage the investigation and remediation of inactive sites and facilities that have been declared surplus and have no further programmatic use. The Energy Systems ER Division was established to support the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) consolidated ER Program. The DOE-OR Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management provides program and budget direction to the Energy Systems ER Program for environmental restoration activities at the sites operated by Energy Systems (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant) and at the off-site locations. The Energy Systems ER Division is specifically charged with assessing these sites for potential contamination and managing the cleanup processes. The Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division was chartered on October 1, 1989, as a central organization to manage the Remedial Action (RA) Program. The purpose of this document is to ensure that: senior ER management provides planning, organization, direction, control, and support to achieve the organization`s objectives; the line organization achieves quality; and overall performance is reviewed and evaluated using a rigorous assessment process.

Colley, J.S.

1992-08-01

356

POSTERIOR COMPOSITE RESTORATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The increasing demand of esthetics and the progressive advances in restorative dentistry leads the utilization of restoration of the posterior teeth by esthetic restorative materials. The major problem that the clinicians face when restoring posterior teeth by resin composites is the polimerization contraction and the subsequent formation of microleakage. The studies of reducing these polimerization contraction involves both the

Serdar ARIKAN

357

Establishing the Feasibility of Direct Observation in the Assessment of Tics in Children with Chronic Tic Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavior analysis has been at the forefront in establishing effective treatments for children and adults with chronic tic disorders. As is customary in behavior analysis, the efficacy of these treatments has been established using direct-observation assessment methods. Although behavior-analytic treatments have enjoyed acceptance and integration…

Himle, Michael B.; Chang, Susanna; Woods, Douglas W.; Pearlman, Amanda; Buzzella, Brian; Bunaciu, Liviu; Piacentini, John C.

2006-01-01

358

Cultural Tailoring and Feasibility Assessment of a Sexual Health Middle School Curriculum: A Pilot Test in Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To assess the need for cultural tailoring of an effective sexual health middle school curriculum, "It's Your Game: Keep It Real" (IYG), prior to implementation in Puerto Rican (PR) middle schools. Methods: Seventy-three seventh-grade bilingual students participated in IYG curriculum activities (both group-based and computer-based) in…

Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Shegog, Ross; Moscoso-Alvarez, Margarita R.; Markham, Christine; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Peskin, Melissa; Tortolero, Susan

2011-01-01

359

Using Digital and Paper Diaries for Learning and Assessment Purposes in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Feasibility and Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The incorporation of diaries and journals as learning and assessment vehicles into programmes of study within higher education has enabled the further growth of reflection, creative writing, critical thinking and meta-cognitive processes of students' learning. However, there is currently little research that aims to compare how different types of…

Gleaves, Alan; Walker, Caroline; Grey, John

2007-01-01

360

Today's Teenagers: A Needs Assessment and Feasibility Study of Programs and Services for Palo Alto Area Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted for the Palo Alto Adolescent Services (PAASC) and other social service agencies serving the adolescent population in North Santa Clara County, California, this report is designed to assess the adequacy of existing services and resources within these communities. The identified areas of need address the following concerns: housing,…

Nungesser, Lonnie G.; Gallatin, Linda

361

Automated Pilot Performance Assessment in the T-37: A Feasibility Study. Final Report (May 1968-April 1971).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Air Force investigators conducted a three year program to develop a capability for automated quantification and assessment of in-flight pilot performance. Such a capability enhances pilot training by making ratings more objective, valid, reliable and sensitive, and by freeing instructors from rating responsibilities, allowing them to concentrate…

Knoop, Patricia A.; Welde, William L.

362

Diffusion-weighted MR imaging for assessing synovitis of wrist and hand in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A feasibility study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in detecting synovitis of wrist and hand in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and evaluate its sensitivity, specificity and accuracy as compared to T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) with short tau inversion recovery (STIR) with the reference standard contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI). Twenty-five patients with RA underwent MR examinations including DWI, T2WI with STIR and CE-MRI. MR images were reviewed for the presence and location of synovitis of wrist and hand. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of DWI and T2WI with STIR were calculated respectively and then compared. All patients included in this study completed MR examinations and yielded diagnostic image quality of DWI. For individual joint, there was good to excellent inter-observer agreement (k=0.62-0.83) using DWI images, T2WI with STIR images and CE-MR images, respectively. There was a significance between DWI and T2WI with STIR in analyzing proximal interphalangeal joints II-V, respectively (P<0.05). The k-values for the detection of synovitis indicated excellent overall inter-observer agreements using DWI images (k=0.86), T2WI with STIR images (k=0.85) and CE-MR images (k=0.91), respectively. Overall, DWI demonstrated a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 75.6%, 89.3% and 84.6%, respectively, for detection of synovitis, while 43.0%, 95.7% and 77.6% for T2WI with STIR, respectively. DWI showed positive lesions much better and more than T2WI with STIR. Our results indicate that DWI presents a novel non-invasive approach to contrast-free imaging of synovitis. It may play a role as an addition to standard protocols. PMID:24512797

Li, Xubin; Liu, Xia; Du, Xiangke; Ye, Zhaoxiang

2014-05-01

363

Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was initially chartered on October 1, 1989, as a entral Environmental Restoration Division'' to manage the investigation and remediation of inactive sites and facilities that have been declared surplus and have no further programmatic use. The Energy Systems ER Division was established to support the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) consolidated ER Program. The DOE-OR Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management provides program and budget direction to the Energy Systems ER Program for environmental restoration activities at the sites operated by Energy Systems (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant) and at the off-site locations. The Energy Systems ER Division is specifically charged with assessing these sites for potential contamination and managing the cleanup processes. The Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division was chartered on October 1, 1989, as a central organization to manage the Remedial Action (RA) Program. The purpose of this document is to ensure that: senior ER management provides planning, organization, direction, control, and support to achieve the organization's objectives; the line organization achieves quality; and overall performance is reviewed and evaluated using a rigorous assessment process.

Colley, J.S.

1992-08-01

364

The Girlfriends Project: Results of a pilot study assessing feasibility of an HIV testing and risk reduction intervention developed, implemented, and evaluated in community settings.  

PubMed

African American women in the United States experience significant HIV health disparities. The majority of evidence-based risk reduction interventions do not incorporate HIV testing, and most are targeted only to narrow segments of the population such as women who are pregnant or seen in STI clinics. This pilot study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of The Girlfriends Project (TGP), a community developed and community evaluated HIV risk reduction and testing intervention. A group randomized wait-list design was used to recruit 149 women and to compare findings for intervention group versus control group participants. Women in the intervention group demonstrated statistically-significant increases in HIV knowledge scores and in condom use during vaginal sex. Eighty-seven percent of participants accessed HIV testing with a 100% return rate for results. Study findings suggest that TGP has the potential to be an effective intervention and to increase number of African American women who access HIV testing. PMID:24245598

Hawk, Mary

2013-12-01

365

One year survival of ART and conventional restorations in patients with disability  

PubMed Central

Background Providing restorative treatment for persons with disability may be challenging and has been related to the patient’s ability to cope with the anxiety engendered by treatment and to cooperate fully with the demands of the clinical situation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival rate of ART restorations compared to conventional restorations in people with disability referred for special care dentistry. Methods Three treatment protocols were distinguished: ART (hand instruments/high-viscosity glass-ionomer); conventional restorative treatment (rotary instrumentation/resin composite) in the clinic (CRT/clinic) and under general anaesthesia (CRT/GA). Patients were referred for restorative care to a special care centre and treated by one of two specialists. Patients and/or their caregivers were provided with written and verbal information regarding the proposed techniques, and selected the type of treatment they were to receive. Treatment was provided as selected but if this option proved clinically unfeasible one of the alternative techniques was subsequently proposed. Evaluation of restoration survival was performed by two independent trained and calibrated examiners using established ART restoration assessment codes at 6 months and 12 months. The Proportional Hazard model with frailty corrections was applied to calculate survival estimates over a one year period. Results 66 patients (13.6?±?7.8 years) with 16 different medical disorders participated. CRT/clinic proved feasible for 5 patients (7.5%), the ART approach for 47 patients (71.2%), and 14 patients received CRT/GA (21.2%). In all, 298 dentine carious lesions were restored in primary and permanent teeth, 182 (ART), 21 (CRT/clinic) and 95 (CRT/GA). The 1-year survival rates and jackknife standard error of ART and CRT restorations were 97.8?±?1.0% and 90.5?±?3.2%, respectively (p?=?0.01). Conclusions These short-term results indicate that ART appears to be an effective treatment protocol for treating patients with disability restoratively, many of whom have difficulty coping with the conventional restorative treatment. Trial registration number Netherlands Trial Registration: NTR 4400

2014-01-01

366

Restorative Effects of Natural Environment Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of different theoretical models of restorative experience was explored in a quasi-experimental field study and a true experiment. The former included wilderness backpacking and nonwilderness vacation conditions, as well as a control condition in which participants continued with their daily routines. The latter had urban environment, natural environment, and passive relaxation conditions. Multimethod assessments of restoration consisted of

Terry Hartig; Marlis Mang; Gary W. Evans

1991-01-01

367

Assessment of Treatment Response by Total Tumor Volume and Global Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Using Diffusion-Weighted MRI in Patients with Metastatic Bone Disease: A Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

We describe our semi-automatic segmentation of whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI (WBDWI) using a Markov random field (MRF) model to derive tumor total diffusion volume (tDV) and associated global apparent diffusion coefficient (gADC); and demonstrate the feasibility of using these indices for assessing tumor burden and response to treatment in patients with bone metastases. WBDWI was performed on eleven patients diagnosed with bone metastases from breast and prostate cancers before and after anti-cancer therapies. Semi-automatic segmentation incorporating a MRF model was performed in all patients below the C4 vertebra by an experienced radiologist with over eight years of clinical experience in body DWI. Changes in tDV and gADC distributions were compared with overall response determined by all imaging, tumor markers and clinical findings at serial follow up. The segmentation technique was possible in all patients although erroneous volumes of interest were generated in one patient because of poor fat suppression in the pelvis, requiring manual correction. Responding patients showed a larger increase in gADC (median change?=?+0.18, range?=??0.07 to +0.78×10?3 mm2/s) after treatment compared to non-responding patients (median change?=??0.02, range?=??0.10 to +0.05×10?3 mm2/s, p?=?0.05, Mann-Whitney test), whereas non-responding patients showed a significantly larger increase in tDV (median change?=?+26%, range?=?+3 to +284%) compared to responding patients (median change?=??50%, range?=??85 to +27%, p?=?0.02, Mann-Whitney test). Semi-automatic segmentation of WBDWI is feasible for metastatic bone disease in this pilot cohort of 11 patients, and could be used to quantify tumor total diffusion volume and median global ADC for assessing response to treatment.

Blackledge, Matthew D.; Collins, David J.; Tunariu, Nina; Orton, Matthew R.; Padhani, Anwar R.; Leach, Martin O.; Koh, Dow-Mu

2014-01-01

368

Feasibility of a New Image Processing (4D Auto LVQ) to Assessing Right Ventricular Function in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.  

PubMed

Abstract A new single-beat three-dimensional (3D) real time echocardiographic semi-automatic images processing (4D Auto LVQ) allows accurate assessment of left ventricular function, but whether it is suitable for the evaluation of right ventricular function remains unknown. To evaluate the feasibility of this procedure for assessing right ventricular volumes and function, right ventricular end-diastolic volumes (RVEDV), end-systolic volumes (RVESV) and ejection fraction (RVEF), stroke volumes (SV) and cardiac output (CO) were computed in 49 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using 4D Auto LVQ. The myocardial performance index (MPI) was obtained by Doppler tissue imaging. The RV function parameters were compared with MPI by linear correlation analysis. A comparison of the performance of these RV function parameters in discrimination between MPI at a value of >0.45 or not was done. Compared with normal subjects, patients with COPD had significantly greater RVEDV, RVESV, MPI and significantly lower RVEF. Significant correlations were found between RVEF and MPI (r = -0.67, p < 0.001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for RVEF in discrimination between MPI at a value of >0.45 or not were 0.72, while they were 0.55 for SV and 0.57 for CO, respectively. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for RVEF analysis in predicting a >0.45 MPI in patients with COPD was 78.57%, 66.67% and 73.46%, respectively. These data suggest that 4D Auto LVQ is a feasible method for right ventricular volumes and function quantification in patients with COPD. Further studies are needed to improve the accuracy of the measurements. PMID:24102493

Zheng, Xiao-Zhi; Yang, Bin; Wu, Jing

2014-06-01

369

Assessing the Feasibility of Using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) for Assaying Plutonium in Spent Fuel Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA) is an active-interrogation nondestructive assay (NDA) technique capable of assaying spent nuclear fuel to determine plutonium content. Prior experimental work has definitively shown the technique capable of assaying plutonium isotope composition in spent-fuel pins to a precision of approximately 3%, with a spatial resolution of a few millimeters. As a Grand Challenge to investigate NDA options for assaying spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) in the commercial fuel cycle, Idaho National Laboratory has explored the feasibility of using NRTA to assay plutonium in a whole SFA. The goal is to achieve a Pu assay precision of 1%. The NRTA technique uses low-energy neutrons from 0.1-40 eV, at the bottom end of the actinide-resonance range, in a time-of-flight arrangement. Isotopic composition is determined by relating absorption of the incident neutrons to the macroscopic cross-section of the actinides of interest in the material, and then using this information to determine the areal density of the isotopes in the SFA. The neutrons used for NRTA are produced using a pulsed, accelerator-based neutron source. Distinguishable resonances exist for both the plutonium (239,240,241,242Pu) and uranium (235,236,238U) isotopes of interest in spent fuel. Additionally, in this energy range resonances exists for six important fission products (99Tc, 103Rh, 131Xe, 133Cs, 145Nd, and 152Sm) which provide additional information to support spent fuel plutonium assay determinations. Based on extensive modeling of the problem using Monte Carlo-based simulation codes, our preliminary results suggest that by rotating an SFA to acquire four symmetric views, sufficient neutron transmission can be achieved to assay a SFA. In this approach multiple scan information for the same pins may also be unfolded to potentially allow the determination of plutonium for sub-regions of the assembly. For a 17 ? 17 pressurized water reactor SFA, a simplistic preliminary analysis indicates the mass of 239Pu may be determined with a precision on the order of 5%, without the need for operator-supplied fuel information or operational histories. This paper will present our work to date on this topic, indicate our preliminary findings for a conceptual assay approach, discuss resilience against spoofing, and outline our future plans for evaluating the NRTA technique for SFA plutonium determination.

D. L. Chichester; J. W. Sterbentz

2012-07-01

370

Monitoring Community Pharmacist's Quality of Care: A feasibility study of using pharmacy claims data to assess performance  

PubMed Central

Background Public pressure has increasingly emphasized the need to ensure the continuing quality of care provided by health professionals over their careers. Health profession's regulatory authorities, mandated to be publicly accountable for safe and effective care, are revising their quality assurance programs to focus on regular evaluations of practitioner performance. New methods for routine screening of performance are required and the use of administrative data for measuring performance on quality of care indicators has been suggested as one attractive option. Preliminary studies have shown that community pharmacy claims databases contain the information required to operationalize quality of care indicators. The purpose of this project was to determine the feasibility of routine use of information from these databases by regulatory authorities to screen the quality of care provided at community pharmacies. Methods Information from the Canadian province of Quebec's medication insurance program provided data on prescriptions dispensed in 2002 by more than 5000 pharmacists in 1799 community pharmacies. Pharmacy-specific performance rates were calculated on four quality of care indicators: two safety indicators (dispensing of contra-indicated benzodiazepines to seniors and dispensing of nonselective beta-blockers to patients with respiratory disease) and two effectiveness indicators (dispensing asthma or hypertension medications to non-compliant patients). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize performance. Results Reliable estimates of performance could be obtained for more than 90% of pharmacies. The average rate of dispensing was 4.3% (range 0 - 42.5%) for contra-indicated benzodiazepines, 15.2% (range 0 - 100%) for nonselective beta-blockers to respiratory patients, 10.7% (range 0 - 70%) for hypertension medications to noncompliant patients, and 43.3% (0 - 91.6%) for short-acting beta-agonists in over-use situations. There were modest correlations in performance across the four indicators. Nine pharmacies (0.5%) performed in the lowest quartile in all four of the indicators, and 5.3% (n = 95) performed in the lowest quartile on three of four indicators. Conclusions Routinely collected pharmacy claims data can be used to monitor indicators of the quality of care provided in community pharmacies, and may be useful in future to identify underperforming pharmacists, measure the impact of policy changes and determine predictors of best practices.

2011-01-01

371

Feasibility of Assessing the Community Composition of Prasinophytes at the Helgoland Roads Sampling Site with a DNA Microarray?  

PubMed Central

The microalgal class Prasinophyceae (Chlorophyta) contains several picoeukaryotic species, which are known to be common in temperate and cold waters and have been observed to constitute major fractions of marine picoplankton. However, reliable detection and classification of prasinophytes are mainly hampered by their small size and few morphological markers. Consequently, very little is known about the abundance and ecology of the members of this class. In order to facilitate the assessment of the abundance of the Prasinophyceae, we have designed and evaluated an 18S rRNA gene-targeted oligonucleotide microarray consisting of 21 probes targeting different taxonomic levels of prasinophytes. The microarray contains both previously published probes from other hybridization methods and new probes, which were designed for novel prasinophyte groups. The evaluation of the probe set was done under stringent conditions with 18S PCR fragments from 20 unialgal reference cultures used as positive targets. This microarray has been applied to assess the community composition of prasinophytes at Helgoland, an island in the North Sea where time series data are collected and analyzed daily but only for the nano- and microplankton-size fractions. There is no identification of prasinophytes other than to record them numerically in the flagellate fraction. The samples were collected every 2 weeks between February 2004 and December 2006. The study here demonstrates the potential of DNA microarrays to be applied as a tool for quick general monitoring of this important picoplanktonic algal group.

Gescher, Christine; Metfies, Katja; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Knefelkamp, Britta; Wiltshire, Karen H.; Medlin, Linda K.

2008-01-01

372

DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOLS AND DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS FOR ASSESSING WATERSHED SYSTEM ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY (SAC), IN SUPPORT OF RISK-BASED ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT/RESTORATION PRACTICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) has instituted a program for Risk Management Research for Ecosystem Restoration in Watersheds. This program is one component of the Office of Research and Development Ecosystem Protection Research Program. As part of this...

373

Landscape Restoration: Moving from Generalities to Methodologies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is a review of large-scale landscape restoration and reclamation methods. Large-scale, landscape-level restoration actions are widely implemented but receive little attention from academic ecologists. We review the methods used to assess the role of these processes in past studies, and suggest ways to use past and ongoing restoration activities to increase our understanding of large-scale processes and improve restoration projects. To make better use of past restoration, we recommend the use of a number of alternative analytical approaches that have become widely applied in conservation biology and wildlife management but have yet to be adopted in restoration ecology.

KAREN D. HOLL, ELIZABETH E. CRONE, and CHERYL B. SCHULTZ (;)

2003-05-01

374

Integrating environmental restoration and ecological restoration: long-term stewardship at the department of energy.  

PubMed

With the ending of the Cold War, several federal agencies are reclaiming land through remediation and restoration and are considering potential future land uses that are compatible with current uses and local needs. Some sites are sufficiently contaminated that it is likely that the responsible federal agency will retain control over the land for the foreseeable future, providing them with a stewardship mission. This is particularly true of some of the larger Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contaminated during the production of nuclear weapons. The use of the term "restoration" is explored in this paper because the word means different things to the public, ecologists, and environmental managers responsible for contaminated sites, such as Superfund sites and the DOE facilities. While environmental restoration usually refers to remediation and removal of hazardous wastes, ecological restoration refers to the broader process of repairing damaged ecosystems and enhancing their productivity and/or biodiversity. The goals of the two types of restoration can be melded by considering environmental restoration as a special case of ecological restoration, one that involves risk reduction from hazardous wastes, and by broadening environmental restoration to include a more extensive problem-formulation phase (both temporal and spatial), which includes the goal of reestablishing a functioning ecosystem after remediation. Further, evaluating options for the desired post remediation result will inform managers and policy-makers concerning the feasibility and efficacy of environmental restoration itself. PMID:10982725

Burger, J

2000-11-01

375

Integrating Environmental Restoration and Ecological Restoration: Long-Term Stewardship at the Department of Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the ending of the Cold War, several federal agencies are reclaiming land through remediation and restoration and are considering potential future land uses that are compatible with current uses and local needs. Some sites are sufficiently contaminated that it is likely that the responsible federal agency will retain control over the land for the foreseeable future, providing them with a stewardship mission. This is particularly true of some of the larger Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contaminated during the production of nuclear weapons. The use of the term "restoration" is explored in this paper because the word means different things to the public, ecologists, and environmental managers responsible for contaminated sites, such as Superfund sites and the DOE facilities. While environmental restoration usually refers to remediation and removal of hazardous wastes, ecological restoration refers to the broader process of repairing damaged ecosystems and enhancing their productivity and/or biodiversity. The goals of the two types of restoration can be melded by considering environmental restoration as a special case of ecological restoration, one that involves risk reduction from hazardous wastes, and by broadening environmental restoration to include a more extensive problem-formulation phase (both temporal and spatial), which includes the goal of reestablishing a functioning ecosystem after remediation. Further, evaluating options for the desired post remediation result will inform managers and policy-makers concerning the feasibility and efficacy of environmental restoration itself.

Burger, Joanna

2000-11-01

376

Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration and Other Ecosystem Services. Quarterly Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration pro...

J. A. Burger

2005-01-01

377

Technology needs for environmental restoration remedial action. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the current view of the most important technology needs for the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. These facilities are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The sources of information used in this assessment were a survey of selected representatives of the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at each facility, results from a questionnaire distributed by Geotech CWM, Inc., for DOE, and associated discussions with individuals from each facility. This is not a final assessment, but a brief look at an ongoing assessment; the needs will change as the plans for restoration change and, it is hoped, as some technical problems are solved through successful development programs.

Watson, J.S.

1992-11-01

378

Feasibility of Using Intravascular Ultrasonography for Assessment of Giant Cavernous Aneurysm after Endovascular Treatment: A Technical Report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) has been shown as a valuable adjunct imaging tool during endovascular procedures but its value in detection of any recurrence during follow up after endovascular coil embolization of large and giant intracranial aneurysms is not reported. Methods A 41 years old man who had been treated using stent assisted coil embolization for cavernous segment aneurysm of the left internal carotid artery underwent 60 month angiographic follow up. Concurrently, IVUS catheter was advanced under fluoroscopic guidance inside the cavernous portion of the left internal carotid artery. Then IVUS images were used to visualize the stent, coil loops, and aneurysm neck. Results The angiographic images were limited because of superimposition of the aneurysm on the parent vessel in all projections. IVUS images demonstrated that the stent was patent along its whole length and there was no sign of stent deformity or in-stent thrombosis. Loops of the coil were visualized as hyperechoic signals inside the aneurysm and there was no sign of herniated loops of coil inside the stent. Conclusion In this case report, we observed that adjunct use of IVUS can provide valuable information not ascertained by angiography during follow up assessment of coil embolized aneurysm.

Majidi, Shahram; Grigoryan, Mikayel; Tekle, Wondwossen G; Watanabe, Masaki; Qureshi, Adnan I

2012-01-01

379

Balanced Propofol Sedation in Patients Undergoing EUS-FNA: A Pilot Study to Assess Feasibility and Safety  

PubMed Central

Introduction and aims. Balanced propofol sedation (BPS) administered by gastroenterologists has gained popularity in endoscopic procedures. Few studies exist about the safety of this approach during endosonography with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). We assessed the safety of BPS in EUS-FNA. Materials and methods. 112 consecutive patients, referred to our unit to perform EUS-FNA, from February 2008 to December 2009, were sedated with BPS. A second gastroenterologist administered the drugs and monitorized the patient. Results. All the 112 patients (62 males, mean age 58.35) completed the examination. The mean dose of midazolam and propofol was, respectively, of 2.1?mg (range 1–4?mg) and 350?mg (range 180–400). All patients received oxygen with a mean flux of 4 liter/minute (range 2–6 liters/minute). The mean recovery time after procedure was 25 minutes (range 18–45 minutes). No major complications related to sedation were registered during all procedures. The oxygen saturation of all patients never reduced to less than 85%. Blood systolic pressure during and after the procedure never reduced to less than 100?mmHg. Conclusions. In our experience BPS administered by non-anaesthesiologists provided safe and successful sedation in patients undergoing EUS-FNA.

Pagano, N.; Arosio, M.; Romeo, F.; Rando, G.; Del Conte, G.; Carlino, A.; Strangio, G.; Vitetta, E.; Malesci, A.; Repici, A.

2011-01-01

380

Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs: Cost Assessment of Manufacturing/Design Concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) program was to demonstrate, for an integrally stiffened structural concept, performance and weight equal to "built-up" structure with lower manufacturing cost. This report presents results of the cost assessment for several design configuration/manufacturing method combinations. The attributes of various cost analysis models were evaluated and COSTRAN selected for this study. A process/design cost evaluation matrix was developed based on material, forming, machining, and assembly of structural sub-elements and assembled structure. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current built-up technology baseline. This would correspond to a total cost reduction of $1.7 million per ship set for a 777-sized airplane. However, there are important outstanding issues with regard to the cost of capacity of high technology machinery, and the ability to cost-effectively provide surface finish acceptable to the commercial aircraft industry. The projected high raw material cost of large extrusions also played an important role in the trade-off between plate and extruded concepts.

Metschan, S.

2000-01-01

381

Amide proton transfer imaging of the breast at 3 T: establishing reproducibility and possible feasibility assessing chemotherapy response.  

PubMed

Chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging can generate contrast that is sensitive to amide protons associated with proteins and peptides (termed amide proton transfer, APT). In breast cancer, APT contrast may report on underlying changes in microstructural tissue composition. However, to date, there have been no developments or applications of APT chemical exchange saturation transfer to breast cancer. As a result, the aims of this study were to (i) experimentally explore optimal scan parameters for breast chemical exchange saturation transfer near the amide resonance at 3 T, (ii) establish the reliability of APT imaging of healthy fibroglandular tissue, and (iii) demonstrate preliminary results on APT changes in locally advanced breast cancer observed during the course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Chemical exchange saturation transfer measurements were experimentally optimized on cross-linked bovine serum albumin phantoms, and the reliability of APT imaging was assessed in 10 women with no history of breast disease. The mean difference between test-retest APT values was not significantly different from zero, and the individual difference values were not dependent on the average APT value. The 95% confidence interval limits were ±0.70% (? = 0.05), and the repeatability was 1.91. APT measurements were also performed in three women before and after one cycle of chemotherapy. Following therapy, APT increased in the one patient with progressive disease and decreased in the two patients with a partial or complete response. Together, these results suggest that APT imaging may report on treatment response in these patients. PMID:22907893

Dula, Adrienne N; Arlinghaus, Lori R; Dortch, Richard D; Dewey, Blake E; Whisenant, Jennifer G; Ayers, Gregory D; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Smith, Seth A

2013-07-01

382

Video Endoscopic Inguinal Lymphadenectomy (VEIL) -a prospective critical perioperative assessment of feasibility and morbidity with points of technique in penile carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Inguinal lymph node involvement is an important prognostic factor in penile cancer. Inguinal lymph node dissection allows staging and treatment of inguinal nodal disease. However, it causes morbidity and is associated with complications, such as lymphocele, skin loss and infection. Video Endoscopic Inguinal Lymphadenectomy (VEIL) is an endoscopic procedure, and it seems to be a new and attractive approach duplicating the standard open procedure with less morbidity. We present here a critical perioperative assessment with points of technique. Methods Ten patients with moderate to high grade penile carcinoma with clinically negative inguinal lymph nodes were subjected to elective VEIL. VEIL was done in standard surgical steps. Perioperative parameters were assessed that is - duration of the surgery, lymph-related complications, time until drain removal, lymph node yield, surgical emphysema and histopathological positivity of lymph nodes. Results Operative time for VEIL was 120 to180 minutes. Lymph node yield was 7 to 12 lymph nodes. No skin related complications were seen with VEIL. Lymph related complications, that is, lymphocele, were seen in only two patients. The suction drain was removed after four to eight days (mean 5.1). Overall morbidity was 20% with VEIL. Conclusion In our early experience, VEIL was a safe and feasible technique in patients with penile carcinoma with non palpable inguinal lymph nodes. It allows the removal of inguinal lymph nodes within the same limits as in conventional surgical dissection and potentially reduces surgical morbidity.

2013-01-01

383

43 CFR 11.21 - Emergency restorations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...11.21 Section 11.21 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 11.21 Emergency restorations. (a) Reporting requirements and...

2013-10-01

384

Assessment of the feasibility of the use of conductive polymers in the fabrication of ion mobility spectrometers.  

PubMed

The development of an ion mobility spectrometer with an injection molded plastic drift tube made from carbon-loaded nylon and the cyclo-olefinpolymer Zeonex is described. Thermogravimetric assessment combined with headspace analysis by ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that Zeonex encapsulated carbon-loaded nylon could be used to fabricate a snap-together injection molded stacked ring drift tube, 4.25 cm long that could be substituted for a conventional wire-wound heated ceramic drift tube of the same length into a high temperature ion mobility spectrometer. Temperature stability experiments indicated that such a combination of polymers produced stable water-based reactant ion peaks [(H(2)O)(n)H](+) up to a temperature of approximately 50 °C. Above this temperature, ammonia appeared to outgas, resulting in the production of [(H(2)O)(n)(NH(4))(m)H](+) type species before, at higher temperatures, the release of oligomeric entities suppressed resolved ion responses. Surface charging effects were also observed, and over a period of continuous operation of 4 h, these caused suppression of the signal intensity (1.11-0.954 V) and an apparent mobility shift in the observed responses (K(0) = 1.86-1.90 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). Substituting nylon, a polymer with a significantly lower surface resistivity, for the Zeonex demonstrated how surface charging phenomena could be managed though control of surface resistivity in future polymer formulations. The device was challenged successfully with test atmospheres of hexan-1-ol (K(0) = 1.66 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (monomer) and 1.32 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)(dimer)) and dimethylmethyl phosphonate (K(0) = 1.70 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (monomer) and 1.44 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (dimer)). The potential advantages of developing polymeric systems using more advanced polymer formulations are discussed. PMID:21384901

Koimtzis, Theodoros; Goddard, Nick J; Wilson, Ian; Thomas, C L Paul

2011-04-01

385

Web-based sex diaries and young adult men who have sex with men: assessing feasibility, reactivity, and data agreement.  

PubMed

We compared quantitative diary data with retrospective survey data collected from a cohort of young adult men who have sex with men (MSM) in Seattle, Washington. Ninety-five MSM, aged 16-30 years, completed web-based surveys every 3 months and were randomized to 4 diary submission schedules: every 2 weeks, once a week, twice a week, or never. We calculated diary completion rates and assessed agreement between daily diary data and aggregate retrospective survey data for sexual behavior measures. Over 6 months, 78 % of participants completed at least 80 % of their diary days, and the 2-week schedule had the highest and most consistent completion rate. The majority of sexual behavior and substance use measures had strong agreement between the diary and retrospective survey data (i.e., kappa >0.80 or concordance correlation coefficient ?0.75), although we observed poorer agreement for some measures of numbers of anal sex acts. There were no significant differences in mean responses across diary schedules. We observed some evidence of reactivity (i.e., a difference in behavior associated with diary completion). Participants not assigned diaries reported significantly more unprotected anal sex acts and were more likely to be newly diagnosed with HIV or another sexually transmitted infection compared to those assigned active diary schedules. This study suggests that sexual behavior data collected from young adult MSM during 3-month retrospective survey--an interval commonly used in sexual behavior research--are likely valid. Diaries, however, may have greater utility in sexual behavioral research in which counts, timing, sequence, or within-person variation over time are of particular import. PMID:22926939

Glick, Sara Nelson; Winer, Rachel L; Golden, Matthew R

2013-10-01

386

Assessment of feasibility in determining of Cr in Gannan Navel Orange treated in controlled conditions by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal element chromium (Cr) contained in Gannan Navel Orange fruits treated with contaminant in controlled lab conditions were analyzed by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The purpose of this work was to provide an assessment of the performance of LIBS in investigating heavy metals in natural organic materials through a direct comparison of the analytical results. The LIBS spectra of samples were collected by optimized experimental parameters and the characteristic spectral lines of two triplet bands at 357.87 nm, 359.35 nm and 360.53 nm and 425.43 nm, 427.48 nm and 428.97 nm were identified distinctly. The Cr I 425.43 nm was selected as analytical line. The concentrations of Cr element were determined by AAS. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values were analyzed and the results demonstrated that there are much more room to promote in LIBS measuring. The calibration curve between the LIBS intensity and AAS concentration was constructed about Cr element. The results show LIBS signal intensity linear dependence on the concentration of Cr. Quantitative analytical results by the curve were validated with AAS measurements. The presented results showed that the standard deviations of the LIBS measurements are in general much larger than those of AAS measurements. Mostly, this contributes to matrix effect of samples and instability of LIBS. In a word, the obtained results between LIBS and AAS demonstrate the capacity of LIBS in the determination of the concentrations of Cr in oranges. Further work are being continued in our laboratory for further improvement of the sensitivity of LIBS, and for direct analysis of heavy metals in natural agricultural products without contamination treatment.

Yao, Mingyin; Huang, Lin; Zheng, Jianhong; Fan, Shiquan; Liu, Muhua

2013-11-01

387

Restoration technology branch  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mission of Leetown Science Center (LSC), Restoration Technology Branch (RTB) is to conduct research needed to restore or protect the chemical, physical and biological integrity of desirable aquatic systems.

U.S. Geological Survey

2007-01-01

388

Articular Cartilage Restoration  

MedlinePLUS

... arthritis in the joint. The goal of cartilage restoration procedures is to stimulate new hyaline cartilage growth. ... or focal, location. Most candidates for articular cartilage restoration are young adults with a single injury, or ...

389

Assessing the Feasibility of a Test Item Bank and Assessment Clearinghouse: Strategies to Measure Technical Skill Attainment of Career and Technical Education Participants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents strategies that can be used to initiate development of a technical skill test item bank and/or assessment clearinghouse and quantifies the cost of creating and maintaining such a system. It is intended to inform state administrators on the potential uses and benefits of system participation, test developers on the needs and…

Derner, Seth; Klein, Steve; Hilber, Don

2008-01-01

390

Restore America's Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This non-profit organization promotes the restoration and protection of America's estuaries. Projects encompass scientific research, education and community-based action, including restoration by school youngsters, as well as policy initiatives at the national level. An introduction to estuaries contains concise definitions, value in ecology and economics, current threats, and elements of restoration. Also offers: links to educational resources; news and photo gallery; a CD-rom guide to estuarine restoration.

391

Restorative justice in prisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restorative justice (RJ) has found significant utility outside the prison setting. For many reasons, it has not received the same level of consideration inside the institution. While not every case can, or perhaps should be considered for restorative justice processing inside the prison, some could easily fall into the broad purview range of restorative and transformative justice. We provide examples

Mandeep K. Dhami; Greg Mantle; Darrell Fox

2009-01-01

392

Reference Conditions and Ecological Restoration: A Southwestern Ponderosa Pine Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological restoration is the process of reestablishing the structure and func- tion of native ecosystems and developing mutually beneficial human-wildland interactions that are compatible with the evolutionary history of those systems. Restoration is based on an ecosystem's reference conditions (or natural range of variability); the difference between reference conditions and contemporary conditions is used to assess the need for restorative

Margaret M. Moore; W. Wallace Covington; Peter Z. Fule

1999-01-01

393

Feasibility of a Web-Based Survey of Hallucinations and Assessment of Visual Function in Patients With Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience visual hallucinations, which may be related to decreased contrast sensitivity (ie, the ability to discern shades of grey). Objective The objective of this study was to investigate if an online research platform can be used to survey patients with Parkinson’s disease regarding visual hallucinations, and also be used to assess visual contrast perception. Methods From the online patient community, PatientsLikeMe, 964 members were invited via email to participate in this study. Participants completed a modified version of the University of Miami Parkinson’s disease hallucinations questionnaire and an online vision test. Results The study was completed by 27.9% (269/964) of those who were invited: 56.9% of this group had PD (153/269) and 43.1% (116/269) were non-Parkinson’s controls. Hallucinations were reported by 18.3% (28/153) of the Parkinson’s group. Although 10 subjects (9%) in the control group reported experiencing hallucinations, only 2 of them actually described formed hallucinations. Participants with Parkinson’s disease with a mean of 1.75 (SD 0.35) and the control group with a mean of 1.85 (SD 0.36) showed relatively good contrast perception as measured with the online letter test (P=.07). People who reported hallucinations showed contrast sensitivity levels that did not differ from levels shown by people without hallucinations (P=.96), although there was a trend towards lower contrast sensitivity in hallucinators. Conclusions Although more Parkinson's responders reported visual hallucinations, a significant number of non-Parkinson's control group responders also reported visual hallucinations. The online survey method may have failed to distinguish between formed hallucinations, which are typical in Parkinson's disease, and non-formed hallucinations that have less diagnostic specificity. Multiple questions outlining the nature of the hallucinations are required. In a clinical interview, the specific nature of the hallucination would be further refined to rule out a vague description that does not indicate a true, formed visual hallucination. Contrary to previous literature, both groups showed relatively good contrast sensitivity, perhaps representing a ceiling effect or limitations of online testing conditions that are difficult to standardize. Steps can be taken in future trials to further standardize online visual function testing, to refine control group parameters and to take steps to rule out confounding variables such as comorbid disease that could be associated with hallucinations. Contacting subjects via an online health social network is a novel, cost-effective method of conducting vision research that allows large numbers of individuals to be contacted quickly, and refinement of questionnaires and visual function testing may allow more robust findings in future research.

2014-01-01

394

The Role of Fascia Iliaca Blocks in Hip Fractures: A Prospective Case-Control Study and Feasibility Assessment of a Junior-Doctor-Delivered Service  

PubMed Central

Hip fractures are common and the incidence is expected to increase. Systemic analgesics, often prescribed to relieve pain after hip fractures, have huge side effects and can delay surgery. We analyse the role and efficacy of alternative forms of analgesia like fascia-iliac blocks (FIB) and assess the feasibility of a service delivered by junior doctors. 104 consecutive hip fracture patients were prospectively recruited and equally divided into cases (patients receiving FIB) and controls (patients receiving systemic analgesia). Outcome measures included time of initial analgesia, total preoperative dose of analgesia, pain scores from admission to 24 hours preoperatively, and complications. The pain scores were significantly lower (P ? 0.05) in patients receiving FIB at 2 and 8 hours preoperatively. The timing of initial analgesia was also quicker in patients with FIB (25 compared to 40 minutes). FIB patients required fewer doses of systemic analgesia. The block was successful in 67% of patients. There were no complications. The implementation of EWTD, HAN, and shift-system and the reduction in the number of medical staff have increased the burden on emergency departments. This study demonstrates that FIB performed by junior doctors are not only safe and effective analgesia but also provide an opportunity for junior doctors to improve current clinical practice.

Hanna, L.; Gulati, A.; Graham, A.

2014-01-01

395

Vision 20/20: The role of Raman spectroscopy in early stage cancer detection and feasibility for application in radiation therapy response assessment.  

PubMed

Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique capable of identifying chemical constituents of a sample by their unique set of molecular vibrations. Research on the applicability of Raman spectroscopy in the differentiation of cancerous versus normal tissues has been ongoing for many years, and has yielded successful results in the context of prostate, breast, brain, skin, and head and neck cancers as well as pediatric tumors. Recently, much effort has been invested on developing noninvasive "Raman" probes to provide real-time diagnosis of potentially cancerous tumors. In this regard, it is feasible that the Raman technique might one day be used to provide rapid, minimally invasive real-time diagnosis of tumors in patients. Raman spectroscopy is relatively new to the field of radiation therapy. Recent work involving cell lines has shown that the Raman technique is able to identify proteins and other markers affected by radiation therapy. Although this work is preliminary, one could ask whether or not the Raman technique might be used to identify molecular markers that predict radiation response. This paper provides a brief review of Raman spectroscopic investigations in cancer detection, benefits and limitations of this method, advances in instrument development, and also preliminary studies related to the application of this technology in radiation therapy response assessment. PMID:24784365

Devpura, Suneetha; Barton, Kenneth N; Brown, Stephen L; Palyvoda, Olena; Kalkanis, Steven; Naik, Vaman M; Siddiqui, Farzan; Naik, Ratna; Chetty, Indrin J

2014-05-01

396

Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area.

Not Available

1994-01-01

397

Evaluación hidrodinámica del hábitat ecohidráulico dirigida a la conservación y restauración de hidrosistemas fluviales Hydrodynamic ecohydraulic habitat assessment aimed at conserving and restoring fluvial hydrosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluvial conservation and restoration measures' efficiency was evaluated in terms of ecological state enhancement, comparing future scenarios with historical or altered conditions. Ecohydraulics provides valuable scientific tools for the environmental diagnosis of lotic ecosystems, evaluating the combined effect of flow regime and channel structure on habitat quality for aquatic biota. This paper adopts an analytic-synthetic approach to the interdisciplinary challen-

Juan Manuel Diez-Hernández

2008-01-01

398

USE OF CONTINUOUS DATALOGGERS TO ASSESS THE TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION OF GROUND WATER/SURFACE WATER INTERACTION BEFORE AND AFTER STREAM RESTORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Minebank Run is a degraded second-order flashy urban stream in Baltimore County which is slated to undergo restoration in August 2003 to re-establish geomorphic stability. We are currently conducting an intensive investigation of surface water/ground water interaction and nutrien...

399

Sediment cores and chemistry for the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Habitat Restoration Project, Boundary County, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with local, State, Federal, and Canadian agency co-managers and scientists, is assessing the feasibility of a Kootenai River habitat restoration project in Boundary County, Idaho. This project is oriented toward recovery of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population, and simultaneously targets habitat-based recovery of other native river biota. Projects currently (2010) under consideration include modifying the channel and flood plain, installing in-stream structures, and creating wetlands to improve the physical and biological functions of the ecosystem. River restoration is a complex undertaking that requires a thorough understanding of the river. To assist in evaluating the feasibility of this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed the physical and chemical nature of sediment cores collected at 24 locations in the river. Core depths ranged from 4.6 to 15.2 meters; 21 cores reached a depth of 15.2 meters. The sediment was screened for the presence of chemical constituents that could have harmful effects if released during restoration activities. The analysis shows that concentrations of harmful chemical constituents do not exceed guideline limits that were published by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2006.

Barton, Gary J.; Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Cox, Stephen E.; Williams, Marshall L.

2012-01-01

400

Occlusal considerations in restorative dentistry.  

PubMed

This article reviews the recent literature related to occlusal considerations in restorative dentistry. The major topics include the assessment and treatment of occlusal wear, the controversies surrounding treatment position of the mandibular condyles, occlusal considerations in osseointegrated prostheses, the two-way relationship between occlusal factors and temporomandibular disorders, design criteria and longevity studies in resin-bonded, fixed-partial dentures, and a potpourri of articles on other topics of interest. Five textbooks and 32 journal articles are cited. PMID:1777665

Parker, M W

1991-04-01

401

Sault Tribe Wind Energy Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The Sault Tribe conducted a feasibility study on tribal lands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to determine the technical and economic feasibility of both small and large-scale wind power development on tribal lands. The study included a wind resource assessment, transmission system analysis, engineering and regulatory analyzes and assessments.

Toni Osterhout; Global Energy Concepts

2005-07-31

402

77 FR 7174 - Correction Notice for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration Plan and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY...and the Framework Agreement for Early Restoration Addressing Injuries Resulting from the...Trustees) prepared a Draft Early Restoration Plan and Environmental...

2012-02-10

403

Genetic algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear image restoration techniques induce erroneous detail around sharp intensity changes. Thus, considerable work has centered on nonlinear methods, which incorporate constraints to reduce the artifacts generated in the restoration. In our paper, we examine the applicability of genetic algorithms to solving optimization problems posed by nonlinear image recovery techniques, particularly by maximum entropy restoration. Each point in the solution space is a feasible image, with the pixels as decision variables. Search is multiobjective: the entropy of the estimate must be maximized, subject to constraints dependent on the observed data and image degradation model. We use Pareto techniques to achieve this combined requirement, and problem-oriented knowledge to direct the search. Typical issues for genetic algorithms are addressed: chromosomal representation, genetic operators, selection scheme, and initialization.

Toma, Cristian E.; Datcu, Mihai P.

1994-06-01

404

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses existing habitat conditions, fish population status, and restoration priority sites within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the White Salmon River. Our partners in this project are the United States Geological Service (USGS), and the Yakama Indian Nation (YIN). Underwood Conservation District (UCD) is involved in the project via accomplishment of water quality monitoring, sampling for stable isotopes, and characterization of the watershed geomorphology. These work items are part of an effort to characterize the stream and riparian habitat conditions in Rattlesnake Creek, to help guide habitat and fish restoration work. Water chemistry and temperature information is being collected both on Rattlesnake Creek, and on other tributaries and the main stem of the White Salmon River. Information on the entire system enables us to compare results obtained from Rattlesnake Creek with the rest of the White Salmon system. Water chemistry and temperature data have been collected in a manner that is comparable with data gathered in previous years. The results from data gathered in the 2001-2002 performance period are reported in appendix A at the end of this 2002-2003 report. Additional work being conducted as part of this study includes; an estimate of salmonid population abundance (YIN and USGS); a determina