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1

Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington – Feasibility Assessment  

SciTech Connect

A hydrodynamic and hydrologic modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of restoring natural estuarine functions and tidal marine wetlands habitat in the Chinook River estuary, located near the mouth of the Columbia River in Washington. The reduction in salmonid populations is attributable primarily to the construction of a Highway 101 overpass across the mouth of the Chinook River in the early 1920s with a tide gate under the overpass. This construction, which was designed to eliminate tidal action in the estuary, has impeded the upstream passage of salmonids. The goal of the Chinook River Restoration Project is to restore tidal functions through the estuary, by removing the tide gate at the mouth of the river, filling drainage ditches, restoring tidal swales, and reforesting riparian areas. The hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) was used to compute Chinook River and tributary inflows for use as input to the hydrodynamic model at the project area boundary. The hydrodynamic model (RMA-10) was used to generate information on water levels, velocities, salinity, and inundation during both normal tides and 100-year storm conditions under existing conditions and under the restoration alternatives. The RMA-10 model was extended well upstream of the normal tidal flats into the watershed domain to correctly simulate flooding anddrainage with tidal effects included, using the wetting and drying schemes. The major conclusion of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling study was that restoration of the tidal functions in the Chinook River estuary would be feasible through opening or removal of the tide gate. Implementation of the preferred alternative (removal of the tide gate, restoration of the channel under Hwy 101 to a 200-foot width, and construction of an internal levee inside the project area) would provide the required restorations benefits (inundation, habitat, velocities, and salinity penetration, etc.) and meet flood protection requirements. The alternative design included design of storage such that relatively little difference in the drainage or inundation upstream of Chinook River Valley Road would occur as a result of the proposed restoration activities.

Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Kristanovich, Felix C.

2006-01-01

2

Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington – Feasibility Assessment  

SciTech Connect

A hydrodynamic and hydrologic modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of restoring natural estuarine functions and tidal marine wetlands habitat in the Chinook River estuary, located near the mouth of the Columbia River in Washington. The reduction in salmonid populations is attributable primarily to the construction of a Highway 101 overpass across the mouth of the Chinook River in the early 1920s with a tide gate under the overpass. This construction, which was designed to eliminate tidal action in the estuary, has impeded the upstream passage of salmonids. The goal of the Chinook River Restoration Project is to restore tidal functions through the estuary, by removing the tide gate at the mouth of the river, filling drainage ditches, restoring tidal swales, and reforesting riparian areas. The hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) was used to compute Chinook River and tributary inflows for use as input to the hydrodynamic model at the project area boundary. The hydrodynamic model (RMA-10) was used to generate information on water levels, velocities, salinity, and inundation during both normal tides and 100-year storm conditions under existing conditions and under the restoration alternatives. The RMA-10 model was extended well upstream of the normal tidal flats into the watershed domain to correctly simulate flooding and drainage with tidal effects included, using the wetting and drying schemes. The major conclusion of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling study was that restoration of the tidal functions in the Chinook River estuary would be feasible through opening or removal of the tide gate. Implementation of the preferred alternative (removal of the tide gate, restoration of the channel under Hwy 101 to a 200-foot width, and construction of an internal levee inside the project area) would provide the required restorations benefits (inundation, habitat, velocities, and salinity penetration, etc.) and meet flood protection requirements. The alternative design included design of storage such that relatively little difference in the drainage or inundation upstream of Chinook River Valley Road would occur as a result of the proposed restoration activities.

Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Kristanovich, Felix C.

2006-08-03

3

Development of a Hydrodynamic Model for Skagit River Estuary for Estuarine Restoration Feasibility Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Skagit River is the largest river in the Puget Sound estuarine system. It discharges about 39% of total sediment and more than 20% of freshwater into Puget Sound. The Skagit River delta provides rich estuarine and freshwater habitats for salmon and many other wildlife species. Over the past 150 years, economic development in the Skagit River delta has resulted in significant losses of wildlife habitat, particularly due to construction of dikes. Diked portion of the delta is known as Fir Island where irrigation practices for agriculture land over the last century has resulted in land subsidence. This has also caused reduced efficiency of drainage network and impeded fish passages through the area. In this study, a three-dimensional tidal circulation model was developed for the Skagit River delta to assist estuarine restoration in the Fir Island area. The hydrodynamic model used in the study is the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM). The hydrodynamic model was calibrated using field data collected from the study area specifically for the model development. Wetting and drying processes in the estuarine delta are simulated in the hydrodynamic model. The calibrated model was applied to simulate different restoration alternatives and provide guidance for estuarine restoration and management. Specifically, the model was used to help select and design configurations that would improve the supply of sediment and freshwater to the mudflats and tidal marsh areas outside of diked regions and then improve the estuarine habitats for salmon migration.

Yang, Zhaoqing; Liu, Hedong; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

2006-08-03

4

Development of field guidance for assessing feasibility of intrinsic bioremediation to restore petroleum-contaminated soils. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This research evaluated the process of intrinsic bioremediation, also called natural attenuation, and the parameters that affected it. The goal of this study was to use these intrinsic bioremediation parameters to develop a valid prediction of the cleanup duration using this restoration technology. This analysis was limited to a JP-4 release and focused on the remediation of the BTEX constituents to a cleanup level of 10 ppm total BTEX. The review of intrinsic bioremediation found that the BTEX hydrocarbons can aerobically and anaerobically biodegrade. Of the many factors that affect intrinsic bioremediation, those that most influenced its occurrence were the quantities of aerobic and anaerobic electron acceptors used in biodegradation. The electron acceptors considered in this research were oxygen, nitrate, manganese (IV), iron (III), and sulfate. A no-dispersion biodegradation model was developed to determine the prediction of the intrinsic bioremediation duration based on the concentrations of individual electron acceptors. Only the aerobic electron acceptor had a measurable influence on the biodegradation model; hence, the prediction results focused on the aerobic biodegradation and its boundary with the anaerobic portion. The key factors used to characterize this boundary and its movement was the initial quantities of BTEX, dissolved oxygen and the relative velocity of the ground water moving through the retarded plume. A linear regression was performed to relate the three parameters mentioned above to the motion of the aerobic boundary.

Enyeart, J.T.

1994-09-01

5

Compliance work for food contact materials: feasibility of the legally required safety assessment of an epoxy/amine-based coating for domestic water pipe restoration.  

PubMed

Options were explored for fulfilling the legally required safety assessment for a widely applied epoxy/amine coating used for restoring corroded domestic drinking water supply systems. The coating was made up of two components mixed shortly before application, the first mainly consisting of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), the second of various amines. The analytically identified starting substances were all authorised, but only constituted a small proportion of the low molecular mass material left after curing and potentially migrating into water. Reaction products synthesised from constituents of the starting components (expected oligomers) could not be eluted from GC even after derivatisation, indicating that standard GC-MS screening would miss most potential migrants. They were detectable by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) after acetylation. HPLC with MS or fluorescence detection was possible for constituents including a BADGE moiety, but phenalkamines could not be detected with adequate sensitivity. Possibilities for determining long-term migration relevant for chronic toxicity are discussed. Analysis in water shortly after application of the coating overestimates migration if migration decreases over time and requires detection limits far out of reach. Analysis of a solvent extract of the coating is easier and provides an upper estimate of what could migrate into the drinking water over the years. However, to satisfy the regulatory requirements, components of the complex mixture need to be identified at lower proportions than those accessible. In vitro testing of the whole mixture for genotoxicity is expected to fail because of the required sensitivity and the glycidyl functions probably wrongly resulting in positive tests. The difficulties in dealing with this situation are discussed. PMID:24761990

Tillner, Jocelyn; Grob, Koni

2014-01-01

6

Lake restoration technology transfer assessment  

SciTech Connect

Based upon a review of the eutrophication problem and its impact on lake restoration (LR) programs, treatment of the relatively new problem of acid deposition and its impact on LR activities, consideration of the LR programs of the Environmental Protection Agency and several states, and a review of individual LR technology transfer publications, it is recommended that new LR technology transfer programs be given a low priority until more new information is available on the restoration of acidified lakes. Both primary and secondary users of LR research, technology transfer documents, and public awareness documents were considered in this assessment. Primary users included the general public and recreationists, lakeshore property owners, lake/homeowner associations, lake/sanitary districts, and research and environmental organizations; secondary users included state/county/local officials who administer/manage water-related regulations/activities. 4 tables.

Daschbach, M.H.; Roe, E.M.; Sharpe, W.E.

1982-06-01

7

NTRE extended life feasibility assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of a feasibility analysis of a long life, reusable nuclear thermal rocket engine are presented in text and graph form. Two engine/reactor concepts are addressed: the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) design and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) concept. Engine design, integration, reliability, and safety are addressed by various members of the NTRE team from Aerojet Propulsion Division, Energopool (Russia), and Babcock & Wilcox.

8

NTRE extended life feasibility assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a feasibility analysis of a long life, reusable nuclear thermal rocket engine are presented in text and graph form. Two engine/reactor concepts are addressed: the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) design and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) concept. Engine design, integration, reliability, and safety are addressed by various members of the NTRE team from Aerojet Propulsion Division, Energopool (Russia), and Babcock & Wilcox.

1993-01-01

9

Evaluating the feasibility of planting aquatic plants for habitat restoration in shallow Mississippi lakes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Planting aquatic plants is a technique used to restore native aquatic plant communities in lakes lacking aquatic plants. However, the feasibility of using this restoration technique in Mississippi lakes has not been evaluated. We conducted two exclosure experiments to evaluate the success of planti...

10

Authentic Assessment for Restorative Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developmental Audit[R] is a comprehensive means of assessment and treatment planning that identifies the coping strategies underlying a youth's maladaptive and self-defeating behavior. This is a strength-based assessment that engages youth in conflict in the process of generating solutions rather than focusing on deficits. This process…

Doerr, Allison

2008-01-01

11

Assessing Damage and RestoringTrees  

E-print Network

Assessing Damage and RestoringTrees After a HurricaneUrban Forest Hurricane Recovery Program ENH Trees After a Hurricane Urban Forest Hurricane Recovery Program Acknowledgments: #12;Storm damage Cleaning the canopy: The red lines indicate where to make pruning cuts on this tree. Make good pruning cuts

Florida, University of

12

Comparing monitoring methodologies for assessing restoration success in peatlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Restoration specialists are often criticised for not establishing a proper monitoring program that would help judging the success of a restoration project. Here, we present a study case where monitoring has taken place for seven years after restoring a cut-over bog. The aim of this presentation is 1) to assess peatland restoration success when using the Sphagnum moss transfer

Line Rochefort; Francis Isselin-Nondedeu; Monique Poulin

13

Indicators of Functional Equivalency for Assessing Restoration Success  

EPA Science Inventory

New restoration projects are being proposed around the Gulf of Mexico as a result of RESTORE Act funding. These projects would benefit from innovative methods for assessing their success. Many restoration projects elsewhere use structure-based condition assessment methods which...

14

A High Resolution Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound to Support Nearshore Restoration Feasibility Analysis and Design  

SciTech Connect

Estuarine and coastal hydrodynamic processes are sometimes neglected in the design and planning of nearshore restoration actions. Despite best intentions, efforts to restore nearshore habitats can result in poor outcomes if circulation and transport which also affect freshwater-saltwater interactions are not properly addressed. Limitations due to current land use can lead to selection of sub-optimal restoration alternatives that may result in undesirable consequences, such as flooding, deterioration of water quality, and erosion, requiring immediate remedies and costly repairs. Uncertainty with achieving restoration goals, such as recovery of tidal exchange, supply of sediment and nutrients, and establishment of fish migration pathways, may be minimized by using numerical models designed for application to the nearshore environment. A high resolution circulation and transport model of the Puget Sound, in the state of Washington, was developed to assist with nearshore habitat restoration design and analysis, and to answer the question “can we achieve beneficial restoration outcomes at small local scale, as well as at a large estuary-wide scale?” The Puget Sound model is based on an unstructured grid framework to define the complex Puget Sound shoreline using a finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM). The capability of the model for simulating the important nearshore processes, such as circulation in complex multiple tidal channels, wetting and drying of tide flats, and water quality and sediment transport as part of restoration feasibility, are illustrated through examples of restoration projects in Puget Sound.

Khangaonkar, Tarang; Yang, Zhaoqing

2011-01-01

15

Assess Plan Restore DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL NRDA TRUSTEES  

E-print Network

Assess Plan Restore DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL NRDA TRUSTEES Early Restoration, Phase III A guide Environmental Impact Statement JUNE 2014 #12;Early Restoration, Phase III DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL NATURAL/PEIS and will be available to the public this summer. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill NRDA Trustees Deepwater Horizon

16

Trailing Ballute Aerocapture: Concept and Feasibility Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trailing Ballute Aerocapture offers the potential to obtain orbit insertion around a planetary body at a fraction of the mass of traditional methods. This allows for lower costs for launch, faster flight times and additional mass available for science payloads. The technique involves an inflated ballute (balloon-parachute) that provides aerodynamic drag area for use in the atmosphere of a planetary body to provide for orbit insertion in a relatively benign heating environment. To account for atmospheric, navigation and other uncertainties, the ballute is oversized and detached once the desired velocity change (Delta V) has been achieved. Analysis and trades have been performed for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of the technique including aerophysics, material assessments, inflation system and deployment sequence and dynamics, configuration trades, ballute separation and trajectory analysis. Outlined is the technology development required for advancing the technique to a level that would allow it to be viable for use in space exploration missions.

Miller, Kevin L.; Gulick, Doug; Lewis, Jake; Trochman, Bill; Stein, Jim; Lyons, Daniel T.; Wilmoth, Richard G.

2003-01-01

17

Assess Plan Restore DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL NRDA TRUSTEES  

E-print Network

Horizon drilling rig 100s of millions of gallons Exxon Valdez tanker 10.9 million gallons Argo MerchantAssess Plan Restore DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL NRDA TRUSTEES Early Restoration, Phase III A guide DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT TRUSTEES OCTOBER 2014 2 On April 20, 2011

18

Vibration-based skin damage statistical detection and restoration assessment in a stiffened aircraft panel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combined problem of skin damage detection and restoration quality assessment in lightweight stiffened aircraft panels via vibration testing is considered. Two methods that employ statistical estimation and hypothesis testing procedures and are capable of accounting for experimental uncertainty are introduced. The first is parametric and employs natural frequency and damping ratio interval estimates. The second is non-parametric and employs coherence function interval estimates. The methods' effectiveness is assessed through laboratory experiments with a stiffened aircraft panel. The results of the study indicate the feasibility of the vibration-based methodology for tackling both the skin damage detection and restoration quality assessment problems. It is also shown that the first method is effective for the skin damage detection problem, while the second for both the skin damage detection and restoration quality assessment problems.

Rizos, D. D.; Fassois, S. D.; Marioli-Riga, Z. P.; Karanika, A. N.

2008-02-01

19

ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RESTORATION TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous stream and riparian restoration projects are being undertaken across the nation at a variety of scales and for disparate reasons. Unfortunately, there are very few studies associated with these restoration efforts which provide a consistent and practical methodology to e...

20

Wind Resource and Feasibility Assessment Report for the Lummi Reservation  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the wind resource on the Lummi Indian Reservation (Washington State) and presents the methodology, assumptions, and final results of the wind energy development feasibility assessment, which included an assessment of biological impacts and noise impacts.

DNV Renewables (USA) Inc.; J.C. Brennan & Associates, Inc.; Hamer Environmental L.P.

2012-08-31

21

An assessment of restoration success to forests planted for ecosystem restoration in loess plateau, Northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using ecosystem attributes identified by the Society of Ecological Restoration International, we assessed three restoration\\u000a projects in the loess plateau, northwestern China, including planting Larix principis-rupprechtii (LS) and Pinus tabulaeformis (PS) on shrubland, and planting L. principis-rupprechtii on open forest land (LO). The reestablishment of native species in LS and PS was poorer than LO because of the excessive\\u000a stand

Zhanbiao Yang; Hongxi Jin; Gang Wang

2010-01-01

22

Integrating natural resource damage assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

NONE

1993-10-01

23

Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

Not Available

1993-10-01

24

43 CFR 11.92 - Post-assessment phase-restoration account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Post-assessment phase-restoration account. 11...Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.92 Post-assessment phase—restoration account....

2010-10-01

25

Guidelines for Assessing the Feasibility of Small Cogeneration Systems  

E-print Network

, hospitals, colleges, and shopping centers. This paper will present guidelines for assessing the feasibility of cogeneration for small to medium sized energy users, and it will describe the commercially available technologies that can be utilized....

Whiting, M., Jr.

1984-01-01

26

Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study  

SciTech Connect

Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

Yang, Zhaoqing; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Thom, Ronald M.; Fuller, Roger

2010-04-10

27

Assessing the financial feasibility of outsourcing.  

PubMed

Healthcare organizations frequently outsource support services--such as housekeeping, laundry, and collections--to manage costs while maintaining or improving quality. When evaluating the financial feasibility of outsourcing, financial models can be helpful in measuring the cost to the organization of the service being targeted for outsourcing. The financial model described in this article incorporates the direct costs of the targeted service and the hidden costs incurred by other departments that contribute to the service's operations. It thus provides comprehensive financial information that can be used reach more informed outsourcing decisions. PMID:10156594

Kee, R; Matherly, C M

1996-04-01

28

Feasibility of modern airships - Preliminary assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to the NASA program, Feasibility Study of Modern Airships, initiated to investigate potential research and technology programs associated with airship development. A historical survey of the program is presented, including the development of past airship concepts, aerodynamical and design improvements, structure and material concepts, and research in controls, avionics, instrumentation, flight operations, and ground handling. A mission analysis was carried out which considered passenger and cargo transportation, heavy-lift, short-haul applications, surveillance missions, and the transportation of natural gas. A vehicle parametric analysis examined the entire range of airship concepts, discussing both conventional airships and hybrids. Various design options were evaluated, such as choice of structural materials, use of boundary-layer control, and choice of lifting gas.

Ardema, M. D.

1977-01-01

29

RESTORING HAZARDOUS SPILL-DAMAGED AREAS: TECHNIQUE IDENTIFICATION/ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this study was to identify and assess methods that could be used to accelerate the restoration of lands damaged by spills of hazardous materials. The literature was reviewed to determine what response methods had been used in the past to clean up spills on land and id...

30

WRITTEN STATEMENT BY DEPUTY CHIEF, ASSESSMENT AND RESTORATION DIVISION  

E-print Network

involvement in the Deepwater Horizon BP oil spill response effort. My name is Tony Penn and I am the Deputy restoration following an oil spill. The Deepwater Horizon BP oil spill, the largest accidental oil spill as a whole from the BP oil spill. NOAA and our co-trustees have been working tirelessly to assess

31

A RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR SOCIAL ASSESSMENT OF LAKE RESTORATION PROGRAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The research was initiated in order to examine the social implications of lake restoration programs and to develop a standardized methodology for social impact assessment. A cultural ecological model is employed since it provides perspectives on the relationship of human adaptati...

32

Assessing floodplain restoration success using soil morphology indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floodplains are complex ecological systems that fulfil different ecological, economic and social functions related to physical, chemical, and biological processes. The fluvial dynamics of most rivers in industrialized countries have been altered to such an extent that floodplains are now one of the most threatened ecosystems worldwide. This adverse impact has been widely recognized and, nowadays, extensive attempts are underway to return rivers to more natural conditions and restore their ecological quality and essential ecosystem functions. As a consequence, the number of restoration projects worldwide is rapidly increasing. However, despite an estimated global cost of more than 1 billion dollars annually, there is a crucial lack of monitoring and quantitative evaluations. Indeed, most projects are never monitored post-restoration (NRC 1992). In Switzerland, only 35% of the projects include a monitoring program mainly based on flora and fauna (BAFU). The design, selection and optimization of indicators for project monitoring are of major importance for sustainable management of riverine ecosystems. However, despite the growing body of literature on potential indicators and criteria for assessing the success of restoration projects no standardised or generally applicable method exists. Furthermore, soils are rarely considered among the possible indicators despite their crucial roles in ecosystems such as decomposition, supplying resources (habitats, gene pool, biomass, and raw materials), and environmental interactions (storage, filtering, transformation). We therefore hypothesized that soils may constitute an appropriate synthetic and functional indicator for the evaluation of river restoration success, especially in the framework of river widening aiming to increase the terrestrial biodiversity. In agreement with the current concepts of river restoration, we propose an assessment tool for floodplain restoration based on three soil morphology criteria (soil diversity, soil typicality, and soil dynamism) and their associated indicators (for example soil Shannon indexes, frequency of soils with specific characteristics, elevation variations due to the fluvial dynamic). The success of floodplain restoration is assessed through comparisons of these criteria between the restored river sector and a reference that could be a near natural floodplain or an embanked floodplain. As a test case, we used a near natural floodplain along the Rhine River as reference site. We then assessed the performance of the method by assessing how well the selected indicators explained a data set of soil physico-chemical characteristics in a principal component analysis. We applied this pedological tool to assess the efficiency of two rivers widening: the Thur (River Thur, CCES project RECORD: http://www.swiss-experiment.ch/index.php/Record:Home), and the Emme River restorations (http://www.bve.be.ch/site/bve_tba_dok_down_wasserbau_emme.pdf). In agreement with other studies, our results confirmed that these restoration projects were partial success. This study demonstrated that soil morphology presents multiple advantages as an indicator of floodplain restoration: ease of use, spatial delimitation of the floodplain, information on past events and fluvial dynamic, and different spatial levels of observation (topsoil horizons, deep horizons, and complete soil profiles).

Guenat, Claire; Fournier, Bertrand; Bullinger-Weber, Géraldine; Grin, Karin; Pfund, Simona; Mitchell, Edward

2010-05-01

33

Cle Elum Lake Sockeye Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study, 1987-1989 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes research activities conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) from July 1988 through March 1989 relating to the Cle Elum Lake sockeye salmon restoration feasibility study. During this period, efforts focused on collection and spawning of adult sockeye salmon from the Wenatchee River, incubation of eggs from the 1988-brood, and the rearing of juveniles from the 1987-brood. In late July and early August 1988, 520 adult sockeye salmon were captured at fishways on the Wenatchee River and transferred to net-pens in Lake Wenatchee. Fish were held to maturity in late September and early October, spawned, and eggs incubated at a quarantine hatchery in Seattle, WA. The 336 sockeye salmon successfully spawned from the net-pens at Lake Wenatchee were surveyed for the presence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) and other replicating viruses. In addition, 13 and 5 sockeye salmon spawners were surveyed from spawning grounds on the White and Little Wenatchee Rivers, respectively, from within the Lake Wenatchee system. 12 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Flagg, Thomas A.

1990-02-01

34

Feasibility of Telecognitive Assessment in Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Videoconferencing (VC) technology has been used successfully to provide psychiatric services to patients in rural and otherwise underserved settings. VC-based diagnostic interviewing has shown good agreement with conventional face-to-face diagnosis of dementia in several investigations, but extension of this technology to neurocognitive assessment

Cullum, C. Munro; Weiner, Myron F.; Gehrmann, Helena R.; Hynan, Linda S.

2006-01-01

35

Remedidal investigation and feasibility study report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the remedial investigation (RI) is to collect data necessary to adequately characterize the site for the purpose of developing and evaluating effective remedial alternatives. To characterize the site, the lead agency shall, as appropriate, conduct field investigations, including treatability studies, and conduct a baseline risk assessment. The RI provides information to assess the risks to human health and the environment and to support the development, evaluation, and selection of appropriate response alternatives. The primary objective of the feasibility study (FS) is to ensure that appropriate remedial alternatives are developed and evaluated such that relevant information concerning the remedial action options can be presented to a decision-maker and an appropriate remedy selected. The lead agency may develop a feasibility study to address a specific site problem or the entire site. The development and evaluation of alternatives shall reflect the scope and complexity of the remedial action under consideration and the site problems being addressed. Development of alternatives shall be fully integrated with the site characterization activities of the remedial investigation described in paragraph (d) of this section. The lead agency shall include an alternatives screening step, when needed, to select a reasonable number of alternatives for detailed analysis.

Roeck, F.V.

1994-06-01

36

Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the project including to: 1) test and validate floating LIDAR technology; 2) collect and access offshore wind data; 3) detect and measure bird and bat activity over Lake Michigan; 4) conduct an over water sound propagation study; 5) prepare and offer a college course on offshore energy, and; 6) collect other environmental, bathometric, and atmospheric data. Desk-top research was performed to select anchorage sites and to secure permits to deploy the buoy. The project also collected and analyzed data essential to wind industry investment decision-making including: deploying highly mobile floating equipment to gather offshore wind data; correlating offshore wind data with conventional on-shore MET tower data; and performing studies that can contribute to the advancement and deployment of offshore wind technologies. Related activities included: • Siting, permitting, and deploying an offshore floating MET facility; • Validating the accuracy of floating LWS using near shoreline cup anemometer MET instruments; • Assessment of laser pulse technology (LIDAR) capability to establish hub height measurement of wind conditions at multiple locations on Lake Michigan; • Utilizing an extended-season (9-10 month) strategy to collect hub height wind data and weather conditions on Lake Michigan; • Investigation of technology best suited for wireless data transmission from distant offshore structures; • Conducting field-validated sound propagation study for a hypothetical offshore wind farm from shoreline locations; • Identifying the presence or absence of bird and bat species near wind assessment facilities; • Identifying the presence or absence of benthic and pelagic species near wind assessment facilities; All proposed project activities were completed with the following major findings: • Floating Laser Wind Sensors are capable of high quality measurement and recordings of wind resources. The WindSentinel presented no significant operational or statistical limitations in recording wind data technology at a at a high confidence level as compared to traditional an

Boezaart, Arnold [GVSU; Edmonson, James [GVSU; Standridge, Charles [GVSU; Pervez, Nahid [GVSU; Desai, Neel [University of Michigan; Williams, Bruce [University of Delaware; Clark, Aaron [GVSU; Zeitler, David [GVSU; Kendall, Scott [GVSU; Biddanda, Bopi [GVSU; Steinman, Alan [GVSU; Klatt, Brian [Michigan State University; Gehring, J. L. [Michigan State University; Walter, K. [Michigan State University; Nordman, Erik E. [GVSU

2014-06-30

37

Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

Armstrong, D.L.

1994-08-01

38

Designing and Assessing Restored Meandering River Planform Using RVR Meander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ongoing modification and resulting reduction in water quality of U.S. rivers have led to a significant increase in river restoration projects over the last two decades. The increased interest in restoring degraded streams, however, has not necessarily led to improved stream function. Palmer and Allan (2005) found that many restoration projects fail to achieve their objectives due to the lack of policies to support restoration standards, to promote proven methods and to provide basic data needed for planning and implementation. Proven models of in-stream and riparian processes could be used not only to guide the design of restoration projects but also to assess both pre- and post-project indicators of ecological integrity. One of the most difficult types of river restoration projects concern reconstructing a new channel, often with an alignment and channel form different from those of the degraded pre-project channel. Recreating a meandering planform to provide longitudinal and lateral variability of flow and bed morphology to improve in-stream aquatic habitat is often desired. Channel meander planform is controlled by a multitude of variables, for example channel width to depth ratio, radius of curvature to channel width ratio, bankfull discharge, roughness, bed-material physical characteristics, bed material transport, resistance to erosion of the floodplain soils, riparian vegetation, etc. Therefore, current practices that use simple, empirically based relationships or reference reaches have led to failure in several instances, for example a washing out of meander bends or a highly unstable planform, because they fail to address the site-specific conditions. Recently, progress has been made to enhance a physically- and process-based model, RVR Meander, for rapid analysis of meandering river morphodynamics with reduced empiricism. For example, lateral migration is based on measurable physical properties of the floodplain soils and riparian vegetation versus the driving forces of the river hydrodynamics. The model can also be used in a Monte Carlo framework to statistically describe the long-term evolution of the meander planform. RVR Meander has been successfully used to evaluate migration rates of restored meandering streams and bends on the Big Sioux River, SD and Trout Creek, CA at engineering time scales. It has also been used to assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the alignment of the meandering low-flow channel of the planned diversion of the Red River of the North around the metropolitan area of Fargo, ND and Moorhead, MN. Palmer MA, Allan JD. 2005. Restoring rivers, Issues in Science and Technology, Winter 2006, Published by National Academy of Sciences, 22: 40-48.

Langendoen, E. J.; Abad, J. D.; Motta, D.; Frias, C. E.; Wong, M.; Barnes, B. J.; Anderson, C. D.; Garcia, M. H.; MacDonald, T. E.

2013-12-01

39

Anatomical feasibility of the anterior obturator nerve transfer to restore bowel and bladder function.  

PubMed

Total sacrectomies are radical procedures required to treat tumorigenic processes involving the sacrum. The purpose of our anatomical study was to assess the feasibility of a novel nerve transfer involving the anterior obturator nerve to the pudendal and pelvic nerves to the rectum and bladder. Anterior dissection of the obturator nerve was performed in eight hemipelvis cadaver specimens. The common obturator nerve branched into the anterior and posterior at the level of the obturator foramen. The anterior branch then divided into two separate branches (adductor longus and gracilis). The branch to the gracilis was on average longer and also larger than the branch to the adductor longus (8.7 ± 2.1 cm vs. 6.7 ± 2.6 cm in length and 2.6 ± 0.2 mm vs 1.8 ± 0.4 mm in diameter). Each branch of the anterior obturator was long enough to reach the pelvic nerves. The novel transfer of the anterior branch of the obturator nerve to reinnervate the bladder and bowel is anatomically feasible. This represents a promising option with minimal donor site deficit. PMID:24710737

Houdek, Matthew T; Wagner, Eric R; Wyles, Cody C; Moran, Steven L

2014-09-01

40

Development and Evaluation of a Measure to Assess Restorative Sleep  

PubMed Central

Background: There are validated measures assessing insomnia and disturbed sleep, but few psychometrically sound instruments to assess perceptions of the restorative or inadequate properties of sleep are available. Study Objectives: To develop and evaluate a new instrument, the Restorative Sleep Questionnaire (RSQ). Design and Setting: Focus groups were conducted using participants with and without nonrestorative sleep complaints. Questions were designed to elicit the feelings and experiences people have about their sleep and their view of daytime consequences of sleep. Expert panels confirmed the importance of nonrestorative sleep (NRS) as a frequently encountered problem either with or without other sleep complaints. The resulting RSQ was administered in three studies: (1) a telephone interview with healthy controls and individuals with sleep problems; (2) a randomized clinical trial of patients with primary insomnia assessed by polysomnography (PSG); (3) a PSG study of subjects with NRS complaints. Measurement and Results: Across all studies, the new measures were shown to be significantly correlated with health-related quality of life (HRQL) domains hypothesized to be related to NRS. The RSQ had good psychometric properties (? > 0.90; rtest-retest > 0.80), and factor analysis confirmed the unidimensionality of the measure. The RSQ was able to distinguish between healthy controls, patients with primary insomnia, and insomnia patients with isolated NRS complaints but without PSG defined sleep onset, duration, or maintenance problems. Normal sleepers reported sleep that was about a standard deviation more restorative than that of those with NRS on the RSQ. Conclusions: The results of the study provide support for the reliability and validity of the RSQ as a measure of NRS in subjects with and without self-reported or PSG confirmed sleep initiation and maintenance difficulties. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00655369; NCT00705601 Citation: Drake CL, Hays RD, Morlock R, Wang F, Shikiar R, Frank L, Downey R, Roth T. Development and evaluation of a measure to assess restorative sleep. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):733-741. PMID:25024650

Drake, Christopher L.; Hays, Ron D.; Morlock, Robert; Wang, Fong; Shikiar, Richard; Frank, Lori; Downey, Ralph; Roth, Thomas

2014-01-01

41

Feasibility study: Assess the feasibility of siting a monitored retrievable storage facility. Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of phase one of this study are: To understand the waste management system and a monitored retrievable storage facility; and to determine whether the applicant has real interest in pursuing the feasibility assessment process. Contents of this report are: Generating electric power; facts about exposure to radiation; handling storage, and transportation techniques; description of a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility; and benefits to be received by host jurisdiction.

King, J.W.

1993-08-01

42

Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at several sites owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120(a) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act also subjects DOE to liability under Section 107 of CERCLA for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. The Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process, by which natural resource injuries are determined and compensatory monetary damages are calculated, is not well known or understood by DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. Nevertheless, natural resource liabilities are potentially a significant source of additional monetary claims for CERCLA hazardous substance releases. This paper describes the requirements of NRDA and explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, in order to more quickly restore environmental services at the lowest total cost to the public. The first section of the paper explains the statutory and regulatory mandates for the NRDA process. The second section briefly describes the four phases of the NRDA process, while the third section examines the three steps in the assessment phase in considerable detail. Finally, the last section focuses on the integration of the CERCLA and NRDA processes.

Bascietto, J.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (US). RCRA/CERCLA Div.; Dunford, R.W. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (US); Sharples, F.E.; Suter, G.W. II [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US)

1993-06-01

43

Feasibility of Assessing Writing Using Multiple Assessment Techniques. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many local and state education agencies in the United States now mandate annual assessments of student writing ability. To comply with these mandates, schools across the country have developed a variety of assessment procedures. To determine the "state of the art" of large-scale writing assessment in the country, a questionnaire was sent to all 50…

McCready, Michael A.; Melton, Virginia S.

44

How to scientifically assess a restoration project: a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commonly, it is said that there is lack of communication among scientists, conservators, restorers, project managers and architects. But sometimes this communication flows, and we can find enormous benefits from and for all the participating agents. This is the case we present in this work, in which technical agents in charge of the restoration of a building, asked for some scientific advice to perform the restoration of a heritage building. The results were successful and fantastic for both of them, in terms of one part asking for consultation and the other answering to the demands and resolving real problems. This is the case of a marvellous Renaissance building (Medinaceli Dukes palace, 15th-16th centuries) in the central area of Spain (Cogolludo, Guadalajara). Focused on the restoration project, we were asked for consultancy on how to solve matters like the assessment of the already fixed in project cleaning method for the stone façades, the efficacy and durability methods for some conservation products to be applied, the presence or not of a patina on the stone; the viability of using some restoration mortars, and the origin of some efflorescences that came out just after placed in the building a restoration rendering mortar. Responses to these matters were answered by performing tests both in the lab and on site in the building. The efficiency and effects on stone of the blasting cleaning method was assessed by first analysing the nature and thickness of the surface deposits to be removed (SEM-EDS analyses); secondly, roughness and colour measurements were performed, and thirdly, SEM-EDS analyses were carried out again to determine whether the cleaning method was able to remove part of the surface deposits, completely, or even part of the stone substrate. Some conservation products were tested on stone specimens, both their efficacy and their durability, concluding that it was better not to apply any of them. A patina was found on the stone façade under SEM, probably applied for colouring and homogenizing purpose, and below it and on the stone, an acrylic film was analysed. It was in good state, and its removal could be worse and more dangerous to the substrate than leaving it. Two restoration mortars were tested to characterize them and to determine their durability, the results showing that one of them was much better than the other. Finally, a restoration render was analysed and we found, by analysing it and the raw materials used for its preparation, that one of them, a marketed cement, had a very high content on sulfates, responsible for the efflorescences (sulphate compounds) that appeared just after the render was placed in the building, this resulting on stopping using this product in the restoration project. Consequently, conservation science should be considered as not only useful but essential for cultural heritage conservation, besides it is cost-saving, because failed interventions are much more expensive in the short, medium and long term.

Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.; Freire, D. M.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Vazquez-Calvo, C.

2012-04-01

45

Mid-Columbia Coho Salmon Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Environmental Assessment.  

SciTech Connect

Before the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) decides whether to fund a program to reintroduce coho salmon to mid-Columbia River basin tributaries, research is needed to determine the ecological risks and biological feasibility of such an effort. Since the early 1900s, the native stock of coho has been decimated in the tributaries of the middle reach of the Columbia River. The four Columbia River Treaty Tribes identified coho reintroduction in the mid-Columbia as a priority in the Tribal Restoration Plan. It is a comprehensive plan put forward by the Tribes to restore the Columbia River fisheries. In 1996, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) recommended the tribal mid-Columbia reintroduction project for funding by BPA. It was identified as one of fifteen high-priority supplementation projects for the Columbia River basin, and was incorporated into the NPPC`s Fish and Wildlife Program. The release of coho from lower Columbia hatcheries into mid-Columbia tributaries is also recognized in the Columbia River Fish Management Plan.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State) Department of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation

1999-01-01

46

Market assessment and technical feasibility study of PFBC ash use  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this study are to determine the market potential and the technical feasibility of using PFBC ash in high volume ash use applications. The information will be of direct use to the utility industry in assessing the economics of PFBC power generation in light of ash disposal avoidance through ash marketing. In addition, the research is expected to result in the generation of generic data on the use of PFBC ash that could lead to novel processing options and procedures. The specific objectives of the proposed research and demonstration effort are: Define resent and future market potential of PFBC ash for a range of applications (Phase I); assess the technical feasibility of PFBC ash use in construction, civil engineering and agricultural applications (Phase II); and demonstrate the most promising of the market and ash use options in full-scale field demonstrations (Phase III).

Smith, V.E.; Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Georgiou, D.N. [Jacques, Whitford and Associates Ltd., Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Wheeldon, J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1994-10-01

47

Cle Elum Lake Sockeye Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study, 1986-1988 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1986, a multi-year project to evaluate the biological feasibility of reestablishing anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs to Cle Elum Lake in the Yakima River Basin was established between the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). This program involves the capture, spawning, and rearing of disease-free donor stock in 1987 and 1988 and assessment of juvenile outmigration and survival from Cle Elum Lake in 1989 and 1990. Work in 1987--1988 involved collection of adult sockeye salmon from the Lake Wenatchee run and incubation and rearing of progeny as donor stock. In July 1987, 263 adults were captured at the Dryden fishway on the Wenatchee River and transferred to net-pens in Lake Wenatchee. Adults were held approximately 90 days and spawned, and the eggs were transferred to a quarantine hatchery. Pre-spawning survival was 95.1%, and all spawners were certified as being free of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHN) and other replicating viruses. Egg viability averaged about 40%; however, eyed egg to hatch survival was over 99%. Juveniles are being reared in quarantine, and survival to date is about 92%. The NMFS currently has over 131,000 fry (0.7 g average weight) in culture. Fry have been certified twice (at 0.12 g and 0.25 g average weight) as being free of IHN and other replicating viruses. Viral certification will continue throughout rearing. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Flagg, Thomas A.

1988-10-01

48

A fuzzy quality index for the environmental assessment of a restored wetland.  

PubMed

This paper describes the feasibility study for the restoration of agricultural land with a tendency to become waterlogged into a natural wetland, conceived to mitigate floods and to remove nutrients from the water drained from the cultivated plots. The wetland model, developed in aquatox, includes the nutrient dynamics both in the water and in the sediment, and the vegetation that is expected to develop as a consequence of flooding. The model inputs were synthesized from historical time series of rainfall and chemical data collected over the last decade. The model outputs are used to compute a synthetic fuzzy quality index (FQI) to assess the removal efficiency of the wetland. This FQI is based on three main variables describing the ecosystem quality: chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen and total suspended solids. This index has the merit of being simple enough to be immediately grasped by non-technical people, like managers and stakeholders, to whom the restoration project is proposed. The simulations, performed under five differing loading scenarios demonstrate the feasibility of this solution, which is robust enough to accommodate a 50% increase in either nitrogen, phosphorous or organic matter. PMID:21902050

Giusti, E; Marsili-Libelli, S; Mattioli, S

2011-01-01

49

Environmental monitoring, restoration and assessment: What have we learned  

SciTech Connect

The Twenty-Eighth Hanford Symposium on Health and the Environment was held in Richland, Washington, October 16--19, 1989. The symposium was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. The symposium was organized to review and evaluate some of the monitoring and assessment programs that have been conducted or are currently in place. Potential health and environmental effects of energy-related and other industrial activities have been monitored and assessed at various government and private facilities for over three decades. Most monitoring is required under government regulations; some monitoring is implemented because facility operators consider it prudent practice. As a result of these activities, there is now a substantial radiological, physical, and chemical data base for various environmental components, both in the United States and abroad. Symposium participants, both platform and poster presenters, were asked to consider, among other topics, the following: Has the expenditure of millions of dollars for radiological monitoring and assessment activities been worth the effort How do we decide when enough monitoring is enough Can we adequately assess the impacts of nonradiological components -- both inorganic and organic -- of wastes Are current regulatory requirements too restrictive or too lenient Can monitoring and assessment be made more cost effective Papers were solicited in the areas of environmental monitoring; environmental regulations; remediation, restoration, and decommissioning; modeling and dose assessment; uncertainty, design, and data analysis; and data management and quality assurance. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

Gray, R.H. (ed.)

1990-01-01

50

Market Assessment and Technical Feasibility Study of PFBC Ash Use  

SciTech Connect

The commercial introduction of pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) has spurred evaluation of ash management options for this technology. The unique operating characteristics of PFBC compared to atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) units indicate that PFBC ash will exhibit unique chemical and physical characteristics, and hence, unique ash use opportunities. Western Research Institute (WRI), under sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ahlstrom Pyropower, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), has initiated a study of the use properties of PFBC ashes involving both an assessment of the potential markets, as well as a technical feasibility study of specific use options. The market assessment is designed to address six applications, including: (1) structural fill, (2) road base construction, (3) supplementary cementing materials in portland cement, (4) bricks and blocks, (5) synthetic aggregate, and (6) agricultural/soil amendment applications. Ashes from the Ahlstrom circulating PFBC pilot facility in Caroler, Finland, combusting western U.S. low-sulfur subbituminous coal with limestone sorbent, were made available for the technical feasibility study. The technical feasibility study examined the use of PFBC ash in construction-related applications, including its use as a supplemental cementing material in concrete, fills and embankments, soil stabilization, and synthetic aggregate production. In addition, testing was conducted to determine the technical feasibility of PFBC ash as a soil amendment for agricultural and reclamation applications. PFBC ash does not meet the ASTM chemical requirements as a pozzolan for cement replacement. However, it does appear that potential may exist for its use in cement production as a pozzolan and/or set retardant. PFBC ash shows relatively high strength development, low expansion and low permeability properties that make its use in fills and embankments promising. Testing has also indicated that PFBC ash, when mixed with low amounts of hydrated lime, develops high strengths, suitable for soil stabilization applications and produces a synthetic aggregate capable of meeting ASTM/AASHTO specifications for many construction applications.

Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Georgiou, D.N. [Trow Engineering Consultants, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

1995-03-01

51

The Deschutes Estuary Restoration Feasibility Study: development of a process-based morphological model  

E-print Network

transport after dam removal will also be modeled. Key components of the model include tidal currents. Several restoration solutions have been proposed, including removal of the dam and widening the opening Continual sediment accumulation in Capitol Lake since the damming of the Deschutes River in 1951 has altered

52

Assessing the Success of Restoration Plantings in a Temperate New Zealand Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of restoration plantings in restoring in- digenous forest vascular plant and ground inverte- brate biodiversity was assessed on previously grass- covered sites in the eastern South Island, New Zealand. The composition and structure of grassland, three dif- ferent aged restoration plantings (12, 30, and 35 years old), a naturally regenerating forest (100 years old), and a remnant of

Stephen D. Reay; David A. Norton

1999-01-01

53

Assessment of hydraulic restoration of San Pablo Marsh, California.  

PubMed

Inter-tidal marshes are dynamic diverse ecosystems at the transition zone between terrestrial and ocean environments. Geomorphologically, inter-tidal salt marshes are vegetated land-forms at elevations slightly greater than mean tidal levels that have distributed channels formed under ebb (drainage) tidal flows that widen and deepen in the seaward direction. The drainage channels enable tidal flows to circulate sediments and nutrients through the marsh system during normal tidal events, while depositing sediments during storm or seismic events. This dynamic system encourages considerable biodiversity while simultaneously providing water quality enhancement features that service marsh terrestrial life and marine life in the estuary. Reservoir creation limiting sediment transport, anticipated large increases in sea levels as well as agricultural and urban development have resulted in significant loss of inter-tidal marshes and subsequent adverse impacts on waterfowl, infauna and fisheries. The complex and continuously changing marsh channel hydraulics and sedimentary processes have severely constrained quantitative modeling of these marsh systems such that restoration/creation efforts remain something of an empirical science and further assessments are needed. The purpose of this paper is to outline current understanding of salt marsh hydrodynamics, sediment accretion processes and subsequent response of marsh vegetation to set the stage for assessment of a marsh restoration effort along San Pablo Bay near San Francisco, California. Several kilometers of drainage channels were constructed in a 624 ha disturbed salt marsh to restore tidal circulation and vegetation so as to enhance habitat for threatened species (e.g. clapper rail, harvest mouse, delta smelt and potentially anadromous fish species). Two distinct drainage channel systems ('east' and 'west') were installed having similar channel dimensions common to salt marshes in the region, but having design bankfull tidal prism volumes differing by a factor of two. Following channel excavation, main channel tidal flows and sediment loads as well as marsh sediment accretion rates were monitored to assess the relative success of the excavation in restoring tidal circulation and vegetation (Salicornia spp.) to the marsh. Annual aerial surveys corroborated with ground-truthing indicated that marsh vegetation rapidly expanded, from 40 to 85% coverage several years following excavation. The 'east' channel intake was nearly completely silted in within three years. However, channel surveys and flow measurements indicated that the 'east' channel system tidal prism was only about 1200 m3, more than an order of magnitude less than that of the stable 'west' channel system. Marsh sediment accretion rates were on the order of 7-8 mm yr(-1), a rate common to the Pacific coast region that exceeds estimated sea level rise rates of approximately 2 mm yr(-1). East channel network siltation resulted in storm and spring tidal flood ponding such that marsh vegetation coverage decreased to 51% of the marsh area and related habitat expansion decreased. These results are considered in terms of the primary inter-tidal marsh factors affecting possible restoration/creation strategies. PMID:15473530

Grismer, Mark E; Kollar, J; Syder, J

2004-11-01

54

A monitoring protocol to assess tidal restoration of salt marshes on local and regional scales  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Assessing the response of salt marshes to tidal restoration relies on comparisons of ecosystem attributes between restored and reference marshes. Although this approach provides an objective basis for judging project success, inferences can be constrained if the high variability of natural marshes masks differences in sampled attributes between restored and reference sites. Furthermore, such assessments are usually focused on a small number of restoration projects in a local area, limiting the ability to address questions regarding the effectiveness of restoration within a broad region. We developed a hierarchical approach to evaluate the performance of tidal restorations at local and regional scales throughout the Gulf of Maine. The cornerstone of the approach is a standard protocol for monitoring restored and reference salt marshes throughout the region. The monitoring protocol was developed by consensus among nearly 50 restoration scientists and practitioners. The protocol is based on a suite of core structural measures that can be applied to any tidal restoration project. The protocol also includes additional functional measures for application to specific projects. Consistent use of the standard protocol to monitor local projects will enable pooling information for regional assessments. Ultimately, it will be possible to establish a range of reference conditions characterizing natural tidal wetlands in the region and to compare performance curves between populations of restored and reference marshes for assessing regional restoration effectiveness.

Neckles, H.A.; Dionne, M.D.; Burdick, D.M.; Roman, C.T.; Buchsbaum, R.; Hutchins, E.

2002-01-01

55

Cle Elum Lake Anadromous Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study: Summary of Research, 1986-1999 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research was to study the feasibility for anadromous salmonids to recolonize the habitat above reservoirs in the Yakima River without disruption to irrigation withdrawals. A primary concern was whether anadromous fish could successfully exit reservoirs and survive downstream passage through the Yakima and Columbia Rivers to the ocean.

Dey, Douglas

2000-04-01

56

Anatomic feasibility of restoring bladder capacity and voiding following proximal spinal cord injury using a femoral branch to bilateral pelvic nerve transfer: A cadaver study  

PubMed Central

Background Nerve transfers are an effective means of restoring control to paralyzed somatic muscle groups and recently shown to be effective in denervated detrusor muscle in a canine model. Objective A cadaveric project was performed to examine the anatomic feasibility of transferring femoral muscular nerve branches to vesical branches of the pelvic nerve as a method of potentially restoring innervation to control the detrusor muscle in humans using transfer of somatic nerves. Methods Twenty cadavers were dissected bilaterally to expose pelvic and femoral muscular nerve branches. Ease of access and ability to transfer the nerves were assessed, as were nerve cross sectional areas. Results The pelvic nerve was accessed at the base of the bladder, inferior to the ureter and accompanied by inferior vesical vessels. Muscular branches of the femoral nerve to the vastus medialis and intermedius muscles (L3, 4 origins) were followed distally for 17.4 ± 0.8 cm. Two muscle branches were split from the femoral nerve trunk, and tunneled inferior to the inguinal ligament. One was moved medially towards the base of the bladder and linked to the ipsilateral pelvic nerve. The second was tunneled superior to the bladder and linked to the contralateral pelvic nerve. The cross sectional area of the pelvic nerve vesical branch was 2.60 ± 0.169 mm2 (mean ± SEM), and the femoral nerve branches at the suggested transection site was 4.40 ± 0.41 mm2. Conclusion Use of femoral nerve muscular branches from the vastus medialis and intermedius muscles for heterotopic nerve transfer of bilateral pelvic nerves is surgically feasible, based on anatomical location and cross sectional areas. PMID:23540734

Brown, Justin M.; Barbe, Mary F.; Albo, Michael E.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

2013-01-01

57

Cle Elum Lake Restoration Feasibility Study: Fish Husbandry Research, 1988-1991 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) are involved in a project to evaluate the feasibility of re-establishing anadromous salmon runs to Cle Elum Lake in the Yakima River Basin of Washington state. Historically, the Yakima River system supported large runs of anadromous salmonids that contributed significantly to the Columbia River harvest. Habitat destruction and overfishing drastically reduced run abundance prior to the early 1900s. Salmon runs were eliminated from upper reaches of the Yakima River Basin with development of irrigation storage reservoirs without fishways in the early 1900s. The goal of the NMFS/BPA project is to determine if it is feasible for anadromous salmonids to recolonize the habitat above Cle Elum Dam under the present format of irrigation water withdrawal from the reservoir. The primary concern is whether anadromous fish can successfully exit Cle Elum Lake and survive downstream passage through the Yakima and Columbia Rivers to the ocean.

Flagg, Thomas A.

1991-09-01

58

[Feasibility assessment of skin permeation for the local anesthetic lidocaine].  

PubMed

In this paper, the feasibility of skin permeation for lidocaine and pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) tape formulation containing lidocaine for skin local anesthetic were assessed. Firstly, in vitro skin permeation of the molecular and ionic forms of lidocaine from water and silicone fluid suspensions was measured using a side-by-side two diffusion cells and excised hairless rat skin. Secondly, PSA tape containing lidocaine was prepared by a general casting method using styrene-isoprene-styrene block copolymer. The in vitro release and skin permeation were evaluated and compared with that of Japan marketed xylocaine jelly. The effect of lidocaine concentration on the steady-state flux of skin permeation from 10% to 60% lidocaine PSA tapes was also evaluated. PMID:8571782

Cheng, Y H; Sugibayashi, K; Morimoto, Y; Liao, G T; Hou, S X

1995-01-01

59

Assessing channel reconfiguration as river restoration bioassessment and  

E-print Network

. 2006) Upstream FFGs Predator 17% Scraper 13% Omnivore 13% Gathering Collector 17% Filtering Collector 30% Shredder 10% Restored FFGs Predator 21% Filtering Collector 31% Gathering Collector 16% Omnivore

Tullos, Desiree

60

Hydrogeological Methods for Assessing Feasibility of Artificial Recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the hydrogeological methods to assess the feasibility of artificial recharge in Jeju Island, Korea for securing both sustainable groundwater resources and severe floods. Jeju-friendly Aquifer Recharge Technology (J-ART) in this study is developing by capturing ephemeral stream water with no interference in the environments such as natural recharge or eco-system, storing the flood water in the reservoirs, recharging it through designed borehole after appropriate water treatment, and then making it to be used at down-gradient production wells. Many hydrogeological methods, including physico-chemical surface water and groundwater monitoring, geophysical survey, stable isotope analysis, and groundwater modeling have been employed to predict and assess the artificially recharged surface waters flow and circulation between recharge area and discharge area. In the study of physico-chemical water monitoring survey, the analyses of surface water level and velocity, of water qualities including turbidity, and of suspended soil settling velocity were performed. For understanding subsurface hydrogeologic characteristics the injection test was executed and the results are 118-336 m2/day of transmissivity and 4,367-11,032 m3/day of the maximum intake water capacity. Characterizing groundwater flow from recharge area to discharge area should be achieved to assess the efficiency of J-ART. The resistivity logging was carried out to predict water flow in unsaturated zone during artificial recharge based on the inverse modeling and resistivity change patterns. Stable isotopes of deuterium and oxygen-18 of surface waters and groundwaters have been determined to interpret mixing and flow in groundwaters impacted by artificial recharge. A numerical model simulating groundwater flow and heat transport to assess feasibility of artificial recharge has been developed using the hydraulic properties of aquifers, groundwater levels, borehole temperatures, and meteorological data. Also, groundwater modeling was performed to aid in artificial recharge system design, such as optimizing number and spacing of injection wells, building up and maintaining a water column inside each operating injection well, and optimizing time. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant (code 3-2-3) from the Sustainable Water Resources Research Center of 21st Century Frontier Research Program and the Basic Research Program (09-3414) of KIGAM.

Kim, Y.; Koo, M.; Lee, K.; Moon, D.; Barry, J. M.

2009-12-01

61

A comparison of continuous clinical assessment and summative clinical assessment in restorative dentistry.  

PubMed

A possible measure of clinical competency for undergraduates may be students' continuous clinical assessment marks. This study compared each student's continuous clinical assessment (CCA) mark with their summative clinical assessments (SCA) in Paedodontics, Crown and Bridgework, Endodontics and Basic Restorative Dentistry. This was done in order to evaluate the predictive potential of the former against the latter, more conventional measure of assessment. The criterion to determine clinical competence was 60% and any assessment achieved above this would imply clinical competency. Comparisons were made between CCA and SCA for the 39 BChD V undergraduates in the disciplines of Crown and Bridgework, Paedodontics and Endodontics, as well as for the 59 BChD IV undergraduates in the discipline of Basic Restorative Dentistry, for the 2004 academic year. Data were analysed using a two-sample t-test and were also subjected to a Spearman Rank Order Correlation test. For the BChD V students, differences between the two assessment measures were significant for Crown and Bridgework (p=0.00) and Endodontics (p=0.03), but not so for Paedodontics (p=0.22). For the BChD IV students the difference between CCA and SCA for Basic Restorative Dentistry (p=0.00) was significant. The Spearman test produced generally weak correlation values (p<0.4), while the average assessment for Crown and Bridgework for the BChD V group of <60% suggests that, on the basis of the results of this study, continuous clinical assessment cannot be used as a predictor of clinical competence in this discipline. PMID:17927033

Bookhan, V; Becker, L H; Oosthuizen, M P

2007-07-01

62

Assessing Binocular Interaction in Amblyopia and Its Clinical Feasibility  

PubMed Central

Purpose To measure binocular interaction in amblyopes using a rapid and patient-friendly computer-based method, and to test the feasibility of the assessment in the clinic. Methods Binocular interaction was assessed in subjects with strabismic amblyopia (n?=?7), anisometropic amblyopia (n?=?6), strabismus without amblyopia (n?=?15) and normal vision (n?=?40). Binocular interaction was measured with a dichoptic phase matching task in which subjects matched the position of a binocular probe to the cyclopean perceived phase of a dichoptic pair of gratings whose contrast ratios were systematically varied. The resulting effective contrast ratio of the weak eye was taken as an indicator of interocular imbalance. Testing was performed in an ophthalmology clinic under 8 mins. We examined the relationships between our binocular interaction measure and standard clinical measures indicating abnormal binocularity such as interocular acuity difference and stereoacuity. The test-retest reliability of the testing method was also evaluated. Results Compared to normally-sighted controls, amblyopes exhibited significantly reduced effective contrast (?20%) of the weak eye, suggesting a higher contrast requirement for the amblyopic eye compared to the fellow eye. We found that the effective contrast ratio of the weak eye covaried with standard clincal measures of binocular vision. Our results showed that there was a high correlation between the 1st and 2nd measurements (r?=?0.94, p<0.001) but without any significant bias between the two. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that abnormal binocular interaction can be reliably captured by measuring the effective contrast ratio of the weak eye and quantitative assessment of binocular interaction is a quick and simple test that can be performed in the clinic. We believe that reliable and timely assessment of deficits in a binocular interaction may improve detection and treatment of amblyopia. PMID:24959842

Kwon, MiYoung; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Miller, Alexandra; Kazlas, Melanie; Hunter, David G.; Bex, Peter J.

2014-01-01

63

Improving the blind restoration of retinal images by means of point-spread-function estimation assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retinal images often suffer from blurring which hinders disease diagnosis and progression assessment. The restoration of the images is carried out by means of blind deconvolution, but the success of the restoration depends on the correct estimation of the point-spread-function (PSF) that blurred the image. The restoration can be space-invariant or space-variant. Because a retinal image has regions without texture or sharp edges, the blind PSF estimation may fail. In this paper we propose a strategy for the correct assessment of PSF estimation in retinal images for restoration by means of space-invariant or space-invariant blind deconvolution. Our method is based on a decomposition in Zernike coefficients of the estimated PSFs to identify valid PSFs. This significantly improves the quality of the image restoration revealed by the increased visibility of small details like small blood vessels and by the lack of restoration artifacts.

Marrugo, Andrés. G.; Millán, María. S.; Å orel, Michal; Kotera, Jan; Å roubek, Filip

2015-01-01

64

A feasibility study of perennial/annual plant species to restore soils contaminated with heavy metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study was carried out to evaluate the application of perennial/annual plant species in a phytoextraction process of a previously washed industrial urban soil contaminated by nickel, arsenic and cupper. The plant species selected for this study were Ipomea (Ipomea variada); grass (Poa pratensis); grass mixture (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum sp.); Monks Cress (Tropaeolum majus); ficus (Ficus benajamina) and fern (Pteris cretica). Soil was characterized and it presented the following heavy metals concentrations (dry weight): 80 mg of Ni/kg, 456-656 mg of As/kg and 1684-3166 mg of Cu/kg. Germination and survival in contaminated soil tests were conducted, from these, P. pratensis was discarded and the rest of plant species tested were used for the phytoextraction selection test. After 4 months of growth, biomass production was determined, and content of Ni, As and Cu was analyzed in plant’s tissue. Metal biological absorption coefficient (BAC), bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF), were calculated. Regarding to biomass generation it was observed, in every case, an inhibition of the plant growth compared with blanks sown in a non contaminated soil; inhibition ranged from 22.5% for the Monk cress to 98% for Ipomea. Even though the later presented high BAC, BCF and TF, its growth was severely inhibited, and therefore, due its low biomass generation, it is not recommended for phytoextraction under conditions for this study. Heavy metals concentrations in plant’s tissue (dry weight) were as high as 866 mg Cu/kg and 602 mg As/kg for grass mixture; and 825 mg As/kg was observed for Monks cress. Grass mixture and monks cress had high BAC, BCF and TF, also they had high metal concentrations in its plants tissues and the lowest growth inhibition rates; hence the application in phytoextraction processes of these plants is advisable.

Zacarías, Montserrat; Beltrán, Margarita; Gilberto Torres, Luis; González, Abelardo

65

Informatics Systems to Assess and Apply Clinical Research on Dental Restorative Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental biomaterials are used clinically for one or more of the following purposes: to restore function, to enhance esthetics, and to prevent or arrest demineralization of tooth structure. Studies of the clinical performance of restorations and prostheses made from these materials have generally focused on quality assessment and survival statistics. Data from these studies should provide probabilities of specific treatment

K. J. Anusavice

2003-01-01

66

76 FR 65182 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation...Restoration Program (DARRP) is announcing new indirect cost rates on the recovery of indirect costs for its component organizations involved in...

2011-10-20

67

78 FR 20298 - Restoration and Compensation Determination Plan and Environmental Assessment: Aluminum Production...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Environmental Assessment for natural resource injuries and service...the State, Federal and Tribal Natural Resource Trustee agencies (the...public under CERCLA and State law to protect and restore natural resources injured or lost...

2013-04-04

68

Quality assessment of restorations in a population of school children.  

PubMed Central

An index to measure quality of dental restorative care was devised and utilized on a population of 838 Caucasian school children in a large midwestern city. Quality was measured using a four-point scale. All restorations present were considered as part of the entire mouth. Quality was tested in relation to socioeconomic status. Based on this index the problem of poor quality dental restorations is significant and not necessarily related to socioeconomic status as represented by income or education. Evidence of high quality dentistry as evidenced by stainless steel crowns, space maintainers, and orthodontic appliances was limited to children whose families reported incomes over $6,000. Further use of this quality index is recommended to improve and refine measurements in the area of dental care. PMID:1119639

Bagramian, R A; Jenny, J; Woodbury, P J; Proshek, J

1975-01-01

69

A regional assessment of salt marsh restoration and monitoring in the Gulf of Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compiled salt marsh monitoring datasets from 36 complete or imminent restoration projects in the Gulf of Maine to assess regional monitoring and restoration practices. Data were organized by functional indicators and restoration project types (culvert replacement, excavation works, or ditch plugging) then pooled to generate mean values for indicators before restoration, after restoration, and at reference sites. Monitoring data were checked against the regional standards of a voluntary protocol for the Gulf of Maine. Data inventories showed that vegetation and salinity indicators were most frequently collected (89 and 78% of sites, respectively), whereas nekton, bird, and hydrologic measures were collected at only about half of the sites. Reference conditions were monitored at 72% of sites. Indicators were analyzed to see if project sites were degraded relative to reference areas and to detect ecological responses to restoration activities. Results showed that compared to reference areas, prerestoration sites had smaller tidal ranges, reduced salinity levels, greater cover of brackish plants species, and lower cover of halophyte plants. Following restoration, physical factors rebounded rapidly with increased flood and salinity levels after about one year, especially for culvert projects. Biological responses were less definitive and occurred over longer time frames. Plant communities trended toward recovered halophytes and reduced brackish species at 3+ years following restoration. Nekton and avian indicators were indistinguishable among reference, impacted, and restored areas. The protocol was successful in demonstrating restoration response for the region, but results were limited by regional inconsistencies in field practices and relatively few multiyear datasets. To improve future assessment capabilities, we encourage greater adherence to the standard protocol throughout the Gulf of Maine salt marsh restoration community.

Konisky, R.A.; Burdick, D.M.; Dionne, M.; Neckles, H.A.

2006-01-01

70

Assessment and evaluation of technologies for environmental restoration. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration objectives of the Department of Energy are being evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objective of the environmental restoration effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

Uzochukwu, G.A.

1999-01-15

71

Assessing Commercial Feasibility: A Practical and Ethical Prerequisite for Human Clinical Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes that an assessment of commercial feasibility should be integrated as a prerequisite for human clinical testing to improve the quality and relevance of materials being investigated, as an ethical aspect for human subject protection, and as a means of improving accountability where clinical development is funded on promises of successful translational research. A commercial feasibility analysis is

DWAYNE D. KIRK; JASON SCOTT ROBERT

2005-01-01

72

Statistical Skin Damage Detection and Restoration Assessment for Aircraft Panels via Vibration Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of Skin Damage Detection (SDD) and Restoration Quality Assess- ment (RQA) for aircraft panels via vibration testing is considered. Two statistical schemes capable of acounting for experimental uncertainty are introduced: A Modal Parameter Based Scheme (MPBS) and a Coherence Measure Based Scheme (CMBS). The schemes' effectiveness is assessed via laboratory experiments with an aircraft panel. The results of

Demosthenis D. Rizos; Spilios D. Fassois; Zaira P. Marioli-Riga; Alexandra N. Karanika

73

Feasibility of Using Virtual Reality to Assess Nicotine Cue Reactivity during Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cue reactivity assessments have been widely used to assess craving and attention to cues among cigarette smokers. Cue reactivity has the potential to offer insights into treatment decisions; however, the use of cue reactivity in treatment studies has been limited. This study assessed the feasibility of using a virtual reality-based cue reactivity…

Kaganoff, Eili; Bordnick, Patrick S.; Carter, Brian Lee

2012-01-01

74

Feasibility assessment of shear wave elastography to rotator cuff muscle.  

PubMed

Pre-surgical measurement of supraspinatus muscle extensibility is important for rotator cuff repair. The purpose of the present study was to explore the potential feasibility of a shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWE)-based method, combined with B-mode ultrasound, to measure the in vivo stiffness of the supraspinatus muscle non-invasively and thus obtain key information about supraspinatus muscle extensibility. Our investigation comprised two steps. First, we determined the orientation of the supraspinatus muscle fibers in cadaveric shoulders without rotator cuff tear in order to optimize the ultrasound probe positions for SWE imaging. Second, we investigated the feasibility of quantifying the stiffness of the normal supraspinatus muscle by SWE in vivo. The supraspinatus muscle was divided into four anatomical regions: anterior superficial (AS), posterior superficial (PS), anterior deep (AD), and posterior deep (PD). Each region was examined by SWE. The SWE stiffnesses of AD, AS, PD, and PS were 40.0?±?12.4, 34.0?±?9.9, 32.7?±?12.7, 39.1?±?15.7 kPa, respectively. SWE combined with B-Mode ultrasound imaging could be a feasible method for quantifying the local stiffness of the rotator cuff muscles. Clin. Anat. 28:213-218, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25557287

Itoigawa, Yoshiaki; Sperling, John W; Steinmann, Scott P; Chen, Qingshan; Song, Pengfei; Chen, Shigao; Itoi, Eiji; Hatta, Taku; An, Kai-Nan

2015-03-01

75

Assessment of the advantages and feasibility of a nuclear rocket  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of rebuilding and testing a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) for the Mars mission has been investigated. Calculations indicate that an NTR would substantially reduce the earth-orbit assembled mass compared to LOX/LH/sub 2/ systems. The mass savings were 36% and 65% for the cases of total aerobraking and of total propulsive braking respectively. Consequently, the cost savings for a single mission of using an NTR, if aerobraking is feasible, are probably insufficient to warrant the NTR development. If multiple missions are planned or if propulsive braking is desired at Mars and/or at Earth, then the savings of about $7B will easily pay for the NTR development. Estimates of the cost of rebuilding a NTR were based on the previous NERVA program's budget plus additional costs to develop a flight ready engine. The total cost to build the engine would be between $4 to 5B. The concept of developing a full-power test stand at Johnston Atoll in the Pacific appears very feasible. The added expense of building facilities on the island should be less than $1.4B.

Howe, S.D.

1985-01-01

76

Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical\\/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of

Joanna Burger

2008-01-01

77

Plant Population Viability and Restoration Potential for Rare Plants  

E-print Network

Plant Population Viability and Restoration Potential for Rare Plants Near Solar Installations solar developments in the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of California will significantly impact plants of current plant populations, assess their habitat requirements, and provide information on the feasibility

78

Assessing the feasibility of native fish reintroductions: a framework applied to threatened bull trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Translocations to recover native fishes have resulted in mixed success. One reason for the failure of these actions is inadequate assessments of their feasibility prior to implementation. Here, we provide a framework developed to assess the feasibility of one type of translocation-reintroduction. The framework was founded on two simple components of feasibility: the potential for recipient habitats to support a reintroduction and the potential of available donor populations to support a reintroduction. Within each component, we developed a series of key questions. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that incorporated consideration of uncertainty in available information. The result was a simple yet transparent system for assessing reintroduction feasibility that can be rapidly applied in practice. We applied this assessment framework to the potential reintroduction of threatened bull trout Salvelinus confluentus into the Clackamas River, Oregon. In this case, the assessment suggested that the degree of feasibility for reintroduction was high based on the potential of recipient habitats and available donor populations. The assessment did not provide a comprehensive treatment of all possible factors that would drive an actual decision to implement a reintroduction,

Dunham, Jason; Gallo, Kirsten; Shively, Dan; Allen, Chris; Goehring, Brad

2011-01-01

79

Initial Feasibility Assessment of a High Altitude Long Endurance Airship  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high altitude solar powered airship provides the ability to carry large payloads to high altitudes and remain on station for extended periods of time. This study examines the feasibility of this concept. Factors such as time of year, latitude, wind speeds and payload are considered in establishing the capabilities of a given size airship. East and West coast operation were evaluated. The key aspect to success of this type of airship is the design and operation of the propulsion and power system. A preliminary propulsion/power system design was produced based on a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system and solar photovoltaic array for energy production. A modular system design was chosen with four independent power/propulsion units utilized by the airship. Results on payload capacity and flight envelope (latitude and time of year) were produced for a range of airship sizes.

Colozza, Anthony; Dolce, James (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

80

Application of EPA wetland research program approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment.  

SciTech Connect

Kolka, R.K., C.C. Trettin, E.A. Nelson, C.D. Barton, and D.E. Fletcher. 2002. Application of the EPA Wetland Research Program Approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment. J. Env. Monitoring & Restoration 1(1):37-51. Forested wetland restoration assessment is difficult because of the timeframe necessary for the development of a forest ecosystem. The development of a forested wetland ecosystem includes the recovery of hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities. To assess forested wetland restoration projects, measures need to be developed that are sensitive to early changes in community development and are predictive of future conditions. In this study we apply the EPS's Wetland Research Program's (WRP) approach to assess the recovery of two thermally altered riparian wetland systems in South Carolina. In one of the altered wetland systems, approximately 75% of the wetland was planted with bottomland tree seedlings in an effort to hasten recovery. Individual studies addressing hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities indicate variable recovery responses.

Kolka, R., K.; Trettin, C., C.; Nelson, E., A.; Barton, C., D.; Fletcher, D., E.

2002-01-01

81

WRITTEN STATEMENT OF DEPUTY CHIEF OF THE ASSESSMENT AND RESTORATION DIVISION  

E-print Network

damages resulting from the Deepwater Horizon BP oil spill. My name is Tony Penn, and I am the Deputy Chief in environmental restoration following an oil spill. The Deepwater Horizon BP oil spill, the largest accidental oil as a whole from the BP oil spill. NOAA and our co-trustees have been working tirelessly to assess

82

Feasibility study of remote sensing using structured light for 3D damage assessments after natural disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feasibility of using structured light for remote sensing and 3D damage assessments have been explored in this study. Although near real-time reconstruction of 3D objects in color is an active research area which possesses a wide variety of application including disaster assessments, its application to remote sensing is relatively new. Structured light can be applied to aircraft, UAV platforms, as well as provide in situ accurate disaster assessments. It also provides ground truth for validating satellite observations. The feasibility for this type of applications is investigated with model building and automobile experiments and has produced promising preliminary results.

Qiu, Shi; Cao, Changyong; Zhang, Bin; Shao, Xi; Xie, Wang; Bai, Yan; Li, Chuanrong

2014-11-01

83

Feasibility Study for the PISA ICT Literacy Assessment: Report to Network A  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the findings of a study conducted to explore the feasibility of developing and delivering an assessment of information and communication technology (ICT) literacy for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The study was conducted at the request of an expert panel convened by Network A and was funded in…

Lennon, Marylou; Kirsch, Irwin; Von Davier, Matthias; Wagner, Michael; Yamamoto, Kentaro

2003-01-01

84

WRITTEN STATEMENT OF DEPUTY CHIEF, ASSESSMENT AND RESTORATION DIVISION  

E-print Network

HEARING ON ASSESSING NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE BP DEEPWATER HORIZON DISASTER BEFORE damages resulting from the Deepwater Horizon BP oil spill. My name is Tony Penn and I am the Deputy Chief to the families of the eleven people who lost their lives in the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon

85

Thermal hydraulic feasibility assessment for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project  

SciTech Connect

A series of scoping analyses have been completed investigating the thermal-hydraulic performance and feasibility of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Integrated Process Strategy (IPS). The SNFP was established to develop engineered solutions for the expedited removal, stabilization, and storage of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The subject efforts focused on independently investigating, quantifying, and establishing the governing heat production and removal mechanisms for each of the IPS operations and configurations, obtaining preliminary results for comparison with and verification of other analyses, and providing technology-based recommendations for consideration and incorporation into the design bases for the SNFP. The goal was to develop a series fo thermal-hydraulic models that could respond to all process and safety-related issues that may arise pertaining to the SNFP. A series of sensitivity analyses were also performed to help identify those parameters that have the greatest impact on energy transfer and hence, temperature control. It is anticipated that the subject thermal-hydraulic models will form the basis for a series of advanced and more detailed models that will more accurately reflect the thermal performance of the IPS and alleviate the necessity for some of the more conservative assumptions and oversimplifications, as well as form the basis for the final process and safety analyses.

Heard, F.J.; Cramer, E.R.; Beaver, T.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Thurgood, M.J. [Marvin (John), Inc. (United States)

1996-01-01

86

Feasibility Study of Continuous Comprehensive Assessment of Primary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Educational Measurement and Evaluation (DEME) of the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), New Delhi, India prepared a scheme of assessment for primary classes based on the concept of continuous and comprehensive evaluation. This scheme was finalized by an expert group before actual tryout. Primary…

Rajput, Saria; Tewari, A. D.; Kumar, Santosh

2005-01-01

87

Geomatics and bioenergy feasibility assessments: Taking stock and looking forward  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy resources are spatially distributed, and their potential to contribute to societal energy supplies is dependent on local geographic nuances. To provide relevant and robust baseline information, these spatial qualities must be considered when assessing resource availability or technology performance. This is the impetus behind the application of geomatics in the field of renewable energy. Given that each renewable

K. Calvert

2011-01-01

88

Feasibility of Using Virtual Reality to Assess Nicotine Cue Reactivity During Treatment  

PubMed Central

Cue reactivity assessments have been widely used to assess craving and attention to cues among cigarette smokers. Cue reactivity has the potential to offer insights into treatment decisions; however, the use of cue reactivity in treatment studies has been limited. This study assessed the feasibility of using a virtual reality–based cue reactivity assessment approach (VR-NCRAS) during treatment. In a clinical smoking cessation treatment study, 46 treatment-seeking nicotine-dependent adult smokers were assessed for cue reactivity at baseline, Week 4, and Week 10 of treatment. Measures of cue reactivity included subjective craving and attention to cues after exposure to two neutral and two smoking cue environments. Overall, feasibility of using VR-NCRAS was demonstrated and these findings support the use of the cue reactivity assessment during treatment, which can inform treatment decisions. PMID:25110453

Kaganoff, Eili; Bordnick, Patrick S.; Carter, Brian Lee

2014-01-01

89

Is extreme learning machine feasible? A theoretical assessment (part II).  

PubMed

An extreme learning machine (ELM) can be regarded as a two-stage feed-forward neural network (FNN) learning system that randomly assigns the connections with and within hidden neurons in the first stage and tunes the connections with output neurons in the second stage. Therefore, ELM training is essentially a linear learning problem, which significantly reduces the computational burden. Numerous applications show that such a computation burden reduction does not degrade the generalization capability. It has, however, been open that whether this is true in theory. The aim of this paper is to study the theoretical feasibility of ELM by analyzing the pros and cons of ELM. In the previous part of this topic, we pointed out that via appropriately selected activation functions, ELM does not degrade the generalization capability in the sense of expectation. In this paper, we launch the study in a different direction and show that the randomness of ELM also leads to certain negative consequences. On one hand, we find that the randomness causes an additional uncertainty problem of ELM, both in approximation and learning. On the other hand, we theoretically justify that there also exist activation functions such that the corresponding ELM degrades the generalization capability. In particular, we prove that the generalization capability of ELM with Gaussian kernel is essentially worse than that of FNN with Gaussian kernel. To facilitate the use of ELM, we also provide a remedy to such a degradation. We find that the well-developed coefficient regularization technique can essentially improve the generalization capability. The obtained results reveal the essential characteristic of ELM in a certain sense and give theoretical guidance concerning how to use ELM. PMID:25069128

Lin, Shaobo; Liu, Xia; Fang, Jian; Xu, Zongben

2015-01-01

90

Floristic Quality Index: An assessment tool for restoration projects and monitoring sites in coastal Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) program was established to assess the effectiveness of individual coastal restoration projects and the cumulative effects of multiple projects at regional and coastwide scales. In order to make these assessments, analytical teams have been assembled for each of the primary data types sampled under the CRMS program, including vegetation, hydrology, landscape, and soils. These teams consist of scientists and support staff from the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration, and university academics. Each team is responsible for developing or identifying parameters, indices, or tools that can be used to assess coastal wetlands at various scales. The CRMS Vegetation Analytical Team has developed a Floristic Quality Index for coastal Louisiana to determine the quality of a wetland based on its plant species composition and abundance.

Cretini, K.F.; Steyer, G.D.

2011-01-01

91

Restoring the Garden of Eden: An Ecological Assessment of the Marshes of Iraq  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience is on the need for restoring marshes in Iraq. The Mesopotamian marshes of southern Iraq had been all but destroyed by Saddam Hussein's regime by the year 2000. Earlier assessments suggested that poor water quality, the presence of toxic materials, and high saline soil conditions in the drained marshes would prevent their ecological restoration and doom the reestablishment of the Marsh Arab culture of fishing and agriculture. However, the high volume of good-quality water entering the marshes from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, a result of two record years of snowpack melt in Turkey and Iran, allowed 39% of the former marshes to be reflooded by September 2005. Although reflooding does not guarantee restoration success, our recent field surveys have found a remarkable rate of reestablishment of native macroinvertebrates, macrophytes, fish, and birds in reflooded marshes. However, the future availability of water for restoration is in question, which suggests that only a portion of the former marshes may be restored. Also, landscape connectivity between marshes is greatly reduced, causing concern about local species extinctions and lower diversity in isolated wetlands.

CURTIS J. RICHARDSON and NAJAH A. HUSSAIN (; )

2006-06-01

92

Assessing effects of native forest restoration on soil moisture dynamics and potential aquifer recharge, Auwahi, Maui  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding the role of soils in regulating water flow through the unsaturated zone is critical in assessing the influence of vegetation on soil moisture dynamics and aquifer recharge. Because of fire, introduced ungulates and landscape-level invasion of non-native grasses, less than 10% of original dry forest (~730?mm precipitation annually) still exists on leeward Haleakal?, Maui, Hawaiian Islands. Native dry forest restoration at Auwahi has demonstrated the potential for dramatic revegetation, allowing a unique experimental comparison of hydrologic function between tracts of restored forest and adjacent grasslands. We hypothesized that even relatively recent forest restoration can assist in the recovery of impaired hydrologic function, potentially increasing aquifer recharge. To compare restored forest and grassland sites, we experimentally irrigated and measured soil moisture and temperature with subsurface instrumentation at four locations within the reforested area and four within the grassland, each with a 2·5?×?2·5-m plot. Compared with grassland areas, water in reforested sites moved to depth faster with larger magnitude changes in water content. The median first arrival velocity of water was greater by a factor of about 13 in the reforested sites compared with the grassland sites. This rapid transport of water to depths of 1?m or greater suggests increased potential aquifer recharge. Improved characterization of how vegetation and soils influence recharge is crucial for understanding the long-term impacts of forest restoration on aquifer recharge and water resources, especially in moisture-limited regions.

Perkins, Kim S.; Nimmo, John R.; Medeiros, Arthur C.; Szutu, Daphne J.; von Allmen, Erica

2014-01-01

93

A feasibility assessment of magnetic bearings for free-piston Stirling space power converters  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) under NASA Contract NAS3-26061, {open_quotes}A Feasibility Assessment of Magnetic Bearings for Free-Piston Stirling Space Engines.{close_quotes} The work was performed over the period from July 1990 through August 1991. The objective of the effort was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of applying magnetic bearings to free-piston Stirling-cycle power conversion machinery of the type currently being evaluated for possible use in future long-term space missions.

Curwen, P.W.; Rao, D.K.; Wilson, D.S. [Mechanical Technology Inc., Latham, NY (United States)

1992-06-01

94

Floristic quality assessment of one natural and three restored wetland complexes in North Dakota, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Floristic quality assessment is potentially an important tool for conservation efforts in the northern Great Plains of North America, but it has received little rigorous evaluation. Floristic quality assessments rely on coefficients assigned to each plant species of a region's flora based on the conservatism of each species relative to others in the region. These coefficients of conservatism (C values) are assigned by a panel of experts familiar with a region's flora. The floristic quality assessment method has faced some criticism due to the subjective nature of these assignments. To evaluate the effect of this subjectivity on floristic quality assessments, we performed separate evaluations of the native plant communities in a natural wetland complex and three restored wetland complexes. In our first assessment, we used C values assigned subjectively by the Northern Great Plains Floristic Quality Assessment Panel. We then performed an independent assessment using the observed distributions of species among a group of wetlands that ranged from highly disturbed to largely undisturbed (data-generated C values). Using the panel-assigned C values, mean C values ( ) of the restored wetlands rarely exceeded 3.4 and never exceeded 3.9, with the highest values occurring in the oldest restored complex; all but two wetlands in the natural wetland complex had a greater than 3.9. Floristic quality indices (FQI) for the restored wetlands rarely exceeded 22 and usually reached maximums closer to 19, with higher values occurring again in the oldest restored complex; only two wetlands in the natural complex had an FQI less than 22. We observed that 95% confidence limits for species richness and percent natives overlapped greatly among wetland complexes, whereas confidence limits for both and FQI overlapped little. and FQI values were consistently greater when we used the data-generated C values than when we used the panel-assigned C values; nonetheless, conclusions reached based on these two independent assessment techniques were virtually identical. Our results are consistent with the opinion that coefficients assigned subjectively by expert botanists familiar with a region's flora provide adequate information to perform accurate floristic quality assessments.

Mushet, D.M.; Euliss, N.H., Jr.; Shaffer, T.L.

2002-01-01

95

Assessing stream restoration effectiveness at reducing nitrogen export to downstream waters.  

PubMed

The degradation of headwater streams is common in urbanized coastal areas, and the role these streams play in contributing to downstream pollution is a concern among natural resource managers and policy makers. Thus, many urban stream restoration efforts are increasingly focused on reducing the downstream flux of pollutants. In regions that suffer from coastal eutrophication, it is unclear whether stream restoration does in fact reduce nitrogen (N) flux to downstream waters and, if so, by how much and at what cost. In this paper, we evaluate whether stream restoration implemented to improve water quality of urban and suburban streams in the Chesapeake Bay region, USA, is effective at reducing the export of N in stream flow to downstream waters. We assessed the effectiveness of restored streams positioned in the upland vs. lowland regions of Coastal Plain watershed during both average and stormflow conditions. We found that, during periods of low discharge, lowland streams that receive minor N inputs from groundwater or bank seepage reduced in-stream N fluxes. Furthermore, lowland streams with the highest N concentrations and lowest discharge were the most effective. During periods of high flow, only those restoration projects that converted lowland streams to stream-wetland complexes seemed to be effective at reducing N fluxes, presumably because the design promoted the spillover of stream flow onto adjacent floodplains and wetlands. The observed N-removal rates were relatively high for stream ecosystems, and on the order of 5% of the inputs to the watershed. The dominant forms of N entering restored reaches varied during low and high flows, indicating that N uptake and retention were controlled by distinctive processes during different hydrological conditions. Therefore, in order for stream restoration to effectively reduce N fluxes exported to downstream waters, restoration design should include features that enhance the processing and retention of different forms of N, and for a wide range of flow conditions. The use of strategic designs that match the dominant attributes of a stream such as position in the watershed, influence of groundwater, dominant flow conditions, and N concentrations is crucial to assure the success of restoration. PMID:21939039

Filoso, Solange; Palmer, Margaret A

2011-09-01

96

Assessing significant geomorphic changes and effectiveness of dynamic restoration in a coastal dune ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shift from restoring coastal dunes as stabilized landscapes toward more morphodynamic ecosystems is underway. This paper uses results from a recent case study where invasive vegetation was removed from a coastal dune complex in western Canada as a first step in a dynamic ecosystem restoration project. Spatial statistical methods, used in the natural sciences to quantify patterns of significant spatial-temporal changes, are reviewed and the local Moran's Ii spatial autocorrelation statistic is explored for detecting and assessing significant changes. Cluster maps of positive (depositional) and negative (erosional) changes were used to derive statistically significant volumetric changes within discrete geomorphic units (beach, foredune, transgressive dune) over one year following vegetation removal. All units experienced net increases in sediment budgets compared to a pre-restoration surface. The beach experienced the highest episodic erosion and volumetric change and greatest net annual sediment budget. Compared to the beach, the annual sediment budget of the foredune was 19% whereas the transgressive dune was 33%. The foredune recovered rapidly to initial erosion during restoration and subsequent natural events with consistently positive sediment volumes and attained a form similar to that pre-restoration. Aeolian deflation and sand bypassing through the foredune was greatest in the two months following vegetation removal and peak accretion in the transgressive dune resulted from depositional lobes extending from the foredune, smaller dunes migrating within the complex, and growth of a precipitation ridge along the eastern margin. Several methodological and logistical considerations for detecting significant change in dynamic dune landscapes are discussed including sampling strategy design, data normalization and control measures, and incorporating uncertainty and inherent spatial relations within acquired datasets to ensure accuracy and comparability of results. Generally underutilized in coastal geomorphology, spatial autocorrelation methods (e.g., local Moran's Ii) are recommended over spatially uniform threshold approaches for the ability to detect local change processes and explore hypotheses on spatial-temporal dynamics. Finally, several key geomorphic indicators, that are believed to aid in re-establishing ecological conditions and processes that favor more resilient and natural dune ecosystems, are identified for assessing the effectiveness of dynamic restoration projects including: increased aeolian activity, enlarged active sand surface area, positive sediment budgets, increased dune morphodynamics, improved geomorphic diversity, and enhanced geomorphic resilience. Although limited in temporal scope, the case study results show that the initial phase of the restoration treatment was effective in enhancing all indicators except for increasing sand surface area. Given decadal scale observations of climatic changes and longer-term eco-geomorphic trajectory toward stabilization in the region, however, it is unlikely that the geomorphic effectiveness of this restoration effort will continue without continued frequent treatment interventions.

Walker, Ian J.; Eamer, Jordan B. R.; Darke, Ian B.

2013-10-01

97

The Restoration Rapid Assessment Tool: An Access/Visual Basic application  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Managers of parks and natural areas are increasingly faced with difficult decisions concerning restoration of disturbed lands. Financial and workforce resources often limit these restoration efforts, and rarely can a manager afford to address all concerns within the region of interest. With limited resources, managers and scientists have to decide which areas will be targeted for restoration and the restoration treatments to use in these areas. A broad range of approaches are used to make such decisions, from well-researched expert opinions (Cipollini et al. 2005) to gut feeling, with variable degrees of input from site visits, data collection, and data analysis used to support the decision. A standardized approach including an analytical assessment of site characteristics based on the best information available, with a written or electronic record of all the steps taken along the way, would make comparisons among a group of sites easier and lend credibility through use of common, documented criteria at all sites. In response to these concerns, we have developed the Restoration Rapid Assessment Tool (RRAT). RRAT is based on field observations of key indicators of site degradation, stressors influencing the site, value of the site with respect to larger management objectives, likelihood of achieving the management goals, and logistical constraints to restoration. The purpose of RRAT is not to make restoration decisions or prescribe methods, but rather to ensure that a basic set of pertinent issues are considered for each site and to facilitate comparisons among sites. Several concepts have been central to the development of RRAT. First, the management goal (also known as desired future condition) of any site under evaluation should be defined before the field evaluation begins. Second, the evaluation should be based upon readily observable indicators so as to avoid cumbersome field methods. Third, the ease with which site stressors can be ameliorated must be factored into the evaluation. Fourth, intrinsic site value must be assessed independently of current condition. Finally, logistical considerations must also be addressed. Our initial focus has been on riparian areas because they are among the most heavily impacted habitat types, and RRAT indicators reflect this focus.

Hiebert, Ron; Larson, D.L.; Thomas, K.; Tancreto, N.; Haines, D.; Richey, A.; Dow, T.; Drees, L.

2009-01-01

98

Feasibility Assessment of Thermal Barrier Seals for Extreme Transient Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The assembly joints of modem solid rocket motor cases are generally sealed using conventional O-ring type seals. The 5500+ F combustion gases produced by rocket motors are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of phenolic insulation. Special compounds are used to fill insulation gaps leading up to the seals to prevent a direct flowpath to them. Design criteria require that the seals should not experience torching or charring during operation, or their sealing ability would be compromised. On limited occasions, NASA has observed charring of the primary O-rings of the Space Shuttle solid rocket nozzle assembly joints due to parasitic leakage paths opening up in the gap-fill compounds during rocket operation. NASA is investigating different approaches for preventing torching or charring of the primary O-rings. One approach is to implement a braided rope seal upstream of the primary O-ring to serve as a thermal barrier that prevents the hot gases from impinging on the O-ring seals. This paper presents flow, resiliency, and thermal resistance for several types of NASA rope seals braided out of carbon fibers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the seals when exposed to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion temperatures. Rope seals braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over six minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Room and high temperature flow tests are presented for the carbon seals for different amounts of linear compression. Room temperature compression tests were performed to assess seal resiliency and unit preloads as a function of compression. The thermal barrier seal was tested in a subscale "char" motor test in which the seal sealed an intentional defect in the gap insulation. Temperature measurements indicated that the seal blocked 2500 F combustion gases on the upstream side with very little temperature rise on the downstream side.

Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

1998-01-01

99

Are We There Yet? Feasibility of Continuous Stress Assessment via Wireless Physiological Sensors  

E-print Network

sensors can be used for timely delivery of a variety of interven- tions to reduce or avoid stress. WeAre We There Yet? Feasibility of Continuous Stress Assessment via Wireless Physiological Sensors Md Stress can lead to headaches and fatigue, precipitate addictive be- haviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol

Kumar, Santosh

100

Assessing the feasibility of land application of fly ash, sewage sludge and their mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land disposal of fly ash (FA) and sewage sludge (SS) is a major problem due largely to their potentially harmful constituents. Combined use of FA and SS however may help reduce the associated pollution potential. In this paper we summarize the results of several case studies designed to assess the feasibility of land application of FA with and without SS.

K. S Sajwan; S Paramasivam; A. K Alva; D. C Adriano; P. S Hooda

2003-01-01

101

The feasibility and utility of grocery receipt analyses for dietary assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To establish the feasibility and utility of a simple data collection methodology for dietary assessment. DESIGN: Using a cross-sectional design, trained data collectors approached adults (~20 – 40 years of age) at local grocery stores and asked whether they would volunteer their grocery receipts and answer a few questions for a small stipend ($1). METHODS: The grocery data were

Sarah Levin Martin; Teresa Howell; Yan Duan; Michele Walters

2006-01-01

102

Assessing the Feasibility of Performing an Air Accountability Study in New Haven, CT  

EPA Science Inventory

The main objective of this EPA study was to examine the feasibility of conducting a local (e.g., city level) assessment of the public health impacts of cumulative air pollution reduction activities (a.k.a. accountability) from the federal, state, local and voluntary actions in t...

103

IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE FOR NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT, RESTORATION, AND REHABILITATION  

PubMed Central

Various international and national regulations hold polluters liable for the cleanup of released hazardous substances and the restoration/rehabilitation of natural resources to preincident baseline conditions, a process often referred to as natural resource damage assessment and restoration (NRDAR). Here, we, the authors, describe how global climate change (GCC) will challenge each of the steps of NRDAR processes and offer eight recommendations to improve these processes in light of GCC. First, we call for a better understanding of the net effects of GCC and contaminants on natural resources. Second, we urge facilities and environmental managers to plan for GCC-related factors that are expected to increase the probability of contaminant releases. Third, we suggest re-evaluating definitions of baseline and reference conditions given that GCC will alter both their trajectories and variability. Fourth, we encourage long-term monitoring to improve the quantification of baseline conditions that will change as climate changes. This will enhance the accuracy of injury assessments, the effectiveness of restoration, and the detection of early warning signs that ecosystems are approaching tipping points. Fifth, in response to or anticipation of GCC, restoration projects may need to be conducted in areas distant from the site of injury or focused on functionally equivalent natural resources; thus, community involvement in NRDAR processes will be increasingly important. Sixth, we promote using NRDAR restoration projects as opportunities to mitigate GCC-related impacts. Seventh, we recommend adaptive management approaches to NRDAR processes and communication of successes and failures widely. Finally, we recommend focusing on managing the stressors that might be exacerbated by GCC, such as pollution and habitat loss, because there is a long history of successfully mitigating these stressors, which can be more easily managed on local scales than climate change. We believe that adoption of these recommendations will lead to a more efficacious NRDAR process, despite the challenges posed by climate change. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:93–101. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23097077

Rohr, Jason R; Johnson, Philip; Hickey, Christopher W; Helm, Roger C; Fritz, Alyce; Brasfield, Sandra

2013-01-01

104

Implications of global climate change for natural resource damage assessment, restoration, and rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Various international and national regulations hold polluters liable for the cleanup of released hazardous substances and the restoration/rehabilitation of natural resources to preincident baseline conditions, a process often referred to as natural resource damage assessment and restoration (NRDAR). Here, we, the authors, describe how global climate change (GCC) will challenge each of the steps of NRDAR processes and offer eight recommendations to improve these processes in light of GCC. First, we call for a better understanding of the net effects of GCC and contaminants on natural resources. Second, we urge facilities and environmental managers to plan for GCC-related factors that are expected to increase the probability of contaminant releases. Third, we suggest re-evaluating definitions of baseline and reference conditions given that GCC will alter both their trajectories and variability. Fourth, we encourage long-term monitoring to improve the quantification of baseline conditions that will change as climate changes. This will enhance the accuracy of injury assessments, the effectiveness of restoration, and the detection of early warning signs that ecosystems are approaching tipping points. Fifth, in response to or anticipation of GCC, restoration projects may need to be conducted in areas distant from the site of injury or focused on functionally equivalent natural resources; thus, community involvement in NRDAR processes will be increasingly important. Sixth, we promote using NRDAR restoration projects as opportunities to mitigate GCC-related impacts. Seventh, we recommend adaptive management approaches to NRDAR processes and communication of successes and failures widely. Finally, we recommend focusing on managing the stressors that might be exacerbated by GCC, such as pollution and habitat loss, because there is a long history of successfully mitigating these stressors, which can be more easily managed on local scales than climate change. We believe that adoption of these recommendations will lead to a more efficacious NRDAR process, despite the challenges posed by climate change. PMID:23097077

Rohr, Jason R; Johnson, Philip; Hickey, Christopher W; Helm, Roger C; Fritz, Alyce; Brasfield, Sandra

2013-01-01

105

Quality assessment of restored soils: combination of classical soil science methods with ground penetrating radar and near infrared aerial photography?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Switzerland agricultural land is usually restored after gravel exploitation. In order to minimize soil damage, the quality of restored soils should be checked by the authorities. To assess the physical soil properties, a combination of classical soil science methods with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and near infrared (IR) aerial photography was tested in 1994–1995. GPR profiles were recorded in the

B. Friedli; S. Tobias; M. Fritsch

1998-01-01

106

A Retrospective Assessment of Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Pulpectomies in Vital Maxillary Primary Incisors Successfully Restored With Composite Resin Crowns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate, via clinical and radio- graphic assessments, the treatment outcome of zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) pulpectomies performed in vital maxillary primary incisors successfully restored with composite resin crowns. Methods: Pulpectomized vital primary incisors were treated by a uniformed technique, filled with ZOE paste, and successfully restored with composite resin crowns. Those that

Robert E. Primosch; Anissa Ahmadi; Barry Setzer

2005-01-01

107

Transforming trauma: a qualitative feasibility study of integrative restoration (iRest) yoga Nidra on combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

This eight-week study examined the feasibility of offering weekly classes in Integrative Restoration (iRest), a form of mindfulness meditation, to military combat veterans at a community mental health agency in the San Francisco Bay Area. Participants were 16 male combat veterans (15 Vietnam War and 1 Iraq War) of mixed ethnicity, aged 41 to 66 years, suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The 11 participants who completed the study reported reduced rage, anxiety, and emotional reactivity, and increased feelings of relaxation, peace, self-awareness, and self-efficacy, despite challenges with mental focus, intrusive memories, and other concerns. All participants reported they would have attended ongoing iRest classes at the agency approximately once per week. PMID:22398342

Stankovic, L

2011-01-01

108

Union County - La Grande, Oregon geothermal district heating: feasibility assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an assessment of geothermal district heating in the City of La Grande, Oregon. Eight study area districts were analyzed to determine their economic feasibility. Results from the analyses conclude that certain districts within the City of La Grande are economically feasible if certain assumptions are correct. Development of geothermal district heating for these areas would provide direct energy and dollar savings to the building owners and would also provide direct and indirect benefits to low and moderate income households within the City.

Jenkins, H. II; Giddings, M.; Hanson, P.

1982-09-01

109

Image Registered Gastroscopic Ultrasound (IRGUS) in Human Subjects: A Pilot Study to Assess Feasibility  

PubMed Central

Background and study aims EUS is a complex procedure due to subtleties of ultrasound interpretation, the small field of observation, and the uncertainty of probe position and orientation. Animal studies demonstrated that Image Registered Gastroscopic Ultrasound (IRGUS) is feasible and may be superior to conventional EUS in efficiency and image interpretation. This study explores whether these attributes of IRGUS will be evident in human subjects with an aim of assessing the feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of IRGUS in patients with suspected pancreatic lesions. Patients and methods Prospective feasibility study at a tertiary care academic medical center in human patients withpancreatic lesions on CT scan who were scheduled to undergo conventional EUS were randomly chosen to undergo their procedure with IRGUS. Main outcome measures include feasibility, ease of use, systemfunction, validated task load (TLX) assessment instrument and IRGUS experience questionnaire. Results Five subjects underwent IRGUS without complication. Localization of pancreatic lesions was accomplished efficiently and accurately (TLX temporal demand 3.7%; TLX effort 8.6%). Image synchronization and registration was accomplished in real-time without procedure delay. Mean assessment score for endoscopist experience with IRGUS was positive (66.6±29.4). Real-time display of CT images in the EUS plane and echoendoscope orientation were the most beneficial characteristic. Conclusions IRGUS appears feasible and safe in human subjects, and efficient and accurate at identification of probe position and image interpretation. IRGUS has the potential to broaden adoption of EUS techniques and shorten EUS learning curves. Clinical studies comparing IRGUS to conventional EUS are ongoing. PMID:21425041

Obstein, Keith L.; Estépar, Raúl San José; Jayender, Jagadeesan; Patil, Vaibhav D.; Spofford, Inbar S.; Ryan, Michele B.; Lengyel, Balazs I.; Shams, Ramtin; Vosburgh, Kirby G.; Thompson, Christopher C.

2014-01-01

110

Aquatic ecosystem protection and restoration: Advances in methods for assessment and evaluation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many methods and criteria are available to assess aquatic ecosystems, and this review focuses on a set that demonstrates advancements from community analyses to methods spanning large spatial and temporal scales. Basic methods have been extended by incorporating taxa sensitivity to different forms of stress, adding measures linked to system function, synthesizing multiple faunal groups, integrating biological and physical attributes, spanning large spatial scales, and enabling simulations through time. These tools can be customized to meet the needs of a particular assessment and ecosystem. Two case studies are presented to show how new methods were applied at the ecosystem scale for achieving practical management goals. One case used an assessment of biotic structure to demonstrate how enhanced river flows can improve habitat conditions and restore a diverse fish fauna reflective of a healthy riverine ecosystem. In the second case, multitaxonomic integrity indicators were successful in distinguishing lake ecosystems that were disturbed, healthy, and in the process of restoration. Most methods strive to address the concept of biological integrity and assessment effectiveness often can be impeded by the lack of more specific ecosystem management objectives. Scientific and policy explorations are needed to define new ways for designating a healthy system so as to allow specification of precise quality criteria that will promote further development of ecosystem analysis tools.

Bain, M.B.; Harig, A.L.; Loucks, D.P.; Goforth, R.R.; Mills, K.E.

2000-01-01

111

The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan requires oversight, monitoring, assessment, and coordination to succeed. NOAA is contributing to these needs by providing a coordinated network of  

E-print Network

The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan requires oversight, monitoring, assessment the scientific data, education,and collaboration necessary to sustain this investment in Great Lakes restoration. Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships funded by the Great Lakes

112

The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan requires oversight, monitoring, assessment, and coordination to succeed. NOAA is contributing to these needs by establishing a coordinated network of scientific  

E-print Network

The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan requires oversight, monitoring, assessment of scientific observations, educating the next generation of Great Lakes citizens, and providing information, education, and collaboration necessary to sustain this investment in Great Lakes restoration. Accountability

113

Feasibility Assessment for Pressure Casting of Ceramic-Aluminum Composites for NASA's Propulsion Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feasibility assessment of pressure casting of ceramic-aluminum composites for NASA% propulsion applications is summarized. A combination of several demonstration projects to produce three unique components for liquid hydrogen-oxygen rocket engine% flanges, valves and turbo-pump housing are conducted. These components are made from boron carbide, silicon carbide and alumina powders fabricated into complex net shaped parts using dry green powder compaction, slip casting or a novel 3D ink-jet printing process, followed by sintering to produce performs that can be pressure cast by infiltration with molten aluminum. I n addition, joining techniques are also explored to insure that these components can be assembled into a structure without degrading their highly tailored properties. The feasibility assessment was made to determine if these new materials could provide a significant weight savings, thereby reducing vehicle launch costs, while being durable materials to increase safety and performance for propulsion system.

Lee, Jonathan A.

2005-01-01

114

A Levels-of-Evidence Approach for Assessing Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Estuary and River Restoration Programs  

SciTech Connect

Even though large-scale ecological restoration programs are beginning to supplement isolated projects implemented on rivers and tidal waterways, the effects of restoration success often continue to be evaluated at project scales or by integration in an additive manner. Today our scientific understanding is sufficient that we can begin to apply lessons learnt from assessing cumulative impacts of anthropogenic stressors on ecosystems to the assessment of ecological restoration. Integration of this knowledge has the potential to increase the efficacy of restoration projects conducted at several locations but co-managed within the confines of a larger integrative program. We introduce here a framework based on a levels-of-evidence approach that facilitates assessment of the cumulative landscape effects of individual restoration actions taken at many different locations. It incorporates data collection at restoration and reference sites, hydrodynamic modeling, geographic information systems, and meta-analyses in a five-stage process: design, data, analysis, synthesis and evaluation, and application. This framework evolved from the need to evaluate the efficacy of restoration projects designed to increase rearing habitat for outmigrating juvenile salmonids, which are being implemented in numerous wetlands on the 235-km tidal portion of the Columbia River, U.S.A.

Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Vogt, Kristiina A.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Dawley, Earl

2011-03-01

115

Defensibility, credibility and feasibility of three standard setting procedures for OSCE: Developing evidence-informed assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Standard setting is integral in clinical skill assessments in outcome and competency based MBBS curriculum. To determine the most credible and feasible standard setting method for clinical examinations (OSCEs), the outcomes from three different methods were compared.\\u000aSummary of work: Modified Angoff (MAM), Borderline Group (BGM), and Borderline Regression (BRM) standard setting methods were applied to nine OSCE stations

Elina Tor; Jean MacNish; Alan Wrtight; Carole Steketee

2011-01-01

116

Environmental Restoration and Waste Management manpower needs assessment: US Department of Energy complex  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc. to assess the supply and demand for 53 scientific, engineering, and technical occupations relevant to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM). These assessments were made by examining budget projections and the input of program/project and human resources managers throughout the DOE complex. Quantitative projections of full-time equivalent employees slots for each occupation have been developed for the 1993--1997 time frame. Qualitative assessments of the factors that affect recruitment, staffing, and retention are also reported. The implications of the study are discussed within the likely skills mix of the future workforce and the education and organization interventions most likely to address the needs of the DOE complex.

Holmes, C.W.; Lewis, R.E.; Hunt, S.T. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Finn, M.G. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States))

1992-06-01

117

Environmental Restoration and Waste Management manpower needs assessment: US Department of Energy complex  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc. to assess the supply and demand for 53 scientific, engineering, and technical occupations relevant to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM). These assessments were made by examining budget projections and the input of program/project and human resources managers throughout the DOE complex. Quantitative projections of full-time equivalent employees slots for each occupation have been developed for the 1993--1997 time frame. Qualitative assessments of the factors that affect recruitment, staffing, and retention are also reported. The implications of the study are discussed within the likely skills mix of the future workforce and the education and organization interventions most likely to address the needs of the DOE complex.

Holmes, C.W.; Lewis, R.E.; Hunt, S.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Finn, M.G. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

1992-06-01

118

Preliminary assessment report for National Guard Facility, Installation 25255, Rehoboth, Massachusetts. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Massachusetts Army National Guard (MAARNG) property known as the Rehoboth National Guard Facility (RNGF) in Rehoboth, Massachusetts. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for ftirther action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the RNGF property, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities under the control of the MAARNG and the past activities contained within that area.

Haffenden, R.; Flaim, S.; Krokosz, M.

1993-08-01

119

Appalachian Rivers II Conference: Technology for Monitoring, Assessing, and Restoring Streams, Rivers, and Watersheds  

SciTech Connect

On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.

None available

1999-07-29

120

A dynamic reference model: a framework for assessing biodiversity restoration goals in a fire-dependent ecosystem.  

PubMed

The use of reference models as templates of historical or natural conditions to assess restoration progress is inherently logical; however, difficulties occur in application because of the need to incorporate temporal variation in ecosystems caused by disturbance and succession, as well as seasonal, interannual, or decadal variability. The landscape-scale restoration of the globally threatened and fire-dependent longleaf pine ecosystem in the southeastern United States is an example in which restoration efforts are even more complicated by the limited availability of extant reference sites. This study uses the dynamic reference conceptual framework to assess the direction and rate of recovery with respect to biodiversity restoration goals using a 15-year vegetation data set from an experimental restoration treatment in fire-excluded, hardwood-encroached longleaf pine sandhills. We compared ground-cover vegetation response to midstory hardwood removal through herbicide application, mechanical removal, and fire only. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordinations and proportional similarity analyses suggest that, while vegetation changed in all treatments over time, no differences in species composition or hardwood density in the ground cover were attributable to hardwood reduction treatments after 15 years with frequent prescribed fire. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that considerable variability is associated with reference sites over time. Sites identified in 1994 as attainable restoration targets had become a moving target themselves, changing in magnitude consistent with alterations in restoration plots attributable to treatment effects and shaped by the modest increase in fire frequency imposed since 1998. In a broad restoration context, this study demonstrates a conceptual framework to better understand and integrate the range of spatial and temporal variation associated with the best available reference sites. It also illustrates a practical tool for statistically defining reference sites and for measuring restoration success in continually changing conditions that should be widely applicable to other ecosystems and restoration goals. PMID:24261041

Kirkman, L Katherine; Barnett, Analie; Williams, Brett W; Hiers, J Kevin; Pokswinski, Scottrr M; Mitchell, Robert J

2013-10-01

121

Conceptual Assessment Framework for Forested Wetland Restoration: The Pen Branch Experience. Restoration of a Severely Impacted Riparian Wetland System - The Pen Branch Project  

SciTech Connect

Development of an assessment framework and indicators can be used to evaluate effectiveness of wetland restoration. Example of these include index of biotic integrity and the hydrogeomorphic method. Both approaches provide qualitative ranks. We propose a new method based on the EPA wetland research program. Similar to other methods, indexes are compared to reference communities; however, the comparisons are quantitative. In this paper we discuss the results of our framework using the Pen Branch riparian wetland system as an example.

Kolka, R.; Nelson, E.A.; Trettin, C.C.

2000-10-01

122

Use of data on avian demographics and site persistence during overwintering to assess quality of restored riparian habitat.  

PubMed

Monitoring responses by birds to restoration of riparian vegetation is relatively cost-effective, but in most assessments species-specific abundances, not demography, are monitored. Data on birds collected during the nonbreeding season are particularly lacking. We captured birds in mist nets and resighted banded birds to estimate species richness and diversity, abundance, demographic indexes, and site-level persistence of permanent-resident and overwintering migrants in remnant and restored riparian sites in California. Species richness in riparian remnants was significantly higher than in restored sites because abundances of uncommon permanent residents were greater in remnants. Species richness of overwintering migrants did not differ between remnants and restored sites. Responses among overwintering migrants (but not permanent residents) to remnant and restored riparian sites differed. Capture rates were higher in remnant or restored riparian sites for 7 of 10 overwintering migratory species. For Lincoln's Sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) and White-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) proportions of older birds were significantly higher in remnants, even though capture rates of these species were higher in restored sites. Overwinter persistence of 4 migrant species was significantly higher in remnant than in restored sites. A higher proportion of Hermit Thrushes (Catharus guttatus, 56.3%), older Fox Sparrows (Passerella iliaca, 57.1%), Lincoln's Sparrows (59.7%), and White-crowned Sparrows (67.8%) persisted in remnants than restored sites. Our results suggest restored riparian sites provide habitat for a wide variety of species in comparable abundances and diversity as occurs in remnant riparian sites. Our demographic and persistence data showed that remnants supported some species and age classes to a greater extent than restored sites. PMID:22443304

Latta, Steven C; Howell, Christine A; Dettling, Mark D; Cormier, Renée L

2012-06-01

123

Feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository  

SciTech Connect

This report discussed progress made during the second year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Corrosion testing in potentially corrosive irradiated environments received emphasis during the feasibility study. Results of experiments to evaluate the effect of a radiation field on the uniform corrosion rate of the copper-base materials in repository-relevant aqueous environments are given as well as results of an electrochemical study of the copper-base materials in normal and concentrated J-13 water. Results of tests on the irradiation of J-13 water and on the subsequent formation of hydrogen peroxide are given. A theoretical study was initiated to predict the long-term corrosion behavior of copper in the repository. Tests were conducted to determine whether copper would adversely affect release rates of radionuclides to the environment because of degradation of the Zircaloy cladding. A manufacturing survey to determine the feasibility of producing copper containers utilizing existing equipment and processes was completed. The cost and availability of copper was also evaluated and predicted to the year 2000. Results of this feasibility assessment are summarized.

Acton, C.F.; McCright, R.D.

1986-09-30

124

Nitrogen Retention in a Restored Tidal Stream (Kimages Creek, VA) Assessed by Mass Balance and Tracer Approaches.  

PubMed

Tidal streams are attractive candidates for restoration because of their capacity to retain nutrients from upland and estuarine sources. We quantified N retention in Kimages Creek, VA, following a dam breach that restored its historical (pre-1920) connection to the James River Estuary. Estimates of N retention derived from mass balance analysis were compared to tracer-based retention estimates obtained by injecting NHCl during an incoming tide and measuring recovery on the outgoing tide. The injection experiments showed that dissolved inorganic N (DIN) retention in the restored tidal and nontidal segments was similar to nearby streams and previously published values. These data suggest that the stream has attained expected levels of functioning less than 2 yr after restoration despite 80 yr of impoundment. The mass balance analysis provided additional information for restoration assessment as this approach allowed us to track multiple N fractions. These results showed that DIN retention was offset by export of total organic N resulting in net loss of total N from the restored creek. Seasonal variation in DIN retention was significantly and positively related to tidal exchange volume and ecosystem metabolism (gross primary production and respiration). Our findings show that existing methods for measuring nutrient retention in nontidal streams can be adapted to the bidirectional flow patterns of tidal streams to assess restoration effectiveness. PMID:25603247

Bukaveckas, Paul A; Wood, Joseph

2014-09-01

125

Harnessing Natural Recovery Processes to Improve Restoration Outcomes: An Experimental Assessment of Sponge-Mediated Coral Reef Restoration  

PubMed Central

Background Restoration is increasingly implemented to reestablish habitat structure and function following physical anthropogenic disturbance, but scientific knowledge of effectiveness of methods lags behind demand for guidelines. On coral reefs, recovery is largely dependent on coral reestablishment, and substratum stability is critical to the survival of coral fragments and recruits. Concrete is often used to immobilize rubble, but its ecological performance has not been rigorously evaluated, and restoration has generally fallen short of returning degraded habitat to pre-disturbance conditions. Fragments of erect branching sponges mediate reef recovery by facilitating rubble consolidation, yet such natural processes have been largely overlooked in restoring reefs. Methods On two reefs in Curacao, four treatments - coral rubble alone, rubble seeded with sponge fragments, rubble bound by concrete, and concrete “rubble” bound by concrete - were monitored over four years to investigate rubble consolidation with and without sponges and the ecological performance of treatments in terms of the number and diversity of coral recruits. Species specific rates of sponge fragment attachment to rubble, donor sponge growth and tissue replacement, and fragment survival inside rubble piles were also investigated to evaluate sponge species performance and determine rates for sustainably harvesting tissue. Findings/Significance Rubble piles seeded with sponges retained height and shape to a significantly greater degree, lost fewer replicates to water motion, and were significantly more likely to be consolidated over time than rubble alone. Significantly more corals recruited to sponge-seeded rubble than to all other treatments. Coral diversity was also greatest for rubble with sponges and it was the only treatment to which framework building corals recruited. Differences in overall sponge species performance suggest species selection is important to consider. Employing organisms that jump start successional pathways and facilitate recovery can significantly improve restoration outcomes; however, best practices require techniques be tailored to each system. PMID:23750219

Biggs, Brendan C.

2013-01-01

126

Feasibility of physician peer assessment in an academic health sciences centre.  

PubMed

Peer assessment has become an important component of physician evaluation. In an academic health sciences centre, in addition to clinical care there is a significant focus on education, training and research. The literature suggests that the use of a 360-degree evaluation can provide physicians with valuable information on many aspects of their practice and can inform both professional and personal development. We conducted a pilot study to determine the feasibility of using peer assessment as part of the evaluation of our academic physicians. To maintain anonymity, an outside company was engaged to conduct the study. Participants completed a self-assessment and provided the names of eight physician peers and eight non-physician peers who were then requested to complete an evaluation. In addition, 25 patients were asked to provide their feedback. All questionnaires were forwarded directly to the outside company, which then compiled the data and provided each participant with a final report. Results indicate that it is feasible to carry out peer assessment within an academic health sciences centre. Participants noted the value of the process for career development and quality improvement. PMID:21301240

Ferrari, Sharon; Vozzolo, Ben; Daneman, Denis; Macgregor, Daune

2011-01-01

127

Preliminary assessment report for Waiawa Gulch, Installation 15080, Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Hawaii Army National Guard (HIARNG) property near Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Waiawa Gulch property, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

Not Available

1993-08-01

128

Preliminary assessment report for Camp Swift Military Reservation, Installation 48070, Bastrop County, Texas. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Texas Army National Guard property in Bastrop County, Texas. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Camp Swift property, the requirement of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The review of both historical and current practices at the property indicated that the activities at Camp Swift include no operations considered to have an adverse impact to the environment. The recommendation, therefore, is that no further IRP action is necessary at this property.

Dennis, C.B.

1993-08-01

129

Preliminary assessment report for Fort Custer Training Center, Installation 26035, Augusta, Michigan. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Michigan Army National Guard property near Augusta, Michigan. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort Custer Training Center, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program. The environmentally significant operations associated with the property are (1) storage of hazardous materials and hazardous waste, (2) storage and dispensing of fuel, (3) washing of vehicles and equipment, and (4) weapons training ranges that may have accumulated lead.

Flaim, S.; Krokosz, M.

1993-08-01

130

Preliminary assessment report for Fort Jacob F. Wolters, Installation 48555, Mineral Wells, Texas. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Texas Army National Guard (TXARNG) property near Mineral Wells, Texas. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort Wolters property, the requirement of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

Dennis, C.B.

1993-08-01

131

Pilot In Command: A Feasibility Assessment of Autonomous Flight Management Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several years of NASA research have produced the air traffic management operational concept of Autonomous Flight Management with high potential for operational feasibility, significant system and user benefits, and safety. Among the chief potential benefits are demand-adaptive or scalable capacity, user flexibility and autonomy that may finally enable truly successful business strategies, and compatibility with current-day operations such that the implementation rate can be driven from within the user community. A concept summary of Autonomous Flight Management is provided, including a description of how these operations would integrate in shared airspace with existing ground-controlled flight operations. The mechanisms enabling the primary benefits are discussed, and key findings of a feasibility assessment of airborne autonomous operations are summarized. Concept characteristics that impact safety are presented, and the potential for initially implementing Autonomous Flight Management is discussed.

Wing, David J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

2004-01-01

132

A GIS based European Hydro Power Atlas: a tool for technical and economical feasibility assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The service consists of a tool for quick technical and economic feasibility assessment of small hydropower sites, based on topography, hydrology, environmental flows and other constraints such as distance from existing electric grids. The system works in a web-mapping wrap and allows analysis at a scale comparable to common geo-browsing tools (such Google Earth ©), just like e.g. popular JRC's PVGIS for the estimation of photovoltaic potential. The system provides basically two levels of operation: (1) mapping of the hydropower potential at Europe or regional scale, and (2) preliminary assessment of hydropower production at a site specific level. In the first level, a map of the potential production is provided taking into account a predefined length of the diversion of water (derivation channel and penstock) and calculating related Hydraulic jump; the system combines then topographic information together with flow duration curve information for the whole European/regional stream network and operative hypothesis on maximum derivable flow and other relevant derivation parameters. In the second level user defines in detail project parameters (amount of withdrawal, length of derivation, distance from connection grid, type of turbine, local feed in tariff) and the system evaluates preliminary feasibility check (size of the plat, maximum allowed investment for a fixed for a payback time). Interface via Google Map/Earth © or similar geo-browsing tools will be provided. This tool is expected to play a role in promoting investment in pico-to micro-hydropower plants by making preliminary feasibility assessment much quicker and affordable, and providing reliable estimation of potential available resource, which may be a critical aspect in the development of small plants and for site scouting activity The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme under Grant Agreement No. 603587 (SWITCH-ON).

Bagli, Stefano; Mazzoli, Paolo

2014-05-01

133

A Comparison of Continuous Clinical Assessment and Summative Clinical Assessment in Restorative Dentistr y  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY generally weak correlation values (p<0.4), while the average assess- ment for Crown and Bridgework for the BChD V group of <60% suggests that, on the basis of the results of this study, continuous clinical assessment cannot be used as a predictor of clini- cal competence in this discipline.

V Bookhan

134

Assessing the feasibility of data mining techniques for early liver cancer detection.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of a data mining association analysis technique, the FP Growth algorithm, for the detection of associations of liver cancer, geographic location and demographic of patients. For the research, we are planning to use data extracted from electronic health record systems of three healthcare organizations in different geographic locations (Canada, Taiwan and Mongolia). The data are arranged into 'transactions' which contain a set of data items focused around cancer diseases, geographic locations and patient demographics. This analysis produces association rules that indicate what combinations of demographics, geographic locations and patient characteristics lead to liver cancer. PMID:22874258

Kuo, Mu-Hsing; Hung, Chang-Mao; Barnett, Jeff; Pinheiro, Fabiola

2012-01-01

135

Carbon-Carbon Recuperators in Closed-Brayton-Cycle Nuclear Space Power Systems: A Feasibility Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using carbon-carbon recuperators in closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) nuclear space power conversion systems (PCS) was assessed. Recuperator performance expectations were forecast based on projected thermodynamic cycle state values for a planetary mission. Resulting thermal performance, mass and volume for a plate-fin carbon-carbon recuperator were estimated and quantitatively compared with values for a conventional offset-strip-fin metallic design. Material compatibility issues regarding carbon-carbon surfaces exposed to the working fluid in the CBC PCS were also discussed.

Barrett, Michael J.; Johnson, Paul K.

2004-01-01

136

Second annual report of the Environmental Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of environmental monitoring and field investigations conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report focuses on the watershed scale, striving to provide an ORNL site-wide perspective on types, distribution, and transport of contamination. Results are used to enhance the conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This report summarizes the efforts of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 and Site Investigations (SI) program. WAG 2 is the lower portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) system which drains the major contaminated sites at ORNL and discharges to the Clinch River where public access is allowed. The remedial investigation for WAG 2 includes a long-term multimedia environmental monitoring effort that takes advantage of WAG 2`s role as an integrator and conduit of contaminants from the ORNL site. This report also includes information from other site-specific remedial investigations and feasibility studies (RI/FS) for contaminated sites at ORNL and data from other ongoing monitoring programs conducted by other organizations [e.g., the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) compliance monitoring conducted by the Environmental Surveillance and Protection Section]. This information is included to provide an integrated basis to support ER decision making. This report summarizes information gathered through early 1993. Annual data, such as annual discharges of contaminants, are reported for calendar year 1992.

Clapp, R.B.; Watts, J.A. [eds.

1993-09-01

137

Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Rinehart, B.N.

1991-06-01

138

Feasibility of priority lane pricing on the Katy HOV lane: Feasibility assessment. Final research report, November 1995--March 1997  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the circumstances under which congestion pricing of an HOV lane might be appropriate, as well as the operational, legal, and public acceptance issues that bear on feasibility. Use of the I-10 (Katy Freeway) HOV lane is restricted to vehicles with three or more occupants (HOV3+) during the peak hours daily because the original HOV2+ eligibility produced demands approaching capacity and thus significant loss in operating speeds. However, the HOV3+ restriction results in significant excess capacity. In order to move more people during the peaks, METRO and TxDOT are considering allowing HOV2s to `buy in.` The feasibility analysis shows that there is adequate capacity for up to 600 HOV2s during each peak period. Legal feasibility rested on three issues: (1) authority to toll, (2) authority to enforce, and (3) ability to receive revenues. Critical steps for achieving public acceptance include: (1) understanding historic public feedback nationally, (2) understanding local opinions (both users and general public), (3) developing a public education/information campaign, and (4) developing support among local officials. The approach to establish a pricing in Houston involved the following: (1) develop the pricing objectives, (2) determine relevant local mobility prices and related tolling practices, and (3) establish an initial strategy and setting an adjustment policy.

Stockton, W.R.; Grant, C.L.; Hill, C.J.; McFarland, F.; Edmonson, N.R.

1997-07-01

139

Final Independent External Peer Review Report Bubbly Creek Ecosystem Restoration  

E-print Network

Final Independent External Peer Review Report Bubbly Creek Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study National Planning Center of Expertise for Ecosystem Restoration Mississippi Valley Division Contract No. W Report Bubbly Creek Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study Prepared by Battelle 505 King Avenue Columbus

US Army Corps of Engineers

140

Assessing Stream Restoration Potential of Recreational Enhancements on an Urban Stream, Springfield, OH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restoration potential of urban streams is inherently constrained by urban infrastructure. Roads and built structures may necessitate a static stream planform while water, sewage, and electrical utilities buried in the stream channel require a stable grade. A privately-led initiative to improve the recreational potential of a 9-km reach of Buck Creek and its tributary Beaver Creek in Springfield, Ohio, includes the modification of four lowhead dams with hydraulic heights up to 3 m. Modifications to the dams include replacing their hydraulic height with a series of drop structures engineered to create hydraulics conducive to kayak play. Two of the lowhead dams have been modified to date. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential benefits of modifications designed for their recreational value for stream restoration. The drop structure is a constructed channel constriction comprised of a hard step in the long stream profile immediately upstream of a scour pool, forming a morphologic sequence of constriction, step, and pool. Up to 4 drop structures are used along a given stream reach, constructed in the area of the former dam, its scour pool and a portion of the impounded area. Though not designed for stream restoration purposes, these structures potentially act as series a riffle-pool sequences. Changes in the stream habitat, water chemistry, and macroinvertebrates in response to dam modification highlight the potential for incorporating stream restoration into the engineering design. Following modification of two of the dams, the in-stream habitat quality, as measured by physical and biological indices, increased at one site and decreased at the other site, depending on whether the uppermost drop structure at the site reduced or expanded the impounded area. In the best case, channel sands and gravels, free of fine sand, silt, and organics, have deposited in a crescentic-shaped bar paralleling and grading to the constriction and step. Greater abundance and diversity of pollution-intolerant macroinvertebrates, supported by higher dissolved oxygen in the substrate, characterizes riffles at these sites.

Ritter, J. B.; Evelsizor, A.; Minter, K.; Rigsby, C.; Shaw, K.; Shearer, K.

2010-12-01

141

Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project. Final Environmental Assessment.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement pertaining to the Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Yakama Indian Nation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities for the Project within the boundaries of the Yakama Indian Reservation. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large 20, 340 hectare (50, 308 acre) project area. As individual properties are secured for the Project, three site-specific activities (habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) may be subject to further site-specific environmental review. All required Federal/Tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground disturbing activities.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration

1994-10-01

142

Assessing China's Ecological Restoration Programs: What's Been Done and What Remains to Be Done?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article surveys the recent literature that has assessed China’s ecological restoration programs, including the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) and the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP). Our presumption is that the performance of these programs should be determined by their effectiveness of implementation and significance of impact. Implementation effectiveness can be measured with such indicators as land area converted or conserved, and survival and stocking rates of restored vegetation, while impact significance can be gauged by the induced changes in ecosystem functionality and stability (erosion control, biodiversity protection, etc.) and socioeconomic conditions. Coupling this matrix with an exhaustive search of the publications, we find that: (1) the implementation effectiveness has not been examined as extensively as the impact significance; (2) efforts to assess the impact significance have concentrated on the SLCP, particularly its socioeconomic effects: growth of income, alternative industry, and employment, and likelihood of re-conversion; and (3) most of the socioeconomic studies are based on rural household surveys and discrete choice and difference in differences models. While much has been learned from previous studies, a lot more needs to be done in improving our understanding of the program execution and impacts. Future work should pay more attention to the NFPP and other programs, and the environmental impacts and the implementation effectiveness of all of them. To these ends, analysts must gather more field data regarding the evolving ecosystem conditions and socioeconomic information of higher aggregation, and conduct their research across scales and disciplines, with better application of geospatial technology and more effective modeling.

Yin, Runsheng; Yin, Guiping; Li, Lanying

2010-03-01

143

Life Cycle Assessment for desalination: a review on methodology feasibility and reliability.  

PubMed

As concerns of natural resource depletion and environmental degradation caused by desalination increase, research studies of the environmental sustainability of desalination are growing in importance. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an ISO standardized method and is widely applied to evaluate the environmental performance of desalination. This study reviews more than 30 desalination LCA studies since 2000s and identifies two major issues in need of improvement. The first is feasibility, covering three elements that support the implementation of the LCA to desalination, including accounting methods, supporting databases, and life cycle impact assessment approaches. The second is reliability, addressing three essential aspects that drive uncertainty in results, including the incompleteness of the system boundary, the unrepresentativeness of the database, and the omission of uncertainty analysis. This work can serve as a preliminary LCA reference for desalination specialists, but will also strengthen LCA as an effective method to evaluate the environment footprint of desalination alternatives. PMID:24926621

Zhou, Jin; Chang, Victor W-C; Fane, Anthony G

2014-09-15

144

Feasibility of neuropsychological assessment in leukaemia patients shortly after diagnosis: directions for future prospective research  

PubMed Central

Aims: To study neuropsychological functioning of newly diagnosed children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) within two weeks after diagnosis in order to determine the feasibility of a sibling controlled prospective study design. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients (median age at testing 6.6 years, range 4–12) were included in a prospective, longitudinal, nationwide study. Treatment would include intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy according to the DCLSG ALL-9 protocol. Children were evaluated with an extensive neuropsychological battery including measures of intelligence, memory, attention, language, visual-constructive function, and fine-motor abilities within two weeks after start of the chemotherapy. The control group consisted of 29 healthy siblings (median age at testing 8.2 years, range 4–12), who were tested <4 weeks after the patients' assessment. Results: Mean scores on Wechsler Intelligence Scales did not differ significantly between patients and siblings; mean IQ scores for both the patients and the controls were high average. To examine specific neuropsychological functions, norm scores based on the exact age were acquired by fitting procedures, but no significant differences were found. Conclusions: Neuropsychological assessment of patients during early hospitalisation is feasible. The results indicate no adverse effect of illness and psychological factors on IQ and neuropsychological functioning of patients with recently diagnosed ALL. The prospective design of this study of cognitive late effects of chemotherapy will allow discrimination between adverse sequelae of disease and treatment. PMID:15723923

Jansen, N; Kingma, A; Tellegen, P; van Dommelen, R I; Bouma, A; Veerman, A; Kamps, W

2005-01-01

145

A feasibility assessment of nuclear reactor power system concepts for the NASA Growth Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth Space Station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational, disposition and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of Space Station - attached concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide a feasibility of each combination.

Bloomfield, H. S.; Heller, J. A.

1986-01-01

146

78 FR 16656 - Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for Natural Resource...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Service Losses Associated With the 2010 Oil Spill From the Adak Petroleum Bulk Fuel...service losses associated with the 2010 oil spill from the Adak Petroleum Bulk Fuel...may be sent to: Ian Zelo, NOAA Oil Spill Coordinator, Assessment and...

2013-03-18

147

Assessment of gene expression in peripheral blood using RNAseq before and after weight restoration in anorexia nervosa  

PubMed Central

We examined gene expression in the blood of six females with anorexia nervosa (AN) before and after weight restoration using RNAseq. AN cases (aged 19-39) completed clinical assessments and had blood drawn for RNA at hospital admission (T1, < ~75% ideal body weight, IBW) and again at discharge (T2, ? ~85% IBW). To examine the relationship between weight restoration and differential gene expression, normalized gene expression levels were analyzed using a paired design. We found 564 genes whose expression was nominally significantly different following weight restoration (p < 0.01, 231 increased and 333 decreased). With a more stringent significance threshold (false discovery rate q < 0.05), 67 genes met criteria for differential expression. Of the top 20 genes, CYP11A1, C16orf11, LINC00235, and CPA3 were down-regulated more than two-fold after weight restoration while multiple olfactory receptor genes (OR52J3, OR51L1, OR51A4, OR51A2) were up-regulated more than two-fold after weight restoration. Pathway analysis revealed up-regulation of two broad pathways with largely overlapping genes, one related to protein secretion and signaling and the other associated with defense response to bacterial regulation. Although results are preliminary secondary to a small sample size, these data provide initial evidence of transcriptional alterations during weight restoration in AN. PMID:23778302

Kim, Yunjung; Trace, Sara Elizabeth; Crowley, James Joseph; Brownley, Kimberly Ann; Hamer, Robert Mark; Pisetsky, David Stephen; Sullivan, Patrick Francis; Bulik, Cynthia Marie

2013-01-01

148

Environmental management: integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands.  

PubMed

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

Burger, Joanna

2008-08-01

149

Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands  

PubMed Central

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

Burger, Joanna

2014-01-01

150

15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.53 Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives...restoration actions, including a natural recovery alternative....

2011-01-01

151

15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration plans. 990...COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans....

2010-01-01

152

15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration plans. 990...COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans....

2012-01-01

153

15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.53 Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives...restoration actions, including a natural recovery alternative....

2012-01-01

154

15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.53 Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives...restoration actions, including a natural recovery alternative....

2010-01-01

155

15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.53 Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives...restoration actions, including a natural recovery alternative....

2014-01-01

156

15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration plans. 990...COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans....

2011-01-01

157

15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration plans. 990...COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans....

2014-01-01

158

15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration plans. 990...COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans....

2013-01-01

159

15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.53 Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives...restoration actions, including a natural recovery alternative....

2013-01-01

160

INVENTORY OF ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION PROJECTS WITHIN THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) REGION, NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

In cooperation with the Office of Water, the Office of Research and Development's National Risk Management Research Laboratory is developing an inventory of ecosystem restoration projects within the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Region. The MAIA Region includes five s...

161

Defining an ecological baseline for restoration and natural resource damage assessment of contaminated sites: The case of the Department of Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective ecological risk assessment, restoration, natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) and managing ecosystems all require having a baseline. This policy and practice paper explores the factors that influence baseline selection, and it is suggested that ecological resources would best be served by: (1) integrating NRDA considerations into both future land-use planning and remediation\\/restoration; (2) selecting a baseline for NRDA that

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld; Charles W. Powers; Michael Greenberg

2007-01-01

162

Preliminary assessment report for Olney Military Reservation, Installation 24175, Olney, Maryland. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Maryland Army National Guard property near Olney, Maryland. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies Phase I of the US Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program for Olney Military Reservation property. Olney Military Reservation is an 8-acre site located in the southwestern portion of Maryland, about six miles northwest of Washington, DC, in Montgomery County. The major facilities included in this PA comprise the administration building, barracks, and motor repair shops. The environmentally significant operations associated with the property are underground and aboveground storage tanks, a vehicle wash rack, a flammable materials storage area (a lean-to structure), and a hazardous materials storage building. The review of both historical and current practices at the property indicates that Olney Military Reservation property poses no immediate threat to human health or the environment. Argonne`s reviewers noted several historical potential threats to the environment that have occurred at the property that installation personnel have corrected or eliminated.

Hansen, J.; Rose, C.

1993-07-01

163

Preliminary assessment report for Redmond Army National Guard Facility, Installation 53120, Redmond, Washington. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Washington Army National Guard (WAARNG) property in Redmond, Washington. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Redmond ARNG property, Phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program. The environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) supply/storage of hazardous materials, (2) weapons cleaning, (3) the underground storage tanks (USTs), and (4) the use of herbicides. These ESOs are no longer active because of the closure of OMS 10 activities in 1988.

Ketels, P.; Aggarwal, P.

1993-08-01

164

Value Assessment of Ecosystem Services in Nature Reserves in Ningxia, China: A Response to Ecological Restoration  

PubMed Central

Changes in land use can cause significant changes in the ecosystem structure and process variation of ecosystem services. This study presents a detailed spatial, quantitative assessment of the variation in the value of ecosystem services based on land use change in national nature reserves of the Ningxia autonomous region in China. We used areas of land use types calculated from the remote sensing data and the adjusted value coefficients to assess the value of ecosystem services for the years 2000, 2005, and 2010, analyzing the fluctuations in the valuation of ecosystem services in response to land use change. With increases in the areas of forest land and water bodies, the value of ecosystem services increased from 182.3×107 to 223.8×107 US$ during 2000–2010. Grassland and forest land accounted for 90% of this increase. The values of all ecosystem services increased during this period, especially the value of ecosystem services for biodiversity protection and soil formation and protection. Ecological restoration in the reserves had a positive effect on the value of ecosystem services during 2000–2010. PMID:24586571

Wang, Yan; Gao, Jixi; Wang, Jinsheng; Qiu, Jie

2014-01-01

165

Are We There Yet? Feasibility of Continuous Stress Assessment via Wireless Physiological Sensors  

PubMed Central

Stress can lead to headaches and fatigue, precipitate addictive behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol and drug use), and lead to cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Continuous assessment of stress from sensors can be used for timely delivery of a variety of interventions to reduce or avoid stress. We investigate the feasibility of continuous stress measurement via two field studies using wireless physiological sensors — a four-week study with illicit drug users (n = 40), and a one-week study with daily smokers and social drinkers (n = 30). We find that 11+ hours/day of usable data can be obtained in a 4-week study. Significant learning effect is observed after the first week and data yield is seen to be increasing over time even in the fourth week. We propose a framework to analyze sensor data yield and find that losses in wireless channel is negligible; the main hurdle in further improving data yield is the attachment constraint. We show the feasibility of measuring stress minutes preceding events of interest and observe the sensor-derived stress to be rising prior to self-reported stress and smoking events.

Rahman, Mahbubur; Bari, Rummana; Ali, Amin Ahsan; Sharmin, Moushumi; Raij, Andrew; Hovsepian, Karen; Hossain, Syed Monowar; Ertin, Emre; Kennedy, Ashley; Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.; Jobes, Michelle; Beck, J. Gayle; Kedia, Satish; Ward, Kenneth D.; al'Absi, Mustafa; Kumar, Santosh

2015-01-01

166

Assessing the feasibility and fidelity of an intervention for women with violent offenses.  

PubMed

Women convicted of assaultive or violent offenses represent a small but important subpopulation of adults involved in the criminal justice system. The limited treatment and rehabilitation programs that are available for these women are usually developed for male offenders and do not consider factors that are especially relevant to women, such as higher rates of mental health and substance use disorders as well as their likely histories of interpersonal violence. Moreover, women's trajectories into violent behavior - as well as their trajectories out - may differ from their male counterparts. Due to the absence of programs available for this unique population, a new gender-specific and trauma informed intervention, Beyond Violence, was developed. This paper describes a pilot study with a mixed-methods approach that assesses the feasibility and fidelity of the intervention within a state prison for women. Overall, various components of feasibility (i.e. engaging the target population, gaining institutional support, and finding skilled treatment staff), were realized, as were fidelity elements such as adherence to the intervention material, and high attendance and satisfaction by participants. The positive results of this pilot study increase the likelihood of dissemination of the intervention and a randomized control trial is currently underway. PMID:24055731

Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Fedock, Gina; Tillander, Elizabeth; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah

2014-02-01

167

Assessment of Feasibility of the Beneficial Use of Waste Heat from the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This report investigates the feasibility of using waste heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). A proposed glycol waste heat recovery system was assessed for technical and economic feasibility. The system under consideration would use waste heat from the ATR secondary coolant system to preheat air for space heating of TRA-670. A tertiary coolant stream would be extracted from the secondary coolant system loop and pumped to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, where heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air in the heating and ventilation system. Historical data from Advanced Test Reactor operations over the past 10 years indicates that heat from the reactor coolant was available (when needed for heating) for 43.5% of the year on average. Potential energy cost savings by using the waste heat to preheat intake air is $242K/yr. Technical, safety, and logistics considerations of the glycol waste heat recovery system are outlined. Other opportunities for using waste heat and reducing water usage at ATR are considered.

Donna P. Guillen

2012-07-01

168

6th European Conference on Ecological Restoration Ghent, Belgium, 8-12/09/2008 EVALUATION OF HABITAT RESTORATION: ASSESSING THE  

E-print Network

, which may act as keystone species (Courchamp et al., 1999). In addition, most studies assessed@mnhn.fr Abstract: The invasion of ecosystems by alien species is considered one of the most important sources population increase for three terrestrial bird species, shrews, and invertebrates species that are potential

169

Assessment of the feasibility of developing a Hanford Site weld modeling program  

SciTech Connect

Welding on the Hanford Site is an everyday occurrence, and most of the weldments made on site are relatively straightforward. Groove geometries, fillers, and wleding techniques and parameters are normally decided by experience or handbook advice. However, there are other weldments that might employ new materials, as well as one-of-a-kind welding situations. Implementation of a verified analytical weld assessment method would allow optimization of weld metal and heat-affected zone microstructure, and of variables that affect structural deformation and residual stresses. Realistic prediction of weldment thermal and strain history will require the use of a finite element model. Microstructure and resultant properties can be predicted using complex computer-based microstructure evolution models, literature-based empirical equations, or experimentally established behaviors. This report examines the feasibility of developing analytical methods for establishing weld parameter envelopes in new, complex welded configurations.

Atteridge, D.G.; Anderson, W.E.; Klein, R.F.

1986-11-01

170

Assessing the Feasibility of Interrogating Nuclear Waste Storage Silos using Cosmic-ray Muons  

E-print Network

Muon radiography is a fast growing field in applied scientific research. In recent years, many detector technologies and imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering and absorption properties of cosmic-ray muons have been developed for the non-destructive assay of various structures across a wide range of applications. This work presents the first results that assess the feasibility of using muons to interrogate waste silos within the UK Nuclear Industry. Two such approaches, using different techniques that exploit each of these properties, have previously been published, and show promising results from both simulation and experimental data for the detection of shielded high-Z materials and density variations from volcanic assay. Both detector systems are based on scintillator and photomultiplier technologies. Results from dedicated simulation studies using both these technologies and image reconstruction techniques are presented for an intermediate-sized nuclear waste storage facility filled with concrete...

Ambrosino, F; Cimmino, L; D'Alessandro, R; Ireland, D G; Kaiser, R; Mahon, D F; Mori, N; Noli, P; Saracino, G; Shearer, C; Viliani, L; Yang, G

2014-01-01

171

Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

1999-04-01

172

Feasibility studies of Bragg probe for noninvasive carotid pulse waveform assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arterial stiffness evaluation is largely reported as an independent predictor of cardiovascular diseases. The central pulse waveform can provide important data about arterial health and has been studied in patients with several pathologies, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and hypertension. The implementation and feasibility studies of a fiber Bragg grating probe for noninvasive monitoring of the carotid pulse are described based on fiber Bragg grating technology. Assessment tests were carried out in carotids of different volunteers and it was possible to detect the carotid pulse waveform in all subjects. In one of the subjects, the sensor was also tested in terms of repeatability. Although further tests will be required for clinical investigation, the first studies suggest that the developed sensor can be a valid alternative to electromechanical tonometers.

Leitão, Cátia; Bilro, Lúcia; Alberto, Nélia; Antunes, Paulo; Lima, Hugo; André, Paulo S.; Nogueira, Rogério; Pinto, João L.

2013-01-01

173

High Btu gas from peat. Volume III. Part B. Environmental and socioeconomic feasibility assessment  

SciTech Connect

In September 1980, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant (No. DE-FG01-80RA50348) to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the current commercial viability - technical, economic, environmental, financial, and regulatory - of producing 80 million SCF/day of substitute natural gas (SNG). Minnegasco's project team for this study consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors (for design, engineering, and economics of peat harvesting, dewatering, and gasification systems), Ertec, Inc. (for environmental and socio-economic analyses), IGT (for providing gasification process information, and technical and engineering support to Minnegasco), and Deloitte Haskins and Sells (for providing management structural support to Minnegasco). This Final Report presents the work conducted by Ertec, Inc. under tasks 6 and 7. The study objective was to provide an initial environmental and socio-economic evaluation of the proposed facility to assess project feasibility. To accomplish this objective, detailed field studies were conducted in the areas of Hydrology, Air Quality and Socio-Economics. Less extensive surveys were conducted in the areas of Geology, Ecology, Acoustics, Land Use, Archaeology and Resource Assessment. Part B of Volume 3 contains the following contents: (1) project impact assessment which covers geological impacts, hydrology, ecological impacts, air quality and meteorology, land use, archaeology, aesthetics, acoustics, socioeconomic impacts, and peat resources; (2) impact mitigation which covers hydrology, ecology, air quality, archaeology, acoustics, and socioeconomics; (3) conclusions; and (4) appendices. 2 figures, 18 tables.

Not Available

1982-06-01

174

Feasibility of text messaging for ecological momentary assessment of marijuana use in college students.  

PubMed

Measuring self-reported substance use behavior is challenging due to issues related to memory recall and patterns of bias in estimating behavior. Limited research has focused on the use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to evaluate marijuana use. This study assessed the feasibility of using short message service (SMS) texting as a method of EMA with college-age marijuana users. Our goals were to evaluate overall response/compliance rates and trends of data missingness, response time, baseline measures (e.g., problematic use) associated with compliance rates and response times, and differences between EMA responses of marijuana use compared to timeline followback (TLFB) recall. Nine questions were texted to participants on their personal cell phones 3 times a day over a 2-week period. Overall response rate was high (89%). When examining predictors of the probability of data missingness with a hierarchical logistic regression model, we found evidence of a higher propensity for missingness for Week 2 of the study compared to Week 1. Self-regulated learning was significantly associated with an increase in mean response time. A model fit at the participant level to explore response time found that more time spent smoking marijuana related to higher response times, while more time spent studying and greater "in the moment" academic motivation and craving were associated with lower response times. Significant differences were found between the TLFB and EMA, with greater reports of marijuana use reported through EMA. Overall, results support the feasibility of using SMS text messaging as an EMA method for college-age marijuana users. PMID:24749751

Phillips, Michael M; Phillips, Kristina T; Lalonde, Trent L; Dykema, Kristy R

2014-09-01

175

Quantitative ultrasound assessment of the facet joint in the lumbar spine: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the feasibility and accuracy of a sonographic approach to assessment of facet joints of the lumbar spine in healthy populations. Five facet joints (L1-S1) on each side of 30 volunteers, for a total of 300 facet joints, were examined and evaluated by sonography and computed tomography. Parameters of the facet joints (height and width) were established to assess the facet joint in the parasagittal and transverse planes on all volunteers. Differences between means of continuous variables including age, height, weight, body surface area, body mass index and joint parameters were evaluated with Student's t-test. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations between the mean values of facet joint parameters and age, height, body surface area and body mass index. In general, sonography revealed that facet joints had a clear and smooth border. There were no significant differences in width and height between the left and right facet joints at the same level by sonography. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that body mass index and age (p < 0.05) were the only independent factors modulating height of the facet joint. Facet joint width was independently influenced by age (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between ultrasound and computed tomography in mean measurements of height (1.23 ± 0.15 vs. 1.25 ± 0.07, p > 0.05) and width (0.17 ± 0.08 vs. 0.18 ± 0.07, p > 0.05) of the facet joint, respectively. In this article, we describe a feasible, accurate and simple technique for identification and depiction of facet joints of the lumbar spine in healthy populations. PMID:25638321

Liu, Da; Huang, Ying; Tian, Dan; Yin, Jing

2015-05-01

176

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3: Appendixes E and F -- Risk assessment information  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-06-01

177

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 3. Risk assessment information. Appendixes E, F  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 3 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-03-01

178

Assessing PreCR™ repair enzymes for restoration of STR profiles from artificially degraded DNA for human identification.  

PubMed

Forensic scientists have used several approaches to obtain short tandem repeat (STR) profiles from compromised DNA samples, including supplementing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with enhancers and using procedures yielding reduced-length amplicons. For degraded DNA, the peak intensities of the alleles separated by electrophoresis generally decrease as the length of the allele increases. When the intensities of the alleles decrease below an established threshold, they are described as drop-outs, thus contributing to a partial STR profile. This work assesses the use of repair enzymes to improve the STR profiles from artificially degraded DNA. The commercial PreCR™ repair kit of DNA repair enzymes was tested on both purified DNA and native DNA in body fluids exposed to oxidizing agents, hydrolytic conditions, ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, and desiccation. The strategy was to restrict the level of DNA damage to that which yields partial STR profiles in order to test for allele restoration as opposed to simple allele enhancement. Two protocols were investigated for allele restoration: a sequential protocol using the manufacturer's repair procedure and a modified protocol reportedly designed for optimal STR analysis of forensic samples. Allele restoration was obtained with both protocols, but the peak height appeared to be higher for the modified protocol (determined by Mann-Kendall Trend Test). The success of the approach using the PreCR™ repair enzymes was sporadic; it led to allele restoration as well as allele drop-out. Additionally, allele restoration with the PreCR™ enzymes was compared with restoration by alternative, but commonly implemented approaches using Restorase™, PCRBoost™, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the Minifiler™ STR system. The alternative methods were also successful in improving the STR profile, but their success also depended on the quality of the template encountered. Our results indicate the PreCR™ repair kit may be useful for restoring STR profiles from damaged DNA, but further work is required to develop a generalized approach. PMID:24997322

Robertson, James M; Dineen, Shauna M; Scott, Kristina A; Lucyshyn, Jonathan; Saeed, Maria; Murphy, Devonie L; Schweighardt, Andrew J; Meiklejohn, Kelly A

2014-09-01

179

Nature versus nurture: Functional assessment of restoration effects on wetland services using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use change has altered the ability of wetlands to provide vital services such as nutrient retention. While compensatory practices attempt to restore degraded wetlands and their functions, it is difficult to evaluate the recovery of soil biogeochemical functions that are critical for restoration of ecosystem services. Using solution 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, we examined the chemical forms of phosphorus

P. V. Sundareshwar; C. J. Richardson; Robert A. Gleason; Perry J. Pellechia; Shawn Honomichl

2009-01-01

180

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STREAM RESTORATION AT USEPA  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous stream and riparian restoration projects are being undertaken across the nation at a variety of scales and for disparate reasons. Unfortunately, there are very few studies associated with these restoration efforts which provide a consistent and practical methodology to e...

181

Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Induced Transgression of the Chandeleur Islands for Restoration and Wildlife Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chandeleur Islands are the first line of defense against tropical storms and hurricanes for coastal Louisiana. They provide habitats for birds species and are a wildlife refuge; however, distressingly, they are eroding and transgressing at an alarming rate. In 1998, Hurricane Georges caused severe damage to the chain, prompting restoration and monitoring efforts by both Federal and State agencies. Since then, storm events have steadily diminished the condition of the islands. Quantification of shoreline erosion, vegetation, and land loss, from 1979 to 2009, was achieved through the analysis of imagery from Landsat 2-4 Multispectral Scanner, Landsat 4 & 5 Thematic Mapper, and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer sensors. QuickBird imagery was used to validate the accuracy of these results. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data to assist in tracking the transgression of the Chandeleur Islands. The use of near infrared reflectance calculated from MOD09 surface reflectance data from 2000 to 2009 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool. The scope of this project includes not only assessments of the tropical cyclonic events during this time period, but also the effects of tides, winds, and cold fronts on the spatial extent of the islands. Partnering organizations, such as the Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Research, will utilize those results in an effort to better monitor and address the continual change of the island chain.

Mitchell, Brandie; Reahard, Ross; Billiot, Amanda; Brown, Tevin; Childs, Lauren

2009-01-01

182

Nature versus nurture: functional assessment of restoration effects on wetland services using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land-use change has altered the ability of wetlands to provide vital services such as nutrient retention. While compensatory practices attempt to restore degraded wetlands and their functions, it is difficult to evaluate the recovery of soil biogeochemical functions that are critical for restoration of ecosystem services. Using solution 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, we examined the chemical forms of phosphorus (P) in soils from wetlands located across a land-use gradient. We report that soil P diversity, a functional attribute, was lowest in farmland, and greatest in native wetlands. Soil P diversity increased with age of restoration, indicating restoration of biogeochemical function. The trend in soil P diversity was similar to documented trends in soil bacterial taxonomic composition but opposite that of soil bacterial diversity at our study sites. These findings provide insights into links between ecosystem structure and function and provide a tool for evaluating the success of ecosystem restoration efforts. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

Sundareshwar, P.V.; Richardson, C.J.; Gleason, R.A.; Pellechia, P.J.; Honomichl, S.

2009-01-01

183

Nature versus nurture: Functional assessment of restoration effects on wetland services using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use change has altered the ability of wetlands to provide vital services such as nutrient retention. While compensatory practices attempt to restore degraded wetlands and their functions, it is difficult to evaluate the recovery of soil biogeochemical functions that are critical for restoration of ecosystem services. Using solution 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, we examined the chemical forms of phosphorus (P) in soils from wetlands located across a land-use gradient. We report that soil P diversity, a functional attribute, was lowest in farmland, and greatest in native wetlands. Soil P diversity increased with age of restoration, indicating restoration of biogeochemical function. The trend in soil P diversity was similar to documented trends in soil bacterial taxonomic composition but opposite that of soil bacterial diversity at our study sites. These findings provide insights into links between ecosystem structure and function and provide a tool for evaluating the success of ecosystem restoration efforts.

Sundareshwar, P. V.; Richardson, C. J.; Gleason, Robert A.; Pellechia, Perry J.; Honomichl, Shawn

2009-02-01

184

A study assessing the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of real-time teledermatopathology  

PubMed Central

Dermatopathology represents the gold standard for the diagnosis of skin diseases and neoplasms that cannot be diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and to assess the accuracy of an Internet-based real-time (live) teledermatopathology consultation. Twenty teaching cases and 10 randomly selected routine cases were presented to four expert dermatopathologists, first by real-time teledermatopathology and, subsequently, in a blinded fashion, using light microscopy. Throughout the study the overall diagnostic accuracy did not differ for the two methods. However, the mean level of confidence and the mean observation times differed significantly between real-time teledermatopathology and light microscopy (92.6±0.24% versus 99.5±0.02%, and 96.31±11.55 sec versus 25.47±3.85 sec, respectively). Assessment of routine cases did not produce significant diagnostic differences between the two methods. These results prove that real-time teledermatopathology offers an affordable and technically simple technology that lends itself to training as well as to diagnosis of lesions from routine practice by experts situated at remote sites. PMID:23785590

Riedl, Elisabeth; Asgari, Masoud; Alvarez, Diana; Margaritescu, Irina; Gottlieb, Geoffrey J.

2012-01-01

185

Feasibility of bone assessment by using the nonlinear parameter in trabecular bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of assessing bone status and osteoporosis by using the nonlinear parameter B/A in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The B/A values measured in 18 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using a finite-amplitude through-transmission method ranged from 63.3 to 122.6. The apparent bone density was highly correlated with the B/A and with the existing quantitative ultrasound parameters of the speed of sound (SOS) and the normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation (nBUA), with Pearson's correlation coefficients of r = 0.83 to 0.96. The best univariate predictor of the apparent bone density was the B/A, with an adjusted squared correlation coefficient of r 2 = 0.91. These results suggest that the B/A, in addition to the SOS and the nBUA, may have potential as an index for the assessment of bone status and osteoporosis.

Lee, Kang Il

2013-04-01

186

Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans  

SciTech Connect

This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods.

Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-08-01

187

Feasibility of using an online tool to assess appropriateness for an epilepsy surgery evaluation  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine the applicability of applying an online tool to determine the appropriateness of referral for an epilepsy surgical evaluation and to determine whether appropriateness scores are concordant with the clinical judgment of epilepsy specialists. Methods: We prospectively applied the tool in 107 consecutive patients with focal epilepsy seen in an epilepsy outpatient clinic. Variables collected included seizure type, epilepsy duration, seizure frequency, seizure severity, number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) tried, AED-related side effects, and the results of investigations. Appropriateness ratings were then compared with retrospectively collected information concerning whether a surgical evaluation had been considered. Results: Thirty-nine patients (36.4%) were rated as appropriate for an epilepsy surgical evaluation, all of whom had adequately tried 2 or more appropriate AEDs. The majority of patients (84.6%) rated as appropriate had previously been considered or referred for an epilepsy surgical evaluation. Tool feasibility of use was high, with the exception of assessing whether previous AED trials had been adequate and discrepancies between physician and patient reports of AED side effects. Conclusions: Our evidence-based, online clinical decision tool is easily applied and able to determine whether patients with focal epilepsy are appropriate for a surgical evaluation. Future validation of this tool will require application in clinical practice and assessment of potential improvements in patient outcomes. PMID:25107882

Roberts, Jodie I.; Hrazdil, Chantelle; Wiebe, Samuel; Sauro, Khara; Hanson, Alexandra; Federico, Paolo; Pillay, Neelan; Murphy, William; Vautour, Michelle

2014-01-01

188

Investigation and Feasibility Assessment of TOPAZ-2 Derivations for Space Power Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to provide continuous power at significant levels is of utmost importance for many space missions, from simple satellite operations to manned Mars missions. One of the main problems faced in delivering solar or chemical space power in the tens of kW range, is the increasingly massive nature of the power source and the costs associated with its launch, operation and maintenance. A national program had been initiated to study the feasibility of using certain advanced technologies in developing an efficient lightweight space power source. The starting point for these studies has been the Russian TOPAZ-2 space reactor system, with the ultimate goal to aid in the development of a TOPAZ-2 derivative which will be ready for flight by the year 2000. The main objective of this project has been to perform feasibility assessment and trade studies which would allow the development of an advanced space nuclear power system based on the in-core thermionic fuel element technology currently used in the Russian TOPAZ-2 reactor. Two of the important considerations in developing the concept are: (1) compliance of the current TOPAZ-2 and of any advanced designs with U.S. nuclear safety expectations, and (2) compliance of the design with the seven years lifetime requirement. The project was composed of two major phases. The initial phase of the project has concentrated on understanding the TOPAZ-2 thermionic reactor in sufficient detail to allow several follow-on tasks. The primary interest during this first phase has been given on identifying the potential of the TOPAZ-2 design for further improvements. The second phase of the project has focused on the feasibility of a TOPAZ-2 system capable of delivering 30-50 kWe. Towards the elimination of single-point failures in the load voltage regulation system an active voltage regulator has been designed to be used in conjunction with the available shunt load voltage regulator. The possible use of a dual-loop, model-based adaptive control system for load-following in the TOPAZ-2 has also been investigated. The objective of this fault-tolerant, autonomous control system is to deliver the demanded electric power at the desired voltage level, by appropriately manipulating the neutron power through the control drums. As a result, sufficient thermal power is produced to meet the required demand in the presence of dynamically changing system operating conditions and potential sensor failures. The designed controller is proposed for use in combination with the currently available shunt regulators, or as a back-up controller when other means of power system control, including some of the sensors, fail.

Parlos, Alexander G.; Peddicord, Kenneth L.

1998-01-01

189

Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma in weightlessness: a feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: The Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) examines for fluid in gravitationally dependent regions. There is no prior experience with this technique in weightlessness, such as on the International Space Station, where sonography is currently the only diagnostic imaging tool. STUDY DESIGN: A ground-based (1 g) porcine model for sonography was developed. We examined both the feasibility and the comparative performance of the FAST examination in parabolic flight. Sonographic detection and fluid behavior were evaluated in four animals during alternating weightlessness (0 g) and hypergravity (1.8 g) periods. During flight, boluses of fluid were incrementally introduced into the peritoneal cavity. Standardized sonographic windows were recorded. Postflight, the video recordings were divided into 169 20-second segments for subsequent interpretation by 12 blinded ultrasonography experts. Reviewers first decided whether a video segment was of sufficient diagnostic quality to analyze (determinate). Determinate segments were then analyzed as containing or not containing fluid. A probit regression model compared the probability of a positive fluid diagnosis to actual fluid levels (0 to 500 mL) under both 0-g and 1.8-g conditions. RESULTS: The in-flight sonographers found real-time scanning and interpretation technically similar to that of terrestrial conditions, as long as restraint was maintained. On blinded review, 80% of the recorded ultrasound segments were considered determinate. The best sensitivity for diagnosis in 0 g was found to be from the subhepatic space, with probability of a positive fluid diagnosis ranging from 9% (no fluid) to 51% (500 mL fluid). CONCLUSIONS: The FAST examination is technically feasible in weightlessness, and merits operational consideration for clinical contingencies in space.

Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Nicolaou, Savvas; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Campbell, Mark R.; Feiveson, Alan; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Melton, Shannon; Beck, George; Dawson, David L.

2003-01-01

190

Benefits and costs of ecological restoration: Rapid assessment of changing ecosystem service values at a U.K. wetland  

PubMed Central

Restoration of degraded land is recognized by the international community as an important way of enhancing both biodiversity and ecosystem services, but more information is needed about its costs and benefits. In Cambridgeshire, U.K., a long-term initiative to convert drained, intensively farmed arable land to a wetland habitat mosaic is driven by a desire both to prevent biodiversity loss from the nationally important Wicken Fen National Nature Reserve (Wicken Fen NNR) and to increase the provision of ecosystem services. We evaluated the changes in ecosystem service delivery resulting from this land conversion, using a new Toolkit for Ecosystem Service Site-based Assessment (TESSA) to estimate biophysical and monetary values of ecosystem services provided by the restored wetland mosaic compared with the former arable land. Overall results suggest that restoration is associated with a net gain to society as a whole of $199 ha?1y?1, for a one-off investment in restoration of $2320 ha?1. Restoration has led to an estimated loss of arable production of $2040 ha?1y?1, but estimated gains of $671 ha?1y?1 in nature-based recreation, $120 ha?1y?1 from grazing, $48 ha?1y?1 from flood protection, and a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worth an estimated $72 ha?1y?1. Management costs have also declined by an estimated $1325 ha?1y?1. Despite uncertainties associated with all measured values and the conservative assumptions used, we conclude that there was a substantial gain to society as a whole from this land-use conversion. The beneficiaries also changed from local arable farmers under arable production to graziers, countryside users from towns and villages, and the global community, under restoration. We emphasize that the values reported here are not necessarily transferable to other sites. PMID:25505517

Peh, Kelvin S-H; Balmford, Andrew; Field, Rob H; Lamb, Anthony; Birch, Jennifer C; Bradbury, Richard B; Brown, Claire; Butchart, Stuart H M; Lester, Martin; Morrison, Ross; Sedgwick, Isabel; Soans, Chris; Stattersfield, Alison J; Stroh, Peter A; Swetnam, Ruth D; Thomas, David H L; Walpole, Matt; Warrington, Stuart; Hughes, Francine M R

2014-01-01

191

Assessing the Potential for Salmon Recovery via Floodplain Restoration: A Multitrophic Level Comparison of Dredge-Mined to Reference Segments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre-restoration studies typically focus on physical habitat, rather than the food-base that supports aquatic species. However, both food and habitat are necessary to support the species that habitat restoration is frequently aimed at recovering. Here we evaluate if and how the productivity of the food-base that supports fish production is impaired in a dredge-mined floodplain within the Yankee Fork Salmon River (YFSR), Idaho (USA); a site where past restoration has occurred and where more has been proposed to help recover anadromous salmonids. Utilizing an ecosystem approach, we found that the dredged segment had comparable terrestrial leaf and invertebrate inputs, aquatic primary producer biomass, and production of aquatic invertebrates relative to five reference floodplains. Thus, the food-base in the dredged segment did not necessarily appear impaired. On the other hand, we observed that off-channel aquatic habitats were frequently important to productivity in reference floodplains, and the connection of these habitats in the dredged segment via previous restoration increased invertebrate productivity by 58%. However, using a simple bioenergetic model, we estimated that the invertebrate food-base was at least 4× larger than present demand for food by fish in dredged and reference segments. In the context of salmon recovery efforts, this observation questions whether additional food-base productivity provided by further habitat restoration would be warranted in the YFSR. Together, our findings highlight the importance of studies that assess the aquatic food-base, and emphasize the need for more robust ecosystem models that evaluate factors potentially limiting fish populations that are the target of restoration.

Bellmore, J. Ryan; Baxter, Colden V.; Ray, Andrew M.; Denny, Lytle; Tardy, Kurt; Galloway, Evelyn

2012-03-01

192

Benefits and costs of ecological restoration: Rapid assessment of changing ecosystem service values at a U.K. wetland.  

PubMed

Restoration of degraded land is recognized by the international community as an important way of enhancing both biodiversity and ecosystem services, but more information is needed about its costs and benefits. In Cambridgeshire, U.K., a long-term initiative to convert drained, intensively farmed arable land to a wetland habitat mosaic is driven by a desire both to prevent biodiversity loss from the nationally important Wicken Fen National Nature Reserve (Wicken Fen NNR) and to increase the provision of ecosystem services. We evaluated the changes in ecosystem service delivery resulting from this land conversion, using a new Toolkit for Ecosystem Service Site-based Assessment (TESSA) to estimate biophysical and monetary values of ecosystem services provided by the restored wetland mosaic compared with the former arable land. Overall results suggest that restoration is associated with a net gain to society as a whole of $199 ha(-1)y(-1), for a one-off investment in restoration of $2320 ha(-1). Restoration has led to an estimated loss of arable production of $2040 ha(-1)y(-1), but estimated gains of $671 ha(-1)y(-1) in nature-based recreation, $120 ha(-1)y(-1) from grazing, $48 ha(-1)y(-1) from flood protection, and a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worth an estimated $72 ha(-1)y(-1). Management costs have also declined by an estimated $1325 ha(-1)y(-1). Despite uncertainties associated with all measured values and the conservative assumptions used, we conclude that there was a substantial gain to society as a whole from this land-use conversion. The beneficiaries also changed from local arable farmers under arable production to graziers, countryside users from towns and villages, and the global community, under restoration. We emphasize that the values reported here are not necessarily transferable to other sites. PMID:25505517

Peh, Kelvin S-H; Balmford, Andrew; Field, Rob H; Lamb, Anthony; Birch, Jennifer C; Bradbury, Richard B; Brown, Claire; Butchart, Stuart H M; Lester, Martin; Morrison, Ross; Sedgwick, Isabel; Soans, Chris; Stattersfield, Alison J; Stroh, Peter A; Swetnam, Ruth D; Thomas, David H L; Walpole, Matt; Warrington, Stuart; Hughes, Francine M R

2014-10-01

193

Assessing the benefits and costs of dryland forest restoration in central Chile.  

PubMed

Investment in natural capital restoration is increasing as a response to the widespread ecological degradation of dryland forests. However, finding efficient mechanisms to promote restoration among private landowners is a significant challenge for policy makers with limited financial resources. Furthermore, few attempts have been made to evaluate the costs and benefits of restoration interventions even though this information is relevant to orient decision making. Hence, our goal was to estimate the benefits and costs of dryland forest restoration by means of reforestation with native trees in a study area in central Chile. To determine benefits we applied a Contingent Valuation questionnaire that allowed for the calculation of willingness to pay measures. Restoration costs were calculated based on market prices following existing technical recommendations developed for the study area. The results showed that the restoration project had a negative NPV irrespective of the discount rate applied in the analysis. Thus, the NPV varied between -US$71,000 and -US$258,000. The NPV attained positive results only for negative discount rates (US$15,039 for -2%) and only when the national subsidy available for forest restoration was taken into account. This shows that landowners in Colliguay do not have incentives for carrying out restoration interventions due to a classic market failure: that in which ecosystems are mismanaged because many of their benefits are externalities from the perspective of landowners. Overall, these results stress the need for developing new compensation mechanisms and enhancing those in existence, with the aim of making restoration competitive with other land uses. PMID:22325581

Schiappacasse, Ignacio; Nahuelhual, Laura; Vásquez, Felipe; Echeverría, Cristian

2012-04-30

194

A feasibility study on assessing public health impacts of cumulative air pollution reduction activities in a small geographic area  

EPA Science Inventory

Background and Objective: The rnain objective ofthis study was to examine the feasibility ofconducting a local (e.g., city level) assessment ofthe public health impacts ofcumulative air pollution reduction activities (a.k.a. accountability) from the federal, state, local and vo...

195

The Feasibility of Using Video Journaling to Collect Ecological Momentary Assessment Data: Application to Health Behavior Change Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) technique in a health behavior change intervention offered within university general health courses. A six-week health behavior change project was used with two groups: video journaling and traditional (pencil and paper) group. Research…

Melton, Bridget F.; Bigham, Lauren E.; Bland, Helen W.

2013-01-01

196

Bone micro-damage assessment using non-linear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) techniques: A feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-linear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) is a technique exploiting the significant non-linear behavior of damaged materials, related to the presence of damage. This study shows for the first time the feasibility of this technique for damage assessment in bone. Two samples of bovine cortical bone were subjected to a progressive damage experiment. Damage accumulation was progressively induced in the samples

M. Muller; J. A. Tencate; T. W. Darling; A. Sutin; R. A. Guyer; M. Talmant; P. Laugier; P. A. Johnson

2006-01-01

197

Cascadia GeoSciences: Community-Based Earth Science Research Focused on Geologic Hazard Assessment and Environmental Restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cascadia GeoSciences (CG) is a new non-profit membership governed corporation whose main objectives are to conduct and promote interdisciplinary community based earth science research. The primary focus of CG is on geologic hazard assessment and environmental restoration in the Western U.S. The primary geographic region of interest is Humboldt Bay, NW California, within the southern Cascadia subduction zone (SCSZ). This

T. B. Williams; J. R. Patton; T. H. Leroy

2007-01-01

198

Restoring landscapes of fear with wolves in the Scottish Highlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of an organism from a landscape for a long time can be a major barrier to the restoration of that species due to factors such as environmental conditions changing since extinction. This can make it difficult to assess the feasibility of reintroduction when an extirpated species cannot, by definition, be observed in the landscape of interest. In such

Adrian D. Manning; Iain J. Gordon; William J. Ripple

2009-01-01

199

77 FR 37432 - Final Springfield Plateau Regional Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment and Finding of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), formally...Alternative D provides for natural resource--based restoration using a tiered project selection process evaluating the...Missouri Department of Natural Resources, P.O....

2012-06-21

200

A comparative assessment of genetic diversity among differently-aged populations of Spartina alterniflora on restored versus natural wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected naturally recolonizing Spartina alterniflora (smooth cord grass) from each of three restored sites and one undisturbed reference site in southwestern Louisiana to assess the impact of wetland restoration on genetic diversity. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to produce 94 polymorphic genetic markers, which were used to characterize genetic diversity as average heterozygosity and the proportion of polymorphic loci . Overall our findings indicate that restored populations of S. alterniflora maintain levels of genetic diversity comparable to natural populations, which should provide some measure of resistance against environmental disturbances. Diversity estimates were lowest for the natural reference site ( = 0.1059; = 0.2763), whereas estimates for the three restored sites ranged from = 0.1148 to 0.1256 and = 0.3114 to 0.3202. All sites maintained sufficiently high diversity levels to suggest significant rates of outcrossing. Overall, genetic differentiation among populations was small (Weir and Cockerham's ?? = 0.0645), with the values from each pairwise comparison among the populations increasing with the geographic distance between sites (range = 0.0490-0.1101). These values indicate an average migration rate of 3.6 migrants, either pollen or seeds, per generation.

Travis, S.E.; Proffitt, C.E.; Lowenfeld, R.C.; Mitchell, T.W.

2002-01-01

201

Feasibility of bone assessment with leaky Lamb waves in bone phantoms and a bovine tibia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effect of cortical thickness variation on the propagation of leaky Lamb waves is investigated by using an axial transmission technique commonly used to characterize long bones. Three Lucite™ plates with thicknesses of 1, 3, and 5 mm as bone phantoms and one bovine tibia with a cortical thickness of 2 mm were used at various low frequencies. Experimental measurements in bone phantoms show that the peak frequency and amplitude of excited Lamb modes strongly depend on the thickness of the Lucite plate. In the bovine tibia, the S0 and A0 Lamb modes are consistently observed in the frequency-thickness region from 0.2 to 1.0 MHz mm, and can be effectively launched at a frequency of 200 kHz, suggesting 200 kHz to be the optimal signal frequency for in vivo clinical applications. It can be also seen that both modes are affected by the frequency-thickness product, but the effect is greater for the A0 mode. Hence, the A0 Lamb mode seems more sensitive to cortical thickness change due to aging and osteoporosis. This study suggests that the use of leaky Lamb waves is feasible for ultrasonic bone assessment.

Lee, K. I.; Yoon, Suk Wang

2004-06-01

202

A feasibility assessment of magnetic bearings for free-piston Stirling space power converters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes a design and analysis study performed by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) under NASA Contract NAS3-26061. The objective of the study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of applying magnetic bearings to free-piston Stirling-cycle power conversion machinery of the type currently being evaluated for possible use in long-term space missions. The study was performed for a 50-kWe Reference Stirling Space Power Converter (RSSPC) system consisting of two 25-kWe free-piston Stirling engine modules. Two different versions of the RSSPC engine modules have been defined under NASA Contract NAS3-25463. These modules currently use hydrostatic gas bearings to support the reciprocating displacer and power piston assemblies. Results of this study show that active magnetic bearings of the attractive electromagnetic type are technically feasible for RSSPC application provided that wire insulation with 60,000-hr life capability at 300 C can be developed for the bearing coils. From a design integration standpoint, both versions of the RSSPC were found to be conceptually amenable to magnetic support of the power piston assembly. However, only one version of the RSSPC was found to be amendable to magnetic support of the displacer assembly. Unacceptable changes to the basic engine design would be required to incorporate magnetic displacer bearings into the second version. Complete magnetic suspension of the RSSPC can potentially increase overall efficiency of the Stirling cycle power converter by 0.53 to 1.4 percent (0.15 to 0.4 efficiency points). Magnetic bearings will also overcome several operational concerns associated with hydrostatic gas bearing systems. However, these advantages are accompanied by a 5 to 8 percent increase in specific mass of the RSSPC, depending on the RSSPC version employed. Additionally, magnetic bearings are much more complex, both mechanically and particularly electronically, than hydrostatic bearings. Accordingly, long-term stability and reliability represent areas of uncertainty for magnetic bearings. Considerable development effort will be required to establish the long-term suitability of these bearings for Stirling space power applications.

Curwen, Peter W.; Rao, Dantam K.; Wilson, Donald R.

1992-01-01

203

Assessment of the feasibility of a rehabilitation intervention program for breast cancer survivors with cognitive complaints.  

PubMed

To assess the feasibility of a cognitive rehabilitation program in breast cancer survivors (BCS) with persistent post-treatment cognitive complaints. BCS with cognitive complaints, 18-months to 5-years post-treatment, were recruited for a once-weekly, five-week, group cognitive training intervention. Outcome measures included self-reported mood and cognitive function, and neurocognitive tests administered at pre-intervention, immediate-, two-month and four-month post-intervention. A sub-study in eight participants evaluated resting state quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) changes from pre- to immediate post-intervention in relationship to post-intervention changes in cognitive complaints. Twenty-seven BCS completed the protocol and tolerated the intervention well. We observed significant reductions in total and memory-specific cognitive complaints from pre-intervention to immediate post-intervention (p?=?0.031 and p?=?0.009, respectively) and at four-months post-intervention (p?feasible and well tolerated. Cognitive complaints and neurocognitive test performances showed positive changes. qEEG may serve as a potential biomarker for improvement in self-reported complaints. A randomized clinical trial is underway to test the efficacy of the intervention. PMID:23955490

Ercoli, Linda M; Castellon, Steven A; Hunter, Aimee M; Kwan, Lorna; Kahn-Mills, Barbara A; Cernin, Paul A; Leuchter, Andrew F; Ganz, Patricia A

2013-12-01

204

A feasibility assessment of magnetic bearings for free-piston Stirling space power converters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes a design and analysis study performed by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) under NASA Contract NAS3-26061. The objective of the study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of applying magnetic bearings to free-piston Stirling-cycle power conversion machinery of the type currently being evaluated for possible use in long-term space missions. The study was performed for a 50-kWe Reference Stirling Space Power Converter (RSSPC) system consisting of two 25-kWe free-piston Stirling engine modules. Two different versions of the RSSPC engine modules have been defined under NASA Contract NAS3-25463. These modules currently use hydrostatic gas bearings to support the reciprocating displacer and power piston assemblies. Results of this study show that active magnetic bearings of the attractive electromagnetic type are technically feasible for RSSPC application provided that wire insulation with 60,000-hr life capability at 300 C can be developed for the bearing coils. From a design integration standpoint, both versions of the RSSPC were found to be conceptually amenable to magnetic support of the power piston assembly. However, only one version of the RSSPC was found to be amendable to magnetic support of the displacer assembly. Unacceptable changes to the basic engine design would be required to incorporate magnetic displacer bearings into the second version. Complete magnetic suspension of the RSSPC can potentially increase overall efficiency of the Stirling cycle power converter by 0.53 to 1.4 percent (0.15 to 0.4 efficiency points). Magnetic bearings will also overcome several operational concerns associated with hydrostatic gas bearing systems. However, these advantages are accompanied by a 5 to 8 percent increase in specific mass of the RSSPC, depending on the RSSPC version employed. Additionally, magnetic bearings are much more complex, both mechanically and particularly electronically, than hydrostatic bearings. Accordingly, long-term stability and reliability represent areas of uncertainty for magnetic bearings. Considerable development effort will be required to establish the long-term suitability of these bearings for Stirling space power applications.

Curwen, Peter W.; Rao, Dantam K.; Wilson, Donald R.

1992-06-01

205

Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil: microbiological methods for feasibility assessment and field evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioremediation is emerging as a promising technology for the treatment of soil and groundwater contamination. The technology is very effective particularly in dealing with petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. However, bioremediation is a site-specific process and feasibility studies are required before full-scale remediation can be successfully applied. The type and scale of the feasibility studies that will be needed are specific to

M. T. Balba; N. Al-Awadhi; R. Al-Daher

1998-01-01

206

Assessing the feasibility of native fish reintroductions: a framework and example applied to bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In a species conservation context, translocations can be an important tool, but they frequently fail to successfully establish new populations. We consider the case of reintroductions for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a federally-listed threatened species with a widespread but declining distribution in western North America. Our specific objectives in this work were to: 1) develop a general framework for assessing the feasibility of reintroduction for bull trout, 2) provide a detailed example of implementing this framework to assess the feasibility of reintroducing bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon, and 3) discuss the implications of this effort in the more general context of fish reintroductions as a conservation tool. Review of several case histories and our assessment of the Clackamas River suggest that an attempt to reintroduce bull trout could be successful, assuming adequate resources are committed to the subsequent stages of implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Dunham, Jason B.; Gallo, Kirsten

2008-01-01

207

The feasibility and utility of grocery receipt analyses for dietary assessment  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish the feasibility and utility of a simple data collection methodology for dietary assessment. Design Using a cross-sectional design, trained data collectors approached adults (~20 – 40 years of age) at local grocery stores and asked whether they would volunteer their grocery receipts and answer a few questions for a small stipend ($1). Methods The grocery data were divided into 3 categories: "fats, oils, and sweets," "processed foods," and "low-fat/low-calorie substitutions" as a percentage of the total food purchase price. The questions assessed the shopper's general eating habits (eg, fast-food consumption) and a few demographic characteristics and health aspects (eg, perception of body size). Statistical Analyses Performed. Descriptive and analytic analyses using non-parametric tests were conducted in SAS. Results Forty-eight receipts and questionnaires were collected. Nearly every respondent reported eating fast food at least once per month; 27% ate out once or twice a day. Frequency of fast-food consumption was positively related to perceived body size of the respondent (p = 0.02). Overall, 30% of the food purchase price was for fats, oils, sweets, 10% was for processed foods, and almost 6% was for low-fat/low-calorie substitutions. Households where no one was perceived to be overweight spent a smaller proportion of their food budget on fats, oils, and sweets than did households where at least one person was perceived to be overweight (p = 0.10); household where the spouse was not perceived to be overweight spent less on fats, oils, and sweets (p = 0.02) and more on low-fat/low-calorie substitutions (p = 0.09) than did households where the spouse was perceived to be overweight; and, respondents who perceived themselves to be overweight spent more on processed foods than did respondents who did not perceive themselves to be overweight (p = 0.06). Conclusion This simple dietary assessment method, although global in nature, may be a useful indicator of dietary practices as evidenced by its association with perceived weight status. PMID:16573819

Martin, Sarah Levin; Howell, Teresa; Duan, Yan; Walters, Michele

2006-01-01

208

Assessing the relationship between Section 404 and wetland losses: a feasibility study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The primary objective of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (33 U.S.C. 1251) is to restore and maintain the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. Section 404 of the Act regulates the discharge of dredged or fill materials into wetlands and represents the primary Federal authority for regulation of wetland alterations. Since its inception, the Section 404 program has been controversial in regard to the extent to which it was intended to provide wetlands regulation. Section 404 requires those who wish to discharge dredged or fill material into waters of the United States, which include many wetlands, to first obtain a Federal permit. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has overall responsibility for administration of the Section 404 program and promulgates guidelines that must be followed in issuing permits. In addition, EPA has the final authority to prohibit specific discharges if the environmental impacts are unacceptable. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) issues Section 404 permits, which can be of two types. Individual Permits are issued following case-by-case reviews of proposed discharges. General Permits, which can be either nationwide or regional in scope, are authorized by the Corps for categories of activities that are similar in nature and that have only minimal individual and cumulative adverse environmental impacts. EPA, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), and State natural resource agencies review and comment on permit applications and offer recommendations on appropriate mitigation measures. Although comments from the Service and other natural resource agencies are advisory in nature (EPA's veto authority excepted), they can serve as the basis for modifying, conditioning, or denying a Section 404 permit. In 1986, in a survey conducted by the National Ecology Research Center, Service personnel indicated interest in additional information concerning both wetland trends and the impacts of activities authorized by the Corps under Section 404 (Roelle 1986). Although there is some information concerning wetland losses for certain geographic areas and for the Nation as a whole (Frayer et al. 1983; Tiner 1984), there appears to be little information on how these losses relate to the Section 404 permitting process. The primary objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of estimating wetland losses in relationship to Individual and General Permits issued under Section 404. A secondary objective was to assemble data on acceptance and implementation of specific mitigation recommendations offered by the Service and other natural resource agencies in connection with development activities on wetlands examined. At present, 26 categories of Nationwide permits have been authorized by the Corps. Nationwide permit 26 was of particular interest in this study because it specifically authorizes discharges into wetlands under certain circumstances (see Figure 1 and related text for a more complete discussion of circumstances under which Nationwide Permit 26 is applicable). All subsequent references to Nationwide or General permits pertain to Nationwide Permit 26.

Gladwin, Douglas N.; Roelle, James E.; Asherin, Duane A.

1989-01-01

209

Analytical Assessment of Simultaneous Parallel Approach Feasibility from Total System Error  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a simultaneous paired approach to closely-spaced parallel runways, a pair of aircraft flies in close proximity on parallel approach paths. The aircraft pair must maintain a longitudinal separation within a range that avoids wake encounters and, if one of the aircraft blunders, avoids collision. Wake avoidance defines the rear gate of the longitudinal separation. The lead aircraft generates a wake vortex that, with the aid of crosswinds, can travel laterally onto the path of the trail aircraft. As runway separation decreases, the wake has less distance to traverse to reach the path of the trail aircraft. The total system error of each aircraft further reduces this distance. The total system error is often modeled as a probability distribution function. Therefore, Monte-Carlo simulations are a favored tool for assessing a "safe" rear-gate. However, safety for paired approaches typically requires that a catastrophic wake encounter be a rare one-in-a-billion event during normal operation. Using a Monte-Carlo simulation to assert this event rarity with confidence requires a massive number of runs. Such large runs do not lend themselves to rapid turn-around during the early stages of investigation when the goal is to eliminate the infeasible regions of the solution space and to perform trades among the independent variables in the operational concept. One can employ statistical analysis using simplified models more efficiently to narrow the solution space and identify promising trades for more in-depth investigation using Monte-Carlo simulations. These simple, analytical models not only have to address the uncertainty of the total system error but also the uncertainty in navigation sources used to alert an abort of the procedure. This paper presents a method for integrating total system error, procedure abort rates, avionics failures, and surveillance errors into a statistical analysis that identifies the likely feasible runway separations for simultaneous paired approaches.

Madden, Michael M.

2014-01-01

210

A genetic assessment of bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) restoration efforts in Florida’s Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a comprehensive bay scallop restoration plan in Florida, we implemented a genetic monitoring program to evaluate the impact of shellfish restoration. Restoration involved the deployment of hatchery-produced scallops in cages (the restoration stock), which created spawner aggregations in locations that exhibited low densities of wild scallops. The success of the restorations was evaluated by comparing the genetic

A. E. Wilbur; S. Seyoum; T. M. Bert; W. S. Arnold

2005-01-01

211

Engineering assessment and feasibility study of Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the engineering, feasibility, economics, and environmental aspects of exploitation of Chattanooga Shale to recover U, synthetic crude oil, and byproduct Th, NH/sub 3/, S, Mo, V, Ni, and Co. It is concluded that the shale is a potential source of U, energy, and byproduct metals. This volume of the report covers the engineering description, feasibility, and economics of exploitation of the shale. (DLC)

Not Available

1978-06-01

212

Second annual report of the Environmental Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of environmental monitoring and field investigations conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report focuses on the watershed scale, striving to provide an ORNL site-wide perspective on types, distribution, and transport of contamination. Results are used to enhance the conceptual understanding

R. B. Clapp; J. A. Watts

1993-01-01

213

Vision restoration therapy (VRT) efficacy as assessed by comparative perimetric analysis and subjective questionnaires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We wished to evaluate the efficacy of vision restoration therapy (VRT) in patients with post-chiasmatic brain damage using different functional perimetric tests. These were compared with measures of subjective vision and reaction time. Methods: An open trial was conducted with hemianopia\\/scotoma (n =16) patients. Before and after 6 months of VRT results of high resolution (HRP) and Tuebingen automated

Bernhard A. Sabel; Sigrid Kenkel; Erich Kasten

214

MIKE'S ISLAND, PHASE 1: BASELINE ASSESSMENTS AND DEVELOPMENT OF A COMMUNITY RESTORATION PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this project is to develop a conceptual restoration plan for the Mike's Island area. The plan will establish goals to improve the ecological integrithy of the lower Pearl River and address several key issues such as invasive speices management, erosion c...

215

76 FR 78016 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FVHC98130406900Y4-XXX-FF04G01000] Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration...Resulting from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, the Federal and State natural resource...a result of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which occurred on or about...

2011-12-15

216

The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan requires oversight, monitoring, assessment, and coordination to succeed. NOAA is contributing to these needs by providing a coordinated network of scientific observations,  

E-print Network

The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan requires oversight, monitoring, assessment the scientific data, education, and collaboration necessary to sustain this investment in Great Lakes restoration. Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships funded by the Great Lakes

217

Supraspinatus and infraspinatus weakness in overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis: strength assessment before and after restoration of scapular musculature balance.  

PubMed

A disturbance in scapulohumeral rhythm may cause negative biomechanic effects on rotator cuff (RC). Alteration in scapular motion and shoulder pain can influence RC strength. Purpose of this study was to assess supraspinatus and infraspinatus strength in 29 overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis, before and after 3 and 6 months of rehabilitation aimed to restore scapular musculature balance. A passive posterior soft tissues stretching was prescribed to balance shoulder mobility. Scapular dyskinesis patterns were evaluated according to Kibler et al. Clinical assessment was performed with the empty can (EC) test and infraspinatus strength test (IST). Strength values were recorded by a dynamometer; scores for pain were assessed with VAS scale. Changes of shoulder IR were measured. The force values increased at 3 months (P < 0.01) and at 6 months (P < 0.01). Changes of glenohumeral IR and decrease in pain scores were found at both follow-up. Outcomes registered on pain and strength confirm the role of a proper scapular position for an optimal length-tension relationship of the RC muscles. These data should encourage those caring for athletes to consider restoring of scapular musculature balance as essential part of the athletic training. PMID:21069487

Merolla, Giovanni; De Santis, Elisa; Campi, Fabrizio; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

2010-12-01

218

A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND FEASIBILITY EVALUATION OF NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW MEASUREMENT ALTERNATIVES  

SciTech Connect

Deregulation and open access in the natural gas pipeline industry has changed the gas business environment towards greater reliance on local energy flow rate measurement. What was once a large, stable, and well-defined source of natural gas is now a composite from many small suppliers with greatly varying gas compositions. Unfortunately, the traditional approach to energy flow measurement [using a gas chromatograph (GC) for composition assay in conjunction with a flow meter] is only cost effective for large capacity supplies (typically greater than 1 to 30 million scfd). A less costly approach will encourage more widespread use of energy measurement technology. In turn, the US will benefit from tighter gas inventory control, more efficient pipeline and industrial plant operations, and ultimately lower costs to the consumer. An assessment of the state and direction of technology for natural gas energy flow rate measurement is presented. The alternative technologies were ranked according to their potential to dramatically reduce capital and operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, while improving reliability and accuracy. The top-ranked technologies take an unconventional inference approach to the energy measurement problem. Because of that approach, they will not satisfy the fundamental need for composition assay, but have great potential to reduce industry reliance on the GC. Technological feasibility of the inference approach was demonstrated through the successful development of data correlations that relate energy measurement properties (molecular weight, mass-based heating value, standard density, molar ideal gross heating value, standard volumetric heating value, density, and volume-based heating value) to three inferential properties: standard sound speed, carbon dioxide concentration, and nitrogen concentration (temperature and pressure are also required for the last two). The key advantage of this approach is that inexpensive on-line sensors may be used to measure the inferential variables, which can then be applied (through the data correlations) to convert existing flow meters (ultrasonic, orifice, turbine, rotary, Coriolis, diaphragm, etc.) for on-line energy measurement. The practical issues for field development were evaluated using two transducers extracted from a $100 ultrasonic domestic gas meter, and a $400 infrared sensor.

Kendricks A. Behring II; Eric Kelner; Ali Minachi; Cecil R. Sparks; Thomas B. Morrow; Steven J. Svedeman

1999-01-01

219

Swept source optical coherence tomography for quantitative and qualitative assessment of dental composite restorations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to explore the utility of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) for quantitative evaluation of dental composite restorations. The system (Santec, Japan) with a center wavelength of around 1300 nm and axial resolution of 12 mum was used to record data during and after placement of light-cured composites. The Fresnel phenomenon at the interfacial defects

Alireza Sadr; Yasushi Shimada; Juan Ricardo Mayoral; Ilnaz Hariri; Turki A. Bakhsh; Yasunori Sumi; Junji Tagami

2011-01-01

220

An assessment of structural attributes and ecosystem function in restored Virginia coalfield streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

As human populations continue to grow, expanding energy needs enhance freshwater resource conservation challenges. Mining\\u000a for coal has significantly altered the landscape in the United States’ Appalachian region, with significant negative effects\\u000a on downstream water quality and ecosystem function. With recent policy changes concerning the impacts of coal mining on aquatic\\u000a ecosystems, many coal companies choose to restore sections of

Robert M. NorthingtonErnest; Ernest F. Benfield; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; Anthony J. Timpano; Jackson R. Webster; Carl Zipper

2011-01-01

221

Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility No. 3, Installation 13307, Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard property located on Hunter Army Airfield (HAA) near Savannah, Georgia, known as Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) No. 3. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the AASF No. 3 property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the area now occupied by AASF No. 3. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of HAA completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on AASF No. 3 for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of HAA.

Kolpa, R.; Smith, K.

1993-07-01

222

ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABILITY: HIGHLY COMPLIANT FLOATING OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES: FEASIBILITY ASSESSMENT THROUGH THEORY, SIMULATION AND DESIGN  

E-print Network

placing them in very deep water where floating structures are expected to be cost effective. At presentA-1 ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABILITY: HIGHLY COMPLIANT FLOATING OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES: FEASIBILITY, one large-scale floating turbine has been constructed as a proof of concept for a much larger project

Sweetman, Bert

223

Cultural Feasibility Assessment of Tuberculosis Prevention Among Persons of Haitian Origin in South Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cultural feasibility study was conducted among persons of Haitian origin in South Florida to identify factors which might influence utilization of screening and treatment services for latent tuberculosis infection in this population. Five focus group interviews conducted among men and women explored cultural beliefs and practices related to TB, barriers and incentives to screening, and approaches to increasing treatment

Jeannine Coreil; Michael Lauzardo; Maude Heurtelou

2004-01-01

224

Feasibility assessment of offshore wave and tidal current power production: a collaborative public\\/private partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and EPRIsolutions are conducting collaborative power production feasibility definition studies on offshore wave energy and tidal current energy on behalf of a number of public and private entities. The outcome of the offshore wave study, which began in 2004, is a compelling techno-economic case for investing in the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) of

O. Siddiqui; R. Bedard

2005-01-01

225

A landscape approach for assessing the ecological feasibility of a black bear population recovery  

EPA Science Inventory

There is great interest in recovering populations of large carnivores in locations where they previously were extirpated or severely reduced in size as a result of human activity. Determining the ecological feasibility (i.e., is adequate habitat available?) of a species is diffi...

226

Assessing the Feasibility of Family Loans for Early Care and Education. Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that one of the objectives of the Learning between Systems project was to design family loan programs as a potential form of financing to help families pay for early care and education, two studies examined the feasibility of such loan programs. First, focus groups were conducted in five American cities, wherein parents were asked to…

Davis, Jerry S.; Wohlford, Jill K.

227

Integral assessment of pollution in the Suquía River (Córdoba, Argentina) as a contribution to lotic ecosystem restoration programs.  

PubMed

The Suquía River lower-middle basin (Córdoba, Argentina) is subject to a strong anthropic impact because it receives pollutants from different sources (industries, wastewaters, heavy traffic, agricultural land use, etc.) We have assessed the degree of watershed degradation of Suquía River lower-middle sections through the analysis of different ecosystem compartments (air, water, riparian soil, sediments and biota), in order to provide useful data to be considered in future river restoration programs. Four study sites were selected along the river (La Calera city, Córdoba city, Corazón de María village and Río Primero city) which were sampled during the low- and high-water flow periods. We analyzed: a) chemical and physical characteristics of water, sediments, and riparian soil; b) heavy metal content of water and sediments, and c) semi-volatile organic compounds in air. Besides, pollutant bioindicators such as fish assemblages, lichens (Usnea amblyoclada), vascular plants (Tradescantia pallida), and microorganisms (fecal coliform and Escherichia coli) were used to further assess the status of the river. All analyzed ecological compartments were affected by water pollution, particularly, fish assemblages, sediments and riparian soils by heavy metal and coliform bacteria. Moreover, we detected a possible contribution of sulfur and a high pollutant content in air that merit further research about other air-water exchanges. Accordingly, we strongly suggest that an action to restore or remediate the anthropic effect on the Suquía River be extended to all possible compartments along the river. PMID:21925711

Merlo, C; Abril, A; Amé, M V; Argüello, G A; Carreras, H A; Chiappero, M S; Hued, A C; Wannaz, E; Galanti, L N; Monferrán, M V; González, C M; Solís, V M

2011-11-01

228

Preliminary assessment report for Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana Army National Guard, Helena, Montana. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at a Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) property near Helena, Montana. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort William Henry Harrison property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

DuWaldt, J.; Meyer, T.

1993-07-01

229

A feasibility study of carotid elastography for risk assessment of atherosclerotic plaques validated by magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stroke is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. One of its main reasons is rupture of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Conventional B-mode ultrasound images and Doppler/color flow measurements are mostly used to evaluate degree of stenosis, which underestimates plaque vulnerability. Alternatively, the correspondence between multi-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, plaque composition and histology has been well established. In this study, the feasibility of ultrasound carotid elastography in risk assessment of carotid atherosclerotic plaques is investigated. Preliminarily in-vivo results on a small number of human subjects are initially validated by multi-contrast, highresolution MRI, and it shows that maximum strain rate might be feasible to evaluate the plaque vulnerability.

Pan, Xiaochang; Huang, Lingyun; Huang, Manwei; Zhao, Xihai; He, Le; Yuan, Chun; Bai, Jing; Luo, Jianwen

2014-03-01

230

Comparison of Empirical and Analytical Physical Assessment Approaches for Stream Restoration: A Case Study on Abrams Creek, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A physical assessment approach referred to as natural channel design (NCD) is commonly used today by stream restoration practitioners, which requires an empirical-based comparison between study and reference reaches. Use of available analytical tools, or models, into pre-design physical assessments...

231

Feasibility assessment of burnup credit in the criticality analysis of shipping casks with boiling water reactor spent fuel  

SciTech Connect

Considerable interest in the allowance of reactivity credit for the exposure history of power reactor fuel currently exists. This burnup credit'' issue has the potential to greatly reduce risk and cost when applied to the design and certification of spent fuel casks used for transportation and storage. Recently, analyses have demonstrated the technical feasibility and estimated the risk and economic incentives for allowing burnup credit in pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel shipping cask applications. This report summarizes the extension of the previous PWR technical feasibility assessment to boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel. This feasibility analysis aims to apply simple methods that adequately characterize the time-dependent isotopic compositions of typical BWR fuel. An initial analysis objective was to identify a simple and reliable method for characterizing BWR spent fuel. Two different aspects of fuel characterization were considered:l first, the generation of burn- up dependent material interaction probabilities; second, the prediction of material inventories over time (depletion). After characterizing the spent fuel at various stages of exposure and decay, three dimensional (3-D) models for an infinite array of assemblies and, in several cases, infinite arrays of assemblies in a typical shipping cask basket were analyzed. Results for assemblies without a basket provide reactivity control requirements as a function of burnup and decay, while results including the basket allow assessment of typical basket configurations to provide sufficient reactivity control for spent BWR fuel. Resulting basket worths and reactivity trends over time are then evaluated to determine whether burnup credit is needed and feasible in BWR applications.

Broadhead, B.L.

1991-08-01

232

Biological Production of Methane from Lunar Mission Solid Waste: An Initial Feasibility Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary assessment was made of the potential for biological production of methane from solid waste generated during an early planetary base mission to the moon. This analysis includes: 1) estimation of the amount of biodegradable solid waste generated, 2) background on the potential biodegradability of plastics given their significance in solid wastes, and 3) calculation of potential methane production from the estimate of biodegradable waste. The completed analysis will also include the feasibility of biological methane production costs associated with the biological processing of the solid waste. NASA workshops and Advanced Life Support documentation have estimated the projected amount of solid wastes generated for specific space missions. From one workshop, waste estimates were made for a 180 day transit mission to Mars. The amount of plastic packaging material was not specified, but our visual examination of trash returned from stocktickerSTS missions indicated a large percentage would be plastic film. This plastic, which is not biodegradable, would amount to 1.526 kgdw crew-1 d-1 or 6.10 kgdw d-1 for a crew of 4. Over a mission of 10 days this would amount to 61 kgdw of plastics and for an 180 day lunar surface habitation it would be nearly 1100 kgdw . Approx. 24 % of this waste estimate would be biodegradable (human fecal waste, food waste, and paper), but if plastic packaging was replaced with biodegradable plastic, then 91% would be biodegradable. Plastics are man-made long chain polymeric molecules, and can be divided into two main groups; thermoplastics and thermoset plastics. Thermoplastics comprise over 90% of total plastic use in the placecountry-regionUnited States and are derived from polymerization of olefins via breakage of the double bond and subsequent formation of additional carbon to carbon bonds. The resulting sole-carbon chain polymers are highly resistant to biodegradation and hydrolytic cleavage. Common thermoplastics include low density polyethylene (packaging, bags), high density polyethylene (bottles, containers, pipes), polystyrene (tanks, containers), polypropylene (tanks, containers), and polyvinylchloride (pipes, containers). Thermoset plastics are formed by the condensation of alcohols or amines to form polyesters or polyamides, and are typically solidified after heating. As opposed to the linear structure of thermoplastic, thermoset plastics have a cross-linked structure which results in higher strength. The most common thermoset plastic is polyurethane which is used for coatings, insulation, paints, and packing. Given both the concerns over pollution reduction and energy conservation, significant efforts are underway on Earth to evaluate biodegradable plastics made from renewable feedstocks; the following summarizes the current state of these efforts. Production of biodegradable plastics involves either the introduction of biodegradable or photo-oxidizable components into the polymer chain or the use of biodegradable polymers themselves. The first approach is based on the observation that polyolefins of low molecular weight (<500 Da) are biodegradable. Insertion of structures susceptible to either photoor chemical degradation within the overall polyolefins chain (which are of 4 - 28 kDa molecular weight), can produce segments sufficiently small to be assimilated and degraded by microorganisms. Biodegradable polymers based strictly on nonpetroleum, biologically-based material have been developed, including some which are used to make currently marketed products. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters which are accumulated as carbon storage materials by microorganisms under nutrient limiting conditions. MirelTM , a "bioplastic" based on stocktickerPHA produced from microbial fermentation of sugars or oils from vegetables crops, is being produced by TellesTM . The company markets MirelTM bioplastics for use in molding, coatings, films, adhesives, and fibers. Another type of bioplastic is based on polylactic acid, or stocktickerPLA. Starch, typically from corn, is f

Strayer, Richard; Garland, Jay; Janine, Captain

233

78 FR 53425 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation...Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation...Program (DARRP) is announcing new indirect cost rates on the recovery of indirect...

2013-08-29

234

77 FR 57074 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and Atmospheric Administration Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation...Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation...Program (DARRP) is announcing new indirect cost rates on the recovery of indirect...

2012-09-17

235

76 FR 61089 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and Atmospheric Administration Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation...Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation...Program (DARRP) is announcing new indirect cost rates on the recovery of indirect...

2011-10-03

236

43 CFR 11.93 - Post-assessment phase-restoration plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment...the amount of the award of a natural resource damage claim as authorized...monies will be used to address natural resources, specifically what...

2012-10-01

237

43 CFR 11.93 - Post-assessment phase-restoration plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment...the amount of the award of a natural resource damage claim as authorized...monies will be used to address natural resources, specifically what...

2010-10-01

238

43 CFR 11.93 - Post-assessment phase-restoration plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment...the amount of the award of a natural resource damage claim as authorized...monies will be used to address natural resources, specifically what...

2014-10-01

239

43 CFR 11.93 - Post-assessment phase-restoration plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment...the amount of the award of a natural resource damage claim as authorized...monies will be used to address natural resources, specifically what...

2013-10-01

240

43 CFR 11.93 - Post-assessment phase-restoration plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment...the amount of the award of a natural resource damage claim as authorized...monies will be used to address natural resources, specifically what...

2011-10-01

241

Feasibility and validity of ecological momentary assessment in adolescents with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder.  

PubMed

Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) may increase accuracy of data compared with retrospective questionnaires by assessing behaviours as they occur, hence decreasing recall biases and increasing ecological validity. This study examined the feasibility and concurrent validity of an EMA tool for adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). Thirty-one adolescents with HFASD completed a mobile phone EMA application that assessed stressors and coping for two weeks. Parents and adolescents also completed retrospective measures of the adolescent's coping/stressors. Moderate compliance with the EMA tool was achieved and some concurrent validity was established with the retrospective measure of coping. Concordance was found between the types of stressors reported by parents and adolescents but not the quantity. The results suggest adolescents with HFASD are capable of reporting on their stressors and coping via EMA. EMA has the potential to be a valuable research tool in this population. PMID:24331303

Khor, Angela S; Gray, Kylie M; Reid, Sophie C; Melvin, Glenn A

2014-01-01

242

Feasibility study using non-contact ultrasonic sensors for assessing reservoir fill state  

SciTech Connect

The change out of reservoirs in weapon systems can pose a significant safety threat if the reservoir has inadvertently transferred its contents. While the possibility of this occurring is very remote, the consequence can be extremely severe. There is therefore a need for equipment and procedures to determine the gas containment status before the component is removed from the weapon during normal maintenance procedures. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of using ultrasonics to detect a change in stress states of a filled and unfilled reservoir. Electromagnetic-acoustic transducers (EMATs) and laser ultrasonics (LU), two non-contact ultrasonic techniques, were examined. A second approach which measures the changes in modal resonances was also explored. This report summarizes the experimental results from an initial feasibility study aimed at demonstrating the use of acoustics to determine the gas containment status of GTS reservoirs.

Min, S.; Wei-yang Lu

1995-12-01

243

Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Induced Transgression of the Chandeleur Islands for Restoration and Wildlife Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Barrier Islands are the first line of defense against tropical storms and hurricanes for coastal areas. Historically, tropical cyclonic events have had a great impact on the transgression of barrier islands, especially the Chandeleur Island chain off the eastern coast of Louisiana. These islands are of great importance, aiding in the protection of southeastern Louisiana from major storms, providing habitat for nesting and migratory bird species, and are part of the second oldest wildlife refuge in the country. In 1998, Hurricane Georges caused severe damage to the chain, prompting restoration and monitoring efforts by both federal and state agencies. Since then, multiple storm events have steadily diminished the integrity of the islands. Hurricane Katrina in 2005 thwarted all previous restoration efforts, with Hurricane Gustav in 2008 exacerbating island erosion and vegetation loss. Data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat 2-4 Multispectral Scanner (MSS), and Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) will be utilized to detect land loss, island transgression, and vegetation change from 1979 to 2009. This study looks to create a more synoptic view of the transgression of the Chandeleur Islands and correlate weather and sea surface phenomena with erosion trends over the past 30 years, so that partnering organizations such as the Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES) can better monitor and address the continual change of the island chain.

Reahard, Ross; Mitchell, Brandie; Brown, Tevin; Billiot, Amanda

2010-01-01

244

Comparative in vitro assessment of color stability of hybrid esthetic restorative materials against various children's beverages  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The present study was aimed to evaluate and compare the color stability of two hybrid tooth-colored restorative materials, namely, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji II LC Capsules - GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) and giomer (Beautifil II - Shofu Inc, Kyoto, Japan) when subjected to immersion in various children's beverages. Materials and Methods: Standardized disc specimens were prepared using the test restorative materials. After preparation and rehydration of the specimens, baseline color evaluations were performed using spectrophotometer. The readings were recorded according to CIELAB color space. The experimental groups were further subdivided for immersion in orange juice, bournvita milk, and coke. Subsequent to immersion and pH cycling, new color evaluations were carried out after 1 week and 4 weeks for all the experimental groups. The mean color change values were calculated. Results: The obtained data was subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that giomer specimens exhibited less color change as compared to RMGIC specimens indicating better color stability. The maximum color changes were found with the use of coke for a period of 4 weeks. Conclusion: Amongst the two materials, giomer showed less color changes as compared to RMGIC indicating a better color stability. PMID:24554866

Hotwani, Kavita; Thosar, Nilima; Baliga, Sudhindra

2014-01-01

245

The assessment of surface roughness and microleakage of eroded tooth-colored dental restorative materials  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the effect of acidic solution on surface roughness and microleakage of tooth-colored restorative materials. Materials and Methods: A 160 box-shaped cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 160 human molars, and assigned to four groups: Group A restored with Ketac™ Molar Easymix, Group B with Fuji II™ LC, Group C with Ketac™ N100, and Group D with Filtek™ Z250, and subdivided into study and control groups (n = 20). Study groups were immersed in lemon juice (pH = 2.79) for 24 h, whilst controlgroups in deionized distilled water. All samples were immersed in 2% methylene blue dye, sectioned into two equal halves for surface roughness, and microleakage tests. Data were analyzed using Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests at P < 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference in surface roughness of Ketac™ Molar, Fuji II™ LC, and Ketac™ N100. No significant difference was found in microleakage of Ketac™ Molar and Fuji II™ LC; however, there were significant differences in the gingival margin of Ketac™ N100, and the occlusal margin of Filtek™ Z250. Conclusions: All glass ionomer cements were eroded after exposure to the acidic drink. Filtek™ Z250 and Ketac™ Molar Easymix showed more microleakage. All materials showed more microleakage at the gingival margins. PMID:25506139

Hussein, Thulfiqar Ali; Bakar, Wan Zaripah Wan; Ghani, Zuryati Ab; Mohamad, Dasmawati

2014-01-01

246

Habitat restoration across large areas: Assessing wildlife responses in the Clearwater basin, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the past century, fire suppression and prevention have altered disturbance regimes across the Pacific Northwest, resulting in a significant divergence of historical and current conditions in forested habitats. To address this continuing trend in habitat changes and begin restoring historical patterns of disturbance, the Clearwater Basin Elk Habitat Initiative (CEI) proposes relatively extensive management actions in the Clearwater basin of north-central Idaho. We attempted to evaluate potential effects of such management actions on selected wildlife species using extant data sets and suggest ways to improve such projects with respect to a multispecies and adaptive management approach. Although there is increased interest in ecosystem management over large areas, the increased scale of analysis and implementation require a substantial increase in the level of species information beyond what currently exists. We conclude that baseline information required for an effective multispecies land-management policy in the Clearwater basin does not exist for many terrestrial wildlife species. To implement a true multispecies or ecosystem approach, wildlife and land managers should cooperate to increase existing population data and modeling efforts for wildlife species in the basin and develop a sustainable monitoring program to evaluate habitat management changes and their influence on wildlife populations within the context of adaptive management theory. Management actions to restore disturbance patterns should attempt spatial and temporal scales that are biologically relevant to the population ecology of species being affected. ?? 2004 by the Society of American Foresters.

Scanvara, L.K.; Servheen, G.; Melquist, W.; Davis, D.; Scott, J.M.

2004-01-01

247

Incorporating risk into the feasibility assessment of alternative brush management strategies for the Welder Wildlife Refuge  

E-print Network

are not made in evaluating the uncertainty factor. De Souza Neto (1996) conducted a range impact study to determine the long- term outcome of manipulating herd stocking rates. He developed a technique for utilizing several model types to evaluate changes... is to use a model integration technique similar to that used by de Souza Neto to compare the results of standard decision making processes and simulation in estimating economic feasibility of brush management alternatives on the Welder Foundation. Some...

Schumann, Keith D.

1999-01-01

248

Computerized experience sampling method (ESMc): Assessing feasibility and validity among individuals with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Experience Sampling Method (ESM) is an ecologically valid, time-sampling of self-reports developed to study the dynamic process of person–environment interactions. ESM with digital wristwatch and booklets (paper-based ESM; ESMp) has been used extensively to study schizophrenia. The present study is designed to test the feasibility and validity of using Computerized ESM (ESMc) among individuals with schizophrenia. ESMc is advantageous

David Kimhy; Philippe Delespaul; Cheryl Corcoran; Hongshik Ahn; Scott Yale; Dolores Malaspina

2006-01-01

249

Assessment of the advantages and feasibility of a nuclear rocket for a manned Mars mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of rebuilding and testing a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) for the Mars mission was investigted. Calculations indicate that an NTR would substantially reduce the Earth-orbit assemble mass compared to LOX/LH2 systems. The mass savings were 36 and 65% for the cases of total aerobraking and of total propulsive braking respectively. Consequently, the cost savings for a single mission of using an NTR, if aerobraking is feasible, are probably insufficient to warrant the NTR development. If multiple missions are planned or if propulsive braking is desired at Mars and/or at Earth, then the savings of about $7 billion will easily pay for the NTR. Estimates of the cost of rebuilding a NTR were based on the previous NERVA program's budget plus additional costs to develop a flight ready engine. The total cost to build the engine would be between $4 to 5 billion. The concept of developing a full-power test stand at Johnston Atoll in the Pacific appears very feasible. The added expense of building facilities on the island should be less than $1.4 billion.

Howe, Steven D.

1986-01-01

250

FEASIBILITY OF USING THE MACROACTIVITY APPROACH TO ASSESS CHILDREN'S DERMAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

Results derived from an initial assessment of critical exposure pathways for children indicate that dermal contact may result in high residential exposures to pesticides. However, data on children's exposures and activities are insufficient to support quantitative assessments ...

251

Cross-national cognitive assessment in schizophrenia clinical trials: a feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical trials for the treatment of schizophrenia now often include cognitive assessments in addition to clinical ratings of symptoms. Recently, these trials have included cross-national assessments. It is not clear if translated psychological tests produce consistent results across different languages. This paper presents the results of a study of the comparability of the results of cognitive assessments in different English-speaking

Philip D Harvey; Lidia Artiola i Fortuny; Estelle Vester-Blockland; Goedele De Smedt

2003-01-01

252

Assessment, evaluation, and testing of technologies for environmental restoration, decontamination, and decommissioning and high level waste management. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management objectives are being assessed and evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objectives of the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

Uzochukwu, G.A.

1997-12-31

253

In vivo assessment of secondary caries and dentin characteristics after traditional amalgam restorations  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to evaluate in vivo the occurrence of secondary caries and dentin characteristics in permanent molars after traditional amalgam restorations, by means of clinical visual examination, radiographs and laser-induced fluorescence (LF) (DIAGNOdent). Methods: Thirty first permanent molars of 30 schoolchildren in the 7 to14 year-old age group were included. Caries was removed by hand. Thus, indirect pulp capping was performed with glass-ionomer cement (GIC), the cavity was varnished and amalgam filled. LF was measured before and after cavity preparation and after a 12-month observation period. Dentin color after cavity preparation and after the 12-month observation period was recorded. Recurrent caries was also investigated by visual clinical and radiographic examinations, in addition to dentin thickness between pulp and indirect GIC pulp capping. Data was analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measurements, paired “t” test and descriptive statistic. Results: There were statistically significant differences (P<.05) among LF scores for dentin in all periods evaluated, with the lowest scores shown after 12 month of observation. There was no statistical difference between dentin color after cavity preparation and following 12 months of observation. Moreover, there was no recurrent caries attack at 12-month follow-up; dentin thickness between pulp and indirect GIC pulp capping was similar between baseline and final observation periods. It was concluded that the clinical restorative procedure using hand caries removal, indirect pulp capping with GIC, varnishing and amalgam filling the cavity did not provide secondary caries and increased dentin mineral content after 12 months. PMID:22904654

de Assunção Pinheiro, Isauremi Vieira; Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; de Lima, Kenio Costa

2012-01-01

254

Environmental, Safety, and Health Plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Revision 1, Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Plan presents the concepts and methodologies to be followed during the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to protect the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. This ES&H Plan acts as a management extension for ORNL and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to direct and control implementation of the project ES&H program. The subsections that follow describe the program philosophy, requirements, quality assurance measures, and methods for applying the ES&H program to individual waste area grouping (WAG) remedial investigations. Hazardous work permits (HWPs) will be used to provide task-specific health and safety requirements.

Not Available

1993-05-01

255

Assessment of Myocardial Metabolism in Diabetic Rats Using Small-Animal PET: A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This feasibility study was undertaken to determine whether kinetic modeling in conjunction with small-animal PET could noninvasively quantify alterations in myocardial perfusion and substrate metabolism in rats. Methods: All small-animal PET was performed on either of 2 tomographs. Myocardial blood flow and substrate metabolism were measured in 10 male Zucker diabeticfattyrats(ZDF,fa\\/fa)and10leanlittermates(Lean,Fa\\/1) using 15O-water, 1-11C-glucose, 1-11C-acetate, and 1-11C- palmitate. Animals were

Michael J. Welch; Jason S. Lewis; Joonyoung Kim; Terry L. Sharp; Carmen S. Dence; Robert J. Gropler; Pilar Herrero

256

Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Feasibility of assessing crop condition and yield from LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Yield modelling for crop production estimation derived a means of predicting the within-a-year yield and the year-to-year variability of yield over some fixed or randomly located unit of area. Preliminary studies indicated that the requirements for interpreting LANDSAT data for yield may be sufficiently similar to those of signature extension that it is feasible to investigate the automated estimation of production. The concept of an advanced yield model consisting of both spectral and meteorological components was endorsed. Rationale for using meteorological parameters originated from known between season and near harvest dynamics in crop environmental-condition-yield relationships.

1978-01-01

257

Feasibility, Reliability, and Validity of a Smartphone Based Application for the Assessment of Cognitive Function in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

While considerable knowledge has been gained through the use of established cognitive and motor assessment tools, there is a considerable interest and need for the development of a battery of reliable and validated assessment tools that provide real-time and remote analysis of cognitive and motor function in the elderly. Smartphones appear to be an obvious choice for the development of these “next-generation” assessment tools for geriatric research, although to date no studies have reported on the use of smartphone-based applications for the study of cognition in the elderly. The primary focus of the current study was to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone-based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly. A total of 57 non-demented elderly individuals were administered a newly developed smartphone application-based Color-Shape Test (CST) in order to determine its utility in measuring cognitive processing speed in the elderly. Validity of this novel cognitive task was assessed by correlating performance on the CST with scores on widely accepted assessments of cognitive function. Scores on the CST were significantly correlated with global cognition (Mini-Mental State Exam: r?=?0.515, p<0.0001) and multiple measures of processing speed and attention (Digit Span: r?=?0.427, p<0.0001; Trail Making Test: r?=??0.651, p<0.00001; Digit Symbol Test: r?=?0.508, p<0.0001). The CST was not correlated with naming and verbal fluency tasks (Boston Naming Test, Vegetable/Animal Naming) or memory tasks (Logical Memory Test). Test re-test reliability was observed to be significant (r?=?0.726; p?=?0.02). Together, these data are the first to demonstrate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using a smartphone-based application for the purpose of assessing cognitive function in the elderly. The importance of these findings for the establishment of smartphone-based assessment batteries of cognitive and motor function in the elderly is discussed. PMID:23776570

Brouillette, Robert M.; Foil, Heather; Fontenot, Stephanie; Correro, Anthony; Allen, Ray; Martin, Corby K.; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.; Keller, Jeffrey N.

2013-01-01

258

Preliminary assessment report for Olney Military Reservation, Installation 24175, Olney, Maryland. Installation Restoration Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Maryland Army National Guard property near Olney, Maryland. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal

J. Hansen; C. Rose

1993-01-01

259

Feasibility of assessing quality of care at the end of life in two cluster trials using an after-death approach with multiple assessments  

PubMed Central

Background In 2009 two randomised cluster trials took place to assess the introduction of the Italian Version of the Liverpool Care Pathway in hospitals and hospices. Before and after data were gathered. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a combination of assessment methods aimed at different proxy respondents to create a means of measuring quality of care at the end of life. We also aim to explore whether there are differences in response to this approach between the hospice and hospital inpatient settings. Methods A retrospective design was used. Eligible deaths were traced through death registries, and proxies were used to give information. Four procedures of assessment were used to measure different dimensions. Feasibility was assessed through compliance and adherence to the study instruments, and measured against standards derived from previous after-death studies. The proxy caregiver’s rating of the study tools was also measured, to gauge feasibility and effectiveness. All consecutive cancer deaths that occurred in the study period were eligible. In both trials, deaths were excluded if the patient was a relative of hospital/hospice staff. 145 patients were recruited from the Hospital setting, and 127 from Hospice. Results A high proportion of non-professional caregivers were interviewed – in both hospital (76.6%) and hospice (74.8%). There was no significant difference in the median number of days in each setting. 89.0% of hospital patients’ GPs and 85.0% of hospice patients’ GPs were interviewed. Care procedures were recorded in all hospice cases, and were missing in only 1 hospital case.52.7% of Hospital patients’ relatives and 64.12% Hospice relatives were assessed to have been caused a low level of distress through the study. Conclusions The data shows high levels of compliance and adherence to the study instruments. This suggests that this approach to assessing quality of care is feasible, and this coupled with low levels of distress caused by the study instruments suggest effectiveness. There were no substantial differences between the hospice and hospital settings. PMID:25071416

2014-01-01

260

Can we import quality tools? a feasibility study of European practice assessment in a country with less organised general practice  

PubMed Central

Background Quality is on the agenda of European general practice (GP). European researchers have, in collaboration, developed tools to assess quality of GPs. In this feasibility study, we tested the European Practice Assessment (EPA) in a one-off project in Belgium, where general practice has a low level of GP organisation. Methods A framework for feasibility analysis included describing the recruiting of participants, a brief telephone study survey among non-responders, organisational and logistic problems. Using field notes and focus groups, we studied the participants' opinions. Results In this study, only 36 of 1000 invited practices agreed to participate. Co-ordination, administrative work, practice visits and organisational problems required several days per practice. The researchers further encountered technical problems, for instance when entering the data and uploading to the web-based server. In subsequent qualitative analysis using two focus groups, most participant GPs expressed a positive feeling after the EPA procedure. In the short period of follow-up, only a few GPs reported improvements after the visit. The participant GPs suggested that follow-up and coaching would probably facilitate the implementation of changes. Conclusion This feasibility study shows that prior interest in EPA is low in the GP community. We encountered a number of logistic and organisational problems. It proved attractive to participants, but it can be augmented by coaching of participants in more than a one-off project to identify and achieve targets for quality improvement. In the absence of commitment of the government, a network of universities and one scientific organisation will offer EPA as a service to training practices. PMID:19818153

Remmen, Roy; Seuntjens, Luc; Paulus, Dominique; Pestiaux, Dominique; Knops, Klaus; Bruel, Ann Van den

2009-01-01

261

Inversion of submesoscale patterns from a high-resolution Solomon Sea model: Feasibility assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution realistic numerical model of the Solomon Sea, which exhibits a high level of variability at mesoscales and submesoscales, is used to explore new avenues for data assimilation. Image data assimilation represents a powerful methodology to integrate information from high-resolution observations such as satellite sea surface temperature or chlorophyll, or high-resolution altimetric sea surface height that will be observed in the forthcoming SWOT mission. The present study investigates the feasibility and accuracy of the inversion of the dynamical submesoscale information contained in high-resolution images of sea surface temperature (SST) or salinity (SSS) to improve the estimation of oceanic surface currents. The inversion method is tested in the context of twin experiments, with SST and SSS data provided by a model of the Solomon Sea. For that purpose, synthetic tracer images are built by binarizing the norm of the gradient of SST, SSS or spiciness. The binarized tracer images are compared to the dynamical image which is derived from the Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents. The adjustment of the dynamical image to the tracer image provides the optimal correction to be applied on the surface velocity field. The method is evaluated by comparing the result of the inversion to the reference model solution. The feasibility of the inversion of various images (SST, SSS, both SST and SSS or spiciness) is explored on two small areas of the Solomon Sea. We show that errors in the surface velocity field can be substantially reduced through the inversion of tracer images.

Gaultier, Lucile; Djath, Bughsin'; Verron, Jacques; Brankart, Jean-Michel; Brasseur, Pierre; Melet, Angelique

2014-07-01

262

Using water destined for irrigation to conserve wetland ecosystems: A basis for assessing feasibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regulated rivers often have associated wetlands with declining ecological health due to reduced inundation frequency. One innovative option to improve the ecological condition of such wetlands is to use them as temporary off-river water storages, where the water used to inundate them is subsequently allocated to consumptive use. The hydrologic feasibility of this option has yet to be demonstrated. We investigated three physical aspects of a floodplain wetlands system that must be considered, relative to irrigation demand, to determine feasibility: (a) historical inundation frequencies and the effect of regulation and climate change, (b) natural storage volumes and enhanced volumes using retaining walls, and (c) estimated loss rates. We found that inundation frequencies are reduced under regulation and that this reduction is even greater for projected climate change scenarios. Natural volumes were found to be 5% of annual irrigation demand, increasing to 20% with retaining walls; a small proportion at the system scale but significant at farm scale, especially with opportunities for multiple fillings per season. Losses are estimated at 36%-63% of the initial volume, depending on timing of wetland inundation and drawdown. Careful consideration must be applied to issues of frequency and timing of inundation, drawdown rates, and connectivity when considering the ecological benefits of using wetlands as storages. Environmental benefits will be a trade-off with capital, operational, and maintenance costs and water pricing.

Sammonds, M. J.; Vietz, G. J.; Costelloe, J. F.

2013-08-01

263

Assessing the Feasibility of Renewable Energy Development and Energy Efficiency Deployment on Tribal Lands  

SciTech Connect

The Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (KBIC) is committed to preserving our natural environment and reducing the amount of fossil fuels consumed while developing "green" business manufacturing jobs on tribal lands. The Tribe's Comprehensive Strategic Plan seeks to diversify the Tribal Economy through the creation of alternative energy businesses, such as wind, solar and bio-mass facilities while protecting the waters of Lake Superior, tribal inland lakes and streams. In addition, the Community desired to utilize clean/green energy resources to promote the self-sufficiency of the Tribal Nation. The objective of the study is to preserve our environment and maintain our cultural goals of using the resources of the land wisely. To reduce our consumption of fossil fuels, mercury and carbon dioxide emissions, which harm our water and land; we have decided to evaluate the opportunities of utilizing wind power. Preliminary projections show that we may eliminate pollution from our land in a cost effective manner. This study will evaluate wind capacity and our current energy consumption while projecting the feasibility of converting to wind power for operations at our major facilities. This project will study the feasibility of wind power at two locations for the purpose of reducing the Tribe's reliance upon fossil fuels and creating business opportunities, jobs and revenue for the community.

Nominelli, Gregg R.

2012-12-17

264

Assessing the Feasibility of Uav-Based LIDAR for High Resolution Forest Change Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne LiDAR data has become an important tool for both the scientific and industry based investigation of forest structure. The uses of discrete return observations have now reached a maturity level such that the operational use of this data is becoming increasingly common. However, due to the cost of data collection, temporal studies into forest change are often not feasible or completed at infrequent and at uneven intervals. To achieve high resolution temporal LiDAR surveys, this study has developed a micro-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with a discrete return 4-layer LiDAR device and miniaturised positioning sensors. This UAV has been designed to be low-cost and to achieve maximum flying time. In order to achieve these objectives and overcome the accuracy restrictions presented by miniaturised sensors a novel processing strategy based on a Kalman smoother algorithm has been developed. This strategy includes the use of the structure from motion algorithm in estimating camera orientation, which is then used to restrain IMU drift. The feasibility of such a platform for monitoring forest change is shown by demonstrating that the pointing accuracy of this UAV LiDAR device is within the accuracy requirements set out by the Australian Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM) standards.

Wallace, L. O.; Lucieer, A.; Watson, C. S.

2012-08-01

265

Feasibility Study of a Wearable System Based on a Wireless Body Area Network for Gait Assessment in Parkinson's Disease Patients  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) alters the motor performance of affected individuals. The dopaminergic denervation of the striatum, due to substantia nigra neuronal loss, compromises the speed, the automatism and smoothness of movements of PD patients. The development of a reliable tool for long-term monitoring of PD symptoms would allow the accurate assessment of the clinical status during the different PD stages and the evaluation of motor complications. Furthermore, it would be very useful both for routine clinical care as well as for testing novel therapies. Within this context we have validated the feasibility of using a Body Network Area (BAN) of wireless accelerometers to perform continuous at home gait monitoring of PD patients. The analysis addresses the assessment of the system performance working in real environments. PMID:24608005

Cancela, Jorge; Pastorino, Matteo; Arredondo, Maria T.; Konstantina, Nikita S.; Villagra, Federico; Pastor, Maria A.

2014-01-01

266

Test for assessing shear sensitivity of activated sludge flocs: a feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sludge deflocculation can cause, like excessive growth of filamentous bacteria, activated sludge wastewater treatment failure. Yet, unlike the latter cause, there exists no widely accepted tool to assess the flocculation level of activated sludge and to predict sludge deflocculation. In this study, a test procedure is proposed to assess the sensitivity of activated sludge flocs to shear. The test consists

M. Arsène Seka; Willy Verstraete

2003-01-01

267

Applicability and feasibility of systematic review for performing evidence-based risk assessment in food and feed safety.  

PubMed

Food and feed safety risk assessment uses multi-parameter models to evaluate the likelihood of adverse events associated with exposure to hazards in human health, plant health, animal health, animal welfare, and the environment. Systematic review and meta-analysis are established methods for answering questions in health care, and can be implemented to minimize biases in food and feed safety risk assessment. However, no methodological frameworks exist for refining risk assessment multi-parameter models into questions suitable for systematic review, and use of meta-analysis to estimate all parameters required by a risk model may not be always feasible. This paper describes novel approaches for determining question suitability and for prioritizing questions for systematic review in this area. Risk assessment questions that aim to estimate a parameter are likely to be suitable for systematic review. Such questions can be structured by their "key elements" [e.g., for intervention questions, the population(s), intervention(s), comparator(s), and outcome(s)]. Prioritization of questions to be addressed by systematic review relies on the likely impact and related uncertainty of individual parameters in the risk model. This approach to planning and prioritizing systematic review seems to have useful implications for producing evidence-based food and feed safety risk assessment. PMID:25191830

Aiassa, E; Higgins, J P T; Frampton, G K; Greiner, M; Afonso, A; Amzal, B; Deeks, J; Dorne, J-L; Glanville, J; Lövei, G L; Nienstedt, K; O'connor, A M; Pullin, A S; Raji?, A; Verloo, D

2015-06-01

268

Using conservation value to assess land restoration and management alternatives across a degraded oak savanna landscape  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Managers considering restoration of landscapes often face a fundamental challenge - what should be the habitat composition of the restored landscape? We present a method for evaluating an important conservation trade-off inherent in making that decision. 2. Oak savannas and grasslands were historically widespread across central North America but are now rare. Today, in north-west Indiana, USA, habitats spanning a range of woody vegetation density, from nearly treeless open habitats to forests, occur across the conserved landscape where savannas probably once dominated. To understand the benefits of different potential landscape compositions, we evaluated how different proportions of five habitats - open, savanna, woodland, scrub and forest - might affect the conservation value of the north-west Indiana landscape for birds. Two variables of potential conservation importance were examined: species diversity, a measure of avian community richness, and conservation index, the percentage of a bird species' global population occurring on a hectare of landscape, summed across all bird species present. Higher values of conservation index were associated with higher local densities of globally more rare and more threatened species. 3. Conservation index and species diversity were correlated negatively across hypothetical landscapes composed of different proportions of the five habitats. Therefore, a management trade-off existed between conservation index and species diversity because landscapes that maximized species diversity differed from landscapes that maximized conservation index. 4. A landscape of 50% open, 22% savanna, 15% scrub and 13% forest was predicted to represent a compromise at which conservation index and species diversity reached the same percentage of their maxima. In contrast, the current landscape is dominated by forest. 5. Synthesis and applications. We quantified the trade-off between two potential aspects of a landscape's conservation value for birds - the landscape's ability to promote avian species diversity and the landscape's use by threatened avian species. This quantification allowed us to evaluate the ability of different landscape compositions to achieve preferable trade-off compromises, such as maximizing diversity for a given level of landscape use by threatened species. Managers can use these trade-off results to determine which landscape compositions are associated with particular conservation and management priorities.

Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N.B.

2008-01-01

269

78 FR 16655 - Draft Damage Assessment, Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National...Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico, Request for...November 11, 2005, T/B DBL 152 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The...

2013-03-18

270

75 FR 29336 - Penobscot River Restoration Trust; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...prepared an Final Environmental Assessment (FEA) for an application filed by the Penobscot...Comprehensive Settlement Agreement. The FEA evaluates the environmental impacts that...the licensee's proposed surrenders. The FEA finds that approval of the application...

2010-05-25

271

Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential for TVA's John Sevier and Kingston Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

This is a preliminary assessment of the potential for geologic carbon sequestration for the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) John Sevier and Kingston power plants. The purpose of this assessment is to make a 'first cut' determination of whether there is sufficient potential for geologic carbon sequestration within 200 miles of the plants for TVA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to proceed with a joint proposal for a larger project with a strong carbon management element. This assessment does not consider alternative technologies for carbon capture, but assumes the existence of a segregated CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration.

Smith, Ellen D [ORNL; Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL

2008-03-01

272

Feasibility of the Assessment of Cholesterol Crystals in Human Macrophages Using Micro Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

The presence of cholesterol crystals is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, but until recently, such crystals have been considered to be passive components of necrotic plaque cores. Recent studies have demonstrated that phagocytosis of cholesterol crystals by macrophages may actively precipitate plaque progression via an inflammatory pathway, emphasizing the need for methods to study the interaction between macrophages and crystalline cholesterol. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of detecting cholesterol in macrophages in situ using Micro-Optical Coherence Tomography (µOCT), an imaging modality we have recently developed with 1-µm resolution. Macrophages containing cholesterol crystals frequently demonstrated highly scattering constituents in their cytoplasm on µOCT imaging, and µOCT was able to evaluate cholesterol crystals in cultured macrophage cells. Our results suggest that µOCT may be useful for the detection and characterization of inflammatory activity associated with cholesterol crystals in the coronary artery. PMID:25048105

Kashiwagi, Manabu; Liu, Linbo; Chu, Kengyeh K.; Sun, Chen-Hsin; Tanaka, Atsushi; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

2014-01-01

273

Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans  

SciTech Connect

This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites.

Not Available

1994-06-01

274

Annual report of the Environmental Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for FY 1992. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of the investigations and monitoring, conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented can be used to develop a conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This information forms a basis for prioritizing sites and for selecting, implementing, and evaluating remedial actions. Groundwater, soils, sediments, and surface water monitoring results are described.

Clapp, R.B. [ed.

1992-09-01

275

Feasibility and early clinical assessment of flattening filter free (FFF) based stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatments  

PubMed Central

Purpose To test feasibility and safety of clinical usage of Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beams for delivering ablative stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) doses to various tumor sites, by means of Varian TrueBeam™ (Varian Medical Systems). Methods and Materials Seventy patients were treated with SBRT and FFF: 51 lesions were in the thorax (48 patients),10 in the liver, 9 in isolated abdominal lymph node, adrenal gland or pancreas. Doses ranged from 32 to 75 Gy, depending on the anatomical site and the volume of the lesion to irradiate. Lung lesions were treated with cumulative doses of 32 or 48 Gy, delivered in 4 consecutive fractions. The liver patients were treated in 3 fractions with total dose of 75 Gy. The isolated lymph nodes were irradiated in 6 fractions with doses of 45 Gy. The inclusion criteria were the presence of isolated node, or few lymph nodes in the same lymph node region, in absence of other active sites of cancer disease before the SBRT treatment. Results All 70 patients completed the treatment. The minimum follow-up was 3 months. Six cases of acute toxicities were recorded (2 Grade2 and 2 Grade3 in lung and 2 Grade2 in abdomen). No patient experienced acute toxicity greater than Grade3. No other types or grades of toxicities were observed at clinical evaluation visits. Conclusions This study showed that, with respect to acute toxicity, SBRT with FFF beams showed to be a feasible technique in 70 consecutive patients with various primary and metastatic lesions in the body. PMID:21910868

2011-01-01

276

Watershed Restoration Project  

SciTech Connect

In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

2007-09-27

277

Cognitive function in adults aging with fabry disease: a case-control feasibility study using telephone-based assessments.  

PubMed

We examined the feasibility of recruiting US adults ?45 years old with Fabry disease (FD) for telephone assessments of cognitive functioning. A case-control design matched each FD participant on age, sex, race, and education to four participants from a population-based study. Fifty-four participants with FD age 46-72 years were matched to 216 controls. Standardized cognitive assessments, quality of life (QOL), and medical histories were obtained by phone, supplemented by objective indices of comorbidities. Normalized scores on six cognitive tasks were calculated. On the individual tasks, scores on list recall and semantic fluency were significantly lower among FD participants (p-values?assessment methods are feasible among adults with FD, affording access to a geographically dispersed sample. Although decrements in discrete cognitive domains were observed, the overall cognitive function of older adults with FD was equivalent to that of well-matched controls before and after accounting for multiple confounding variables. PMID:25567791

Wadley, Virginia G; McClure, Leslie A; Warnock, David G; Lassen-Greene, Caroline L; Hopkin, Robert J; Laney, Dawn A; Clarke, Virginia M; Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Howard, George; Sims, Katherine

2015-01-01

278

Environmental assessment of the Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of the Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land controlled by DOE within the boundaries of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. This report provides an environmental assessment of proposed remedial action activities at the solid waste management units at SNL/NM. A risk assessment of health hazards is also discussed.

NONE

1996-03-01

279

Survey and evaluation of instream habitat and stock restoration techniques for wild pink and chum salmon. Restoration study number 105-1 (restoration project 93063). Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

This project is the result of a three-year survey of the Exxon Valdez oil spill impact area to identify appropriate and cost-effective instream habitat restoration techniques for salmon, including spawning channels and improvement of fish passage through fish ladders or step-pool structures to overcome physical or hydrological barriers. Additional wild salmon stock rehabilitation measures include stream-side incubation boxes, remote egg-taking, incubation at existing hatcheries for fry stocking in oil-impacted streams, and fry rearing. Study results include the identification of the most promising instream habitat restoration projects in each of the spill-impacted areas.

Willette, T.M.; Dudiak, N.C.; Honnold, S.G.; Carpenter, G.; Dickson, M.

1995-08-01

280

Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and sustainability.

Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

2013-10-01

281

Cascadia GeoSciences: Community-Based Earth Science Research Focused on Geologic Hazard Assessment and Environmental Restoration.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cascadia GeoSciences (CG) is a new non-profit membership governed corporation whose main objectives are to conduct and promote interdisciplinary community based earth science research. The primary focus of CG is on geologic hazard assessment and environmental restoration in the Western U.S. The primary geographic region of interest is Humboldt Bay, NW California, within the southern Cascadia subduction zone (SCSZ). This region is the on-land portion of the accretionary prism to the SCSZ, a unique and exciting setting with numerous hazards in an active, dynamic geologic environment. Humboldt Bay is also a region rich in history. Timber harvesting has been occurring in California's coastal forestlands for approximately 150 years. Timber products transported with ships and railroads from Mendocino and Humboldt Counties helped rebuild San Francisco after the 1906 earthquake. Historic land-use of this type now commonly requires the services of geologists, engineers, and biologists to restore road networks as well as provide safe fish passage. While Humboldt Bay is a focus of some of our individual research goals, we welcome regional scientists to utilize CG to support its mission while achieving their goals. An important function of CG is to provide student opportunities in field research. One of the primary charitable contributions of the organization is a student grant competition. Funds for the student grant will come from member fees and contributions, as well as a percent of all grants awarded to CG. A panel will review and select the student research proposal annually. In addition to supporting student research financially, professional members of CG will donate their time as mentors to the student researchers, promoting a student mentor program. The Humboldt Bay region is well suited to support annual student research. Thorough research like this will help unravel some of the mysteries of regional earthquake-induced land-level changes, as well as possible fault segmentation in the SCSZ. CG will also provide educational materials and resources to the public regarding environmental restoration and earthquake hazards. All research conducted through CG will be published to a publicly accessible digital archive. Education and outreach activities include the student grant program, a digital public archive (maps, reports, geospatial data, guidebooks, MS theses, etc), web-based resources, bi-monthly publications, and annual reports. We invite all types of earth scientists to help support student field research and join us in promoting collaboration, communication, and cooperation with Cascadia GeoSciences.

Williams, T. B.; Patton, J. R.; Leroy, T. H.

2007-12-01

282

Technical Committee on Assessment of Damage and Restorability of Reinforced Concrete Structures Damaged by Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the committee were to assess a degree of damage to be caused in reinforced concrete (hereafter refers to as RC) structures under severe earthquakes, to provide seismically safe and economical structures by means of appropriate repair and retrofit, and to establish such a seismic design method. For achieving these purposes, the committee collected and reviewed the previous

Nobuaki SHIRAI; Hikaru NAKAMURA; Hideyuki KINUGASA; Susumu KONO

283

Pain-QuILT: Clinical Feasibility of a Web-Based Visual Pain Assessment Tool in Adults With Chronic Pain  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic pain is a prevalent and debilitating problem. Accurate and timely pain assessment is critical to pain management. In particular, pain needs to be consistently tracked over time in order to gauge the effectiveness of different treatments. In current clinical practice, paper-based questionnaires are the norm for pain assessment. However, these methods are not conducive to capturing or tracking the complex sensations of chronic pain. Pain-QuILT (previously called the Iconic Pain Assessment Tool) is a Web-based tool for the visual self-report and tracking of pain (quality, intensity, location, tracker) in the form of time-stamped records. It has been iteratively developed and evaluated in adolescents and adults with chronic pain, including usability testing and content validation. Clinical feasibility is an important stepping-stone toward widespread implementation of a new tool. Our group has demonstrated Pain-QuILT clinical feasibility in the context of a pediatric chronic pain clinic. We sought to extend these findings by evaluating Pain-QuILT clinical feasibility from the perspective of adults with chronic pain, in comparison with standard paper-based methods (McGill Pain Questionnaire [MPQ] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]). Objective The goal of our study was to assess Pain-QuILT for (1) ease of use, (2) time for completion, (3) patient preferences, and (4) to explore the patterns of self-reported pain across the Pain-QuILT, MPQ, and BPI. Methods Participants were recruited during a scheduled follow-up visit at a hospital-affiliated pain management and physical rehabilitation clinic in southwestern Ontario. Participants self-reported their current pain using the Pain-QuILT, MPQ, and BPI (randomized order). A semistructured interview format was used to capture participant preferences for pain self-report. Results The sample consisted of 50 adults (54% female, 27/50) with a mean age of 50 years. Pain-QuILT was rated as significantly easier to use than both the MPQ and BPI (P<.01) and was also associated with the fewest difficulties in completion. On average, the time to complete each tool was less than 5 minutes. A majority of participants (58%, 29/50) preferred Pain-QuILT for reporting their pain over alternate methods (16%, 8/50 for MPQ; 14%, 7/50 for BPI; 12%, 6/50 for “other”). The most commonly chosen pain descriptors on MPQ were matched with Pain-QuILT across 91% of categories. There was a moderate-to-high correlation between Pain-QuILT and BPI scores for pain intensity (r=.70, P<.01). Conclusions The results of this clinical feasibility study in adults with chronic pain are consistent with our previously published pediatric findings. Specifically, data indicate that Pain-QuILT is (1) easy to use, (2) quick to complete, (3) preferred by a majority of patients, and (4) correlated as expected with validated pain measures. As a digital, patient-friendly method of assessing and tracking pain, we conclude that Pain-QuILT has potential to add significant value as one standard component of chronic pain management. PMID:24819478

Kumbhare, Dinesh; Stinson, Jennifer N; Henry, James L

2014-01-01

284

An Integrated Approach for Platoon-based Simulation and Its Feasibility Assessment.  

PubMed

Research on developing mathematical and simulative models to evaluate performance of signalized arterials is still ongoing. In this paper, an integrated model (IM) based on Rakha vehicle dynamics and LWR model is proposed. The IM which imitates actuated performance measurement in signalized arterials is described using continuous timed Petri net with variable speeds (VCPN). This enables systematic discretized description of platoon movement from an upstream signalized intersection towards a downstream signalized intersection. The integration is based on the notion that speed and travel time characteristics in a link can be provided using Rakha model. This will assist the LWR to estimate arrival profiles of vehicles at downstream intersection. One immediate benefit of the model is that platoon arrival profile obtained from the IM can be directly manipulated to estimate queues and delays at the target intersection using input-output analysis without considering the effect of shockwaves. This is less tedious as compared to analysing the LWR model through tracing trajectory of shockwave. Besides, time parameters of a platoon could be estimated for self-scheduling control approach from a cycle to cycle basis. The proposed IM is applied to a test intersection where simulated queues and average delays from the IM are compared with the platoon dispersion model (PDM) implemented in TRANSYT, cell transmission model (CTM) and HCM2000 for both under-saturated and oversaturated situations. The comparisons yielded acceptable and reasonable results, thus ascertained the feasibility and validity of the model. PMID:25785693

Ng, Kok Mun; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne

2015-01-01

285

ASSESSING THE FEASIBILITY OF COSMIC-RAY ACCELERATION BY MAGNETIC TURBULENCE AT THE GALACTIC CENTER  

SciTech Connect

The presence of relativistic particles at the center of our Galaxy is evidenced by the diffuse TeV emission detected from the inner {approx}2 Degree-Sign of the Galaxy. Although it is not yet entirely clear whether the origin of the TeV photons is due to hadronic or leptonic interactions, the tight correlation of the intensity distribution with the distribution of molecular gas along the Galactic ridge strongly points to a pionic-decay process involving relativistic protons. In previous work, we concluded that point-source candidates, such as the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* (identified with the High-Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) source J1745-290) or the pulsar wind nebulae dispersed along the Galactic plane, could not account for the observed diffuse TeV emission from this region. Motivated by this result, we consider here the feasibility that the cosmic rays populating the Galactic center region are accelerated in situ by magnetic turbulence. Our results indicate that even in a highly conductive environment, this mechanism is efficient enough to energize protons within the intercloud medium to the {approx}>TeV energies required to produce the HESS emission.

Fatuzzo, M. [Physics Deparment, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH 45207 (United States); Melia, F., E-mail: fatuzzo@xavier.edu, E-mail: fmelia@email.arizona.edu [Department of Physics, Applied Math Program, and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, AZ 85721 (United States)

2012-05-01

286

An Integrated Approach for Platoon-based Simulation and Its Feasibility Assessment  

PubMed Central

Research on developing mathematical and simulative models to evaluate performance of signalized arterials is still ongoing. In this paper, an integrated model (IM) based on Rakha vehicle dynamics and LWR model is proposed. The IM which imitates actuated performance measurement in signalized arterials is described using continuous timed Petri net with variable speeds (VCPN). This enables systematic discretized description of platoon movement from an upstream signalized intersection towards a downstream signalized intersection. The integration is based on the notion that speed and travel time characteristics in a link can be provided using Rakha model. This will assist the LWR to estimate arrival profiles of vehicles at downstream intersection. One immediate benefit of the model is that platoon arrival profile obtained from the IM can be directly manipulated to estimate queues and delays at the target intersection using input-output analysis without considering the effect of shockwaves. This is less tedious as compared to analysing the LWR model through tracing trajectory of shockwave. Besides, time parameters of a platoon could be estimated for self-scheduling control approach from a cycle to cycle basis. The proposed IM is applied to a test intersection where simulated queues and average delays from the IM are compared with the platoon dispersion model (PDM) implemented in TRANSYT, cell transmission model (CTM) and HCM2000 for both under-saturated and oversaturated situations. The comparisons yielded acceptable and reasonable results, thus ascertained the feasibility and validity of the model. PMID:25785693

Ng, Kok Mun; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne

2015-01-01

287

Ocean disposal of CO{sub 2}: A current assessment of feasibility, cost, and effects  

SciTech Connect

The ocean represents a huge natural reservoir for carbon dioxide disposal, since it covers 70% of the Earth`s surface and has an average depth of 3,800 m. More importantly, the deeper layers are highly unsaturated with CO{sub 2}, containing typically 0.1 kgm{sup {minus}3}, whereas the solubility is in the order of 40 kgm{sup {minus}3}. The problems of deep ocean disposal are of a technical, economic, ecologic and legal nature. In order to assure a sufficiently long residence time in the ocean, CO{sub 2} has to be injected below the thermocline, 1,000 m or deeper. Current pipe-laying technology may allow a release down to 1,000 m. There are only a limited number of coastal sites on the industrialized continents from whence direct pipeline access to 1,000 m depth is feasible. Pipe-laying costs are estimated in the $1--2 million per km, exclusive of the release system cost. While global effects of CO{sub 2} disposal in the ocean are considered negligible, local effects on aquatic life around the discharge point may raise concerns. The turbulent, anoxic, acidic plume may have adverse effects on mesopelagic organisms, and the sinking hydrate particles may bury benthic creatures. 37 refs., 2 figs.

Golomb, D. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States)

1994-12-31

288

Development of sludge-based adsorbents: preparation, characterization, utilization and its feasibility assessment.  

PubMed

The increasing generation of sludge and its subsequent treatment are very sensitive environmental problems. For a more stable and sustainable treatment of sludge, there have been many studies, including the conversion of sludge into sludge-based adsorbents (SBAs) for pollutants removal. In this review, current SBAs preparation conditions and use as adsorbent for contaminant removal in water treatment are summarized and discussed. Carbonization, physical activation and chemical activation are three common preparation methods. The controlling key parameters include pyrolysis temperature, dwell time, heating rate, activator and feedstock type. The efficacy of SBAs in contaminant adsorption depends on their surface area, pore size distribution, surface functional groups and ion-exchange capacity. It has been demonstrated that SBAs can attain high uptakes of dyes and metal ions due to their high cation exchange capacity; whereas the strong antibiotics adsorption performance of SBAs derives from high degree of mesoporosity. In addition, thermal treatment significantly stabilizes heavy metals contained in sludge. The paper also discusses the economic feasibility and environmental safety of preparation and application of SBAs. Further research will include investigations on the migration and transformation of element in sludge by thermal treatment, more economical and efficient chemical activation reagents, obtaining SBAs for designated application, combination of coagulation and SBAs adsorption, regeneration of SBAs and full-scale tests. PMID:25577702

Xu, Guoren; Yang, Xin; Spinosa, Ludovico

2015-03-15

289

Thermal hydraulic feasibility assessment of the hot conditioning system and process  

SciTech Connect

The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project was established to develop engineered solutions for the expedited removal, stabilization, and storage of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. A series of analyses have been completed investigating the thermal-hydraulic performance and feasibility of the proposed Hot Conditioning System and process for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The analyses were performed using a series of thermal-hydraulic models that could respond to all process and safety-related issues that may arise pertaining to the Hot Conditioning System. The subject efforts focus on independently investigating, quantifying, and establishing the governing heat production and removal mechanisms, flow distributions within the multi-canister overpack, and performing process simulations for various purge gases under consideration for the Hot Conditioning System, as well as obtaining preliminary results for comparison with and verification of other analyses, and providing technology- based recommendations for consideration and incorporation into the Hot Conditioning System design bases.

Heard, F.J.

1996-10-10

290

EVALUATION OF PHYSIOLOGY COMPUTER MODELS, AND THE FEASIBILITY OF THEIR USE IN RISK ASSESSMENT.  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will evaluate the current state of quantitative models that simulate physiological processes, and the how these models might be used in conjunction with the current use of PBPK and BBDR models in risk assessment. The work will include a literature search to identify...

291

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Yakama Indian Nation, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

This document represents the FY2002 BPA contract Statement of Work for the Yakama Nation (YN) portion of the project entitled 'Assessment of current and potential salmonid production in Rattlesnake Creek associated with restoration efforts'. The purpose of the project is to complete detailed surveys of water quality, fish populations, habitat conditions and riparian health in the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin of the White Salmon River in south central Washington. Results of the surveys will be used to establish Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin baseline environmental factors prior to anticipated removal of Condit Dam in 2006 and enable cost-effective formulation of future watershed restoration strategies.

Morris, Gregory

2003-05-01

292

Feasibility assessment of piezoelectric crystals as chemical warfare agent sensors. Final report, 1 August 1983-31 August 1985  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of a vibrating piezoelectric crystal as a CW agent detector was assessed by applying CW agent-sensitive coatings to the crystal and testing the detector with 0.3 mg/cum of GB (Sarin). Eight different coating materials were selected, based on previous data with G-agent simulants. No responses were observed to 0.3 mg/cum. GB, but three costings (XAD-4/Cu(2=)-diamine, polyethylenemaleate, and succinyl choline chloride) gave responses of -59 Hz, -22 Hz, and =11 Hz, respectively, to 10 mg/cm.of DIMP (diisopropyl methylphosphonate). Circuit optimization and the use of an operating frequency higher than 9 MHz is recommended to enhance sensitivity. Far-term recommendations are to apply the same coatings to a high-frequency (e.g., 300 MHz) surface acoustic-wave device and test again with CW agents.

Balog, P.P.; Stanford, T.B.; Nordstrom, R.J.; Burgener, R.C.

1986-04-01

293

76 FR 59731 - Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the M/V Cosco Busan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...367 acres of shoreline habitat were oiled, 14-29...to benefit shoreline habitats, $2.5 million to...injury assessment; uses selection criteria to evaluate...eelgrass, and shoreline habitats; and discusses the...creating roosting and nesting platforms on the...

2011-09-27

294

A feasibility assessment of automated FISH image and signal analysis to assist cervical cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology provides a promising molecular imaging tool to detect cervical cancer. Since manual FISH analysis is difficult, time-consuming, and inconsistent, the automated FISH image scanning systems have been developed. Due to limited focal depth of scanned microscopic image, a FISH-probed specimen needs to be scanned in multiple layers that generate huge image data. To improve diagnostic efficiency of using automated FISH image analysis, we developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme. In this experiment, four pap-smear specimen slides were scanned by a dual-detector fluorescence image scanning system that acquired two spectrum images simultaneously, which represent images of interphase cells and FISH-probed chromosome X. During image scanning, once detecting a cell signal, system captured nine image slides by automatically adjusting optical focus. Based on the sharpness index and maximum intensity measurement, cells and FISH signals distributed in 3-D space were projected into a 2-D con-focal image. CAD scheme was applied to each con-focal image to detect analyzable interphase cells using an adaptive multiple-threshold algorithm and detect FISH-probed signals using a top-hat transform. The ratio of abnormal cells was calculated to detect positive cases. In four scanned specimen slides, CAD generated 1676 con-focal images that depicted analyzable cells. FISH-probed signals were independently detected by our CAD algorithm and an observer. The Kappa coefficients for agreement between CAD and observer ranged from 0.69 to 1.0 in detecting/counting FISH signal spots. The study demonstrated the feasibility of applying automated FISH image and signal analysis to assist cyto-geneticists in detecting cervical cancers.

Wang, Xingwei; Li, Yuhua; Liu, Hong; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy R.; Zheng, Bin

2012-02-01

295

Bone micro-damage assessment using non-linear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) techniques: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

Non-linear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) is a technique exploiting the significant non-linear behavior of damaged materials, related to the presence of damage. This study shows for the first time the feasibility of this technique for damage assessment in bone. Two samples of bovine cortical bone were subjected to a progressive damage experiment. Damage accumulation was progressively induced in the samples by mechanical testing. For independent assessment of damage, X-ray CT imaging was performed at each damage step, but only helped in the detection of the prominent cracks. Synchrotron micro-CT imaging and histology using epifluorescence microscopy were performed in one of the two samples at the last damage step and allowed detection of micro-cracks for this step. As the quantity of damage accumulation increased, NRUS revealed a corresponding increase in the non-linear response. The measured change in non-linear response is much more sensitive than the change in elastic modulus. The results suggest that NRUS could be a potential tool for micro-damage assessment in bone. Further work has to be carried out for a better understanding of the physical nature of damaged bone, and for the ultimate goal of in vivo implementation of the technique where bone access will be a challenging problem. PMID:16876843

Muller, M; Tencate, J A; Darling, T W; Sutin, A; Guyer, R A; Talmant, M; Laugier, P; Johnson, P A

2006-12-22

296

A pilot study to assess feasibility of value based pricing in Cyprus through pharmacoeconomic modelling and assessment of its operational framework: sorafenib for second line renal cell cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The continuing increase of pharmaceutical expenditure calls for new approaches to pricing and reimbursement of pharmaceuticals. Value based pricing of pharmaceuticals is emerging as a useful tool and possess theoretical attributes to help health system cope with rising pharmaceutical expenditure. Aim To assess the feasibility of introducing a value-based pricing scheme of pharmaceuticals in Cyprus and explore the integrative framework. Methods A probabilistic Markov chain Monte Carlo model was created to simulate progression of advanced renal cell cancer for comparison of sorafenib to standard best supportive care. Literature review was performed and efficacy data were transferred from a published landmark trial, while official pricelists and clinical guidelines from Cyprus Ministry of Health were utilised for cost calculation. Based on proposed willingness to pay threshold the maximum price of sorafenib for the indication of second line renal cell cancer was assessed. Results Sorafenib value based price was found to be significantly lower compared to its current reference price. Conclusion Feasibility of Value Based Pricing is documented and pharmacoeconomic modelling can lead to robust results. Integration of value and affordability in the price are its main advantages which have to be weighed against lack of documentation for several theoretical parameters that influence outcome. Smaller countries such as Cyprus may experience adversities in establishing and sustaining essential structures for this scheme. PMID:24910539

2014-01-01

297

An introductory guide to uncertainty analysis in environmental and health risk assessment. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents guidelines for evaluating uncertainty in mathematical equations and computer models applied to assess human health and environmental risk. Uncertainty analyses involve the propagation of uncertainty in model parameters and model structure to obtain confidence statements for the estimate of risk and identify the model components of dominant importance. Uncertainty analyses are required when there is no a priori knowledge about uncertainty in the risk estimate and when there is a chance that the failure to assess uncertainty may affect the selection of wrong options for risk reduction. Uncertainty analyses are effective when they are conducted in an iterative mode. When the uncertainty in the risk estimate is intolerable for decision-making, additional data are acquired for the dominant model components that contribute most to uncertainty. This process is repeated until the level of residual uncertainty can be tolerated. A analytical and numerical methods for error propagation are presented along with methods for identifying the most important contributors to uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation with either Simple Random Sampling (SRS) or Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) is proposed as the most robust method for propagating uncertainty through either simple or complex models. A distinction is made between simulating a stochastically varying assessment endpoint (i.e., the distribution of individual risks in an exposed population) and quantifying uncertainty due to lack of knowledge about a fixed but unknown quantity (e.g., a specific individual, the maximally exposed individual, or the mean, median, or 95%-tile of the distribution of exposed individuals). Emphasis is placed on the need for subjective judgement to quantify uncertainty when relevant data are absent or incomplete.

Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; Bartell, S.M.

1994-12-01

298

A Multiple Watershed Approach to Assessing the Effects of Habitat Restoration Actions on Anadromous and Resident Fish Populations, Technical Report 2003-2004.  

SciTech Connect

Habitat protection and restoration is a cornerstone of current strategies to restore ecosystems, recover endangered fish species, and rebuild fish stocks within the Columbia River Basin. Strategies featuring habitat restoration include the 2000 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS BiOp) developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the 2000 Biological Opinion on Bull Trout developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Sub-Basin Plans developed under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NWPCC). There is however little quantitative information about the effectiveness of different habitat restoration techniques. Such information is crucial for helping scientists and program managers allocate limited funds towards the greatest benefits for fish populations. Therefore, it is critical to systematically test the hypotheses underlying habitat restoration actions for both anadromous and resident fish populations. This pilot project was developed through a proposal to the Innovative Projects fund of the NWPCC (ESSA 2002). It was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) following reviews by the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP 2002), the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA 2002), the NWPCC and BPA. The study was designed to respond directly to the above described needs for information on the effectiveness of habitat restoration actions, including legal measures specified in the 2000 FCRPS BiOp (RPA 183, pg. 9-133, NMFS 2000). Due to the urgency of addressing these measures, the timeline of the project was accelerated from a duration of 18 months to 14 months. The purpose of this pilot project was to explore methods for evaluating past habitat restoration actions and their effects on fish populations. By doing so, the project will provide a foundation of retrospective analyses, on which to build prospective, multi-watershed designs for future habitat restoration actions. Such designs are being developed concurrently with this project by several other groups in the Columbia Basin (RME Workgroup 2003, NMFS 2003, Hillman and Paulsen 2002, Hillman 2003). By addressing questions about habitat restoration and monitoring (in coordination with other related efforts), we hope that this project will catalyze a shift in the Basin's paradigm of habitat restoration, moving from implementation of individual watershed projects towards rigorously designed and monitored, multiwatershed, adaptive management experiments. The project involved three phases of work, which were closely integrated with various related and ongoing efforts in the region: (1) Scoping - We met with a Core Group of habitat experts and managers to scope out a set of testable habitat restoration hypotheses, identify candidate watersheds and recommend participants for a data evaluation workshop. (2) Data Assembly - We contacted over 80 scientists and managers to help evaluate the suitability of each candidate watershed's historical data for assessing the effectiveness of past restoration actions. We eventually settled on the Yakima, Wenatchee, Clearwater, and Salmon subbasins, and began gathering relevant data for these watersheds at a workshop with habitat experts and managers. Data assembly continued for several months after the workshop. (3) Data Analysis and Synthesis - We explored statistical approaches towards retrospectively analyzing the effects of restoration 'treatments' at nested spatial scales across multiple watersheds (Chapters 2-5 of this report). These analyses provided a foundation for identifying existing constraints to testing restoration hypotheses, and opportunities to overcome these constraints through improved experimental designs, monitoring protocols and project selection strategies (Chapters 6 and 7 of this report). Finally, we developed a set of recommendations to improve the design, implementation, and monitoring of prospective habitat restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin (Chapter 8).

Marmorek, David

2004-03-01

299

Preliminary assessment report for Florence Military Reservation, Installation 04080, Florence, Arizona. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Arizona Army National Guard property near Florence, Arizona. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. Florence Military Reservation is a 5,655-acre site located in the southern portion of Arizona, about 65 mi southeast of Phoenix, in the county of Pinal. Florence Military Reservation includes Unit Training Equipment Site (UTES) 1, an artillery firing range, and ammunition storage. The subject of this PA is the UTES. The environmentally significant operations associated with the UTES property are (1) vehicle maintenance and refueling, (2) supply/storage of materials, and (3) the vehicle washrack.

Not Available

1993-08-01

300

Assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of coal sludge slurries  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two decades, there has been considerable progress made in the technical developments relating to the utilization of coal in the form of a coal water slurry (CWS) both as a gasifier feedstock and as a furnace fuel. A very promising approach to utilizing CWS in an economical and cost effective manner is to use its basic technical advantage over coal, i.e. its behavior as a fluid as a method of introducing other ordinary unusable fuel sources such as sewage sludge or other solid Btu containing wastes. This can provide an economic advantage to CWS via waste disposal fees income as well as solving a vexing disposal problem. Sewage sludge presents severe disposal problems for municipalities across the country. The problem of sewage sludge disposal has reached crisis proportions in many areas of the country. Although the benefit of concentrating the sludge slurry for combustion is evident, there is a major technical barrier, which is related to the rheological properties of the sludge. It would appear that the solids in a sludge slurry consist of both colloidal-sized particles and larger open-structures which trap a significant amount of water. As the sludge is concentrated, it begins to lose its fluid properties at about 10% solids and becomes a filter cake at 15% solids which must be handled as a solid, i.e. belt feeders, etc. This poses problems for incineration because feeding concentrated sludge requires mechanical feeders and combustion of the sludge requires a considerable amount of excess air (40--50%) and significant quantities of auxiliary fuels. Direct combustion of sludge in a resource recovery facility or an incinerator also leads to high levels of uncontrolled emissions including particulates and metals such as cadmium, mercury, etc. Expensive emission controls are required to meet EPA limits. The net result is a considerable add-on expense to sludge disposal with little recovery of the inherent Btu value. The overall goal of this project was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of supplementing the fuel cycle by incorporating combustion of waste material as a component of a coal water slurry. The specific goals included: conduct a sewage treatment plant survey to select a sample for testing; determine the physical and chemical characteristics of hydrothermally treated material; develop an optimum coal water sludge slurry; and provide an economic analysis of the operating expenses and order of magnitude capital cost estimates.

Dooher, J.

1999-07-01

301

Technical Feasibility Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting on the Golden Gate Bridge  

SciTech Connect

Subsequent to preliminary investigations by the Golden Gate Bridge Highway & Transportation District (GGB), in coordination with Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), the GATEWAY Demonstration program was asked to evaluate the technical feasibility of replacing existing roadway lighting on the bridge with products utilizing LED technology. GGB and PG&E also indicated interest in induction (i.e., electrodeless fluorescent) technology, since both light source types feature rated lifetimes significantly exceeding those of the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) and low-pressure sodium (LPS) products. The goal of the study was to identify any solutions which would reduce energy use and maintenance without compromising the quantity or quality of existing illumination. Products used for roadway lighting on the historic bridge must be installed within the existing amber-lensed shoebox-style luminaire housings. It was determined that induction technology does not appear to represent a viable alternative for the roadway luminaires in this application; any energy savings would be attributable to a reduction in light levels. Although no suitable LED retrofit kits were identified for installation within existing luminaire housings, several complete LED luminaires were found to offer energy savings of 6-18%, suggesting custom LED retrofit kits could be developed to match or exceed the performance of the existing shoeboxes. Luminaires utilizing ceramic metal halide (CMH) were also evaluated, and some were found to offer 28% energy savings, but these products might actually increase maintenance due to the shorter rated lamp life. Plasma technology was evaluated, as well, but no suitable products were identified. Analysis provided in this report was completed in May 2012. Although LED technologies are expected to become increasingly viable over time, and product mock-ups may reveal near-term solutions, some options not currently considered by GGB may ultimately merit evaluation. For example, it would be preferable in terms of performance to simply replace existing luminaires (some of which may already be nearing end of life) with fully-integrated LED or CMH luminaires rather than replacing internal components. Among other benefits, this would allow reputable manufacturers to offer standard warranties for their products. Similarly, the amber lenses might be reformulated such that they do not render white light sources in a greenish cast, thereby allowing the use of off-the-shelf LED or CMH products. Last, it should be noted that the existing amber-lensed shoeboxes bear no daytime resemblance to the LPS luminaires originally used to light the roadway.

Tuenge, Jason R.

2012-09-01

302

Assessing feasibility of real-time ultrasound monitoring in stereotactic body radiotherapy of liver tumors.  

PubMed

To monitor tumor motion during stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with liver cancer, an integrated ultrasound and kilo-voltage cone-beam computed tomography (KV-CBCT) system has been proposed. The presence of an ultrasound probe may interfere with the radiation beams. The purpose of this study is to minimize this interference by altering orientations of the ultrasound probe and directions of radiation beams while not compromising the quality of SBRT plans. Ten patients, who received SBRT of liver cancer, were randomly selected for this study. To simulate the presence of an ultrasound probe, a virtual probe was oriented either parallel or vertical to the longitudinal axis of the patient's body and was added on the surface of the patient's body at the nearest location to the tumor. For both the parallel and vertical probe orientations, 2 new SBRT (Probe-Para and Probe-Vert) plans that minimize the interference between the probe and radiation beams were created for each patient. These SBRT plans were compared to the original clinically accepted SBRT plans, with a treatment goal of 37.5?Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) in 3 fractions. Specific dosimetric endpoints were evaluated, including doses to 95% (D95), of the PTV plan conformal index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), and relevant endpoint doses to organs at risk. For 2 patients with superficially located tumors, no clinically acceptable SBRT plans could be produced without the interference between the probe and radiation beams. For the remaining 8 patients, the Probe-Para plans allowed 7 patients to be treated with coplanar radiation beams (without moving the treatment couch during treatment) and 1 patient to be treated with non-coplanar beams (by moving the treatment couch during treatment). The Probe-Vert plans allowed 2 patients to be treated with coplanar beams and 6 patients to be treated with non-coplanar beams. The average D95 of the PTV were 38.63?Gy ±?0.14 (? =?0.65) for Probe-Para plans, 38.48?Gy ±?0.31 (? =?0.33) for Probe-Vert plans, and 38.72?Gy ±?0.14 for clinical SBRT plans. There were no significant differences (p >?0.05) in CI and HI of all SBRT plans. The endpoint doses to the liver, heart, esophagus, right kidney, and stomach also had no significant differences (p?> 0.05). Except for superficial lesions, real-time ultrasound monitoring during liver SBRT is clinically feasible. Placing the ultrasound probe parallel to the longitudinal axis of the patient allows a greater probability of utilizing preferred coplanar beams. PMID:23369158

Zhong, Yahua; Stephans, Kevin; Qi, Peng; Yu, Naiching; Wong, John; Xia, Ping

2013-06-01

303

Restoring Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from Nature learn how removal of old dams and river restoration is occurring all over the northwestern United States in an attempt to restore the natural environment and make salmon populations viable once again.

2011-09-23

304

Special Olympics, special smiles: assessing the feasibility of epidemiologic data collection.  

PubMed

No comprehensive national study has ever been completed on the oral health status of people with disabilities, their patterns of use of oral health services and access-to-care barriers. The authors describe the Special Olympics, Special Smiles program, conducted as part of the New Jersey Summer Special Olympics Games, and assess a pilot-tested model for collecting epidemiologic data. The results of this initial data collection are also compared with the goals of the U.S. Public Health Service, as outlined in the Healthy People 2000 publication. PMID:9415766

Feldman, C A; Giniger, M; Sanders, M; Saporito, R; Zohn, H K; Perlman, S P

1997-12-01

305

The feasibility of using electronic clinical outcome assessments in people with schizophrenia and their informal caregivers  

PubMed Central

Many clinical outcome assessments (COAs) were originally developed for completion via pen and paper. However, in recent years there have been movements toward electronic capture of such data in an effort to reduce missing data, provide time-stamped records, minimize administrative burden, and avoid secondary data entry errors. Although established in many patient populations, the implications of using electronic COAs in schizophrenia are unknown. In accordance with International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) Task Force recommendations, in-depth cognitive debriefing and usability interviews were conducted with people with schizophrenia (n=12), their informal (unpaid) caregivers (n=12), and research support staff (n=6) to assess the suitability of administration of various electronic COA measures using an electronic tablet device. Minimal issues were encountered by participants when completing or administering the COAs in electronic format, with many finding it easier to complete instruments in this mode than by pen and paper. The majority of issues reported were specific to the device functionality rather than the electronic mode of administration. Findings support data collection via electronic tablet in people with schizophrenia and their caregivers. The appropriateness of other forms of electronic data capture (eg, smartphones, interactive voice response systems, etc) is a topic for future investigation. PMID:25870518

Tolley, Chloe; Rofail, Diana; Gater, Adam; Lalonde, Justine K

2015-01-01

306

Preliminary feasibility assessment for Earth-to-space electromagnetic (Railgun) launchers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Earth to space electromagnetic (railgun) launcher (ESRL) for launching material into space was studied. Potential ESRL applications were identified and initially assessed to formulate preliminary system requirements. The potential applications included nuclear waste disposal in space, Earth orbital applications, deep space probe launchers, atmospheric research, and boost of chemical rockets. The ESRL system concept consisted of two separate railgun launcher tubes (one at 20 deg from the horizontal for Earth orbital missions, the other vertical for solar system escape disposal missions) powered by a common power plant. Each 2040 m launcher tube is surrounded by 10,200 homopolar generator/inductor units to transmit the power to the walls. Projectile masses are 6500 kg for Earth orbital missions and 2055 kg for nuclear waste disposal missions. For the Earth orbital missions, the projectile requires a propulsion system, leaving an estimated payload mass of 650 kg. For the nuclear waste disposal in space mission, the high level waste mass was estimated at 250 kg. This preliminary assessment included technical, environmental, and economic analyses.

Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Earhart, R. W.

1982-01-01

307

Recruiting clinical personnel as research participants: a framework for assessing feasibility.  

PubMed

Increasing numbers of research studies test interventions for clinicians in addition to or instead of interventions for patients. Although previous studies have enumerated barriers to patient enrolment in clinical trials, corresponding barriers have not been identified for enrolling clinicians as subjects. We propose a framework of metrics for evidence-based estimation of time and resources required for recruiting clinicians as research participants, and present an example from a federally funded study. Our framework proposes metrics for tracking five steps in the recruitment process: gaining entry into facilities, obtaining accurate eligibility and contact information, reaching busy clinicians, assessing willingness to participate, and scheduling participants for data collection. We analyzed recruitment records from a qualitative study exploring performance feedback at US Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs); five recruiters sought to reach two clinicians at 16 facilities for a one-hour interview. Objective metrics were calculable for all five steps; metric values varied considerably across facilities. Obtaining accurate contact information slowed down recruiting the most. We conclude that successfully recruiting even small numbers of employees requires considerable resourcefulness and more calendar time than anticipated. Our proposed framework provides an empirical basis for estimating research-recruitment timelines, planning subject-recruitment strategies, and assessing the research accessibility of clinical sites. PMID:24153049

Hysong, Sylvia J; Smitham, Kristen Broussard; Knox, Melissa; Johnson, Khai-El; SoRelle, Richard; Haidet, Paul

2013-01-01

308

Preliminary assessment report for Camp Carroll Training Center, Installation 02045, Anchorage, Alaska. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Alaska Army National Guard property known as Camp Carroll Training Center, located on the Fort Richardson Army facility near Anchorage, Alaska. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for the completion of preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing, corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances used, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The primary environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) the Alaska Air National Guard storage area behind Building S57112 (Organizational Maintenance Shop [OMS] 6); (2) the state of Alaska maintenance facility and the soil/tar-type spill north of the state of Alaska maintenance facility; (3) the waste storage area adjacent to OMS 6; (4) the contaminated area from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) and the oil-water separator; and (5) soil staining in the parking area at the Camp Carroll Headquarters Building. Camp Carroll appears to be in excellent condition from an environmental standpoint, and current practices are satisfactory. Argonne recommends that the Alaska Department of Military Affairs consider remediation of soil contamination associated with all storage areas, as well as reviewing the practices of other residents of the facility. Argonne also recommends that the current methods of storing waste material behind Building S57112 (OMS 6) be reviewed for alternatives.

Krokosz, M.; Sefano, J.

1993-08-01

309

Restoration Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While not a panacea, the emerging field of restoration ecology provides an important tool for environmental conservation and contributes greatly to our understanding of ecology.The first Web site is the home page of the Society for Ecological Restoration, offering a good starting point for exploring this relatively new discipline (1). The next site (2) provides an overview of the University of Wisconsin's Center for Restoration Ecology, "the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary research team assembled to advance the science and technology of ecosystem restoration." The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration outlines its plans for coastal and estuarine restoration in this Web site (3). The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois has implemented one of the largest tallgrass prairie restorations to date (4). The Kissimmee River Restoration Web site (5) provides a detailed look at this incredibly ambitious dam removal and wetland restoration project in Florida. The next Web site (6) offers a visually-attractive introduction to the restoration efforts of the nonprofit organization RESTORE, focusing on the forests of Maine. The Wildlands Project, another restoration-oriented nonprofit organization, describes its vision of ecosystem conservation in this Web site, which includes a personal brief from distinguished biologist E. O. Wilson. (7). The Wildwood project of the Scottish organization Carrifran offers an interesting contrast to restoration efforts in the US, as much of Scotland has been denuded of its original forests for thousands of years (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

310

ASSESSMENT OF NEAR-STREAM GROUND WATER-SURFACE WATER INTERACTION (GSI) OF A DEGRADED STREAM BEFORE RESTORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

In Fall 2001, EPA undertook an intensive collaborative research effort with the USGS and the Institute of Ecosystem Studies (IES) to evaluate the impact of restoration on water quality at a degraded stream in an urban watershed using a before/after stream restoration study design...

311

Feasibility of utilizing the patellar ligament angle for assessing cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs  

PubMed Central

The patellar ligament angle (PLA) was assessed in 105 normal stifle joints of 79 dogs and 33 stifle joints of 26 dogs with a ruptured cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL). The PLA of stifles with complete CrCL rupture was significantly lower than that of normal stifles, particularly at a flexion angle of 60~80° in both plain and stress views. If the PLA was <90.55° on the stress view with a 60~80° flexion angle, the dog was diagnosed with a complete rupture of the CrCL with a sensitivity of 83.9% and specificity of 100%. In conclusion, measuring the PLA is a quantitative method for diagnosing complete CrCL rupture in canines. PMID:24962409

Lee, Jung-ha

2014-01-01

312

Third annual environmental restoration monitoring and assessment report for FY 1994 of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of environmental monitoring, field investigations, and assessments conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report focuses on the watershed scale, providing an ORNL site-wide perspective on types, distribution, and transport of contamination. The results presented are used to enhance the conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This information forms a basis for prioritizing sites and for selecting, implementing, and evaluating remedial actions. This report summarizes the efforts of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 and Site Investigations (SI) Project. WAG 2 is the lower portion of the White Oak Creek system which drains the major contaminated sites at ORNL and discharges to the Clinch River where public access is allowed. The Remedial Investigation Plan (DOE 1992) for WAG 2 includes a long-term multimedia environmental monitoring effort that takes advantage of WAG 2`s role as an integrator and the major conduit of contaminants from the ORNL site. During FY 1992, the remedial investigation activities were integrated with a series of environmental monitoring and SI activities at ORNL that address pathways and processes important for contaminant movement to gain a more integrated perspective of contamination movement at the watershed scale.

Clapp, R.B.; Watts, J.A.; Guth, M.A.S. [eds.

1994-09-01

313

Assessment of aortic pulse wave velocity by ultrasound: a feasibility study in mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness and could be useful for characterizing cardiovascular disease progression even in mouse models. Aim of this study was to develop an image process algorithm for assessing arterial PWV in mice using ultrasound (US) images only and test it on the evaluation of age-associated differences in abdominal aorta PWV (aaPWV). US scans were obtained from six adult (7 months) and six old (19 months) wild type male mice (strain C57BL6) under gaseous anaesthesia. For each mouse, diameter and flow velocity instantaneous values were achieved from abdominal aorta B-mode and PW-Doppler images; all measurements were obtained using edge detection and contour tracking techniques. Single-beat mean diameter and velocity were calculated and time-aligned, providing the lnD-V loop. aaPWV values were obtained from the slope of the linear part of the loop (the early systolic phase), while relative distension (relD) measurements were calculated from the mean diameter signal. aaPWV values for young mice (3.5±0.52 m/s) were lower than those obtained for older ones (5.12±0.98 m/s) while relD measurements were higher in young (25%±7%) compared with older animals evaluations (15%±3%). All measurements were significantly different between the two groups (P<0.01 both). In conclusion, the proposed image processing technique well discriminate between age groups. Since it provides PWV assessment just from US images, it could represent a simply and useful system for vascular stiffness evaluation at any arterial site in the mouse, even in preclinical small animal models.

Faita, Francesco; Di Lascio, Nicole; Stea, Francesco; Kusmic, Claudia; Sicari, Rosa

2014-03-01

314

Feasibility and Validity of Dementia Assessment by Trained Community Health Workers Based on Clinical Dementia Rating  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Ethnic minority elders, particularly recent Asian immigrants, have a heightened prevalence of dementia but lack timely diagnosis and treatment. This study was designed to determine the level of agreement between dementia rating by trained community health workers (CHWs) based on the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and the gold standard, physician diagnosis. Design Cross-sectional validation study. Settings Key community gathering places such as ethnic churches, senior centers, low-income elderly apartments, and ethnic groceries in the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area. Participants Ninety community-dwelling Korean American elderly (aged 60 years or older). Measurements The CDR is a standardized clinical dementia staging instrument to assess a patient’s cognitive and functional performance after a semi-structured interview protocol. A total of six CHWs who were trained and certified as CDR raters interviewed and rated study participants. A bilingual geriatric psychiatrist evaluated the participants independently for dementia status. Results 61.1% of the participants were rated as having either mild cognitive impairment (CDR=0.5) or dementia (CDR=1 or higher) by CHWs, as compared to 56.7% diagnosed by the clinician. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated a good predictive capability for CDR rating by trained CHWs (ROC area under the curve=0.86 [95% confidence interval=0.78–0.93], with sensitivity=85.5% and specificity=88.6%) in detecting mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Conclusion The findings provide preliminary evidence that trained CHWs can effectively identify community-dwelling Korean elderly with mild cognitive impairment and dementia for early follow-up assessment and care in the resource scarce community. PMID:23730928

Han, Hae-Ra; Park, So-Youn; Song, Heejung; Kim, Miyong; Kim, Kim B.; Lee, Hochang Ben

2013-01-01

315

Assessing critical source areas in watersheds for conservation buffer planning and riparian restoration.  

PubMed

A science-based geographic information system (GIS) approach is presented to target critical source areas in watersheds for conservation buffer placement. Critical source areas are the intersection of hydrologically sensitive areas and pollutant source areas in watersheds. Hydrologically sensitive areas are areas that actively generate runoff in the watershed and are derived using a modified topographic index approach based on variable source area hydrology. Pollutant source areas are the areas in watersheds that are actively and intensively used for such activities as agricultural production. The method is applied to the Neshanic River watershed in Hunterdon County, New Jersey. The capacity of the topographic index in predicting the spatial pattern of runoff generation and the runoff contribution to stream flow in the watershed is evaluated. A simple cost-effectiveness assessment is conducted to compare the conservation buffer placement scenario based on this GIS method to conventional riparian buffer scenarios for placing conservation buffers in agricultural lands in the watershed. The results show that the topographic index reasonably predicts the runoff generation in the watershed. The GIS-based conservation buffer scenario appears to be more cost-effective than the conventional riparian buffer scenarios. PMID:19777291

Qiu, Zeyuan

2009-11-01

316

Assessing Critical Source Areas in Watersheds for Conservation Buffer Planning and Riparian Restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A science-based geographic information system (GIS) approach is presented to target critical source areas in watersheds for conservation buffer placement. Critical source areas are the intersection of hydrologically sensitive areas and pollutant source areas in watersheds. Hydrologically sensitive areas are areas that actively generate runoff in the watershed and are derived using a modified topographic index approach based on variable source area hydrology. Pollutant source areas are the areas in watersheds that are actively and intensively used for such activities as agricultural production. The method is applied to the Neshanic River watershed in Hunterdon County, New Jersey. The capacity of the topographic index in predicting the spatial pattern of runoff generation and the runoff contribution to stream flow in the watershed is evaluated. A simple cost-effectiveness assessment is conducted to compare the conservation buffer placement scenario based on this GIS method to conventional riparian buffer scenarios for placing conservation buffers in agricultural lands in the watershed. The results show that the topographic index reasonably predicts the runoff generation in the watershed. The GIS-based conservation buffer scenario appears to be more cost-effective than the conventional riparian buffer scenarios.

Qiu, Zeyuan

2009-11-01

317

Microcirculation of the brain: morphological assessment in degenerative diseases and restoration processes.  

PubMed

Abstract Brain microcirculation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various brain diseases. Several specific features of the circulation in the brain and its functions deserve special attention. The brain is extremely sensitive to hypoxia, and brain edema is more dangerous than edema in other tissues. Brain vessels are part of the blood-brain barrier, which prevents the penetration of some of the substances in the blood into the brain tissue. Herein, we review the processes of angiogenesis and the changes that occur in the brain microcirculation in the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases. There are no uniform vascular changes in the neurodegenerative diseases. In some cases, the vascular changes are secondary consequences of the pathological process, but they could also be involved in the pathogenesis of the primary disease and contribute to the degeneration of neurons, based on their quantitative characteristics. Additionally, we described the stereological methods that are most commonly used for generating qualitative and quantitative data to assess changes in the microvascular bed of the brain. PMID:25337818

Kolinko, Yaroslav; Krakorova, Kristyna; Cendelin, Jan; Tonar, Zbynek; Kralickova, Milena

2015-01-01

318

Assessing the feasibility of large-scale natural language processing in a corpus of ordinary medical records: a lexical analysis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Identify the lexical content of a large corpus of ordinary medical records to assess the feasibility of large-scale natural language processing. METHODS: A corpus of 560 megabytes of medical record text from an academic medical center was broken into individual words and compared with the words in six medical vocabularies, a common word list, and a database of patient names. Unrecognized words were assessed for algorithmic and contextual approaches to identifying more words, while the remainder were analyzed for spelling correctness. RESULTS: About 60% of the words occurred in the medical vocabularies, common word list, or names database. Of the remainder, one-third were recognizable by other means. Of the remaining unrecognizable words, over three-fourths represented correctly spelled real words and the rest were misspellings. CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale generalized natural language processing methods for the medical record will require expansion of existing vocabularies, spelling error correction, and other algorithmic approaches to map words into those from clinical vocabularies. PMID:9357692

Hersh, W. R.; Campbell, E. M.; Malveau, S. E.

1997-01-01

319

A feasibility assessment for the application of biogas and wind power in the farm environment as sustainable sources of energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depletion of energy sources and the ever-increasing energy demand---and consequently price escalation---is a problem that concerns the global population. Despite the concept of energy crisis being widely accepted nowadays, there is a lot of scepticism and misinformation on the possible alternatives to alleviate the environmental and economic impacts of conventional energy generation. Renewable energy technologies are constantly experiencing significant innovation and improvements. This thesis sought to assess the potential of small dairy farms to make an energy shift and identify the practical benefits and possible downfalls of this shift. Wind power and biogas digestion were analysed in this thesis, and a model to assess these technologies at any given farm was developed on VBA. For the case studied in this research both technologies were concluded to be feasible from an economic point of view. Although the initial investment can seem costly, considering the relatively low payback period and the currently available subsidies the economic implications are not an obstacle. The model developed on VBA is applicable to any region, given the right data is put into the programme. Considering the global energy concern, models such as the one developed in this thesis are an appropriate tool to identify potential shifts to greener solutions and prove to users that it can be economically profitable for them as well as environmentally beneficial.

Carbo, Laura C.

320

Role of Geomechanics in Assessing the Feasibility of CO2 Sequestration in Depleted Hydrocarbon Sandstone Reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in depleted sandstone hydrocarbon reservoirs could be complicated by a number of geomechanical problems associated with well drilling, completions, and CO2 injection. The initial production of hydrocarbons (gas or oil) and the resulting pressure depletion as well as associated reduction in horizontal stresses (e.g., fracture gradient) narrow the operational drilling mud weight window, which could exacerbate wellbore instabilities while infill drilling. Well completions (casing, liners, etc.) may experience solids flowback to the injector wells when injection is interrupted due to CO2 supply or during required system maintenance. CO2 injection alters the pressure and temperature in the near wellbore region, which could cause fault reactivation or thermal fracturing. In addition, the injection pressure may exceed the maximum sustainable storage pressure, and cause fracturing and fault reactivation within the reservoirs or bounding formations. A systematic approach has been developed for geomechanical assessments for CO2 storage in depleted reservoirs. The approach requires a robust field geomechanical model with its components derived from drilling and production data as well as from wireline logs of historical wells. This approach is described in detail in this paper together with a recent study on a depleted gas field in the North Sea considered for CO2 sequestration. The particular case study shows that there is a limitation on maximum allowable well inclinations, 45° if aligning with the maximum horizontal stress direction and 65° if aligning with the minimum horizontal stress direction, beyond which wellbore failure would become critical while drilling. Evaluation of sanding risks indicates no sand control installations would be needed for injector wells. Fracturing and faulting assessments confirm that the fracturing pressure of caprock is significantly higher than the planned CO2 injection and storage pressures for an ideal case, in which the total field horizontal stresses increase with the reservoir re-pressurization in a manner opposite to their reduction with the reservoir depletion. However, as the most pessimistic case of assuming the total horizontal stresses staying the same over the CO2 injection, faulting could be reactivated on a fault with the least favorable geometry once the reservoir pressure reaches approximately 7.7 MPa. In addition, the initial CO2 injection could lead to a high risk that a fault with a cohesion of less than 5.1 MPa could be activated due to the significant effect of reduced temperature on the field stresses around the injection site.

Fang, Zhi; Khaksar, Abbas

2013-05-01

321

Feasibility assessment of the interactive use of a Monte Carlo algorithm in treatment planning for intraoperative electron radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work analysed the feasibility of using a fast, customized Monte Carlo (MC) method to perform accurate computation of dose distributions during pre- and intraplanning of intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) procedures. The MC method that was implemented, which has been integrated into a specific innovative simulation and planning tool, is able to simulate the fate of thousands of particles per second, and it was the aim of this work to determine the level of interactivity that could be achieved. The planning workflow enabled calibration of the imaging and treatment equipment, as well as manipulation of the surgical frame and insertion of the protection shields around the organs at risk and other beam modifiers. In this way, the multidisciplinary team involved in IOERT has all the tools necessary to perform complex MC dosage simulations adapted to their equipment in an efficient and transparent way. To assess the accuracy and reliability of this MC technique, dose distributions for a monoenergetic source were compared with those obtained using a general-purpose software package used widely in medical physics applications. Once accuracy of the underlying simulator was confirmed, a clinical accelerator was modelled and experimental measurements in water were conducted. A comparison was made with the output from the simulator to identify the conditions under which accurate dose estimations could be obtained in less than 3?min, which is the threshold imposed to allow for interactive use of the tool in treatment planning. Finally, a clinically relevant scenario, namely early-stage breast cancer treatment, was simulated with pre- and intraoperative volumes to verify that it was feasible to use the MC tool intraoperatively and to adjust dose delivery based on the simulation output, without compromising accuracy. The workflow provided a satisfactory model of the treatment head and the imaging system, enabling proper configuration of the treatment planning system and providing good accuracy in the dosage simulation.

Guerra, Pedro; Udías, José M.; Herranz, Elena; Santos-Miranda, Juan Antonio; Herraiz, Joaquín L.; Valdivieso, Manlio F.; Rodríguez, Raúl; Calama, Juan A.; Pascau, Javier; Calvo, Felipe A.; Illana, Carlos; Ledesma-Carbayo, María J.; Santos, Andrés

2014-12-01

322

Assessing habitat exposure to eutrophication in restored wetlands: Model-supported ex-ante approach to rewetting drained mires.  

PubMed

A multi-model-based study was performed in order to unravel valuable fen meadow habitats' possible exposure to eutrophication, which is expected to occur as a result of the re-saturation of degraded peat soils. The framework was tested in a 3000-ha fen-drain system to be restored in the Middle Biebrza Basin (northeast Poland), where the datasets and related models were used to delineate prospective eutrophication hotspots and nutrient transport. A 1-d hydrodynamic model and a 3-d groundwater flow model were applied to constitute the hydrological response of the fen-drain system to the prospective construction and function of weirs and spillways, which are expected to induce the increase of groundwater levels in degraded fens. A groundwater particle-tracking postprocessor was applied to delineate flow pathways and discharge zones and to determine water residence time in modelled layers. Soil and habitat maps, a high-resolution digital elevation model and historic groundwater level observations were applied to the model performance, calibration and spatial analysis of prospective eutrophication hotspots where increased eutrophication of groundwater can be expected due to the re-saturation of degraded peat soils. The study revealed that the large-scale fen rewetting that occurred as a result of surface water bodies' damming can potentially result in groundwater-driven nutrient dispersion along with an enhanced nutrient transport from a fen to the adjacent water bodies. Spatial analyses showed that, although the rewetting-driven eutrophication of Molinia fen meadows located in the study area is not likely, one can expect increased nutrient discharges to adjacent drains, inducing the contamination of ox-bow lakes located along the rivers. We propose the presented methodology to be applied ex-ante to fen-rewetting projects in strategic environmental assessments of restoration projects in order to manage the potentially negative environmental consequences of fen and river eutrophication with special regard to nutrient hotspots that are likely to occur within the rewetted fens. PMID:25682202

Grygoruk, Mateusz; Ba?kowska, Agnieszka; Jab?o?ska, Ewa; Janauer, Georg A; Kubrak, Janusz; Miros?aw-?wi?tek, Dorota; Kotowski, Wiktor

2015-04-01

323

An assessment of the feasibility of a poultry tracing scheme for smallholders in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Tracing movements could assist the implementation of bio-containment measures during a disease outbreak. To evaluate the potential for implementing a tracing system for a poultry supply chain in northern Vietnam, a four-month longitudinal study was conducted to identify marketing practices associated with poultry traceability. Poultry sold in batches were traced between farms and markets, and their traceability was assessed upon market arrival. A total of 315 batches were released from the farms; 37% arrived at a market, from which 57.3% were 'traceable'. The results of the multivariable analysis showed that traceability was associated with farms operating through no more than two traders (Odds ratio [OR] = 5.97, 95% CI 1.15-30.92) and batches brought to the market on the day of purchase (OR = 4.05, 95% CI 1.23-13.27). No specific incentives were provided to farmers or traders. Results suggest that there is potential for implementing a poultry traceability scheme, although the tracing methodology should be refined. PMID:22435183

Métras, R; Magalhaes, R J Soares; Dinh, Q Hoang; Fournié, G; Gilbert, J; Huu, D Do; Roland-Holst, D; Otte, J; Pfeiffer, D U

2011-12-01

324

Feasibility assessment of optical technologies for reliable high capacity feeder links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space telecom scenarios like data relay satellite and broadband/broadcast service providers require reliable feeder links with high bandwidth/data rate for the communication between ground station and satellite. Free space optical communication (FSOC) is an attractive alternative to microwave links, improving performance by offering abundant bandwidth at small apertures of the optical terminals. At the same time Near-Earth communication by FSOC avoids interference with other services and is free of regulatory issues. The drawback however is the impairment by the laser propagation through the atmosphere at optical wavelengths. Also to be considered are questions of eye safety for ground personnel and aviation. In this paper we assess the user requirements for typical space telecom scenarios and compare these requirements with solutions using optical data links through the atmosphere. We suggest a site diversity scheme with a number of ground stations and a switching scheme using two optical terminals on-board the satellite. Considering the technology trade-offs between four different optical wavelengths we recommend the future use of 1.5 µm laser technology and calculate a link budget for an atmospheric condition of light haze on the optical path. By comparing link budgets we show an outlook to the future potential use of 10 µm laser technology.

Witternigg, Norbert; Schönhuber, Michael; Leitgeb, Erich; Plank, Thomas

2013-08-01

325

Electrochemical Disinfection Feasibility Assessment Materials Evaluation for the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) Program recognizes the risk of microbial contamination in their potable and non-potable water sources. The end of the Space Shuttle Program limited the ability to send up shock kits of biocides in the event of an outbreak. Currently, the United States Orbital Segment water system relies primarily on iodine to mitigate contamination concerns, which has been successful in remediating the small cases of contamination documented. However, a secondary method of disinfection is a necessary investment for future space flight. Over the past year, NASA Johnson Space Center has investigated the development of electrochemically generated systems for use on the ISS. These systems include: hydrogen peroxide, ozone, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid. To use these biocides on deployed water systems, NASA must understand of the effect these biocides have on current ISS materials prior to proceeding forward with possible on-orbit applications. This paper will discuss the material testing that was conducted to assess the effects of the biocides on current ISS materials.

Rodriquez, Branelle; Shindo, David; Montgomery, Eliza

2013-01-01

326

Feasibility Assessment of an EVA Glove Sensing Platform to Evaluate Potential Hand Injury Risk Factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). When the gloves are pressurized, they restrict movement and create pressure points during tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally more severe injuries such as onycholysis. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals that 58% of total astronaut hand and arm injuries from NBL training between 1993 and 2010 occurred either to the fingernail, MCP, or fingertip. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of using small sensors to measure force acting on the fingers and hand within pressurized gloves and other variables such as blood perfusion, skin temperature, humidity, fingernail strain, skin moisture, among others. Tasks were performed gloved and ungloved in a pressurizable glove box. The test demonstrated that fingernails saw greater transverse strain levels for tension or compression than for longitudinal strain, even during axial fingertip loading. Blood perfusion peaked and dropped as the finger deformed during finger presses, indicating an initial dispersion and decrease of blood perfusion levels. Force sensitive resistors to force plate comparisons showed similar force curve patterns as fingers were depressed, indicating suitable functionality for future testing. Strategies for proper placement and protection of these sensors for ideal data collection and longevity through the test session were developed and will be implemented going forward for future testing.

Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane M.

2015-01-01

327

Performance Assessment Uncertainty Analysis for Japan's HLW Program Feasibility Study (H12)  

SciTech Connect

Most HLW programs in the world recognize that any estimate of long-term radiological performance must be couched in terms of the uncertainties derived from natural variation, changes through time and lack of knowledge about the essential processes. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute followed a relatively standard procedure to address two major categories of uncertainty. First, a FEatures, Events and Processes (FEPs) listing, screening and grouping activity was pursued in order to define the range of uncertainty in system processes as well as possible variations in engineering design. A reference and many alternative cases representing various groups of FEPs were defined and individual numerical simulations performed for each to quantify the range of conceptual uncertainty. Second, parameter distributions were developed for the reference case to represent the uncertainty in the strength of these processes, the sequencing of activities and geometric variations. Both point estimates using high and low values for individual parameters as well as a probabilistic analysis were performed to estimate parameter uncertainty. A brief description of the conceptual model uncertainty analysis is presented. This paper focuses on presenting the details of the probabilistic parameter uncertainty assessment.

BABA,T.; ISHIGURO,K.; ISHIHARA,Y.; SAWADA,A.; UMEKI,H.; WAKASUGI,K.; WEBB,ERIK K.

1999-08-30

328

15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration...the equivalent of the injured natural resources and services...

2012-01-01

329

15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration...the equivalent of the injured natural resources and services...

2014-01-01

330

15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration...the equivalent of the injured natural resources and services...

2011-01-01

331

15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration...the equivalent of the injured natural resources and services...

2010-01-01

332

15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration...the equivalent of the injured natural resources and services...

2013-01-01

333

A framework for rapid post-earthquake assessment of bridges and restoration of transportation network functionality using structural health monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quick and reliable assessment of the condition of bridges in a transportation network after an earthquake can greatly assist immediate post-disaster response and long-term recovery. However, experience shows that available resources, such as qualified inspectors and engineers, will typically be stretched for such tasks. Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can therefore make a real difference in this context. SHM, however, needs to be deployed in a strategic manner and integrated into the overall disaster response plans and actions to maximize its benefits. This study presents, in its first part, a framework of how this can be achieved. Since it will not be feasible, or indeed necessary, to use SHM on every bridge, it is necessary to prioritize bridges within individual networks for SHM deployment. A methodology for such prioritization based on structural and geotechnical seismic risks affecting bridges and their importance within a network is proposed in the second part. An example using the methodology application to selected bridges in the medium-sized transportation network of Wellington, New Zealand is provided. The third part of the paper is concerned with using monitoring data for quick assessment of bridge condition and damage after an earthquake. Depending on the bridge risk profile, it is envisaged that data will be obtained from either local or national seismic monitoring arrays or SHM systems installed on bridges. A method using artificial neural networks is proposed for using data from a seismic array to infer key ground motion parameters at an arbitrary bridges site. The methodology is applied to seismic data collected in Christchurch, New Zealand. Finally, how such ground motion parameters can be used in bridge damage and condition assessment is outlined.

Omenzetter, Piotr; Ramhormozian, Shahab; Mangabhai, Poonam; Singh, Ravikash; Orense, Rolando

2013-04-01

334

Are pine plantations valid tools for restoring Mediterranean forests? An assessment along abiotic and biotic gradients.  

PubMed

The ecological impacts of forest plantations are a focus of intense debate, from studies that consider plantations as "biological deserts" to studies showing positive effects on plant diversity and dynamics. This lack of consensus might be influenced by the scarcity of studies that examine how the ecological characteristics of plantations vary along abiotic and biotic gradients. Here we conducted a large-scale assessment of plant regeneration and diversity in plantations of southern Spain. Tree seedling and sapling density, plant species richness, and Shannon's (H') diversity index were analyzed in 442 pine plantation plots covering a wide gradient of climatic conditions, stand density, and distance to natural forests that act as seed sources. Pronounced variation in regeneration and diversity was found in plantation understories along the gradients explored. Low- to mid-altitude plantations showed a diverse and abundant seedling bank dominated by Quercus ilex, whereas high-altitude plantations showed a virtually monospecific seeding bank of Pinus sylvestris. Regeneration was null in plantations with stand densities exceeding 1500 pines/ha. Moderate plantation densities (500-1000 pines/ha) promoted recruitment in comparison to low or null canopy cover, suggesting the existence of facilitative interactions. Quercus ilex recruitment diminished exponentially with distance to the nearest Q. ilex forest. Richness and H' index values showed a hump-shaped distribution along the altitudinal and radiation gradients and decreased monotonically along the stand density gradient. From a management perspective, different strategies will be necessary depending on where a plantation lies along the gradients explored. Active management will be required in high-density plantations with arrested succession and low diversity. Thinning could redirect plantations toward more natural densities where facilitation predominates. Passive management might be recommended for low- to moderate-density plantations with active successional dynamics (e.g., toward oak or pine-oak forests at low to mid altitudes). Enrichment planting will be required to overcome seed limitation, especially in plantations far from natural forests. We conclude that plantations should be perceived as dynamic systems where successional trajectories and diversity levels are determined by abiotic constraints, complex balances of competitive and facilitative interactions, the spatial configuration of native seed sources, and species life-history traits. PMID:20014583

Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena; Zavala, Miguel A; Bonet, Francisco J; Zamora, Regino

2009-12-01

335

Use of conjoint analysis to assess HIV vaccine acceptability: feasibility of an innovation in the assessment of consumer health-care preferences.  

PubMed

Engaging consumers in prospectively shaping strategies for dissemination of health-care innovations may help to ensure acceptability. We examined the feasibility of using conjoint analysis to assess future HIV vaccine acceptability among three diverse communities: a multiethnic sample in Los Angeles, CA, USA (n = 143); a Thai resident sample in Los Angeles (three groups; n = 27) and an Aboriginal peoples sample in Toronto (n = 13). Efficacy had the greatest impact on acceptability for all three groups, followed by cross-clade protection, side-effects and duration of protection in the Los Angeles sample; side-effects and duration of protection in the Thai-Los Angeles sample; and number of doses and duration of protection in the Aboriginal peoples-Toronto sample. Conjoint analysis provided insights into universal and population-specific preferences among diverse end users of future HIV vaccines, with implications for evidence-informed targeting of dissemination efforts to optimize vaccine uptake. PMID:22581945

Lee, S J; Newman, P A; Comulada, W S; Cunningham, W E; Duan, N

2012-04-01

336

Understanding and assessing the feasibility of ocean iron fertilization to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regardless of the strategy for fossil fuel use, atmospheric CO2 is predicted to increase and then decrease such that after 10,000 years, levels will still be much higher than pre-industrial. The objectives of geoengineering CO2 reduction techniques are to reduce the rate of CO2 increase and the height of the CO2 peak. Because the oceans represent such a large reservoir of carbon, small perturbations of the system could cause large changes to carbon flows. The objective of ocean carbon sequestration would be to encourage the oceans to take up carbon at a faster rate than they currently do but with predictable and acceptable consequences. From iron addition experiments in the laboratory and in the open ocean and from studies where there are natural additions of iron to the ocean several conclusions can be drawn. Relief of iron stress increases the biomass of marine phytoplankton and as a consequence reduces surface water CO2. This leads to increased export of carbon from the upper ocean and probably enhanced sequestration in the deep ocean. However, the experiments were not planned from the perspective of geoengineering and conclusions about the potential of this approach as a means of reducing atmospheric CO2 have large uncertainties. In addition, few experiments have addressed the unintended consequences of deliberate additions. This has been a major focus of recent discussion of a risk assessment framework for experimentation by the London Convention and London Protocol. Given the uncertainties, there is an urgent requirement to carry out more studies on ocean iron fertilization with three clear objectives 1: To develop coupled global scale computation models so that predictions can become more reliable and so that in situ experiments are effective. 2: To carry out experiments on a sufficiently large scale and duration to determine the extent, efficiencies and time scales of carbon sequestration. 3: To explore the consequences of ocean iron fertilization, and not just carbon uptake from the atmosphere and sequestration in the deep ocean. The ISIS consortium (In Situ Iron Studies) of 13 institutions worldwide was formed in 2011 specifically to promote such studies so that informed decisions will be possible in the future. The mission statement is: "To resolve the impact of iron fertilization on marine ecosystems, to quantify its potential for removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and to improve our collective understanding of the changing ocean."

Buesseler, K.; Lampitt, R. S.; de Baar, H. J.; Blain, S.; Chai, F.; Coale, K. H.; Dai, M.; Karl, D. M.; Leinen, M.; Lohan, M. C.; Rothstein, L.; Trull, T. W.; Whaley, D.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Zhou, M.

2011-12-01

337

Assessing the Acceptability and Feasibility of a School-Located Influenza Vaccination Program with Third-Party Billing in Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study qualitatively assesses the acceptability and feasibility of a school-located vaccination for influenza (SLIV) project that was conducted in New York State in 2009-2011, from the perspectives of project participants with different roles. Fourteen in-depth semistructured interviews with participating schools' personnel and the mass…

Christensen, Julie J.; Humiston, Sharon G.; Long, Christine E.; Kennedy, Allison M.; DiMattia, Kimberly; Kolasa, Maureen S.

2012-01-01

338

The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of creating a valid and reliable checklist with the following features: appropriate for assessing both randomised and non-randomised studies; provision of both an overall score for study quality and a profile of scores not only for the quality of reporting, internal validity (bias and confounding) and power, but also for external validity. DESIGN: A pilot

S. H. Downs; N. Black

1998-01-01

339

Assessment of general practitioners by video observation of communicative and medical performance in daily practice: issues of validity, reliability and feasibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To develop a video assessment method for General Practitioners (GPs) by analysing issues of va- lidity, reliability and feasibility of observation of vid- eotaped regular consultations. Design In a cross-sectional study consultations of 93 GPs were video recorded in the practice during 1 week. The GPs registered consultation and patient data in a log- book; 16 consultations per GP

Paul Ram; Richard Grol; Jan Joost Rethans; Berna Schouten; Cees van der Vleuten; Arnold Kester

1999-01-01

340

Influence of gag reflex on removable prosthetic restoration tolerance according to the patient section of the short form of the Gagging Problem Assessment Questionnaire  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To assess removable prosthetic restoration tolerance according to the patient section of the short form of the Gagging Problem Assessment Questionnaire (GPA-pa SF) and the influence of gender, education level and prosthesis type and denture-related mucosal irritation on the GPA-pa SF scores before treatment and over a period of two months after prosthesis insertion. MATERIALS AND METHODS 130 participants who required removable prosthesis were surveyed with a standard form that included questions regarding age, gender, education level, dental attendance, and prosthetic restoration type. Participants answered the GPA-pa SF before restoration (T0) and 1 day (T1), 2 days (T2), 15 days (T3), 1 month (T4), and 2 months (T5) after prosthesis insertion. RESULTS Of the 130 participants, 110 participants completed the prosthetic restoration procedure, but only 93 of these were able to use the prosthesis over the two-month period. The mean GPA-pa SF score obtained at T0 was higher than the scores obtained at the other periods in the total of the sample. Significant difference was present between mean scores obtained at T0-T1 and T2-T3 than scores obtained at other periods (P<.05). Female participants and participants with denture-related mucosal irritation had higher GPA-pa SF scores at all time points analysed. Significant difference was present between mean GPA-pa SF scores obtained at T2-T3 than scores obtained at other periods for females and participants with denture-related mucosal irritation (P<.05). Education level and prosthesis type did not significantly influence the GPA-pa SF score at any time point analysed (P>.05). CONCLUSION GPA-pa SF scores were higher before the restoration procedure began, and decreased over time with the use of prosthesis. Gender and denture-related mucosal irritation affected the GPA-pa SF scores. PMID:25551008

Akarslan, Zuhre Zafersoy

2014-01-01

341

Feasibility Assessment of Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants  

SciTech Connect

Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MW) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MW) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

Douglas G. Hall

2006-01-01

342

3D Assessment of Mandibular Growth Based on Image Registration: A Feasibility Study in a Rabbit Model  

PubMed Central

Background. Our knowledge of mandibular growth mostly derives from cephalometric radiography, which has inherent limitations due to the two-dimensional (2D) nature of measurement. Objective. To assess 3D morphological changes occurring during growth in a rabbit mandible. Methods. Serial cone-beam computerised tomographic (CBCT) images were made of two New Zealand white rabbits, at baseline and eight weeks after surgical implantation of 1?mm diameter metallic spheres as fiducial markers. A third animal acted as an unoperated (no implant) control. CBCT images were segmented and registered in 3D (Implant Superimposition and Procrustes Method), and the remodelling pattern described used color maps. Registration accuracy was quantified by the maximal of the mean minimum distances and by the Hausdorff distance. Results. The mean error for image registration was 0.37?mm and never exceeded 1?mm. The implant-based superimposition showed most remodelling occurred at the mandibular ramus, with bone apposition posteriorly and vertical growth at the condyle. Conclusion. We propose a method to quantitatively describe bone remodelling in three dimensions, based on the use of bone implants as fiducial markers and CBCT as imaging modality. The method is feasible and represents a promising approach for experimental studies by comparing baseline growth patterns and testing the effects of growth-modification treatments. PMID:24527442

Kim, I.; Oliveira, M. E.; Duncan, W. J.; Cioffi, I.; Farella, M.

2014-01-01

343

Real-time risk assessment in seismic early warning and rapid response: a feasibility study in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake early warning systems (EEWS) are considered to be an effective, pragmatic, and viable tool for seismic risk reduction in cities. While standard EEWS approaches focus on the real-time estimation of an earthquake's location and magnitude, innovative developments in EEWS include the capacity for the rapid assessment of damage. Clearly, for all public authorities that are engaged in coordinating emergency activities during and soon after earthquakes, real-time information about the potential damage distribution within a city is invaluable. In this work, we present a first attempt to design an early warning and rapid response procedure for real-time risk assessment. In particular, the procedure uses typical real-time information (i.e., P-wave arrival times and early waveforms) derived from a regional seismic network for locating and evaluating the size of an earthquake, information which in turn is exploited for extracting a risk map representing the potential distribution of damage from a dataset of predicted scenarios compiled for the target city. A feasibility study of the procedure is presented for the city of Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan, which is surrounded by the Kyrgyz seismic network by mimicking the ground motion associated with two historical events that occurred close to Bishkek, namely the 1911 Kemin ( M = 8.2; ±0.2) and the 1885 Belovodsk ( M = 6.9; ±0.5) earthquakes. Various methodologies from previous studies were considered when planning the implementation of the early warning and rapid response procedure for real-time risk assessment: the Satriano et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 98(3):1482-1494, 2008) approach to real-time earthquake location; the Caprio et al. (Geophys Res Lett 38:L02301, 2011) approach for estimating moment magnitude in real time; the EXSIM method for ground motion simulation (Motazedian and Atkinson, Bull Seismol Soc Am 95:995-1010, 2005); the Sokolov (Earthquake Spectra 161: 679-694, 2002) approach for estimating intensity from Fourier amplitude spectra; and the Tyagunov et al. (Nat Hazard Earth Syst Sci 6:573-586, 2006) approach for risk computation. Innovatively, all these methods are jointly applied to assess in real time the seismic risk of a particular target site, namely the city of Bishkek. Finally, the site amplification and vulnerability datasets considered in the proposed methodology are taken from previous studies, i.e., Parolai et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am, 2010) and Bindi et al. (Soil Dyn Earthq Eng, 2011), respectively.

Picozzi, M.; Bindi, D.; Pittore, M.; Kieling, K.; Parolai, S.

2013-04-01

344

Feasibility and Value of PatientViewpoint: A Web System for Patient-Reported Outcomes Assessment in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The PatientViewpoint website collects patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and links them with the electronic health record to aid patient management. This pilot-test evaluated PatientViewpoint’s use, usefulness, and acceptability to patients and clinicians. METHODS This was a single-arm prospective study that enrolled breast and prostate cancer patients undergoing treatment and the clinicians who managed them. Patients completed PROs every two weeks, and clinicians could access the results for patient visits. Scores that were poor relative to norms or substantially worse than the previous assessment were highlighted. After three on-study visits, we assessed patient and clinician perspectives on PatientViewpoint using close-ended and open-ended questions. RESULTS 11/12 eligible clinicians (92%) and 52/76 eligible patients (68%) enrolled. Patients completed a median of 71% of assigned questionnaires; clinicians reported using the information for 79% of patients, most commonly as a source of additional information (51%). At the median, score reports identified 3 potential issues, of which 1 was discussed during the visit. Patients reported the system was easy to use (92%), useful (70%), aided recall of symptoms/side effects (72%), helped them feel more in control of their care (60%), improved discussions with their provider (49%), and improved care quality (39%). Patients and clinicians desired more information on score interpretation and minor adjustments to site navigation. CONCLUSIONS These results support the feasibility and value of PatientViewpoint. An ongoing study is using a continuous quality improvement approach to further refine PatientViewpoint. Future studies will evaluate its impact on patient care and outcomes. PMID:22544513

Snyder, Claire F.; Blackford, Amanda L.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Carducci, Michael A.; Herman, Joseph M.; Wu, Albert W.

2012-01-01

345

Feasibility of the hydrogen sulfide test for the assessment of drinking water quality in post-earthquake Haiti.  

PubMed

In 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti, severely damaging the drinking and wastewater infrastructure and leaving millions homeless. Compounding this problem, the introduction of Vibrio cholerae resulted in a massive cholera outbreak that infected over 700,000 people and threatened the safety of Haiti's drinking water. To mitigate this public health crisis, non-government organizations installed thousands of wells to provide communities with safe drinking water. However, despite increased access, Haiti currently lacks the monitoring capacity to assure the microbial safety of any of its water resources. For these reasons, this study was designed to assess the feasibility of using a simple, low-cost method to detect indicators of fecal contamination of drinking water that could be implemented at the community level. Water samples from 358 sources of drinking water in the Léogâne flood basin were screened with a commercially available hydrogen sulfide test and a standard membrane method for the enumeration of thermotolerant coliforms. When compared with the gold standard method, the hydrogen sulfide test had a sensitivity of 65 % and a specificity of 93 %. While the sensitivity of the assay increased at higher fecal coliform concentrations, it never exceeded 88 %, even with fecal coliform concentrations greater than 100 colony-forming units per 100 ml. While its simplicity makes the hydrogen sulfide test attractive for assessing water quality in low-resource settings, the low sensitivity raises concerns about its use as the sole indicator of the presence or absence of fecal coliforms in individual or community water sources. PMID:25182685

Weppelmann, Thomas A; Alam, Meer T; Widmer, Jocelyn; Morrissey, David; Rashid, Mohammed H; De Rochars, Valery M Beau; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A

2014-12-01

346

Assessing Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and Principal Tributaries, 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a baseline release of 1,300 cfs to a maximum release of 25,530 cfs with an overall temperature depression in the lower Clearwater River exceeding 10 C. With continued Dworshak Dam operations as those documented in 1994, there is potential risk to the continued existence of the endangered fall chinook salmon in the Clearwater River. Additional data and conclusions will be contained in successive years` annual reports.

Arnsberg, Billy D.; Statler, David P.

1995-08-01

347

Shoreline assessment and oil removal; ADEC in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project. Final report restoration project 94266b  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 1994, a five person crew from the village of Chenega under the direction of an on site manager from the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation conducted manual treatment, debris and rebar removal and ground surveys at 11 subdivisions in Prince William Sound. Fourteen sites within 4 different shoreline subdivisions with persistent surface asphalt were manually treated to accelerate natural degradation. Removal of flagging and other miscellaneous shoreline debris left by cleanup and damage assessment crews was undertaken as possible. Six additional shoreline subdivisions near the village of Chenega were assessed because of the ongoing concern for subsistence and recreational resources within close proximity to the village. A comparison of the sites from 1993 to 1994 showed that little to no improvement had occurred at these sites.

Munson, D.R.

1996-03-01

348

Field and laboratory tests for assessing the feasibility on the use of municipal treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

he scarcity of water resources in many regions of the planet in the XXIst century is a challenge which concerns the current societies. Water use has been growing during the last decades. Therefore, different strategies of water management in many water-deficient regions are being carried out, especially in densely populated areas, in coastal zones or in regions under arid or semi-arid climate. During the last years, there has been a growing interest in the use of the subsurface for water storage though shallow percolating ponds. Moreover, on a best-practices basis, the use of reclaimed wastewater for different purposes is becoming more usual. The irrigation with municipal treated wastewater (MTWW) is an interesting strategy especially in the agricultural sector, which represents the main water user in contrast with other socioeconomic activities. The study area is located near Castellbisbal, on the lower stretches of the Llobregat River close to the Metropolitan area of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). The site consists on a percolating pond and agricultural fields around. In order to assess the feasibility of using reclaimed wastewater for different uses in this site, several experiments both on field and at the laboratory were carried out. First of all, a detailed non-destructive geophysical survey was conducted using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) technique. Geophysical data were constrained by geological and hydrogeological properties from boreholes and water wells. On the other hand, laboratory experiments were carried out through batch and column assays, focused on the detailed water-mineral particles interrelationships that can occur at the vadose zone. Soil samples from the crop fields around and water samples from the nearest well, as from the municipal wastewater treatment plant were used. Chemical and mineralogical composition of the soils were determined by using non-destructive spectroscopic techniques as x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), respectively. Water chemistry, both input water and leachates obtained after experiments, was assessed by means of multielemental inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. The objective of this experiment was to observe whether differences about soil- water interactions exist by using either groundwater and reclaimed wastewater. To conclude, this study aims to support the development and assessment of using MTWW for different potential uses on this area, as a strategy of water management.

Gallardo, Helena; Lovera, Raúl; Himi, Mahjoub; Sendrós, Alexandre; Marguí, Eva; Tapias, Josefina C.; Queralt, Ignasi; Casas, Albert

2014-05-01

349

The RESTORE program of restorative justice for sex crimes: vision, process, and outcomes.  

PubMed

The article reports empirical evaluation of RESTORE, a restorative justice (RJ) conferencing program adapted to prosecutor-referred adult misdemeanor and felony sexual assaults. RESTORE conferences included voluntary enrollment, preparation, and a face-to-face meeting where primary and secondary victims voice impacts, and responsible persons acknowledge their acts and together develop a re-dress plan that is supervised for 1 year. Process data included referral and consent rates, participant characteristics, observational ratings of conferences compared with program design, services delivered, and safety monitoring. Outcome evaluation used 22 cases to assess (a) pre-post reasons for choosing RESTORE, (b) preparation and conference experiences, (c) overall program and justice satisfaction, and (d) completion rates. This is the first peer-reviewed quantitative evaluation of RJ conferencing for adult sexual assault. Although the data have limitations, the results support cautious optimism regarding feasibility, safety, and satisfactory outcomes. They help envision how conferencing could expand and individualize justice options for sexual assault. PMID:24368680

Koss, Mary P

2014-06-01

350

An advanced phantom study assessing the feasibility of neuronal current imaging by ultra-low-field NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ultra-low-field (ULF) NMR/MRI, a common scheme is to magnetize the sample by a polarizing field of up to hundreds of mT, after which the NMR signal, precessing in a field on the order of several ?T, is detected with superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). In our ULF-NMR system, we polarize with up to 50 mT and deploy a single-stage DC-SQUID current sensor with an integrated input coil which is connected to a wire-wound Nb gradiometer. We developed this system (white noise 0.50 fT/?{Hz}) for assessing the feasibility of imaging neuronal currents by detecting their effect on the ULF-NMR signal. Magnetoencephalography investigations of evoked brain activity showed neuronal dipole moments below 50 nAm. With our instrumentation, we have studied two different approaches for neuronal current imaging. In the so-called DC effect, long-lived neuronal activity shifts the Larmor frequency of the surrounding protons. An alternative strategy is to exploit fast neuronal activity as a tipping pulse. This so-called AC effect requires the proton Larmor frequency to match the frequency of the neuronal activity, which ranges from near-DC to ?kHz. We emulated neuronal activity by means of a single dipolar source in a physical phantom, consisting of a hollow sphere filled with an aqueous solution of CuSO4 and NaCl. In these phantom studies, with physiologically relevant dipole depths, we determined resolution limits for our set-up for the AC and the DC effect of ?10 ?Am and ?50 nAm, respectively. Hence, the DC effect appears to be detectable in vivo by current ULF-NMR technology.

Körber, Rainer; Nieminen, Jaakko O.; Höfner, Nora; Jazbinšek, Vojko; Scheer, Hans-Jürgen; Kim, Kiwoong; Burghoff, Martin

2013-12-01

351

A study to assess the feasibility of undertaking a randomized controlled trial of adherence with eye drops in glaucoma patients  

PubMed Central

Background Adherence with therapy could influence the progression of glaucoma and ultimately affect the onset of visual impairment in some individuals. This feasibility study evaluated the measures to be used for a future randomized controlled trial assessing the effects of group-based education on adherence with eye drops. Methods People diagnosed with glaucoma within the previous 12 months attending a regional ophthalmology clinic in the North West of England were recruited. A two-session education program delivered one week apart had been devised as part of a previous project. A combined adult learning and health needs approach to education was taken. Outcomes measured were knowledge of glaucoma, self-report of adherence, illness perception, beliefs about medicines, patient enablement, and general health (Short Form-12). Adherence was also measured objectively using a Medical Events Monitoring System device. Results Twenty-six participants consented to undertake the educational program and 19 produced analyzable data. Knowledge of glaucoma, illness perception, beliefs about medicine, and patient enablement all showed statistically significant improvements after education. Mean adherence with eye drops was maintained above 85% before and for 3 months after attendance at the educational program. Self-report exaggerated adherence by at least 10% when compared with the objective Medical Events Monitoring System data, and in fact the kappa agreement was zero. Conclusion All questionnaires other than the Short Form-12 were considered to be valuable measures and use of a Medical Events Monitoring System device was considered to be an objective surrogate measure for adherence with eye drops. A multicenter, randomized, controlled equivalence trial of group versus individualized education using adherence as the primary outcome is the next step. PMID:24124353

Richardson, Cliff; Brunton, Lisa; Olleveant, Nicola; Henson, David B; Pilling, Mark; Mottershead, Jane; Fenerty, Cecilia H; Spencer, Anne Fiona; Waterman, Heather

2013-01-01

352

Implementation of a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) tool in a regional health organization in Sweden--a feasibility study.  

PubMed

During the last decade, Health Impact Assessment (HIA) has been discussed worldwide as being an important tool for the development of healthy public policy. In Sweden, the Swedish Federation of County Councils and the Swedish Association of Local Authorities have taken the initiative to and are responsible for the development of an HIA tool concerning proposed policy decisions at local and regional levels. The HIA tool was developed as three different templates to be adapted to local conditions and needs: the Health Question, the Health Matrix and the Health Impact Analysis. In this paper we present a feasibility study of the experiences of implementing this HIA tool at regional level in a Health Care District (SWHCD) of Stockholm County Council, based on an inductive approach and on principles of data triangulation. The main findings include the need for continuous revision of the HIA templates during the pilot period. The following factors were instrumental in successfully using the HIA tool in local policy making and management: political consensus, agreement between politicians and public officials on political intentions, a clear- cut decision from management, and offering an opportunity for training. Respondents felt that all public officials should use the HIA as part of their normal work routines. In conclusion, the HIA tool has to be locally adapted and the implementation process has to include close collaboration between politicians and public officials and be followed by continuing education, providing possibilities for a dialogue around the HIA tool, in order to ensure the quality of the instrument. Implications of the study are that the process of developing the tool has worked well but that the possible impacts of its use in this case remain an open question. However, this was not the focus of our study. PMID:15964887

Finer, David; Tillgren, Per; Berensson, Karin; Guldbrandsson, Karin; Haglund, Bo J A

2005-09-01

353

Comparative assessment of the value of papyrus and cocoyams for the restoration of the Nakivubo wetland in Kampala, Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nakivubo wetland, located on the northern shores of Lake Victoria, separates the city of Kampala from the Inner Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria (the sole raw water supply for Kampala). It provides tertiary treatment for the secondary effluent from the Bugolobi sewage treatment works, and heavily polluted wastewater (run-off, domestic and industrial effluents) from the Nakivubo channel. However, more than half of the wetland has been drained for agriculture and the natural papyrus vegetation ( Cyperus papyrus) has been progressively replaced by cocoyams ( Colocasia esculenta). In order to provide information that could be used in the restoration of Nakivubo wetland, a pilot study was carried out to assess the ecological characteristics (nutrient retention and growth characteristics) of the two plants. The plants were grown in wastewater effluent from the Bugolobi sewage treatment works, in experimental buckets under floating and rooted conditions. The wastewater was replaced every seven days. Papyrus plants were more efficient at removing NH 4-N while growing floating in wastewater or rooted in gravel (maximum values being 89.4% and 79%, respectively) than were cocoyams (67.7% and 68.3%) or the controls without plants (11% and 9%, respectively). The removal of orthophosphate by papyrus was also greater under the two growing conditions (values being 80% and 73%) than by cocoyams (66% and 63%) or the controls (11% and 14%). Biomass densities of papyrus were also higher (16.9 kg Dw/m 2 for the floating plants and 18.7 kg Dw/m 2 for the rooted ones) than of yams (5.9 kg DW/m 2 and 6.8 kg DW/m 2, respectively). It was also observed that the rhizomes of yams did not develop well under the floating conditions and were often rotten. It is concluded that, since papyrus has better wastewater treatment efficiency and superior growth characteristics, it should be encouraged to grow again in the wetland. It was also noted that if encroachment of the wetland by agricultural activities is halted, papyrus would eventually out-compete the yams. Keeping Nakivubo wetland inundated would offer papyrus a competitive advantage, since yams grow poorly when floating in water.

Kansiime, F.; Oryem-Origa, H.; Rukwago, S.

354

15 CFR 990.15 - Considerations to facilitate restoration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Considerations to facilitate restoration. 990...ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 990.15 Considerations to facilitate restoration. ...appropriate restoration alternatives for consideration in the context of specific...

2010-01-01

355

Feasibility of an intracranial EEG-fMRI protocol at 3T: risk assessment and image quality.  

PubMed

Integrating intracranial EEG (iEEG) with functional MRI (iEEG-fMRI) may help elucidate mechanisms underlying the generation of seizures. However, the introduction of iEEG electrodes in the MR environment has inherent risk and data quality implications that require consideration prior to clinical use. Previous studies of subdural and depth electrodes have confirmed low risk under specific circumstances at 1.5T and 3T. However, no studies have assessed risk and image quality related to the feasibility of a full iEEG-fMRI protocol. To this end, commercially available platinum subdural grid/strip electrodes (4×5 grid or 1×8 strip) and 4 or 6-contact depth electrodes were secured to the surface of a custom-made phantom mimicking the conductivity of the human brain. Electrode displacement, temperature increase of electrodes and surrounding phantom material, and voltage fluctuations in electrode contacts were measured in a GE Discovery MR750 3T MR scanner during a variety of imaging sequences, typical of an iEEG-fMRI protocol. An electrode grid was also used to quantify the spatial extent of susceptibility artifact. The spatial extent of susceptibility artifact in the presence of an electrode was also assessed for typical imaging parameters that maximize BOLD sensitivity at 3T (TR=1500 ms; TE=30 ms; slice thickness=4mm; matrix=64×64; field-of-view=24 cm). Under standard conditions, all electrodes exhibited no measurable displacement and no clinically significant temperature increase (<1°C) during scans employed in a typical iEEG-fMRI experiment, including 60 min of continuous fMRI. However, high SAR sequences, such as fast spin-echo (FSE), produced significant heating in almost all scenarios (>2.0°C) that in some cases exceeded 10°C. Induced voltages in the frequency range that could elicit neuronal stimulation (<10 kHz) were well below the threshold of 100 mV. fMRI signal intensity was significantly reduced within 20mm of the electrodes for the imaging parameters used in this study. Thus, for the conditions tested, a full iEEG-fMRI protocol poses a low risk at 3T; however, fMRI sensitivity may be reduced immediately adjacent to the electrodes. In addition, high SAR sequences must be avoided. PMID:22902923

Boucousis, Shannon M; Beers, Craig A; Cunningham, Cameron J B; Gaxiola-Valdez, Ismael; Pittman, Daniel J; Goodyear, Bradley G; Federico, Paolo

2012-11-15

356

Assessing the feasibility of establishing a publicly traded global real estate fund domiciled in the Cayman Islands  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the feasibility of creating a publicly traded, synthetic REIT-type investment fund for the purpose of investing in a portfolio of international real estate assets. The investment strategy is driven by ...

Butterfield, Scott (Scott Alan)

2006-01-01

357

FROM RESTORING FLORIDA'S EVERGLADES TO ASSESSING OUR NATION'S ECOLOGICAL CONDITION: SCIENCE PROVIDES THE BASIS FOR UNDERSTANDING AND POLICY  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on first hand experiences, Dr. Fontaine will provide a personal and insightful look at major environmental research and restoration programs he has been involved in. Starting with a visual tour through the Florida Everglades and a discussion of the $12 B science-based rest...

358

Stream Restoration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explores how Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest near Louisville, Kentucky has restored a channelized or straightened stream to its original meandering path, thereby improving the stream’s water quality and creating a better habitat for wildlife.

KET

2011-01-11

359

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Effors; US Geological Survey Reports, 2003-2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the third year of at least a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie S. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

2006-02-01

360

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Efforts, US Geological Survey Report, 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attended to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first objective was to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort included measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective was to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the fourth year of a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

2006-06-01

361

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2001-2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1914. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for future genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the first year of a three-year study, this report is restricted to describing our work on the first two objectives only.

Connolly, Patrick J. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

2003-01-01

362

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

Connolly, Patrick J. (US Geological Survey, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Western Fisheries Research Center, Cook, WA)

2003-12-01

363

Model-based feasibility assessment and evaluation of prostate hyperthermia with a commercial MR-guided endorectal HIFU ablation array  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Feasibility of targeted and volumetric hyperthermia (40–45?°C) delivery to the prostate with a commercial MR-guided endorectal ultrasound phased array system, designed specifically for thermal ablation and approved for ablation trials (ExAblate 2100, Insightec Ltd.), was assessed through computer simulations and tissue-equivalent phantom experiments with the intention of fast clinical translation for targeted hyperthermia in conjunction with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Methods: The simulations included a 3D finite element method based biothermal model, and acoustic field calculations for the ExAblate ERUS phased array (2.3 MHz, 2.3 × 4.0 cm2, ?1000 channels) using the rectangular radiator method. Array beamforming strategies were investigated to deliver protracted, continuous-wave hyperthermia to focal prostate cancer targets identified from representative patient cases. Constraints on power densities, sonication durations and switching speeds imposed by ExAblate hardware and software were incorporated in the models. Preliminary experiments included beamformed sonications in tissue mimicking phantoms under MR temperature monitoring at 3 T (GE Discovery MR750W). Results: Acoustic intensities considered during simulation were limited to ensure mild hyperthermia (Tmax < 45?°C) and fail-safe operation of the ExAblate array (spatial and time averaged acoustic intensity ISATA < 3.4 W/cm2). Tissue volumes with therapeutic temperature levels (T > 41?°C) were estimated. Numerical simulations indicated that T > 41?°C was calculated in 13–23 cm3 volumes for sonications with planar or diverging beam patterns at 0.9–1.2 W/cm2, in 4.5–5.8 cm3 volumes for simultaneous multipoint focus beam patterns at ?0.7 W/cm2, and in ?6.0 cm3 for curvilinear (cylindrical) beam patterns at 0.75 W/cm2. Focused heating patterns may be practical for treating focal disease in a single posterior quadrant of the prostate and diffused heating patterns may be useful for heating quadrants, hemigland volumes or even bilateral targets. Treatable volumes may be limited by pubic bone heating. Therapeutic temperatures were estimated for a range of physiological parameters, sonication duty cycles and rectal cooling. Hyperthermia specific phasing patterns were implemented on the ExAblate prostate array and continuous-wave sonications (?0.88 W/cm2, 15 min) were performed in tissue-mimicking material with real-time MR-based temperature imaging (PRFS imaging at 3.0 T). Shapes of heating patterns observed during experiments were consistent with simulations. Conclusions: The ExAblate 2100, designed specifically for thermal ablation, can be controlled for delivering continuous hyperthermia in prostate while working within operational constraints. PMID:24593742

Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Prakash, Punit; Rieke, Viola; Ozhinsky, Eugene; Plata, Juan; Kurhanewicz, John; Hsu, I-C. (Joe); Diederich, Chris J.

2014-01-01

364

Liver fibrosis assessment using transient elastography guided with real-time B-mode ultrasound imaging: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

Liver fibrosis is a kind of chronic damage of the liver and can lead to cirrhosis, one of the top 10 causes of death in the Western world. However, there is still a lack of noninvasive methods for diagnosing liver fibrosis. Fibroscan (Echosens, Paris, France), a device based on A-mode transient elastography, has shown promising results. In this study, a transient elastography system with real-time B-mode imaging for non-invasive liver fibrosis assessment, named Liverscan, was developed; its performance was tested and compared with that of the Fibroscan. A specific measurement probe was designed and fabricated with a B-mode ultrasound transducer fixed along the axis of a mechanical vibrator. It was integrated with the Liverscan to measure liver stiffness based on the shear wave propagation in liver tissues. The system was validated by mechanical indentation test using custom-made agar-gelatin phantoms with different stiffness. To further test its feasibility, in vivo measurements were conducted in 67 volunteers (age, 34 ± 3 years; body mass index, 21.3 ± 2.8 kg/m(2); Mean ± SD., 34 male and 33 female), including 20 patients with various liver diseases, and 28 (19 male and 9 female) being tested by both Liverscan and Fibroscan. A significant linear correlation between the stiffness measured by the mechanical indentation test and that by the Liverscan (r = 0.973; p < 0.001) was obtained. The in vivo liver stiffness measured by Liverscan was also correlated with that by Fibroscan significantly (r = 0.886; p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in liver stiffness between the 20 patients and the other healthy subjects (14.1 ± 3.4 kPa vs. 10.5 ± 2.1 kPa; p = 0.001). The intra- and inter-observer tests indicated that the measurements were repeatable with intra-class correlation coefficients being 0.987 (p < 0.001) and 0.988 (p < 0.001), respectively. This study demonstrated that Liverscan with a specifically designed probe was able to measure and differentiate liver of different stiffness using the established measurement protocol under the guidance of real-time B-mode ultrasound imaging. PMID:23562022

Mak, Tak-Man; Huang, Yan-Ping; Zheng, Yong-Ping

2013-06-01

365

Annual report of the Environmental Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for FY 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of the investigations and monitoring, conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented can be used to develop a conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This information forms a basis for prioritizing sites and for selecting, implementing, and evaluating remedial actions. Groundwater, soils, sediments, and surface water monitoring results are described.

Clapp, R.B. (ed.)

1992-09-01

366

An assessment of long-term post-restoration water quality trends in a shallow, subtropical, urban hypereutrophic lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

City Park Lake is a shallow urban hypereutrophic lake located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, with a surface area of 0.23 km2 and a mean depth of 1.2 m. By the late 1970s, the lake had become highly eutrophic and suffered from frequent and severe algal blooms and fish kills. A major restoration effort was undertaken in 1983 that consisted of

Jennifer E. Ruley; Kelly A. Rusch

2002-01-01

367

The feasibility of applying immature yard-waste compost to remove nitrate from agricultural drainage effluents: A preliminary assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate is a major agricultural pollutant found in drainage waters. Immature yard-waste compost was selected as a filter media to study its feasibility for removing nitrate from drainage water. Different operation parameters were tested to examine the denitrification efficiency, including the amounts of compost packed in columns, the flow rate, and the compost storage periods. The experimental results suggested that

Lo Tsui; Ivan G. Krapac; William R. Roy

2007-01-01

368

Assessing the acceptability and feasibility of a school-located influenza vaccination program with third-party billing in elementary schools.  

PubMed

This study qualitatively assesses the acceptability and feasibility of a school-located vaccination for influenza (SLIV) project that was conducted in New York State in 2009-2011, from the perspectives of project participants with different roles. Fourteen in-depth semistructured interviews with participating schools' personnel and the mass vaccinator were tape-recorded and transcribed. Interviewees were randomly selected from stratified lists and included five principals, five school nurses, two school administrators, and two lead personnel from the mass vaccinator. A content analysis of transcripts from the interviews was completed and several themes emerged. All participants generally found the SLIV project acceptable. School personnel and the vaccinator viewed the SLIV project process as feasible and beneficial. However, the vaccinator identified difficulties with third-party billing as a potential threat to sustainability. PMID:22786984

Christensen, Julie J; Humiston, Sharon G; Long, Christine E; Kennedy, Allison M; Dimattia, Kimberly; Kolasa, Maureen S

2012-10-01

369

Preliminary assessment report for Grubbs/Kyle Training Center, Smyrna/Rutherford County Regional Airport, Installation 47340, Smyrna, Tennessee. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Tennessee Army National Guard (TNARNG) property near Smyrna, Tennessee. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Grubbs/Kyle Training Center property, the requirement of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

Dennis, C.; Stefano, J.

1993-07-01

370

Model-based feasibility assessment and evaluation of prostate hyperthermia with a commercial MR-guided endorectal HIFU ablation array  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Feasibility of targeted and volumetric hyperthermia (40–45?°C) delivery to the prostate with a commercial MR-guided endorectal ultrasound phased array system, designed specifically for thermal ablation and approved for ablation trials (ExAblate 2100, Insightec Ltd.), was assessed through computer simulations and tissue-equivalent phantom experiments with the intention of fast clinical translation for targeted hyperthermia in conjunction with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Methods: The simulations included a 3D finite element method based biothermal model, and acoustic field calculations for the ExAblate ERUS phased array (2.3 MHz, 2.3 × 4.0 cm{sup 2}, ?1000 channels) using the rectangular radiator method. Array beamforming strategies were investigated to deliver protracted, continuous-wave hyperthermia to focal prostate cancer targets identified from representative patient cases. Constraints on power densities, sonication durations and switching speeds imposed by ExAblate hardware and software were incorporated in the models. Preliminary experiments included beamformed sonications in tissue mimicking phantoms under MR temperature monitoring at 3 T (GE Discovery MR750W). Results: Acoustic intensities considered during simulation were limited to ensure mild hyperthermia (T{sub max} < 45?°C) and fail-safe operation of the ExAblate array (spatial and time averaged acoustic intensity I{sub SATA} < 3.4 W/cm{sup 2}). Tissue volumes with therapeutic temperature levels (T > 41?°C) were estimated. Numerical simulations indicated that T > 41?°C was calculated in 13–23 cm{sup 3} volumes for sonications with planar or diverging beam patterns at 0.9–1.2 W/cm{sup 2}, in 4.5–5.8 cm{sup 3} volumes for simultaneous multipoint focus beam patterns at ?0.7 W/cm{sup 2}, and in ?6.0 cm{sup 3} for curvilinear (cylindrical) beam patterns at 0.75 W/cm{sup 2}. Focused heating patterns may be practical for treating focal disease in a single posterior quadrant of the prostate and diffused heating patterns may be useful for heating quadrants, hemigland volumes or even bilateral targets. Treatable volumes may be limited by pubic bone heating. Therapeutic temperatures were estimated for a range of physiological parameters, sonication duty cycles and rectal cooling. Hyperthermia specific phasing patterns were implemented on the ExAblate prostate array and continuous-wave sonications (?0.88 W/cm{sup 2}, 15 min) were performed in tissue-mimicking material with real-time MR-based temperature imaging (PRFS imaging at 3.0 T). Shapes of heating patterns observed during experiments were consistent with simulations. Conclusions: The ExAblate 2100, designed specifically for thermal ablation, can be controlled for delivering continuous hyperthermia in prostate while working within operational constraints.

Salgaonkar, Vasant A., E-mail: salgaonkarv@radonc.ucsf.edu; Hsu, I-C.; Diederich, Chris J. [Thermal Therapy Research Group, Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, Suite H-1031, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)] [Thermal Therapy Research Group, Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, Suite H-1031, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Prakash, Punit [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kansas State University, 2077 Rathbone Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kansas State University, 2077 Rathbone Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Rieke, Viola; Ozhinsky, Eugene; Kurhanewicz, John [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)] [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Plata, Juan [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, 1201 Welch Road, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, 1201 Welch Road, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2014-03-15

371

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2001-2002.  

SciTech Connect

The White Salmon River Watershed Enhancement Project (WSRWEP) began in 1993 through efforts of the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), local stakeholders and various agencies. Early accomplishments of the project included the formation of a multi-stakeholder watershed management committee (WMC) and technical advisory committee (TAC), completion of several baseline assessments, drafting of a watershed management plan, and beginning implementation of the plan. Since inception, the effort has utilized the support of various government/private grants, and local in-kind contributions to accomplish project goals. The WMC and its partners utilize a four-pronged approach for achieving watershed enhancement: on-ground restoration, extension of technical and financial assistance to cooperators, community and environmental education, and assessment/monitoring to develop strategies and track the success of ongoing work. Project activities are generally targeted to sub-basins and stream reaches within the White Salmon watershed that exhibit important water quality and fish/wildlife habitat problems. Such project prioritization is being conducted with the active input of both the White Salmon WMC and TAC. An important current phase of the WSRWEP targets detailed monitoring and assessment of the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin, and is the focus of this report. The 'Assessment of Rattlesnake Creek in Relation to Restoration Efforts' project (BPA Project ID Number 21009) was identified and prioritized for accomplishment by the White Salmon River TAC in January of 2000. Rationale for the project stemmed from the group's realization that Condit Dam on the lower White Salmon is scheduled for removal, or fish passage retrofitting, within the near future. Given this eventuality, the TAC identified the current lack of understanding regarding both potential anadromous habitat and existing native fish and habitat conditions above Condit Dam (RM 3.2) as an important need. In response to the TAC's determination, the US Geological Survey (USGS), Yakama Nation (YN) and UCD began work to develop the current project that is intended to address the above. The overall goal of the Rattlesnake Creek assessment is to document existing riparian habitat and water quality conditions, native fish populations, and future restoration sites before future return of anadromous fish to the basin above RM 3.2. Since the project is jointly enacted by the USGS, YN and UCD, a high degree of shared planning and joint implementation is applied during completion of tasks. In general, the USGS and YN are cooperatively working to monitor and assess fish populations and riparian habitat conditions within the drainage and adjacent sections of the White Salmon. The UCD is generally responsible for assessing water quality, mapping stream channel geomorphology to enable future restoration planning, and measuring the ratios of carbon and nitrogen isotopes at various trophic levels The remainder of this report provides a summary of significant activities achieved by the UCD under BPA Project 21009 during the first project year. The report follows the FY 2001 UCD/BPA contract Statement of Work (SOW) format. Discussion of major problems encountered, changes in the work plan and schedule deviations are noted in italics after the description of accomplishments for each task.

Stampfli, Steve

2004-02-01

372

Natural restoration  

SciTech Connect

After a company pays millions of dollars to clean up contaminated site, its liability may not be over. It may have to spend tens of millions more to restore damaged natural resources under an oft-overlooked Superfund program. Examples of liability are cited in this report from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and a pcb leak which contaminated a harbor.

Kamlet, K.S.

1993-02-01

373

Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Evaluation of selected feasibility studies of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) hazardous waste sites  

SciTech Connect

Congress and the public have mandated much closer scrutiny of the management of chemically hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes. Legislative language, regulatory intent, and prudent technical judgment, call for using scientifically based studies to assess current conditions and to evaluate and select costeffective strategies for mitigating unacceptable situations. The NCP requires that a Remedial Investigation (RI) and a Feasibility Study (FS) be conducted at each site targeted for remedial response action. The goal of the RI is to obtain the site data needed so that the potential impacts on public health or welfare or on the environment can be evaluated and so that the remedial alternatives can be identified and selected. The goal of the FS is to identify and evaluate alternative remedial actions (including a no-action alternative) in terms of their cost, effectiveness, and engineering feasibility. The NCP also requires the analysis of impacts on public health and welfare and on the environment; this analysis is the endangerment assessment (EA). In summary, the RI, EA, and FS processes require assessment of the contamination at a site, of the potential impacts in public health or the environment from that contamination, and of alternative RAs that could address potential impacts to the environment. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Whelan, G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Hartz, K.E.; Hilliard, N.D. (Beck (R.W.) and Associates, Seattle, WA (USA))

1990-04-01

374

Positive evolution features in soil restoration assessed by means of glomalin and its relationship to aggregate stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restoration of limestone quarries in arid environments mainly consists of regenerating a highly degraded soil and/or creating a soil-like substrate with minimal physico-chemical and biological properties. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion, 18 plots 15 x 5 m were prepared to test organic amendments (sludge, compost, control) and different mulches (gravel, chopped forest residue, control). In order to evaluate the soil quality of the different treatments, their chemical, physical and biological properties were analyzed. Among the most efficient biological indicators are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). AMF play an important role in aggregate stability due to the production of a glycoprotein called glomalin. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify, 5 years after the start the experiment, the content of total glomalin (TG) and to analyze its relationship with other soil parameters such as organic matter (OM) and aggregate stability soil (AE). Results indicated a remarkable effect of organic amendments on glomalin content, which was higher in the treatments with compost (6.96 mg g -1) than in sludge and control (0.54 and 0.40 mg g-1, respectively). Amendments also significantly influenced aggregate stability: the highest values were recorded in treatments with sludge and compost (23.14 and 25.09%, respectively) compared to control (13.37%). The gravel mulch had a negative influenced on AE: an average of 16% compared to 23.4% for chopped forest residues and 23.1% of control. Data showed a positive and significant correlation between values of TG and OM content (r = 0.95). We also found a positive and significant correlation between abundance of TG and AE when OM contents were lower than 4% (r = 0.93), however, there was no significant correlation to higher OM when it was higher than 4% (r = 0.34). This suggests that all protein sources which are different to glomalin have not been removed by the extraction process with sodium citrate. Other studies have shown that the ratio between proteins associated to glomalin and AE is curvilinear, meaning that increases in aggregate stability are not detected if the amount of these proteins is very high. In soil restoration, glomalin is an adequate indicator of soil/substrate evolution when organic amendments deliver low to medium OM contents. Nevertheless, further studies are necessary to improve the knowledge about AMF activity on soil aggregate formation and stability.

Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Gispert Negrell, María; Pardini, Giovanni; Solé Benet, Albert

2014-05-01

375

Ex vivo water exchange performance and short-term clinical feasibility assessment of newly developed heat and moisture exchangers for pulmonary rehabilitation after total laryngectomy.  

PubMed

Laryngectomized patients suffer from respiratory complaints due to insufficient warming and humidification of inspired air in the upper respiratory tract. Improvement of pulmonary humidification with significant reduction of pulmonary complaints is achieved by the application of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) over the tracheostoma. The aim of this study was to determine whether the new Provox HMEs (XM-HME and XF-HME) have a better water exchange performance than their predecessors (R-HME and L-HME, respectively; Atos Medical, Hörby, Sweden). The other aim was to assess the short-term clinical feasibility of these HMEs. The XM-HME and XF-HME were weighed at the end of inspiration and at the end of expiration at different breathing volumes produced by a healthy volunteer. The associations between weight changes, breathing volume and absolute humidity were determined using both linear and non-linear mixed effects models. Study-specific questionnaires and tally sheets were used in the clinical feasibility study. The weight change of the XM-HME is 3.6 mg, this is significantly higher than that of the R-HME (2.0 mg). The weight change of the XF-HME (2.0 mg) was not significantly higher than that of the L-HME (1.8 mg). The absolute humidity values of both XM- and XF-HME were significantly higher than that of their predecessors. The clinical feasibility study did not reveal any practical problems over the course of 3 weeks. The XM-HME has a significantly better water exchange performance than its predecessor (R-HME). Both newly designed HMEs did succeed in the clinical feasibility study. PMID:23636480

van den Boer, Cindy; Muller, Sara H; Vincent, Andrew D; Züchner, Klaus; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Hilgers, Frans J M

2014-02-01

376

A Framework for Statewide Analysis of Site Suitability, Energy Estimation, Life Cycle Costs, Financial Feasibility and Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms: A Case Study of Indiana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, Midwestern states including Indiana have experienced an unprecedented growth in utility scale wind energy farms. For example, by end of 2013, Indiana had 1.5 GW of wind turbines installed, which could provide electrical energy for as many as half-a-million homes. However, there is no statewide systematic framework available for the evaluation of wind farm impacts on endangered species, required necessary setbacks and proximity standards to infrastructure, and life cycle costs. This research is guided to fill that gap and it addresses the following questions. How much land is suitable for wind farm siting in Indiana given the constraints of environmental, ecological, cultural, settlement, physical infrastructure and wind resource parameters? How much wind energy can be obtained? What are the life cycle costs and economic and financial feasibility? Is wind energy production and development in a state an emission free undertaking? The framework developed in the study is applied to a case study of Indiana. A fuzzy logic based AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) spatial site suitability analysis for wind energy is formulated. The magnitude of wind energy that could be sited and installed comprises input for economic and financial feasibility analysis for 20-25 years life cycle of wind turbines in Indiana. Monte Carlo simulation is used to account for uncertainty and nonlinearity in various costs and price parameters. Impacts of incentives and cost variables such as production tax credits, costs of capital, and economies of scale are assessed. Further, an economic input-output (IO) based environmental assessment model is developed for wind energy, where costs from financial feasibility analysis constitute the final demand vectors. This customized model for Indiana is used to assess emissions for criteria air pollutants, hazardous air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) across life cycle events of wind turbines. The findings of the case study include that, Indiana has adequate suitable land area available to locate wind farms with installed capacity between 11 and 51 GW if 100 meters high turbines are used. For a 1.5 MW standard wind turbine, financial feasibility analysis shows that production tax credits and property tax abatements are helpful for financial success in Indiana. Also, the wind energy is not entirely emission free if life cycle events of wind turbine manufacturing, production, installation, construction and decommissioning are considered. The research developed a replicable and integrated framework for statewide life cycle analysis of wind energy production accounting for uncertainty into the analyses. Considering the complexity of life cycle analysis and lack of state specific data on performance of wind turbines and wind farms, this study should be considered an intermediate step.

Kumar, Indraneel

377

Restoration Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

1979-01-01

378

A strategic analysis study-based approach to integrated risk assessment: Occupational health risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The goal of environmental restoration and waste management activities is to reduce public health risks or to delay risks to the future when new technology will be available for improved cleanup solutions. Actions to remediate the wastes on the Hanford Site will entail risks to workers, the public, and the environment that do not currently exist. In some circumstances, remediation activities will create new exposure pathways that are not present without cleanup activities. In addition, cleanup actions will redistribute existing health risks over time and space, and will likely shift health risks to cleanup workers in the short term. This report describes an approach to occupational risk assessment based on the Hanford Strategic Analysis Study and illustrates the approach by comparing worker risks for two options for remediation of N/K fuels, a subcategory of unprocessed irradiated fuels at Hanford.

Mahaffey, J.A.; Doctor, P.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Glantz, C.S.; Daling, P.M.; Sever, L.E.; Vargo, G.J. Jr.; Strachan, D.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Pajunen, A.L.; Hoyt, R.C.; Ludowise, J.D. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

1993-06-01

379

Assessment of impacts and evaluation of restoration methods on areas affected by a well blowout, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, California  

SciTech Connect

In June 1994, an oil well on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 blew-out and crude oil was deposited downwind. After the well was capped, information was collected to characterize the release and to assess effects to wildlife and plants. Oil residue was found up to 13.7 km from the well site, but deposition was relatively light and the oil quickly dried to form a thin crust on the soil surface. Elevated levels of hydrocarbons were found in livers collected from Heermann`s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni) from the oiled area but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (known carcinogens or mutagens) were not detected in the livers. Restoration techniques (surface modification and bioremediation) and natural recovery were evaluated within three portions of the oiled area. Herbaceous cover and production, and survival and vigor of desert saltbush (Atriplex polycarpa) were also monitored within each trapping grid.

Warrick, G.D.; Kato, T.T.; Phillips, M.V. [and others

1996-12-01

380

FY 1985 status report on feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses progress made during the first year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. The expected corrosion and oxidation performances of oxygen-free copper, aluminum bronze, and 70% copper-30% nickel are presented; a test plan for determining whether copper or one of the alloys can meet the containment requirements is outlined. Some preliminary corrosion test data are presented and discussed. Fabrication and joining techniques for forming waste package containers are descibed. Preliminary test data and analyses indicate that copper and copper-base alloys have several attractive features as waste package container materials, but additional work is needed before definitive conclusions can be made on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy for containers. Plans for work to be undertaken in the second year are indicated.

McCright, R.D.

1985-09-30

381

The quality of impressions for crowns and bridges: an assessment of the work received at three commercial dental laboratories. assessing qualities of impressions that may lead to occlusal discrepancies with indirect restorations.  

PubMed

There are few published studies that directly assess the quality of impressions for crowns and bridges in the UK. This paper considers aspects of impression quality with particular attention to factors causing potential occlusal discrepancies in the final restoration. To this end three dental laboratories were visited over a 3-month period. All impressions for conventional crown and bridgework that arrived on the days of the visits were examined and assessed against criteria defined on a custom-designed assessment form. A total of 206 impression cases were considered in this study. Flexible impression trays were used for 65% of working impressions. Their use was more common for NHS work than for private work. 31.9% of all alginate impressions examined were not adequately fixed to the tray. Visible contamination of impressions was not uncommon. PMID:24922994

Storey, D; Coward, T J

2014-03-01

382

A novel Interactive Health Communication Application (IHCA) for parents of children with long-term conditions: development, implementation and feasibility assessment.  

PubMed

Background: Few evidence-based, on-line resources exist to support home-based care of childhood long-term conditions. Methods: In a feasibility study, children with stages 3, 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease, parents and professionals collaboratively developed a novel Online Parent Information and Support (OPIS) application. Parents were randomized to an intervention arm with access to OPIS or a control arm without access. OPIS usage was assessed using Google Analytics. Parents in the intervention arm completed the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) and User Interface Satisfaction (USE) questionnaires and participated in qualitative interviews. Results: Twenty parents accessed OPIS with a mean of 23.3 (SD 20.8, range 2-64) visits per user. Responses from the SAM and USE questionnaires were positive, most respondents rating OPIS highly and finding it easy to use. Qualitative suggestions include refinement of OPIS components, enabling personalization of OPIS functionalities and proactive endorsements of OPIS by professionals. Conclusions: Implementation of OPIS into standard practice is feasible in the centre where it was developed. Suggested developments will augment reported strengths to inform ongoing testing in the wider UK network of units. Our design and methods are transferrable to developing and evaluating web-applications to support home-based clinical care-giving for other long-term conditions. PMID:25119067

Swallow, Veronica; Carolan, Ian; Smith, Trish; Webb, Nicholas J A; Knafl, Kathleen; Santacroce, Sheila; Campbell, Malcolm; Harper-Jones, Melanie; Hanif, Noreen; Hall, Andrew

2014-08-13

383

A feasibility assessment of installation, operation and disposal options for nuclear reactor power system concepts for a NASA growth space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth space station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational disposition, and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of space station - attached concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide the feasibility of each combination.

Bloomfield, Harvey S.; Heller, Jack A.

1987-01-01

384

Preliminary assessment report for National Guard Training Center, Georgia Army National Guard, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Installation restoration program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard (GAARNG) facility near Hinesville, Georgia, known as the National Guard Training Center (NGTC). Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a priority basis for completing corrective actions (where necessary) in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining previous site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the NGTC. Preliminary assessment site score sheet information is also provided for the NGTC. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of Fort Stewart completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on the NGTC area for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of Fort Stewart.

Not Available

1993-07-01

385

JV Task 109 - Risk Assessment and Feasibility of Remedial Alternatives for Coal Seam at Garrison, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted an evaluation of alternative technologies for remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated coal seam, including impacted soils and groundwater in Garrison, North Dakota. Geotechnical characteristics of the impacted fractured coal seam provide for rapid off-site contaminant transport, with the currently identified impacted zone covering an area of about 40 acres. Regardless of the exposure mechanism (free, dissolved, or vapor phase), results of laboratory tests confirmed secondary release of gasoline-based compounds from contaminated coal to water reaching concentrations documented from the impacted areas. Coal laboratory tests confirmed low risks associated with spontaneous ignition of gasoline-contaminated coal. High contaminant recovery efficiency for the vacuum-enhanced recovery pilot tests conducted at three selected locations confirmed its feasibility for full-scale remediation. A total of 3500 gallons (13.3 m{sup 3}) of contaminated groundwater and over 430,000 ft{sup 3} (12,200 m{sup 3}) of soil vapor were extracted during vacuum-enhanced recovery testing conducted July 17-24, 2007, resulting in the removal of about 1330 lb (603 kg) of hydrocarbons, an equivalent of about 213 gallons of product. The summary of project activities is as follows: (1) Groundwater and vapor monitoring for existing wells, including domestic wells, conducted on a monthly basis from December 12, 2006, to June 6, 2007. This monitoring activity conducted prior to initiation of the EERC field investigation was requested by NDDH in a letter dated December 1, 2006. (2) Drilling of 20 soil borings, including installation of extraction and monitoring wells conducted April 30-May 4 and May 14-18, 2007. (3) Groundwater sampling and water-table monitoring conducted June 11-13, 2007. (4) Evaluation of the feasibility of using a camera survey for delineation of mining voids conducted May 16 and September 10-11, 2007. (5) Survey of all wells at the site. (6) Laboratory testing of the coal samples conducted from August to October 2007. (7) Vacuum-enhanced pilot tests at three locations: Cenex corner, Tesoro corner, and cavity area, conducted July 17-24, 2007. (8) Verification of plume delineation for a full-scale design and installation of six monitoring wells September 10-13, 2007. (9) Groundwater sampling and monitoring conducted September 11-12, September 26, and October 3, 2007. (10) Feasibility evaluation of alternative technologies/strategies for the subject site.

Jarda Solc

2008-01-01

386

Restorative Justice, Shame and Forgiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restorative conferencing is a new style of criminal justice intervention which is being increasingly used in Britain, especially as a method of delivering\\u000a police cautions to youth offenders.Is is currently the subject of a lively debate, focusing on its effectiveness as a method of crime reduction, its benefits tovictims, its feasibility in modern society, its effect upon procedural rights of

Gerry Johnstone

1999-01-01

387

Environmental impact assessment as a tool for environmental restoration: the case study of Cop?a-Mic? area, romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the roots and the consequences of the environmental degradation in Cop?a Mic? Area (Romania), as well\\u000a as mitigation measures. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) and territorial analysis were applied on this environmental\\u000a area. The assessment of the environmental decline was based on four categories of indicators: environmental, economic, social,\\u000a and landscape structure and quality. We have established

Octavian-Liviu Muntean; Lucian Dr?gut; Nicolae Baciu; Titus Man; Liviu Buzil?; Ioan Ferencik

388

Quantitative Assessment of Fluoride Release and Recharge Ability of Different Restorative Materials in Different Media: An in Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To measure fluoride release and recharge ability of restorative materials in deionised water, artificial saliva and lactic acid. Materials and Methods: Pellets were prepared from GC2, Ketac N100 and Beautifil II. Each pellets were individually immersed in 10 ml deionised water, artificial saliva or lactic acid as per respective subgroup for 24 h and then elutes were collected. Specimens were reimmersed in respective container. Fluoride released was analysed after 24 h, 7th and 15th day. On 15th day all specimens were exposed to 1.23% APF gel and fluoride release in respective solution was measured on 16th, 22nd, 30th day. Result: Fluoride release was more after 24 h for all materials in all media then decrease gradually. GC2 shows more fluoride release than Ketac N100 at 24 hours and on 7th day but onwards Ketac N100 released significantly more fluoride. Beautifil II showed least fluoride release at all measured intervals in all media. Order of fluoride release in media was lactic acid > deionised water > artificial saliva for all materials. Conclusion: GICs are smart material which release more fluoride when environment become more acidic and also show tendency to recharge which helps clinically in caries risk children. PMID:25654027

Pathak, Anuradha; Bajwa, Navroop Kaur; Sidhu, Haridarshan Singh

2014-01-01

389

Development of a reference material for Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A in cheese: feasibility study, processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.  

PubMed

Staphylococcal food poisoning is caused by enterotoxins excreted into foods by strains of staphylococci. Commission Regulation 1441/2007 specifies thresholds for the presence of these toxins in foods. In this article we report on the progress towards reference materials (RMs) for Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in cheese. RMs are crucial to enforce legislation and to implement and safeguard reliable measurements. First, a feasibility study revealed a suitable processing procedure for cheese powders: the blank material was prepared by cutting, grinding, freeze-drying and milling. For the spiked material, a cheese-water slurry was spiked with SEA solution, freeze-dried and diluted with blank material to the desired SEA concentration. Thereafter, batches of three materials (blank; two SEA concentrations) were processed. The materials were shown to be sufficiently homogeneous, and storage at ambient temperature for 4weeks did not indicate degradation. These results provide the basis for the development of a RM for SEA in cheese. PMID:25172706

Zeleny, R; Emteborg, H; Charoud-Got, J; Schimmel, H; Nia, Y; Mutel, I; Ostyn, A; Herbin, S; Hennekinne, J-A

2015-02-01

390

A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from grown and waste organics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An estimate is obtained of the yearly supply of organic material for conversion to fuels, the energy potential is evaluated, and the fermentation and pyrolysis conversion processes are discussed. An investigation is conducted of the estimated cost of fuel from organics and the conclusions of an overall evaluation are presented. It is found that climate, land availability and economics of agricultural production and marketing, food demand, fertilizer shortage, and water availability combine to cast doubts on the feasibility of producing grown organic matter for fuel, in competition with food, feed, or fiber. Less controversial is the utilization of agricultural, industrial, and domestic waste as a conversion feedstock. The evaluation of a demonstration size system is recommended.

Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y.-Y.

1976-01-01

391

A Phase I Study to Assess the Feasibility and Oncologic Safety of Axillary Reverse Mapping in Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is a novel technique to preserve upper extremity lymphatics that may reduce the incidence of lymphedema after axillary lymph node dissection. Early reports have suggested that ARM lymph nodes do not contain metastatic disease from breast cancer; however, these studies were conducted in early stage patients with low likelihood of lymph node metastasis. This study reported a phase 1 trial conducted in patients with cytologically documented axillary metastasis undergoing axillary lymph node dissection to determine the feasibility and oncologic safety of ARM. METHODS Thirty patients, 23 (77%) of whom received preoperative therapy (chemotherapy in 22 patients and hormonal therapy in 1 patient), were enrolled. Blue dye was injected in the upper inner ipsilateral arm. The presence of blue lymphatics was noted, and blue lymph nodes were sent separately for pathologic evaluation. RESULTS The average time between blue dye injection and axillary exposure was 35 minutes (range, 15–60 minutes). Blue lymphatics were identified in 21 patients (70%) and blue lymph nodes in 15 patients (50%). The median number of ARM lymph nodes was 1 (range, 0–3 lymph nodes) and the median number of axillary lymph nodes was 26 (range, 6–47 lymph nodes). Axillary metastases were noted in 60% (18 of 30) of patients. Of 11 patients who had axillary metastasis and at least 1 ARM lymph node identified, 2 (18%) had metastasis to the ARM lymph node. CONCLUSIONS ARM appears to be a feasible technique with which to identify upper arm lymphatics during axillary surgery. However, the high prevalence of disease involving ARM lymph nodes in this small cohort suggested that preservation of these lymphatics is not oncologically safe in women with documented axillary lymph node metastasis from breast cancer. PMID:20336790

Bedrosian, Isabelle; Babiera, Gildy V.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Kuerer, Henry M.; Pantoja, Laura; Hunt, Kelly K.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

2015-01-01

392

Development of a new cucumber reference material for pesticide residue analysis: feasibility study for material processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.  

PubMed

The feasibility of the production of a reference material for pesticide residue analysis in a cucumber matrix was investigated. Cucumber was spiked at 0.075 mg/kg with each of the 15 selected pesticides (acetamiprid, azoxystrobin, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, diazinon, (??+??)-endosulfan, fenitrothion, imazalil, imidacloprid, iprodione, malathion, methomyl, tebuconazole and thiabendazole) respectively. Three different strategies were considered for processing the material, based on the physicochemical properties of the vegetable and the target pesticides. As a result, a frozen spiked slurry of fresh cucumber, a spiked freeze-dried cucumber powder and a freeze-dried cucumber powder spiked by spraying the powder were studied. The effects of processing and aspects related to the reconstitution of the material were evaluated by monitoring the pesticide levels in the three materials. Two separate analytical methods based on LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS were developed and validated in-house. The spiked freeze-dried cucumber powder was selected as the most feasible material and more exhaustive studies on homogeneity and stability of the pesticide residues in the matrix were carried out. The results suggested that the between-unit homogeneity was satisfactory with a sample intake of dried material as low as 0.1 g. A 9-week isochronous stability study was undertaken at -20 °C, 4 °C and 18 °C, with -70 °C designated as the reference temperature. The pesticides tested exhibited adequate stability at -20 °C during the 9-week period as well as at -70 °C for a period of 18 months. These results constitute a good basis for the development of a new candidate reference material for selected pesticides in a cucumber matrix. PMID:25627789

Grimalt, Susana; Harbeck, Stefan; Shegunova, Penka; Seghers, John; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Emteborg, Håkan; Dabrio, Marta

2015-04-01

393

Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis of Tidal Wetland Restoration in Snohomish River, Washington  

SciTech Connect

To re-establish the intertidal wetlands with full tidal interaction and improve salmonid rearing habitat in the Lower Snohomish River estuary, a diked wetland along Union Slough of the Snohomish River was restored by breaching the existing dike and constructing bridges across the breaches. However, post-restoration monitoring indicated that the restored project site could not drain as efficiently as desired. To improve the drainage conditions at the restoration site during low tides, a modeling study was conducted to evaluate additional restoration scenarios and to provide recommendations for finish-grade ground elevations to achieve the desired drainage. To accurately simulate the drainage of the project site, an unstructured-grid hydrodynamic model with fine-grid resolution down to a few meters was used in this study. The model was first validated with observed water level data collected in the project site and then applied to assess the feasibility of different proposed restoration scenarios. A spatial varying bottom roughness option in the model is also implemented to better represent the high roughness due to the presence of dense vegetation in the project site. The methodology, error statistics of model validation and uncertainty of the modeling analysis are presented and discussed.

Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

2012-03-07

394

Assessing the Accuracy and Feasibility of a Refractive Error Screening Program Conducted by School Teachers in Pre-Primary and Primary Schools in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Introduction As part of the development of a system for the screening of refractive error in Thai children, this study describes the accuracy and feasibility of establishing a program conducted by teachers. Objective To assess the accuracy and feasibility of screening by teachers. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted in 17 schools in four provinces representing four geographic regions in Thailand. A two-staged cluster sampling was employed to compare the detection rate of refractive error among eligible students between trained teachers and health professionals. Serial focus group discussions were held for teachers and parents in order to understand their attitude towards refractive error screening at schools and the potential success factors and barriers. Results The detection rate of refractive error screening by teachers among pre-primary school children is relatively low (21%) for mild visual impairment but higher for moderate visual impairment (44%). The detection rate for primary school children is high for both levels of visual impairment (52% for mild and 74% for moderate). The focus group discussions reveal that both teachers and parents would benefit from further education regarding refractive errors and that the vast majority of teachers are willing to conduct a school-based screening program. Conclusion Refractive error screening by health professionals in pre-primary and primary school children is not currently implemented in Thailand due to resource limitations. However, evidence suggests that a refractive error screening program conducted in schools by teachers in the country is reasonable and feasible because the detection and treatment of refractive error in very young generations is important and the screening program can be implemented and conducted with relatively low costs. PMID:24926993

Teerawattananon, Kanlaya; Myint, Chaw-Yin; Wongkittirux, Kwanjai; Teerawattananon, Yot; Chinkulkitnivat, Bunyong; Orprayoon, Surapong; Kusakul, Suwat; Tengtrisorn, Supaporn; Jenchitr, Watanee

2014-01-01

395

Use of compost to restore a contaminated site in Southern Italy: preliminary study to assess compost efficiency in remediating a heavily polluted soil in Taranto city.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil pollution is one of the most soil relevant threats recognized in the world. Contamination affects soil quality and soil capacity to react against several land degradation processes (erosion, organic depletion, desertification, etc.). The identification of opportune strategies to hinder pollution is a fundamental requirement to restore soil quality. In particular, large attentions have got the techniques, which promote the decontamination, and at the same time, improve fertility allowing a new use of a soil restored. In this work we present a preliminary study to assess the use of compost (an organic fertilizer produced through a process of transformation and controlled stabilization of selected organic waste at the source) in remediating a heavily polluted soil in southern Italy. The study site is located in Taranto city (Apulia Region) and is contaminated predominantly by heavy metals and lightly by organic toxic compounds such us polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). An exhaustive chemical characterization has been carried out on soil samples and then, a treatment with compost was applied on the study site. Successively, two data acquisition campaigns have been realized (after 4 and 7 months by compost treatment, respectively). Soil chemical analyses of texture, electrical conductivity, pH, organic carbon content, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, carbonate and water content have been carried out to investigate soil properties. In the polluted site chemical analyses of characterization showed low content of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and high level of carbonate. Heavy metals screenings, carried out through ICP-MS equipment, evidenced a massive contamination by Be, Se, Sn, Pb, Cr, Zn, while GC-MS investigations revealed a lower pollution by PCBs. The results of the monitoring campaigns showed a consistent reduction of the heavy metals concentrations: a higher decrease is observed after 7 months by compost treatment. At the same time, a considerable increase of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus is also registered. The overall results suggest that the use of compost contributed to improve soil physico-chemical properties and promote a relevant decrease of pollution suggesting that a process of soil quality restoration is performing.

Ancona, Valeria; Campanale, Claudia; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Vito Felice, Uricchio; Simona, Regano

2014-05-01

396

Feasibility of intercity and trans-Atlantic telerobotic remote ultrasound: assessment facilitated by a nondedicated bandwidth connection.  

PubMed

We discuss the concept of ultrasound imaging at a distance by presenting the evaluation of a customized, lightweight, human-safe robotic arm for low-force, long-distance, telerobotic ultrasonography. We undertook intercity and trans-Atlantic telerobotic ultrasound simulation from master stations located in New York, New York and Munich, Germany, and imaged a phantom and a human volunteer located at a slave station in Burlington, Massachusetts, using standard Internet bandwidth <100 Mbps and <50 Mbps, respectively. The data from the robotic arm were tracked for understanding the time efficiency of the human interactions at the master stations. Comparison of a beginner in ultrasound operation with a professional sonographer revealed that although proficiency in using ultrasound was not a prerequisite for operating the robotic arm, previous experience in using clinical ultrasound was associated with progressively lower probe maneuvering time and speed due to an enhanced ability of the veteran operator in adjusting the finer angular motions of the probe. These results suggest that long-distance telerobotic echocardiography over a local nondedicated Internet bandwidth is feasible and can be rapidly learned by sonographers for cost-effective resource utilization. PMID:25124012

Sengupta, Partho P; Narula, Nupoor; Modesto, Karen; Doukky, Rami; Doherty, Sarah; Soble, Jeffery; Narula, Jagat

2014-08-01

397

The feasibility of applying immature yard-waste compost to remove nitrate from agricultural drainage effluents: A preliminary assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nitrate is a major agricultural pollutant found in drainage waters. Immature yard-waste compost was selected as a filter media to study its feasibility for removing nitrate from drainage water. Different operation parameters were tested to examine the denitrification efficiency, including the amounts of compost packed in columns, the flow rate, and the compost storage periods. The experimental results suggested that hydraulic retention time was the major factor to determine the extent of nitrate removal, although the amount of compost packed could also contribute to the nitrate removal efficiency. The effluent nitrate concentration increased as the flow rate decreased, and the compost column reduced nitrate concentrations from 20 mg/L to less than 5 mg/L within 1.5 h. The solution pH increased at the onset of experiment because of denitrification, but stabilized at a pH of about 7.8, suggesting that the compost had a buffering capacity to maintain a suitable pH for denitrification. Storing compost under air-dried conditions may diminish the extent nitrate removed initially, but the effects were not apparent after longer applications. It appeared that immature yard-waste compost may be a suitable material to remove nitrate from tile drainage water because of its relatively large organic carbon content, high microbial activity, and buffering capacity. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Tsui, L.; Krapac, I.G.; Roy, W.R.

2007-01-01

398

Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the Colonie site, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

This work plan has been prepared to document the scoping and planning process performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support remedial action activities at the Colonie site. The site is located in eastern New York State in the town of Colonie near the city of Albany. Remedial action of the Colonie site is being planned as part of DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The DOE is responsible for controlling the release of all radioactive and chemical contaminants from the site. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) must be prepared to support the decision-making process for evaluating remedial action alternatives. This work plan contains a summary of information known about the site as of January 1988, presents a conceptual site model that identifies potential routes of human exposure to site containments, identifies data gaps, and summarizes the process and proposed studies that will be used to fill the data gaps. In addition, DOE activities must be conducted in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires consideration of the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of its decision-making process. This work also describes the approach that will be used to evaluate potential remedial action alternatives and includes a description of the organization, project controls, and task schedules that will be employed to fulfill the requirements of both CERCLA and NEPA. 48 refs., 18 figs., 25 tabs.

Not Available

1990-06-01

399

Groundwater modeling: Application of a multiphase fluid flow model as a decision-making tool for assessing and remediating installation restoration program sites. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This research examined a two-dimensional numerical model, VALOR, which can simulate multiphase fluid flow in soils and groundwater, and evaluated the applicability of the model as a decision-making tool for assessing and remediating IRP sites. Model sensitivity analyses were conducted to study the influence of grid sizes, soil types, and organic release rates on the simulated migration of both light and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). The VALOR model was applied to a case study of a JP-4 release at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The finer grid sizes provide the most accurate definition of NAPL distribution. The soil type and release rate sensitivity analyses demonstrate that NAPL migrates quicker through coarse sands than fine sand and clay. The light NAPL ponds at the water table and spreads laterally. The dense NAPL migrates through the subsurface and ponds at the aquifer bottom. The fast organic release simulations predict wider vertical pathways of migration. The slow organic release simulations predict higher light NAPL saturation at the water table. The case study indicates that within limits, VALOR may be useful for assessing NAPL distribution, estimating contaminated soil volumes, and evaluating remediation alternatives.... Groundwater modeling, Non-aqueous Phase Liquids: NAPL, Multiphase fluid flow model, Installation Restoration Program, IRP.

Scott, D.J.

1993-09-01

400

Standards-Based Assessments in the Classroom: A Feasible Approach to Improving the Quality of Students' Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the new millennium, the Indian education system has experienced a major shift and the issue of the quality of education has taken centre stage in policy discussion fora. Globally, assessment has become an important means of improving the quality of education, both at the systemic level and at the level of individual students. It necessitates…

Sharma, Priyanka

2015-01-01

401

Establishing the Feasibility of Direct Observation in the Assessment of Tics in Children with Chronic Tic Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavior analysis has been at the forefront in establishing effective treatments for children and adults with chronic tic disorders. As is customary in behavior analysis, the efficacy of these treatments has