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1

Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington – Feasibility Assessment  

SciTech Connect

A hydrodynamic and hydrologic modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of restoring natural estuarine functions and tidal marine wetlands habitat in the Chinook River estuary, located near the mouth of the Columbia River in Washington. The reduction in salmonid populations is attributable primarily to the construction of a Highway 101 overpass across the mouth of the Chinook River in the early 1920s with a tide gate under the overpass. This construction, which was designed to eliminate tidal action in the estuary, has impeded the upstream passage of salmonids. The goal of the Chinook River Restoration Project is to restore tidal functions through the estuary, by removing the tide gate at the mouth of the river, filling drainage ditches, restoring tidal swales, and reforesting riparian areas. The hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) was used to compute Chinook River and tributary inflows for use as input to the hydrodynamic model at the project area boundary. The hydrodynamic model (RMA-10) was used to generate information on water levels, velocities, salinity, and inundation during both normal tides and 100-year storm conditions under existing conditions and under the restoration alternatives. The RMA-10 model was extended well upstream of the normal tidal flats into the watershed domain to correctly simulate flooding and drainage with tidal effects included, using the wetting and drying schemes. The major conclusion of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling study was that restoration of the tidal functions in the Chinook River estuary would be feasible through opening or removal of the tide gate. Implementation of the preferred alternative (removal of the tide gate, restoration of the channel under Hwy 101 to a 200-foot width, and construction of an internal levee inside the project area) would provide the required restorations benefits (inundation, habitat, velocities, and salinity penetration, etc.) and meet flood protection requirements. The alternative design included design of storage such that relatively little difference in the drainage or inundation upstream of Chinook River Valley Road would occur as a result of the proposed restoration activities.

Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Kristanovich, Felix C.

2006-08-03

2

Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington – Feasibility Assessment  

SciTech Connect

A hydrodynamic and hydrologic modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of restoring natural estuarine functions and tidal marine wetlands habitat in the Chinook River estuary, located near the mouth of the Columbia River in Washington. The reduction in salmonid populations is attributable primarily to the construction of a Highway 101 overpass across the mouth of the Chinook River in the early 1920s with a tide gate under the overpass. This construction, which was designed to eliminate tidal action in the estuary, has impeded the upstream passage of salmonids. The goal of the Chinook River Restoration Project is to restore tidal functions through the estuary, by removing the tide gate at the mouth of the river, filling drainage ditches, restoring tidal swales, and reforesting riparian areas. The hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) was used to compute Chinook River and tributary inflows for use as input to the hydrodynamic model at the project area boundary. The hydrodynamic model (RMA-10) was used to generate information on water levels, velocities, salinity, and inundation during both normal tides and 100-year storm conditions under existing conditions and under the restoration alternatives. The RMA-10 model was extended well upstream of the normal tidal flats into the watershed domain to correctly simulate flooding anddrainage with tidal effects included, using the wetting and drying schemes. The major conclusion of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling study was that restoration of the tidal functions in the Chinook River estuary would be feasible through opening or removal of the tide gate. Implementation of the preferred alternative (removal of the tide gate, restoration of the channel under Hwy 101 to a 200-foot width, and construction of an internal levee inside the project area) would provide the required restorations benefits (inundation, habitat, velocities, and salinity penetration, etc.) and meet flood protection requirements. The alternative design included design of storage such that relatively little difference in the drainage or inundation upstream of Chinook River Valley Road would occur as a result of the proposed restoration activities.

Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Kristanovich, Felix C.

2006-01-01

3

Compliance work for food contact materials: feasibility of the legally required safety assessment of an epoxy/amine-based coating for domestic water pipe restoration.  

PubMed

Options were explored for fulfilling the legally required safety assessment for a widely applied epoxy/amine coating used for restoring corroded domestic drinking water supply systems. The coating was made up of two components mixed shortly before application, the first mainly consisting of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), the second of various amines. The analytically identified starting substances were all authorised, but only constituted a small proportion of the low molecular mass material left after curing and potentially migrating into water. Reaction products synthesised from constituents of the starting components (expected oligomers) could not be eluted from GC even after derivatisation, indicating that standard GC-MS screening would miss most potential migrants. They were detectable by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) after acetylation. HPLC with MS or fluorescence detection was possible for constituents including a BADGE moiety, but phenalkamines could not be detected with adequate sensitivity. Possibilities for determining long-term migration relevant for chronic toxicity are discussed. Analysis in water shortly after application of the coating overestimates migration if migration decreases over time and requires detection limits far out of reach. Analysis of a solvent extract of the coating is easier and provides an upper estimate of what could migrate into the drinking water over the years. However, to satisfy the regulatory requirements, components of the complex mixture need to be identified at lower proportions than those accessible. In vitro testing of the whole mixture for genotoxicity is expected to fail because of the required sensitivity and the glycidyl functions probably wrongly resulting in positive tests. The difficulties in dealing with this situation are discussed. PMID:24761990

Tillner, Jocelyn; Grob, Koni

2014-01-01

4

Lake restoration technology transfer assessment  

SciTech Connect

Based upon a review of the eutrophication problem and its impact on lake restoration (LR) programs, treatment of the relatively new problem of acid deposition and its impact on LR activities, consideration of the LR programs of the Environmental Protection Agency and several states, and a review of individual LR technology transfer publications, it is recommended that new LR technology transfer programs be given a low priority until more new information is available on the restoration of acidified lakes. Both primary and secondary users of LR research, technology transfer documents, and public awareness documents were considered in this assessment. Primary users included the general public and recreationists, lakeshore property owners, lake/homeowner associations, lake/sanitary districts, and research and environmental organizations; secondary users included state/county/local officials who administer/manage water-related regulations/activities. 4 tables.

Daschbach, M.H.; Roe, E.M.; Sharpe, W.E.

1982-06-01

5

Lake restoration technology transfer assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based upon a review of the eutrophication problem and its impact on lake restoration (LR) programs, treatment of the relatively new problem of acid deposition and its impact on LR activities, consideration of the LR programs of the Environmental Protection Agency and several states, and a review of individual LR technology transfer publications, it is recommended that new LR technology

M. H. Daschbach; E. M. Roe; W. E. Sharpe

1982-01-01

6

Feasibility Assessment of the Service Delivery Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this component of the evaluation, the Circles of Care grantees assessed the feasibility of their model systems of care. The goal of the Feasibility Assessment was to assure that each model system of care was well designed with careful consideration of project goals, community resources and readiness, cultural competence and measurable outcomes.

Coll, Kenneth M.; Mohatt, Gerald; LeMaster, Pamela L.

2004-01-01

7

Authentic Assessment for Restorative Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developmental Audit[R] is a comprehensive means of assessment and treatment planning that identifies the coping strategies underlying a youth's maladaptive and self-defeating behavior. This is a strength-based assessment that engages youth in conflict in the process of generating solutions rather than focusing on deficits. This process…

Doerr, Allison

2008-01-01

8

A High Resolution Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound to Support Nearshore Restoration Feasibility Analysis and Design  

SciTech Connect

Estuarine and coastal hydrodynamic processes are sometimes neglected in the design and planning of nearshore restoration actions. Despite best intentions, efforts to restore nearshore habitats can result in poor outcomes if circulation and transport which also affect freshwater-saltwater interactions are not properly addressed. Limitations due to current land use can lead to selection of sub-optimal restoration alternatives that may result in undesirable consequences, such as flooding, deterioration of water quality, and erosion, requiring immediate remedies and costly repairs. Uncertainty with achieving restoration goals, such as recovery of tidal exchange, supply of sediment and nutrients, and establishment of fish migration pathways, may be minimized by using numerical models designed for application to the nearshore environment. A high resolution circulation and transport model of the Puget Sound, in the state of Washington, was developed to assist with nearshore habitat restoration design and analysis, and to answer the question “can we achieve beneficial restoration outcomes at small local scale, as well as at a large estuary-wide scale?” The Puget Sound model is based on an unstructured grid framework to define the complex Puget Sound shoreline using a finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM). The capability of the model for simulating the important nearshore processes, such as circulation in complex multiple tidal channels, wetting and drying of tide flats, and water quality and sediment transport as part of restoration feasibility, are illustrated through examples of restoration projects in Puget Sound.

Khangaonkar, Tarang; Yang, Zhaoqing

2011-01-01

9

Damage Assessment and Restoration Planning For Marine Birds  

E-print Network

Damage Assessment and Restoration Planning For Marine Birds Jennifer M. Arnold Jennifer A. Boyce Russell J. Bellmer #12;Damage Assessment and Restoration Planning For Marine Birds Jennifer M. Arnold NOAA. Pease, NOAA's Senior Counselor for Natural Resources and James Burgess, Director of the NOAA Restoration

10

Assess Plan Restore DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL NRDA TRUSTEES  

E-print Network

Assess Plan Restore DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL NRDA TRUSTEES Early Restoration, Phase III A guide Environmental Impact Statement JUNE 2014 #12;Early Restoration, Phase III DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL NATURAL/PEIS and will be available to the public this summer. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill NRDA Trustees Deepwater Horizon

11

Oyster Habitat Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Handbook  

E-print Network

restoration projects in the Chesapeake Bay examined the available datasets from 1990 to 2007, analyzing over to hydrology and salinity regimens, pollution and introduced disease. While oyster restoration efforts have

12

Pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunity assessment in environmental restoration  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories implicitly subscribed to the philosophy of pollution prevention and waste minimization. As a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) offer, Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOA) were conducted at two ER sites and a decontamination and Demolition (D and D) site. The purpose of one of the PPOAs was to identify pollution prevention (P2) opportunities during environmental remediation at the Classified Waste Landfill located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The remediation activities at this site are scheduled to begin in the fall of 1997. The PPOA included presentations by the team members, a tour of the site, and a brainstorming session to list the waste streams, identify P2 opportunities and rank them in order of priority. Twenty-five P2 opportunities were identified during the brainstorming session of which twenty-two opportunities were selected for further investigation. Those twenty-two opportunities are discussed in this paper. A cost benefit analysis was performed for each P2 opportunity based on the estimated waste volume, feasibility, and cost. Pollution Prevention by Design (P2D) was incorporated into the PPOA to introduce waste minimization techniques that can be used during the planning phase of restoration projects.

Roybal, J.A.; Willison, C.P.

1997-10-01

13

Trailing Ballute Aerocapture: Concept and Feasibility Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trailing Ballute Aerocapture offers the potential to obtain orbit insertion around a planetary body at a fraction of the mass of traditional methods. This allows for lower costs for launch, faster flight times and additional mass available for science payloads. The technique involves an inflated ballute (balloon-parachute) that provides aerodynamic drag area for use in the atmosphere of a planetary body to provide for orbit insertion in a relatively benign heating environment. To account for atmospheric, navigation and other uncertainties, the ballute is oversized and detached once the desired velocity change (Delta V) has been achieved. Analysis and trades have been performed for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of the technique including aerophysics, material assessments, inflation system and deployment sequence and dynamics, configuration trades, ballute separation and trajectory analysis. Outlined is the technology development required for advancing the technique to a level that would allow it to be viable for use in space exploration missions.

Miller, Kevin L.; Gulick, Doug; Lewis, Jake; Trochman, Bill; Stein, Jim; Lyons, Daniel T.; Wilmoth, Richard G.

2003-01-01

14

ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RESTORATION TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous stream and riparian restoration projects are being undertaken across the nation at a variety of scales and for disparate reasons. Unfortunately, there are very few studies associated with these restoration efforts which provide a consistent and practical methodology to e...

15

Feasibility of a femoral nerve motor branch for transfer to the pudendal nerve for restoring continence: a cadaveric study  

PubMed Central

Object Nerve transfers are an effective means of restoring control to paralyzed somatic muscle groups and, recently, even denervated detrusor muscle. The authors performed a cadaveric pilot project to examine the feasibility of restoring control to the urethral and anal sphincters using a femoral motor nerve branch to reinnervate the pudendal nerve through a perineal approach. Methods Eleven cadavers were dissected bilaterally to expose the pudendal and femoral nerve branches. Pertinent landmarks and distances that could be used to locate these nerves were assessed and measured, as were nerve cross-sectional areas. Results A long motor branch of the femoral nerve was followed into the distal vastus medialis muscle for a distance of 17.4 ± 0.8 cm, split off from the main femoral nerve trunk, and transferred medially and superiorly to the pudendal nerve in the Alcock canal, a distance of 13.7 ± 0.71 cm. This was performed via a perineal approach. The cross-sectional area of the pudendal nerve was 5.64 ± 0.49 mm2, and the femoral nerve motor branch at the suggested transection site was 4.40 ± 0.41 mm2. Conclusions The use of a femoral nerve motor branch to the vastus medialis muscle for heterotopic nerve transfer to the pudendal nerve is surgically feasible, based on anatomical location and cross-sectional areas. PMID:21761966

Barbe, Mary F.; Brown, Justin M.; Pontari, Michel A.; Dean, Gregory E.; Braverman, Alan S.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

2012-01-01

16

Presurgical implant-site assessment and restoratively driven digital planning.  

PubMed

Cone-beam computed tomography imaging and 3-dimensional (3D) computer software allows for greatly enhanced visualization of bone, critical anatomy, and restorative plans. These systems allow clinicians to digitally process 3D images and restorative templates, facilitating dental implant planning. This article highlights the use of contemporary methods of digital assessment combined with traditional restorative philosophies to allow the clinician to plan implant positions based on "crown-down" clinical requirements. This approach permits clinicians to have more control over the implant treatment plan by creating ideal, virtual restorations and managing implant positions based on the virtual plan with simplified, cost-effective techniques. PMID:24993924

Scherer, Michael D

2014-07-01

17

An assessment of restoration success to forests planted for ecosystem restoration in loess plateau, Northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using ecosystem attributes identified by the Society of Ecological Restoration International, we assessed three restoration\\u000a projects in the loess plateau, northwestern China, including planting Larix principis-rupprechtii (LS) and Pinus tabulaeformis (PS) on shrubland, and planting L. principis-rupprechtii on open forest land (LO). The reestablishment of native species in LS and PS was poorer than LO because of the excessive\\u000a stand

Zhanbiao Yang; Hongxi Jin; Gang Wang

2010-01-01

18

Cle Elum Lake Sockeye Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study, 1986-1988 Progress Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, a multi-year project to evaluate the biological feasibility of reestablishing anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs to Cle Elum Lake in the Yakima River Basin was established between the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). This program involves the capture, spawning, and rearing of disease-free donor stock in 1987 and 1988 and assessment

Thomas A

1988-01-01

19

Wind Resource and Feasibility Assessment Report for the Lummi Reservation  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the wind resource on the Lummi Indian Reservation (Washington State) and presents the methodology, assumptions, and final results of the wind energy development feasibility assessment, which included an assessment of biological impacts and noise impacts.

DNV Renewables (USA) Inc.; J.C. Brennan & Associates, Inc.; Hamer Environmental L.P.

2012-08-31

20

43 CFR 11.92 - Post-assessment phase-restoration account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Post-assessment phase-restoration account. 11...Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.92 Post-assessment phase—restoration account....

2011-10-01

21

43 CFR 11.92 - Post-assessment phase-restoration account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Post-assessment phase-restoration account. 11...Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.92 Post-assessment phase—restoration account....

2010-10-01

22

43 CFR 11.92 - Post-assessment phase-restoration account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Post-assessment phase-restoration account. 11...Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.92 Post-assessment phase—restoration account....

2013-10-01

23

43 CFR 11.92 - Post-assessment phase-restoration account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Post-assessment phase-restoration account. 11...Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.92 Post-assessment phase—restoration account....

2012-10-01

24

Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study  

SciTech Connect

Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

Yang, Zhaoqing; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Thom, Ronald M.; Fuller, Roger

2010-04-10

25

Cle Elum Lake Sockeye Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study, 1987-1989 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes research activities conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) from July 1988 through March 1989 relating to the Cle Elum Lake sockeye salmon restoration feasibility study. During this period, efforts focused on collection and spawning of adult sockeye salmon from the Wenatchee River, incubation of eggs from the 1988-brood, and the rearing of juveniles from the 1987-brood. In late July and early August 1988, 520 adult sockeye salmon were captured at fishways on the Wenatchee River and transferred to net-pens in Lake Wenatchee. Fish were held to maturity in late September and early October, spawned, and eggs incubated at a quarantine hatchery in Seattle, WA. The 336 sockeye salmon successfully spawned from the net-pens at Lake Wenatchee were surveyed for the presence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) and other replicating viruses. In addition, 13 and 5 sockeye salmon spawners were surveyed from spawning grounds on the White and Little Wenatchee Rivers, respectively, from within the Lake Wenatchee system. 12 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Flagg, Thomas A.

1990-02-01

26

A RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR SOCIAL ASSESSMENT OF LAKE RESTORATION PROGRAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The research was initiated in order to examine the social implications of lake restoration programs and to develop a standardized methodology for social impact assessment. A cultural ecological model is employed since it provides perspectives on the relationship of human adaptati...

27

Remedidal investigation and feasibility study report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the remedial investigation (RI) is to collect data necessary to adequately characterize the site for the purpose of developing and evaluating effective remedial alternatives. To characterize the site, the lead agency shall, as appropriate, conduct field investigations, including treatability studies, and conduct a baseline risk assessment. The RI provides information to assess the risks to human health and the environment and to support the development, evaluation, and selection of appropriate response alternatives. The primary objective of the feasibility study (FS) is to ensure that appropriate remedial alternatives are developed and evaluated such that relevant information concerning the remedial action options can be presented to a decision-maker and an appropriate remedy selected. The lead agency may develop a feasibility study to address a specific site problem or the entire site. The development and evaluation of alternatives shall reflect the scope and complexity of the remedial action under consideration and the site problems being addressed. Development of alternatives shall be fully integrated with the site characterization activities of the remedial investigation described in paragraph (d) of this section. The lead agency shall include an alternatives screening step, when needed, to select a reasonable number of alternatives for detailed analysis.

Roeck, F.V.

1994-06-01

28

Feasibility of Telecognitive Assessment in Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Videoconferencing (VC) technology has been used successfully to provide psychiatric services to patients in rural and otherwise underserved settings. VC-based diagnostic interviewing has shown good agreement with conventional face-to-face diagnosis of dementia in several investigations, but extension of this technology to neurocognitive assessment

Cullum, C. Munro; Weiner, Myron F.; Gehrmann, Helena R.; Hynan, Linda S.

2006-01-01

29

Anatomical feasibility of the anterior obturator nerve transfer to restore bowel and bladder function.  

PubMed

Total sacrectomies are radical procedures required to treat tumorigenic processes involving the sacrum. The purpose of our anatomical study was to assess the feasibility of a novel nerve transfer involving the anterior obturator nerve to the pudendal and pelvic nerves to the rectum and bladder. Anterior dissection of the obturator nerve was performed in eight hemipelvis cadaver specimens. The common obturator nerve branched into the anterior and posterior at the level of the obturator foramen. The anterior branch then divided into two separate branches (adductor longus and gracilis). The branch to the gracilis was on average longer and also larger than the branch to the adductor longus (8.7 ± 2.1 cm vs. 6.7 ± 2.6 cm in length and 2.6 ± 0.2 mm vs 1.8 ± 0.4 mm in diameter). Each branch of the anterior obturator was long enough to reach the pelvic nerves. The novel transfer of the anterior branch of the obturator nerve to reinnervate the bladder and bowel is anatomically feasible. This represents a promising option with minimal donor site deficit. PMID:24710737

Houdek, Matthew T; Wagner, Eric R; Wyles, Cody C; Moran, Steven L

2014-09-01

30

Designing and Assessing Restored Meandering River Planform Using RVR Meander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ongoing modification and resulting reduction in water quality of U.S. rivers have led to a significant increase in river restoration projects over the last two decades. The increased interest in restoring degraded streams, however, has not necessarily led to improved stream function. Palmer and Allan (2005) found that many restoration projects fail to achieve their objectives due to the lack of policies to support restoration standards, to promote proven methods and to provide basic data needed for planning and implementation. Proven models of in-stream and riparian processes could be used not only to guide the design of restoration projects but also to assess both pre- and post-project indicators of ecological integrity. One of the most difficult types of river restoration projects concern reconstructing a new channel, often with an alignment and channel form different from those of the degraded pre-project channel. Recreating a meandering planform to provide longitudinal and lateral variability of flow and bed morphology to improve in-stream aquatic habitat is often desired. Channel meander planform is controlled by a multitude of variables, for example channel width to depth ratio, radius of curvature to channel width ratio, bankfull discharge, roughness, bed-material physical characteristics, bed material transport, resistance to erosion of the floodplain soils, riparian vegetation, etc. Therefore, current practices that use simple, empirically based relationships or reference reaches have led to failure in several instances, for example a washing out of meander bends or a highly unstable planform, because they fail to address the site-specific conditions. Recently, progress has been made to enhance a physically- and process-based model, RVR Meander, for rapid analysis of meandering river morphodynamics with reduced empiricism. For example, lateral migration is based on measurable physical properties of the floodplain soils and riparian vegetation versus the driving forces of the river hydrodynamics. The model can also be used in a Monte Carlo framework to statistically describe the long-term evolution of the meander planform. RVR Meander has been successfully used to evaluate migration rates of restored meandering streams and bends on the Big Sioux River, SD and Trout Creek, CA at engineering time scales. It has also been used to assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the alignment of the meandering low-flow channel of the planned diversion of the Red River of the North around the metropolitan area of Fargo, ND and Moorhead, MN. Palmer MA, Allan JD. 2005. Restoring rivers, Issues in Science and Technology, Winter 2006, Published by National Academy of Sciences, 22: 40-48.

Langendoen, E. J.; Abad, J. D.; Motta, D.; Frias, C. E.; Wong, M.; Barnes, B. J.; Anderson, C. D.; Garcia, M. H.; MacDonald, T. E.

2013-12-01

31

Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

Armstrong, D.L.

1994-08-01

32

75 FR 21592 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Natural Resource Damage Assessment Restoration...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Comment Request; Natural Resource Damage Assessment Restoration Project Information...state and federal Natural Resource Trustees in more efficiently...restoration planning phase of Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDA), in...

2010-04-26

33

78 FR 42755 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Natural Resource Damage Assessment Restoration...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Comment Request; Natural Resource Damage Assessment Restoration Project Information...state and federal Natural Resource Trustees in more efficiently...restoration planning phase of Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDA), in...

2013-07-17

34

An assessment of restoration success to forests planted for ecosystem restoration in loess plateau, Northwestern China.  

PubMed

Using ecosystem attributes identified by the Society of Ecological Restoration International, we assessed three restoration projects in the loess plateau, northwestern China, including planting Larix principis-rupprechtii (LS) and Pinus tabulaeformis (PS) on shrubland, and planting L. principis-rupprechtii on open forest land (LO). The reestablishment of native species in LS and PS was poorer than LO because of the excessive stand density. Species diversity, seedling number, and seedling diversity were significantly higher in LO than in LS and PS. Soil nutrient was also significantly higher in the LO treatment. The vegetation composition, species diversity, and soil nutrient in LO, however, were more similar to these in the reference. Our results indicate that planting L. principis-rupprechtii on open forest land had accelerated the succession of the ecosystem for approximately 30 years. But the poor natural regeneration of L. principis-rupprechtii suggests that post-planting activities in LO are required after timber harvesting or the natural mortality of the L. principis-rupprechtii. Management operation such as selective thinning will be required in LS and PS to promote the true restoration of native species diversity in the future. PMID:19373438

Yang, Zhanbiao; Jin, Hongxi; Wang, Gang

2010-05-01

35

Towards improved instrumentation for assessing river-groundwater interactions in a restored river corridor  

Microsoft Academic Search

River restoration projects have been launched over the last two decades to improve the ecological status and water quality of regulated rivers. As most restored rivers are not monitored at all, it is difficult to predict consequences of restoration projects or analyze why restorations fail or are successful. It is thus necessary to implement efficient field assessment strategies, for example

P. Schneider; T. Vogt; M. Schirmer; J. Doetsch; N. Linde; N. Pasquale; P. Perona; O. A. Cirpka

2011-01-01

36

Feasibility study: Assess the feasibility of siting a monitored retrievable storage facility. Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of phase one of this study are: To understand the waste management system and a monitored retrievable storage facility; and to determine whether the applicant has real interest in pursuing the feasibility assessment process. Contents of this report are: Generating electric power; facts about exposure to radiation; handling storage, and transportation techniques; description of a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility; and benefits to be received by host jurisdiction.

King, J.W.

1993-08-01

37

Cle Elum Lake Sockeye Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study, 1986-1988 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect

In 1986, a multi-year project to evaluate the biological feasibility of reestablishing anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs to Cle Elum Lake in the Yakima River Basin was established between the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). This program involves the capture, spawning, and rearing of disease-free donor stock in 1987 and 1988 and assessment of juvenile outmigration and survival from Cle Elum Lake in 1989 and 1990. Work in 1987--1988 involved collection of adult sockeye salmon from the Lake Wenatchee run and incubation and rearing of progeny as donor stock. In July 1987, 263 adults were captured at the Dryden fishway on the Wenatchee River and transferred to net-pens in Lake Wenatchee. Adults were held approximately 90 days and spawned, and the eggs were transferred to a quarantine hatchery. Pre-spawning survival was 95.1%, and all spawners were certified as being free of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHN) and other replicating viruses. Egg viability averaged about 40%; however, eyed egg to hatch survival was over 99%. Juveniles are being reared in quarantine, and survival to date is about 92%. The NMFS currently has over 131,000 fry (0.7 g average weight) in culture. Fry have been certified twice (at 0.12 g and 0.25 g average weight) as being free of IHN and other replicating viruses. Viral certification will continue throughout rearing. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Flagg, Thomas A.

1988-10-01

38

How to scientifically assess a restoration project: a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commonly, it is said that there is lack of communication among scientists, conservators, restorers, project managers and architects. But sometimes this communication flows, and we can find enormous benefits from and for all the participating agents. This is the case we present in this work, in which technical agents in charge of the restoration of a building, asked for some scientific advice to perform the restoration of a heritage building. The results were successful and fantastic for both of them, in terms of one part asking for consultation and the other answering to the demands and resolving real problems. This is the case of a marvellous Renaissance building (Medinaceli Dukes palace, 15th-16th centuries) in the central area of Spain (Cogolludo, Guadalajara). Focused on the restoration project, we were asked for consultancy on how to solve matters like the assessment of the already fixed in project cleaning method for the stone façades, the efficacy and durability methods for some conservation products to be applied, the presence or not of a patina on the stone; the viability of using some restoration mortars, and the origin of some efflorescences that came out just after placed in the building a restoration rendering mortar. Responses to these matters were answered by performing tests both in the lab and on site in the building. The efficiency and effects on stone of the blasting cleaning method was assessed by first analysing the nature and thickness of the surface deposits to be removed (SEM-EDS analyses); secondly, roughness and colour measurements were performed, and thirdly, SEM-EDS analyses were carried out again to determine whether the cleaning method was able to remove part of the surface deposits, completely, or even part of the stone substrate. Some conservation products were tested on stone specimens, both their efficacy and their durability, concluding that it was better not to apply any of them. A patina was found on the stone façade under SEM, probably applied for colouring and homogenizing purpose, and below it and on the stone, an acrylic film was analysed. It was in good state, and its removal could be worse and more dangerous to the substrate than leaving it. Two restoration mortars were tested to characterize them and to determine their durability, the results showing that one of them was much better than the other. Finally, a restoration render was analysed and we found, by analysing it and the raw materials used for its preparation, that one of them, a marketed cement, had a very high content on sulfates, responsible for the efflorescences (sulphate compounds) that appeared just after the render was placed in the building, this resulting on stopping using this product in the restoration project. Consequently, conservation science should be considered as not only useful but essential for cultural heritage conservation, besides it is cost-saving, because failed interventions are much more expensive in the short, medium and long term.

Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.; Freire, D. M.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Vazquez-Calvo, C.

2012-04-01

39

76 FR 65182 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...organizations involved in natural resource damage assessment and restoration activities...General Counsel for Natural Resources (GCNR). The DARRP conducts Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDAs) as a basis...

2011-10-20

40

78 FR 53425 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...organizations involved in natural resource damage assessment and restoration activities...General Counsel Natural Resources Section (GCNRS). The DARRP conducts Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDAs) as a basis...

2013-08-29

41

76 FR 61089 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...organizations involved in natural resource damage assessment and restoration activities...General Counsel for Natural Resources (GCNR). The DARRP conducts Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDAs) as a basis...

2011-10-03

42

Mid-Columbia Coho Salmon Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Environmental Assessment.  

SciTech Connect

Before the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) decides whether to fund a program to reintroduce coho salmon to mid-Columbia River basin tributaries, research is needed to determine the ecological risks and biological feasibility of such an effort. Since the early 1900s, the native stock of coho has been decimated in the tributaries of the middle reach of the Columbia River. The four Columbia River Treaty Tribes identified coho reintroduction in the mid-Columbia as a priority in the Tribal Restoration Plan. It is a comprehensive plan put forward by the Tribes to restore the Columbia River fisheries. In 1996, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) recommended the tribal mid-Columbia reintroduction project for funding by BPA. It was identified as one of fifteen high-priority supplementation projects for the Columbia River basin, and was incorporated into the NPPC`s Fish and Wildlife Program. The release of coho from lower Columbia hatcheries into mid-Columbia tributaries is also recognized in the Columbia River Fish Management Plan.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State) Department of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation

1999-01-01

43

The Deschutes Estuary Restoration Feasibility Study: development of a process-based morphological model  

E-print Network

transport after dam removal will also be modeled. Key components of the model include tidal currents. Several restoration solutions have been proposed, including removal of the dam and widening the opening Continual sediment accumulation in Capitol Lake since the damming of the Deschutes River in 1951 has altered

44

Market assessment and technical feasibility study of PFBC ash use  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this study are to determine the market potential and the technical feasibility of using PFBC ash in high volume ash use applications. The information will be of direct use to the utility industry in assessing the economics of PFBC power generation in light of ash disposal avoidance through ash marketing. In addition, the research is expected to result in the generation of generic data on the use of PFBC ash that could lead to novel processing options and procedures. The specific objectives of the proposed research and demonstration effort are: Define resent and future market potential of PFBC ash for a range of applications (Phase I); assess the technical feasibility of PFBC ash use in construction, civil engineering and agricultural applications (Phase II); and demonstrate the most promising of the market and ash use options in full-scale field demonstrations (Phase III).

Smith, V.E.; Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Georgiou, D.N. [Jacques, Whitford and Associates Ltd., Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Wheeldon, J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1994-10-01

45

Reach Scale Hydraulic Assessment of Instream Salmonid Habitat Restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the use of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (River2D) for an assessment of the effects of instream large woody debris and rock groyne habitat structures. The bathymetry of a study reach (a side channel of the Chilliwack River located in southwestern British Columbia) was surveyed after the installation of 11 instream restoration structures. A digital elevation model was developed and used with a hydrodynamic model to predict local velocity, depth, scour, and habitat characteristics. The channel was resurveyed after the fall high-flow season during which a bankfull event occurred. Pre-flood and post-flood bathymetry pool distributions were compared. Measured scour was compared to predicted shear and pre-flood and post-flood fish habitat indices for coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead trout (O. mykiss) were compared. Two-dimensional flow model velocity and depth predictions compare favorably to measured field values with mean standard errors of 24 percent and 6 percent, respectively, while areas of predicted high shear coincide with the newly formed pool locations. At high flows, the fish habitat index used (weighted usable area) increased by 150 percent to 210 percent. The application of the hydrodynamic model indicated a net habitat benefit from the restoration activities and provides a means of assessing and optimizing planned works.

Lacey, R. W. Jay; Millar, Robert G.

2004-12-01

46

Environmental monitoring, restoration and assessment: What have we learned  

SciTech Connect

The Twenty-Eighth Hanford Symposium on Health and the Environment was held in Richland, Washington, October 16--19, 1989. The symposium was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. The symposium was organized to review and evaluate some of the monitoring and assessment programs that have been conducted or are currently in place. Potential health and environmental effects of energy-related and other industrial activities have been monitored and assessed at various government and private facilities for over three decades. Most monitoring is required under government regulations; some monitoring is implemented because facility operators consider it prudent practice. As a result of these activities, there is now a substantial radiological, physical, and chemical data base for various environmental components, both in the United States and abroad. Symposium participants, both platform and poster presenters, were asked to consider, among other topics, the following: Has the expenditure of millions of dollars for radiological monitoring and assessment activities been worth the effort How do we decide when enough monitoring is enough Can we adequately assess the impacts of nonradiological components -- both inorganic and organic -- of wastes Are current regulatory requirements too restrictive or too lenient Can monitoring and assessment be made more cost effective Papers were solicited in the areas of environmental monitoring; environmental regulations; remediation, restoration, and decommissioning; modeling and dose assessment; uncertainty, design, and data analysis; and data management and quality assurance. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

Gray, R.H. (ed.)

1990-01-01

47

Assessing Success of Instream Structures for Salmonid Stream Restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream restoration is a billion dollar industry in North America; despite this expenditure there remain questions regarding the effectiveness of current techniques such as the installation of instream structures. Assessing the effect that such structures have on physical habitat and on salmonid density are key ways of determining project success. The objectives of this research were to assess the impact of instream structures on physical habitat in the Nicolet River (Quebec) and to analyze physical habitat and fish density data from many stream restoration projects in North America. Results of intensive surveys of the Nicolet River show that the installation of weirs and deflectors results in a greater frequency of pools. These pools have significantly greater depths, lower velocities, larger sediment size and higher percent cover than those without structures. Meta analysis of data from 187 stream restoration projects in North America also show significant increases in percent pool area, average depth, and percent cover as well as decreases in channel width following the installation of structures. The physical changes observed in the Nicolet River resulted in improved trout habitat, as measured by applying habitat preference curves, but uneven stocking practices and fishing pressure confounded attempts to verify differences in trout density based on presence or absence of structures. The meta analysis, however, shows significant increases in salmonid density, measured as fish/m2, following the installation of structures. On average, density increased by 161%. Different structure types result in significantly different changes in physical habitat, with weir structures providing the largest density increase. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the combination of change in relative pool area and in width is the best predictor of change in salmonid density (r2=0.511). Instream structures are significantly more successful at increasing brook trout density than cutthroat and steelhead trout or coho salmon. Furthermore, salmonids over 15cm in length show significantly higher increases in density than smaller fish. These results highlight that restoration structures can play an important role in creating better habitat for salmonids and increasing their densities, but much work is needed to determine the best way to rehabilitate disturbed streams for various species.

Whiteway, S.; Biron, P.

2009-05-01

48

INEL advanced test reactor plutonium-238 production feasibility assessment  

SciTech Connect

Results of a preliminary neutronics assessment indicate the feasibility of [sup 238]Pu production in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Based on the results of this assessment, an annual production of 11.3 kg [sup 238]Pu can be achieved in the ATR. An annual loading of 102 kg [sup 237]Np is required for the particular target configuration and irradiation scenario examined. The [sup 236]Pu contaminant level is approximately 6 parts per million at zero cooling time. The product quality is about 90% [sup 238]Pu. Neptunium feedstock requirements, [sup 238]Pu production rates, or product purity can be optimized depending on their relative importances.

Schnitzler, B.G. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625-1575, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States))

1993-01-10

49

Assessing the Success of Restoration Plantings in a Temperate New Zealand Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of restoration plantings in restoring in- digenous forest vascular plant and ground inverte- brate biodiversity was assessed on previously grass- covered sites in the eastern South Island, New Zealand. The composition and structure of grassland, three dif- ferent aged restoration plantings (12, 30, and 35 years old), a naturally regenerating forest (100 years old), and a remnant of

Stephen D. Reay; David A. Norton

1999-01-01

50

Assessment of hydraulic restoration of San Pablo Marsh, California.  

PubMed

Inter-tidal marshes are dynamic diverse ecosystems at the transition zone between terrestrial and ocean environments. Geomorphologically, inter-tidal salt marshes are vegetated land-forms at elevations slightly greater than mean tidal levels that have distributed channels formed under ebb (drainage) tidal flows that widen and deepen in the seaward direction. The drainage channels enable tidal flows to circulate sediments and nutrients through the marsh system during normal tidal events, while depositing sediments during storm or seismic events. This dynamic system encourages considerable biodiversity while simultaneously providing water quality enhancement features that service marsh terrestrial life and marine life in the estuary. Reservoir creation limiting sediment transport, anticipated large increases in sea levels as well as agricultural and urban development have resulted in significant loss of inter-tidal marshes and subsequent adverse impacts on waterfowl, infauna and fisheries. The complex and continuously changing marsh channel hydraulics and sedimentary processes have severely constrained quantitative modeling of these marsh systems such that restoration/creation efforts remain something of an empirical science and further assessments are needed. The purpose of this paper is to outline current understanding of salt marsh hydrodynamics, sediment accretion processes and subsequent response of marsh vegetation to set the stage for assessment of a marsh restoration effort along San Pablo Bay near San Francisco, California. Several kilometers of drainage channels were constructed in a 624 ha disturbed salt marsh to restore tidal circulation and vegetation so as to enhance habitat for threatened species (e.g. clapper rail, harvest mouse, delta smelt and potentially anadromous fish species). Two distinct drainage channel systems ('east' and 'west') were installed having similar channel dimensions common to salt marshes in the region, but having design bankfull tidal prism volumes differing by a factor of two. Following channel excavation, main channel tidal flows and sediment loads as well as marsh sediment accretion rates were monitored to assess the relative success of the excavation in restoring tidal circulation and vegetation (Salicornia spp.) to the marsh. Annual aerial surveys corroborated with ground-truthing indicated that marsh vegetation rapidly expanded, from 40 to 85% coverage several years following excavation. The 'east' channel intake was nearly completely silted in within three years. However, channel surveys and flow measurements indicated that the 'east' channel system tidal prism was only about 1200 m3, more than an order of magnitude less than that of the stable 'west' channel system. Marsh sediment accretion rates were on the order of 7-8 mm yr(-1), a rate common to the Pacific coast region that exceeds estimated sea level rise rates of approximately 2 mm yr(-1). East channel network siltation resulted in storm and spring tidal flood ponding such that marsh vegetation coverage decreased to 51% of the marsh area and related habitat expansion decreased. These results are considered in terms of the primary inter-tidal marsh factors affecting possible restoration/creation strategies. PMID:15473530

Grismer, Mark E; Kollar, J; Syder, J

2004-11-01

51

Feasibility assessment of electromechanical batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

We have assessed the current feasibility of substituting multi-shell composite flywheel motor-generators (electromechanical batteries) for electrochemical batteries in electric vehicles. We present two conceptual designs using the latest materials and technology. Feasibility was evaluated in terms of performance predictions based upon consistent and optimistic analytical models of components for these conceptual designs. We review various approaches for performance improvement. The most challenging issues are capital cost and energy storage performance. Energy storage per unit cost favors the electrochemical battery. The power density, specific power, efficiency, and turn-around efficiency can be higher for the electrochemical battery than for projected electrochemical batteries of the future. We conclude that for electric vehicles, electromechanical batteries may be best suited for a hybrid application with electrochemical batteries. This combines the high specific power, power density, and turn-around efficiency possible with the electrochemical battery with the low cost of the electrochemical battery.

Comfort, W.J.; Bumpas, S.E.; Edmunds, T.A.; Hall, A.R.; Lamont, A.D.; McCue, H.K.; Zywicz, E.

1992-05-01

52

Feasibility assessment of electromechanical batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The authors have assessed the current feasibility of substituting multi-shell composite flywheel motor-generators (electromechanical batteries) for electrochemical batteries in electric vehicles. We present two conceptual designs using the latest materials and technology. Feasibility was evaluated in terms of performance predictions based upon consistent and optimistic analytical models of components of these conceptual designs. The most challenging issues are capital cost and energy storage performance. Energy storage per unit cost favors the electrochemical battery. The power density, specific power, efficiency, and turn-around efficiency can be higher for the electromechanical battery than for projected electrochemical batteries of the future. We conclude that for electric vehicles, electromechanical batteries may be best suited for a hybrid application with electrochemical batteries. This combines the high specific power, power density, and turn-around efficiency possible with the electromechanical battery and the low cost of the electrochemical battery.

Comfort, W.J.; Bumpas, S.E.; Edmunds, T.A.; Hall, A.R.; Lamont, A.D.; McCue, H.K.; Zywicz, E.

1992-02-01

53

Feasibility and validity of mobile phones to assess dietary intake.  

PubMed

Current limitations of conventional dietary assessment methods restrict the establishment of diet-disease relationships and efficacy of dietary interventions. Technology, in particular the use of mobile phones, may help resolve methodologic limitations, in turn improving the validity of dietary assessment and research and associated findings. This review aims to evaluate the validity, feasibility, and acceptability of dietary assessment methods that have been deployed on mobile phone platforms. In August 2013, electronic databases for health sciences were searched for English, peer-reviewed, full-text articles, published from January 1, 2001 onward; and accompanied by a hand search of available relevant publications from universities and government bodies. Studies were not limited by design, length, setting, or population group. Of 194 articles, 12 met eligibility criteria: mobile phone as the dietary recording platform and validation of energy and/or macronutrient intake against another dietary or biological reference method. Four dietary recoding methods had been validated on mobile phone platforms: electronic food diary, food photograph-assisted self-administered, 24 h recall, food photograph analysis by trained dietitians, and automated food photograph analysis. All mobile phone dietary assessment methods showed similar, but not superior, validity or reliability when compared with conventional methods. Participants' satisfaction and preferences for mobile phone dietary assessment methods were higher than those for conventional methods, indicating the need for further research. Validity testing in larger and more diverse populations, over longer durations is required to evaluate the efficacy of these methods in dietary research. PMID:24976425

Sharp, Darren B; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

2014-01-01

54

The Modified Model Cavity Method for Assessing Antibacterial Properties of Dental Restorative Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new in vitro method for assessing the antibacterial properties of dental restorative materials is described with ratios of test material\\/ culture medium volume aiming to simulate conditions around a restoration in vivo. Antibacterial activity is determined by the reduction in optical density of the test culture relative to controls. The method was used for assessment of the antibacterial activity

S. D. Meryon; S. G. Johnson

1989-01-01

55

A feasibility study of perennial/annual plant species to restore soils contaminated with heavy metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study was carried out to evaluate the application of perennial/annual plant species in a phytoextraction process of a previously washed industrial urban soil contaminated by nickel, arsenic and cupper. The plant species selected for this study were Ipomea (Ipomea variada); grass (Poa pratensis); grass mixture (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum sp.); Monks Cress (Tropaeolum majus); ficus (Ficus benajamina) and fern (Pteris cretica). Soil was characterized and it presented the following heavy metals concentrations (dry weight): 80 mg of Ni/kg, 456-656 mg of As/kg and 1684-3166 mg of Cu/kg. Germination and survival in contaminated soil tests were conducted, from these, P. pratensis was discarded and the rest of plant species tested were used for the phytoextraction selection test. After 4 months of growth, biomass production was determined, and content of Ni, As and Cu was analyzed in plant’s tissue. Metal biological absorption coefficient (BAC), bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF), were calculated. Regarding to biomass generation it was observed, in every case, an inhibition of the plant growth compared with blanks sown in a non contaminated soil; inhibition ranged from 22.5% for the Monk cress to 98% for Ipomea. Even though the later presented high BAC, BCF and TF, its growth was severely inhibited, and therefore, due its low biomass generation, it is not recommended for phytoextraction under conditions for this study. Heavy metals concentrations in plant’s tissue (dry weight) were as high as 866 mg Cu/kg and 602 mg As/kg for grass mixture; and 825 mg As/kg was observed for Monks cress. Grass mixture and monks cress had high BAC, BCF and TF, also they had high metal concentrations in its plants tissues and the lowest growth inhibition rates; hence the application in phytoextraction processes of these plants is advisable.

Zacarías, Montserrat; Beltrán, Margarita; Gilberto Torres, Luis; González, Abelardo

56

Feasibility assessment tool for urban anaerobic digestion in developing countries.  

PubMed

This paper describes a method developed to support feasibility assessments of urban anaerobic digestion (AD). The method not only uses technical assessment criteria but takes a broader sustainability perspective and integrates technical-operational, environmental, financial-economic, socio-cultural, institutional, policy and legal criteria into the assessment tool developed. Use of the tool can support decision-makers with selecting the most suitable set-up for the given context. The tool consists of a comprehensive set of questions, structured along four distinct yet interrelated dimensions of sustainability factors, which all influence the success of any urban AD project. Each dimension answers a specific question: I) WHY? What are the driving forces and motivations behind the initiation of the AD project? II) WHO? Who are the stakeholders and what are their roles, power, interests and means of intervention? III) WHAT? What are the physical components of the proposed AD chain and the respective mass and resource flows? IV) HOW? What are the key features of the enabling or disabling environment (sustainability aspects) affecting the proposed AD system? Disruptive conditions within these four dimensions are detected. Multi Criteria Decision Analysis is used to guide the process of translating the answers from six sustainability categories into scores, combining them with the relative importance (weights) attributed by the stakeholders. Risk assessment further evaluates the probability that certain aspects develop differently than originally planned and assesses the data reliability (uncertainty factors). The use of the tool is demonstrated with its application in a case study for Bahir Dar in Ethiopia. PMID:23722149

Lohri, Christian Riuji; Rodi?, Ljiljana; Zurbrügg, Christian

2013-09-15

57

Assessing Restoration Potential of Semi-natural Grasslands by Landscape Change Trajectories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species-rich semi-natural grasslands have rapidly declined and become fragmented in Northern Europe due to ceased traditional agricultural practices and animal husbandry. Restoration actions have been introduced in many places to improve the habitat conditions and increase the area to prevent any further losses of their ecological values. However, given the limited resources and long time span needed for successful restoration, it is essential to target activities on sites having a suitable initial state and where the effects of restoration are most beneficial for the habitat network. In this paper we present a conceptual framework for evaluating the restoration potential of partially overgrown and selectively managed semi-natural grasslands in a moderately transformed agricultural environment in south-western Finland. On the basis of the spatio-temporal landscape trajectory analysis, we construct potential restoration scenarios based on expected semi-natural grassland characteristics that are derived from land productivity, detected grassland continuum, and date of overgrowth. These scenarios are evaluated using landscape metrics, their feasibility is discussed and the effects of potential restoration are compared to the present extent of open semi-natural grasslands. Our results show that landscape trajectory analysis and scenario construction can be valuable tools for the restoration planning of semi-natural grasslands with limited resources. The approach should therefore be considered as an essential tool to find the most optimal restoration sites and to pre-evaluate the effects.

Pitkänen, Timo P.; Mussaari, Maija; Käyhkö, Niina

2014-04-01

58

Application of personalized medicine to chronic disease: a feasibility assessment  

PubMed Central

Personalized Medicine has the potential to improve health outcomes and reduce the cost of care; however its adoption has been slow in Canada. Bridgepoint Health is a complex continuous care provider striving to reduce the burden of polypharmacy in chronic patients. The main goal of the study was to explore the feasibility of utilizing personalized medicine in the treatment of chronic complex patients as a preliminary institutional health technology assessment. We analyzed stroke treatment optimization as a clinical indication that could serve as a “proof of concept” for the widespread implementation of pharmacogenetics. The objectives of the study were three-fold: 1. Review current practice in medication administration for stroke treatment at Bridgepoint Health 2. Critically analyze evidence that pharmacogenetic testing could (or could not) enhance drug selection and treatment efficacy for stroke patients; 3. Assess the cost-benefit potential of a pharmacogenetic intervention for stroke. Review current practice in medication administration for stroke treatment at Bridgepoint Health Critically analyze evidence that pharmacogenetic testing could (or could not) enhance drug selection and treatment efficacy for stroke patients; Assess the cost-benefit potential of a pharmacogenetic intervention for stroke. We conducted a review of stroke treatment practices at Bridgepoint Health, scanned the literature for drug-gene and drug-outcome interactions, and evaluated the potential consequences of pharmacogenetic testing using the ACCE model. There is a substantial body of evidence suggesting that pharmacogenetic stratification of stroke treatment can improve patient outcomes in the long-term, and provide substantial efficiencies for the healthcare system in the short-term. Specifically, pharmacogenetic stratification of antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies for stroke patients may have a major impact on the risk of disease recurrence, and thus should be explored further for clinical application. Bridgepoint Health, and other healthcare institutions taking this path, should consider launching pilot projects to assess the practical impact of pharmacogenetics to optimize treatment for chronic continuous care. PMID:24351097

2013-01-01

59

Evaluation of dental restorations: a comparative study between clinical and digital photographic assessments.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a direct clinical evaluation method with an indirect digital photographic method in assessing the quality of dental restorations. Seven parameters (color, occlusal marginal adaptation, anatomy form, roughness, occlusal marginal stain, luster, and secondary caries) were assessed in 89 Class I and Class II restorations from 36 adults using the modified US Public Health Service/Ryge criteria. Standardized photographs of the same restorations were digitally processed by Adobe Photoshop software, separated into the following four groups and assessed by two calibrated examiners: Group A: The original photograph displayed at 100%, without modifications (IMG100); Group B: Formed by images enlarged at 150% (IMG150); Group C: Formed by digital photographs displayed at 100% (mIMG100), with digital modifications (levels adjustment, shadow and highlight correction, color balance, unsharp Mask); and Group D: Formed by enlarged photographs displayed at 150% with modifications (mIMG150), with the same adjustments made to Group C. Photographs were assessed on a calibrated screen (Macbook) by two calibrated clinicians, and the results were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon tests (SSPS 11.5) at 95% CI. Results: The photographic method produced higher reliability levels than the direct clinical method in all parameters. The evaluation of digital images is more consistent with clinical assessment when restorations present some moderate defect (Bravo) and less consistent when restorations are clinically classified as either satisfactory (Alpha) or in cases of severe defects (Charlie). Conclusion: The digital photographic method is a useful tool for assessing the quality of dental restorations, providing information that goes unnoticed with the visual-tactile clinical examination method. Additionally, when analyzing restorations using the Ryge modified criteria, the digital photographic method reveals a significant increase of defects compared to those clinically observed with the naked eye. Photography by itself, without the need for enlargement or correction, provides more information than clinical examination and can lead to unnecessary overtreatment. PMID:23937403

Moncada, G; Silva, F; Angel, P; Oliveira, O B; Fresno, M C; Cisternas, P; Fernandez, E; Estay, J; Martin, J

2014-01-01

60

WRITTEN STATEMENT OF DEPUTY CHIEF, ASSESSMENT AND RESTORATION DIVISION  

E-print Network

HEARING ON ASSESSING NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE BP DEEPWATER HORIZON DISASTER BEFORE the spill is controlled, the oil is cleaned up, the natural resource damages are assessed resource damage assessment (NRDA) process, who the natural resource trustees are for the Deepwater Horizon

61

WRITTEN STATEMENT BY DEPUTY CHIEF, ASSESSMENT AND RESTORATION DIVISION  

E-print Network

NOAA serves in the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process following oil spills efforts. NOAA's Natural Resource Damage Assessment Role NOAA has several critical roles mandated natural resources that occur as a result of an oil spill. Inherent in this process is the need to assess

62

Factors in International Space Station Integration Feasibility Assessments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station, ISS, is a growing vehicle. The ISS configuration changes internally and externally with each ISS flight. Each flight adds resources and capabilities such as docking/berthing ports, power, stowage volume, heat rejection, and data processing capability. The configuration, capabilities and performance characteristics of the vehicle will be in flux until assembly complete. At the same time the knowledge about what is required to support humans involved in long duration space flight is also being greatly expanded. In addition to the changes occurring on-orbit, the situation on the ground is also very dynamic. Proposals for new ISS elements, proposed deletions of elements, changes to the ISS requirements, and changes to the planned configuration are always under evaluation. Furthermore, budgetary issues have driven the need to explore alternative options for the ISS . This environment has made the role of the technical integrator in the ISS program unique in that the baseline against which proposals are evaluated is always changing. The nature of the International Space Station Program adds another dimension to the integrators task. ISS program activities are spread across several centers: KSC, MSFC, GRC, DFRC, ARC and JSc. There are six International Partners/participants each with their own unique organizations. The prime contractor is in Texas, California and Alabama. And, the Space Shuttle Program as the launch vehicle provider is another major interface. In spite of the fluidity of the technical baseline, projections and organizational complexity, in the course of evaluating proposals and producing feasibility assessments there are factors, which frequently emerge as significant. These factors tend to be the limiting conditions when they come into play. The finite resources, which tend to limit the options for ISS are: upmass, life support and crew rescue capability, crew time, utilities, exercise equipment, and docking/berthing ports. Upmass requirements need to be developed for each option proposed. Short term and long term impacts to upmass are the result of the implementation and long term operations. The upmass requirements need to be met by the existing launch vehicles and any change in flight rate will be a significant cost driver. In addition, when any item is brought to the ISS careful consideration must be given to the on-board stowage and crew time available to unpack, transfer, stow and use these items. If stowage is not available then something must be returned, use of non-standard stowage negotiated or the item in question stays on the ground. Additional crew time requirements will impact available utilization time or crew off-duty time. When the human element is affected, such as, by increasing the number of crew members or changing the duration of the crew stay (longer or shorter) there is an additional set of factors that come into play. The main considerations are: rescue capability, exercise requirements and availability of equipment, resupply, and life support capability.

Watson, Patricia M.; Dunn, James

2002-01-01

63

Assessment of the advantages and feasibility of a nuclear rocket  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of rebuilding and testing a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) for the Mars mission has been investigated. Calculations indicate that an NTR would substantially reduce the earth-orbit assembled mass compared to LOX/LH/sub 2/ systems. The mass savings were 36% and 65% for the cases of total aerobraking and of total propulsive braking respectively. Consequently, the cost savings for a single mission of using an NTR, if aerobraking is feasible, are probably insufficient to warrant the NTR development. If multiple missions are planned or if propulsive braking is desired at Mars and/or at Earth, then the savings of about $7B will easily pay for the NTR development. Estimates of the cost of rebuilding a NTR were based on the previous NERVA program's budget plus additional costs to develop a flight ready engine. The total cost to build the engine would be between $4 to 5B. The concept of developing a full-power test stand at Johnston Atoll in the Pacific appears very feasible. The added expense of building facilities on the island should be less than $1.4B.

Howe, S.D.

1985-01-01

64

Feasibility of Using Virtual Reality to Assess Nicotine Cue Reactivity during Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cue reactivity assessments have been widely used to assess craving and attention to cues among cigarette smokers. Cue reactivity has the potential to offer insights into treatment decisions; however, the use of cue reactivity in treatment studies has been limited. This study assessed the feasibility of using a virtual reality-based cue reactivity…

Kaganoff, Eili; Bordnick, Patrick S.; Carter, Brian Lee

2012-01-01

65

The value of wader foraging behaviour study to assess the success of restored intertidal areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The loss of intertidal habitat in estuaries has resulted in the need to create new habitats in order to protect waterbird populations. In order to examine the waterbird colonisation of restored intertidal areas created in 2003 through the realignment of the flood defence in the Humber Estuary (UK), the feeding behaviour of Redshank (Tringa totanus) was observed in April 2008. Numbers of pecks, probes and paces (numbers of steps) and the prey intake events were compared between Redshank foraging on the restored mudflat and on the adjacent established mudflat. Redshank prey intake and success rate (prey intake divided by the total numbers of pecks and probes) were significantly lower on the restored mudflat compared to the adjacent established mudflat. Conversely, the number of steps taken while foraging and the number of paces per successful feeding event were significantly greater on the restored mudflat. This shows that focal behaviour in restored intertidal areas can be directly compared with that in natural established mudflat in order to examine differences in foraging behaviour. The findings emphasise that a study of foraging behaviour should be incorporated into the assessment of restoration success of intertidal areas as an indication of habitat quality.

Mander, Lucas; Marie-Orleach, Lucas; Elliott, Mike

2013-10-01

66

A fuzzy quality index for the environmental assessment of a restored wetland  

E-print Network

, fuzzy sets, artificial intelligence, water quality modeling, wetland modeling, simulation, AQUATOX to compute a synthetic fuzzy quality index (FQI) to assess the removal efficiency of the wetland. This FQI-technical people, like managers and stakeholders, to whom the restoration project is proposed. The simulations

67

Plant Population Viability and Restoration Potential for Rare Plants  

E-print Network

Plant Population Viability and Restoration Potential for Rare Plants Near Solar Installations solar developments in the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of California will significantly impact plants of current plant populations, assess their habitat requirements, and provide information on the feasibility

68

Assessing the feasibility of ultrasound-initialized deformable bone models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a feasibility and evaluation study for using 2D ultrasound in conjunction with our statistical deformable bone model in the scope of computer-assisted surgery (CAS). The final aim is to provide the surgeon with an enhanced 3D visualization for surgical navigation in orthopaedic surgery without the need for preoperative CT or MRI scans. We unified our earlier work to combine several automatic methods for statistical bone shape prediction from a sparse set of surface points, and ultrasound segmentation and calibration to provide the intended rapid and accurate visualization. We compared the use of a tracked digitizing pointer to ultrasound to acquire landmarks and bone surface points for the estimation of two cast proximal femurs, where two users performed the experiments 5-6 times per scenario. The concept of CT-based error introduced in the paper is used to give an approximate quantitative value to the best hoped-for prediction error, or lower-bound error, for a given anatomy. The conclusions of this work were that the pointer-based approach produced good results, and although the ultrasound-based approach performed considerably worse on average, there were several cases where the results were comparable to the pointer-based approach. It was determined that the primary factor for poor ultrasound performance was the inaccurate localization of the three initial landmarks, which are used for the statistical shape model.

Talib, Haydar; Rajamani, Kumar; Kowal, Jens; Styner, Martin; González Ballester, Miguel A.

2006-03-01

69

Thermal hydraulic feasibility assessment for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project  

SciTech Connect

A series of scoping analyses have been completed investigating the thermal-hydraulic performance and feasibility of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Integrated Process Strategy (IPS). The SNFP was established to develop engineered solutions for the expedited removal, stabilization, and storage of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The subject efforts focused on independently investigating, quantifying, and establishing the governing heat production and removal mechanisms for each of the IPS operations and configurations, obtaining preliminary results for comparison with and verification of other analyses, and providing technology-based recommendations for consideration and incorporation into the design bases for the SNFP. The goal was to develop a series fo thermal-hydraulic models that could respond to all process and safety-related issues that may arise pertaining to the SNFP. A series of sensitivity analyses were also performed to help identify those parameters that have the greatest impact on energy transfer and hence, temperature control. It is anticipated that the subject thermal-hydraulic models will form the basis for a series of advanced and more detailed models that will more accurately reflect the thermal performance of the IPS and alleviate the necessity for some of the more conservative assumptions and oversimplifications, as well as form the basis for the final process and safety analyses.

Heard, F.J.; Cramer, E.R.; Beaver, T.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Thurgood, M.J. [Marvin (John), Inc. (United States)

1996-01-01

70

Applications of Genomic Technologies to Ecological Risk Assessments at Remediation / Restoration Sites  

SciTech Connect

How genomic technologies contribute to remediation programs now and in the future is the focus of this chapter. It first reviews the remediation and restoration or recovery process, the use of genomic technologies as the remediative process itself, and then identifies opportunities within remediation/restoration where genomic technologies can be used to resolve particular issues and how the research needs can be defined to achieve these goals. This chapter also explores the current regulatory needs that can be satisfied by genomic technologies research and potential field reliable techniques. From these needs and the current state of the science and projected technologies, Applications of genomic technology data and techniques derived from genomic data are explored in response to the need for assessment, remediation, and restoration.

Miracle, Ann L.; Evans, Clive; Ferguson, Elizabeth; Greenberg, Bruce; Kille, Peter; Schaeffner, Anton; Sprenger, Mark; van Aerle, Ronny; Versteeg, Donald

2008-01-01

71

Assessing effects of native forest restoration on soil moisture dynamics and potential aquifer recharge, Auwahi, Maui  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding the role of soils in regulating water flow through the unsaturated zone is critical in assessing the influence of vegetation on soil moisture dynamics and aquifer recharge. Because of fire, introduced ungulates and landscape-level invasion of non-native grasses, less than 10% of original dry forest (~730?mm precipitation annually) still exists on leeward Haleakal?, Maui, Hawaiian Islands. Native dry forest restoration at Auwahi has demonstrated the potential for dramatic revegetation, allowing a unique experimental comparison of hydrologic function between tracts of restored forest and adjacent grasslands. We hypothesized that even relatively recent forest restoration can assist in the recovery of impaired hydrologic function, potentially increasing aquifer recharge. To compare restored forest and grassland sites, we experimentally irrigated and measured soil moisture and temperature with subsurface instrumentation at four locations within the reforested area and four within the grassland, each with a 2·5?×?2·5-m plot. Compared with grassland areas, water in reforested sites moved to depth faster with larger magnitude changes in water content. The median first arrival velocity of water was greater by a factor of about 13 in the reforested sites compared with the grassland sites. This rapid transport of water to depths of 1?m or greater suggests increased potential aquifer recharge. Improved characterization of how vegetation and soils influence recharge is crucial for understanding the long-term impacts of forest restoration on aquifer recharge and water resources, especially in moisture-limited regions.

Perkins, Kim S.; Nimmo, John R.; Medeiros, Arthur C.; Szutu, Daphne J.; von Allmen, Erica

2014-01-01

72

Restoring the Garden of Eden: An Ecological Assessment of the Marshes of Iraq  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience is on the need for restoring marshes in Iraq. The Mesopotamian marshes of southern Iraq had been all but destroyed by Saddam Hussein's regime by the year 2000. Earlier assessments suggested that poor water quality, the presence of toxic materials, and high saline soil conditions in the drained marshes would prevent their ecological restoration and doom the reestablishment of the Marsh Arab culture of fishing and agriculture. However, the high volume of good-quality water entering the marshes from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, a result of two record years of snowpack melt in Turkey and Iran, allowed 39% of the former marshes to be reflooded by September 2005. Although reflooding does not guarantee restoration success, our recent field surveys have found a remarkable rate of reestablishment of native macroinvertebrates, macrophytes, fish, and birds in reflooded marshes. However, the future availability of water for restoration is in question, which suggests that only a portion of the former marshes may be restored. Also, landscape connectivity between marshes is greatly reduced, causing concern about local species extinctions and lower diversity in isolated wetlands.

CURTIS J. RICHARDSON and NAJAH A. HUSSAIN (;)

2006-06-01

73

Developing Computer Model-Based Assessment of Chemical Reasoning: A Feasibility Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a feasibility study on developing computer model-based assessments of chemical reasoning at the high school level. Computer models are flash and NetLogo environments to make simultaneously available three domains in chemistry: macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic. Students interact with computer models to answer assessment

Liu, Xiufeng; Waight, Noemi; Gregorius, Roberto; Smith, Erica; Park, Mihwa

2012-01-01

74

Achieving highly esthetic anterior restorations with ideal assessment, communication, and technique.  

PubMed

Although all cases should be approached comprehensively, restoring a limited segment in the esthetic zone presents challenges particularly related to microesthetics. Microesthetics are those criteria related to the subtle intricacies of shade, textures, translucencies, and surface effects that make teeth look like teeth. These are the criteria that aid dentists in fooling the eye and allowing restorations to blend invisibly into the smile. Completing a comprehensive assessment of a patient ensures that the restorative foundation will remain biologically and structurally predictable, durable, and above all, esthetically pleasing. Starting esthetic treatment without first doing a comprehensive assessment will result in a compromised result. Within the criteria of microesthetics, the utilization of a common nomenclature and quantitative means of communication between the restorative dentist and the laboratory ceramist are at the core of success. The use of prototypes during the provisionalization phase and progressive techniques in digital photography are invaluable tools. Along with traditional techniques in acquiring proper shade selection, the use of cross-polarization filters has been proven to be an effective way to eliminate spectral artifacts typically found in flash photography. Additionally, the use of a color-corrected master die system provides the ceramist a method to calibrate shades on the lab bench by capturing images-via the cross-polarization filters-that are similar to what is observed clinically. PMID:25369384

Finlay, Scott; Rego, Nelson

2014-01-01

75

Assessing stream restoration effectiveness at reducing nitrogen export to downstream waters.  

PubMed

The degradation of headwater streams is common in urbanized coastal areas, and the role these streams play in contributing to downstream pollution is a concern among natural resource managers and policy makers. Thus, many urban stream restoration efforts are increasingly focused on reducing the downstream flux of pollutants. In regions that suffer from coastal eutrophication, it is unclear whether stream restoration does in fact reduce nitrogen (N) flux to downstream waters and, if so, by how much and at what cost. In this paper, we evaluate whether stream restoration implemented to improve water quality of urban and suburban streams in the Chesapeake Bay region, USA, is effective at reducing the export of N in stream flow to downstream waters. We assessed the effectiveness of restored streams positioned in the upland vs. lowland regions of Coastal Plain watershed during both average and stormflow conditions. We found that, during periods of low discharge, lowland streams that receive minor N inputs from groundwater or bank seepage reduced in-stream N fluxes. Furthermore, lowland streams with the highest N concentrations and lowest discharge were the most effective. During periods of high flow, only those restoration projects that converted lowland streams to stream-wetland complexes seemed to be effective at reducing N fluxes, presumably because the design promoted the spillover of stream flow onto adjacent floodplains and wetlands. The observed N-removal rates were relatively high for stream ecosystems, and on the order of 5% of the inputs to the watershed. The dominant forms of N entering restored reaches varied during low and high flows, indicating that N uptake and retention were controlled by distinctive processes during different hydrological conditions. Therefore, in order for stream restoration to effectively reduce N fluxes exported to downstream waters, restoration design should include features that enhance the processing and retention of different forms of N, and for a wide range of flow conditions. The use of strategic designs that match the dominant attributes of a stream such as position in the watershed, influence of groundwater, dominant flow conditions, and N concentrations is crucial to assure the success of restoration. PMID:21939039

Filoso, Solange; Palmer, Margaret A

2011-09-01

76

Assessing significant geomorphic changes and effectiveness of dynamic restoration in a coastal dune ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shift from restoring coastal dunes as stabilized landscapes toward more morphodynamic ecosystems is underway. This paper uses results from a recent case study where invasive vegetation was removed from a coastal dune complex in western Canada as a first step in a dynamic ecosystem restoration project. Spatial statistical methods, used in the natural sciences to quantify patterns of significant spatial-temporal changes, are reviewed and the local Moran's Ii spatial autocorrelation statistic is explored for detecting and assessing significant changes. Cluster maps of positive (depositional) and negative (erosional) changes were used to derive statistically significant volumetric changes within discrete geomorphic units (beach, foredune, transgressive dune) over one year following vegetation removal. All units experienced net increases in sediment budgets compared to a pre-restoration surface. The beach experienced the highest episodic erosion and volumetric change and greatest net annual sediment budget. Compared to the beach, the annual sediment budget of the foredune was 19% whereas the transgressive dune was 33%. The foredune recovered rapidly to initial erosion during restoration and subsequent natural events with consistently positive sediment volumes and attained a form similar to that pre-restoration. Aeolian deflation and sand bypassing through the foredune was greatest in the two months following vegetation removal and peak accretion in the transgressive dune resulted from depositional lobes extending from the foredune, smaller dunes migrating within the complex, and growth of a precipitation ridge along the eastern margin. Several methodological and logistical considerations for detecting significant change in dynamic dune landscapes are discussed including sampling strategy design, data normalization and control measures, and incorporating uncertainty and inherent spatial relations within acquired datasets to ensure accuracy and comparability of results. Generally underutilized in coastal geomorphology, spatial autocorrelation methods (e.g., local Moran's Ii) are recommended over spatially uniform threshold approaches for the ability to detect local change processes and explore hypotheses on spatial-temporal dynamics. Finally, several key geomorphic indicators, that are believed to aid in re-establishing ecological conditions and processes that favor more resilient and natural dune ecosystems, are identified for assessing the effectiveness of dynamic restoration projects including: increased aeolian activity, enlarged active sand surface area, positive sediment budgets, increased dune morphodynamics, improved geomorphic diversity, and enhanced geomorphic resilience. Although limited in temporal scope, the case study results show that the initial phase of the restoration treatment was effective in enhancing all indicators except for increasing sand surface area. Given decadal scale observations of climatic changes and longer-term eco-geomorphic trajectory toward stabilization in the region, however, it is unlikely that the geomorphic effectiveness of this restoration effort will continue without continued frequent treatment interventions.

Walker, Ian J.; Eamer, Jordan B. R.; Darke, Ian B.

2013-10-01

77

An alternative method for restoring opposition after median nerve injury: an anatomical feasibility study for the use of neurotisation  

PubMed Central

Opposition, one of the most important functions of the hand, is lost or impaired after median nerve injury. Complete recovery does not always occur after treatment, and various techniques of opponensplasty are used for restoring opposition. This study was performed in order to develop an alternative method for selective restoration of thenar muscle function. Ten arms from 5 cadavers were used. The median nerve with its thenar motor branch (Tb) and the anterior interosseous nerve with its motor branch to pronator quadratus (PQb) were prepared in the distal forearm. The mean widths and the number of myelinated fibres of these nerves were: PQb 1.3±0.10 mm, Tb 1.4±0.12 mm and PQb 912±88 mm, Tb 1020±93 mm. The minimum necessary distance from the distal flexor crease of the wrist for neurotisation of the Tb by the PQb was 60±5.41 mm. It was concluded that PQb-Tb neurotisation would be possible anatomically. The advantages are that motor function is reestablished with a motor nerve, the diameters and the number of myelinated fibres of both nerves are similar, the loss of function after denervation of the pronator quadratus is slight and opponensplasty still remains as a final option. PMID:11430702

USTUN, MEHMET ERKAN; OGUN, TUNC CEVAT; KARABULUT, A. KAGAN; BUYUKMUMCU, MUSTAFA

2001-01-01

78

System dynamic modelling to assess economic viability and risk trade-offs for ecological restoration in South Africa.  

PubMed

Can markets assist by providing support for ecological restoration, and if so, under what conditions? The first step in addressing this question is to develop a consistent methodology for economic evaluation of ecological restoration projects. A risk analysis process was followed in which a system dynamics model was constructed for eight diverse case study sites where ecological restoration is currently being pursued. Restoration costs vary across each of these sites, as do the benefits associated with restored ecosystem functioning. The system dynamics model simulates the ecological, hydrological and economic benefits of ecological restoration and informs a portfolio mapping exercise where payoffs are matched against the likelihood of success of a project, as well as a number of other factors (such as project costs and risk measures). This is the first known application that couples ecological restoration with system dynamics and portfolio mapping. The results suggest an approach that is able to move beyond traditional indicators of project success, since the effect of discounting is virtually eliminated. We conclude that systems dynamic modelling with portfolio mapping can guide decisions on when markets for restoration activities may be feasible. PMID:23524327

Crookes, D J; Blignaut, J N; de Wit, M P; Esler, K J; Le Maitre, D C; Milton, S J; Mitchell, S A; Cloete, J; de Abreu, P; Fourie nee Vlok, H; Gull, K; Marx, D; Mugido, W; Ndhlovu, T; Nowell, M; Pauw, M; Rebelo, A

2013-05-15

79

IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE FOR NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT, RESTORATION, AND REHABILITATION  

PubMed Central

Various international and national regulations hold polluters liable for the cleanup of released hazardous substances and the restoration/rehabilitation of natural resources to preincident baseline conditions, a process often referred to as natural resource damage assessment and restoration (NRDAR). Here, we, the authors, describe how global climate change (GCC) will challenge each of the steps of NRDAR processes and offer eight recommendations to improve these processes in light of GCC. First, we call for a better understanding of the net effects of GCC and contaminants on natural resources. Second, we urge facilities and environmental managers to plan for GCC-related factors that are expected to increase the probability of contaminant releases. Third, we suggest re-evaluating definitions of baseline and reference conditions given that GCC will alter both their trajectories and variability. Fourth, we encourage long-term monitoring to improve the quantification of baseline conditions that will change as climate changes. This will enhance the accuracy of injury assessments, the effectiveness of restoration, and the detection of early warning signs that ecosystems are approaching tipping points. Fifth, in response to or anticipation of GCC, restoration projects may need to be conducted in areas distant from the site of injury or focused on functionally equivalent natural resources; thus, community involvement in NRDAR processes will be increasingly important. Sixth, we promote using NRDAR restoration projects as opportunities to mitigate GCC-related impacts. Seventh, we recommend adaptive management approaches to NRDAR processes and communication of successes and failures widely. Finally, we recommend focusing on managing the stressors that might be exacerbated by GCC, such as pollution and habitat loss, because there is a long history of successfully mitigating these stressors, which can be more easily managed on local scales than climate change. We believe that adoption of these recommendations will lead to a more efficacious NRDAR process, despite the challenges posed by climate change. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:93–101. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23097077

Rohr, Jason R; Johnson, Philip; Hickey, Christopher W; Helm, Roger C; Fritz, Alyce; Brasfield, Sandra

2013-01-01

80

Implications of global climate change for natural resource damage assessment, restoration, and rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Various international and national regulations hold polluters liable for the cleanup of released hazardous substances and the restoration/rehabilitation of natural resources to preincident baseline conditions, a process often referred to as natural resource damage assessment and restoration (NRDAR). Here, we, the authors, describe how global climate change (GCC) will challenge each of the steps of NRDAR processes and offer eight recommendations to improve these processes in light of GCC. First, we call for a better understanding of the net effects of GCC and contaminants on natural resources. Second, we urge facilities and environmental managers to plan for GCC-related factors that are expected to increase the probability of contaminant releases. Third, we suggest re-evaluating definitions of baseline and reference conditions given that GCC will alter both their trajectories and variability. Fourth, we encourage long-term monitoring to improve the quantification of baseline conditions that will change as climate changes. This will enhance the accuracy of injury assessments, the effectiveness of restoration, and the detection of early warning signs that ecosystems are approaching tipping points. Fifth, in response to or anticipation of GCC, restoration projects may need to be conducted in areas distant from the site of injury or focused on functionally equivalent natural resources; thus, community involvement in NRDAR processes will be increasingly important. Sixth, we promote using NRDAR restoration projects as opportunities to mitigate GCC-related impacts. Seventh, we recommend adaptive management approaches to NRDAR processes and communication of successes and failures widely. Finally, we recommend focusing on managing the stressors that might be exacerbated by GCC, such as pollution and habitat loss, because there is a long history of successfully mitigating these stressors, which can be more easily managed on local scales than climate change. We believe that adoption of these recommendations will lead to a more efficacious NRDAR process, despite the challenges posed by climate change. PMID:23097077

Rohr, Jason R; Johnson, Philip; Hickey, Christopher W; Helm, Roger C; Fritz, Alyce; Brasfield, Sandra

2013-01-01

81

A feasibility assessment of magnetic bearings for free-piston Stirling space power converters  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) under NASA Contract NAS3-26061, {open_quotes}A Feasibility Assessment of Magnetic Bearings for Free-Piston Stirling Space Engines.{close_quotes} The work was performed over the period from July 1990 through August 1991. The objective of the effort was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of applying magnetic bearings to free-piston Stirling-cycle power conversion machinery of the type currently being evaluated for possible use in future long-term space missions.

Curwen, P.W.; Rao, D.K.; Wilson, D.S. [Mechanical Technology Inc., Latham, NY (United States)

1992-06-01

82

Development of remedial process options: Phase II, Feasibility study: Installation Restoration Program, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum develops process options which are appropriate for environmental restoration activities at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada. Introduction of contaminants to the environment has resulted from deliberate disposal activities (both through dumping and landfilling) and accidental spills and leaks associated with normal activities at NAS Fallon over its lifetime of operation. Environmental sampling results indicate that the vast majority of contaminants of concern are petroleum hydrocarbon related. These contaminants include JP-4, JP-5, leaded and unleaded gasoline, waste oils and lubricants, hydraulic fluids, and numerous solvents and cleaners. The principal exposure pathways of concern associated with NAS Fallon contaminants appear to be the surface flows and shallow drainage systems to which the base contributes. Available data indicate NAS Fallon IR Program sites are not contributing excessive contamination to surface flows emanating from the base. Contaminants appear to be contained in a relatively immobile state in the shallow subsurface with little or no contaminant migration off site.

Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schlosser, R.M. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

1991-11-01

83

Quality assessment of restored soils: combination of classical soil science methods with ground penetrating radar and near infrared aerial photography?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Switzerland agricultural land is usually restored after gravel exploitation. In order to minimize soil damage, the quality of restored soils should be checked by the authorities. To assess the physical soil properties, a combination of classical soil science methods with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and near infrared (IR) aerial photography was tested in 1994–1995. GPR profiles were recorded in the

B. Friedli; S. Tobias; M. Fritsch

1998-01-01

84

Habitat-mediated size selection in endangered Atlantic salmon fry: selectional restoration assessment  

PubMed Central

Preservation of adaptive variation is a top priority of many species restoration programs, but most restoration activities are conducted without direct knowledge of selection that might foster or impair adaptation and restoration goals. In this study, we quantified geographic variation in selection on fry size of endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during the 6-week period immediately following stocking in the wild. We also used a model selection approach to assess whether habitat variables influence patterns of such selection. We found evidence for significant size-selection in five out of six selection trials. Interestingly, the strength and pattern of selection varied extensively among sites, and model selection suggested that this variation in phenotypic selection was related to geographic variation in the presence of large woody debris and the slope of the stream gradient. The strong selection differentials we observed should be a concern for endangered salmon restoration, whether they reflect natural processes and an opportunity to maintain adaptation, or an indicator of the potentially deleterious phenotypic consequences of hatchery practices.

Bailey, Michael M; Kinnison, Michael T

2010-01-01

85

DH and ESPI laser interferometry applied to the restoration shrinkage assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In dental restoration postoperative marginal leakage is commonly associated to polymerization shrinkage effects. In consequence the longevity and quality of restorative treatment depends on the shrinkage mechanisms of the composite filling during the polymerization. In this work the development of new techniques for evaluation of those effects under light-induced polymerization of dental nano composite fillings is reported. The composite resins activated by visible light, initiate the polymerization process by absorbing light in wavelengths at about 470 nm. The techniques employed in the contraction assessment were digital holography (DH) and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) based on laser interferometry. A satisfactory resolution was achieved in the non-contact displacement field measurements on small objects concerning the experimental dental samples. According to a specific clinical protocol, natural teeth were used (human mandibular premolars). A class I cavity was drilled and restored with nano composite material, according to Black principles. The polymerization was monitored by DH and ESPI in real time during the cure reaction of the restoration. The total displacement reported for the material in relation of the tooth wall was 3.7 ?m (natural tooth). The technique showed the entire tooth surface (wall) deforming during polymerization shrinkage.

Campos, L. M. P.; Parra, D. F.; Vasconcelos, M. R.; Vaz, M.; Monteiro, J.

2014-01-01

86

ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABILITY: HIGHLY COMPLIANT FLOATING OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES: FEASIBILITY ASSESSMENT THROUGH THEORY, SIMULATION AND DESIGN  

E-print Network

A-1 ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABILITY: HIGHLY COMPLIANT FLOATING OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES: FEASIBILITY revolution that enables economic development of wind farms in very challenging deepwater offshore locations ASSESSMENT THROUGH THEORY, SIMULATION AND DESIGN Hundreds of wind turbines have been installed in the oceans

Sweetman, Bert

87

The feasibility and utility of grocery receipt analyses for dietary assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To establish the feasibility and utility of a simple data collection methodology for dietary assessment. DESIGN: Using a cross-sectional design, trained data collectors approached adults (~20 – 40 years of age) at local grocery stores and asked whether they would volunteer their grocery receipts and answer a few questions for a small stipend ($1). METHODS: The grocery data were

Sarah Levin Martin; Teresa Howell; Yan Duan; Michele Walters

2006-01-01

88

Using Maryland's Stream Corridor Assessment Survey to Prioritize Watershed Restoration Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stream Corridor Assessment survey has been developed by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources as a watershed management tool to identify environmental problems and to help prioritize restoration opportunities on a watershed basis. Potential environmental problems commonly identified during the survey include: stream channel alterations, excessive bank erosion, exposed pipes, inadequate stream buffers, fish migration blockages, trash dumping sites, near stream construction, pipe outfalls, and unusual conditions. In addition, the survey records information on the location of potential wetlands creation sites and collects data on the general condition of instream and riparian habitats. Over the past several years, in collaboration with the Maryland Conservation Corps, watershed associations, and local governments, more than 3,293 km (2,046 miles) of Maryland streams have been surveyed. Overall, the survey has proven to be a cost effective starting point for many watershed restoration efforts.

Yetman, Kenneth T.

2002-08-01

89

Aquatic ecosystem protection and restoration: Advances in methods for assessment and evaluation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many methods and criteria are available to assess aquatic ecosystems, and this review focuses on a set that demonstrates advancements from community analyses to methods spanning large spatial and temporal scales. Basic methods have been extended by incorporating taxa sensitivity to different forms of stress, adding measures linked to system function, synthesizing multiple faunal groups, integrating biological and physical attributes, spanning large spatial scales, and enabling simulations through time. These tools can be customized to meet the needs of a particular assessment and ecosystem. Two case studies are presented to show how new methods were applied at the ecosystem scale for achieving practical management goals. One case used an assessment of biotic structure to demonstrate how enhanced river flows can improve habitat conditions and restore a diverse fish fauna reflective of a healthy riverine ecosystem. In the second case, multitaxonomic integrity indicators were successful in distinguishing lake ecosystems that were disturbed, healthy, and in the process of restoration. Most methods strive to address the concept of biological integrity and assessment effectiveness often can be impeded by the lack of more specific ecosystem management objectives. Scientific and policy explorations are needed to define new ways for designating a healthy system so as to allow specification of precise quality criteria that will promote further development of ecosystem analysis tools.

Bain, M. B.; Harig, A. L.; Loucks, D. P.; Goforth, R. R.; Mills, K. E.

2000-01-01

90

A framework for evaluating innovative statistical and risk assessment tools to solve environment restoration problems  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site face complex issues due to history of varied past contaminant disposal practices. Data collection and analysis required for site characterization, pathway modeling, and remediation selection decisions must deal with inherent uncertainties and unique problems associated with the restoration. A framework for working through the statistical aspects of the site characterization and remediation selection problems is needed. This framework would facilitate the selection of appropriate statistical tools for solving unique aspects of the environmental restoration problem. This paper presents a framework for selecting appropriate statistical and risk assessment methods. The following points will be made: (1) pathway modelers and risk assessors often recognize that some type'' of statistical methods are required but don't work with statisticians on tools development in the early planning phases of the project; (2) statistical tools selection and development are problem-specific and often site-specific, further indicating a need for up-front involvement of statisticians; and (3) the right tool, applied in the right way can minimize sampling costs, get as much information as possible out of the data that does exist, provide consistency and defensibility for the results, and given structure and quantitative measures to decision risks and uncertainties.

Hassig, N.L.; Gilbert, R.O.; Pulsipher, B.A.

1991-09-01

91

A framework for evaluating innovative statistical and risk assessment tools to solve environment restoration problems  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site face complex issues due to history of varied past contaminant disposal practices. Data collection and analysis required for site characterization, pathway modeling, and remediation selection decisions must deal with inherent uncertainties and unique problems associated with the restoration. A framework for working through the statistical aspects of the site characterization and remediation selection problems is needed. This framework would facilitate the selection of appropriate statistical tools for solving unique aspects of the environmental restoration problem. This paper presents a framework for selecting appropriate statistical and risk assessment methods. The following points will be made: (1) pathway modelers and risk assessors often recognize that ``some type`` of statistical methods are required but don`t work with statisticians on tools development in the early planning phases of the project; (2) statistical tools selection and development are problem-specific and often site-specific, further indicating a need for up-front involvement of statisticians; and (3) the right tool, applied in the right way can minimize sampling costs, get as much information as possible out of the data that does exist, provide consistency and defensibility for the results, and given structure and quantitative measures to decision risks and uncertainties.

Hassig, N.L.; Gilbert, R.O.; Pulsipher, B.A.

1991-09-01

92

A Levels-of-Evidence Approach for Assessing Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Estuary and River Restoration Programs  

SciTech Connect

Even though large-scale ecological restoration programs are beginning to supplement isolated projects implemented on rivers and tidal waterways, the effects of restoration success often continue to be evaluated at project scales or by integration in an additive manner. Today our scientific understanding is sufficient that we can begin to apply lessons learnt from assessing cumulative impacts of anthropogenic stressors on ecosystems to the assessment of ecological restoration. Integration of this knowledge has the potential to increase the efficacy of restoration projects conducted at several locations but co-managed within the confines of a larger integrative program. We introduce here a framework based on a levels-of-evidence approach that facilitates assessment of the cumulative landscape effects of individual restoration actions taken at many different locations. It incorporates data collection at restoration and reference sites, hydrodynamic modeling, geographic information systems, and meta-analyses in a five-stage process: design, data, analysis, synthesis and evaluation, and application. This framework evolved from the need to evaluate the efficacy of restoration projects designed to increase rearing habitat for outmigrating juvenile salmonids, which are being implemented in numerous wetlands on the 235-km tidal portion of the Columbia River, U.S.A.

Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Vogt, Kristiina A.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Dawley, Earl

2011-03-01

93

The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan requires oversight, monitoring, assessment, and coordination to succeed. NOAA is contributing to these needs by providing a coordinated network of  

E-print Network

The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan requires oversight, monitoring, assessment the scientific data, education,and collaboration necessary to sustain this investment in Great Lakes restoration. Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships funded by the Great Lakes

94

The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan requires oversight, monitoring, assessment, and coordination to succeed. NOAA is contributing to these needs by establishing a coordinated network of scientific  

E-print Network

The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan requires oversight, monitoring, assessment of scientific observations, educating the next generation of Great Lakes citizens, and providing information, education, and collaboration necessary to sustain this investment in Great Lakes restoration. Accountability

95

Use of Chesapeake Bay Restoration Goals Index in ecological risk assessments  

SciTech Connect

Restoration goals for Chesapeake Bay benthic infaunal communities have been developed by the USEPA Chesapeake Bay Program Office and the Maryland Department of Natural Resources. The Restoration Goals Index (RGI) includes measures that describe characteristics of benthic assemblages expected in habitats having little evidence of environmental stress or disturbance. The RGI includes parameters for biodiversity, life history strategy, subsurface activity, abundance, biomass, and feeding guild. Eight habitat classes were defined by salinity and sediment type to account for natural habitat variability. Ecological risk assessments use measurement endpoints as quantitative expressions of an observed or measured effect of an environmental stressor to evaluate assessment endpoints -- the ecological value to be protected. Many of the same expressions used as measurement endpoints or effect indicators are included in the RGI. The use of the RGI in ecological risk assessments conducted at the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown helped reduced the uncertainty in the risk characterization phase. The RGIs provided a reference condition for refining the natural temporal and spatial variability inherent in benthic infaunal communities. The significance of the risk to aquatic receptors was placed in perspective to the regional conditions in the York River and lower Chesapeake Bay ecosystems.

Biksey, T. [Baker Environmental, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

96

Appalachian Rivers II Conference: Technology for Monitoring, Assessing, and Restoring Streams, Rivers, and Watersheds  

SciTech Connect

On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.

None available

1999-07-29

97

Harnessing Natural Recovery Processes to Improve Restoration Outcomes: An Experimental Assessment of Sponge-Mediated Coral Reef Restoration  

PubMed Central

Background Restoration is increasingly implemented to reestablish habitat structure and function following physical anthropogenic disturbance, but scientific knowledge of effectiveness of methods lags behind demand for guidelines. On coral reefs, recovery is largely dependent on coral reestablishment, and substratum stability is critical to the survival of coral fragments and recruits. Concrete is often used to immobilize rubble, but its ecological performance has not been rigorously evaluated, and restoration has generally fallen short of returning degraded habitat to pre-disturbance conditions. Fragments of erect branching sponges mediate reef recovery by facilitating rubble consolidation, yet such natural processes have been largely overlooked in restoring reefs. Methods On two reefs in Curacao, four treatments - coral rubble alone, rubble seeded with sponge fragments, rubble bound by concrete, and concrete “rubble” bound by concrete - were monitored over four years to investigate rubble consolidation with and without sponges and the ecological performance of treatments in terms of the number and diversity of coral recruits. Species specific rates of sponge fragment attachment to rubble, donor sponge growth and tissue replacement, and fragment survival inside rubble piles were also investigated to evaluate sponge species performance and determine rates for sustainably harvesting tissue. Findings/Significance Rubble piles seeded with sponges retained height and shape to a significantly greater degree, lost fewer replicates to water motion, and were significantly more likely to be consolidated over time than rubble alone. Significantly more corals recruited to sponge-seeded rubble than to all other treatments. Coral diversity was also greatest for rubble with sponges and it was the only treatment to which framework building corals recruited. Differences in overall sponge species performance suggest species selection is important to consider. Employing organisms that jump start successional pathways and facilitate recovery can significantly improve restoration outcomes; however, best practices require techniques be tailored to each system. PMID:23750219

Biggs, Brendan C.

2013-01-01

98

Use of data on avian demographics and site persistence during overwintering to assess quality of restored riparian habitat.  

PubMed

Monitoring responses by birds to restoration of riparian vegetation is relatively cost-effective, but in most assessments species-specific abundances, not demography, are monitored. Data on birds collected during the nonbreeding season are particularly lacking. We captured birds in mist nets and resighted banded birds to estimate species richness and diversity, abundance, demographic indexes, and site-level persistence of permanent-resident and overwintering migrants in remnant and restored riparian sites in California. Species richness in riparian remnants was significantly higher than in restored sites because abundances of uncommon permanent residents were greater in remnants. Species richness of overwintering migrants did not differ between remnants and restored sites. Responses among overwintering migrants (but not permanent residents) to remnant and restored riparian sites differed. Capture rates were higher in remnant or restored riparian sites for 7 of 10 overwintering migratory species. For Lincoln's Sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) and White-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) proportions of older birds were significantly higher in remnants, even though capture rates of these species were higher in restored sites. Overwinter persistence of 4 migrant species was significantly higher in remnant than in restored sites. A higher proportion of Hermit Thrushes (Catharus guttatus, 56.3%), older Fox Sparrows (Passerella iliaca, 57.1%), Lincoln's Sparrows (59.7%), and White-crowned Sparrows (67.8%) persisted in remnants than restored sites. Our results suggest restored riparian sites provide habitat for a wide variety of species in comparable abundances and diversity as occurs in remnant riparian sites. Our demographic and persistence data showed that remnants supported some species and age classes to a greater extent than restored sites. PMID:22443304

Latta, Steven C; Howell, Christine A; Dettling, Mark D; Cormier, Renée L

2012-06-01

99

Model-based assessment of the meadow restoration in Last Chance Creek watershed in the Sierra Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The restoration of meadowland using the pond and plug technique of gully elimination was performed in a nine-mile segment along Last Chance Creek, Feather River Basin, California. The field measurements suffer in assessment of the restoration impact since the atmospheric and hydrological conditions evolved over the restoration period. In this presentation, physically-based models are used for environmental assessment based on the simulated watershed responses with and without the meadowland restoration effect under an identical atmospheric condition. The atmospheric conditions over the sparsely-gauged Last Chance Creek watershed during the combined historical critical dry and wet period (1982-1993) were reconstructed over the whole watershed using the MM5 (The Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model) atmospheric model driven with the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data. Using the dynamically downscaled atmospheric data as its input, Watershed Environmental Hydrology (WEHY) model was applied to this watershed. All physical parameters of the model were derived from the existing GIS and satellite driven data sets. By comparing the pre-restoration and post-restoration simulation results under the identical atmospheric conditions, a more complete environmental assessment of the restoration project was made. The model results indicated that the flood peak may be reduced by 10-20 % during the wet year and the baseflow may be enhanced by 10-20 % during the following dry seasons (summer to fall) in the after restoration condition. The model results also showed that the hydrologic impact of the land management associated with the restoration mitigates bank erosion and sediment discharge during winter storm events.

Ohara, N.; Kavvas, M. L.; Chen, Z.; Liang, L.; Anderson, M.

2013-12-01

100

Feasibility Assessment for Pressure Casting of Ceramic-Aluminum Composites for NASA's Propulsion Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feasibility assessment of pressure casting of ceramic-aluminum composites for NASA% propulsion applications is summarized. A combination of several demonstration projects to produce three unique components for liquid hydrogen-oxygen rocket engine% flanges, valves and turbo-pump housing are conducted. These components are made from boron carbide, silicon carbide and alumina powders fabricated into complex net shaped parts using dry green powder compaction, slip casting or a novel 3D ink-jet printing process, followed by sintering to produce performs that can be pressure cast by infiltration with molten aluminum. I n addition, joining techniques are also explored to insure that these components can be assembled into a structure without degrading their highly tailored properties. The feasibility assessment was made to determine if these new materials could provide a significant weight savings, thereby reducing vehicle launch costs, while being durable materials to increase safety and performance for propulsion system.

Lee, Jonathan A.

2005-01-01

101

Swept source optical coherence tomography for quantitative and qualitative assessment of dental composite restorations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to explore the utility of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) for quantitative evaluation of dental composite restorations. The system (Santec, Japan) with a center wavelength of around 1300 nm and axial resolution of 12 ?m was used to record data during and after placement of light-cured composites. The Fresnel phenomenon at the interfacial defects resulted in brighter areas indicating gaps as small as a few micrometers. The gap extension at the interface was quantified and compared to the observation by confocal laser scanning microscope after trimming the specimen to the same cross-section. Also, video imaging of the composite during polymerization could provide information about real-time kinetics of contraction stress and resulting gaps, distinguishing them from those gaps resulting from poor adaptation of composite to the cavity prior to polymerization. Some samples were also subjected to a high resolution microfocus X-ray computed tomography (?CT) assessment; it was found that differentiation of smaller gaps from the radiolucent bonding layer was difficult with 3D ?CT. Finally, a clinical imaging example using a newly developed dental SS-OCT system with an intra-oral scanning probe (Panasonic Healthcare, Japan) is presented. SS-OCT is a unique tool for clinical assessment and laboratory research on resin-based dental restorations. Supported by GCOE at TMDU and NCGG.

Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Mayoral, Juan Ricardo; Hariri, Ilnaz; Bakhsh, Turki A.; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji

2011-03-01

102

Preliminary assessment report for Waiawa Gulch, Installation 15080, Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Hawaii Army National Guard (HIARNG) property near Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Waiawa Gulch property, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

Not Available

1993-08-01

103

Preliminary assessment report for Fort Custer Training Center, Installation 26035, Augusta, Michigan. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Michigan Army National Guard property near Augusta, Michigan. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort Custer Training Center, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program. The environmentally significant operations associated with the property are (1) storage of hazardous materials and hazardous waste, (2) storage and dispensing of fuel, (3) washing of vehicles and equipment, and (4) weapons training ranges that may have accumulated lead.

Flaim, S.; Krokosz, M.

1993-08-01

104

Feasibility and Reliability of Interactive Voice Response Assessment of HIV Medication Adherence: Research and Clinical Implications  

PubMed Central

Background There are well-documented negative consequences of nonadherence to HIV medications. Telephone-based interactive voice response (IVR) technologies may hold promise for assessing nonadherence in both research and clinical contexts; however, little psychometric research has been conducted on this topic. Objective In the present pilot study, we test the feasibility and reliability of a simplified patient-initiated, daily IVR system with a convenience sample of HIV patients attending a university-affiliated infectious disease clinic. Methods Participants were asked to call in to an IVR system to report adherence daily during 2 weeks of a larger prospective study. Response rates and patterns were analyzed for feasibility and compared to retrospective, self-report timeline follow-back (TLFB) adherence reporting. Results The IVR protocol showed moderate feasibility, with participants reporting adherence behavior on 63.4% of days. However, agreement with TLFB data was low, particularly for days in which participants reported incomplete adherence. Conclusions The IVR protocol tested in the current trial shows some promise. Completion rates were higher than in previous trials. Future research is needed to further enhance the feasibility of IVR for HIV medication adherence and to compare responses to more objective measures on HIV adherence. PMID:23134627

Hettema, Jennifer E.; Hosseinbor, Sharzad; Ingersoll, Karen S.

2013-01-01

105

Assessing Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and Principal Tributaries, 1994 Annual Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a

Billy D. Arnsberg; David P. Statler

1995-01-01

106

Second annual report of the Environmental Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of environmental monitoring and field investigations conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report focuses on the watershed scale, striving to provide an ORNL site-wide perspective on types, distribution, and transport of contamination. Results are used to enhance the conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This report summarizes the efforts of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 and Site Investigations (SI) program. WAG 2 is the lower portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) system which drains the major contaminated sites at ORNL and discharges to the Clinch River where public access is allowed. The remedial investigation for WAG 2 includes a long-term multimedia environmental monitoring effort that takes advantage of WAG 2`s role as an integrator and conduit of contaminants from the ORNL site. This report also includes information from other site-specific remedial investigations and feasibility studies (RI/FS) for contaminated sites at ORNL and data from other ongoing monitoring programs conducted by other organizations [e.g., the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) compliance monitoring conducted by the Environmental Surveillance and Protection Section]. This information is included to provide an integrated basis to support ER decision making. This report summarizes information gathered through early 1993. Annual data, such as annual discharges of contaminants, are reported for calendar year 1992.

Clapp, R.B.; Watts, J.A. [eds.

1993-09-01

107

Restoring Consistency In Subjective Information For Groundwater Driven Health Risk Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an earlier work (Ozbek and Pinder, 2003), we constructed a fuzzy rule-based knowledge base that uses subjective expert opinion to calculate risk-based design constraints (i.e., dose and pattern of exposure) to sustain the groundwater-driven individual health risk at a desired level. Ideally, our system must be capable to produce for any individual a meaningful risk result or for any given risk a meaningful design constraint, in the sense that the result is neither the empty set nor the whole domain of the variable of interest. Otherwise we consider our system as inconsistent. We present a method based on fuzzy similarity relations to restore consistency in our implicative fuzzy rule based system used for the risk-based groundwater remediation design problem. Both a global and a local approach are considered. Even though straightforward and computationally less demanding, the global approach can affect pieces of knowledge negatively by inducing unwarranted imprecision into the knowledge base. On the other hand, the local approach, given a family of parameterized similarity relations, determines a parameter for each inference such that consistent results are computed which may not be feasible in real time applications of our knowledge base. Several scenarios are considered for comparing the two approaches that suggest that for specific applications one or several approaches ranging from a completely global to a completely local one will be more suitable than others while calculating the design constraints.

Ozbek, M. M.; Pinder, G. F.

2004-12-01

108

Ecological Risk Assessment for Selenium in the Evaluation of Restoration Alternatives for Salton Sea, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selenium is a chemical of ecological concern at the Salton Sea because it occurs at elevated concentrations in water, sediment, and biota of this terminal lake in southern California. The State of California is required to evaluate alternatives for restoration of long-term stable aquatic and shoreline habitats for the historic levels and diversity of fish and wildlife that depend on the Salton Sea and for protection of water quality. Ecological risks associated with selenium were evaluated under eight restoration alternatives (as well as current conditions and no action) in a programmatic-level environmental impact report. Varying types and configurations of marine, estuarine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats would exist under the different alternatives. Ecological risks were associated primarily with existing and future selenium concentrations in sediment and inflow waters. In addition to completing an ecological risk assessment for each of the habitat types in each of the alternatives, we developed an approach for ranking risk among alternatives based on the combination of habitats, representative receptors evaluated, and area of each habitat. Results of the ranking enable a comparison of alternatives with respect to their expected selenium-associated risks for fish and aquatic birds (the main receptors of concern).

Ohlendorf, H. M.; Pulley, T. S.; Sample, B. E.; Long, S. P.; Byron, E. R.; Nielsen, K. J.

2006-12-01

109

Assessing Stream Restoration Potential of Recreational Enhancements on an Urban Stream, Springfield, OH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restoration potential of urban streams is inherently constrained by urban infrastructure. Roads and built structures may necessitate a static stream planform while water, sewage, and electrical utilities buried in the stream channel require a stable grade. A privately-led initiative to improve the recreational potential of a 9-km reach of Buck Creek and its tributary Beaver Creek in Springfield, Ohio, includes the modification of four lowhead dams with hydraulic heights up to 3 m. Modifications to the dams include replacing their hydraulic height with a series of drop structures engineered to create hydraulics conducive to kayak play. Two of the lowhead dams have been modified to date. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential benefits of modifications designed for their recreational value for stream restoration. The drop structure is a constructed channel constriction comprised of a hard step in the long stream profile immediately upstream of a scour pool, forming a morphologic sequence of constriction, step, and pool. Up to 4 drop structures are used along a given stream reach, constructed in the area of the former dam, its scour pool and a portion of the impounded area. Though not designed for stream restoration purposes, these structures potentially act as series a riffle-pool sequences. Changes in the stream habitat, water chemistry, and macroinvertebrates in response to dam modification highlight the potential for incorporating stream restoration into the engineering design. Following modification of two of the dams, the in-stream habitat quality, as measured by physical and biological indices, increased at one site and decreased at the other site, depending on whether the uppermost drop structure at the site reduced or expanded the impounded area. In the best case, channel sands and gravels, free of fine sand, silt, and organics, have deposited in a crescentic-shaped bar paralleling and grading to the constriction and step. Greater abundance and diversity of pollution-intolerant macroinvertebrates, supported by higher dissolved oxygen in the substrate, characterizes riffles at these sites.

Ritter, J. B.; Evelsizor, A.; Minter, K.; Rigsby, C.; Shaw, K.; Shearer, K.

2010-12-01

110

Developing bird-strike risk assessment models for open-water restorations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral extraction sites that are restored to open water can increase bird-strike risk if they are planned near airports. This can generate conflict between the minerals industry and safeguarding authorities. To help resolve this potential conflict, it would be useful to predict how new restorations affect local water-bird populations so that mineral deposits can be exploited and restored in safeguarded

LZ John

111

Values and Evaluation: Assessing Processes and Outcomes of Restorative Justice Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased interest in the restorative justice programs is accompanied by concern for whether they work andthrough what basic processes. Yet the task of evaluating restorative justice programs is a daunting one because they are so diverse, pursuing unique andmultiple objectives. Restorative justice is guidedby values that emphasize healing andsocial well-being of those affectedby crime. These values must guide program evaluation.

Lois Presser; Patricia Van Voorhis

2002-01-01

112

Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project. Final Environmental Assessment.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement pertaining to the Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Yakama Indian Nation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities for the Project within the boundaries of the Yakama Indian Reservation. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large 20, 340 hectare (50, 308 acre) project area. As individual properties are secured for the Project, three site-specific activities (habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) may be subject to further site-specific environmental review. All required Federal/Tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground disturbing activities.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration

1994-10-01

113

Assessing China's ecological restoration programs: what's been done and what remains to be done?  

PubMed

This article surveys the recent literature that has assessed China's ecological restoration programs, including the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) and the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP). Our presumption is that the performance of these programs should be determined by their effectiveness of implementation and significance of impact. Implementation effectiveness can be measured with such indicators as land area converted or conserved, and survival and stocking rates of restored vegetation, while impact significance can be gauged by the induced changes in ecosystem functionality and stability (erosion control, biodiversity protection, etc.) and socioeconomic conditions. Coupling this matrix with an exhaustive search of the publications, we find that: (1) the implementation effectiveness has not been examined as extensively as the impact significance; (2) efforts to assess the impact significance have concentrated on the SLCP, particularly its socioeconomic effects: growth of income, alternative industry, and employment, and likelihood of re-conversion; and (3) most of the socioeconomic studies are based on rural household surveys and discrete choice and difference in differences models. While much has been learned from previous studies, a lot more needs to be done in improving our understanding of the program execution and impacts. Future work should pay more attention to the NFPP and other programs, and the environmental impacts and the implementation effectiveness of all of them. To these ends, analysts must gather more field data regarding the evolving ecosystem conditions and socioeconomic information of higher aggregation, and conduct their research across scales and disciplines, with better application of geospatial technology and more effective modeling. PMID:19847479

Yin, Runsheng; Yin, Guiping; Li, Lanying

2010-03-01

114

Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Rinehart, B.N.

1991-06-01

115

Carbon-Carbon Recuperators in Closed-Brayton-Cycle Nuclear Space Power Systems: A Feasibility Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using carbon-carbon recuperators in closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) nuclear space power conversion systems (PCS) was assessed. Recuperator performance expectations were forecast based on projected thermodynamic cycle state values for a planetary mission. Resulting thermal performance, mass and volume for a plate-fin carbon-carbon recuperator were estimated and quantitatively compared with values for a conventional offset-strip-fin metallic design. Material compatibility issues regarding carbon-carbon surfaces exposed to the working fluid in the CBC PCS were also discussed.

Barrett, Michael J.; Johnson, Paul K.

2004-01-01

116

78 FR 16656 - Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for Natural Resource...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service Losses Associated With the 2010 Oil Spill From the Adak Petroleum Bulk Fuel...service losses associated with the 2010 oil spill from the Adak Petroleum Bulk Fuel...may be sent to: Ian Zelo, NOAA Oil Spill Coordinator, Assessment and...

2013-03-18

117

Safety culture assessment in community pharmacy: development, face validity, and feasibility of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a framework that could be used by community pharmacies to self-assess their current level of safety culture maturity, which has high face validity and is both acceptable and feasible for use in this setting. Design: An iterative review process in which the framework was developed and evaluated through a series of 10 focus groups with a purposive sample of 67 community pharmacists and support staff in the UK. Main outcome measures: Development of the framework and qualitative process feedback on its acceptability, face validity, and feasibility for use in community pharmacies. Results: Using this process, a version of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework (MaPSAF) was developed that is suitable for application to community pharmacies. The participants were able to understand the concepts, recognised differences between the five stages of safety culture maturity, and concurred with the descriptions from personal experience. They also indicated that they would be willing to use the framework but recognised that staff would require protected time in order to complete the assessment. Conclusions: In practice the MaPSAF is likely to have a number of uses including raising awareness about patient safety and illustrating any differences in perception between staff, stimulating discussion about the strengths and weaknesses of patient safety culture within the pharmacy, identifying areas for improvement, and evaluating patient safety interventions and tracking changes over time. This will support the development of a mature safety culture in community pharmacies. PMID:16326787

Ashcroft, D; Morecroft, C; Parker, D; Noyce, P

2005-01-01

118

Assessing perceptions about ecosystem health and restoration options in three east coast estuaries.  

PubMed

Increasingly public and governmental agencies are concerned about revitalizing coastal environments. Understanding how the public uses these areas, and what they see as the most important improvements to these regions is critical to their assessment and management. Uses of three estuaries, and perceptions of possible management and restoration options, were examined for people who were interviewed in the New York/New Jersey Harbor, Manasquan Inlet, and Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Nearly 90% of the people interviewed listed pollution as New Jersey's most important environmental problem. Most people (68%) used the habitat for outdoor sports, but rated communing with nature, walking, and the provision of open 'green' space as the most valued uses. Pollution prevention was the most often mentioned habitat improvement desired, and people rated removing pollution, cleaning up garbage, and creating more fish breeding habitat the highest. There were significant locational differences in how people used the estuaries, and in how they thought they should be improved. People from Barnegat Bay ranked most uses higher than did people from elsewhere, while the people from Manasquan Inlet rated the importance of most remediation and restoration actions higher. Many of the improvements fall within environmental management, including (rank order from high to low) creating more fish breeding habitat, improving native vegetation, improving habitat for birds, increasing plant diversity, improving habitat for butterflies, and enlarging adjacent marshes. The data provide clear support for the importance of these coastal habitats for communing with nature and having open 'green space' spaces, and for providing recreational opportunities. To enhance their value, people want to remove pollution and improve both the habitat quality and the educational and recreational facilities. PMID:12691528

Burger, Joanna

2003-04-01

119

Environmental management: integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands.  

PubMed

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

Burger, Joanna

2008-08-01

120

The feasibility and acceptability of using a portfolio to assess professional competence.  

PubMed

Purpose: Little is known about physical therapists' views on the use of portfolios to evaluate professional competence. The purpose of this study was to gather the opinions of physical therapists on the feasibility and acceptability of a portfolio prepared to demonstrate evidence of clinical specialization through reported activities and accomplishments related to professional development, leadership, and research.Methods: Twenty-nine Canadian physical therapists practising in the neurosciences area were given 8 weeks to prepare a professional portfolio. Participants submitted the portfolio along with a survey addressing the preparation of the portfolio and its role as an assessment tool. Qualitative content analysis was used to interpret the participants' comments.Results: Participants reported that maintaining organized records facilitated the preparation of their portfolio. They experienced pride when reviewing their completed portfolios, which summarized their professional activities and highlighted their achievements. Concerns were noted about the veracity of self-reported records and the ability of the documentation to provide a comprehensive view of the full scope of the professional competencies required for clinical specialization (e.g., clinical skills).Conclusion: The study's findings support the feasibility and acceptability of a portfolio review to assess professional competence and clinical specialization in physical therapy and have implications for both physical therapists and professional agencies. PMID:22210983

Miller, Patricia A; Tuekam, Rosine

2011-01-01

121

Feasibility of neuropsychological assessment in leukaemia patients shortly after diagnosis: directions for future prospective research  

PubMed Central

Aims: To study neuropsychological functioning of newly diagnosed children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) within two weeks after diagnosis in order to determine the feasibility of a sibling controlled prospective study design. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients (median age at testing 6.6 years, range 4–12) were included in a prospective, longitudinal, nationwide study. Treatment would include intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy according to the DCLSG ALL-9 protocol. Children were evaluated with an extensive neuropsychological battery including measures of intelligence, memory, attention, language, visual-constructive function, and fine-motor abilities within two weeks after start of the chemotherapy. The control group consisted of 29 healthy siblings (median age at testing 8.2 years, range 4–12), who were tested <4 weeks after the patients' assessment. Results: Mean scores on Wechsler Intelligence Scales did not differ significantly between patients and siblings; mean IQ scores for both the patients and the controls were high average. To examine specific neuropsychological functions, norm scores based on the exact age were acquired by fitting procedures, but no significant differences were found. Conclusions: Neuropsychological assessment of patients during early hospitalisation is feasible. The results indicate no adverse effect of illness and psychological factors on IQ and neuropsychological functioning of patients with recently diagnosed ALL. The prospective design of this study of cognitive late effects of chemotherapy will allow discrimination between adverse sequelae of disease and treatment. PMID:15723923

Jansen, N; Kingma, A; Tellegen, P; van Dommelen, R I; Bouma, A; Veerman, A; Kamps, W

2005-01-01

122

15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.53 Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives...restoration actions, including a natural recovery alternative....

2013-01-01

123

15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration plans. 990...COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans....

2013-01-01

124

15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration plans. 990...COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans....

2010-01-01

125

15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.53 Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives...restoration actions, including a natural recovery alternative....

2012-01-01

126

15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.53 Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives...restoration actions, including a natural recovery alternative....

2011-01-01

127

15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration plans. 990...COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans....

2011-01-01

128

15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration plans. 990...COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans....

2012-01-01

129

15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.53 Restoration selection—developing restoration alternatives...restoration actions, including a natural recovery alternative....

2010-01-01

130

15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.  

... 2014-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing restoration plans. 990...COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans....

2014-01-01

131

Restoration of competency to stand trial: Assessment with the Georgia Court Competency Test and the Competency Screening Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluations of the Georgia Court Competency Test—Mississippi Version Revised (GCCT-MSH) and the Competency Screening Test (CST) have supported their use with pretrial defendants in initial assessment of competency to stand trial. The present study evaluated the efficacy of these measures, as well as the Texas Competency Instrument, with an inpatient sample of defendants involved in a competency restoration program. Both

Karen L. Ustad; Richard Rogers; Kenneth W. Sewell; Charles A. Guarnaccia

1996-01-01

132

INVENTORY OF ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION PROJECTS WITHIN THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) REGION, NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

In cooperation with the Office of Water, the Office of Research and Development's National Risk Management Research Laboratory is developing an inventory of ecosystem restoration projects within the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Region. The MAIA Region includes five s...

133

Environmental assessment: Fuel processing restoration at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide sufficient evidence to assist DOE decision makers in determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or a finding of no significant impact for the proposed construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The FPR project includes (a) a replacement facility, to be called the Fuels Processing Facility (FPF), which would safely, efficiently, and effectively process recoverable irradiated naval and research reactor fuels to recover uranium for recycle and reuse in defense programs; and (b) a new liquid low-level waste (LLW) treatment and disposal system to improve waste management practices at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The EA examines and compares the environmental impacts of the proposed FPR project and reasonable alternatives at the ICPP. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA), and the requirements of the CEQ Regulations. 214 refs., 32 figs., 57 tabs.

Not Available

1987-08-01

134

Preliminary assessment report for Redmond Army National Guard Facility, Installation 53120, Redmond, Washington. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Washington Army National Guard (WAARNG) property in Redmond, Washington. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Redmond ARNG property, Phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program. The environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) supply/storage of hazardous materials, (2) weapons cleaning, (3) the underground storage tanks (USTs), and (4) the use of herbicides. These ESOs are no longer active because of the closure of OMS 10 activities in 1988.

Ketels, P.; Aggarwal, P.

1993-08-01

135

Feasibility of asymmetric stretch assessment in the ascending aortic wall with DENSE cardiovascular magnetic resonance  

PubMed Central

Background Vessel diameter is the principal imaging parameter assessed clinically for aortic disease, but adverse events can occur at normal diameters. Aortic stiffness has been studied as an additional imaging-based risk factor, and has been shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality. Reports suggest that some aortic pathology is asymmetric around the vessel circumference, a feature which would not be identified with current imaging approaches. We propose that this asymmetry may be revealed using Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE). The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of assessing asymmetric stretch in healthy and diseased ascending aortas using DENSE. Methods Aortic wall displacement was assessed with DENSE cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in 5 volunteers and 15 consecutive patients. Analysis was performed in a cross-sectional plane through the ascending aorta at the pulmonary artery. Displacement data was used to determine the wall stretch between the expanded and resting states of the aorta, in four quadrants around the aortic circumference. Results Analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not only show significant differences in stretch between groups of volunteers (p?feasible in the ascending aorta with DENSE CMR. Clear differences in stretch are seen between patients and volunteers, with asymmetric patterns demonstrated around the aortic circumference. PMID:24400865

2014-01-01

136

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STREAM RESTORATION AT USEPA  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous stream and riparian restoration projects are being undertaken across the nation at a variety of scales and for disparate reasons. Unfortunately, there are very few studies associated with these restoration efforts which provide a consistent and practical methodology to e...

137

Assessing grassland restoration success: relative roles of seed additions and native ungulate activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Grassland restorations often lack rare forb and grass species that are found in intact grasslands. The possible reasons for low diversity include seed limitation, microsite limitation and a combination of both. Native ungulates may create microsites for seedling establishment in tallgrass prairie restorations by grazing dominant species or through trampling activities, but this has never been tested in

LEANNE M. MARTIN; BRIAN J. WILSEY

138

Assessing Targets for the Restoration of Herbaceous Vegetation in Ponderosa Pine Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A restoration project is considered a success when the initial target is met, but many targets are plausible. We evaluated the success of a restoration project in its 11th year since treatment in a southwestern ponderosa pine- bunchgrass community and the appropriateness of several targets. We measured the responses of (1) total standing crop; (2) standing crop of five functional

Daniel C. Laughlin; Margaret M. Moore; Jonathan D. Bakker; Cheryl A. Casey; Judith D. Springer; Peter Z. Fulé; W. Wallace Covington

2006-01-01

139

Assessing emotional well-being of children in a Honduran orphanage: feasibility of two screening tools.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization (WHO) has determined mental health in children to be a priority area for evidence-based interventions. Effective and efficient screening methods are needed to assess emotional well-being of children from diverse cultures. This descriptive study examined two tools for feasibility, sensitivity, cultural appropriateness, and cost/time effectiveness. Emotional well-being was conceptualized using the Roy Adaptation Model as part of the self-concept adaptive mode. Emotional indicators were measured from Human Figure Drawings. Anxiety was measured using a modification of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Survey (RCMAS). The sample included 11 girls who were 7 to 12 years of age and recruited from a girls' orphanage in Honduras. Results indicated the Human Figure Drawings identified more children possibly at risk than the RCMAS. Human Figure Drawings were found to be a time/cost-effective, sensitive, and culturally appropriate means for measuring emotional well-being in the setting. This study contributes to nursing knowledge by demonstrating feasibility of the screening tools for measuring emotional well-being of children in varied cultures. PMID:22908461

Debiasi, Laura B; Reynolds, Annette; Buckner, Ellen B

2012-01-01

140

Assessment of Feasibility of the Beneficial Use of Waste Heat from the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This report investigates the feasibility of using waste heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). A proposed glycol waste heat recovery system was assessed for technical and economic feasibility. The system under consideration would use waste heat from the ATR secondary coolant system to preheat air for space heating of TRA-670. A tertiary coolant stream would be extracted from the secondary coolant system loop and pumped to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, where heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air in the heating and ventilation system. Historical data from Advanced Test Reactor operations over the past 10 years indicates that heat from the reactor coolant was available (when needed for heating) for 43.5% of the year on average. Potential energy cost savings by using the waste heat to preheat intake air is $242K/yr. Technical, safety, and logistics considerations of the glycol waste heat recovery system are outlined. Other opportunities for using waste heat and reducing water usage at ATR are considered.

Donna P. Guillen

2012-07-01

141

Market Assessment and Technical Feasibility Study of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash Use  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Center (METC), has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) ashes. The assessment is designed to address six applications, including: (1) structural fill, (2) road base construction, (3) supplementary cementing materials in portland cement, (4) synthetic aggregate, and (5) agricultural/soil amendment applications. Ash from low-sulfur subbituminous coal-fired Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, and ash from the high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired American Electric Power (AEP) bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC unit using low- sulfur coal and limestone sorbent (karhula ash) and high-sulfur coal and dolomite sorbents (AEP Tidd ash).

Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

1996-12-31

142

Nature versus nurture: functional assessment of restoration effects on wetland services using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land-use change has altered the ability of wetlands to provide vital services such as nutrient retention. While compensatory practices attempt to restore degraded wetlands and their functions, it is difficult to evaluate the recovery of soil biogeochemical functions that are critical for restoration of ecosystem services. Using solution 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, we examined the chemical forms of phosphorus (P) in soils from wetlands located across a land-use gradient. We report that soil P diversity, a functional attribute, was lowest in farmland, and greatest in native wetlands. Soil P diversity increased with age of restoration, indicating restoration of biogeochemical function. The trend in soil P diversity was similar to documented trends in soil bacterial taxonomic composition but opposite that of soil bacterial diversity at our study sites. These findings provide insights into links between ecosystem structure and function and provide a tool for evaluating the success of ecosystem restoration efforts. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

Sundareshwar, P.V.; Richardson, C.J.; Gleason, R.A.; Pellechia, P.J.; Honomichl, S.

2009-01-01

143

Assessing the Feasibility of Interrogating Nuclear Waste Storage Silos using Cosmic-ray Muons  

E-print Network

Muon radiography is a fast growing field in applied scientific research. In recent years, many detector technologies and imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering and absorption properties of cosmic-ray muons have been developed for the non-destructive assay of various structures across a wide range of applications. This work presents the first results that assess the feasibility of using muons to interrogate waste silos within the UK Nuclear Industry. Two such approaches, using different techniques that exploit each of these properties, have previously been published, and show promising results from both simulation and experimental data for the detection of shielded high-Z materials and density variations from volcanic assay. Both detector systems are based on scintillator and photomultiplier technologies. Results from dedicated simulation studies using both these technologies and image reconstruction techniques are presented for an intermediate-sized nuclear waste storage facility filled with concrete...

Ambrosino, F; Cimmino, L; D'Alessandro, R; Ireland, D G; Kaiser, R; Mahon, D F; Mori, N; Noli, P; Saracino, G; Shearer, C; Viliani, L; Yang, G

2014-01-01

144

Feasibility studies of Bragg probe for noninvasive carotid pulse waveform assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arterial stiffness evaluation is largely reported as an independent predictor of cardiovascular diseases. The central pulse waveform can provide important data about arterial health and has been studied in patients with several pathologies, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and hypertension. The implementation and feasibility studies of a fiber Bragg grating probe for noninvasive monitoring of the carotid pulse are described based on fiber Bragg grating technology. Assessment tests were carried out in carotids of different volunteers and it was possible to detect the carotid pulse waveform in all subjects. In one of the subjects, the sensor was also tested in terms of repeatability. Although further tests will be required for clinical investigation, the first studies suggest that the developed sensor can be a valid alternative to electromechanical tonometers.

Leitão, Cátia; Bilro, Lúcia; Alberto, Nélia; Antunes, Paulo; Lima, Hugo; André, Paulo S.; Nogueira, Rogério; Pinto, João L.

2013-01-01

145

Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

1999-04-01

146

Computerized experience sampling method (ESMc): assessing feasibility and validity among individuals with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The Experience Sampling Method (ESM) is an ecologically valid, time-sampling of self-reports developed to study the dynamic process of person-environment interactions. ESM with digital wristwatch and booklets (paper-based ESM; ESMp) has been used extensively to study schizophrenia. The present study is designed to test the feasibility and validity of using Computerized ESM (ESMc) among individuals with schizophrenia. ESMc is advantageous in allowing for recording of precise time-stamps of responses. We used PDAs ("Personal Digital Assistant"; Palm handheld computers) to collect data on momentary psychotic symptoms, mood, and thoughts over a one day period among 10 hospitalized schizophrenia patients and 10 healthy controls. ESMc was equally acceptable to both groups, with similar ratings of comfort carrying the PDAs and operating them, interference with daily activities, as well as response rates. The schizophrenia patients reported significantly higher ratings of auditory and visual hallucinations, suspiciousness, sense of unreality, lack of thought control, fear of losing control, difficulty expressing thoughts, as well as depression/sadness, loneliness and less cheerfulness. Significant inverse relationships were found among both groups between ratings of feeling cheerful and being stressed, irritated, and sad/depressed. Among the schizophrenia subjects, the correlation between ratings of suspiciousness on ESMc and Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) approached significance, as well as the link between suspiciousness and stress. Our results support the feasibility and validity of using ESMc for assessment of momentary psychotic symptoms, mood, and experiences among individuals with schizophrenia. The authors discuss the potential applications of combining ESMc with ambulatory physiological measures. PMID:16300791

Kimhy, David; Delespaul, Philippe; Corcoran, Cheryl; Ahn, Hongshik; Yale, Scott; Malaspina, Dolores

2006-04-01

147

High Btu gas from peat. Volume III. Part B. Environmental and socioeconomic feasibility assessment  

SciTech Connect

In September 1980, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant (No. DE-FG01-80RA50348) to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the current commercial viability - technical, economic, environmental, financial, and regulatory - of producing 80 million SCF/day of substitute natural gas (SNG). Minnegasco's project team for this study consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors (for design, engineering, and economics of peat harvesting, dewatering, and gasification systems), Ertec, Inc. (for environmental and socio-economic analyses), IGT (for providing gasification process information, and technical and engineering support to Minnegasco), and Deloitte Haskins and Sells (for providing management structural support to Minnegasco). This Final Report presents the work conducted by Ertec, Inc. under tasks 6 and 7. The study objective was to provide an initial environmental and socio-economic evaluation of the proposed facility to assess project feasibility. To accomplish this objective, detailed field studies were conducted in the areas of Hydrology, Air Quality and Socio-Economics. Less extensive surveys were conducted in the areas of Geology, Ecology, Acoustics, Land Use, Archaeology and Resource Assessment. Part B of Volume 3 contains the following contents: (1) project impact assessment which covers geological impacts, hydrology, ecological impacts, air quality and meteorology, land use, archaeology, aesthetics, acoustics, socioeconomic impacts, and peat resources; (2) impact mitigation which covers hydrology, ecology, air quality, archaeology, acoustics, and socioeconomics; (3) conclusions; and (4) appendices. 2 figures, 18 tables.

Not Available

1982-06-01

148

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 3. Risk assessment information. Appendixes E, F  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 3 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-03-01

149

Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3: Appendixes E and F -- Risk assessment information  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

NONE

1996-06-01

150

Assessing the potential for salmon recovery via floodplain restoration: a multitrophic level comparison of dredge-mined to reference segments.  

PubMed

Pre-restoration studies typically focus on physical habitat, rather than the food-base that supports aquatic species. However, both food and habitat are necessary to support the species that habitat restoration is frequently aimed at recovering. Here we evaluate if and how the productivity of the food-base that supports fish production is impaired in a dredge-mined floodplain within the Yankee Fork Salmon River (YFSR), Idaho (USA); a site where past restoration has occurred and where more has been proposed to help recover anadromous salmonids. Utilizing an ecosystem approach, we found that the dredged segment had comparable terrestrial leaf and invertebrate inputs, aquatic primary producer biomass, and production of aquatic invertebrates relative to five reference floodplains. Thus, the food-base in the dredged segment did not necessarily appear impaired. On the other hand, we observed that off-channel aquatic habitats were frequently important to productivity in reference floodplains, and the connection of these habitats in the dredged segment via previous restoration increased invertebrate productivity by 58%. However, using a simple bioenergetic model, we estimated that the invertebrate food-base was at least 4× larger than present demand for food by fish in dredged and reference segments. In the context of salmon recovery efforts, this observation questions whether additional food-base productivity provided by further habitat restoration would be warranted in the YFSR. Together, our findings highlight the importance of studies that assess the aquatic food-base, and emphasize the need for more robust ecosystem models that evaluate factors potentially limiting fish populations that are the target of restoration. PMID:22323109

Bellmore, J Ryan; Baxter, Colden V; Ray, Andrew M; Denny, Lytle; Tardy, Kurt; Galloway, Evelyn

2012-03-01

151

Assessing the Potential for Salmon Recovery via Floodplain Restoration: A Multitrophic Level Comparison of Dredge-Mined to Reference Segments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre-restoration studies typically focus on physical habitat, rather than the food-base that supports aquatic species. However, both food and habitat are necessary to support the species that habitat restoration is frequently aimed at recovering. Here we evaluate if and how the productivity of the food-base that supports fish production is impaired in a dredge-mined floodplain within the Yankee Fork Salmon River (YFSR), Idaho (USA); a site where past restoration has occurred and where more has been proposed to help recover anadromous salmonids. Utilizing an ecosystem approach, we found that the dredged segment had comparable terrestrial leaf and invertebrate inputs, aquatic primary producer biomass, and production of aquatic invertebrates relative to five reference floodplains. Thus, the food-base in the dredged segment did not necessarily appear impaired. On the other hand, we observed that off-channel aquatic habitats were frequently important to productivity in reference floodplains, and the connection of these habitats in the dredged segment via previous restoration increased invertebrate productivity by 58%. However, using a simple bioenergetic model, we estimated that the invertebrate food-base was at least 4× larger than present demand for food by fish in dredged and reference segments. In the context of salmon recovery efforts, this observation questions whether additional food-base productivity provided by further habitat restoration would be warranted in the YFSR. Together, our findings highlight the importance of studies that assess the aquatic food-base, and emphasize the need for more robust ecosystem models that evaluate factors potentially limiting fish populations that are the target of restoration.

Bellmore, J. Ryan; Baxter, Colden V.; Ray, Andrew M.; Denny, Lytle; Tardy, Kurt; Galloway, Evelyn

2012-03-01

152

77 FR 37432 - Final Springfield Plateau Regional Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment and Finding of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), formally...Alternative D provides for natural resource--based restoration using a tiered project selection process evaluating the...Missouri Department of Natural Resources, P.O....

2012-06-21

153

Environmental Assessment for the Arra Rogue River Restoration-Gold Ray Dam Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2009, Jackson County applied for and received a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Project Grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to remove the Gold Ray Dam for the purpo...

2010-01-01

154

Evaluating Urban Wetland Restorations: Case Studies for Assessing Connectivity and Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Restoration of urban intertidal wetlands such as the Hackensack Meadowlands,of New Jersey typically involves the return of tidal flow to diked or gated land, the removal of dredge spoils to lower elevations, and\\/or the replacement of invasive plant species (e.g., Phragmites australis) with preferred marsh plants. Restoration of preferred vegetation and hydrology is expected to net

Lisamarie Windham; Mark S. Laska; Jennifer Wollenberg

155

Online clinical reasoning assessment with the Script Concordance test: a feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Background The script concordance (SC) test is an assessment tool that measures capacity to solve ill-defined problems, that is, reasoning in context of uncertainty. This tool has been used up to now mainly in medicine. The purpose of this pilot study is to assess the feasibility of the test delivered on the Web to French urologists. Methods The principle of SC test construction and the development of the Web site are described. A secure Web site was created with two sequential modules: (a) The first one for the reference panel (n = 26) with two sub-tasks: to validate the content of the test and to elaborate the scoring system; (b) The second for candidates with different levels of experience in Urology: Board certified urologists, residents, medical students (5 or 6th year). Minimum expected number of participants is 150 for urologists, 100 for residents and 50 for medical students. Each candidate is provided with an individual access code to this Web site. He/she may complete the Script Concordance test several times during his/her curriculum. Results The Web site has been operational since April 2004. The reference panel validated the test in June of the same year during the annual seminar of the French Society of Urology. The Web site is available for the candidates since September 2004. In six months, 80% of the target figure for the urologists, 68% of the target figure for the residents and 20% of the target figure for the student passed the test online. During these six months, no technical problem was encountered. Conclusion The feasibility of the web-based SC test is successful as two-thirds of the expected number of participants was included within six months. Psychometric properties (validity, reliability) of the test will be evaluated on a large scale (N = 300). If positive, educational impact of this assessment tool will be useful to help urologists during their curriculum for the acquisition of clinical reasoning skills, which is crucial for professional competence. PMID:15967034

Sibert, Louis; Darmoni, Stefan J; Dahamna, Badisse; Weber, Jacques; Charlin, Bernard

2005-01-01

156

Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans  

SciTech Connect

This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods.

Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-08-01

157

Feasibility of bone assessment by using the nonlinear parameter in trabecular bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of assessing bone status and osteoporosis by using the nonlinear parameter B/A in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The B/A values measured in 18 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using a finite-amplitude through-transmission method ranged from 63.3 to 122.6. The apparent bone density was highly correlated with the B/A and with the existing quantitative ultrasound parameters of the speed of sound (SOS) and the normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation (nBUA), with Pearson's correlation coefficients of r = 0.83 to 0.96. The best univariate predictor of the apparent bone density was the B/A, with an adjusted squared correlation coefficient of r 2 = 0.91. These results suggest that the B/A, in addition to the SOS and the nBUA, may have potential as an index for the assessment of bone status and osteoporosis.

Lee, Kang Il

2013-04-01

158

Investigation and Feasibility Assessment of TOPAZ-2 Derivations for Space Power Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to provide continuous power at significant levels is of utmost importance for many space missions, from simple satellite operations to manned Mars missions. One of the main problems faced in delivering solar or chemical space power in the tens of kW range, is the increasingly massive nature of the power source and the costs associated with its launch, operation and maintenance. A national program had been initiated to study the feasibility of using certain advanced technologies in developing an efficient lightweight space power source. The starting point for these studies has been the Russian TOPAZ-2 space reactor system, with the ultimate goal to aid in the development of a TOPAZ-2 derivative which will be ready for flight by the year 2000. The main objective of this project has been to perform feasibility assessment and trade studies which would allow the development of an advanced space nuclear power system based on the in-core thermionic fuel element technology currently used in the Russian TOPAZ-2 reactor. Two of the important considerations in developing the concept are: (1) compliance of the current TOPAZ-2 and of any advanced designs with U.S. nuclear safety expectations, and (2) compliance of the design with the seven years lifetime requirement. The project was composed of two major phases. The initial phase of the project has concentrated on understanding the TOPAZ-2 thermionic reactor in sufficient detail to allow several follow-on tasks. The primary interest during this first phase has been given on identifying the potential of the TOPAZ-2 design for further improvements. The second phase of the project has focused on the feasibility of a TOPAZ-2 system capable of delivering 30-50 kWe. Towards the elimination of single-point failures in the load voltage regulation system an active voltage regulator has been designed to be used in conjunction with the available shunt load voltage regulator. The possible use of a dual-loop, model-based adaptive control system for load-following in the TOPAZ-2 has also been investigated. The objective of this fault-tolerant, autonomous control system is to deliver the demanded electric power at the desired voltage level, by appropriately manipulating the neutron power through the control drums. As a result, sufficient thermal power is produced to meet the required demand in the presence of dynamically changing system operating conditions and potential sensor failures. The designed controller is proposed for use in combination with the currently available shunt regulators, or as a back-up controller when other means of power system control, including some of the sensors, fail.

Parlos, Alexander G.; Peddicord, Kenneth L.

1998-01-01

159

Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma in weightlessness: a feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: The Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) examines for fluid in gravitationally dependent regions. There is no prior experience with this technique in weightlessness, such as on the International Space Station, where sonography is currently the only diagnostic imaging tool. STUDY DESIGN: A ground-based (1 g) porcine model for sonography was developed. We examined both the feasibility and the comparative performance of the FAST examination in parabolic flight. Sonographic detection and fluid behavior were evaluated in four animals during alternating weightlessness (0 g) and hypergravity (1.8 g) periods. During flight, boluses of fluid were incrementally introduced into the peritoneal cavity. Standardized sonographic windows were recorded. Postflight, the video recordings were divided into 169 20-second segments for subsequent interpretation by 12 blinded ultrasonography experts. Reviewers first decided whether a video segment was of sufficient diagnostic quality to analyze (determinate). Determinate segments were then analyzed as containing or not containing fluid. A probit regression model compared the probability of a positive fluid diagnosis to actual fluid levels (0 to 500 mL) under both 0-g and 1.8-g conditions. RESULTS: The in-flight sonographers found real-time scanning and interpretation technically similar to that of terrestrial conditions, as long as restraint was maintained. On blinded review, 80% of the recorded ultrasound segments were considered determinate. The best sensitivity for diagnosis in 0 g was found to be from the subhepatic space, with probability of a positive fluid diagnosis ranging from 9% (no fluid) to 51% (500 mL fluid). CONCLUSIONS: The FAST examination is technically feasible in weightlessness, and merits operational consideration for clinical contingencies in space.

Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Nicolaou, Savvas; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Campbell, Mark R.; Feiveson, Alan; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Melton, Shannon; Beck, George; Dawson, David L.

2003-01-01

160

Assessment of Robinia pseudoacacia cultivations as a restoration strategy for reclaimed mine spoil heaps.  

PubMed

Reforestation with black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is considered a successful technique that is often used for the reclamation of open-cast mine areas. An alternative reclamation technique could be the natural regeneration of vegetation with spontaneous grass species. In this study, we compared the concentrations of chemical and biochemical variables in soil samples taken under black locust canopy to those from sites covered by spontaneous grass vegetation (control samples) in a time sequence of spoil deposition (0-10 years), in order to assess which of the two reclamation techniques yields higher soil quality. Soil quality refers here to the ability of soils to function ecologically. This has a special interest since the main question for the restored soils is their capacity to perform a range of ecological functions under stress or disturbance. Furthermore, we aimed at identifying the effect of vegetation type on soil ecological succession. The effect of vegetation type on primary succession becomes apparent after 2 years of reclamation. R. pseudoacacia as a nitrogen-fixing plant enriched soil with organic and inorganic nitrogen and organic matter to a greater extent than the natural grasses. It also increased the amount of soil microbial biomass and the activity of alkaline phosphatase. However, the fact that black locust failed to enhance dehydrogenase activity and actually decreased the activity of urease, activities that represent specialized niche functions and therefore, are more vulnerable to stress or disturbance, suggests that the development of an indigenous grass community in combination with organic supplements might often be more appropriate for the reclamation of similar kinds of mine areas. PMID:23322505

Vlachodimos, Kostas; Papatheodorou, Efimia M; Diamantopoulos, John; Monokrousos, Nikolaos

2013-08-01

161

Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the feasibility of computer interrogation of experts for WISAP  

SciTech Connect

Simulation of the response of a waste repository to events that could initiate a fault tree to breach and failure is currently a keystone to the Battelle Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). The repository simulation, which is part of the Disruptive Event Analysis Task, models the repository for its entire design life, one million years. This is clearly a challenging calculation, requiring input unlike any other response analysis by virtue of the long design life of the facility. What technology will provide design criteria for a million year design life. Answers to questions like this can, to some extent, be based on data, but always require some subjective judgments. The subjectivity, which is sometimes driven by inadequate or incomplete data or by a lack of understanding of the physical process, is therefore a crucial ingredient in an analysis of initiating events. Because of the variety of possible initiating events (glaciation, man-caused disruption, volcanism, etc.), many expert opinions will be solicited as input. The complexity of the simulation, the variety of experts involved, and the volume of applicable data all suggest that there may be a more direct, economical method to solicit the expert opinion. This report addresses the feasibility of such a system. Background information is presented that demonstrates the advantages of a computer interrogation system over conventional interrogation and assessment techniques. In the subsequent three sections the three elements - structure and decomposition, scaling, and synthesis - that are basic to any interrogation and assessment technique are reviewed. The interrelationship are schematically illustrated between these three fundamental elements and, therefore, serves as a useful guide to these three sections. Each of these three sections begins with a recommended approach to the particular element and ends with an illustration of representative dialogue.

Wight, L.H.

1980-05-01

162

Feasibility study and assessment of the technical, administrative and financial viability of the Voltano desalination plant (Agrigento, Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Italian Ministry of Public Works has funded a study aimed at assessing the technical feasibility and financial viability of a disalination plant to be implemented in Agrigento, Sicily. The plant, with a design production capacity of 40,000 m3 and an estimated cost of € 120 million, will serve 19 municipalities of the Agrigento province with a total population of

Augusto Pretner; Mario Iannelli

2003-01-01

163

A genetic assessment of bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) restoration efforts in Florida’s Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a comprehensive bay scallop restoration plan in Florida, we implemented a genetic monitoring program to evaluate the impact of shellfish restoration. Restoration involved the deployment of hatchery-produced scallops in cages (the restoration stock), which created spawner aggregations in locations that exhibited low densities of wild scallops. The success of the restorations was evaluated by comparing the genetic

A. E. Wilbur; S. Seyoum; T. M. Bert; W. S. Arnold

2005-01-01

164

A feasibility assessment of magnetic bearings for free-piston Stirling space power converters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes a design and analysis study performed by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) under NASA Contract NAS3-26061. The objective of the study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of applying magnetic bearings to free-piston Stirling-cycle power conversion machinery of the type currently being evaluated for possible use in long-term space missions. The study was performed for a 50-kWe Reference Stirling Space Power Converter (RSSPC) system consisting of two 25-kWe free-piston Stirling engine modules. Two different versions of the RSSPC engine modules have been defined under NASA Contract NAS3-25463. These modules currently use hydrostatic gas bearings to support the reciprocating displacer and power piston assemblies. Results of this study show that active magnetic bearings of the attractive electromagnetic type are technically feasible for RSSPC application provided that wire insulation with 60,000-hr life capability at 300 C can be developed for the bearing coils. From a design integration standpoint, both versions of the RSSPC were found to be conceptually amenable to magnetic support of the power piston assembly. However, only one version of the RSSPC was found to be amendable to magnetic support of the displacer assembly. Unacceptable changes to the basic engine design would be required to incorporate magnetic displacer bearings into the second version. Complete magnetic suspension of the RSSPC can potentially increase overall efficiency of the Stirling cycle power converter by 0.53 to 1.4 percent (0.15 to 0.4 efficiency points). Magnetic bearings will also overcome several operational concerns associated with hydrostatic gas bearing systems. However, these advantages are accompanied by a 5 to 8 percent increase in specific mass of the RSSPC, depending on the RSSPC version employed. Additionally, magnetic bearings are much more complex, both mechanically and particularly electronically, than hydrostatic bearings. Accordingly, long-term stability and reliability represent areas of uncertainty for magnetic bearings. Considerable development effort will be required to establish the long-term suitability of these bearings for Stirling space power applications.

Curwen, Peter W.; Rao, Dantam K.; Wilson, Donald R.

1992-01-01

165

Assessing the relationship between Section 404 and wetland losses: a feasibility study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The primary objective of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (33 U.S.C. 1251) is to restore and maintain the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. Section 404 of the Act regulates the discharge of dredged or fill materials into wetlands and represents the primary Federal authority for regulation of wetland alterations. Since its inception, the Section 404 program has been controversial in regard to the extent to which it was intended to provide wetlands regulation. Section 404 requires those who wish to discharge dredged or fill material into waters of the United States, which include many wetlands, to first obtain a Federal permit. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has overall responsibility for administration of the Section 404 program and promulgates guidelines that must be followed in issuing permits. In addition, EPA has the final authority to prohibit specific discharges if the environmental impacts are unacceptable. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) issues Section 404 permits, which can be of two types. Individual Permits are issued following case-by-case reviews of proposed discharges. General Permits, which can be either nationwide or regional in scope, are authorized by the Corps for categories of activities that are similar in nature and that have only minimal individual and cumulative adverse environmental impacts. EPA, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), and State natural resource agencies review and comment on permit applications and offer recommendations on appropriate mitigation measures. Although comments from the Service and other natural resource agencies are advisory in nature (EPA's veto authority excepted), they can serve as the basis for modifying, conditioning, or denying a Section 404 permit. In 1986, in a survey conducted by the National Ecology Research Center, Service personnel indicated interest in additional information concerning both wetland trends and the impacts of activities authorized by the Corps under Section 404 (Roelle 1986). Although there is some information concerning wetland losses for certain geographic areas and for the Nation as a whole (Frayer et al. 1983; Tiner 1984), there appears to be little information on how these losses relate to the Section 404 permitting process. The primary objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of estimating wetland losses in relationship to Individual and General Permits issued under Section 404. A secondary objective was to assemble data on acceptance and implementation of specific mitigation recommendations offered by the Service and other natural resource agencies in connection with development activities on wetlands examined. At present, 26 categories of Nationwide permits have been authorized by the Corps. Nationwide permit 26 was of particular interest in this study because it specifically authorizes discharges into wetlands under certain circumstances (see Figure 1 and related text for a more complete discussion of circumstances under which Nationwide Permit 26 is applicable). All subsequent references to Nationwide or General permits pertain to Nationwide Permit 26.

Gladwin, Douglas N.; Roelle, James E.; Asherin, Duane A.

1989-01-01

166

Supraspinatus and infraspinatus weakness in overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis: strength assessment before and after restoration of scapular musculature balance.  

PubMed

A disturbance in scapulohumeral rhythm may cause negative biomechanic effects on rotator cuff (RC). Alteration in scapular motion and shoulder pain can influence RC strength. Purpose of this study was to assess supraspinatus and infraspinatus strength in 29 overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis, before and after 3 and 6 months of rehabilitation aimed to restore scapular musculature balance. A passive posterior soft tissues stretching was prescribed to balance shoulder mobility. Scapular dyskinesis patterns were evaluated according to Kibler et al. Clinical assessment was performed with the empty can (EC) test and infraspinatus strength test (IST). Strength values were recorded by a dynamometer; scores for pain were assessed with VAS scale. Changes of shoulder IR were measured. The force values increased at 3 months (P < 0.01) and at 6 months (P < 0.01). Changes of glenohumeral IR and decrease in pain scores were found at both follow-up. Outcomes registered on pain and strength confirm the role of a proper scapular position for an optimal length-tension relationship of the RC muscles. These data should encourage those caring for athletes to consider restoring of scapular musculature balance as essential part of the athletic training. PMID:21069487

Merolla, Giovanni; De Santis, Elisa; Campi, Fabrizio; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

2010-12-01

167

The Conversations About Cancer (CAC) project: assessing feasibility and audience impacts from viewing The Cancer Play.  

PubMed

Basic communication research has identified a major social problem: communicating about cancer from diagnosis through death of a loved one. Over the past decade, an award-winning investigation into how family members talk through cancer on the telephone, based on a corpus of 61 phone calls over a period of 13 months, has been transformed into a theatrical production entitled The Cancer Play. All dialogue in the play is drawn from naturally occurring (transcribed) interactions between family members as they navigate their way through the trials, tribulations, hopes, and triumphs of a cancer journey. This dramatic performance explicitly acknowledges the power of the arts as an exceptional learning tool for extending empirical research, exploring ordinary family life, and exposing the often taken-for-granted conceptions of health and illness. In this study, a Phase I STTR project funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), we assess the feasibility of educating and impacting cancer patients, family members, and medical professionals who viewed the play as a live performance and through DVD screenings. Pre- and postperformance questionnaires were administered to solicit audience feedback. Pre-post change scores demonstrate overwhelming and positive impacts for changing opinions about the perceived importance, and attributed significance, of family communication in the midst of cancer. Paired-sample t-tests were conducted on five factor-analyzed indices/indicators-two indices of opinions about cancer and family communication, two indices measuring the importance of key communication activities, and the self-efficacy indicator-and all factors improved significantly (<.001). Informal talkback sessions were also held following the viewings, and selected audience members participated in focus groups. Talkback and focus-group sessions generated equally strong, support responses. Implications of the Phase I study are being applied in Phase II, a currently funded effort to disseminate the play nationally and to more rigorously test its impact on diverse audiences. Future directions for advancing research, education, and training across diverse academic and health care professions are discussed. PMID:24098921

Beach, Wayne A; Buller, Mary K; Dozier, David M; Buller, David B; Gutzmer, Kyle

2014-01-01

168

Integral assessment of pollution in the Suquía River (Córdoba, Argentina) as a contribution to lotic ecosystem restoration programs.  

PubMed

The Suquía River lower-middle basin (Córdoba, Argentina) is subject to a strong anthropic impact because it receives pollutants from different sources (industries, wastewaters, heavy traffic, agricultural land use, etc.) We have assessed the degree of watershed degradation of Suquía River lower-middle sections through the analysis of different ecosystem compartments (air, water, riparian soil, sediments and biota), in order to provide useful data to be considered in future river restoration programs. Four study sites were selected along the river (La Calera city, Córdoba city, Corazón de María village and Río Primero city) which were sampled during the low- and high-water flow periods. We analyzed: a) chemical and physical characteristics of water, sediments, and riparian soil; b) heavy metal content of water and sediments, and c) semi-volatile organic compounds in air. Besides, pollutant bioindicators such as fish assemblages, lichens (Usnea amblyoclada), vascular plants (Tradescantia pallida), and microorganisms (fecal coliform and Escherichia coli) were used to further assess the status of the river. All analyzed ecological compartments were affected by water pollution, particularly, fish assemblages, sediments and riparian soils by heavy metal and coliform bacteria. Moreover, we detected a possible contribution of sulfur and a high pollutant content in air that merit further research about other air-water exchanges. Accordingly, we strongly suggest that an action to restore or remediate the anthropic effect on the Suquía River be extended to all possible compartments along the river. PMID:21925711

Merlo, C; Abril, A; Amé, M V; Argüello, G A; Carreras, H A; Chiappero, M S; Hued, A C; Wannaz, E; Galanti, L N; Monferrán, M V; González, C M; Solís, V M

2011-11-01

169

Restorative justice.  

E-print Network

??Restorative Justice beschreibt jene Zugänge der Konflikttransformation, die auf die Wiedergutmachung eines zugefügten Schadens und die Bedürfnisse der Geschädigten in den Mittelpunkt stellen. Restorative Justice… (more)

Pichler, Carina Dorothea

2013-01-01

170

Preliminary assessment report for Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana Army National Guard, Helena, Montana. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at a Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) property near Helena, Montana. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort William Henry Harrison property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

DuWaldt, J.; Meyer, T.

1993-07-01

171

Habitat restoration across large areas: Assessing wildlife responses in the Clearwater basin, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the past century, fire suppression and prevention have altered disturbance regimes across the Pacific Northwest, resulting in a significant divergence of historical and current conditions in forested habitats. To address this continuing trend in habitat changes and begin restoring historical patterns of disturbance, the Clearwater Basin Elk Habitat Initiative (CEI) proposes relatively extensive management actions in the Clearwater basin of north-central Idaho. We attempted to evaluate potential effects of such management actions on selected wildlife species using extant data sets and suggest ways to improve such projects with respect to a multispecies and adaptive management approach. Although there is increased interest in ecosystem management over large areas, the increased scale of analysis and implementation require a substantial increase in the level of species information beyond what currently exists. We conclude that baseline information required for an effective multispecies land-management policy in the Clearwater basin does not exist for many terrestrial wildlife species. To implement a true multispecies or ecosystem approach, wildlife and land managers should cooperate to increase existing population data and modeling efforts for wildlife species in the basin and develop a sustainable monitoring program to evaluate habitat management changes and their influence on wildlife populations within the context of adaptive management theory. Management actions to restore disturbance patterns should attempt spatial and temporal scales that are biologically relevant to the population ecology of species being affected. ?? 2004 by the Society of American Foresters.

Scanvara, L.K.; Servheen, G.; Melquist, W.; Davis, D.; Scott, J.M.

2004-01-01

172

Feasibility assessment of offshore wave and tidal current power production: a collaborative public\\/private partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and EPRIsolutions are conducting collaborative power production feasibility definition studies on offshore wave energy and tidal current energy on behalf of a number of public and private entities. The outcome of the offshore wave study, which began in 2004, is a compelling techno-economic case for investing in the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) of

O. Siddiqui; R. Bedard

2005-01-01

173

Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

2014-01-01

174

Environmental, Safety, and Health Plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Revision 1, Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Plan presents the concepts and methodologies to be followed during the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to protect the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. This ES&H Plan acts as a management extension for ORNL and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to direct and control implementation of the project ES&H program. The subsections that follow describe the program philosophy, requirements, quality assurance measures, and methods for applying the ES&H program to individual waste area grouping (WAG) remedial investigations. Hazardous work permits (HWPs) will be used to provide task-specific health and safety requirements.

Not Available

1993-05-01

175

WRITTEN STATEMENT OF DEPUTY CHIEF OF THE ASSESSMENT AND RESTORATION DIVISION  

E-print Network

HEARING ON ASSESSING NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE BP DEEPWATER HORIZON DISASTER BEFORE the opportunity to discuss the critical role NOAA serves in the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process efforts. NOAA's Natural Resource Damage Assessment Role NOAA has several critical roles mandated

176

Photoreceptor rearrangement and vision restoration in eyes with outer retinopathy: Quantitative assessment by fractal analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differentiation between normal and abnormal photoreceptor rearrangement before and after treatments may improve understanding on the sequence of events involved in the visual field defects. In this study, we evaluated a fractal analysis approach to quantify photoreceptor rearrangement and vision restoration. We analyzed Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) data from an individual with outer retinopathy before and after treatment. The outer nuclear layer (ONL) was delineated from the rest of the retinal structure by using a custom-built segmentation algorithm. We then determined the fractal box dimension of the ONL's outline using the box counting method. Thickness and reflectance of the ONL were also calculated. Our results showed that the ONL's fractal dimension, thickness and relative reflectivity decreased after treatment. These early results showed that ONL's fractal dimension could be used as an index of photoreceptor rearrangement, which might lead to a more effective approach to therapy and improved diagnosis.

Cabrera Debuc, Delia; Tchitnga, Robert

2009-03-01

177

Biological Production of Methane from Lunar Mission Solid Waste: An Initial Feasibility Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary assessment was made of the potential for biological production of methane from solid waste generated during an early planetary base mission to the moon. This analysis includes: 1) estimation of the amount of biodegradable solid waste generated, 2) background on the potential biodegradability of plastics given their significance in solid wastes, and 3) calculation of potential methane production from the estimate of biodegradable waste. The completed analysis will also include the feasibility of biological methane production costs associated with the biological processing of the solid waste. NASA workshops and Advanced Life Support documentation have estimated the projected amount of solid wastes generated for specific space missions. From one workshop, waste estimates were made for a 180 day transit mission to Mars. The amount of plastic packaging material was not specified, but our visual examination of trash returned from stocktickerSTS missions indicated a large percentage would be plastic film. This plastic, which is not biodegradable, would amount to 1.526 kgdw crew-1 d-1 or 6.10 kgdw d-1 for a crew of 4. Over a mission of 10 days this would amount to 61 kgdw of plastics and for an 180 day lunar surface habitation it would be nearly 1100 kgdw . Approx. 24 % of this waste estimate would be biodegradable (human fecal waste, food waste, and paper), but if plastic packaging was replaced with biodegradable plastic, then 91% would be biodegradable. Plastics are man-made long chain polymeric molecules, and can be divided into two main groups; thermoplastics and thermoset plastics. Thermoplastics comprise over 90% of total plastic use in the placecountry-regionUnited States and are derived from polymerization of olefins via breakage of the double bond and subsequent formation of additional carbon to carbon bonds. The resulting sole-carbon chain polymers are highly resistant to biodegradation and hydrolytic cleavage. Common thermoplastics include low density polyethylene (packaging, bags), high density polyethylene (bottles, containers, pipes), polystyrene (tanks, containers), polypropylene (tanks, containers), and polyvinylchloride (pipes, containers). Thermoset plastics are formed by the condensation of alcohols or amines to form polyesters or polyamides, and are typically solidified after heating. As opposed to the linear structure of thermoplastic, thermoset plastics have a cross-linked structure which results in higher strength. The most common thermoset plastic is polyurethane which is used for coatings, insulation, paints, and packing. Given both the concerns over pollution reduction and energy conservation, significant efforts are underway on Earth to evaluate biodegradable plastics made from renewable feedstocks; the following summarizes the current state of these efforts. Production of biodegradable plastics involves either the introduction of biodegradable or photo-oxidizable components into the polymer chain or the use of biodegradable polymers themselves. The first approach is based on the observation that polyolefins of low molecular weight (<500 Da) are biodegradable. Insertion of structures susceptible to either photoor chemical degradation within the overall polyolefins chain (which are of 4 - 28 kDa molecular weight), can produce segments sufficiently small to be assimilated and degraded by microorganisms. Biodegradable polymers based strictly on nonpetroleum, biologically-based material have been developed, including some which are used to make currently marketed products. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters which are accumulated as carbon storage materials by microorganisms under nutrient limiting conditions. MirelTM , a "bioplastic" based on stocktickerPHA produced from microbial fermentation of sugars or oils from vegetables crops, is being produced by TellesTM . The company markets MirelTM bioplastics for use in molding, coatings, films, adhesives, and fibers. Another type of bioplastic is based on polylactic acid, or stocktickerPLA. Starch, typically from corn, is f

Strayer, Richard; Garland, Jay; Janine, Captain

178

A feasibility study of carotid elastography for risk assessment of atherosclerotic plaques validated by magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stroke is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. One of its main reasons is rupture of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Conventional B-mode ultrasound images and Doppler/color flow measurements are mostly used to evaluate degree of stenosis, which underestimates plaque vulnerability. Alternatively, the correspondence between multi-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, plaque composition and histology has been well established. In this study, the feasibility of ultrasound carotid elastography in risk assessment of carotid atherosclerotic plaques is investigated. Preliminarily in-vivo results on a small number of human subjects are initially validated by multi-contrast, highresolution MRI, and it shows that maximum strain rate might be feasible to evaluate the plaque vulnerability.

Pan, Xiaochang; Huang, Lingyun; Huang, Manwei; Zhao, Xihai; He, Le; Yuan, Chun; Bai, Jing; Luo, Jianwen

2014-03-01

179

Assessment, evaluation, and testing of technologies for environmental restoration, decontamination, and decommissioning and high level waste management. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management objectives are being assessed and evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objectives of the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

Uzochukwu, G.A.

1997-12-31

180

Assessing the value of the Central Everglades Planning Project (CEPP) in Everglades restoration: an ecosystem service approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study identifies a full range of ecosystem services that could be affected by a restoration project in the central Everglades and monetizes the economic value of a subset of these services using existing data. Findings suggest that the project will potentially increase many ecosystem services that have considerable economic value to society. The ecosystem services monetized within the scope of this study are a subset of the difference between the future-with the Central Everglades Planning Project (CEPP) and the future-without CEPP, and they totaled ~ $1.8 billion USD at a 2.5% discount rate. Findings suggest that the use of ecosystem services in project planning and communications may require acknowledgment of the difficulty of monetizing important services and the limitations associated with using only existing data and models. Results of this study highlight the need for additional valuation efforts in this region, focused on those services that are likely to be impacted by restoration activities but were notably challenging to value in this assessment due to shortages of data.

Richardson, Leslie A.; Keefe, Kelly; Huber, Christopher C.; Racevskis, Laila; Reynolds, Gregg; Thourot, Scott; Miller, Ian

2014-01-01

181

Feasibility assessment of burnup credit in the criticality analysis of shipping casks with boiling water reactor spent fuel  

SciTech Connect

Considerable interest in the allowance of reactivity credit for the exposure history of power reactor fuel currently exists. This burnup credit'' issue has the potential to greatly reduce risk and cost when applied to the design and certification of spent fuel casks used for transportation and storage. Recently, analyses have demonstrated the technical feasibility and estimated the risk and economic incentives for allowing burnup credit in pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel shipping cask applications. This report summarizes the extension of the previous PWR technical feasibility assessment to boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel. This feasibility analysis aims to apply simple methods that adequately characterize the time-dependent isotopic compositions of typical BWR fuel. An initial analysis objective was to identify a simple and reliable method for characterizing BWR spent fuel. Two different aspects of fuel characterization were considered:l first, the generation of burn- up dependent material interaction probabilities; second, the prediction of material inventories over time (depletion). After characterizing the spent fuel at various stages of exposure and decay, three dimensional (3-D) models for an infinite array of assemblies and, in several cases, infinite arrays of assemblies in a typical shipping cask basket were analyzed. Results for assemblies without a basket provide reactivity control requirements as a function of burnup and decay, while results including the basket allow assessment of typical basket configurations to provide sufficient reactivity control for spent BWR fuel. Resulting basket worths and reactivity trends over time are then evaluated to determine whether burnup credit is needed and feasible in BWR applications.

Broadhead, B.L.

1991-08-01

182

Feasibility and validity of ecological momentary assessment in adolescents with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder.  

PubMed

Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) may increase accuracy of data compared with retrospective questionnaires by assessing behaviours as they occur, hence decreasing recall biases and increasing ecological validity. This study examined the feasibility and concurrent validity of an EMA tool for adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). Thirty-one adolescents with HFASD completed a mobile phone EMA application that assessed stressors and coping for two weeks. Parents and adolescents also completed retrospective measures of the adolescent's coping/stressors. Moderate compliance with the EMA tool was achieved and some concurrent validity was established with the retrospective measure of coping. Concordance was found between the types of stressors reported by parents and adolescents but not the quantity. The results suggest adolescents with HFASD are capable of reporting on their stressors and coping via EMA. EMA has the potential to be a valuable research tool in this population. PMID:24331303

Khor, Angela S; Gray, Kylie M; Reid, Sophie C; Melvin, Glenn A

2014-01-01

183

Annual report of the Environmental Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for FY 1992. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of the investigations and monitoring, conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented can be used to develop a conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This information forms a basis for prioritizing sites and for selecting, implementing, and evaluating remedial actions. Groundwater, soils, sediments, and surface water monitoring results are described.

Clapp, R.B. [ed.

1992-09-01

184

Feasibility of Computer-Based Self-Administered Cancer-Specific Geriatric Assessment in Older Patients With Gastrointestinal Malignancy  

PubMed Central

Background. The Cancer-Specific Geriatric Assessment (CSGA) is a primarily self-administered paper survey of validated measures. Methods. We developed and tested the feasibility of a computer-based CSGA in patients ?70 years of age who were receiving treatment for gastrointestinal malignancies at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. From December 2009 to June 2011, patients were invited to complete the CSGA at baseline (start of new treatment) and follow-up (at the first of 4 months later or within 4 weeks of completing treatment). Feasibility endpoints were proportion of eligible patients consented, proportion completing CSGA at baseline and follow-up, time to complete CSGA, and proportion of physicians reporting CSGA results that led to a change in clinical decision-making. Results. Of the 49 eligible patients, 38 consented (76% were treatment naive). Median age was 77 years (range: 70–89 years), and 48% were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Mean physician-rated Karnofsky Performance Status was 87.5 at baseline (SD 8.4) and 83.5 at follow-up (SD 8). At baseline, 92% used a touchscreen computer; 97% completed the CSGA (51% independently). At follow-up, all patients used a touchscreen computer; 71% completed the CSGA (41% independently). Mean time to completion was 23 minutes at baseline (SD 8.4) and 20 minutes at follow-up (SD 5.1). The CSGA added information to clinical assessment for 75% at baseline (n = 27) and 65% at follow-up (n = 17), but it did not alter immediate clinical decision-making. Conclusion. The computer-based CSGA feasibility endpoints were met, although approximately half of patients required assistance. The CSGA added information to clinical assessment but did not affect clinical decision-making, possibly due to limited alternate treatment options in this subset of patients. PMID:23287880

Wigler, Devin; Berry, Donna; Sato, Kaori; Abrams, Thomas; Chan, Jennifer; Enzinger, Peter; Ng, Kimmie; Wolpin, Brian; Schrag, Deborah; Fuchs, Charles S.; Hurria, Arti; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.

2013-01-01

185

Watershed Restoration Project  

SciTech Connect

In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

2007-09-27

186

MARKET ASSESSMENT AND TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH USE  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute, in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler International, Inc. and the US Department of Energy, has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC ashes. Ashes from the Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot-scale circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, combusting (1) low-sulfur subbituminous and (2) high-sulfur bituminous coal, and ash from the AEP's high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing at WR1. The technical feasibility study examined the use of PFBC ash in construction-related applications, including its use as a cementing material in concrete and use in cement manufacturing, fill and embankment materials, soil stabilization agent, and use in synthetic aggregate production. Testing was also conducted to determine the technical feasibility of PFBC ash as a soil amendment for acidic and sodic problem soils and spoils encountered in agricultural and reclamation applications. The results of the technical feasibility testing indicated the following conclusions. PFBC ash does not meet the chemical requirements as a pozzolan for cement replacement. However, it does appear that potential may exist for its use in cement production as a pozzolan and/or as a set retardant. PFBC ash shows relatively high strength development, low expansion, and low permeability properties that make its use in fills and embankments promising. Testing has also indicated that PFBC ash, when mixed with low amounts of lime, develops high strengths, suitable for soil stabilization applications and synthetic aggregate production. Synthetic aggregate produced from PFBC ash is capable of meeting ASTM/AASHTO specifications for many construction applications. The residual calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate in the PFE3C ash has been shown to be of value in making PFBC ash a suitable soil amendment for acidic and sodic problem soils and mine spoils. In conclusion, PFBC ash represents a viable material for use in currently established applications for conventional coal combustion ashes. As such, PFBC ash should be viewed as a valuable resource, and commercial opportunities for these materials should be explored for planned PFBC installations.

A.E. Bland; T.H. Brown

1997-04-01

187

Assessment of Myocardial Metabolism in Diabetic Rats Using Small-Animal PET: A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This feasibility study was undertaken to determine whether kinetic modeling in conjunction with small-animal PET could noninvasively quantify alterations in myocardial perfusion and substrate metabolism in rats. Methods: All small-animal PET was performed on either of 2 tomographs. Myocardial blood flow and substrate metabolism were measured in 10 male Zucker diabeticfattyrats(ZDF,fa\\/fa)and10leanlittermates(Lean,Fa\\/1) using 15O-water, 1-11C-glucose, 1-11C-acetate, and 1-11C- palmitate. Animals were

Michael J. Welch; Jason S. Lewis; Joonyoung Kim; Terry L. Sharp; Carmen S. Dence; Robert J. Gropler; Pilar Herrero

188

Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Feasibility of assessing crop condition and yield from LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Yield modelling for crop production estimation derived a means of predicting the within-a-year yield and the year-to-year variability of yield over some fixed or randomly located unit of area. Preliminary studies indicated that the requirements for interpreting LANDSAT data for yield may be sufficiently similar to those of signature extension that it is feasible to investigate the automated estimation of production. The concept of an advanced yield model consisting of both spectral and meteorological components was endorsed. Rationale for using meteorological parameters originated from known between season and near harvest dynamics in crop environmental-condition-yield relationships.

1978-01-01

189

Preliminary assessment report for National Guard Facility, Installation 25255, Rehoboth, Massachusetts. Installation Restoration Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Massachusetts Army National Guard (MAARNG) property known as the Rehoboth National Guard Facility (RNGF) in Rehoboth, Massachusetts. Prelim...

R. Haffenden, S. Flaim, M. Krokosz

1993-01-01

190

Guidance document for natural resource damage assessment under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Primary restoration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Primary Restoration Guidance Document provides a review of the state of the art for restoration of certain habitats and biological natural resources and an evaluation of potential restoration actions following injury to natural resources resulting from incidents. This document is meant to summarize existing information and methods so that informed decisions can be made in the restoration planning and implementation process. Although prepared primarily to provide guidance to natural resource trustees using the OPA regulations, others interested in the protection and restoration of injured natural resources and services may find the information contained in this document useful.

French, D.P.; Rines, H.; Gifford, D.; Keller, A.; Pavignano, S.

1996-08-01

191

Survey and evaluation of instream habitat and stock restoration techniques for wild pink and chum salmon. Restoration study number 105-1 (restoration project 93063). Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report  

SciTech Connect

This project is the result of a three-year survey of the Exxon Valdez oil spill impact area to identify appropriate and cost-effective instream habitat restoration techniques for salmon, including spawning channels and improvement of fish passage through fish ladders or step-pool structures to overcome physical or hydrological barriers. Additional wild salmon stock rehabilitation measures include stream-side incubation boxes, remote egg-taking, incubation at existing hatcheries for fry stocking in oil-impacted streams, and fry rearing. Study results include the identification of the most promising instream habitat restoration projects in each of the spill-impacted areas.

Willette, T.M.; Dudiak, N.C.; Honnold, S.G.; Carpenter, G.; Dickson, M.

1995-08-01

192

Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and sustainability.

Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

2013-10-01

193

Assessing the Feasibility of Uav-Based LIDAR for High Resolution Forest Change Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne LiDAR data has become an important tool for both the scientific and industry based investigation of forest structure. The uses of discrete return observations have now reached a maturity level such that the operational use of this data is becoming increasingly common. However, due to the cost of data collection, temporal studies into forest change are often not feasible or completed at infrequent and at uneven intervals. To achieve high resolution temporal LiDAR surveys, this study has developed a micro-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with a discrete return 4-layer LiDAR device and miniaturised positioning sensors. This UAV has been designed to be low-cost and to achieve maximum flying time. In order to achieve these objectives and overcome the accuracy restrictions presented by miniaturised sensors a novel processing strategy based on a Kalman smoother algorithm has been developed. This strategy includes the use of the structure from motion algorithm in estimating camera orientation, which is then used to restrain IMU drift. The feasibility of such a platform for monitoring forest change is shown by demonstrating that the pointing accuracy of this UAV LiDAR device is within the accuracy requirements set out by the Australian Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM) standards.

Wallace, L. O.; Lucieer, A.; Watson, C. S.

2012-08-01

194

Assessing the Feasibility of Renewable Energy Development and Energy Efficiency Deployment on Tribal Lands  

SciTech Connect

The Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (KBIC) is committed to preserving our natural environment and reducing the amount of fossil fuels consumed while developing "green" business manufacturing jobs on tribal lands. The Tribe's Comprehensive Strategic Plan seeks to diversify the Tribal Economy through the creation of alternative energy businesses, such as wind, solar and bio-mass facilities while protecting the waters of Lake Superior, tribal inland lakes and streams. In addition, the Community desired to utilize clean/green energy resources to promote the self-sufficiency of the Tribal Nation. The objective of the study is to preserve our environment and maintain our cultural goals of using the resources of the land wisely. To reduce our consumption of fossil fuels, mercury and carbon dioxide emissions, which harm our water and land; we have decided to evaluate the opportunities of utilizing wind power. Preliminary projections show that we may eliminate pollution from our land in a cost effective manner. This study will evaluate wind capacity and our current energy consumption while projecting the feasibility of converting to wind power for operations at our major facilities. This project will study the feasibility of wind power at two locations for the purpose of reducing the Tribe's reliance upon fossil fuels and creating business opportunities, jobs and revenue for the community.

Nominelli, Gregg R.

2012-12-17

195

Mental health diagnosis by nurses using the Global Mental Health Assessment Tool: a validity and feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Background The Global Mental Health Assessment Tool — Primary Care Version (GMHAT/PC) has been developed to assist health professionals to make a quick and comprehensive standardised mental health assessment. It has proved to be a reliable and valid tool in a previous study involving GPs. Its use by other health professionals may help in detecting and managing mental disorders in primary care and general health settings. Aim To assess the feasibility of using a computer-assisted diagnostic interview by nurses and to examine the level of agreement between the GMHAT/PC diagnosis and psychiatrists' clinical diagnosis. Design of study Cross-sectional validation study. Setting Primary care, general healthcare (cardiac rehabilitation clinic), and community mental healthcare settings. Method A total of 215 patients between the ages of 16 and 75 years were assessed by nurses and psychiatrists in various settings: primary care centre (n = 54), cardiac rehabilitation centre (n = 98), and community mental health clinic (n = 63). The time taken for the interview, and feedback from patients and interviewers were indicators of feasibility, and the kappa coefficient (?), sensitivity, and specificity of the GMHAT/PC diagnosis were measures of validity. Results Mean duration of interview was under 15 minutes. The agreement between nurses' GMHAT/PC interview-based diagnosis and psychiatrists' International Classification of Diseases (ICD)–10 criteria-based clinical diagnosis was 80% (? = 0.76, sensitivity = 0.84, specificity = 0.92). Conclusion The GMHAT/PC can assist nurses to make accurate mental health assessment and diagnosis in various healthcare settings and it is acceptable to patients. PMID:18505618

Sharma, Vimal K; Lepping, Peter; Krishna, Murali; Durrani, Shazia; Copeland, John RM; Mottram, Patricia; Parhee, Rashmi; Quinn, Bennett; Lane, Steven; Cummins, Anthony

2008-01-01

196

Assessing the potential to restore historic grazing ecosystems with tortoise ecological replacements.  

PubMed

The extinction of large herbivores, often keystone species, can dramatically modify plant communities and impose key biotic thresholds that may prevent an ecosystem returning to its previous state and threaten native biodiversity. A potentially innovative, yet controversial, landscape-based long-term restoration approach is to replace missing plant-herbivore interactions with non-native herbivores. Aldabran giant (Aldabrachelys gigantea) and Madagascan radiated (Astrochelys radiata) tortoises, taxonomically and functionally similar to the extinct Mauritian giant tortoises (Cylindraspis spp.), were introduced to Round Island, Mauritius, in 2007 to control the non-native plants that were threatening persistence of native species. We monitored the response of the plant community to tortoise grazing for 11 months in enclosures before the tortoises were released and, compared the cost of using tortoises as weeders with the cost of using manual labor. At the end of this period, plant biomass; vegetation height and cover; and adult, seedling, flower, and seed abundance were 3-136 times greater in adjacent control plots than in the tortoise enclosures. After their release, the free-roaming tortoises grazed on most non-native plants and significantly reduced vegetation cover, height, and seed production, reflecting findings from the enclosure study. The tortoises generally did not eat native species, although they consumed those native species that increased in abundance following the eradication of mammalian herbivores. Our results suggest that introduced non-native tortoises are a more cost-effective approach to control non-native vegetation than manual weeding. Numerous long-term outcomes (e.g., change in species composition and soil seed bank) are possible following tortoise releases. Monitoring and adaptive management are needed to ensure that the replacement herbivores promote the recovery of native plants. PMID:23773124

Griffiths, Christine J; Zuël, Nicolas; Jones, Carl G; Ahamud, Zairabee; Harris, Stephen

2013-08-01

197

78 FR 16655 - Draft Damage Assessment, Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico...Plan and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico...injuries resulting from the November 11, 2005, T/B DBL 152 oil spill in the Gulf of...

2013-03-18

198

Environmental assessment of the Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of the Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land controlled by DOE within the boundaries of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. This report provides an environmental assessment of proposed remedial action activities at the solid waste management units at SNL/NM. A risk assessment of health hazards is also discussed.

NONE

1996-03-01

199

Performance-Based Functional Assessment in Older Hospitalized Patients: Feasibility and Clinical Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Functional evaluation is a cornerstone of multidimensional geriatric assessment; however, little is known of the clinical value of standardized performance-based assessment in the acute care setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical correlates and short-term predictive value of the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) in older patients admitted to the hospital for an acute medical

Stefano Volpato; Margherita Cavalieri; Gianluca Guerra; Fotini Sioulis; Monica Ranzini; Cinzia Maraldi; Renato Fellin; Jack M. Guralnik

2008-01-01

200

Assessing Feigned Cognitive Impairment in Defendants Hospitalized for Competency Restoration: Further Validation of the TOMI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valid screens for feigned cognitive impairment are a fundamental component of any forensic assessment. The TOMI is a verbally administered, two-alternative forced-choice screen for feigned cognitive impairment in competence to stand trial (CST) evaluations. The present study provided further validation for the use of this tool in a sample of 82 forensic inpatients, the second investigation of the TOMI in

Lori H. Colwell; Kevin Colwell

2011-01-01

201

Assessing the economic and environmental feasibility of utility scaled PV electricity production in the state of Georgia.  

PubMed

Photovoltaic (PV) technology, an increasingly popular source for renewable energy, is being deployed in places with solar insolation that is comparable to that in state of Georgia. This study assesses the feasibility and environmental impact of utility scale photovoltaic (PV) electricity production in Georgia by assessing the economic costs, avoided costs, health benefits, and environmental benefits. The cost of PV used in this study is 3.52 $/kW. The RETScreen model was employed to analyze the impact of incentives on the economic viability of the plants that produce 93 GWh, 371 GWh, and 1,484 GWh, respectively. 57% of the capital cost is required in the form of incentives or subsidies to make the projects economically feasible. The high estimated cost of cleaning the equivalent amount of emissions from a coal-fired power plant is $14.5 million, $58 million, and $232 million for a 50 MW, 200 MW, and 800 MW plant, respectively Avoided costs in health damages are estimated to be $28 million, $112 million, and $449 million and the numbers of jobs to be created are 2,500, 10,000, and 40,000 for 50 MW, 200 MW, and 800 MW plants, respectively. And, the cumulative value of renewable energy credits from a 50 MW, 200 MW, and a 800 MW plant are $59 million, $237 million, and $789 million, respectively. PMID:23741866

Taylor, Ruthie; Critttenden, John

2012-01-01

202

Feasibility study of a wearable system based on a wireless body area network for gait assessment in Parkinson's disease patients.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) alters the motor performance of affected individuals. The dopaminergic denervation of the striatum, due to substantia nigra neuronal loss, compromises the speed, the automatism and smoothness of movements of PD patients. The development of a reliable tool for long-term monitoring of PD symptoms would allow the accurate assessment of the clinical status during the different PD stages and the evaluation of motor complications. Furthermore, it would be very useful both for routine clinical care as well as for testing novel therapies. Within this context we have validated the feasibility of using a Body Network Area (BAN) of wireless accelerometers to perform continuous at home gait monitoring of PD patients. The analysis addresses the assessment of the system performance working in real environments. PMID:24608005

Cancela, Jorge; Pastorino, Matteo; Arredondo, Maria T; Nikita, Konstantina S; Villagra, Federico; Pastor, Maria A

2014-01-01

203

Restoring Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video from Nature learn how removal of old dams and river restoration is occurring all over the northwestern United States in an attempt to restore the natural environment and make salmon populations viable once again.

Wnet

2011-12-09

204

Feasibility and early clinical assessment of flattening filter free (FFF) based stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatments  

PubMed Central

Purpose To test feasibility and safety of clinical usage of Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beams for delivering ablative stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) doses to various tumor sites, by means of Varian TrueBeam™ (Varian Medical Systems). Methods and Materials Seventy patients were treated with SBRT and FFF: 51 lesions were in the thorax (48 patients),10 in the liver, 9 in isolated abdominal lymph node, adrenal gland or pancreas. Doses ranged from 32 to 75 Gy, depending on the anatomical site and the volume of the lesion to irradiate. Lung lesions were treated with cumulative doses of 32 or 48 Gy, delivered in 4 consecutive fractions. The liver patients were treated in 3 fractions with total dose of 75 Gy. The isolated lymph nodes were irradiated in 6 fractions with doses of 45 Gy. The inclusion criteria were the presence of isolated node, or few lymph nodes in the same lymph node region, in absence of other active sites of cancer disease before the SBRT treatment. Results All 70 patients completed the treatment. The minimum follow-up was 3 months. Six cases of acute toxicities were recorded (2 Grade2 and 2 Grade3 in lung and 2 Grade2 in abdomen). No patient experienced acute toxicity greater than Grade3. No other types or grades of toxicities were observed at clinical evaluation visits. Conclusions This study showed that, with respect to acute toxicity, SBRT with FFF beams showed to be a feasible technique in 70 consecutive patients with various primary and metastatic lesions in the body. PMID:21910868

2011-01-01

205

U.S. Department of Energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments.

Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Risk Management; Simek, M.A.; Sutherland, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Scofield, P.A. [Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation (United States)

1995-06-01

206

Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential for TVA's John Sevier and Kingston Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

This is a preliminary assessment of the potential for geologic carbon sequestration for the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) John Sevier and Kingston power plants. The purpose of this assessment is to make a 'first cut' determination of whether there is sufficient potential for geologic carbon sequestration within 200 miles of the plants for TVA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to proceed with a joint proposal for a larger project with a strong carbon management element. This assessment does not consider alternative technologies for carbon capture, but assumes the existence of a segregated CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration.

Smith, Ellen D [ORNL; Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL

2008-03-01

207

DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOLS AND DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS FOR ASSESSING WATERSHED SYSTEM ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY (SAC), IN SUPPORT OF RISK-BASED ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT/RESTORATION PRACTICES (TEXOMA PROJECT)  

EPA Science Inventory

Project funded through Ecosystem Restoration internal solicitation within NRMRL. This project will focus on Lake Texoma (located on the Oklahoma/Texas border) and the surrounding watershed to develop methods and protocols for assessing SAC, and to evaluate its potential for use ...

208

Restoration Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While not a panacea, the emerging field of restoration ecology provides an important tool for environmental conservation and contributes greatly to our understanding of ecology.The first Web site is the home page of the Society for Ecological Restoration, offering a good starting point for exploring this relatively new discipline (1). The next site (2) provides an overview of the University of Wisconsin's Center for Restoration Ecology, "the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary research team assembled to advance the science and technology of ecosystem restoration." The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration outlines its plans for coastal and estuarine restoration in this Web site (3). The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois has implemented one of the largest tallgrass prairie restorations to date (4). The Kissimmee River Restoration Web site (5) provides a detailed look at this incredibly ambitious dam removal and wetland restoration project in Florida. The next Web site (6) offers a visually-attractive introduction to the restoration efforts of the nonprofit organization RESTORE, focusing on the forests of Maine. The Wildlands Project, another restoration-oriented nonprofit organization, describes its vision of ecosystem conservation in this Web site, which includes a personal brief from distinguished biologist E. O. Wilson. (7). The Wildwood project of the Scottish organization Carrifran offers an interesting contrast to restoration efforts in the US, as much of Scotland has been denuded of its original forests for thousands of years (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

209

Incorporating risk into the feasibility assessment of alternative brush management strategies for the Welder Wildlife Refuge  

E-print Network

was then assessed using a deterministic decision support system and a stochastic expected payoff simulation model. The simulation model was developed from range production data generated by PHYGROW, a hydrologic based range plant growth simulation model. Investment...

Schumann, Keith D.

2012-06-07

210

A decision support system for income-producing real estate development feasibility analysis and alternative assessment  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study is to design, develop, and evaluate a prototype scenarioassisted decision support system (DSS) for use in venture and alternative assessment during the predevelopment stage of income-producing real estate development...

Leelarasamee, Yosaporn

2005-08-29

211

Guidance document for natural resource damage assessment under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Restoration planning. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Restoration Guidance Document provides guidance for developing restoration plans under OPA that comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) procedural requirements. The focus of this document is to more fully describe the processes and products required for restoration planning under the OPA regulations and how the NEPA requirements can be integrated into the OPA process. Although prepared primarily to provide guidance to natural resource trustees using the OPA regulations, others interested in the protection and restoration of injured natural resources and services may find the information contained in this document useful.

Reinharz, E.; Burlington, L.B.

1996-08-01

212

76 FR 59731 - Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the M/V Cosco Busan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assessment for the M/V Cosco Busan Oil Spill AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...SUMMARY: In accordance with the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA) and...losses resulting from the Cosco Busan oil spill, which occurred in November...

2011-09-27

213

ASSESSING THE FEASIBILITY OF COSMIC-RAY ACCELERATION BY MAGNETIC TURBULENCE AT THE GALACTIC CENTER  

SciTech Connect

The presence of relativistic particles at the center of our Galaxy is evidenced by the diffuse TeV emission detected from the inner {approx}2 Degree-Sign of the Galaxy. Although it is not yet entirely clear whether the origin of the TeV photons is due to hadronic or leptonic interactions, the tight correlation of the intensity distribution with the distribution of molecular gas along the Galactic ridge strongly points to a pionic-decay process involving relativistic protons. In previous work, we concluded that point-source candidates, such as the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* (identified with the High-Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) source J1745-290) or the pulsar wind nebulae dispersed along the Galactic plane, could not account for the observed diffuse TeV emission from this region. Motivated by this result, we consider here the feasibility that the cosmic rays populating the Galactic center region are accelerated in situ by magnetic turbulence. Our results indicate that even in a highly conductive environment, this mechanism is efficient enough to energize protons within the intercloud medium to the {approx}>TeV energies required to produce the HESS emission.

Fatuzzo, M. [Physics Deparment, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH 45207 (United States); Melia, F., E-mail: fatuzzo@xavier.edu, E-mail: fmelia@email.arizona.edu [Department of Physics, Applied Math Program, and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, AZ 85721 (United States)

2012-05-01

214

Assessing feasibility and acceptability of home-care based rehabilitation from the perspective of stroke patients and their informal caregivers  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report on stroke patients and their informal caregivers’ perceptions and experiences regarding feasibility and acceptability of home-care based rehabilitation, in the context of the implementation of an EHSD procedure. Theory EHSD procedures are considered promising alternatives to conventional care in stroke rehabilitation, as they seem to be able to reduce costs with illness and to accrue important benefits to patients and their informal caregivers. The literature in this area provides some guidelines of how to organize and assess this type of intervention, regarding the impact on patient’s functionality and related costs. Less investigated are the perspectives of patients and their informal caregivers, namely, their perceptions and experiences regarding feasibility and acceptability of home-care based rehabilitation. Methods Data were collected using focus group discussion. We conducted two focus groups with key-informants, selected patients and caregivers, chosen due to the diversity and deepness of their cases, aiming at improving both evidence-based knowledge and theoretical framework. A group of three researchers with specific roles joined each focus group, namely a moderator, a recorder and a coordinator. During the sessions, participants were encouraged to speak until all views were expressed. The data were recorded, transcribed and analyzed. The content analysis was performed with NVivo 9 which allowed us to identify the main themes of each topic under discussion. Results and conclusions Home-care based rehabilitation seems to be feasible and acceptable for patients and their caregivers. Our results point out the advantages of home-care over traditional models. Moreover, patients and their caregivers identified aspects that can be improved in home-based services.

Viana, M; Santana, Silvina

2012-01-01

215

A Multiple Watershed Approach to Assessing the Effects of Habitat Restoration Actions on Anadromous and Resident Fish Populations, Technical Report 2003-2004.  

SciTech Connect

Habitat protection and restoration is a cornerstone of current strategies to restore ecosystems, recover endangered fish species, and rebuild fish stocks within the Columbia River Basin. Strategies featuring habitat restoration include the 2000 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS BiOp) developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the 2000 Biological Opinion on Bull Trout developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Sub-Basin Plans developed under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NWPCC). There is however little quantitative information about the effectiveness of different habitat restoration techniques. Such information is crucial for helping scientists and program managers allocate limited funds towards the greatest benefits for fish populations. Therefore, it is critical to systematically test the hypotheses underlying habitat restoration actions for both anadromous and resident fish populations. This pilot project was developed through a proposal to the Innovative Projects fund of the NWPCC (ESSA 2002). It was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) following reviews by the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP 2002), the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA 2002), the NWPCC and BPA. The study was designed to respond directly to the above described needs for information on the effectiveness of habitat restoration actions, including legal measures specified in the 2000 FCRPS BiOp (RPA 183, pg. 9-133, NMFS 2000). Due to the urgency of addressing these measures, the timeline of the project was accelerated from a duration of 18 months to 14 months. The purpose of this pilot project was to explore methods for evaluating past habitat restoration actions and their effects on fish populations. By doing so, the project will provide a foundation of retrospective analyses, on which to build prospective, multi-watershed designs for future habitat restoration actions. Such designs are being developed concurrently with this project by several other groups in the Columbia Basin (RME Workgroup 2003, NMFS 2003, Hillman and Paulsen 2002, Hillman 2003). By addressing questions about habitat restoration and monitoring (in coordination with other related efforts), we hope that this project will catalyze a shift in the Basin's paradigm of habitat restoration, moving from implementation of individual watershed projects towards rigorously designed and monitored, multiwatershed, adaptive management experiments. The project involved three phases of work, which were closely integrated with various related and ongoing efforts in the region: (1) Scoping - We met with a Core Group of habitat experts and managers to scope out a set of testable habitat restoration hypotheses, identify candidate watersheds and recommend participants for a data evaluation workshop. (2) Data Assembly - We contacted over 80 scientists and managers to help evaluate the suitability of each candidate watershed's historical data for assessing the effectiveness of past restoration actions. We eventually settled on the Yakima, Wenatchee, Clearwater, and Salmon subbasins, and began gathering relevant data for these watersheds at a workshop with habitat experts and managers. Data assembly continued for several months after the workshop. (3) Data Analysis and Synthesis - We explored statistical approaches towards retrospectively analyzing the effects of restoration 'treatments' at nested spatial scales across multiple watersheds (Chapters 2-5 of this report). These analyses provided a foundation for identifying existing constraints to testing restoration hypotheses, and opportunities to overcome these constraints through improved experimental designs, monitoring protocols and project selection strategies (Chapters 6 and 7 of this report). Finally, we developed a set of recommendations to improve the design, implementation, and monitoring of prospective habitat restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin (Chapter 8).

Marmorek, David

2004-03-01

216

An overview of the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) computer model designed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for use in evaluating the health risks associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. This report has been prepared to provide DOE Oak Ridge Field Office personnel with a simplified explanation of MEPAS and an understanding of how MEPAS is used to quantify potential risks to human health. The scope and limitations of the MEPAS model are presented, and the possible contaminant release media and transport pathways are outlined. The two main types of health indexes generated -- the hazard potential index (HPI) and the maximum individual index are described; and calculations used to obtain these indexes are presented. Guidance on interpretation of the HPI is also included. Finally, the HPI calculations for 3 contaminants in a hypothetical environmental problem are demonstrated.

Michel, K.L.

1992-06-01

217

Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the feasibility of computer interrogation of experts for WISAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of the response of a waste repository to events that could initiate a fault tree to breach and failure is currently a keystone to the Battelle Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). The repository simulation, which is part of the Disruptive Event Analysis Task, models the repository for its entire design life, one million years. This is clearly a

Wight

1980-01-01

218

Exploring the Feasibility of Assessing Perceived Parental Rearing Styles in Spanish Children With Theembu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the available data on the dimensional structure underlying the EMBU - an originally Swedish measure designed to assess one's recollections concerning one's parents' rearing behaviour - has been obtained with adults or adolescents. In the present study, using exploratory factor analysis, an attempt was made to determine the EMBU factorial structure in a Spanish sample of children aged

J. Castro; J. Toro; J. Van der Ende; W. A. Arrindell

1993-01-01

219

Preliminary assessment report for Camp Carroll Training Center, Installation 02045, Anchorage, Alaska. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Alaska Army National Guard property known as Camp Carroll Training Center, located on the Fort Richardson Army facility near Anchorage, Alaska. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for the completion of preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing, corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances used, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The primary environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) the Alaska Air National Guard storage area behind Building S57112 (Organizational Maintenance Shop [OMS] 6); (2) the state of Alaska maintenance facility and the soil/tar-type spill north of the state of Alaska maintenance facility; (3) the waste storage area adjacent to OMS 6; (4) the contaminated area from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) and the oil-water separator; and (5) soil staining in the parking area at the Camp Carroll Headquarters Building. Camp Carroll appears to be in excellent condition from an environmental standpoint, and current practices are satisfactory. Argonne recommends that the Alaska Department of Military Affairs consider remediation of soil contamination associated with all storage areas, as well as reviewing the practices of other residents of the facility. Argonne also recommends that the current methods of storing waste material behind Building S57112 (OMS 6) be reviewed for alternatives.

Krokosz, M.; Sefano, J.

1993-08-01

220

Feasibility Assessment of Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head\\/Low Power Resources, DOE\\/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine

Douglas G. Hall

2006-01-01

221

Feasibility assessment of piezoelectric crystals as chemical warfare agent sensors. Final report, 1 August 1983-31 August 1985  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of a vibrating piezoelectric crystal as a CW agent detector was assessed by applying CW agent-sensitive coatings to the crystal and testing the detector with 0.3 mg/cum of GB (Sarin). Eight different coating materials were selected, based on previous data with G-agent simulants. No responses were observed to 0.3 mg/cum. GB, but three costings (XAD-4/Cu(2=)-diamine, polyethylenemaleate, and succinyl choline chloride) gave responses of -59 Hz, -22 Hz, and =11 Hz, respectively, to 10 mg/cm.of DIMP (diisopropyl methylphosphonate). Circuit optimization and the use of an operating frequency higher than 9 MHz is recommended to enhance sensitivity. Far-term recommendations are to apply the same coatings to a high-frequency (e.g., 300 MHz) surface acoustic-wave device and test again with CW agents.

Balog, P.P.; Stanford, T.B.; Nordstrom, R.J.; Burgener, R.C.

1986-04-01

222

The Department of Energy`s Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Decision support tools for performing streamlined feasibility studies  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces the major task of cleaning up hundreds of waste sites across the nation, which will require completion of a large number of remedial investigation/feasibility studies (RI/FSs). The intent of each RI/FS is to characterize the waste problems and environmental conditions at the operable unit level, segment the remediation problem into manageable medium-specific and contaminant-specific pieces, define corresponding remediation objectives, and identify remedial response actions to satisfy those objectives. The RI/FS team can then identify combinations of remediation technologies that will meet the remediation objectives. Finally, the team must evaluate these remedial alternatives in terms of effectiveness, implementability, cost, and acceptability. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) is being developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to support DOE in this effort.

White, M.K.

1994-06-01

223

Third annual environmental restoration monitoring and assessment report for FY 1994 of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of environmental monitoring, field investigations, and assessments conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report focuses on the watershed scale, providing an ORNL site-wide perspective on types, distribution, and transport of contamination. The results presented are used to enhance the conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This information forms a basis for prioritizing sites and for selecting, implementing, and evaluating remedial actions. This report summarizes the efforts of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 and Site Investigations (SI) Project. WAG 2 is the lower portion of the White Oak Creek system which drains the major contaminated sites at ORNL and discharges to the Clinch River where public access is allowed. The Remedial Investigation Plan (DOE 1992) for WAG 2 includes a long-term multimedia environmental monitoring effort that takes advantage of WAG 2`s role as an integrator and the major conduit of contaminants from the ORNL site. During FY 1992, the remedial investigation activities were integrated with a series of environmental monitoring and SI activities at ORNL that address pathways and processes important for contaminant movement to gain a more integrated perspective of contamination movement at the watershed scale.

Clapp, R.B.; Watts, J.A.; Guth, M.A.S. [eds.

1994-09-01

224

Are pine plantations valid tools for restoring Mediterranean forests? An assessment along abiotic and biotic gradients.  

PubMed

The ecological impacts of forest plantations are a focus of intense debate, from studies that consider plantations as "biological deserts" to studies showing positive effects on plant diversity and dynamics. This lack of consensus might be influenced by the scarcity of studies that examine how the ecological characteristics of plantations vary along abiotic and biotic gradients. Here we conducted a large-scale assessment of plant regeneration and diversity in plantations of southern Spain. Tree seedling and sapling density, plant species richness, and Shannon's (H') diversity index were analyzed in 442 pine plantation plots covering a wide gradient of climatic conditions, stand density, and distance to natural forests that act as seed sources. Pronounced variation in regeneration and diversity was found in plantation understories along the gradients explored. Low- to mid-altitude plantations showed a diverse and abundant seedling bank dominated by Quercus ilex, whereas high-altitude plantations showed a virtually monospecific seeding bank of Pinus sylvestris. Regeneration was null in plantations with stand densities exceeding 1500 pines/ha. Moderate plantation densities (500-1000 pines/ha) promoted recruitment in comparison to low or null canopy cover, suggesting the existence of facilitative interactions. Quercus ilex recruitment diminished exponentially with distance to the nearest Q. ilex forest. Richness and H' index values showed a hump-shaped distribution along the altitudinal and radiation gradients and decreased monotonically along the stand density gradient. From a management perspective, different strategies will be necessary depending on where a plantation lies along the gradients explored. Active management will be required in high-density plantations with arrested succession and low diversity. Thinning could redirect plantations toward more natural densities where facilitation predominates. Passive management might be recommended for low- to moderate-density plantations with active successional dynamics (e.g., toward oak or pine-oak forests at low to mid altitudes). Enrichment planting will be required to overcome seed limitation, especially in plantations far from natural forests. We conclude that plantations should be perceived as dynamic systems where successional trajectories and diversity levels are determined by abiotic constraints, complex balances of competitive and facilitative interactions, the spatial configuration of native seed sources, and species life-history traits. PMID:20014583

Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena; Zavala, Miguel A; Bonet, Francisco J; Zamora, Regino

2009-12-01

225

A pilot study to assess feasibility of value based pricing in Cyprus through pharmacoeconomic modelling and assessment of its operational framework: sorafenib for second line renal cell cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The continuing increase of pharmaceutical expenditure calls for new approaches to pricing and reimbursement of pharmaceuticals. Value based pricing of pharmaceuticals is emerging as a useful tool and possess theoretical attributes to help health system cope with rising pharmaceutical expenditure. Aim To assess the feasibility of introducing a value-based pricing scheme of pharmaceuticals in Cyprus and explore the integrative framework. Methods A probabilistic Markov chain Monte Carlo model was created to simulate progression of advanced renal cell cancer for comparison of sorafenib to standard best supportive care. Literature review was performed and efficacy data were transferred from a published landmark trial, while official pricelists and clinical guidelines from Cyprus Ministry of Health were utilised for cost calculation. Based on proposed willingness to pay threshold the maximum price of sorafenib for the indication of second line renal cell cancer was assessed. Results Sorafenib value based price was found to be significantly lower compared to its current reference price. Conclusion Feasibility of Value Based Pricing is documented and pharmacoeconomic modelling can lead to robust results. Integration of value and affordability in the price are its main advantages which have to be weighed against lack of documentation for several theoretical parameters that influence outcome. Smaller countries such as Cyprus may experience adversities in establishing and sustaining essential structures for this scheme. PMID:24910539

2014-01-01

226

Recruiting clinical personnel as research participants: a framework for assessing feasibility  

PubMed Central

Increasing numbers of research studies test interventions for clinicians in addition to or instead of interventions for patients. Although previous studies have enumerated barriers to patient enrolment in clinical trials, corresponding barriers have not been identified for enrolling clinicians as subjects. We propose a framework of metrics for evidence-based estimation of time and resources required for recruiting clinicians as research participants, and present an example from a federally funded study. Our framework proposes metrics for tracking five steps in the recruitment process: gaining entry into facilities, obtaining accurate eligibility and contact information, reaching busy clinicians, assessing willingness to participate, and scheduling participants for data collection. We analyzed recruitment records from a qualitative study exploring performance feedback at US Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs); five recruiters sought to reach two clinicians at 16 facilities for a one-hour interview. Objective metrics were calculable for all five steps; metric values varied considerably across facilities. Obtaining accurate contact information slowed down recruiting the most. We conclude that successfully recruiting even small numbers of employees requires considerable resourcefulness and more calendar time than anticipated. Our proposed framework provides an empirical basis for estimating research-recruitment timelines, planning subject-recruitment strategies, and assessing the research accessibility of clinical sites. PMID:24153049

2013-01-01

227

Recruiting clinical personnel as research participants: a framework for assessing feasibility.  

PubMed

Increasing numbers of research studies test interventions for clinicians in addition to or instead of interventions for patients. Although previous studies have enumerated barriers to patient enrolment in clinical trials, corresponding barriers have not been identified for enrolling clinicians as subjects. We propose a framework of metrics for evidence-based estimation of time and resources required for recruiting clinicians as research participants, and present an example from a federally funded study. Our framework proposes metrics for tracking five steps in the recruitment process: gaining entry into facilities, obtaining accurate eligibility and contact information, reaching busy clinicians, assessing willingness to participate, and scheduling participants for data collection. We analyzed recruitment records from a qualitative study exploring performance feedback at US Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs); five recruiters sought to reach two clinicians at 16 facilities for a one-hour interview. Objective metrics were calculable for all five steps; metric values varied considerably across facilities. Obtaining accurate contact information slowed down recruiting the most. We conclude that successfully recruiting even small numbers of employees requires considerable resourcefulness and more calendar time than anticipated. Our proposed framework provides an empirical basis for estimating research-recruitment timelines, planning subject-recruitment strategies, and assessing the research accessibility of clinical sites. PMID:24153049

Hysong, Sylvia J; Smitham, Kristen Broussard; Knox, Melissa; Johnson, Khai-El; SoRelle, Richard; Haidet, Paul

2013-01-01

228

Real-time assessment of fog-related crashes using airport weather data: A feasibility analysis.  

PubMed

The effect of reduction of visibility on crash occurrence has recently been a major concern. Although visibility detection systems can help to mitigate the increased hazard of limited-visibility, such systems are not widely implemented and many locations with no systems are experiencing considerable number of fatal crashes due to reduction in visibility caused by fog and inclement weather. On the other hand, airports' weather stations continuously monitor all climate parameters in real-time, and the gathered data may be utilized to mitigate the increased risk for the adjacent roadways. This study aims to examine the viability of using airport weather information in real-time road crash risk assessment in locations with recurrent fog problems. Bayesian logistic regression was utilized to link six years (2005-2010) of historical crash data to real-time weather information collected from eight airports in the State of Florida, roadway characteristics and aggregate traffic parameters. The results from this research indicate that real-time weather data collected from adjacent airports are good predictors to assess increased risk on highways. PMID:25108899

Ahmed, Mohamed M; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Yu, Rongjie

2014-11-01

229

15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration...the equivalent of the injured natural resources and services...

2013-01-01

230

15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration...the equivalent of the injured natural resources and services...

2012-01-01

231

15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.  

...2014-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration...the equivalent of the injured natural resources and services...

2014-01-01

232

15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration...the equivalent of the injured natural resources and services...

2010-01-01

233

15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration...the equivalent of the injured natural resources and services...

2011-01-01

234

Feasibility and Validity of Dementia Assessment by Trained Community Health Workers Based on Clinical Dementia Rating  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Ethnic minority elders, particularly recent Asian immigrants, have a heightened prevalence of dementia but lack timely diagnosis and treatment. This study was designed to determine the level of agreement between dementia rating by trained community health workers (CHWs) based on the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and the gold standard, physician diagnosis. Design Cross-sectional validation study. Settings Key community gathering places such as ethnic churches, senior centers, low-income elderly apartments, and ethnic groceries in the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area. Participants Ninety community-dwelling Korean American elderly (aged 60 years or older). Measurements The CDR is a standardized clinical dementia staging instrument to assess a patient’s cognitive and functional performance after a semi-structured interview protocol. A total of six CHWs who were trained and certified as CDR raters interviewed and rated study participants. A bilingual geriatric psychiatrist evaluated the participants independently for dementia status. Results 61.1% of the participants were rated as having either mild cognitive impairment (CDR=0.5) or dementia (CDR=1 or higher) by CHWs, as compared to 56.7% diagnosed by the clinician. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated a good predictive capability for CDR rating by trained CHWs (ROC area under the curve=0.86 [95% confidence interval=0.78–0.93], with sensitivity=85.5% and specificity=88.6%) in detecting mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Conclusion The findings provide preliminary evidence that trained CHWs can effectively identify community-dwelling Korean elderly with mild cognitive impairment and dementia for early follow-up assessment and care in the resource scarce community. PMID:23730928

Han, Hae-Ra; Park, So-Youn; Song, Heejung; Kim, Miyong; Kim, Kim B.; Lee, Hochang Ben

2013-01-01

235

Assessment of aortic pulse wave velocity by ultrasound: a feasibility study in mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness and could be useful for characterizing cardiovascular disease progression even in mouse models. Aim of this study was to develop an image process algorithm for assessing arterial PWV in mice using ultrasound (US) images only and test it on the evaluation of age-associated differences in abdominal aorta PWV (aaPWV). US scans were obtained from six adult (7 months) and six old (19 months) wild type male mice (strain C57BL6) under gaseous anaesthesia. For each mouse, diameter and flow velocity instantaneous values were achieved from abdominal aorta B-mode and PW-Doppler images; all measurements were obtained using edge detection and contour tracking techniques. Single-beat mean diameter and velocity were calculated and time-aligned, providing the lnD-V loop. aaPWV values were obtained from the slope of the linear part of the loop (the early systolic phase), while relative distension (relD) measurements were calculated from the mean diameter signal. aaPWV values for young mice (3.5±0.52 m/s) were lower than those obtained for older ones (5.12±0.98 m/s) while relD measurements were higher in young (25%±7%) compared with older animals evaluations (15%±3%). All measurements were significantly different between the two groups (P<0.01 both). In conclusion, the proposed image processing technique well discriminate between age groups. Since it provides PWV assessment just from US images, it could represent a simply and useful system for vascular stiffness evaluation at any arterial site in the mouse, even in preclinical small animal models.

Faita, Francesco; Di Lascio, Nicole; Stea, Francesco; Kusmic, Claudia; Sicari, Rosa

2014-03-01

236

Feasibility Assessment of Micro-Electrode Chip Assay as a Method of Detecting Neurotoxicity in vitro  

PubMed Central

Detection and characterization of chemically induced toxic effects in the nervous system represent a challenge for the hazard assessment of chemicals. In vivo, neurotoxicological assessments exploit the fact that the activity of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system has functional consequences. And so far, no in vitro method for evaluating the neurotoxic hazard has yet been validated and accepted for regulatory purpose. The micro-electrode array (MEA) assay consists of a culture chamber into which an integrated array of micro-electrodes is capable of measuring extracellular electrophysiology (spikes and bursts) from electro-active tissues. A wide variety of electrically excitable biological tissues may be placed onto the chips including primary cultures of nervous system tissue. Recordings from this type of in vitro cultured system are non-invasive, give label free evaluations and provide a higher throughput than conventional electrophysiological techniques. In this paper, 20 substances were tested in a blinded study for their toxicity and dose–response curves were obtained from fetal rat cortical neuronal networks coupled to MEAs. The experimental procedure consisted of evaluating the firing activity (spiking rate) and modification/reduction in response to chemical administration. Native/reference activity, 30?min of activity recording per dilution, plus the recovery points (after 24?h) were recorded. The preliminary data, using a set of chemicals with different mode-of-actions (13 known to be neurotoxic, 2 non-neuroactive and not toxic, and 5 non-neuroactive but toxic) show good predictivity (sensitivity: 0.77; specificity: 0.86; accuracy: 0.85). Thus, the MEA with a neuronal network has the potency to become an effective tool to evaluate the neurotoxicity of substances in vitro. PMID:21577249

Defranchi, Enrico; Novellino, Antonio; Whelan, Maurice; Vogel, Sandra; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; van Ravenzwaay, Ben; Landsiedel, Robert

2011-01-01

237

Role of Geomechanics in Assessing the Feasibility of CO2 Sequestration in Depleted Hydrocarbon Sandstone Reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in depleted sandstone hydrocarbon reservoirs could be complicated by a number of geomechanical problems associated with well drilling, completions, and CO2 injection. The initial production of hydrocarbons (gas or oil) and the resulting pressure depletion as well as associated reduction in horizontal stresses (e.g., fracture gradient) narrow the operational drilling mud weight window, which could exacerbate wellbore instabilities while infill drilling. Well completions (casing, liners, etc.) may experience solids flowback to the injector wells when injection is interrupted due to CO2 supply or during required system maintenance. CO2 injection alters the pressure and temperature in the near wellbore region, which could cause fault reactivation or thermal fracturing. In addition, the injection pressure may exceed the maximum sustainable storage pressure, and cause fracturing and fault reactivation within the reservoirs or bounding formations. A systematic approach has been developed for geomechanical assessments for CO2 storage in depleted reservoirs. The approach requires a robust field geomechanical model with its components derived from drilling and production data as well as from wireline logs of historical wells. This approach is described in detail in this paper together with a recent study on a depleted gas field in the North Sea considered for CO2 sequestration. The particular case study shows that there is a limitation on maximum allowable well inclinations, 45° if aligning with the maximum horizontal stress direction and 65° if aligning with the minimum horizontal stress direction, beyond which wellbore failure would become critical while drilling. Evaluation of sanding risks indicates no sand control installations would be needed for injector wells. Fracturing and faulting assessments confirm that the fracturing pressure of caprock is significantly higher than the planned CO2 injection and storage pressures for an ideal case, in which the total field horizontal stresses increase with the reservoir re-pressurization in a manner opposite to their reduction with the reservoir depletion. However, as the most pessimistic case of assuming the total horizontal stresses staying the same over the CO2 injection, faulting could be reactivated on a fault with the least favorable geometry once the reservoir pressure reaches approximately 7.7 MPa. In addition, the initial CO2 injection could lead to a high risk that a fault with a cohesion of less than 5.1 MPa could be activated due to the significant effect of reduced temperature on the field stresses around the injection site.

Fang, Zhi; Khaksar, Abbas

2013-05-01

238

Electrochemical Disinfection Feasibility Assessment Materials Evaluation for the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) Program recognizes the risk of microbial contamination in their potable and non-potable water sources. The end of the Space Shuttle Program limited the ability to send up shock kits of biocides in the event of an outbreak. Currently, the United States Orbital Segment water system relies primarily on iodine to mitigate contamination concerns, which has been successful in remediating the small cases of contamination documented. However, a secondary method of disinfection is a necessary investment for future space flight. Over the past year, NASA Johnson Space Center has investigated the development of electrochemically generated systems for use on the ISS. These systems include: hydrogen peroxide, ozone, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid. To use these biocides on deployed water systems, NASA must understand of the effect these biocides have on current ISS materials prior to proceeding forward with possible on-orbit applications. This paper will discuss the material testing that was conducted to assess the effects of the biocides on current ISS materials.

Rodriquez, Branelle; Shindo, David; Montgomery, Eliza

2013-01-01

239

A feasibility assessment for the application of biogas and wind power in the farm environment as sustainable sources of energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depletion of energy sources and the ever-increasing energy demand---and consequently price escalation---is a problem that concerns the global population. Despite the concept of energy crisis being widely accepted nowadays, there is a lot of scepticism and misinformation on the possible alternatives to alleviate the environmental and economic impacts of conventional energy generation. Renewable energy technologies are constantly experiencing significant innovation and improvements. This thesis sought to assess the potential of small dairy farms to make an energy shift and identify the practical benefits and possible downfalls of this shift. Wind power and biogas digestion were analysed in this thesis, and a model to assess these technologies at any given farm was developed on VBA. For the case studied in this research both technologies were concluded to be feasible from an economic point of view. Although the initial investment can seem costly, considering the relatively low payback period and the currently available subsidies the economic implications are not an obstacle. The model developed on VBA is applicable to any region, given the right data is put into the programme. Considering the global energy concern, models such as the one developed in this thesis are an appropriate tool to identify potential shifts to greener solutions and prove to users that it can be economically profitable for them as well as environmentally beneficial.

Carbo, Laura C.

240

Feasibility assessment of the interactive use of a Monte Carlo algorithm in treatment planning for intraoperative electron radiation therapy.  

PubMed

This work analysed the feasibility of using a fast, customized Monte Carlo (MC) method to perform accurate computation of dose distributions during pre- and intraplanning of intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) procedures. The MC method that was implemented, which has been integrated into a specific innovative simulation and planning tool, is able to simulate the fate of thousands of particles per second, and it was the aim of this work to determine the level of interactivity that could be achieved. The planning workflow enabled calibration of the imaging and treatment equipment, as well as manipulation of the surgical frame and insertion of the protection shields around the organs at risk and other beam modifiers. In this way, the multidisciplinary team involved in IOERT has all the tools necessary to perform complex MC dosage simulations adapted to their equipment in an efficient and transparent way. To assess the accuracy and reliability of this MC technique, dose distributions for a monoenergetic source were compared with those obtained using a general-purpose software package used widely in medical physics applications. Once accuracy of the underlying simulator was confirmed, a clinical accelerator was modelled and experimental measurements in water were conducted. A comparison was made with the output from the simulator to identify the conditions under which accurate dose estimations could be obtained in less than 3?min, which is the threshold imposed to allow for interactive use of the tool in treatment planning. Finally, a clinically relevant scenario, namely early-stage breast cancer treatment, was simulated with pre- and intraoperative volumes to verify that it was feasible to use the MC tool intraoperatively and to adjust dose delivery based on the simulation output, without compromising accuracy. The workflow provided a satisfactory model of the treatment head and the imaging system, enabling proper configuration of the treatment planning system and providing good accuracy in the dosage simulation. PMID:25365625

Guerra, Pedro; Udías, José M; Herranz, Elena; Santos-Miranda, Juan Antonio; Herraiz, Joaquín L; Valdivieso, Manlio F; Rodríguez, Raúl; Calama, Juan A; Pascau, Javier; Calvo, Felipe A; Illana, Carlos; Ledesma-Carbayo, María J; Santos, Andrés

2014-12-01

241

Introduction and feasibility assessment of laundry use of recycled water in dual reticulation systems in Australia.  

PubMed

Laundry is a potential new end use of recycled water in dual reticulation systems. Generally, the community is willing to accept this new end use if it can meet the concerns on health issues, durability of washing machine, cloth quality and aesthetic appearance. This study addresses all these major concerns thereby assisting in the introduction and promotion of this new end use in the existing and proposed dual reticulation systems. Five representative cloth materials were selected for washing in tap water and in recycled water for up to 50 wash cycles for comparative studies. The tearing/tensile strength tests were used for the assessment of cloth durability. ANOVA one way test was applied for the significance analysis (Tukey's test p<0.05) which indicated that there is no significant change in the tensile/tearing strengths of washed cloth samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the washed cloth samples found no distinct change in surface morphology. Textile colour analysis (CIEDE2000) analysed the variation in colour of the washed cloth samples and showed that the change in colour ?E ranges from 0-1 revealing no visible difference in colour of cloth samples. Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) was used as the indicator for predicting corrosive/scaling potential of recycled water. The LSI values ranged from +0.5 to -0.5, indicating no corrosive or scaling potential of recycled water. The microbiological study of the cloth samples washed in recycled water indicated that there was no contamination with representative bacteria. As the recycled water has similar effects like tap water on cloth and washing machine, it is safe to use for laundry. PMID:24121662

Mainali, Bandita; Pham, Thi Thu Nga; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Listowski, Andrzej; O'Halloran, Kelly; Miechel, Clayton; Muthukaruppan, Muthu; Johnston, Rosemary

2014-02-01

242

A process for assessing the feasibility of a network meta-analysis: a case study of everolimus in combination with hormonal therapy versus chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to outline a general process for assessing the feasibility of performing a valid network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to synthesize direct and indirect evidence for alternative treatments for a specific disease population. Methods Several steps to assess the feasibility of an NMA are proposed based on existing recommendations. Next, a case study is used to illustrate this NMA feasibility assessment process in order to compare everolimus in combination with hormonal therapy to alternative chemotherapies in terms of progression-free survival for women with advanced breast cancer. Results A general process for assessing the feasibility of an NMA is outlined that incorporates explicit steps to visualize the heterogeneity in terms of treatment and outcome characteristics (Part A) as well as the study and patient characteristics (Part B). Additionally, steps are performed to illustrate differences within and across different types of direct comparisons in terms of baseline risk (Part C) and observed treatment effects (Part D) since there is a risk that the treatment effect modifiers identified may not explain the observed heterogeneity or inconsistency in the results due to unexpected, unreported or unmeasured differences. Depending on the data available, alternative approaches are suggested: list assumptions, perform a meta-regression analysis, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analyses, or summarize why an NMA is not feasible. Conclusions The process outlined to assess the feasibility of an NMA provides a stepwise framework that will help to ensure that the underlying assumptions are systematically explored and that the risks (and benefits) of pooling and indirectly comparing treatment effects from RCTs for a particular research question are transparent. PMID:24898705

2014-01-01

243

Understanding and assessing the feasibility of ocean iron fertilization to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regardless of the strategy for fossil fuel use, atmospheric CO2 is predicted to increase and then decrease such that after 10,000 years, levels will still be much higher than pre-industrial. The objectives of geoengineering CO2 reduction techniques are to reduce the rate of CO2 increase and the height of the CO2 peak. Because the oceans represent such a large reservoir of carbon, small perturbations of the system could cause large changes to carbon flows. The objective of ocean carbon sequestration would be to encourage the oceans to take up carbon at a faster rate than they currently do but with predictable and acceptable consequences. From iron addition experiments in the laboratory and in the open ocean and from studies where there are natural additions of iron to the ocean several conclusions can be drawn. Relief of iron stress increases the biomass of marine phytoplankton and as a consequence reduces surface water CO2. This leads to increased export of carbon from the upper ocean and probably enhanced sequestration in the deep ocean. However, the experiments were not planned from the perspective of geoengineering and conclusions about the potential of this approach as a means of reducing atmospheric CO2 have large uncertainties. In addition, few experiments have addressed the unintended consequences of deliberate additions. This has been a major focus of recent discussion of a risk assessment framework for experimentation by the London Convention and London Protocol. Given the uncertainties, there is an urgent requirement to carry out more studies on ocean iron fertilization with three clear objectives 1: To develop coupled global scale computation models so that predictions can become more reliable and so that in situ experiments are effective. 2: To carry out experiments on a sufficiently large scale and duration to determine the extent, efficiencies and time scales of carbon sequestration. 3: To explore the consequences of ocean iron fertilization, and not just carbon uptake from the atmosphere and sequestration in the deep ocean. The ISIS consortium (In Situ Iron Studies) of 13 institutions worldwide was formed in 2011 specifically to promote such studies so that informed decisions will be possible in the future. The mission statement is: "To resolve the impact of iron fertilization on marine ecosystems, to quantify its potential for removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and to improve our collective understanding of the changing ocean."

Buesseler, K.; Lampitt, R. S.; de Baar, H. J.; Blain, S.; Chai, F.; Coale, K. H.; Dai, M.; Karl, D. M.; Leinen, M.; Lohan, M. C.; Rothstein, L.; Trull, T. W.; Whaley, D.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Zhou, M.

2011-12-01

244

Assessing the health and development of ART-conceived young adults: A study of feasibility, parent recall, and acceptability  

PubMed Central

Background Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to treat infertility have been available for nearly three decades. There have been a number of systematic comparisons of the health and development of ART-conceived with spontaneously-conceived (SC) children. Data are equivocal, some finding no differences and others that there are more health and developmental problems in the ART group. It is agreed that perinatal mortality and morbidity are worse after assisted than spontaneous conception and the impact of the hormonally altered intrauterine environment on puberty and later fertility of offspring are unknown. To date however, there has been no investigation of the health and development of ART-conceived young adults, including from the world's few prospective cohorts of ART conceived children. Obtaining these data requires contact to be made with people at least twenty years after discharge from the treating service. Given the ethical difficulties of approaching families to participate in research up to two decades after cessation of treatment, the aim of this exploratory qualitative investigation was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of approaching mothers treated for infertility prior to 1988, and their recall of the health and development of their ART-conceived young adult children. Methods Mothers treated for infertility at the Royal Women's Hospital Reproductive Biology Unit in Melbourne, Australia prior to 1988 were approached by a senior clinician and invited to participate in individual semi-structured interviews which could include their partners and/or young adult children if they wished. Recruitment continued until theoretic saturation had been reached. Results Ten mothers, two of their husbands and five young adults participated in interviews, and the health and development of 15 ART-conceived young adults were described. The experience of conception, pregnancy, birth and the health and development of the children were recalled vividly and in detail. Families were pleased to have been approached and supported the need for systematic data collection. Mode of conception had been disclosed from childhood to all the offspring. Conclusion With careful and sensitive recruitment strategies it is feasible and acceptable to contact women treated for infertility at least two decades ago and their families, to assess the health and development of ART-conceived young adults. PMID:18957131

Fisher, Jane RW; Hammarberg, Karin; Baker, HW Gordon; McBain, John C

2008-01-01

245

Assessing Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and Principal Tributaries, 1994 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a baseline release of 1,300 cfs to a maximum release of 25,530 cfs with an overall temperature depression in the lower Clearwater River exceeding 10 C. With continued Dworshak Dam operations as those documented in 1994, there is potential risk to the continued existence of the endangered fall chinook salmon in the Clearwater River. Additional data and conclusions will be contained in successive years` annual reports.

Arnsberg, Billy D.; Statler, David P.

1995-08-01

246

Assessing the Acceptability and Feasibility of a School-Located Influenza Vaccination Program with Third-Party Billing in Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study qualitatively assesses the acceptability and feasibility of a school-located vaccination for influenza (SLIV) project that was conducted in New York State in 2009-2011, from the perspectives of project participants with different roles. Fourteen in-depth semistructured interviews with participating schools' personnel and the mass…

Christensen, Julie J.; Humiston, Sharon G.; Long, Christine E.; Kennedy, Allison M.; DiMattia, Kimberly; Kolasa, Maureen S.

2012-01-01

247

3D Assessment of Mandibular Growth Based on Image Registration: A Feasibility Study in a Rabbit Model  

PubMed Central

Background. Our knowledge of mandibular growth mostly derives from cephalometric radiography, which has inherent limitations due to the two-dimensional (2D) nature of measurement. Objective. To assess 3D morphological changes occurring during growth in a rabbit mandible. Methods. Serial cone-beam computerised tomographic (CBCT) images were made of two New Zealand white rabbits, at baseline and eight weeks after surgical implantation of 1?mm diameter metallic spheres as fiducial markers. A third animal acted as an unoperated (no implant) control. CBCT images were segmented and registered in 3D (Implant Superimposition and Procrustes Method), and the remodelling pattern described used color maps. Registration accuracy was quantified by the maximal of the mean minimum distances and by the Hausdorff distance. Results. The mean error for image registration was 0.37?mm and never exceeded 1?mm. The implant-based superimposition showed most remodelling occurred at the mandibular ramus, with bone apposition posteriorly and vertical growth at the condyle. Conclusion. We propose a method to quantitatively describe bone remodelling in three dimensions, based on the use of bone implants as fiducial markers and CBCT as imaging modality. The method is feasible and represents a promising approach for experimental studies by comparing baseline growth patterns and testing the effects of growth-modification treatments. PMID:24527442

Kim, I.; Oliveira, M. E.; Duncan, W. J.; Cioffi, I.; Farella, M.

2014-01-01

248

Feasibility and Validity of the Self-administered Computerized Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment With Older Primary Care Patients.  

PubMed

We investigated whether a validated computerized cognitive test, the Computerized Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI), could be independently completed by older primary care patients. We also determined the optimal cut-off for the CAMCI global risk score for mild cognitive impairment against an independent neuropsychological reference standard. All eligible patients aged 65 years and older, seen consecutively over 2 months by 1 family practice of 13 primary care physicians, were invited to participate. Patients with a diagnosis or previous work-up for dementia were excluded. Primary care physicians indicated whether they, the patient, or family had concerns about each patient's cognition. A total of 130 patients with cognitive concerns and a matched sample of 133 without cognitive concerns were enrolled. The CAMCI was individually administered after instructions to work independently. Comments were recorded verbatim. A total of 259 (98.5%) completed the entire CAMCI. Two hundred and forty-one (91.6%) completed it without any questions or after simple acknowledgment of their question. Lack of computer experience was the only patient characteristic that decreased the odds of independent CAMCI completion. These results support the feasibility of using self-administered computerized cognitive tests with older primary care patients, given the increasing reliance on computers by people of all ages. The optimal cut-off score had a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 74%. PMID:24614274

Tierney, Mary C; Naglie, Gary; Upshur, Ross; Moineddin, Rahim; Charles, Jocelyn; Liisa Jaakkimainen, R

2014-01-01

249

Assessing the feasibility and sample quality of a national random-digit dialing cellular phone survey of young adults.  

PubMed

The majority of adults aged 18-34 years have only cellular phones, making random-digit dialing of landline telephones an obsolete methodology for surveillance of this population. However, 95% of this group has cellular phones. This article reports on the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey (NYAHS), a pilot study conducted in the 50 US states and Washington, DC, that used random-digit dialing of cellular phones and benchmarked this methodology against that of the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Comparisons of the demographic distributions of subjects in the NYAHS and BRFSS (aged 18-34 years) with US Census data revealed adequate reach for all demographic subgroups. After adjustment for design factors, the mean absolute deviations across demographic groups were 3 percentage points for the NYAHS and 2.8 percentage points for the BRFSS, nationally, and were comparable for each census region. Two-sided z tests comparing cigarette smoking prevalence revealed no significant differences between NYAHS and BRFSS participants overall or by subgroups. The design effects of the sampling weight were 2.09 for the NYAHS and 3.26 for the BRFSS. Response rates for the NYAHS and BRFSS cellular phone sampling frames were comparable. Our assessment of the NYAHS methodology found that random-digit dialing of cellular phones is a feasible methodology for surveillance of young adults. PMID:24100957

Gundersen, Daniel A; ZuWallack, Randal S; Dayton, James; Echeverría, Sandra E; Delnevo, Cristine D

2014-01-01

250

Supplemental guidance on performing risk assessments in remedial investigation/feasibility studies (RI/FSS). Conducted by potentially responsible parties (PRPs)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the directive is to provide additional guidance on implementing the policy that EPA will not enter into settlement agreements under which PRPs perform the risk assessment components of the RI/FS, as discussed by the Agency in OSWER Directive No. 9835.15 (August 28, 1990). The memorandum provides guidance on coordinating the site characterization tasks and feasibility study prepared by the PRP with the baseline risk assessment performed by EPA.

Not Available

1991-01-01

251

Feasibility Assessment of Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants  

SciTech Connect

Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MW) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MW) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

Douglas G. Hall

2006-01-01

252

Feasibility of the hydrogen sulfide test for the assessment of drinking water quality in post-earthquake Haiti.  

PubMed

In 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti, severely damaging the drinking and wastewater infrastructure and leaving millions homeless. Compounding this problem, the introduction of Vibrio cholerae resulted in a massive cholera outbreak that infected over 700,000 people and threatened the safety of Haiti's drinking water. To mitigate this public health crisis, non-government organizations installed thousands of wells to provide communities with safe drinking water. However, despite increased access, Haiti currently lacks the monitoring capacity to assure the microbial safety of any of its water resources. For these reasons, this study was designed to assess the feasibility of using a simple, low-cost method to detect indicators of fecal contamination of drinking water that could be implemented at the community level. Water samples from 358 sources of drinking water in the Léogâne flood basin were screened with a commercially available hydrogen sulfide test and a standard membrane method for the enumeration of thermotolerant coliforms. When compared with the gold standard method, the hydrogen sulfide test had a sensitivity of 65 % and a specificity of 93 %. While the sensitivity of the assay increased at higher fecal coliform concentrations, it never exceeded 88 %, even with fecal coliform concentrations greater than 100 colony-forming units per 100 ml. While its simplicity makes the hydrogen sulfide test attractive for assessing water quality in low-resource settings, the low sensitivity raises concerns about its use as the sole indicator of the presence or absence of fecal coliforms in individual or community water sources. PMID:25182685

Weppelmann, Thomas A; Alam, Meer T; Widmer, Jocelyn; Morrissey, David; Rashid, Mohammed H; De Rochars, Valery M Beau; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A

2014-12-01

253

The Feasibility of Assessing Alcohol Use among College Students Using Wireless Mobile Devices: Implications for Health Education and Behavioural Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined the feasibility of using wireless mobile devices (MDs) to collect daily alcohol information among college students, in particular examining feasibility in the context of costs associated with the use of wireless MDs. This study reports on practical aspects of using MDs to collect alcohol data, including compliance,…

Mays, Darren; Cremeens, Jennifer; Usdan, Stuart; Martin, Ryan J.; Arriola, Kimberly J.; Bernhardt, Jay M.

2010-01-01

254

The RESTORE program of restorative justice for sex crimes: vision, process, and outcomes.  

PubMed

The article reports empirical evaluation of RESTORE, a restorative justice (RJ) conferencing program adapted to prosecutor-referred adult misdemeanor and felony sexual assaults. RESTORE conferences included voluntary enrollment, preparation, and a face-to-face meeting where primary and secondary victims voice impacts, and responsible persons acknowledge their acts and together develop a re-dress plan that is supervised for 1 year. Process data included referral and consent rates, participant characteristics, observational ratings of conferences compared with program design, services delivered, and safety monitoring. Outcome evaluation used 22 cases to assess (a) pre-post reasons for choosing RESTORE, (b) preparation and conference experiences, (c) overall program and justice satisfaction, and (d) completion rates. This is the first peer-reviewed quantitative evaluation of RJ conferencing for adult sexual assault. Although the data have limitations, the results support cautious optimism regarding feasibility, safety, and satisfactory outcomes. They help envision how conferencing could expand and individualize justice options for sexual assault. PMID:24368680

Koss, Mary P

2014-06-01

255

Randomized controlled trial of Family Nurture Intervention in the NICU: assessments of length of stay, feasibility and safety  

PubMed Central

Background While survival rates for preterm infants have increased, the risk for adverse long-term neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes remains very high. In response to the need for novel, evidence-based interventions that prevent such outcomes, we have assessed Family Nurture Intervention (FNI), a novel dual mother-infant intervention implemented while the infant is in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Here, we report the first trial results, including the primary outcome measure, length of stay in the NICU and, the feasibility and safety of its implementation in a high acuity level IV NICU. Methods The FNI trial is a single center, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial at Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital for mothers and their singleton or twin infants of 26–34 weeks gestation. Families were randomized to standard care (SC) or (FNI). FNI was implemented by nurture specialists trained to facilitate affective communication between mother and infant during specified calming interactions. These interactions included scent cloth exchange, sustained touch, vocal soothing and eye contact, wrapped or skin-to-skin holding, plus family-based support interactions. Results A total of 826 infants born between 26 and 34 weeks during the 3.5 year study period were admitted to the NICU. After infant and mother screening plus exclusion due to circumstances that prevented the family from participating, 373 infants were eligible for the study. Of these, we were unable to schedule a consent meeting with 56, and consent was withheld by 165. Consent was obtained for 150 infants from 115 families. The infants were block randomized to groups of N?=?78, FNI and N?=?72, SC. Sixteen (9.6%) of the randomized infants did not complete the study to home discharge, 7% of those randomized to SC and 12% of FNI infants. Mothers in the intervention group engaged in 3 to 4 facilitated one- to two-hour sessions/week. Intent to treat analyses revealed no significant difference between groups in medical complications. The mean length of stay was not significantly affected by the intervention. Conclusion There was no significant effect demonstrated with this intervention amount on the primary short-term outcome, length of stay. FNI can be safely and feasibly implemented within a level IV NICU. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01439269 PMID:24063360

2013-01-01

256

Assessing the reduction of the hydrological connectivity of gully systems through vegetation restoration: field experiments and numerical modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restoration of degraded land in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes has led to alterations in the functioning of degraded catchments. Recovery of vegetation on areas affected by overgrazing, as well as the reforestation or afforestation of gully areas have given rise to modifications of hydrological connectivity within the catchments. Recent research has highlighted the ability of gully channels to trap sediment eroded from steep slopes, especially if vegetation is established along the gully bed. However, vegetation cover not only induces sediment deposition in the gully bed, but may also have a potential to reduce runoff water volume. The performance of gully beds in reducing the transfer of runoff was investigated by conducting controlled concentrated flow experiments in the field. Experimental field data for nine gullies were derived by pouring concentrated inflow into the upstream end and measuring the outflow at the downstream end of the channel. Two consecutive flow experiments per gully were carried out, so that data for dry and wet soil conditions were collected. The hydrological response to concentrated flow was estimated for each experiment by calculating its cumulative infiltration coefficient, IC (%). The results showed a great difference in IC between dry and wet soil conditions. The IC for wet soil conditions was on average 24%, whereas it was 60% for dry conditions. Gullies with more than 50% surface vegetation cover exhibit the highest cumulative infiltration coefficients (81% for dry runs, and 34% for wet runs), but runoff transmission losses were not as clearly related to vegetation cover as sediment storage as shown in Molina et al. (2009). The experimental field data of 16 experiments were used to calibrate a hydrological model developed by Fiener and Auerswald (2005) in order to simulate the transfer of concentrated flow along the gully beds. The calibrated model was able to simulate the transfer of runoff water well, as the error on the simulated total outflow volumes is below 13% for 15 out of 16 cases. However, predicting infiltration amounts is difficult: the high sensitivity of model results to some crucial hydraulic parameters (runoff width, hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity) is one of the reasons why the relationships between model parameter values and gully features are relatively weak. The results obtained from the field experiments show that gully systems are key elements in the hydrological connectivity of degraded landscapes. The transfer of overland flow and sediment from the slopes towards the river system highly depends on the presence/absence of vegetation in the gully beds and should therefore be accounted for in assessments of landscape degradation and/or recovery.

Molina, A.; Govers, G.; van den Putte, A.; Poesen, J.; Vanacker, V.

2009-10-01

257

FROM RESTORING FLORIDA'S EVERGLADES TO ASSESSING OUR NATION'S ECOLOGICAL CONDITION: SCIENCE PROVIDES THE BASIS FOR UNDERSTANDING AND POLICY  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on first hand experiences, Dr. Fontaine will provide a personal and insightful look at major environmental research and restoration programs he has been involved in. Starting with a visual tour through the Florida Everglades and a discussion of the $12 B science-based rest...

258

Damage assessment in townships using VHSR data; The effect of Operation Murambatsvina \\/ Restore Order in Harare, Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation Murambatsvina, also known as Operation Restore Order, has been a country wide operation carried out by the Zimbabwean Government of forced mass evictions, the demolition of homes and informal businesses. This paper presents first steps towards a transferable and robust change analysis approach for detecting and quantifying damages. The method used for damage detection combines object-based image analysis and

Elisabeth Schöpfer; Dirk Tiede; Stefan Lang; Peter Zeil

2007-01-01

259

Assessing microleakage of composite restorations in class V cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser irradiation or diamond bur  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The aim of this study was to make a comparison between microleakage of conventionally restored class V cavities using bur and acid etchant and, the ones prepared and conditioned by Er:YAG laser. Materials and Methods: 30 recently extracted intact caries and filling free human permanent molars were used for this study. Then, Cold cure acrylic resin was used to seal the apices. The samples were randomly assigned to 5 groups of six each. Class V cavities were prepared one on buccal and one on lingual surface of each sample. Group 1: cavity preparation by diamond bur and turbine + acid etch, Group 2: cavity preparation by Er:YAG laser + acid etch, Group 3: cavity preparation by Er:YAG laser + Laser etching, Group 4: cavity preparation by diamond bur and turbine + laser etching, Group 5: cavity preparation by Er:YAG laser with no conditioning procedure. The cavities restored with restorative composite resin. Samples were then immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 24 hours. The data were then analyzed using Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests. Results: The Kruskal Wallis test showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) between enamel and cementum margin microleakage, while the higher microleakage was related to the cementum margin of restorations. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in evaluating microleakeage degree of cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser and diamond bur. PMID:24944442

Arami, Sakineh; Shahabi, Sima; Tabatabaie, Masomeh; Chiniforush, Nasim; Morshedi, Ehsan; Torabi, Sara

2014-01-01

260

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RIPARIAN ZONE RESTORATION IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS BY ASSESSING SOIL MICROBIAL POPULATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Microbial biomass, nitrifiers and denitrifiers in surface soil (0?10 cm) were quantified in a riparian zone restoration project at Coweeta, North Carolina, USA. Four treatments are included in this study: (1) a degraded (+N) riparian zone with continued compaction, vegetation rem...

261

An advanced phantom study assessing the feasibility of neuronal current imaging by ultra-low-field NMR.  

PubMed

In ultra-low-field (ULF) NMR/MRI, a common scheme is to magnetize the sample by a polarizing field of up to hundreds of mT, after which the NMR signal, precessing in a field on the order of several ?T, is detected with superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). In our ULF-NMR system, we polarize with up to 50mT and deploy a single-stage DC-SQUID current sensor with an integrated input coil which is connected to a wire-wound Nb gradiometer. We developed this system (white noise 0.50fT/?Hz) for assessing the feasibility of imaging neuronal currents by detecting their effect on the ULF-NMR signal. Magnetoencephalography investigations of evoked brain activity showed neuronal dipole moments below 50nAm. With our instrumentation, we have studied two different approaches for neuronal current imaging. In the so-called DC effect, long-lived neuronal activity shifts the Larmor frequency of the surrounding protons. An alternative strategy is to exploit fast neuronal activity as a tipping pulse. This so-called AC effect requires the proton Larmor frequency to match the frequency of the neuronal activity, which ranges from near-DC to ?kHz. We emulated neuronal activity by means of a single dipolar source in a physical phantom, consisting of a hollow sphere filled with an aqueous solution of CuSO4 and NaCl. In these phantom studies, with physiologically relevant dipole depths, we determined resolution limits for our set-up for the AC and the DC effect of ?10?Am and ?50nAm, respectively. Hence, the DC effect appears to be detectable in vivo by current ULF-NMR technology. PMID:24252245

Körber, Rainer; Nieminen, Jaakko O; Höfner, Nora; Jazbinšek, Vojko; Scheer, Hans-Jürgen; Kim, Kiwoong; Burghoff, Martin

2013-12-01

262

Assessing the feasibility of establishing a publicly traded global real estate fund domiciled in the Cayman Islands  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the feasibility of creating a publicly traded, synthetic REIT-type investment fund for the purpose of investing in a portfolio of international real estate assets. The investment strategy is driven by ...

Butterfield, Scott (Scott Alan)

2006-01-01

263

Hair restoration.  

PubMed

The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome. PMID:18620980

Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

2008-08-01

264

Annual report of the Environmental Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for FY 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of the investigations and monitoring, conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented can be used to develop a conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This information forms a basis for prioritizing sites and for selecting, implementing, and evaluating remedial actions. Groundwater, soils, sediments, and surface water monitoring results are described.

Clapp, R.B. (ed.)

1992-09-01

265

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Effors; US Geological Survey Reports, 2003-2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the third year of at least a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie S. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

2006-02-01

266

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Efforts, US Geological Survey Report, 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attended to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first objective was to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort included measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective was to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the fourth year of a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

2006-06-01

267

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2001-2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1914. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for future genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the first year of a three-year study, this report is restricted to describing our work on the first two objectives only.

Connolly, Patrick J. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

2003-01-01

268

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

Connolly, Patrick J. (US Geological Survey, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Western Fisheries Research Center, Cook, WA)

2003-12-01

269

Tivoli Brewery: A Feasibility Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on a study made to ascertain the feasibility of preserving and restoring all or part of an existing historical site -- the "Tivoli Brewery" -- as a related and integral part of the Auraria Higher Education Center. After investigation of the building's structural integrity, the condition of electrical and mechanical systems,…

More, Combs, and Burch, Denver, CO.

270

A groundwater-vegetation interaction model for assessing the impacts of water transfer on ecological restoration in the lower Tarim River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions between groundwater and vegetation is apparently important in hyper-arid area where groundwater is a vitally limiting factor for plants. Since the 1970s, the lower Tarim River (the largest inland basin of China) had suffered drying of river flow and ecosystem degradation. Water was released to the lower reaches to restore the ecosystem after 2000. It is important to understand the interactions between groundwater and vegetation for assessing the impacts of the water release on the ecological restoration. In this study a groundwater-vegetation interaction model was proposed which coupled the simulations of groundwater movement and vegetation dynamics. The model was used to simulate the changes of groundwater table and vegetation coverage at Yingsu section in the lower Tarim River from 2000 to 2006. The model was validated with groundwater observations and satellite-observed vegetation coverage. The effects of the water transfer on the ecological restoration were assessed. The results show that average groundwater raised 2.91 m and vegetation coverage increased from about 0.11 to 0.12-0.25 in the 40-1100 m belts aside the river because of the water release. Groundwater table. Solid line is ground surface. Dashed line is the simulated groundwater table on 2006-12-20. Circles are the observed groundwater table on 2006-12-20 at observation wells, i.e. C3, C4, C5, C6, C7. Vegetation coverage. Solid line is the simulated vegetation coverage on 2006-12-31. Circles are the observed vegetation coverage on 2000-2-18, derived from satellite-observed NDVI.

Liu, D.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.; Lin, M.; Cong, Z.

2010-12-01

271

Assessment of Darkling Beetle Fauna after Implementation of an Environmental Restoration Program in the Southern Iberian Peninsula Affected by the Aznalc?llar Toxic Spill  

PubMed Central

This study is part of the Follow up Restoration Program of animal communities that colonize the Guadiamar River Basin. In 1998, the area was affected by a release of toxic sludge after the retention walls of the Aznalcóllar Mines (southern Iberian Peninsula) broke. The main objective of this study was to assess the current state of the population of Tenebrionidae, one of the most representative groups of edaphic Coleoptera inhabiting the Guadiamar River Basin. This paper analyses the progress made by the darkling beetle community six years after the disaster occurred and the Restoration Program was implemented. The study is based on faunistic data from systematic sampling carried out for six years to monitor plots distributed across the damaged area. To make an overall assessment of the tenebrionid fauna in relation to adjacent areas qualitative and quantitative ecological indices were applied, and temporal follow up and biogeographical comparisons were also made. The results indicate that, on the whole, tenebrionid fauna was somewhat affected by the Aznalcóllar Mine spill, and that a greater loss of fauna was detected closer to the accident site. The analysis of the temporal population dynamic suggests that the most affected zones are undergoing a process of re-colonization. However, this process varies widely by species and has not yet reached the expected levels of a non-affected river basin in the southern Iberian Peninsula. PMID:21864152

Cardenas, Ana M.; Bujalance, Jose L.; Hidalgo, Juan M.

2011-01-01

272

Preliminary assessment report for Grubbs/Kyle Training Center, Smyrna/Rutherford County Regional Airport, Installation 47340, Smyrna, Tennessee. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Tennessee Army National Guard (TNARNG) property near Smyrna, Tennessee. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Grubbs/Kyle Training Center property, the requirement of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

Dennis, C.; Stefano, J.

1993-07-01

273

Restoration Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

1979-01-01

274

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2001-2002.  

SciTech Connect

The White Salmon River Watershed Enhancement Project (WSRWEP) began in 1993 through efforts of the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), local stakeholders and various agencies. Early accomplishments of the project included the formation of a multi-stakeholder watershed management committee (WMC) and technical advisory committee (TAC), completion of several baseline assessments, drafting of a watershed management plan, and beginning implementation of the plan. Since inception, the effort has utilized the support of various government/private grants, and local in-kind contributions to accomplish project goals. The WMC and its partners utilize a four-pronged approach for achieving watershed enhancement: on-ground restoration, extension of technical and financial assistance to cooperators, community and environmental education, and assessment/monitoring to develop strategies and track the success of ongoing work. Project activities are generally targeted to sub-basins and stream reaches within the White Salmon watershed that exhibit important water quality and fish/wildlife habitat problems. Such project prioritization is being conducted with the active input of both the White Salmon WMC and TAC. An important current phase of the WSRWEP targets detailed monitoring and assessment of the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin, and is the focus of this report. The 'Assessment of Rattlesnake Creek in Relation to Restoration Efforts' project (BPA Project ID Number 21009) was identified and prioritized for accomplishment by the White Salmon River TAC in January of 2000. Rationale for the project stemmed from the group's realization that Condit Dam on the lower White Salmon is scheduled for removal, or fish passage retrofitting, within the near future. Given this eventuality, the TAC identified the current lack of understanding regarding both potential anadromous habitat and existing native fish and habitat conditions above Condit Dam (RM 3.2) as an important need. In response to the TAC's determination, the US Geological Survey (USGS), Yakama Nation (YN) and UCD began work to develop the current project that is intended to address the above. The overall goal of the Rattlesnake Creek assessment is to document existing riparian habitat and water quality conditions, native fish populations, and future restoration sites before future return of anadromous fish to the basin above RM 3.2. Since the project is jointly enacted by the USGS, YN and UCD, a high degree of shared planning and joint implementation is applied during completion of tasks. In general, the USGS and YN are cooperatively working to monitor and assess fish populations and riparian habitat conditions within the drainage and adjacent sections of the White Salmon. The UCD is generally responsible for assessing water quality, mapping stream channel geomorphology to enable future restoration planning, and measuring the ratios of carbon and nitrogen isotopes at various trophic levels The remainder of this report provides a summary of significant activities achieved by the UCD under BPA Project 21009 during the first project year. The report follows the FY 2001 UCD/BPA contract Statement of Work (SOW) format. Discussion of major problems encountered, changes in the work plan and schedule deviations are noted in italics after the description of accomplishments for each task.

Stampfli, Steve

2004-02-01

275

Feasibility, validity and reliability of the plank isometric hold as a field-based assessment of torso muscular endurance for children 8-12 years of age.  

PubMed

This project examined the feasibility, validity, and reliability of the plank isometric hold for children 8-12 years of age. 1502 children (52.5% female) performed partial curl-up and/or plank protocols to assess plank feasibility (n = 823, 52.1% girls), validity (n = 641, 54.1% girls) and reliability (n = 111, 47.8% girls). 12% (n = 52/431) of children could not perform a partial curl-up, but virtually all children (n = 1066/1084) could attain a nonzero score for the plank. Plank performance without time limit was influenced by small effects with age (? = 6.86; p < .001, ?(2) = 0.03), flexibility (? = 0.79; p < .001, ?(2) = 0.03), and medium effects with cardiovascular endurance (? = 1.07; p < .001, ?(2) = 0.08), and waist circumference (? = -0.92; p < .001, ?(2) = 0.06). Interrater (ICC = 0.62; CI = 0.50, 0.75), intra-rater (ICC = 0.83; CI = 0.73, 0.90) and test-retest (ICC = 0.63; CI = 0.46, 0.75) reliability were acceptable for the plank without time limit. These data suggest the plank without time limit is a feasible, valid and reliable assessment of torso muscular endurance for children 8-12 years of age. PMID:23877226

Boyer, Charles; Tremblay, Mark; Saunders, Travis J; McFarlane, Allison; Borghese, Michael; Lloyd, Meghann; Longmuir, Pat

2013-08-01

276

A feasibility study of psychological strengths and well-being assessment in individuals living with recurrent depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current conceptualizations of mental illness focus on assessing psychopathology. A balanced approach would assess strengths that individuals bring to coping with illness. This study measures psychological strengths in individuals with recurrent depression, their coping strategies, and their perceptions of the usefulness of strengths assessment as a component of psychological assessment. Individuals (N?=?112) with recurrent depression completed an online questionnaire measuring

Ann Macaskill

2012-01-01

277

Characteristics of families of soldiers who return prematurely from overseas deployments: an assessment from Operation Restore Hope (Somalia).  

PubMed

Nearly 500 wives, married to enlisted soldiers who deployed to Somalia for Operation Restore Hope, participated in a postdeployment study in the summer of 1993. About 10% of their husbands had returned early from Somalia for family reasons. Analysis of their wives' reports suggests that early returns were associated most often with childbirth or problematic pregnancies rather than other factors such as inexperience with deployments, negative attitudes towards the military, a lack of support services, or lower coping abilities. However, in hindsight, our results probably reflect compliance with military policy at that time for that deployment, under which pregnancy-related concerns were one of the most legitimate reasons for permitting an early return. The results support sociological theories that highlight the importance of macrosocial factors in influencing the lives of individual families somewhat independently of the microsocial environment of the families. PMID:10932593

Schumm, W R; Bell, D B; Knott, B

2000-06-01

278

Pharmacokinetic assessment of novel anti-cancer drugs using spectral analysis and positron emission tomography: A feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of evaluating the pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled anti-cancer\\u000a drugs using spectral analysis, a non-compartmental tracer kinetic modeling technique, and positron emission tomography (PET).\\u000a Methods: Dynamic PET studies were performed on patients receiving tracer doses of 5-fluorouracil (5-[18F]-FU) and two developmental drugs – [11C]-temozolomide and [11C]-acridine carboxamide. Spectral analysis was then

Steven R. Meikle; Julian C. Matthews; Cathryn S. Brock; Paula WellsRobert; Robert J. A. Harte; Vincent J. Cunningham; Terry Jones; Pat Price

1998-01-01

279

Vegetative Ecological Characteristics of Restored Reed ( Phragmites australis) Wetlands in the Yellow River Delta, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we compared ecological characteristics of wetland vegetation in a series of restoration projects that were carried out in the wetlands of Yellow River Delta. The investigated characteristics include plant composition structure, species diversity and community similarity in three kinds of Phragmites australis wetlands, i.e. restored P. australis wetlands (R1, R2, R3 and R4: restored in 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2009, respectively), natural P. australis wetland (N) and degraded P. australis wetland (D) to assess the process of wetlands restoration. The coverage of the R1 was 99%, which was similar to natural wetland. Among all studied wetlands, the highest and lowest stem density was observed in R1 and R2, respectively, Plant height and stem diameter show the same trend as N > R2 > R1 > R3 > D > R4. Species diversity of restored P. australis wetlands became closed to natural wetland. Both species richness and Shannon-Wiener index had similar tendency: increased first and then decreased with restored time. The highest species richness and species diversity were observed in R2, while the lowest values of those parameters were found in natural P. australis wetland. Similarity indexes between restored wetlands and natural wetland increased with the restoration time, but they were still less than 50%. The results indicate that the vegetation of P. australis wetlands has experienced a great improvement after several years' restoration, and it is feasible to restored degraded P. australis wetlands by pouring fresh water into those wetlands in the Yellow River Delta. However, it is notable that costal degraded P. australis wetland in this region may take years to decades to reach the status of natural wetland.

Wang, Xuehong; Yu, Junbao; Zhou, Di; Dong, Hongfang; Li, Yunzhao; Lin, Qianxin; Guan, Bo; Wang, Yongli

2012-02-01

280

Estuary Restoration Act Estuary Habitat Restoration Council  

E-print Network

. Recommend USACE fund. 3. St. Lucie River Oyster Reef Will restore and monitor 2 acres of oyster reef. Little Oyster Creek Will restore 10 acres of oyster habitat using Ultra Balls and Sanctuary, NC Reef stream restoration activities. Recommend NOOA fund. 11. Scaling-Up Native Oyster Will restore 4 acres

US Army Corps of Engineers

281

Restoration or Renovation? Evaluating Restorative Justice Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critics of restorative justice claim that its popularity is based on 'humanistic sentiment' and suggest that the process is incapable of achieving its aim of restoring victims and offenders. The current study sought to establish if restorative justice is capable of restoring victims and offenders in a meaningful manner, or if the process simply results in a superficial renovation of

Jaimie P. Beven; Guy Hall; Irene Froyland; Brian Steels; Dorothy Goulding

2005-01-01

282

A Multiple Watershed Approach to Assessing the Effects of Habitat Restoration Actions on Anadromous and Resident Fish Populations, Technical Report 2003-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat protection and restoration is a cornerstone of current strategies to restore ecosystems, recover endangered fish species, and rebuild fish stocks within the Columbia River Basin. Strategies featuring habitat restoration include the 2000 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS BiOp) developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the 2000 Biological Opinion on Bull

2004-01-01

283

A strategic analysis study-based approach to integrated risk assessment: Occupational health risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The goal of environmental restoration and waste management activities is to reduce public health risks or to delay risks to the future when new technology will be available for improved cleanup solutions. Actions to remediate the wastes on the Hanford Site will entail risks to workers, the public, and the environment that do not currently exist. In some circumstances, remediation activities will create new exposure pathways that are not present without cleanup activities. In addition, cleanup actions will redistribute existing health risks over time and space, and will likely shift health risks to cleanup workers in the short term. This report describes an approach to occupational risk assessment based on the Hanford Strategic Analysis Study and illustrates the approach by comparing worker risks for two options for remediation of N/K fuels, a subcategory of unprocessed irradiated fuels at Hanford.

Mahaffey, J.A.; Doctor, P.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Glantz, C.S.; Daling, P.M.; Sever, L.E.; Vargo, G.J. Jr.; Strachan, D.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Pajunen, A.L.; Hoyt, R.C.; Ludowise, J.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-06-01

284

Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Evaluation of selected feasibility studies of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) hazardous waste sites  

SciTech Connect

Congress and the public have mandated much closer scrutiny of the management of chemically hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes. Legislative language, regulatory intent, and prudent technical judgment, call for using scientifically based studies to assess current conditions and to evaluate and select costeffective strategies for mitigating unacceptable situations. The NCP requires that a Remedial Investigation (RI) and a Feasibility Study (FS) be conducted at each site targeted for remedial response action. The goal of the RI is to obtain the site data needed so that the potential impacts on public health or welfare or on the environment can be evaluated and so that the remedial alternatives can be identified and selected. The goal of the FS is to identify and evaluate alternative remedial actions (including a no-action alternative) in terms of their cost, effectiveness, and engineering feasibility. The NCP also requires the analysis of impacts on public health and welfare and on the environment; this analysis is the endangerment assessment (EA). In summary, the RI, EA, and FS processes require assessment of the contamination at a site, of the potential impacts in public health or the environment from that contamination, and of alternative RAs that could address potential impacts to the environment. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Whelan, G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Hartz, K.E.; Hilliard, N.D. (Beck (R.W.) and Associates, Seattle, WA (USA))

1990-04-01

285

Performance of risk assessments in remedial investigation/feasibility studies (RI/FSs) conducted by potentially responsible parties (PRPs)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the directive is to provide initial guidance on implementing the recent decision that in the future EPA will develop all risk assessments for sites remediated under CERCLA. It focuses on the applicability of the decision to new and existing orders or decrees for RI/FSs conducted by PRPs. In essence, EPA or a State (whose oversight of the PRP is Federally funded) will develop the risk assessment for all new orders or decrees. For existing orders or decrees that specify that the PRP prepares the risk assessment, the PRP will be given an opportunity under the terms of the order or decree to complete an acceptable risk assessment under stringent oversight and without undue delay. The term risk assessment in the directive is meant to include environmental assessments as well as assessments of risks to human health.

Not Available

1990-08-28

286

Ex vivo water exchange performance and short-term clinical feasibility assessment of newly developed heat and moisture exchangers for pulmonary rehabilitation after total laryngectomy.  

PubMed

Laryngectomized patients suffer from respiratory complaints due to insufficient warming and humidification of inspired air in the upper respiratory tract. Improvement of pulmonary humidification with significant reduction of pulmonary complaints is achieved by the application of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) over the tracheostoma. The aim of this study was to determine whether the new Provox HMEs (XM-HME and XF-HME) have a better water exchange performance than their predecessors (R-HME and L-HME, respectively; Atos Medical, Hörby, Sweden). The other aim was to assess the short-term clinical feasibility of these HMEs. The XM-HME and XF-HME were weighed at the end of inspiration and at the end of expiration at different breathing volumes produced by a healthy volunteer. The associations between weight changes, breathing volume and absolute humidity were determined using both linear and non-linear mixed effects models. Study-specific questionnaires and tally sheets were used in the clinical feasibility study. The weight change of the XM-HME is 3.6 mg, this is significantly higher than that of the R-HME (2.0 mg). The weight change of the XF-HME (2.0 mg) was not significantly higher than that of the L-HME (1.8 mg). The absolute humidity values of both XM- and XF-HME were significantly higher than that of their predecessors. The clinical feasibility study did not reveal any practical problems over the course of 3 weeks. The XM-HME has a significantly better water exchange performance than its predecessor (R-HME). Both newly designed HMEs did succeed in the clinical feasibility study. PMID:23636480

van den Boer, Cindy; Muller, Sara H; Vincent, Andrew D; Züchner, Klaus; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Hilgers, Frans J M

2014-02-01

287

FY 1985 status report on feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses progress made during the first year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. The expected corrosion and oxidation performances of oxygen-free copper, aluminum bronze, and 70% copper-30% nickel are presented; a test plan for determining whether copper or one of the alloys can meet the containment requirements is outlined. Some preliminary corrosion test data are presented and discussed. Fabrication and joining techniques for forming waste package containers are descibed. Preliminary test data and analyses indicate that copper and copper-base alloys have several attractive features as waste package container materials, but additional work is needed before definitive conclusions can be made on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy for containers. Plans for work to be undertaken in the second year are indicated.

McCright, R.D.

1985-09-30

288

Assessing occupational and domestic ELF magnetic field exposure in the uk adult brain tumour study: results of a feasibility study.  

PubMed

The feasibility of measuring exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) in the UK Adult Brain Tumour Study (UKABTS) was examined. During the study, 81 individuals and 30 companies were approached with 79 individuals and 25 companies agreeing to participate. Exposure data were collected using EMDEX II dosemeters worn by the participants for 3-4 consecutive days. Data were collected over a total of 321 d, including non-occupational periods. The results showed occupational exposure to be the main determinant of overall exposure. Moderate to strong correlations were found between arithmetic mean exposure and all other metrics with the possible exception of maximum exposure. Significant differences in exposure were found between job categories with large variability in certain categories. Highest average exposures were found for security officers (arithmetic mean, AM: 0.78 micro T), secretaries (AM: 0.48 micro T) and dentists (AM: 0.42 micro T). Welding and working near high-voltage power lines were associated with elevated exposure. In summary, acceptably precise measures of ELF MF exposure are feasible at relatively moderate cost. The results were used to develop a protocol for data collection from subjects in the UKABTS. PMID:15031444

van Tongeren, Martie; Mee, Terry; Whatmough, Pamela; Broad, Lisa; Maslanyj, Myron; Allen, Stuart; Muir, Ken; McKinney, Patricia

2004-01-01

289

Monitoring Dietary Intake and Physical Activity Electronically: Feasibility, Usability, and Ecological Validity of a Mobile-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Tool  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the growing body of research on complex lifestyle behaviors (eg, Dietary Intake [DI] and Physical Activity [PA]), monitoring of these behaviors has been hampered by a lack of suitable methods. A possible solution to this deficiency is mobile-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (mEMA), which enables researchers to collect data on participants’ states in real-time by means of a smartphone application. However, feasibility, usability, and ecological validity need to be anticipated and managed in order to enhance the validity of mEMA. Objective To examine the feasibility, usability, and ecological validity of a mEMA application (app) with regard to DI and PA among Dutch vocational education students. Methods The students (n=30) participated in the mEMA study for seven consecutive days. They downloaded the mEMA app on their smartphone. Feasibility and usability of the mEMA app were evaluated by completing an online evaluation after seven days of participation. Ecological validity was measured by assessing the degree to which the content of the mEMA app approximated the real-world setting that was being examined, through several multiple-choice questions. Results Compliance rates, as registered by the mEMA app, declined 46% over a seven-day period, while self-reported compliance, as measured with an online evaluation questionnaire afterwards, indicated a smaller decrease in compliance (29%). The students evaluated the mEMA app as feasible and usable. Ecological validity analyses showed that all DI and almost all PA multiple-choice options were covered with the compound response categories. Conclusions The mEMA app offers the opportunity to assess complex health behaviors (eg, DI and PA) in real-time settings, in which specifically routinized behaviors are involved. However, the mEMA app faced several challenges that needed to be overcome in order to improve its validity. Overall, the present study showed that the mEMA app is a usable and ecologically valid tool to measure DI and PA behaviors among vocational education students, but compliance is still limited. PMID:24067298

Paulussen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Van Empelen, Pepijn

2013-01-01

290

Feasibility Study of an Express Assessment Protocol for the Indoor Air Quality of Air-conditioned Offices  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is costly to sample all major toxic pollutants in community air. Sampling should be conducted based on an assessment strategy and monitoring planning. Assessment methods that rely on monitoring some representative pollutants have been proposed variously at different times. In Hong Kong, the Environmental Protection Department (HKEPD) launched an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) certification scheme to grade the IAQ

P. S. Hui; L. T. Wong; K. W. Mui

2006-01-01

291

Development of a reference material for Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A in cheese: feasibility study, processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.  

PubMed

Staphylococcal food poisoning is caused by enterotoxins excreted into foods by strains of staphylococci. Commission Regulation 1441/2007 specifies thresholds for the presence of these toxins in foods. In this article we report on the progress towards reference materials (RMs) for Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in cheese. RMs are crucial to enforce legislation and to implement and safeguard reliable measurements. First, a feasibility study revealed a suitable processing procedure for cheese powders: the blank material was prepared by cutting, grinding, freeze-drying and milling. For the spiked material, a cheese-water slurry was spiked with SEA solution, freeze-dried and diluted with blank material to the desired SEA concentration. Thereafter, batches of three materials (blank; two SEA concentrations) were processed. The materials were shown to be sufficiently homogeneous, and storage at ambient temperature for 4weeks did not indicate degradation. These results provide the basis for the development of a RM for SEA in cheese. PMID:25172706

Zeleny, R; Emteborg, H; Charoud-Got, J; Schimmel, H; Nia, Y; Mutel, I; Ostyn, A; Herbin, S; Hennekinne, J-A

2015-02-01

292

A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from grown and waste organics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An estimate is obtained of the yearly supply of organic material for conversion to fuels, the energy potential is evaluated, and the fermentation and pyrolysis conversion processes are discussed. An investigation is conducted of the estimated cost of fuel from organics and the conclusions of an overall evaluation are presented. It is found that climate, land availability and economics of agricultural production and marketing, food demand, fertilizer shortage, and water availability combine to cast doubts on the feasibility of producing grown organic matter for fuel, in competition with food, feed, or fiber. Less controversial is the utilization of agricultural, industrial, and domestic waste as a conversion feedstock. The evaluation of a demonstration size system is recommended.

Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y.-Y.

1976-01-01

293

A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from grown and waste organics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anticipated depletion of our resources of natural gas and petroleum in a few decades has caused a search for renewable sources of fuel. Among the possibilities is the chemical conversion of waste and grown organic matter into gaseous or liquid fuels. The overall feasibility of such a system is considered from the technical, economic, and social viewpoints. Although there are a number of difficult problems to overcome, this preliminary study indicates that this option could provide between 4 and 10 percent of the U.S. energy needs. Estimated costs of fuels derived from grown organic material are appreciably higher than today's market price for fossil fuel. The cost of fuel derived from waste organics is competitive with fossil fuel prices. Economic and social reasons will prohibit the allocation of good food producing land to fuel crop production.

Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y. Y.

1976-01-01

294

Physiological modeling and assessments of regional drug bioavailability of danoprevir to determine whether a controlled release formulation is feasible.  

PubMed

Danoprevir, a potent, selective inhibitor of HCV NS3/4A protease, has a short half-life in humans. Therefore, the feasibility of a controlled release (CR) formulation to allow less frequent dosing was investigated using experimental approaches and physiological modeling to examine whether danoprevir is absorbed in the colon. Danoprevir absorption was studied in portal-vein-cannulated monkeys and in monkeys surgically modified to make intraduodenal, intrajejunal, intracolonic and oral administration possible. In portal-vein-cannulated monkeys, absorption was apparent up to 24 h after administration. The observed relative bioavailability from intracolonic delivery in the monkey was approximately 30% relative to oral administration, consistent with the model prediction of 40%. Human relative bioavailability for a tablet delivered to the colon compared with an immediate release (IR) formulation was predicted to be 4-28%. Preclinical data and modeling suggested that CR development would be challenging for this Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class IV compound. Therefore, a confirmative study in healthy volunteers was conducted to investigate the relative bioavailability of danoprevir in various regions of the gastrointestinal tract. In a randomized, open-label, crossover study, subjects received 100 mg danoprevir IR soft gel capsule, 100 mg danoprevir solution delivered to the distal small bowel and colon via an Enterion™ capsule (a remotely activated capsule for regional drug delivery) and 100 mg danoprevir powder to the colon via an Enterion™ capsule. The relative bioavailability of danoprevir (compared with IR) delivered to the colon was 6.5% for a solution and 0.6% for a powder formulation, indicating that a CR formulation is not feasible. PMID:21660978

Reddy, Micaela B; Connor, Alyson; Brennan, Barbara J; Morcos, Peter N; Zhou, Amy; McLawhon, Pamela; Fretland, Adrian; Evans, Philip; Smith, Patrick; Tran, Jonathan Q

2011-07-01

295

Genetic Assessment of Walleye ( Sander vitreus) Restoration Efforts and Options in Nipigon Bay and Black Bay, Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Walleye (Sander vitreus) stocks in Nipigon Bay and Black Bay historically numbered as the largest stocks in Lake Superior, but collapsed in the 1960s due to overfishing, habitat loss, and other pressures. We used microsatellite DNA analyses to assess the success and relative contributions of past rehabilitation stocking to walleye in Nipigon Bay, and to investigate the relationship between historical

Chris C. Wilson; Mike Lavender; Jeff Black

2007-01-01

296

Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis of Tidal Wetland Restoration in Snohomish River, Washington  

SciTech Connect

To re-establish the intertidal wetlands with full tidal interaction and improve salmonid rearing habitat in the Lower Snohomish River estuary, a diked wetland along Union Slough of the Snohomish River was restored by breaching the existing dike and constructing bridges across the breaches. However, post-restoration monitoring indicated that the restored project site could not drain as efficiently as desired. To improve the drainage conditions at the restoration site during low tides, a modeling study was conducted to evaluate additional restoration scenarios and to provide recommendations for finish-grade ground elevations to achieve the desired drainage. To accurately simulate the drainage of the project site, an unstructured-grid hydrodynamic model with fine-grid resolution down to a few meters was used in this study. The model was first validated with observed water level data collected in the project site and then applied to assess the feasibility of different proposed restoration scenarios. A spatial varying bottom roughness option in the model is also implemented to better represent the high roughness due to the presence of dense vegetation in the project site. The methodology, error statistics of model validation and uncertainty of the modeling analysis are presented and discussed.

Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

2012-03-07

297

Preliminary assessment report for Bee Caves Armory (former Nike BG-80 Fire Control Facility), Installation 48055, Austin, Texas. Installation Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Texas Army National Guard (ARNG) property in Austin, Texas. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing, preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining, site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Bee Caves Armory property, the requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program. Of concern is the potential for hazardous waste to be present on the property as a result of the former Nike Missile Base operations or in the form of original construction materials. Environmentally sensitive operations associated with the property from that period include (1) underground fuel storage, (2) hazardous materials storage/use, (3) disposal of hazardous waste and (4) release of hazardous waste water.

Dennis, C.

1993-08-01

298

Basic research for environmental restoration  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-01

299

Feasibility of focal transcranial DC polarization with simultaneous EEG recording: preliminary assessment in healthy subjects and human epilepsy.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate the feasibility of an experimental system for simultaneous transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS) and EEG recording in human epilepsy. We report tolerability of this system in a cross-over controlled trial with 15 healthy subjects and preliminary effects of its use, testing repeated tDCS sessions, in two patients with drug-refractory Continuous Spike-Wave Discharges During Slow Sleep (CSWS). Our system combining continuous recording of the EEG with tDCS allows detailed evaluation of the interictal activity during the entire process. Stimulation with 1 mA was well-tolerated in both healthy volunteers and patients with refractory epilepsy. The large reduction in interictal epileptiform EEG discharges in the two subjects with epilepsy supports further investigation of tDCS using this combined method of stimulation and monitoring in epilepsy. Continuous monitoring of epileptic activity throughout tDCS improves safety and allows detailed evaluation of epileptic activity changes induced by tDCS in patients. PMID:23123281

Faria, Paula; Fregni, Felipe; Sebastião, Fernando; Dias, Ana I; Leal, Alberto

2012-11-01

300

Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the Colonie site, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

This work plan has been prepared to document the scoping and planning process performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support remedial action activities at the Colonie site. The site is located in eastern New York State in the town of Colonie near the city of Albany. Remedial action of the Colonie site is being planned as part of DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The DOE is responsible for controlling the release of all radioactive and chemical contaminants from the site. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) must be prepared to support the decision-making process for evaluating remedial action alternatives. This work plan contains a summary of information known about the site as of January 1988, presents a conceptual site model that identifies potential routes of human exposure to site containments, identifies data gaps, and summarizes the process and proposed studies that will be used to fill the data gaps. In addition, DOE activities must be conducted in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires consideration of the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of its decision-making process. This work also describes the approach that will be used to evaluate potential remedial action alternatives and includes a description of the organization, project controls, and task schedules that will be employed to fulfill the requirements of both CERCLA and NEPA. 48 refs., 18 figs., 25 tabs.

Not Available

1990-06-01

301

Geo-feasibility of in situ sediment capping in a Great Lakes urban estuary: a sediment budget assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presque Isle Bay is one of 40 remaining environmental areas of concern (AoCs) on the North American Great Lakes that have one or more water, habitat, or sediment quality impairments as defined by the International Joint Commission. In situ natural capping using sediment from to-be-remediated watersheds and other potential sources is being considered as the most feasible means of remediating an existing contaminated sediment problem at this site. A multi-decade (˜40 year) sediment budget shows that, when localized anthropogenic effects (dredging, reclamation) are discounted, the bay net-accumulated sediment over time. Sediment was supplied from three major sources: bank erosion and bluff retreat (41%), streams (25%), and the Lake Erie littoral system (20%). The non-stream sources supply environmentally clean materials from ancient beach and glacio-lacustrine deposits along the shoreline, and from the modern littoral system. Organic and metallic contaminants supplied primarily by streams and run-off remain a remediation challenge for the AoC. Geologically, natural capping of contaminants over the next several decades is a viable solution for most of the bay. The mechanism may not work effectively in all areas because approximately 25% of the bay floor is moderately net-erosional while several localized areas accumulate sediments very slowly at decadal timescales.

Foyle, Anthony M.; Norton, Kevin P.

2007-10-01

302

Automated Pilot Performance Assessment in the T-37: A Feasibility Study. Final Report (May 1968-April 1971).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Air Force investigators conducted a three year program to develop a capability for automated quantification and assessment of in-flight pilot performance. Such a capability enhances pilot training by making ratings more objective, valid, reliable and sensitive, and by freeing instructors from rating responsibilities, allowing them to concentrate…

Knoop, Patricia A.; Welde, William L.

303

Cultural Tailoring and Feasibility Assessment of a Sexual Health Middle School Curriculum: A Pilot Test in Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To assess the need for cultural tailoring of an effective sexual health middle school curriculum, "It's Your Game: Keep It Real" (IYG), prior to implementation in Puerto Rican (PR) middle schools. Methods: Seventy-three seventh-grade bilingual students participated in IYG curriculum activities (both group-based and computer-based) in…

Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Shegog, Ross; Moscoso-Alvarez, Margarita R.; Markham, Christine; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Peskin, Melissa; Tortolero, Susan

2011-01-01

304

Feasibility study on the solidification of liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

A literature survey was conducted to help determine the feasibility of solidifying a liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this report is to facilitate a decision on the disposition of these wastes by identifying any waste constituents that might (1) compromise the strength or stability of the waste form or (2) be highly leachable. Furthermore, its goal is to identify ways to circumvent interferences and to decrease the leachability of the waste constituents. This study has sought to provide an understanding of inhibition of cement set by identifying the fundamental chemical mechanisms by which this inhibition takes place. From this fundamental information, it is possible to draw some conclusions about the potential effects of waste constituents, even in the absence of particular studies on specific compounds.

Trussell, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Spence, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-01-01

305

Flathead Renewable Energy Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The study shall assess the feasibility of a commercial wind facility on lands selected and owned by the Salish and Kootenai Tribes and shall examine the potential for the development of solar and biomass resources located on Tribal Lands.

Belvin Pete: Ed McCarthy; Krista Gordon; Chris Bergen; Rhett Good

2006-10-03

306

Measurement properties and feasibility of clinical tests to assess sit-to-stand/stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with neurological disease: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Subjects with neurological disease (ND) usually show impaired performance during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks, with a consequent reduction in their mobility levels. Objective To determine the measurement properties and feasibility previously investigated for clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit in subjects with ND. Method A systematic literature review following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) protocol was performed. Systematic literature searches of databases (MEDLINE/SCIELO/LILACS/PEDro) were performed to identify relevant studies. In all studies, the following inclusion criteria were assessed: investigation of any measurement property or the feasibility of clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with ND published in any language through December 2012. The COSMIN checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. Results Eleven studies were included. The measurement properties/feasibility were most commonly investigated for the five-repetition sit-to-stand test, which showed good test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient:ICC=0.94-0.99) for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and dementia. The ICC values were higher for this test than for the number of repetitions in the 30-s test. The five-repetition sit-to-stand test also showed good inter/intra-rater reliabilities (ICC=0.97-0.99) for stroke and inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.99) for subjects with Parkinson disease and incomplete spinal cord injury. For this test, the criterion-related validity for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and incomplete spinal cord injury was, in general, moderate (correlation=0.40-0.77), and the feasibility and safety were good for subjects with Alzheimer's disease. Conclusions The five-repetition sit-to-stand test was used more often in subjects with ND, and most of the measurement properties were investigated and showed adequate results. PMID:24839043

Silva, Paula F. S.; Quintino, Ludmylla F.; Franco, Juliane; Faria, Christina D. C. M.

2014-01-01

307

A survey of green burial sites in England and Wales and an assessment of the feasibility of a groundwater vulnerability tool.  

PubMed

Since 1994, 200 'green' or natural burial sites have been developed in the UK and Eire, attracting regulatory attention because of perceived risks to groundwater. Here, a survey of natural burial practice in England and Wales (n=49 of 141 elicited) is presented, providing data on operational trends and supporting the design of a groundwater vulnerability assessment tool. Natural burial grounds are generally small in area (< 0.8 ha), adopt a mean single burial depth of 1.45 m bgl and a mean plot density of ca. 1480 graves ha(-1). A vulnerability screening tool is described that allows a desk-based evaluation of sites by reference to seven groundwater risk attributes. Initial feasibility is evaluated through application to 131 sites. PMID:18610540

Kim, K-H; Hall, M L; Hart, A; Pollard, S J T

2008-01-01

308

The Girlfriends Project: Results of a pilot study assessing feasibility of an HIV testing and risk reduction intervention developed, implemented, and evaluated in community settings.  

PubMed

African American women in the United States experience significant HIV health disparities. The majority of evidence-based risk reduction interventions do not incorporate HIV testing, and most are targeted only to narrow segments of the population such as women who are pregnant or seen in STI clinics. This pilot study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of The Girlfriends Project (TGP), a community developed and community evaluated HIV risk reduction and testing intervention. A group randomized wait-list design was used to recruit 149 women and to compare findings for intervention group versus control group participants. Women in the intervention group demonstrated statistically-significant increases in HIV knowledge scores and in condom use during vaginal sex. Eighty-seven percent of participants accessed HIV testing with a 100% return rate for results. Study findings suggest that TGP has the potential to be an effective intervention and to increase number of African American women who access HIV testing. PMID:24245598

Hawk, Mary

2013-12-01

309

Suggestions for improvement of the methodology and use of MEPAS, the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) has been evaluated for the purpose of determining if the current ranking of waste sites is realistic and reliable. There are two main reasons for the uncertainty of the rankings identified in this study: the use of the hazard potential index (HPI) and the user input. The HPI contributes to unreliable rankings because risks to human populations are summarized in a single numerical value. A final result from MEPAS should include risks to the maximally exposed individual, average individual, and the population (noting the population size) so that users can evaluate and weigh these risks. Examination of user input indicates that exposure pathways and exposed populations were sometimes arbitrarily selected. Users must be better informed about the characteristics of the waste site and its potential interaction with human populations for realistic input to the MEPAS model to be developed. Without realistic and consistent input to the MEPAS, or any model, reliable results cannot be expected and any prioritizations based on the results will be questionable.

Shevenell, L.; Hoffman, F.O.

1992-04-01

310

Assessing the Feasibility of Using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) for Assaying Plutonium in Spent Fuel Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA) is an active-interrogation nondestructive assay (NDA) technique capable of assaying spent nuclear fuel to determine plutonium content. Prior experimental work has definitively shown the technique capable of assaying plutonium isotope composition in spent-fuel pins to a precision of approximately 3%, with a spatial resolution of a few millimeters. As a Grand Challenge to investigate NDA options for assaying spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) in the commercial fuel cycle, Idaho National Laboratory has explored the feasibility of using NRTA to assay plutonium in a whole SFA. The goal is to achieve a Pu assay precision of 1%. The NRTA technique uses low-energy neutrons from 0.1-40 eV, at the bottom end of the actinide-resonance range, in a time-of-flight arrangement. Isotopic composition is determined by relating absorption of the incident neutrons to the macroscopic cross-section of the actinides of interest in the material, and then using this information to determine the areal density of the isotopes in the SFA. The neutrons used for NRTA are produced using a pulsed, accelerator-based neutron source. Distinguishable resonances exist for both the plutonium (239,240,241,242Pu) and uranium (235,236,238U) isotopes of interest in spent fuel. Additionally, in this energy range resonances exists for six important fission products (99Tc, 103Rh, 131Xe, 133Cs, 145Nd, and 152Sm) which provide additional information to support spent fuel plutonium assay determinations. Based on extensive modeling of the problem using Monte Carlo-based simulation codes, our preliminary results suggest that by rotating an SFA to acquire four symmetric views, sufficient neutron transmission can be achieved to assay a SFA. In this approach multiple scan information for the same pins may also be unfolded to potentially allow the determination of plutonium for sub-regions of the assembly. For a 17 ? 17 pressurized water reactor SFA, a simplistic preliminary analysis indicates the mass of 239Pu may be determined with a precision on the order of 5%, without the need for operator-supplied fuel information or operational histories. This paper will present our work to date on this topic, indicate our preliminary findings for a conceptual assay approach, discuss resilience against spoofing, and outline our future plans for evaluating the NRTA technique for SFA plutonium determination.

D. L. Chichester; J. W. Sterbentz

2012-07-01

311

Clinical measures are feasible and sensitive to assess balance and gait capacities in older persons with mild to moderate Intellectual Disabilities.  

PubMed

Mobility limitations are common in persons with Intellectual Disabilities (ID). Differences in balance and gait capacities between persons with ID and controls have mainly been demonstrated by instrumented assessments (e.g. posturography and gait analysis), which require sophisticated and expensive equipment such as force plates or a 3D motion analysis system. Most physicians and allied healthcare professionals working with persons with ID do not have such equipment at their disposal, so they must rely on clinical tests to determine whether balance and gait are affected. The aim of this study was to investigate whether existing clinical balance and gait tests are feasible in older persons with mild to moderate ID and to examine whether these tests are able to show limitations in balance and gait capacities in the ID population compared to age-matched peers in the general population. Furthermore, it was aimed to identify the most important determinants of balance and gait disability in persons with the ID. A total of 76 older persons with mild to moderate ID (43 male, mean age 63.1 ± 7.6 years) and 20 healthy controls (14 male, mean age 62.2 ± 5.6 years) participated. Balance and gait abilities were assessed with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Functional Reach test (FR), the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT), the timed Single Leg Stance (SLS) and the Ten Metre Walking Test (TMWT). Our study showed that it is feasible to conduct standard clinical balance and gait tests in older persons with mild to moderate ID. Balance and gait performance of persons with ID is substantially worse compared to older persons of the general population. Age, number of co-morbidities, Body Mass Index (BMI), body sway and fear of falling are associated with balance and gait performance in persons with ID. These factors might help in the selection of subjects to be monitored on their balance and gait capacities. PMID:22985782

Enkelaar, Lotte; Smulders, Ellen; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Geurts, Alexander C H

2013-01-01

312

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay gliadin assessment in processed food products available for persons with celiac disease: a feasibility study for developing a gluten-free food database.  

PubMed

Inappropriate food labeling and unwillingness of food companies to officially register their own gluten-free products in the Greek National Food Intolerance Database (NFID) result in a limited range of processed food products available for persons with celiac disease (CDP). The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of developing a gluten-free food product database based on the assessment of the gluten content in processed foods available for CDP. Gluten was assessed in 41 processed food products available for CDP. Group A consisted of 26 products for CDP included in the NFID, and group B contained 15 food products for CDP not registered in the NFID but listed in the safe lists of the local Celiac Association (CA). High-sensitivity ?-gliadin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for analysis. Gluten was lower than 20 ppm in 37 of 41 analyzed products (90.2%): in 24 of 26 (92.3%) products in group A and in 13 of 15 (86.7%) products in group B (P = .61). No significant difference was found between the 2 groups regarding gluten content. No product in either group contained gluten in excess of 100 ppm. Most of the analyzed products included in the Greek NFID or listed in the lists of the local CA, even those not officially labeled "gluten free," can be safely consumed by CDP. The use of commercially available ?-gliadin ELISA is able to identify those products that contain inappropriate levels of gluten, making feasible it to develop an integrated gluten-free processed food database. PMID:21952119

Agakidis, Charalampos; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Kalaitsidou, Marina; Papadopoulos, Theodoros; Savvidou, Afroditi; Daskalou, Efstratia; Dimitrios, Triantafyllou

2011-12-01

313

Final environmental assessment and Finding-of-No-Significant-Impact - drum storage facility for interim storage of materials generated by environmental restoration operations  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0995, for the construction and operation of a drum storage facility at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for construction of the facility was generated in response to current and anticipated future needs for interim storage of waste materials generated by environmental restoration operations. A public meeting was held on July 20, 1994, at which the scope and analyses of the EA were presented. The scope of the EA included evaluation of alternative methods of storage, including no action. A comment period from July 5, 1994 through August 4, 1994, was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to submit written comment on the EA. No written comments were received regarding this proposed action, therefore no comment response is included in the Final EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

Not Available

1994-09-01

314

Louisiana Natural Disasters and Ecological Forecasting: Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Induced Transgression of the Chandeleur Islands for Restoration and Wildlife Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chandeleur Islands are the first line of defense against tropical storms and hurricanes for coastal Louisiana. They provide habitats for bird species and are a national wildlife refuge; however, they are eroding and transgressing at an alarming rate. In 1998, Hurricane Georges caused severe damage to the chain, prompting restoration and monitoring efforts by both Federal and State agencies. Since then, storm events have steadily diminished the condition of the islands. Quantification of shoreline erosion, vegetation, and land loss, from 1979 to 2009, was calculated through the analysis of imagery from Landsat 2-4 Multispectral Scanner, Landsat 4 & 5 Thematic Mapper, and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors. QuickBird imagery was used to validate the accuracy of these results. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assist in tracking the landward migration of the Chandeleur Islands. The use of near infrared reflectance calculated from MOD09 surface reflectance data from 2000 to 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool. The scope of this project includes not only assessments of the tropical cyclonic events during this time period, but also the effects of tides, winds, and cold fronts on the spatial extent of the islands. Partnering organizations, such as the Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences, will utilize those results in an effort to better monitor and address the continual change of the Chandeleur Islands.

Reahard, R. R.; Mitchell, B. S.; Childs, L. M.; Billiot, A.; Brown, T.

2009-12-01

315

Improving Hazardous Waste Remediation and Restoration Decisions Using Ecosystem Services  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous site management in the US includes remediation of contaminated environmental media and restoration of injured natural resources. Site remediation decisions are informed by ecological risk assessment (ERA), while restoration and compensation decisions are informed by the...

316

The exposure assessment in current time study: implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of real-time data collection in a community cohort of illicit drug users.  

PubMed

Objective. We describe the study design and evaluate the implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study of illicit drug users. Design. Four sequential field trials targeting observation of 30 individuals followed for a four week period. Participants. Participants were recruited from an ongoing community-cohort of current or former injection drug users. Of 113 individuals enrolled, 109 completed study procedures during four trials conducted from November 2008 to May 2013. Methods. Hand-held electronic diaries used in the initial trials were transitioned to a smartphone platform for the final trial with identical data collection. Random-prompts delivered five times daily assessed participant location, activity, mood, and social context. Event-contingent data collection involved participant self-reports of illicit drug use and craving. Main Outcome Measures. Feasibility measures included participant retention, days of followup, random-prompt response rates, and device loss rate. Acceptability was evaluated from an end-of-trial questionnaire. Sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and trial characteristics were evaluated as correlates of weekly random-prompt response rates ?80% using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Results. Study participants were a median of 48.5 years old, 90% African American, 52% male, and 59% HIV-infected with limited income and educational attainment. During a median followup of 28 days, 78% of 11,181 random-prompts delivered were answered (mean of 2.8 responses daily), while 2,798 participant-initiated events were reported (30% drug use events; 70% craving events). Self-reported acceptability to study procedures was uniformly favorable. Device loss was rare (only 1 lost device every 190 person-days of observation). Higher educational attainment was consistently associated with a higher response rate to random-prompts, while an association of HIV infection with lower response rates was not observed after accounting for differences in trial recruitment procedures. Conclusion. Near real-time EMA data collection in the field is feasible and acceptable among community-dwelling illicit drug users. These data provide the basis for future studies of EMA-informed interventions to prevent drug relapse and improve HIV treatment outcomes in this population. PMID:24307943

Kirk, Gregory D; Linas, Beth S; Westergaard, Ryan P; Piggott, Damani; Bollinger, Robert C; Chang, Larry W; Genz, Andrew

2013-01-01

317

The Exposure Assessment in Current Time Study: Implementation, Feasibility, and Acceptability of Real-Time Data Collection in a Community Cohort of Illicit Drug Users  

PubMed Central

Objective. We describe the study design and evaluate the implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study of illicit drug users. Design. Four sequential field trials targeting observation of 30 individuals followed for a four week period. Participants. Participants were recruited from an ongoing community-cohort of current or former injection drug users. Of 113 individuals enrolled, 109 completed study procedures during four trials conducted from November 2008 to May 2013. Methods. Hand-held electronic diaries used in the initial trials were transitioned to a smartphone platform for the final trial with identical data collection. Random-prompts delivered five times daily assessed participant location, activity, mood, and social context. Event-contingent data collection involved participant self-reports of illicit drug use and craving. Main Outcome Measures. Feasibility measures included participant retention, days of followup, random-prompt response rates, and device loss rate. Acceptability was evaluated from an end-of-trial questionnaire. Sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and trial characteristics were evaluated as correlates of weekly random-prompt response rates ?80% using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Results. Study participants were a median of 48.5 years old, 90% African American, 52% male, and 59% HIV-infected with limited income and educational attainment. During a median followup of 28 days, 78% of 11,181 random-prompts delivered were answered (mean of 2.8 responses daily), while 2,798 participant-initiated events were reported (30% drug use events; 70% craving events). Self-reported acceptability to study procedures was uniformly favorable. Device loss was rare (only 1 lost device every 190 person-days of observation). Higher educational attainment was consistently associated with a higher response rate to random-prompts, while an association of HIV infection with lower response rates was not observed after accounting for differences in trial recruitment procedures. Conclusion. Near real-time EMA data collection in the field is feasible and acceptable among community-dwelling illicit drug users. These data provide the basis for future studies of EMA-informed interventions to prevent drug relapse and improve HIV treatment outcomes in this population. PMID:24307943

Kirk, Gregory D.; Linas, Beth S.; Westergaard, Ryan P.; Piggott, Damani; Bollinger, Robert C.; Chang, Larry W.

2013-01-01

318

40 CFR 35.1605-8 - Diagnostic-feasibility study.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements for Protecting and Restoring Publicly Owned Freshwater Lakes § 35.1605-8 Diagnostic-feasibility study. A two-part study to determine a lake's current...

2010-07-01

319

40 CFR 35.1605-8 - Diagnostic-feasibility study.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements for Protecting and Restoring Publicly Owned Freshwater Lakes § 35.1605-8 Diagnostic-feasibility study. A two-part study to determine a lake's current...

2011-07-01

320

40 CFR 35.1605-8 - Diagnostic-feasibility study.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements for Protecting and Restoring Publicly Owned Freshwater Lakes § 35.1605-8 Diagnostic-feasibility study. A two-part study to determine a lake's current...

2012-07-01

321

40 CFR 35.1605-8 - Diagnostic-feasibility study.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements for Protecting and Restoring Publicly Owned Freshwater Lakes § 35.1605-8 Diagnostic-feasibility study. A two-part study to determine a lake's current...

2013-07-01

322

Great Lakes RESTORATION  

E-print Network

Great Lakes RESTORATION NATIONALOCEAN IC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S. D EPARTMENT OF COMM E R CE Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Recognizing the importance of the Great Lakes to our nation, President Obama made restoration a national priority. The resulting Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI

323

Great Lakes RESTORATION  

E-print Network

Great Lakes RESTORATION NATIONALOCEAN IC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S. D EPARTMENT OF COMM E R CE The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Recognizing the importance of the Great Lakes to our nation, President Obama made their restoration a national priority. The resulting Great Lakes Restoration

324

The recommended food-buying principles of consumer educators: a behavioral science assessment of their feasibility for older consumers.  

PubMed

A content analysis recently identified twenty food-buying principles as the most commonly cited in consumer education textbooks of the 1980s. This study examines the behavior science literature in an effort to assess the ability of older consumers to practice these principles in American supermarkets. The study identifies three types of principles differing in the consumer behaviors they recommend as well as the nature and strength of the support they receive in the behavioral science literature. Implications of the study findings are drawn for gerontological research and educational practice. PMID:2391632

Friedman, M

1990-01-01

325

DARRP -Protecting and restoring natural resources nationwide Protecting and Restoring Natural Resources in Guam  

E-print Network

to discharges of oil and hazardous substances Assess risks and injuries to natural resources Restore injured a series of workshops to help Guam resource agencies develop programs of natural resource damage assessments and restoration for corals reefs and other natural resources impacted by vessel groundings, oil

326

One year survival of ART and conventional restorations in patients with disability  

PubMed Central

Background Providing restorative treatment for persons with disability may be challenging and has been related to the patient’s ability to cope with the anxiety engendered by treatment and to cooperate fully with the demands of the clinical situation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival rate of ART restorations compared to conventional restorations in people with disability referred for special care dentistry. Methods Three treatment protocols were distinguished: ART (hand instruments/high-viscosity glass-ionomer); conventional restorative treatment (rotary instrumentation/resin composite) in the clinic (CRT/clinic) and under general anaesthesia (CRT/GA). Patients were referred for restorative care to a special care centre and treated by one of two specialists. Patients and/or their caregivers were provided with written and verbal information regarding the proposed techniques, and selected the type of treatment they were to receive. Treatment was provided as selected but if this option proved clinically unfeasible one of the alternative techniques was subsequently proposed. Evaluation of restoration survival was performed by two independent trained and calibrated examiners using established ART restoration assessment codes at 6 months and 12 months. The Proportional Hazard model with frailty corrections was applied to calculate survival estimates over a one year period. Results 66 patients (13.6?±?7.8 years) with 16 different medical disorders participated. CRT/clinic proved feasible for 5 patients (7.5%), the ART approach for 47 patients (71.2%), and 14 patients received CRT/GA (21.2%). In all, 298 dentine carious lesions were restored in primary and permanent teeth, 182 (ART), 21 (CRT/clinic) and 95 (CRT/GA). The 1-year survival rates and jackknife standard error of ART and CRT restorations were 97.8?±?1.0% and 90.5?±?3.2%, respectively (p?=?0.01). Conclusions These short-term results indicate that ART appears to be an effective treatment protocol for treating patients with disability restoratively, many of whom have difficulty coping with the conventional restorative treatment. Trial registration number Netherlands Trial Registration: NTR 4400 PMID:24885938

2014-01-01

327

Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs: Cost Assessment of Manufacturing/Design Concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) program was to demonstrate, for an integrally stiffened structural concept, performance and weight equal to "built-up" structure with lower manufacturing cost. This report presents results of the cost assessment for several design configuration/manufacturing method combinations. The attributes of various cost analysis models were evaluated and COSTRAN selected for this study. A process/design cost evaluation matrix was developed based on material, forming, machining, and assembly of structural sub-elements and assembled structure. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current built-up technology baseline. This would correspond to a total cost reduction of $1.7 million per ship set for a 777-sized airplane. However, there are important outstanding issues with regard to the cost of capacity of high technology machinery, and the ability to cost-effectively provide surface finish acceptable to the commercial aircraft industry. The projected high raw material cost of large extrusions also played an important role in the trade-off between plate and extruded concepts.

Metschan, S.

2000-01-01

328

Feasibility of Using Pedometers to Measure Daily Step Counts in Cystic Fibrosis and an Assessment of its Responsiveness to Changes in Health State  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluation of physical activity is integral to the assessment of daily physical function and a potential objective outcome measure for clinical trials. We evaluated the feasibility of using pedometers to measure physical activity in adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) and assessed the responsiveness of its measurement to changes in health state. Methods Participants were recruited through two CF clinics in Seattle, WA. Subjects were instructed to use their pedometer for at least one ill and two well periods (each lasting 7 days). Step rate was calculated as steps per hour of use. Daily symptoms were also recorded using the CF Respiratory Symptom Diary (CFRSD). Generalized estimating equation linear regression was used to compare mean step rate between health states and by self-reported symptom category. Results We enrolled 30 CF patients with a mean (±SD) age of 22 (±7) years and a mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) of 57% (±25%) predicted. The mean period step rate increased from 397 (95% CI 324 – 497) steps/hour when ill to 534 (95% CI 413 – 654) steps/hour when well (p=0.015). Pedometer-recorded step rate also correlated with self-reported physical activity items on the CFRSD. Conclusion Step rate measured with a pedometer correlates significantly with changes in health status and self-reported activity, and could be used as an outcome measure in CF. PMID:22226414

Quon, Bradley S.; Patrick, Donald L.; Edwards, Todd C.; Aitken, Moira L.; Gibson, Ronald L.; Genatossio, Alan; McNamara, Sharon; Goss, Christopher H.

2014-01-01

329

Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Technical support study for the restoration of dolly varden and cutthroat trout populations in Prince William sound. Restoration study number 106. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In order to restore populations of Dolly Varden and cutthroat trout, a closure of sport fisheries for these two species occurred in oiled areas. Sixty-one stream systems in non-oiled locations in Prince William Sound that support populations of Dolly Varden and cutthroat trout were identified and incorporated into a site selection matrix. Catch rate, size information, and information about stream morphology were collected during the ground surveys. Migration information was analyzed from four years of tag return data, as an initial effort to understand stock movement and definition.

NONE

1993-02-01

330

Point-of-care assessment of platelet reactivity in the emergency department may facilitate rapid rule-out of acute coronary syndromes: a prospective cohort pilot feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Objective Accurate, efficient and cost-effective disposition of patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is a growing priority. Platelet activation is an early feature in the pathogenesis of ACS; thus, we sought to obtain an insight into whether point-of-care testing of platelet function: (1) may assist in the rule-out of ACS; (2) may provide additional predictive value in identifying patients with non-cardiac symptoms versus ACS-positive patients and (3) is logistically feasible in the ED. Design Prospective cohort feasibility study. Setting Two urban tertiary care sites, one located in the USA and the second in Argentina. Participants 509 adult patients presenting with symptoms of ACS. Main outcome measures Platelet reactivity was quantified using the Platelet Function Analyzer-100, with closure time (seconds required for blood, aspirated under high shear, to occlude a 150?µm aperture) serving as the primary endpoint. Closure times were categorised as ‘normal’ or ‘prolonged’, defined objectively as the 90th centile of the distribution for all participants enrolled in the study. Diagnosis of ACS was made using the standard criteria. The use of antiplatelet agents was not an exclusion criterion. Results Closure times for the study population ranged from 47 to 300?s, with a 90th centile value of 138?s. The proportion of patients with closure times ?138?s was significantly higher in patients with non-cardiac symptoms (41/330; 12.4%) versus the ACS-positive cohort (2/105 (1.9%); p=0.0006). The specificity of ‘prolonged’ closure times (?138?s) for a diagnosis of non-cardiac symptoms was 98.1%, with a positive predictive value of 95.4%. Multivariate analysis revealed that the closure time provided incremental, independent predictive value in the rule-out of ACS. Conclusions Point-of-care assessment of platelet reactivity is feasible in the ED and may facilitate the rapid rule-out of ACS in patients with prolonged closure times. PMID:24441051

Darling, Chad E; Sala Mercado, Javier A; Quiroga-Castro, Walter; Tecco, Gabriel F; Zelaya, Felix R; Conci, Eduardo C; Sala, Jose P; Smith, Craig S; Michelson, Alan D; Whittaker, Peter; Welch, Robert D; Przyklenk, Karin

2014-01-01

331

77 FR 1717 - Notice of Availability; Draft Springfield Plateau Regional Restoration Plan and Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and an environmental assessment, as required pursuant...is provided pursuant to Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration (NRDAR...is provided pursuant to Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration...

2012-01-11

332

78 FR 57875 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Southeast Missouri Ozarks Regional Restoration Plan and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...provided pursuant to Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration (NRDAR...State of Missouri Natural Resource Damages Assessment Manager: Tim Rielly...Trustees followed the Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration...

2013-09-20

333

DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOLS AND DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS FOR ASSESSING WATERSHED SYSTEM ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY (SAC), IN SUPPORT OF RISK-BASED ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT/RESTORATION PRACTICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) has instituted a program for Risk Management Research for Ecosystem Restoration in Watersheds. This program is one component of the Office of Research and Development Ecosystem Protection Research Program. As part of this...

334

Assessment of the feasibility of the use of conductive polymers in the fabrication of ion mobility spectrometers.  

PubMed

The development of an ion mobility spectrometer with an injection molded plastic drift tube made from carbon-loaded nylon and the cyclo-olefinpolymer Zeonex is described. Thermogravimetric assessment combined with headspace analysis by ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that Zeonex encapsulated carbon-loaded nylon could be used to fabricate a snap-together injection molded stacked ring drift tube, 4.25 cm long that could be substituted for a conventional wire-wound heated ceramic drift tube of the same length into a high temperature ion mobility spectrometer. Temperature stability experiments indicated that such a combination of polymers produced stable water-based reactant ion peaks [(H(2)O)(n)H](+) up to a temperature of approximately 50 °C. Above this temperature, ammonia appeared to outgas, resulting in the production of [(H(2)O)(n)(NH(4))(m)H](+) type species before, at higher temperatures, the release of oligomeric entities suppressed resolved ion responses. Surface charging effects were also observed, and over a period of continuous operation of 4 h, these caused suppression of the signal intensity (1.11-0.954 V) and an apparent mobility shift in the observed responses (K(0) = 1.86-1.90 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). Substituting nylon, a polymer with a significantly lower surface resistivity, for the Zeonex demonstrated how surface charging phenomena could be managed though control of surface resistivity in future polymer formulations. The device was challenged successfully with test atmospheres of hexan-1-ol (K(0) = 1.66 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (monomer) and 1.32 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)(dimer)) and dimethylmethyl phosphonate (K(0) = 1.70 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (monomer) and 1.44 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (dimer)). The potential advantages of developing polymeric systems using more advanced polymer formulations are discussed. PMID:21384901

Koimtzis, Theodoros; Goddard, Nick J; Wilson, Ian; Thomas, C L Paul

2011-04-01

335

15 CFR 990.26 - Emergency restoration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.26 Emergency restoration...action is needed to avoid irreversible loss of natural resources, or to prevent or reduce any continuing...

2013-01-01

336

15 CFR 990.26 - Emergency restoration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.26 Emergency restoration...action is needed to avoid irreversible loss of natural resources, or to prevent or reduce any continuing...

2012-01-01

337

15 CFR 990.26 - Emergency restoration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.26 Emergency restoration...action is needed to avoid irreversible loss of natural resources, or to prevent or reduce any continuing...

2010-01-01

338

15 CFR 990.26 - Emergency restoration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.26 Emergency restoration...action is needed to avoid irreversible loss of natural resources, or to prevent or reduce any continuing...

2011-01-01

339

15 CFR 990.26 - Emergency restoration.  

...OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.26 Emergency restoration...action is needed to avoid irreversible loss of natural resources, or to prevent or reduce any continuing...

2014-01-01

340

Restoration technology branch  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mission of Leetown Science Center (LSC), Restoration Technology Branch (RTB) is to conduct research needed to restore or protect the chemical, physical and biological integrity of desirable aquatic systems.

U.S. Geological Survey

2007-01-01

341

The Impact of California's Special Education Pre-Referral Interventions and Alternative Assessments on Ethno-Linguistically Diverse Students: A Technical Report of the Feasibility Study, Phase I, Contract One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents efforts to develop instruments for data-gathering and to train field staff in the use of the instruments, as part of a feasibility study designed to validate a conceptual framework that describes the elements of California's special education prereferral and alternative assessment procedures for ethno-linguistically diverse…

Powell, Ronald J.; And Others

342

Colonization of Restored Wetlands by Amphibians in Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve wetlands (7 recently restored; 5 reference) in central and southern Minnesota were monitored during the 1998 breeding season to assess colonization of recently restored wetlands by amphibians, compare the amphibian fauna to that of reference wetlands and identify important factors influencing the probability of colonization. Eight amphibian species rapidly colonized recently restored wetlands and established breeding populations. Reference wetlands

RICHARD M. LEHTINEN; SUSAN M. GALATOWITSCH

2001-01-01

343

Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area.

Not Available

1994-01-01

344

Great Lakes RESTORATION  

E-print Network

, lengthen periods of lake stratification, and elevate the risk of hypoxia and algal blooms. RestoringGreat Lakes RESTORATION NATIONALOCEAN IC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S. D EPARTMENT OF COMM E R CE Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Recognizing the importance of the Great Lakes to our nation

345

Can paramedics use FRAX (the WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool) to help GPs improve future fracture risk in patients who fall? Protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Currently identification, and therefore, management of patients at risk of osteoporotic fracture in the UK is suboptimal. As the majority of patients who fracture have fallen, it follows that people who fall can usefully be targeted in any programme that aims to reduce osteoporotic fracture. Targeting vulnerable patients who are likely to benefit from intervention may help shift the management of fracture prevention into primary care, away from emergency departments. Paramedics who attend to patients who have fallen may be well placed to assess future fracture risk, using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) and communicate that information directly to general practitioners (GPs). Methods and analysis This feasibility study takes the form of a pragmatic, randomised controlled trial aimed at exploring and refining issues of study design, recruitment, retention, sample size and acceptability preceding a large-scale study with fracture as the end point. Patients (aged >50) who fall, call an ambulance, are attended by a study paramedic and give verbal consent will be asked FRAX and fall questions. Patients who subsequently formally consent to participation will be randomised to control (usual care) or intervention groups. Intervention will constitute transmission of calculated future fracture risk to the patients’ GP with suitable, evidence-based recommendations for investigation or treatment. 3?months after the index fall, data (proportion of patients in each group undergoing investigation or starting new treatment, quality of life and health economic) will be collected and analysed using descriptive statistics. A nested qualitative study will explore issues of acceptability and study design with patients, paramedics and GPs. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by NRES Committee South Central Oxford C in October 2012. Research Ethics Committee ref.12/SC/0604. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and local public events. A publication plan and authorship criteria have been preagreed. Trial registration number ISRCTN: 36245726. PMID:25186156

Clarke, Shane; Bradley, Rachel; Simmonds, Bethany; Salisbury, Chris; Benger, Jonathan; Marques, Elsa; Greenwood, Rosemary; Shepstone, Lee; Robinson, Maria; Appleby-Fleming, John; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

2014-01-01

346

Improving Habitat Injured by Spill Response: Restoring the Night Sky  

E-print Network

of light pollution controls: Before and after. Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustees Benjamin Frater Restoration Biologist FWS Deepwater Horizon on reverse side). The project involves multiple components: ·Foreachconservationsiteidentified,assessments

347

A Chronosequence Feasibility Assessment of Emergency Fire Rehabilitation Records within the Intermountain Western United States - Final Report to the Joint Fire Science Program - Project 08-S-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Department of the Interior (DOI) bureaus have invested heavily (for example, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) spent more than $60 million in fiscal year 2007) in seeding vegetation for emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation of non-forested arid lands over the past 10 years. The primary objectives of these seedings commonly are to (1) reduce the post-fire dominance of non-native annual grasses, such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and red brome (Bromus rubens); (2) minimize the probability of recurrent fire; and (3) ultimately produce desirable vegetation characteristics (for example, ability to recover following disturbance [resilience], resistance to invasive species, and a capacity to support a diverse flora and fauna). Although these projects historically have been monitored to varying extents, land managers currently lack scientific evidence to verify whether seeding arid and semiarid lands achieves desired objectives. Given the amount of resources dedicated to post-fire seeding projects, a synthesis of information determining the factors that result in successful treatments is critically needed. Although results of recently established experiments and monitoring projects eventually will provide useful insights for the future direction of emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation programs, a chronosequence approach evaluating emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation treatments (both referenced hereafter as ESR treatments) over the past 30 years could provide a comprehensive assessment of treatment success across a range of regional environmental gradients. By randomly selecting a statistically robust sample from the population of historic ESR treatments in the Intermountain West, this chronosequence approach would have inference for most ecological sites in this region. The goal of this feasibility study was to compile and examine historic ESR records from BLM field offices across the Intermountain West to determine whether sufficient documentation existed for a future field-based chronosequence project. We collected ESR records and data at nine BLM field offices in four States (Oregon, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah) and examined the utility of these data for the development of a chronosequence study of post-fire seeding treatments from multiple sites and different ages (since seeding) throughout the Intermountain West. We collected records from 730 post-fire seeding projects with 1,238 individual seeding treatments. Records from each project ranged from minimal reporting of the project's occurrence to detailed documentation of planning, implementation, and monitoring. Of these 1,238 projects, we identified 468 (38 percent) that could potentially be used to implement a field-based chronosequence study. There were 206 ground-seeding treatments and 262 aerial-seeding treatments within this initial population, not including hand plantings. We also located a considerable number of additional records from other potential field offices that would be available for the chronosequence study but have yet to be compiled for this feasibility report. There are a number of potential challenges involved in going forward with a field-based chronosequence study derived from data collected at these nine BLM offices. One challenge is that not all seed mixtures in ESR project files have on-the-ground confirmation about what was sown or rates of application. Most projects, particularly records before 2000, just list the planned or purchased seed mixtures. Although this could potentially bias assessments of factors influencing establishment rates of individual species for treatments conducted before 2000, a chronosequence study would not be intended to assess success solely at the species-level. Treatment success would be evaluated based on the establishment of healthy vegetation communities, such as the abundance and density of perennial species, regardless of their lifeforms (grasses, fo

Knutson, Kevin C.; Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy A.; Pilliod, David S.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.

2009-01-01

348

The use of institutional controls at Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office environmental restoration sites. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes some of the major issues related to the use of institutional controls at hazardous waste sites under the auspices of the Department of Energy Field Office, Oak Ridge/Environmental Restoration (DOE-OR/ER) Division. In particular, the report addresses the impacts that assumptions regarding institutional controls have on the results and interpretation of the risk assessment, both in the Remedial Investigation (RI) and the Feasibility Study (FS). Environmental restoration activities at DOE-OR/ER sites are primarily driven by CERCLA. Therefore, the report focuses on the approaches and assumptions relating to institutional controls under CERCLA. Also the report briefly outlines approaches adopted under other authorities such as RCRA and radiation regulatory authorities (such as NRC regulations/guidance, DOE orders, and EPA standards) in order to contrast these approaches to those adopted under CERCLA. In order to demonstrate the implications of the use of institutional controls at DOE facilities, this report summarizes the approaches and results of the recent baseline risk assessment for Solid Waste Storage Area 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The report concludes with possible options on the use of institutional controls at DOE-OR/ER sites.

White, R.K.; Swindle, D.W.; Redfearn, A.; King, A.D.

1992-01-01

349

USE OF CONTINUOUS DATALOGGERS TO ASSESS THE TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION OF GROUND WATER/SURFACE WATER INTERACTION BEFORE AND AFTER STREAM RESTORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Minebank Run is a degraded second-order flashy urban stream in Baltimore County which is slated to undergo restoration in August 2003 to re-establish geomorphic stability. We are currently conducting an intensive investigation of surface water/ground water interaction and nutrien...

350

The restorative management of the deep overbite.  

PubMed

A deep overbite is where the vertical overlap of the upper and lower incisors exceeds half of the lower incisal tooth height. Problems associated with the deep overbite can include soft tissue trauma, lack of inter-occlusal space and tooth wear, all of which can present significant challenges for the restorative dentist. While management options very much depend on the nature of the situation and patient's symptoms, options may range from provision of a simple removable appliance or splint and non-surgical periodontal therapy, to multidisciplinary care involving orthodontics, orthognathic surgery and restorative dentistry. Restorative management may involve an increase in the occlusal vertical dimension with fixed restorations or removable prostheses, and careful assessment and treatment planning is essential. This article discusses the aetiology and restorative management strategies for deep and traumatic overbites. PMID:25377818

Beddis, H P; Durey, K; Alhilou, A; Chan, M F W Y

2014-11-01

351

Tidal saltmarsh fragmentation and persistence of San Pablo Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia samuelis): Assessing benefits of wetland restoration in San Francisco Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The San Pablo Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia samuelis) is one of three morphologically distinct Song Sparrow subspecies in tidal marshes of the San Francisco Bay estuary. These subspecies are rare, because as the human population has grown, diking and development have resulted in loss of 79% of the historic tidal marshes. Hundreds of projects have been proposed in the past decade to restore tidal marshes and benefit endemic populations. To evaluate the value of these restoration projects for Song Sparrows, we developed a population viability analysis (PVA) model to examine persistence of samuelis subspecies in relation to parcel size, connectivity, and catastrophe in San Pablo Bay. A total of 101 wetland parcels were identified from coverages of modern and historic tidal marshes. Parcels were grouped into eight fragments in the historical landscape and 10 in the present landscape. Fragments were defined as a group of parcels separated by >1 km, a distance that precluded regular interchange. Simulations indicated that the historic (circa 1850) samuelis population was three times larger than the modern population. However, only very high levels (>70% mortality) of catastrophe would threaten their persistence. Persistence of populations was sensitive to parcel size at a carrying capacity of <10 pairs, but connectivity of parcels was found to have little importance because habitats were dominated by a few large parcels. Our analysis indicates little risk of extinction of the samuelis subspecies with the current extent of tidal marshes, but the vulnerability of the small-est parcels suggests that restoration should create larger continuous tracts. Thus, PVA models may be useful tools for balancing the costs and benefits of restoring habitats for threatened tidal-marsh populations in wetland restoration planning.

Takekawa, J. Y.; Sacks, B. N.; Woo, I.; Johnson, M. L.; Wylie, G. D.

2006-01-01

352

Feasibility and limitations of the round robin test for assessment of in vitro chondrogenesis evaluation protocol in a tissue-engineered medical product.  

PubMed

Tissue-engineered medical products (TEMPs) should be evaluated before implantation. Therefore, it is indispensable to establish evaluation protocols in regenerative medicine. Whether or not such evaluation protocols are reasonable is generally verified through a 'round robin' test. However, the round robin test for TEMPs intrinsically includes a deficiency, because 'identical' specimens can not be prepared for TEMPs. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility and limitations of the round robin test for TEMPs by using a prepared evaluation protocol. We adopted tissue-engineered cartilage constructs as delivered specimens and a protocol of measuring sGAG content as an evaluation protocol proposed to ISO TC150/SC7, which is an invasive, but usually applied, method, although non-invasive methods are keenly required in evaluating TEMPs. The results showed that: (a) the coefficient of variation (CV) of the measured sGAG contents in intralaboratory tests was ~5% at most; (b) the CV of sGAG content in the scheme where each participating laboratory measured different constructs was comparable with that in the scheme where each participating laboratory measured one half of a construct along with the organizing laboratory; (c) the CV caused by factors other than the specimen was ~15%, comparable to that in reproducible experiments in biomedical fields. Based on these results, the study concludes that a round robin test for a TEMP could be valuable, under the condition that the delivered TEMPs are sufficiently reproducible so that the CV of the measured values is?

Yokoi, Masako; Hattori, Koji; Narikawa, Koichi; Ohgushi, Hajime; Tadokoro, Mika; Hoshi, Kazuto; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Myoui, Akira; Nanno, Katsuhiko; Kato, Yukio; Kanawa, Masami; Sugawara, Katsura; Kobo, Tomoko; Ushida, Takashi

2012-07-01

353

Jump In! An Investigation of School Physical Activity Climate, and a Pilot Study Assessing the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Novel Tool to Increase Activity during Learning  

PubMed Central

Physical activity (PA) benefits children’s physical and mental health and enhances academic performance. However, in many nations, PA time in school is decreasing under competing pressures for time during the school day. The present paper argues that PA should not be reduced or seen as incompatible with academic learning. Instead, the authors contend that it is critical to develop tools that incorporate PA into content learning during the school day. To facilitate the development of such tools, the authors conducted 6 focus group discussions with 12 primary school teachers and administrators to better understand the school climate around PA as well as school readiness to embrace PA tools that can be used during academic content learning. In addition, a pilot test of a new health promotion tool, the Jump In! educational response mat, was conducted with 21 second-grade students from one classroom in Northern Colorado in 2013. The results of both studies demonstrated acceptability and feasibility of incorporating PA into classroom learning, and suggested that tools like Jump In! may be effective at overcoming many of the PA barriers at schools. Teachers and administrators valued PA, believed that students were not getting enough PA, and were receptive to the idea of incorporating PA into classroom learning. Students who used Jump In! mats during a math lesson reported more interest in the class material and rated themselves as more alert during the lesson, compared to students who did not use the response mats. In addition, incorporating PA into the lesson did not impair performance on a quiz that assessed learning of the math content. Jump In! mats were successfully integrated into the lesson plan and were well-received by teachers and students. Together, the results of these studies suggest that, given the right tools, incorporating more PA into classroom learning may be beneficial and well-received by students, teachers, and administrators. PMID:24904919

Graham, Dan J.; Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G.; O'Donnell, Maeve B.

2014-01-01

354

Deschutes Estuary Feasibility Study; Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport Modeling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Continual sediment accumulation in Capitol Lake since the damming of the Deschutes River in 1951 has altered the initial morphology of the basin. As part of the Deschutes River Estuary Feasibility Study (DEFS), the United States Geological Survey (USGS) was tasked to model how tidal and storm processes will influence the river, lake and lower Budd Inlet should estuary restoration occur. Understanding these mechanisms will assist in developing a scientifically sound assessment on the feasibility of restoring the estuary. The goals of the DEFS are as follows. Increase understanding of the estuary alternative to the same level as managing the lake environment. Determine the potential to create a viable, self sustaining estuary at Capitol Lake, given all the existing physical constraints and the urban setting. Create a net-benefit matrix which will allow a fair evaluation of overall benefits and costs of various alternative scenarios. Provide the completed study to the CLAMP Steering Committee so that a recommendation about a long-term aquatic environment of the basin can be made. The hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling task developed a number of different model simulations using a process-based morphological model, Delft3D, to help address these goals. Modeling results provide a qualitative assessment of estuarine behavior both prior to dam construction and after various post-dam removal scenarios. Quantitative data from the model is used in the companion biological assessment and engineering design components of the overall study. Overall, the modeling study found that after dam removal, tidal and estuarine processes are immediately restored, with marine water from Budd Inlet carried into North and Middle Basin on each rising tide and mud flats being exposed with each falling tide. Within the first year after dam removal, tidal processes, along with the occasional river floods, act to modify the estuary bed by redistributing sediment through erosion and deposition. The morphological response of the bed is rapid during the first couple of years, then slows as a dynamic equilibrium is reached within three to five years. By ten years after dam removal, the overall hydrodynamic and morphologic behavior of the estuary is similar to the pre-dam estuary, with the exception of South Basin, which has been permanently modified by human activities. In addition to a qualitative assessment of estuarine behavior, process-based modeling provides the ability address specific questions to help to inform decision-making. Considering that predicting future conditions of a complex estuarine environment is wrought with uncertainties, quantitative results in this report are often expressed in terms of ranges of possible outcomes.

George, Douglas A.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Lesser, Giles; Stevens, Andrew W.

2006-01-01

355

Feasibility of Coronary Artery Wall Thickening Assessment in Asymptomatic Coronary Artery Disease using Phase-Sensitive Dual Inversion Recovery MRI at 3T  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study is to (1) investigate the image quality of phase-sensitive dual inversion recovery (PS-DIR) coronary wall imaging in healthy subjects and in subjects with known coronary artery disease (CAD) and to (2) investigate the utilization of PS-DIR at 3T in the assessment of coronary artery thickening in subjects with asymptomatic but variable degrees of CAD. Materials and Methods A total of 37 subjects participated in this Institutional Review Board approved and HIPAA-compliant study. These included 21 subjects with known CAD as identified on Multi-Detector CT angiography (MDCT). Sixteen healthy subjects without known history of CAD were included. All subjects were scanned using free-breathing PS-DIR MRI for the assessment of coronary wall thickness at 3T. Lumen-tissue contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-to-noise (SNR), and quantitative vessel parameters including lumen area and wall thickness were measured. Statistical analyses were performed. Results PS-DIR was successfully completed in 76% of patients and in 88% of the healthy subjects. Phase-sensitive signed magnitude reconstruction, compared to modulus magnitude images, significantly improved lumen-tissue contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in both healthy subjects (26.73±11.95 vs. 14.65±9.57, p<0.001) and in patients (21.45±7.61 vs. 16.65±5.85, p<0.001). There was no difference in image CNR and SNR between groups. In arterial segments free of plaques, coronary wall was thicker in patients in comparison to healthy subjects (1.74±0.27mm vs. 1.17±0.14mm, p<0.001) without a change in lumen area (4.51±2.42 mm2 vs. 5.71±3.11 mm2, p=0.25). Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of successfully obtaining vessel wall images at 3T using PS-DIR in asymptomatic patients with known variable degrees of CAD as detected by MDCT. This was achieved with a fixed subject-invariant planning of blood signal nulling. With that limitation alleviated, PS-DIR coronary wall MRI is capable of detecting arterial thickening and positive arterial remodeling at 3T in asymptomatic CAD. PMID:23642801

Gharib, Ahmed M.; Zahiri, Homeira; Matta, Jatin; Pettigrew, Roderic I.; Abd-Elmoniem, Khaled Z.

2013-01-01

356

Retributive and Restorative Justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications\\u000a for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative\\u000a and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of\\u000a punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair

Michael Wenzel; Tyler G. Okimoto; Norman T. Feather; Michael J. Platow

2008-01-01

357

Assessing the Effects of the Urban Forest Restoration Effort of MillionTreesNYC on the Structure and Functioning of New York City Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current forest restoration practices for New York City’s (NYC) MillionTreesNYC Initiative on public parkland include site preparation with extensive invasive species removal and tree and shrub planting with the goal of creating new multi-layered forests. We have launched a long-term investigation of these sites in order to understand the primary physical, chemical, and biological responses of urban ecosystems to MillionTreesNYC

P. Timon McPhearson; Michael Feller; Alexander Felson; Richard Karty; Jacqueline W. T. Lu; Matthew I. Palmer; Tim Wenskus

2011-01-01

358

Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses existing habitat conditions, fish population status, and restoration priority sites within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the White Salmon River. Our partners in this project are the United States Geological Service (USGS), and the Yakama Indian Nation (YIN). Underwood Conservation District (UCD) is involved in the project via accomplishment of water quality monitoring, sampling for stable isotopes, and characterization of the watershed geomorphology. These work items are part of an effort to characterize the stream and riparian habitat conditions in Rattlesnake Creek, to help guide habitat and fish restoration work. Water chemistry and temperature information is being collected both on Rattlesnake Creek, and on other tributaries and the main stem of the White Salmon River. Information on the entire system enables us to compare results obtained from Rattlesnake Creek with the rest of the White Salmon system. Water chemistry and temperature data have been collected in a manner that is comparable with data gathered in previous years. The results from data gathered in the 2001-2002 performance period are reported in appendix A at the end of this 2002-2003 report. Additional work being conducted as part of this study includes; an estimate of salmonid population abundance (YIN and USGS); a determination of fish species composition, distribution, and life history (YIN and USGS), and a determination of existing kinds, distribution, and severity of fish diseases (YIN and USGS). The overall objective is to utilize the above information to prioritize restoration efforts in Rattlesnake Creek.

White, Jim

2004-02-01

359

Kondolf diagram for river backwater restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rehabilitation, protection, and management of riverine backwaters (floodplain aquatic habitats that are seasonally or periodically connected to the main channel) are becoming increasingly common. General criteria for selecting restoration goals and evaluating alternative designs are lacking. An approach for assessing aquatic system status before and after restoration proposed by Kondolf and others (http:\\/\\/www.ecologyandsociety.org\\/vol11\\/iss2\\/art5\\/) is based on assigning a position to

F. Douglas Shields; Scott S. Knight; Richard E. Lizotte

360

Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration and Other Ecosystem Services. Quarterly Report, April-June 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration pro...

J. A. Burger

2004-01-01

361

Restoring the smile: Inexpensive biologic restorations  

PubMed Central

Extensive breakdown of primary teeth to the cervical level and their loss in very young children is not uncommon. Owing to increasing concerns over self-appearance, due considerations to esthetic aspects in addition to restoring function are necessary aspects of rehabilitation of mutilated teeth to help children grow into a psychologically balanced personality. The present article describes rehabilitation of grossly decayed teeth with biologic restorations such as dentine posts, dentine post and core and biologic shell crown. This treatment modality provided a cost-effective esthetic solution. PMID:25097656

Mittal, Neeti P.

2014-01-01

362

Evaluation of Proximal Contacts of Posterior Composite Restorations with 4 Placement Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Contrary to the situation for amalgam restorations, obtaining acceptable proximal contacts with posterior composite restorations can be difficult. Proximal contacts that are less than ideal may permit food impaction and subsequent caries formation and periodontal problems. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of proximal contacts of posterior composite restorations placed with 4 restorative techniques.

Wafa A. El-Badrawy; Brian W. Leung; Omar El-Mowafy; Jose H. Rubo; Marcia H. Rubo

363

HUDSON RIVER RESTORATION PLANNING  

E-print Network

1 FACT SHEET HUDSON RIVER RESTORATION PLANNING Upper Hudson Freshwater Mussel Restoration Planning as part of the Hudson River NRDA. Mussels are important components of the Hudson River ecosystem, and are food for wildlife. Dredging activities in the Upper Hudson River are destroying mussel beds and mussel

364

DUNE FOREST RESTORATION  

E-print Network

concepts can be used to manage the restoration of a coastal dune forest in South Africa. The restoration of these dune forests is an essential part of the activities of Richards Bay Minerals (RBM) that mine coastal's economic well- being, and so are the coastal dunes. The forest on these dunes is part

Pretoria, University of

365

Sarita Wetland Restoration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sarita Wetland restoration on the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities campus is used as teaching tools by numerous classes. Students, staff and faculty have collaborated on the planning and implementation of the project. This example highlights the restoration process, and specifically references one of the classes, the Water Quality class.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu. Based on a Water Quality class taught by Jim Perry, University of Minnesota and the University of Minnesota Sustainable Campus Initiative, coordinated by Suzanne Savanick.

366

Ecological restoration: guidance from theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the science and practice of ecosystem restoration led me to identify key ecological theories and concepts that are relevant to planning, implementing, and sustaining restoration efforts. From experience with actual restoration projects, I provide guidance for improving the restoration process. Despite an abundance of theory and guidance, restoration goals are not always achieved, and path- ways toward

Joy B. Zedler

367

Women's Health in Women's Hands: A Pilot Study Assessing the Feasibility of Providing Women With Medications to Reduce Postpartum Hemorrhage and Sepsis in Rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

In rural Africa, deaths from childbirth are common and access to health care facilities with skilled providers is very limited. Leading causes of death for women are bleeding and infection. In this pilot study, we establish the feasibility of distributing oral medications to women in rural Tanzania to self-administer after delivery to reduce bleeding and infection. Of the 642 women provided with medications, 90% of the women took them appropriately, while the remaining 10% did not require them. We conclude that is it feasible to distribute oral medications to rural women to self-administer after delivery. PMID:24786175

Webber, Gail C.; Chirangi, Bwire

2014-01-01

368

Retributive and restorative justice.  

PubMed

The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking. PMID:17957457

Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

2008-10-01

369

A Scientific Workflow Used as a Computational Tool to Assess the Response of the Californian San Joaquin River to Flow Restoration Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Joaquin River (SJR) restoration effort began in October 2009 with the onset of federally mandated continuous flow. A key objective of the effort is to restore and maintain fish populations in the main stem of the San Joaquin River, from below the Friant Dam to the confluence of the Merced River. In addition to the renewed flows, the restoration effort has brought about several upgraded and new water quality monitoring stations equipped with dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature sensors. As the SJR response to the restoration efforts will be dictated by a complex combination of hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes, we propose monitoring whole-stream metabolism as an integrative ecological indicator. Here, we develop and test a near-real time scientific workflow to facilitate the observation of the spatio-temporal distribution of whole-stream metabolism estimates using available monitoring station flow and water quality data. The scientific objective is to identify correlations between whole-stream metabolism estimates and the seasonally variable flow and flow disturbances (e.g., flood-control releases), which are the primary driver of stream ecosystems. To accomplish this requires overcoming technical challenges in terms of both data collection and data analysis because (1) the information required for this multi-site, long-term study, originates from different sources with the implication of different associated properties (data integrity, sampling intervals, units), and (2) the variability of the interim flows requires adaptive model selection within the framework of the metabolism calculations. These challenges are addressed by using a scientific workflow in which semantic metadata is generated as the data is prepared and then subsequently used to select and configure models, effectively customizing them to the current data. Data preparation involves the extraction, cleaning, normalization and integration of the data coming from sensors and third-party data sources. In this process, the metadata captured includes sensor specifications, data types, data properties, and process documentation, and is passed along with the data within the workflow system, automating whole-stream metabolism estimates by the optimal modeling approach. This presentation will describe the architecture of the whole-stream metabolism workflow and present typical results from the scientific study.

Villamizar, S. R.; Gil, Y.; Szekely, P.; Ratnakar, V.; Gupta, S.; Muslea, M.; Silva, F.; Harmon, T.

2011-12-01

370

Feasibility and Practicality of a Decision Making Tool for Standards Testing of Students with Disabilities. State Assessment Series, Minnesota Report 21.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a decision-making tool designed to inform special educators of the most up-to-date participation and test accommodations guidelines and to assist educators in the process of making informed decisions. It reports on the results of a study that examined the tool's feasibility and practicality. The decision-making tool is an…

Swierzbin, Bonnie; Anderson, Michael E.; Spicuzza, Richard; Walz, Lynn; Thurlow, Martha L.

371

Feasibility and Practicality of a Decision Making Tool for Standards Testing of Students with Limited English Proficiency. State Assessment Series, Minnesota Report 22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a decision-making tool designed to inform English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and bilingual educators of the most up-to-date participation and test accommodations guidelines and to assist educators in the process of making informed decisions. It reports on the results of a study that examined the tool's feasibility. The…

Liu, Kristin K.; Anderson, Michael E.; Swierzbin, Bonnie; Spicuzza, Richard; Thurlow, Martha L.

372

Forensic or archaeological issue: is chemical analysis of dental restorations helpful in assessing time since death and identification of skeletonized human remains?  

PubMed

In 2011, small mass grave with completely skeletonized remains was discovered in Belgrade suburb. An eyewitness claimed that skeletons belonged to German soldiers killed in WWII. Anthropologists were engaged to investigate whether the skeletal remains correspond to the indicated German group or represent more recent case requiring court trial. Numerous dental restorations were noticed. Owing to the fact that different dental materials were used in dental practice at certain times, the aim of this study was to explore whether analysis of dental restorations could help in identification and estimation of time since death. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry revealed that dental fillings corresponded to copper amalgam, conventional silver amalgam, silicophosphate cement, and zinc phosphate cement. Chemical results combined with anthropological and historical facts suggest that the individuals lived before the 1960s in country with well-developed dental service at that time. Therefore, chemical analysis of dental fillings was useful to distinguish between skeletal remains that are too old to be of forensic interest and the remains relevant to legal investigations. PMID:23866008

Zelic, Ksenija; Djonic, Danijela; Neskovic, Olivera; Stoiljkovic, Milovan; Nikolic, Slobodan; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Djuric, Marija

2013-09-01

373

Ecosystem Restoration through Interdisciplinary Exchange  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Restoration through Interdisciplinary Exchange David M. Blersch dblersch Shade of Blue and You 21 September 2010 #12;National Science Foundation Ecosystem Restoration through;National Science Foundation Ecosystem Restoration through Interdisciplinary Exchange UB's ERIE Program www

Sachs, Frederick

374

Restorative justice in secondary schools.  

E-print Network

?? This thesis discusses adolescent psychology, experiential education, adventure education, service-learning, and restorative justice in the context of creating a restorative justice curriculum for a… (more)

Loftus, Patrick J.

2010-01-01

375

Restoring Native Grasslands  

E-print Network

Much of Texas' native grasslands has been converted to improved pastures and cropland, neither of which is suitable for wildlife habitat. Now, many landowners are interested in restoring native grasses because they are cheaper to produce for forage...

Hays, K. Brian; Wagner, Matthew; Smeins, Fred; Wilkins, Neal

2005-03-23

376

Beal Lake Habitat Restoration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Beal Lake Restoration Project (the project) is located on Havasu National Wildlife Refuge in Needles, California, within the historic floodplain of the lower Colorado River. When completed, it will include over 200 acres of cottonwood, willow and mesq...

2005-01-01

377

BALTIMORE STREAM RESTORATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

26 Feb 2003 Approach - We will employ a 4-tiered research approach to investigate restoration effects on hydrology and stream water quality: 1) monitoring ground water and surface water, 2) quantifying denitrification activity, 3) measuring carbon supply and rete...

378

Restoration of Ailing Wetlands  

PubMed Central

It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes) can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide. PMID:22291573

Schmitz, Oswald J.

2012-01-01

379

Restorer: Four Color Chart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Restorer is a visualization technique for indicating the location of missing data in a scientific visualization. Rather than filling missing data regions with interpolated data colored with the same scale as real data or simply leaving such regions empty, the restorer technique fills the regions with interpolated data colored with a color table with only luminance values. This technique allows missing data to be indicated clearly without distracting from the content of the real data.

Cavallo, John; Shiri, Shahram; Twiddy, Ray

1994-08-24

380

Restoring a Master Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What does it take to restore a 350 year old painting? This site shows you! For ten weeks, conservators Joan Gorman and David Marquis worked on a painting by Italian painter Guercino during museum hours. That way, visitors got to see each stage in the restoration process. Click here to see for yourself.Please note: as of 07/06/2012, not all the links at this site were available.

Gorman, Joan

381

Restorative justice and reconviction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proponents of restorative justice have suggested that its practices have the potential to reduce reoffending by those responsible for a harm. This article examines these claims using the results of two separate studies of the reconviction of offenders dealt with by processes that had restorative characteristics. The first study examines reconviction rates over'a'period'of'six years for a sample of young people

Gabrielle Maxwell; Allison Morris

2002-01-01

382

15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.54 Restoration selection—evaluation of alternatives...objectives in returning the injured natural resources and services...

2013-01-01

383

15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.  

...2014-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.54 Restoration selection—evaluation of alternatives...objectives in returning the injured natural resources and services...

2014-01-01

384

15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.54 Restoration selection—evaluation of alternatives...objectives in returning the injured natural resources and services...

2010-01-01

385

15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.54 Restoration selection—evaluation of alternatives...objectives in returning the injured natural resources and services...

2011-01-01

386

15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS... § 990.54 Restoration selection—evaluation of alternatives...objectives in returning the injured natural resources and services...

2012-01-01

387

Enhanced relapse prevention for bipolar disorder - ERP trial. A cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the feasibility of training care coordinators to offer enhanced relapse prevention for bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a common and severe form of mental illness characterised by repeated relapses of mania or depression. Pharmacotherapy is the main treatment currently offered, but this has only limited effectiveness. A recent Cochrane review has reported that adding psycho-social interventions that train people to recognise and manage the early warning signs of their relapses is effective in increasing time to recurrence, improving social functioning and in reducing hospitalisations. However, the review also highlights the difficulties in offering these interventions within standard mental health services due to the need for highly trained therapists and extensive input of time. There is a need to explore the potential for developing Early Warning Sign (EWS) interventions in ways that will enhance dissemination. Methods and design This article describes a cluster-randomised trial to assess the feasibility of training care coordinators (CCs) in community mental health teams (CMHTs) to offer Enhanced Relapse Prevention (ERP) to people with Bipolar Disorder. CMHTs in the North West of England are randomised to either receive training in ERP and to offer this to their clients, or to continue to offer treatment as usual (TAU). The main aims of the study are (1) to determine the acceptability of the intervention, training and outcome measures (2) to assess the feasibility of the design as measured by rates of recruitment, retention, attendance and direct feedback from participants (3) to estimate the design effect of clustering for key outcome variables (4) to estimate the effect size of the impact of the intervention on outcome. In this paper we provide a rationale for the study design, briefly outline the ERP intervention, and describe in detail the study protocol. Discussion This information will be useful to researchers attempting to carry out similar feasibility assessments of clinical effectiveness trials and in particular cluster randomised controlled trials. PMID:17274807

Lobban, Fiona; Gamble, Carol; Kinderman, Peter; Taylor, Lee; Chandler, Claire; Tyler, Elizabeth; Peters, Sarah; Pontin, Eleanor; Sellwood, William; Morriss, Richard K

2007-01-01

388

Background studies in support of a feasibility assessment on the use of copper-base materials for nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff  

SciTech Connect

This report combines six work units performed in FY`85--86 by the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Research Association under contract with the University of California. The work includes literature surveys and state-of-the-art summaries on several considerations influencing the feasibility of the use of copper-base materials for fabricating high-level nuclear waste packages for the proposed repository in tuff rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The general conclusion from this work was that copper-base materials are viable candidates for inclusion in the materials selection process for this application. 55 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Kundig, K.J.A.; Lyman, W.S.; Prager, M.; Meyers, J.R.; Servi, I.S. [CDA/INCRA Joint Advisory Group, Greenwich, CT (USA)

1990-06-01

389

RESTORATION PLUS: A COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS TO ACHIEVE ECOLOGICALLY AND ECONOMICALLY SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is evaluating ecosystem restoration and management techniques to ensure they create sustainable solutions for degraded watersheds. ORD NRMRL initiated the Restoration Plus (RePlus) program in 2002 to a) evaluate ecosystem restoration and management options, b) assess the non-...

390

Radiographic Secondary Caries Prevalence in Teeth with Clinically Defective Restorations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decisions to replace existing restorations are often based on clinical findings of margin discrepancies and other restoration defects. Previous studies have suggested that such findings do not correlate well with the actual presence of secondary caries, and that treatment should be deferred until caries is clinically or radiographically evident. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency with

E. R. Hewlett; K. A. Atchison; S. C. White; V. Flack

1993-01-01

391

Adaptive Restoration of Airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect

To incorporate the georegistration and restoration processes into airborne data processing in support of U.S. Department of Energy's nuclear emergency response task, we developed an adaptive restoration filter for airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM thermal data based on the Wiener filtering theory. Preliminary assessment shows that this filter enhances the detectability of small weak thermal anomalies in AADS1268 thermal images.

D. Yuan; E. Doak; P. Guss; A. Will

2002-01-01

392

Adaptive restoration of airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM thermal data  

Microsoft Academic Search

To incorporate the georegistration and restoration processes into airborne data processing in support of DOE's nuclear emergency response task, we developed an adaptive restoration filter for airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM thermal data based on the Wiener filtering theory. Preliminary assessment shows that this filter enhances the detectability of small weak thermal anomalies in AADS1268 thermal images.

Ding Yuan; Edwin L. Doak; Paul Guss; Alan Will

2002-01-01

393

Fire and Restoration of Sagebrush Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlife managers often resort to prescribed fire to restore sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems thought to have been affected by fire exclusion. However, a fire mosaic of burned and unburned areas may be tolerated by certain wildlife but can be detrimental to sagebrush obligates. This article assesses evidence about the historical frequency and pattern of fire in sagebrush ecosystems and the

WILLIAM L. BAKER

2006-01-01

394

PLAN OVERVIEW Restoring Salmon And Steelhead  

E-print Network

for Washington lower Columbia River salmon and steelhead: -- Plan Overview Synopsis of the planning process Species overviews and status assessments for lower Columbia River Chinook salmon, coho salmon, chum salmonPLAN OVERVIEW Restoring Salmon And Steelhead To Healthy, Harvestable Levels Lower Columbia Fish

395

Hazardous waste transportation risk assessment for the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement -- human health endpoints  

SciTech Connect

In this presentation, a quantitative methodology for assessing the risk associated with the transportation of hazardous waste (HW) is proposed. The focus is on identifying air concentrations of HW that correspond to specific human health endpoints.

Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Lazaro, M.A.

1994-03-01

396

Installation Restoration Program. Preliminary Assessment: 216th Engineering Installation Squadron and 234th Combat Communications Squadron, Hayward Air National Guard Station, California Air National Guard, Hayward, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The preliminary assessment included the following activities: (1) An on-site visit, including interviews and field surveys; (2) Acquisition and analysis of information on past hazardous materials use, waste generation, and waste disposal at the Station: (...

1991-01-01

397

Evaluating the Feasibility of Planting Aquatic Plants in Shallow Lakes in the Mississippi Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planting aquatic plants is a technique used to restore na- tive aquatic plants in lakes. However, the feasibility of using this restoration technique in shallow lakes in the Mississippi Delta has not been evaluated. We conducted two exclosure experiments to evaluate the success of planting aquatic plants in a shallow lake in the Mississippi Delta. We planted three emergent and

PETER C. SMILEY; ERIC D. DIBBLE

398

Assessing regional environmental quality by integrated use of remote sensing, GIS, and spatial multi-criteria evaluation for prioritization of environmental restoration.  

PubMed

This study was an attempt to analyse the regional environmental quality with the application of remote sensing, geographical information system, and spatial multiple criteria decision analysis and, to project a quantitative method applicable to identify the status of the regional environment of the study area. Using spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) approach with expert knowledge in this study, an integrated regional environmental quality index (REQI) was computed and classified into five levels of regional environment quality viz. worse, poor, moderate, good, and very good. During the process, a set of spatial criteria were selected (here, 15 criterions) together with the degree of importance of criteria in sustainability of the regional environment. Integrated remote sensing and GIS technique and models were applied to generate the necessary factors (criterions) maps for the SMCE approach. The ranking, along with expected value method, was used to standardize the factors and on the other hand, an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was applied for calculating factor weights. The entire process was executed in the integrated land and water information system (ILWIS) software tool that supports SMCE. The analysis showed that the overall regional environmental quality of the area was at moderate level and was partly determined by elevation. Areas under worse and poor quality of environment indicated that the regional environmental status showed decline in these parts of the county. The study also revealed that the human activities, vegetation condition, soil erosion, topography, climate, and soil conditions have serious influence on the regional environment condition of the area. Considering the regional characteristics of environmental quality, priority, and practical needs for environmental restoration, the study area was further regionalized into four priority areas which may serve as base areas of decision making for the recovery, rebuilding, and protection of the environment. PMID:25037964

Rahman, Md Rejaur; Shi, Z H; Chongfa, Cai

2014-11-01

399

A pilot cohort study to assess the feasibility of HIV prevention science research among men who have sex with men in Dakar, Senegal  

PubMed Central

Introduction Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately burdened by HIV in Senegal, across sub-Saharan Africa and throughout the world. This is driven in part by stigma, and limits health achievements and social capital among these populations. To date, there is a limited understanding of the feasibility of prospective HIV prevention studies among MSM in Senegal, including HIV incidence and cohort retention rates. Methods One hundred and nineteen men who reported having anal sex with another man in the past 12 months were randomly selected from a sampling frame of 450 unique members of community groups serving MSM in Dakar. These men were enrolled in a 15-month pilot cohort study implemented by a community-based partner. The study included a structured survey instrument and biological testing for HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B virus at two time points. Results Baseline HIV prevalence was 36.0% (43/114), with cumulative HIV prevalence at study end being 47.2% (51/108). The annualized incidence rate was 16% (8/40 at risk for seroconversion over 15 months of follow-up, 95% confidence interval 4.6–27.4%). Thirty-seven men were lost to follow up, including at least four deaths. Men who were able to confide in someone about health, emotional distress and sex were less likely to be HIV positive (OR 0.36, p < 0.05, 95% CI 0.13, 0.97). Conclusions High HIV prevalence and incidence, as well as mortality in this young population of Senegalese MSM indicate a public health emergency. Moreover, given the high burden of HIV and rate of incident HIV infections, this population appears to be appropriate for the evaluation of novel HIV prevention, treatment and care approaches. Using a study implemented by community-based organizations, there appears to be feasibility in implementing interventions addressing the multiple levels of HIV risk among MSM in this setting. However, low retention across arms of this pilot intervention, and in the cohort, will need to be addressed for larger-scale efficacy trials to be feasible. PMID:24321115

Drame, Fatou Maria; Crawford, Emily E; Diouf, Daouda; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan D

2013-01-01

400

Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered species and wetlands, and wild turkeys that may feed on contaminated vegetation and insects in WAG 5 have been screened for beta-emitting isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. The screening-level ecological risk assessment identified some data gaps that were addressed in the ecological assessment plan. These include gaps in data on the toxicity of surface water and soil within WAG 5 and on the status of rare and endangered species. In addition, the screening-level risk assessment identified the need for data on the level of contaminants in wild turkeys that may be consumed by predatory wildlife and humans. Three rounds of ambient toxicity tests on six streams and seeps, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia, have identified potential toxicity in three of the sample sites. Further tests are required to identify the toxicant. No rare or endangered animal species have been identified in the WAG 5 area.

Ashwood, T.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Stewart, A.J.

1992-09-01

401

A pilot study to assess feasibility of the water method to aid colonoscope insertion in community settings in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background The water method decreases patient discomfort and sedation requirement. Applicability in non-veteran community settings in the United States (U.S.) has not been reported. Aims Our aim is to perform a pilot study to establish feasibility of use the water method at 2 community sites. We tested the hypothesis that compared with air insufflation patients examined with the water method would require less sedation without adverse impact on outcomes. Methods Two performance improvement projects were carried out. Consecutive patients who consented to respond to a questionnaire after colonoscopy were enrolled. Project 1: The design was single-blinded (patient only); quasi-randomized - odd days (water), even days (air). Colonoscopy was performed by a staff attending. Project 2: A supervised trainee performed the reported procedures. In both, patient demographics (age, gender and body mass index), amount of sedation required during colonoscopy and procedure-related variables were recorded. The patients completed a questionnaire that enquired about discomfort during colonoscopy and willingness to repeat the procedure within 24 hours after the procedure. Results Project 1: Significantly lower doses of fentanyl and midazolam were used and a higher adenoma detection rate (ADR) was demonstrated in the water group. Project 2: 100% cecal intubation rate was achieved by the supervised trainee. Conclusion This is the first pilot report in the U.S. documenting feasibility of the water method as the principal modality to aid colonoscope insertion in both male and female community patients. In a head-to-head comparison, significant reduction of sedation requirement is confirmed as hypothesized. No adverse impact on outcomes was noted. PMID:22586546

Che, Kendrick; Olafsson, Snorri; Walter, Michael H; Jackson, Christian S; Leung, Felix W; Malamud, Ariel

2012-01-01

402

Long-term deterioration of composite resin and amalgam restorations.  

PubMed

Previous long-term longitudinal studies of two different methods of placing an auto-cured conventional anterior composite resin, and of a low- and a high-copper amalgam alloy, had shown similar restoration survivals despite the different resin treatment methods used or the types of amalgam alloy placed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess several clinical factors or characteristics of these restorations that were believed to affect the survival of the restorative materials. The 950 composite resin and the 1042 amalgam restorations examined were placed by many operators in numerous patients attending a dental hospital. The composite resin restorations were placed using unetched- and etched-enamel-bonding treatment methods, and the amalgam restorations were polished after insertion. Clinical ratings supplemented by color transparencies were used for the assessment of four factors for the resin, and four factors for the amalgam restoration. Significant deterioration differences were found for several of the clinical factors assessed for both the two different composite resin treatment methods, and for the two different amalgam alloys, which were not directly related to the restoration survivals. PMID:1840079

Smales, R J

1991-01-01

403

Final Report and Strategic Plan on the Feasibility Study to Assess Geothermal Potential on Warm Springs Reservation Lands. Report No. DOE/GO/15177  

SciTech Connect

In 2005 the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Tribal Council authorized an evaluation of the geothermal development potential on the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises obtained a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct a geological assessment and development estimate. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises utilized a team of expert consultants to conduct the study and develop a strategic plan. The resource assessment work was completed in 2006 by GeothermEx Inc., a consulting company specializing in geothermal resource assessments worldwide. The GeothermEx report indicates there is a 90% probability that a commercial geothermal resource exists on tribal lands in the Mt. Jefferson area. The geothermal resource assessment and other cost, risk and constraints information has been incorporated into the strategic plan.

James Manion, Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises; David McClain, McClain & Associates

2007-05-17

404

ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION AND RESTORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

To carry out this mission, GLNPO established its Ecological Protection and Restoration Team (the E Team), consisting of a staff plus extended team members from EPA Regions 2, 3, and 5, other federal and state agencies, and non-governmental organizations. GLNPO expect...

405

[Cast partial restorations: outdated!  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decision to apply a certain therapy is the outcome of a process in which the advantages and disadvantages of this therapy are weighed and compared to alternative therapies. Key words in this process are effectiveness and efficiency. Comparison of inlays and onlays with direct resin composite restorations in terms of effectiveness and efficiency suggests that inlays and onlays are

N. H. J. Creugers

2004-01-01

406

Restoring Fossil Creek  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

2004-01-01

407

Restoration 2012 SYNTHESIS MEMORANDUM  

E-print Network

the 234-rkm expanse of the tidally influenced main-stem and lower tributary sites below Bonneville Dam to Bonneville Dam. Information was acquired from peer-reviewed journal articles and contract reports initiated water to main-stem areas. To restore life-history diversity to Columbia River salmon populations

408

Creating Restorative Settings: Inclusive  

E-print Network

in the Cleveland Botanical Garden (CBG). Previous Page: 1100 Bergen Street Garden in Brooklyn shows the site in its The first step in this process was a design charrette, hosted by the Cleveland Botanical Garden. It brought Dirtworks, PC Landscape Architecture The Elizabeth and Nona Evans Restorative Garden Cleveland Botanical

409

Elwha River Restoration  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A large cooperative project is taking place with Olympic National Park in the Elwha River in anticipation of removal of two dams. Restoration of the entire river to natural free flows will allow returning salmon access to historic spawning grounds. This promises to return the historic giant Chinook...

2010-10-07

410

Inevitability of Balance Restoration  

PubMed Central

Prolonged imbalance between input and output of any element in a living organism is incompatible with life. The duration of imbalance varies, but eventually balance is achieved. This rule applies to any quantifiable element in a compartment of finite capacity. Transient discrepancies occur regularly, but given sufficient time, balance is always achieved, because permanent imbalance is impossible, and the mechanism for eventual restora