Science.gov

Sample records for restoration feasibility assessment

  1. Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington – Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Kristanovich, Felix C.

    2006-08-03

    A hydrodynamic and hydrologic modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of restoring natural estuarine functions and tidal marine wetlands habitat in the Chinook River estuary, located near the mouth of the Columbia River in Washington. The reduction in salmonid populations is attributable primarily to the construction of a Highway 101 overpass across the mouth of the Chinook River in the early 1920s with a tide gate under the overpass. This construction, which was designed to eliminate tidal action in the estuary, has impeded the upstream passage of salmonids. The goal of the Chinook River Restoration Project is to restore tidal functions through the estuary, by removing the tide gate at the mouth of the river, filling drainage ditches, restoring tidal swales, and reforesting riparian areas. The hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) was used to compute Chinook River and tributary inflows for use as input to the hydrodynamic model at the project area boundary. The hydrodynamic model (RMA-10) was used to generate information on water levels, velocities, salinity, and inundation during both normal tides and 100-year storm conditions under existing conditions and under the restoration alternatives. The RMA-10 model was extended well upstream of the normal tidal flats into the watershed domain to correctly simulate flooding and drainage with tidal effects included, using the wetting and drying schemes. The major conclusion of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling study was that restoration of the tidal functions in the Chinook River estuary would be feasible through opening or removal of the tide gate. Implementation of the preferred alternative (removal of the tide gate, restoration of the channel under Hwy 101 to a 200-foot width, and construction of an internal levee inside the project area) would provide the required restorations benefits (inundation, habitat, velocities, and salinity penetration, etc.) and meet flood protection requirements. The alternative design included design of storage such that relatively little difference in the drainage or inundation upstream of Chinook River Valley Road would occur as a result of the proposed restoration activities.

  2. Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington – Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Kristanovich, Felix C.

    2006-01-01

    A hydrodynamic and hydrologic modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of restoring natural estuarine functions and tidal marine wetlands habitat in the Chinook River estuary, located near the mouth of the Columbia River in Washington. The reduction in salmonid populations is attributable primarily to the construction of a Highway 101 overpass across the mouth of the Chinook River in the early 1920s with a tide gate under the overpass. This construction, which was designed to eliminate tidal action in the estuary, has impeded the upstream passage of salmonids. The goal of the Chinook River Restoration Project is to restore tidal functions through the estuary, by removing the tide gate at the mouth of the river, filling drainage ditches, restoring tidal swales, and reforesting riparian areas. The hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) was used to compute Chinook River and tributary inflows for use as input to the hydrodynamic model at the project area boundary. The hydrodynamic model (RMA-10) was used to generate information on water levels, velocities, salinity, and inundation during both normal tides and 100-year storm conditions under existing conditions and under the restoration alternatives. The RMA-10 model was extended well upstream of the normal tidal flats into the watershed domain to correctly simulate flooding anddrainage with tidal effects included, using the wetting and drying schemes. The major conclusion of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling study was that restoration of the tidal functions in the Chinook River estuary would be feasible through opening or removal of the tide gate. Implementation of the preferred alternative (removal of the tide gate, restoration of the channel under Hwy 101 to a 200-foot width, and construction of an internal levee inside the project area) would provide the required restorations benefits (inundation, habitat, velocities, and salinity penetration, etc.) and meet flood protection requirements. The alternative design included design of storage such that relatively little difference in the drainage or inundation upstream of Chinook River Valley Road would occur as a result of the proposed restoration activities.

  3. Compliance work for food contact materials: feasibility of the legally required safety assessment of an epoxy/amine-based coating for domestic water pipe restoration.

    PubMed

    Tillner, Jocelyn; Grob, Koni

    2014-01-01

    Options were explored for fulfilling the legally required safety assessment for a widely applied epoxy/amine coating used for restoring corroded domestic drinking water supply systems. The coating was made up of two components mixed shortly before application, the first mainly consisting of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), the second of various amines. The analytically identified starting substances were all authorised, but only constituted a small proportion of the low molecular mass material left after curing and potentially migrating into water. Reaction products synthesised from constituents of the starting components (expected oligomers) could not be eluted from GC even after derivatisation, indicating that standard GC-MS screening would miss most potential migrants. They were detectable by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) after acetylation. HPLC with MS or fluorescence detection was possible for constituents including a BADGE moiety, but phenalkamines could not be detected with adequate sensitivity. Possibilities for determining long-term migration relevant for chronic toxicity are discussed. Analysis in water shortly after application of the coating overestimates migration if migration decreases over time and requires detection limits far out of reach. Analysis of a solvent extract of the coating is easier and provides an upper estimate of what could migrate into the drinking water over the years. However, to satisfy the regulatory requirements, components of the complex mixture need to be identified at lower proportions than those accessible. In vitro testing of the whole mixture for genotoxicity is expected to fail because of the required sensitivity and the glycidyl functions probably wrongly resulting in positive tests. The difficulties in dealing with this situation are discussed. PMID:24761990

  4. Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis for Leque Island and zis a ba Restoration Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Jonathan M.; Khangaonkar, Tarang

    2015-01-31

    Ducks Unlimited, Inc. in collaboration with Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians have proposed the restoration of Leque Island and zis a ba (formerly Matterand) sites near the mouth of Old Stillaguamish River Channel in Port Susan Bay, Washington. The Leque Island site, which is owned by WDFW, consists of nearly 253 acres of land south of Highway 532 that is currently behind a perimeter dike. The 90-acres zis a ba site, also shielded by dikes along the shoreline, is located just upstream of Leque Island and is owned by Stillaguamish Tribes. The proposed actions consider the removal or modification of perimeter dikes at both locations to allow estuarine functions to be restored. The overall objective of the proposed projects is to remove the dike barriers to 1) provide connectivity and access between the tidal river channel and the restoration site for use by juvenile migrating salmon and 2) create a self-sustaining tidal marsh habitat. Ducks Unlimited engaged Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Port Susan Bay, Skagit Bay, and the interconnecting Leque Island region for use in support of the feasibility assessment for the Leque Island and zis a ba restoration projects. The objective of this modeling-based feasibility assessment is to evaluate the performance of proposed restoration actions in terms of achieving habitat goals while assessing the potential hydraulic and sediment transport impacts to the site and surrounding parcels of land.

  5. Lake restoration technology transfer assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Daschbach, M.H.; Roe, E.M.; Sharpe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    Based upon a review of the eutrophication problem and its impact on lake restoration (LR) programs, treatment of the relatively new problem of acid deposition and its impact on LR activities, consideration of the LR programs of the Environmental Protection Agency and several states, and a review of individual LR technology transfer publications, it is recommended that new LR technology transfer programs be given a low priority until more new information is available on the restoration of acidified lakes. Both primary and secondary users of LR research, technology transfer documents, and public awareness documents were considered in this assessment. Primary users included the general public and recreationists, lakeshore property owners, lake/homeowner associations, lake/sanitary districts, and research and environmental organizations; secondary users included state/county/local officials who administer/manage water-related regulations/activities. 4 tables.

  6. Oyster Habitat Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Handbook

    E-print Network

    Oyster Habitat Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Handbook #12;#12;Oyster Habitat Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Handbook | Page i Executive Summary Oyster reefs or beds are a globally imperiled to hydrology and salinity regimens, pollution and introduced disease. While oyster restoration efforts have

  7. Acceptability, feasibility and perceived satisfaction of the use of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment approach for people with disability.

    PubMed

    Molina, Gustavo Fabián; Faulks, Denise; Frencken, Joannes

    2015-01-01

    Unmet caries treatment need is prevalent among people with disability, partly due to difficulties cooperating with conventional dental treatment. This study compared Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) with conventional restorative treatment (CRT) in the clinic and under general anaesthesia (GA), in terms of feasibility, acceptability and respondent satisfaction in patients referred for special care dentistry. Patients referred for dental restorative care were treated using either ART or CRT approach. Acceptance, feasibility and level of satisfaction with the treatment provided were assessed. ANOVA with Bonferroni correction and Chi-square tests investigated differences in age, gender and Visual Analogue Scale satisfaction scores. A total of 66 patients (mean 13.6 ± 7.8 years) were included and 43 respondents chose ART. ART was feasible for 47 patients, with optimal placement of restorations for 79% of all patients receiving ART. CRT in the clinic was chosen by 15 respondents and was feasible for 5 (33%). Local anaesthesia was required for 4 of the 47 patients receiving ART and for 3 of the 5 patients receiving CRT in the clinic. Neither ART nor CRT could be performed in the clinic for 14 patients who were treated under GA (21%). Respondent satisfaction was higher for those receiving ART than CRT (in the clinic and under GA). It was concluded that ART is a satisfactory, feasible, acceptable and effective approach to restorative dental treatment in patients with disability who have difficulty coping with conventional treatment. More research is now required to confirm these results in a larger study population. PMID:26247515

  8. Evaluating the feasibility of planting aquatic plants for habitat restoration in shallow Mississippi lakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting aquatic plants is a technique used to restore native aquatic plant communities in lakes lacking aquatic plants. However, the feasibility of using this restoration technique in Mississippi lakes has not been evaluated. We conducted two exclosure experiments to evaluate the success of planti...

  9. EVALUATING THE FEASIBILITY OF PLANTING AQUATIC PLANTS FOR HABITAT RESTORATION IN SHALLOW MISSISSIPPI LAKES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting native aquatic plants is a technique used to restore vegetated habitat important to fish in lakes lacking aquatic plants. However, the feasibility of using this restoration technique in Mississippi lakes has not been evaluated. We conducted two exclosure experiments to evaluate the success ...

  10. NTRE extended life feasibility assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Results of a feasibility analysis of a long life, reusable nuclear thermal rocket engine are presented in text and graph form. Two engine/reactor concepts are addressed: the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) design and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) concept. Engine design, integration, reliability, and safety are addressed by various members of the NTRE team from Aerojet Propulsion Division, Energopool (Russia), and Babcock & Wilcox.

  11. Authentic Assessment for Restorative Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Allison

    2008-01-01

    The Developmental Audit[R] is a comprehensive means of assessment and treatment planning that identifies the coping strategies underlying a youth's maladaptive and self-defeating behavior. This is a strength-based assessment that engages youth in conflict in the process of generating solutions rather than focusing on deficits. This process…

  12. Indicators of Functional Equivalency for Assessing Restoration Success

    EPA Science Inventory

    New restoration projects are being proposed around the Gulf of Mexico as a result of RESTORE Act funding. These projects would benefit from innovative methods for assessing their success. Many restoration projects elsewhere use structure-based condition assessment methods which...

  13. A High Resolution Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound to Support Nearshore Restoration Feasibility Analysis and Design

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Estuarine and coastal hydrodynamic processes are sometimes neglected in the design and planning of nearshore restoration actions. Despite best intentions, efforts to restore nearshore habitats can result in poor outcomes if circulation and transport which also affect freshwater-saltwater interactions are not properly addressed. Limitations due to current land use can lead to selection of sub-optimal restoration alternatives that may result in undesirable consequences, such as flooding, deterioration of water quality, and erosion, requiring immediate remedies and costly repairs. Uncertainty with achieving restoration goals, such as recovery of tidal exchange, supply of sediment and nutrients, and establishment of fish migration pathways, may be minimized by using numerical models designed for application to the nearshore environment. A high resolution circulation and transport model of the Puget Sound, in the state of Washington, was developed to assist with nearshore habitat restoration design and analysis, and to answer the question “can we achieve beneficial restoration outcomes at small local scale, as well as at a large estuary-wide scale?” The Puget Sound model is based on an unstructured grid framework to define the complex Puget Sound shoreline using a finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM). The capability of the model for simulating the important nearshore processes, such as circulation in complex multiple tidal channels, wetting and drying of tide flats, and water quality and sediment transport as part of restoration feasibility, are illustrated through examples of restoration projects in Puget Sound.

  14. Integrated Assessment of Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, S.; Orr, B. J.; Vallejo, R.

    2009-12-01

    Recent advances in desertification and land degradation research have provided valuable conceptual and analytical frameworks, degradation indicators, assessment tools and surveillance systems with respect to desertification drivers, processes, and impacts. These findings, together with stakeholders’ perceptions and local/regional knowledge, have helped to define and propose measures and strategies to combat land degradation. However, integrated and comprehensive assessment and evaluation of prevention and restoration strategies and techniques to combat desertification is still lacking, and knowledge on the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the proposed strategies over a wide range of environmental and socio-economic conditions is very scarce. To address this challenge, we have launched a multinational project (PRACTICE - Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification. An Integrated Assessment), funded by the European Commission, in order to link S & T advances and traditional knowledge on prevention and restoration practices to combat desertification with sound implementation, learning and adaptive management, knowledge sharing, and dissemination of best practices. The key activities for pursuing this goal are (1) to establish a platform and information system of long-term monitoring sites for assessing sustainable management and actions to combat desertification, (2) to define an integrated protocol for the assessment of these actions, and (3) to link project assessment and evaluation with training and education, adaptive management, and knowledge sharing and dissemination through a participatory approach involving scientists, managers, technicians, financial officers, and members of the public who are/were impacted by the desertification control projects. Monitoring sites are distributed in the Mediterranean Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal), Africa (Morocco, Namibia, South Africa), Middle East (Israel), China, and South and North America (Chile, Mexico, and USA). PRACTICE integrated assessment protocol (IAPro) assumes the mutual human-environment interactions in land-use/cover change at multiple scales, and therefore adopts an integrated approach, which simultaneously considers both biophysical and socio-economic attributes, for assessing actions to combat desertification. IAPro mostly relies on critical slow variables and particularly exploits long-term monitoring data. Integration of biophysical and socio-economic assessment indicators and stakeholder preferences is based on a participatory multi-criteria decision making process. The process is iterative and provides a framework for knowledge exchange and a path to consensus building.

  15. Trailing Ballute Aerocapture: Concept and Feasibility Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kevin L.; Gulick, Doug; Lewis, Jake; Trochman, Bill; Stein, Jim; Lyons, Daniel T.; Wilmoth, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    Trailing Ballute Aerocapture offers the potential to obtain orbit insertion around a planetary body at a fraction of the mass of traditional methods. This allows for lower costs for launch, faster flight times and additional mass available for science payloads. The technique involves an inflated ballute (balloon-parachute) that provides aerodynamic drag area for use in the atmosphere of a planetary body to provide for orbit insertion in a relatively benign heating environment. To account for atmospheric, navigation and other uncertainties, the ballute is oversized and detached once the desired velocity change (Delta V) has been achieved. Analysis and trades have been performed for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of the technique including aerophysics, material assessments, inflation system and deployment sequence and dynamics, configuration trades, ballute separation and trajectory analysis. Outlined is the technology development required for advancing the technique to a level that would allow it to be viable for use in space exploration missions.

  16. ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RESTORATION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous stream and riparian restoration projects are being undertaken across the nation at a variety of scales and for disparate reasons. Unfortunately, there are very few studies associated with these restoration efforts which provide a consistent and practical methodology to e...

  17. Assessing Binocular Interaction in Amblyopia and Its Clinical Feasibility

    E-print Network

    Lu, Zhong-Lin

    Assessing Binocular Interaction in Amblyopia and Its Clinical Feasibility MiYoung Kwon1,2 *, Zhong: To measure binocular interaction in amblyopes using a rapid and patient-friendly computer-based method, and to test the feasibility of the assessment in the clinic. Methods: Binocular interaction was assessed

  18. Point No Point Marsh Restoration and Flood Risk Mitigation Feasibility Project 1. Provide the name of all non-Federal interests planning to act as the sponsor,

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    of the Puget Sound River History Project) Restoration of the wetlands at Point no Point is a high priorityPoint No Point Marsh Restoration and Flood Risk Mitigation Feasibility Project 1. Provide the name Restoration and Flood Management Feasibility Project Other non-federal interested participants include

  19. Wind Resource and Feasibility Assessment Report for the Lummi Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    DNV Renewables Inc.; J.C. Brennan & Associates, Inc.; Hamer Environmental L.P.

    2012-08-31

    This report summarizes the wind resource on the Lummi Indian Reservation (Washington State) and presents the methodology, assumptions, and final results of the wind energy development feasibility assessment, which included an assessment of biological impacts and noise impacts.

  20. Integrating natural resource damage assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

  1. Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

  2. Leon Creek Watershed Interim Feasibility Study and Integrated Environmental Assessment,

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    #12;1 Leon Creek Watershed Interim Feasibility Study and Integrated Environmental Assessment, San, was engaged to conduct the IEPR of the Leon Creek Watershed Interim Feasibility Study and Integrated watershed. 2. Comment ­ Medium High Significance: The reliance on 2008 data to describe the affected

  3. Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Thom, Ronald M.; Fuller, Roger

    2010-04-10

    Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

  4. A RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR SOCIAL ASSESSMENT OF LAKE RESTORATION PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research was initiated in order to examine the social implications of lake restoration programs and to develop a standardized methodology for social impact assessment. A cultural ecological model is employed since it provides perspectives on the relationship of human adaptati...

  5. Cle Elum Lake Sockeye Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study, 1987-1989 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1990-02-01

    This report summarizes research activities conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) from July 1988 through March 1989 relating to the Cle Elum Lake sockeye salmon restoration feasibility study. During this period, efforts focused on collection and spawning of adult sockeye salmon from the Wenatchee River, incubation of eggs from the 1988-brood, and the rearing of juveniles from the 1987-brood. In late July and early August 1988, 520 adult sockeye salmon were captured at fishways on the Wenatchee River and transferred to net-pens in Lake Wenatchee. Fish were held to maturity in late September and early October, spawned, and eggs incubated at a quarantine hatchery in Seattle, WA. The 336 sockeye salmon successfully spawned from the net-pens at Lake Wenatchee were surveyed for the presence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) and other replicating viruses. In addition, 13 and 5 sockeye salmon spawners were surveyed from spawning grounds on the White and Little Wenatchee Rivers, respectively, from within the Lake Wenatchee system. 12 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Remedidal investigation and feasibility study report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Roeck, F.V.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of the remedial investigation (RI) is to collect data necessary to adequately characterize the site for the purpose of developing and evaluating effective remedial alternatives. To characterize the site, the lead agency shall, as appropriate, conduct field investigations, including treatability studies, and conduct a baseline risk assessment. The RI provides information to assess the risks to human health and the environment and to support the development, evaluation, and selection of appropriate response alternatives. The primary objective of the feasibility study (FS) is to ensure that appropriate remedial alternatives are developed and evaluated such that relevant information concerning the remedial action options can be presented to a decision-maker and an appropriate remedy selected. The lead agency may develop a feasibility study to address a specific site problem or the entire site. The development and evaluation of alternatives shall reflect the scope and complexity of the remedial action under consideration and the site problems being addressed. Development of alternatives shall be fully integrated with the site characterization activities of the remedial investigation described in paragraph (d) of this section. The lead agency shall include an alternatives screening step, when needed, to select a reasonable number of alternatives for detailed analysis.

  7. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Boezaart, Arnold; Edmonson, James; Standridge, Charles; Pervez, Nahid; Desai, Neel; Williams, Bruce; Clark, Aaron; Zeitler, David; Kendall, Scott; Biddanda, Bopi; Steinman, Alan; Klatt, Brian; Gehring, J. L.; Walter, K.; Nordman, Erik E.

    2014-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the project including to: 1) test and validate floating LIDAR technology; 2) collect and access offshore wind data; 3) detect and measure bird and bat activity over Lake Michigan; 4) conduct an over water sound propagation study; 5) prepare and offer a college course on offshore energy, and; 6) collect other environmental, bathometric, and atmospheric data. Desk-top research was performed to select anchorage sites and to secure permits to deploy the buoy. The project also collected and analyzed data essential to wind industry investment decision-making including: deploying highly mobile floating equipment to gather offshore wind data; correlating offshore wind data with conventional on-shore MET tower data; and performing studies that can contribute to the advancement and deployment of offshore wind technologies. Related activities included: • Siting, permitting, and deploying an offshore floating MET facility; • Validating the accuracy of floating LWS using near shoreline cup anemometer MET instruments; • Assessment of laser pulse technology (LIDAR) capability to establish hub height measurement of wind conditions at multiple locations on Lake Michigan; • Utilizing an extended-season (9-10 month) strategy to collect hub height wind data and weather conditions on Lake Michigan; • Investigation of technology best suited for wireless data transmission from distant offshore structures; • Conducting field-validated sound propagation study for a hypothetical offshore wind farm from shoreline locations; • Identifying the presence or absence of bird and bat species near wind assessment facilities; • Identifying the presence or absence of benthic and pelagic species near wind assessment facilities; All proposed project activities were completed with the following major findings: • Floating Laser Wind Sensors are capable of high quality measurement and recordings of wind resources. The WindSentinel presented no significant operational or statistical limitations in recording wind data technology at a at a high confidence level as compared to traditional an

  8. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  9. Designing and Assessing Restored Meandering River Planform Using RVR Meander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langendoen, E. J.; Abad, J. D.; Motta, D.; Frias, C. E.; Wong, M.; Barnes, B. J.; Anderson, C. D.; Garcia, M. H.; MacDonald, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    The ongoing modification and resulting reduction in water quality of U.S. rivers have led to a significant increase in river restoration projects over the last two decades. The increased interest in restoring degraded streams, however, has not necessarily led to improved stream function. Palmer and Allan (2005) found that many restoration projects fail to achieve their objectives due to the lack of policies to support restoration standards, to promote proven methods and to provide basic data needed for planning and implementation. Proven models of in-stream and riparian processes could be used not only to guide the design of restoration projects but also to assess both pre- and post-project indicators of ecological integrity. One of the most difficult types of river restoration projects concern reconstructing a new channel, often with an alignment and channel form different from those of the degraded pre-project channel. Recreating a meandering planform to provide longitudinal and lateral variability of flow and bed morphology to improve in-stream aquatic habitat is often desired. Channel meander planform is controlled by a multitude of variables, for example channel width to depth ratio, radius of curvature to channel width ratio, bankfull discharge, roughness, bed-material physical characteristics, bed material transport, resistance to erosion of the floodplain soils, riparian vegetation, etc. Therefore, current practices that use simple, empirically based relationships or reference reaches have led to failure in several instances, for example a washing out of meander bends or a highly unstable planform, because they fail to address the site-specific conditions. Recently, progress has been made to enhance a physically- and process-based model, RVR Meander, for rapid analysis of meandering river morphodynamics with reduced empiricism. For example, lateral migration is based on measurable physical properties of the floodplain soils and riparian vegetation versus the driving forces of the river hydrodynamics. The model can also be used in a Monte Carlo framework to statistically describe the long-term evolution of the meander planform. RVR Meander has been successfully used to evaluate migration rates of restored meandering streams and bends on the Big Sioux River, SD and Trout Creek, CA at engineering time scales. It has also been used to assess the uncertainty and risk associated with the alignment of the meandering low-flow channel of the planned diversion of the Red River of the North around the metropolitan area of Fargo, ND and Moorhead, MN. Palmer MA, Allan JD. 2005. Restoring rivers, Issues in Science and Technology, Winter 2006, Published by National Academy of Sciences, 22: 40-48.

  10. 78 FR 16656 - Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for Natural Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...written form. Written comments may be sent to: Ian Zelo, NOAA Oil Spill Coordinator, Assessment and Restoration Division, 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle, WA 98115. Electronic comments may be sent directly to: ian.j.zelo@noaa.gov. Please...

  11. Feasibility study: Assess the feasibility of siting a monitored retrievable storage facility. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of phase one of this study are: To understand the waste management system and a monitored retrievable storage facility; and to determine whether the applicant has real interest in pursuing the feasibility assessment process. Contents of this report are: Generating electric power; facts about exposure to radiation; handling storage, and transportation techniques; description of a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility; and benefits to be received by host jurisdiction.

  12. Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bascietto, J.J.; Sharples, F.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1993-06-01

    Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at several sites owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120(a) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act also subjects DOE to liability under Section 107 of CERCLA for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. The Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process, by which natural resource injuries are determined and compensatory monetary damages are calculated, is not well known or understood by DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. Nevertheless, natural resource liabilities are potentially a significant source of additional monetary claims for CERCLA hazardous substance releases. This paper describes the requirements of NRDA and explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, in order to more quickly restore environmental services at the lowest total cost to the public. The first section of the paper explains the statutory and regulatory mandates for the NRDA process. The second section briefly describes the four phases of the NRDA process, while the third section examines the three steps in the assessment phase in considerable detail. Finally, the last section focuses on the integration of the CERCLA and NRDA processes.

  13. How to scientifically assess a restoration project: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.; Freire, D. M.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Vazquez-Calvo, C.

    2012-04-01

    Commonly, it is said that there is lack of communication among scientists, conservators, restorers, project managers and architects. But sometimes this communication flows, and we can find enormous benefits from and for all the participating agents. This is the case we present in this work, in which technical agents in charge of the restoration of a building, asked for some scientific advice to perform the restoration of a heritage building. The results were successful and fantastic for both of them, in terms of one part asking for consultation and the other answering to the demands and resolving real problems. This is the case of a marvellous Renaissance building (Medinaceli Dukes palace, 15th-16th centuries) in the central area of Spain (Cogolludo, Guadalajara). Focused on the restoration project, we were asked for consultancy on how to solve matters like the assessment of the already fixed in project cleaning method for the stone façades, the efficacy and durability methods for some conservation products to be applied, the presence or not of a patina on the stone; the viability of using some restoration mortars, and the origin of some efflorescences that came out just after placed in the building a restoration rendering mortar. Responses to these matters were answered by performing tests both in the lab and on site in the building. The efficiency and effects on stone of the blasting cleaning method was assessed by first analysing the nature and thickness of the surface deposits to be removed (SEM-EDS analyses); secondly, roughness and colour measurements were performed, and thirdly, SEM-EDS analyses were carried out again to determine whether the cleaning method was able to remove part of the surface deposits, completely, or even part of the stone substrate. Some conservation products were tested on stone specimens, both their efficacy and their durability, concluding that it was better not to apply any of them. A patina was found on the stone façade under SEM, probably applied for colouring and homogenizing purpose, and below it and on the stone, an acrylic film was analysed. It was in good state, and its removal could be worse and more dangerous to the substrate than leaving it. Two restoration mortars were tested to characterize them and to determine their durability, the results showing that one of them was much better than the other. Finally, a restoration render was analysed and we found, by analysing it and the raw materials used for its preparation, that one of them, a marketed cement, had a very high content on sulfates, responsible for the efflorescences (sulphate compounds) that appeared just after the render was placed in the building, this resulting on stopping using this product in the restoration project. Consequently, conservation science should be considered as not only useful but essential for cultural heritage conservation, besides it is cost-saving, because failed interventions are much more expensive in the short, medium and long term.

  14. A framework for assessing the feasibility of malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The recent scale-up of malaria interventions, the ensuing reductions in the malaria burden, and reinvigorated discussions about global eradication have led many countries to consider malaria elimination as an alternative to maintaining control measures indefinitely. Evidence-based guidance to help countries weigh their options is thus urgently needed. A quantitative feasibility assessment that balances the epidemiological situation in a region, the strength of the public health system, the resource constraints, and the status of malaria control in neighboring areas can serve as the basis for robust, long-term strategic planning. Such a malaria elimination feasibility assessment was recently prepared for the Minister of Health in Zanzibar. Based on the Zanzibar experience, a framework is proposed along three axes that assess the technical requirements to achieve and maintain elimination, the operational capacity of the malaria programme and the public health system to meet those requirements, and the feasibility of funding the necessary programmes over time. Key quantitative and qualitative metrics related to each component of the assessment are described here along with the process of collecting data and interpreting the results. Although further field testing, validation, and methodological improvements will be required to ensure applicability in different epidemiological settings, the result is a flexible, rational methodology for weighing different strategic options that can be applied in a variety of contexts to establish data-driven strategic plans. PMID:21070659

  15. Cle Elum Lake Sockeye Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study, 1986-1988 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1988-10-01

    In 1986, a multi-year project to evaluate the biological feasibility of reestablishing anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs to Cle Elum Lake in the Yakima River Basin was established between the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). This program involves the capture, spawning, and rearing of disease-free donor stock in 1987 and 1988 and assessment of juvenile outmigration and survival from Cle Elum Lake in 1989 and 1990. Work in 1987--1988 involved collection of adult sockeye salmon from the Lake Wenatchee run and incubation and rearing of progeny as donor stock. In July 1987, 263 adults were captured at the Dryden fishway on the Wenatchee River and transferred to net-pens in Lake Wenatchee. Adults were held approximately 90 days and spawned, and the eggs were transferred to a quarantine hatchery. Pre-spawning survival was 95.1%, and all spawners were certified as being free of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHN) and other replicating viruses. Egg viability averaged about 40%; however, eyed egg to hatch survival was over 99%. Juveniles are being reared in quarantine, and survival to date is about 92%. The NMFS currently has over 131,000 fry (0.7 g average weight) in culture. Fry have been certified twice (at 0.12 g and 0.25 g average weight) as being free of IHN and other replicating viruses. Viral certification will continue throughout rearing. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Undertaking Procedure-Based Assessment is Feasible in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    James, K; Cross, K; Lucarotti, ME; Fowler, AL; Cook, TA

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION With the development of a new curriculum, workplace based assessments such as procedure-based assessment (PBA) are becoming increasingly common within surgical training. However, there have been concerns about the impact of these assessments on clinical practice. This study assessed the time taken to complete PBA forms to determine whether it is feasible in clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS PBAs for three colorectal procedures (anterior resection, right hemicolectomy and anal fistula) were undertaken by various trainers and trainees. A pilot study was performed to identify potential reasons for incomplete forms and procedural modifications subsequently applied in the main study. Times taken to complete the consenting and operative components of the forms were recorded. RESULTS Incomplete forms in the pilot were mainly attributable to time constraints. In the main study, all assessments were completed within 30 min. Assessment times increased with complexity of the procedure. Median times for completing the consenting and operative components in anterior resection were 13 min (range, 8–15 min) and 15 min (range, 10–18 min), respectively. CONCLUSIONS PBAs are feasible in clinical practice and are valued by trainees as a means of enabling focused feedback and targeted training. Commitment from trainers and trainees will be required but, with adequate planning, the assessment tool is effective with minimal impact on clinical practice. PMID:19317934

  17. Mid-Columbia Coho Salmon Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation

    1999-01-01

    Before the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) decides whether to fund a program to reintroduce coho salmon to mid-Columbia River basin tributaries, research is needed to determine the ecological risks and biological feasibility of such an effort. Since the early 1900s, the native stock of coho has been decimated in the tributaries of the middle reach of the Columbia River. The four Columbia River Treaty Tribes identified coho reintroduction in the mid-Columbia as a priority in the Tribal Restoration Plan. It is a comprehensive plan put forward by the Tribes to restore the Columbia River fisheries. In 1996, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) recommended the tribal mid-Columbia reintroduction project for funding by BPA. It was identified as one of fifteen high-priority supplementation projects for the Columbia River basin, and was incorporated into the NPPC`s Fish and Wildlife Program. The release of coho from lower Columbia hatcheries into mid-Columbia tributaries is also recognized in the Columbia River Fish Management Plan.

  18. Market assessment and technical feasibility study of PFBC ash use

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.; Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H.; Georgiou, D.N.; Wheeldon, J.

    1994-10-01

    The overall objectives of this study are to determine the market potential and the technical feasibility of using PFBC ash in high volume ash use applications. The information will be of direct use to the utility industry in assessing the economics of PFBC power generation in light of ash disposal avoidance through ash marketing. In addition, the research is expected to result in the generation of generic data on the use of PFBC ash that could lead to novel processing options and procedures. The specific objectives of the proposed research and demonstration effort are: Define resent and future market potential of PFBC ash for a range of applications (Phase I); assess the technical feasibility of PFBC ash use in construction, civil engineering and agricultural applications (Phase II); and demonstrate the most promising of the market and ash use options in full-scale field demonstrations (Phase III).

  19. 43 CFR 11.93 - Post-assessment phase-restoration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Post-assessment phase-restoration plan. 11.93 Section 11.93 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.93 Post-assessment phase—restoration plan. (a)...

  20. 43 CFR 11.92 - Post-assessment phase-restoration account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Post-assessment phase-restoration account. 11.92 Section 11.92 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.92 Post-assessment phase—restoration account....

  1. 43 CFR 11.92 - Post-assessment phase-restoration account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Post-assessment phase-restoration account. 11.92 Section 11.92 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.92 Post-assessment phase—restoration account....

  2. 43 CFR 11.93 - Post-assessment phase-restoration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Post-assessment phase-restoration plan. 11.93 Section 11.93 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.93 Post-assessment phase—restoration plan. (a)...

  3. 43 CFR 11.93 - Post-assessment phase-restoration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Post-assessment phase-restoration plan. 11.93 Section 11.93 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.93 Post-assessment phase—restoration plan. (a)...

  4. 43 CFR 11.93 - Post-assessment phase-restoration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Post-assessment phase-restoration plan. 11.93 Section 11.93 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.93 Post-assessment phase—restoration plan. (a)...

  5. 43 CFR 11.92 - Post-assessment phase-restoration account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Post-assessment phase-restoration account. 11.92 Section 11.92 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.92 Post-assessment phase—restoration account....

  6. 43 CFR 11.93 - Post-assessment phase-restoration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Post-assessment phase-restoration plan. 11.93 Section 11.93 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.93 Post-assessment phase—restoration plan. (a)...

  7. 43 CFR 11.92 - Post-assessment phase-restoration account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Post-assessment phase-restoration account. 11.92 Section 11.92 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.92 Post-assessment phase—restoration account....

  8. 43 CFR 11.92 - Post-assessment phase-restoration account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Post-assessment phase-restoration account. 11.92 Section 11.92 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment Phase § 11.92 Post-assessment phase—restoration account....

  9. INEL advanced test reactor plutonium-238 production feasibility assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Schnitzler, B.G. )

    1993-01-10

    Results of a preliminary neutronics assessment indicate the feasibility of [sup 238]Pu production in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Based on the results of this assessment, an annual production of 11.3 kg [sup 238]Pu can be achieved in the ATR. An annual loading of 102 kg [sup 237]Np is required for the particular target configuration and irradiation scenario examined. The [sup 236]Pu contaminant level is approximately 6 parts per million at zero cooling time. The product quality is about 90% [sup 238]Pu. Neptunium feedstock requirements, [sup 238]Pu production rates, or product purity can be optimized depending on their relative importances.

  10. Environmental monitoring, restoration and assessment: What have we learned

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Twenty-Eighth Hanford Symposium on Health and the Environment was held in Richland, Washington, October 16--19, 1989. The symposium was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. The symposium was organized to review and evaluate some of the monitoring and assessment programs that have been conducted or are currently in place. Potential health and environmental effects of energy-related and other industrial activities have been monitored and assessed at various government and private facilities for over three decades. Most monitoring is required under government regulations; some monitoring is implemented because facility operators consider it prudent practice. As a result of these activities, there is now a substantial radiological, physical, and chemical data base for various environmental components, both in the United States and abroad. Symposium participants, both platform and poster presenters, were asked to consider, among other topics, the following: Has the expenditure of millions of dollars for radiological monitoring and assessment activities been worth the effort How do we decide when enough monitoring is enough Can we adequately assess the impacts of nonradiological components -- both inorganic and organic -- of wastes Are current regulatory requirements too restrictive or too lenient Can monitoring and assessment be made more cost effective Papers were solicited in the areas of environmental monitoring; environmental regulations; remediation, restoration, and decommissioning; modeling and dose assessment; uncertainty, design, and data analysis; and data management and quality assurance. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

  11. Feasibility Study and Environmental Assessment for Chacon Creek, Laredo, Texas Summary: Section 7001 of the Water Resources Reform and Development Act of 2014 (WRRDA 2014)

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    restoration and protection, water conservation and supply, water quality, and related purposes in the RioFeasibility Study and Environmental Assessment for Chacon Creek, Laredo, Texas Summary: Section 7001 of the Water Resources Reform and Development Act of 2014 (WRRDA 2014) requires the U.S. Army

  12. 75 FR 22737 - Final Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan for the Bayou Verdine and Calcasieu River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... March 27, 2009. 74 FR 13193 (March 26, 2009); American Press, March 27. 2009. The Trustees received no... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Final Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan for the Bayou... Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the Bayou Verdine Site, Calcasieu...

  13. Assessment of hydraulic restoration of San Pablo Marsh, California.

    PubMed

    Grismer, Mark E; Kollar, J; Syder, J

    2004-11-01

    Inter-tidal marshes are dynamic diverse ecosystems at the transition zone between terrestrial and ocean environments. Geomorphologically, inter-tidal salt marshes are vegetated land-forms at elevations slightly greater than mean tidal levels that have distributed channels formed under ebb (drainage) tidal flows that widen and deepen in the seaward direction. The drainage channels enable tidal flows to circulate sediments and nutrients through the marsh system during normal tidal events, while depositing sediments during storm or seismic events. This dynamic system encourages considerable biodiversity while simultaneously providing water quality enhancement features that service marsh terrestrial life and marine life in the estuary. Reservoir creation limiting sediment transport, anticipated large increases in sea levels as well as agricultural and urban development have resulted in significant loss of inter-tidal marshes and subsequent adverse impacts on waterfowl, infauna and fisheries. The complex and continuously changing marsh channel hydraulics and sedimentary processes have severely constrained quantitative modeling of these marsh systems such that restoration/creation efforts remain something of an empirical science and further assessments are needed. The purpose of this paper is to outline current understanding of salt marsh hydrodynamics, sediment accretion processes and subsequent response of marsh vegetation to set the stage for assessment of a marsh restoration effort along San Pablo Bay near San Francisco, California. Several kilometers of drainage channels were constructed in a 624 ha disturbed salt marsh to restore tidal circulation and vegetation so as to enhance habitat for threatened species (e.g. clapper rail, harvest mouse, delta smelt and potentially anadromous fish species). Two distinct drainage channel systems ('east' and 'west') were installed having similar channel dimensions common to salt marshes in the region, but having design bankfull tidal prism volumes differing by a factor of two. Following channel excavation, main channel tidal flows and sediment loads as well as marsh sediment accretion rates were monitored to assess the relative success of the excavation in restoring tidal circulation and vegetation (Salicornia spp.) to the marsh. Annual aerial surveys corroborated with ground-truthing indicated that marsh vegetation rapidly expanded, from 40 to 85% coverage several years following excavation. The 'east' channel intake was nearly completely silted in within three years. However, channel surveys and flow measurements indicated that the 'east' channel system tidal prism was only about 1200 m3, more than an order of magnitude less than that of the stable 'west' channel system. Marsh sediment accretion rates were on the order of 7-8 mm yr(-1), a rate common to the Pacific coast region that exceeds estimated sea level rise rates of approximately 2 mm yr(-1). East channel network siltation resulted in storm and spring tidal flood ponding such that marsh vegetation coverage decreased to 51% of the marsh area and related habitat expansion decreased. These results are considered in terms of the primary inter-tidal marsh factors affecting possible restoration/creation strategies. PMID:15473530

  14. A monitoring protocol to assess tidal restoration of salt marshes on local and regional scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neckles, H.A.; Dionne, M.D.; Burdick, D.M.; Roman, C.T.; Buchsbaum, R.; Hutchins, E.

    2002-01-01

    Assessing the response of salt marshes to tidal restoration relies on comparisons of ecosystem attributes between restored and reference marshes. Although this approach provides an objective basis for judging project success, inferences can be constrained if the high variability of natural marshes masks differences in sampled attributes between restored and reference sites. Furthermore, such assessments are usually focused on a small number of restoration projects in a local area, limiting the ability to address questions regarding the effectiveness of restoration within a broad region. We developed a hierarchical approach to evaluate the performance of tidal restorations at local and regional scales throughout the Gulf of Maine. The cornerstone of the approach is a standard protocol for monitoring restored and reference salt marshes throughout the region. The monitoring protocol was developed by consensus among nearly 50 restoration scientists and practitioners. The protocol is based on a suite of core structural measures that can be applied to any tidal restoration project. The protocol also includes additional functional measures for application to specific projects. Consistent use of the standard protocol to monitor local projects will enable pooling information for regional assessments. Ultimately, it will be possible to establish a range of reference conditions characterizing natural tidal wetlands in the region and to compare performance curves between populations of restored and reference marshes for assessing regional restoration effectiveness.

  15. Cle Elum Lake Anadromous Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study: Summary of Research, 1986-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Douglas

    2000-04-01

    The focus of this research was to study the feasibility for anadromous salmonids to recolonize the habitat above reservoirs in the Yakima River without disruption to irrigation withdrawals. A primary concern was whether anadromous fish could successfully exit reservoirs and survive downstream passage through the Yakima and Columbia Rivers to the ocean.

  16. Cle Elum Lake Restoration Feasibility Study: Fish Husbandry Research, 1988-1991 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1991-09-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) are involved in a project to evaluate the feasibility of re-establishing anadromous salmon runs to Cle Elum Lake in the Yakima River Basin of Washington state. Historically, the Yakima River system supported large runs of anadromous salmonids that contributed significantly to the Columbia River harvest. Habitat destruction and overfishing drastically reduced run abundance prior to the early 1900s. Salmon runs were eliminated from upper reaches of the Yakima River Basin with development of irrigation storage reservoirs without fishways in the early 1900s. The goal of the NMFS/BPA project is to determine if it is feasible for anadromous salmonids to recolonize the habitat above Cle Elum Dam under the present format of irrigation water withdrawal from the reservoir. The primary concern is whether anadromous fish can successfully exit Cle Elum Lake and survive downstream passage through the Yakima and Columbia Rivers to the ocean.

  17. 76 FR 65182 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ...The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program (DARRP) is announcing new indirect cost rates on the recovery of indirect costs for its component organizations involved in natural resource damage assessment and restoration activities for fiscal years (FY) 2009 and 2010. The indirect cost rates for these fiscal years and......

  18. Shoulder sensorimotor control assessment by force platform: feasibility and reliability.

    PubMed

    Edouard, Pascal; Gasq, David; Calmels, Paul; Ducrot, Sarah; Degache, Francis

    2012-09-01

    Given the important role of the shoulder sensorimotor system in shoulder stability, its assessment appears of interest. Force platform monitoring of centre of pressure (CoP) in upper-limb weight-bearing positions is of interest as it allows integration of all aspects of shoulder sensorimotor control. This study aimed to determine the feasibility and reliability of shoulder sensorimotor control assessment by force platform. Forty-five healthy subjects performed two sessions of CoP measurement using Win-Posturo(®) Medicapteurs force platform in an upper-limb weight-bearing position with the lower limbs resting on a table to either the anterior superior iliac spines (P1) or upper patellar poles (P2). Four different conditions were tested in each position in random order: eyes open or eyes closed with trunk supported by both hands and eyes open with trunk supported on the dominant or non-dominant side. P1 reliability values were globally moderate to high for CoP length, CoP velocity and CoP standard deviation (SD), standard error of measurement ranged from 6·0% to 26·5%, except for CoP area. P2 reliability values were globally low and not clinically acceptable. Our results suggest that shoulder sensorimotor control assessment by force platform is feasible and has good reliability in upper-limb weight-bearing positions when the lower limbs are resting on a table to the anterior superior iliac spines. CoP length, CoP velocity and CoP SD velocity appear to be the most reliable variables. PMID:22856350

  19. Feasibility assessment tool for urban anaerobic digestion in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Rodi?, Ljiljana; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2013-09-15

    This paper describes a method developed to support feasibility assessments of urban anaerobic digestion (AD). The method not only uses technical assessment criteria but takes a broader sustainability perspective and integrates technical-operational, environmental, financial-economic, socio-cultural, institutional, policy and legal criteria into the assessment tool developed. Use of the tool can support decision-makers with selecting the most suitable set-up for the given context. The tool consists of a comprehensive set of questions, structured along four distinct yet interrelated dimensions of sustainability factors, which all influence the success of any urban AD project. Each dimension answers a specific question: I) WHY? What are the driving forces and motivations behind the initiation of the AD project? II) WHO? Who are the stakeholders and what are their roles, power, interests and means of intervention? III) WHAT? What are the physical components of the proposed AD chain and the respective mass and resource flows? IV) HOW? What are the key features of the enabling or disabling environment (sustainability aspects) affecting the proposed AD system? Disruptive conditions within these four dimensions are detected. Multi Criteria Decision Analysis is used to guide the process of translating the answers from six sustainability categories into scores, combining them with the relative importance (weights) attributed by the stakeholders. Risk assessment further evaluates the probability that certain aspects develop differently than originally planned and assesses the data reliability (uncertainty factors). The use of the tool is demonstrated with its application in a case study for Bahir Dar in Ethiopia. PMID:23722149

  20. Hydrogeological Methods for Assessing Feasibility of Artificial Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Koo, M.; Lee, K.; Moon, D.; Barry, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents the hydrogeological methods to assess the feasibility of artificial recharge in Jeju Island, Korea for securing both sustainable groundwater resources and severe floods. Jeju-friendly Aquifer Recharge Technology (J-ART) in this study is developing by capturing ephemeral stream water with no interference in the environments such as natural recharge or eco-system, storing the flood water in the reservoirs, recharging it through designed borehole after appropriate water treatment, and then making it to be used at down-gradient production wells. Many hydrogeological methods, including physico-chemical surface water and groundwater monitoring, geophysical survey, stable isotope analysis, and groundwater modeling have been employed to predict and assess the artificially recharged surface waters flow and circulation between recharge area and discharge area. In the study of physico-chemical water monitoring survey, the analyses of surface water level and velocity, of water qualities including turbidity, and of suspended soil settling velocity were performed. For understanding subsurface hydrogeologic characteristics the injection test was executed and the results are 118-336 m2/day of transmissivity and 4,367-11,032 m3/day of the maximum intake water capacity. Characterizing groundwater flow from recharge area to discharge area should be achieved to assess the efficiency of J-ART. The resistivity logging was carried out to predict water flow in unsaturated zone during artificial recharge based on the inverse modeling and resistivity change patterns. Stable isotopes of deuterium and oxygen-18 of surface waters and groundwaters have been determined to interpret mixing and flow in groundwaters impacted by artificial recharge. A numerical model simulating groundwater flow and heat transport to assess feasibility of artificial recharge has been developed using the hydraulic properties of aquifers, groundwater levels, borehole temperatures, and meteorological data. Also, groundwater modeling was performed to aid in artificial recharge system design, such as optimizing number and spacing of injection wells, building up and maintaining a water column inside each operating injection well, and optimizing time. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant (code 3-2-3) from the Sustainable Water Resources Research Center of 21st Century Frontier Research Program and the Basic Research Program (09-3414) of KIGAM.

  1. Assessing Restoration Potential of Semi-natural Grasslands by Landscape Change Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitkänen, Timo P.; Mussaari, Maija; Käyhkö, Niina

    2014-04-01

    Species-rich semi-natural grasslands have rapidly declined and become fragmented in Northern Europe due to ceased traditional agricultural practices and animal husbandry. Restoration actions have been introduced in many places to improve the habitat conditions and increase the area to prevent any further losses of their ecological values. However, given the limited resources and long time span needed for successful restoration, it is essential to target activities on sites having a suitable initial state and where the effects of restoration are most beneficial for the habitat network. In this paper we present a conceptual framework for evaluating the restoration potential of partially overgrown and selectively managed semi-natural grasslands in a moderately transformed agricultural environment in south-western Finland. On the basis of the spatio-temporal landscape trajectory analysis, we construct potential restoration scenarios based on expected semi-natural grassland characteristics that are derived from land productivity, detected grassland continuum, and date of overgrowth. These scenarios are evaluated using landscape metrics, their feasibility is discussed and the effects of potential restoration are compared to the present extent of open semi-natural grasslands. Our results show that landscape trajectory analysis and scenario construction can be valuable tools for the restoration planning of semi-natural grasslands with limited resources. The approach should therefore be considered as an essential tool to find the most optimal restoration sites and to pre-evaluate the effects.

  2. A feasibility study of perennial/annual plant species to restore soils contaminated with heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacarías, Montserrat; Beltrán, Margarita; Gilberto Torres, Luis; González, Abelardo

    A feasibility study was carried out to evaluate the application of perennial/annual plant species in a phytoextraction process of a previously washed industrial urban soil contaminated by nickel, arsenic and cupper. The plant species selected for this study were Ipomea (Ipomea variada); grass (Poa pratensis); grass mixture (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum sp.); Monks Cress (Tropaeolum majus); ficus (Ficus benajamina) and fern (Pteris cretica). Soil was characterized and it presented the following heavy metals concentrations (dry weight): 80 mg of Ni/kg, 456-656 mg of As/kg and 1684-3166 mg of Cu/kg. Germination and survival in contaminated soil tests were conducted, from these, P. pratensis was discarded and the rest of plant species tested were used for the phytoextraction selection test. After 4 months of growth, biomass production was determined, and content of Ni, As and Cu was analyzed in plant’s tissue. Metal biological absorption coefficient (BAC), bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF), were calculated. Regarding to biomass generation it was observed, in every case, an inhibition of the plant growth compared with blanks sown in a non contaminated soil; inhibition ranged from 22.5% for the Monk cress to 98% for Ipomea. Even though the later presented high BAC, BCF and TF, its growth was severely inhibited, and therefore, due its low biomass generation, it is not recommended for phytoextraction under conditions for this study. Heavy metals concentrations in plant’s tissue (dry weight) were as high as 866 mg Cu/kg and 602 mg As/kg for grass mixture; and 825 mg As/kg was observed for Monks cress. Grass mixture and monks cress had high BAC, BCF and TF, also they had high metal concentrations in its plants tissues and the lowest growth inhibition rates; hence the application in phytoextraction processes of these plants is advisable.

  3. 77 FR 37432 - Final Springfield Plateau Regional Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment and Finding of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), formally selected Alternative D of the Plan through signing of the FONSI. Alternative D provides for natural resource--based restoration using a tiered project selection... Springfield Plateau Regional Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment (77 FR 1717). The public...

  4. A comparison of radiological risk assessment methods for environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Peterson, J.M.

    1993-09-01

    Evaluation of risks to human health from exposure to ionizing radiation at radioactively contaminated sites is an integral part of the decision-making process for determining the need for remediation and selecting remedial actions that may be required. At sites regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a target risk range of 10{sup {minus}4} to 10{sup {minus}6} incremental cancer incidence over a lifetime is specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as generally acceptable, based on the reasonable maximum exposure to any individual under current and future land use scenarios. Two primary methods currently being used in conducting radiological risk assessments at CERCLA sites are compared in this analysis. Under the first method, the radiation dose equivalent (i.e., Sv or rem) to the receptors of interest over the appropriate period of exposure is estimated and multiplied by a risk factor (cancer risk/Sv). Alternatively, incremental cancer risk can be estimated by combining the EPA`s cancer slope factors (previously termed potency factors) for radionuclides with estimates of radionuclide intake by ingestion and inhalation, as well as radionuclide concentrations in soil that contribute to external dose. The comparison of the two methods has demonstrated that resulting estimates of lifetime incremental cancer risk under these different methods may differ significantly, even when all other exposure assumptions are held constant, with the magnitude of the discrepancy depending upon the dominant radionuclides and exposure pathways for the site. The basis for these discrepancies, the advantages and disadvantages of each method, and the significance of the discrepant results for environmental restoration decisions are presented.

  5. Assessment of environmental and economic feasibility of Enhanced Landfill Mining.

    PubMed

    Danthurebandara, Maheshi; Van Passel, Steven; Vanderreydt, Ive; Van Acker, Karel

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the environmental and economic performance of Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM). Based on life cycle assessment and life cycle costing, a detailed model is developed and is applied to a case study, i.e. the first ELFM project in Belgium. The environmental and economic analysis is performed in order to study the valorisation of different waste types in the landfill, such as municipal solid waste, industrial waste and total waste. We found that ELFM is promising for the case study landfill as greater environmental benefits are foreseen in several impact categories compared to the landfill's current situation (the 'Do-nothing' scenario). Among the considered processes, the thermal treatment process dominates both the environmental and economic performances of ELFM. Improvements in the electrical efficiency of thermal treatment process, the calorific value of refuse derived fuel and recovery efficiencies of different waste fractions lead the performance of ELFM towards an environmentally sustainable and economically feasible direction. Although the environmental and economic profiles of ELFM will differ from case to case, the results of this analysis can be used as a benchmark for future ELFM projects. PMID:25708403

  6. Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Natural Resource Damage Assessment Early Restoration -Draft Phase IV Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessments

    E-print Network

    aux Pins Living Shoreline AL $2,300,000 Shell Belt and Coden Belt Roads Living Shoreline AL $8 restoration projects. This agreement is the largest of its kind ever reached. It represents an initial step

  7. Mill Creek Flood Risk Management Final Feasibility Report and Environmental Assessment

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    #12;Mill Creek Flood Risk Management Final Feasibility Report and Environmental Assessment Davidson conducted a Type I Independent External Peer Review (IEPR) for the Mill Creek Flood Risk Management Final the IEPR of the Mill Creek Flood Risk Management Final Feasibility Report and Environmental Assessment

  8. A regional assessment of salt marsh restoration and monitoring in the Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konisky, R.A.; Burdick, D.M.; Dionne, M.; Neckles, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    We compiled salt marsh monitoring datasets from 36 complete or imminent restoration projects in the Gulf of Maine to assess regional monitoring and restoration practices. Data were organized by functional indicators and restoration project types (culvert replacement, excavation works, or ditch plugging) then pooled to generate mean values for indicators before restoration, after restoration, and at reference sites. Monitoring data were checked against the regional standards of a voluntary protocol for the Gulf of Maine. Data inventories showed that vegetation and salinity indicators were most frequently collected (89 and 78% of sites, respectively), whereas nekton, bird, and hydrologic measures were collected at only about half of the sites. Reference conditions were monitored at 72% of sites. Indicators were analyzed to see if project sites were degraded relative to reference areas and to detect ecological responses to restoration activities. Results showed that compared to reference areas, prerestoration sites had smaller tidal ranges, reduced salinity levels, greater cover of brackish plants species, and lower cover of halophyte plants. Following restoration, physical factors rebounded rapidly with increased flood and salinity levels after about one year, especially for culvert projects. Biological responses were less definitive and occurred over longer time frames. Plant communities trended toward recovered halophytes and reduced brackish species at 3+ years following restoration. Nekton and avian indicators were indistinguishable among reference, impacted, and restored areas. The protocol was successful in demonstrating restoration response for the region, but results were limited by regional inconsistencies in field practices and relatively few multiyear datasets. To improve future assessment capabilities, we encourage greater adherence to the standard protocol throughout the Gulf of Maine salt marsh restoration community.

  9. Restoring coastal wetlands that were ditched for mosquito control: a preliminary assessment of hydro-leveling as a restoration technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Thomas J., III; Tiling, Ginger; Leasure, Pamela S.

    2007-01-01

    The wetlands surrounding Tampa Bay, Florida were extensively ditched for mosquito control in the 1950s. Spoil from ditch construction was placed adjacent to the wetlands ditches creating mound-like features (spoil-mounds). These mounds represent a loss of 14% of the wetland area in Tampa Bay. Spoil mounds interfere with tidal flow and are locations for non-native plants to colonize (e.g., Schinus terebinthifolius). Removal of the spoil mounds to eliminate exotic plants, restore native vegetation, and re-establish natural hydrology is a restoration priority for environmental managers. Hydro-leveling, a new technique, was tested in a mangrove forest restoration project in 2004. Hydro-leveling uses a high pressure stream of water to wash sediment from the spoil mound into the adjacent wetland and ditch. To assess the effectiveness of this technique, we conducted vegetation surveys in areas that were hydro-leveled and in non-hydro-leveled areas 3 years post-project. Adult Schinus were reduced but not eliminated from hydro-leveled mounds. Schinus seedlings however were absent from hydro-leveled sites. Colonization by native species was sparse. Mangrove seedlings were essentially absent (?2 m?2) from the centers of hydro-leveled mounds and were in low density on their edges (17 m?2) in comparison to surrounding mangrove forests (105 m?2). Hydro-leveling resulted in mortality of mangroves adjacent to the mounds being leveled. This was probably caused by burial of pneumatophores during the hydro-leveling process. For hydro-leveling to be a useful and successful restoration technique several requirements must be met. Spoil mounds must be lowered to the level of the surrounding wetlands. Spoil must be distributed further into the adjacent wetland to prevent burial of nearby native vegetation. Finally, native species may need to be planted on hydro-leveled areas to speed up the re-vegetation process.

  10. Assessment and evaluation of technologies for environmental restoration. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Uzochukwu, G A

    2000-06-30

    Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration objectives of the Department of Energy are being evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objective of the environmental restoration effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

  11. Assessment and evaluation of technologies for environmental restoration. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Uzochukwu, G.A.

    1999-01-15

    Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration objectives of the Department of Energy are being evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objective of the environmental restoration effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

  12. Using Habitat Equivalency Analysis to Assess the Cost Effectiveness of Restoration Outcomes in Four Institutional Contexts.

    PubMed

    Scemama, Pierre; Levrel, Harold

    2016-01-01

    At the national level, with a fixed amount of resources available for public investment in the restoration of biodiversity, it is difficult to prioritize alternative restoration projects. One way to do this is to assess the level of ecosystem services delivered by these projects and to compare them with their costs. The challenge is to derive a common unit of measurement for ecosystem services in order to compare projects which are carried out in different institutional contexts having different goals (application of environmental laws, management of natural reserves, etc.). This paper assesses the use of habitat equivalency analysis (HEA) as a tool to evaluate ecosystem services provided by restoration projects developed in different institutional contexts. This tool was initially developed to quantify the level of ecosystem services required to compensate for non-market impacts coming from accidental pollution in the US. In this paper, HEA is used to assess the cost effectiveness of several restoration projects in relation to different environmental policies, using case studies based in France. Four case studies were used: the creation of a market for wetlands, public acceptance of a port development project, the rehabilitation of marshes to mitigate nitrate loading to the sea, and the restoration of streams in a protected area. Our main conclusion is that HEA can provide a simple tool to clarify the objectives of restoration projects, to compare the cost and effectiveness of these projects, and to carry out trade-offs, without requiring significant amounts of human or technical resources. PMID:26306791

  13. 78 FR 16655 - Draft Damage Assessment, Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico, Request for Comments... restoring natural resource injuries resulting from the November 11, 2005, T/B DBL 152 oil spill in the...

  14. Feasibility of Using Virtual Reality to Assess Nicotine Cue Reactivity during Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaganoff, Eili; Bordnick, Patrick S.; Carter, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Cue reactivity assessments have been widely used to assess craving and attention to cues among cigarette smokers. Cue reactivity has the potential to offer insights into treatment decisions; however, the use of cue reactivity in treatment studies has been limited. This study assessed the feasibility of using a virtual reality-based cue reactivity…

  15. Assessment of the advantages and feasibility of a nuclear rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of rebuilding and testing a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) for the Mars mission has been investigated. Calculations indicate that an NTR would substantially reduce the earth-orbit assembled mass compared to LOX/LH/sub 2/ systems. The mass savings were 36% and 65% for the cases of total aerobraking and of total propulsive braking respectively. Consequently, the cost savings for a single mission of using an NTR, if aerobraking is feasible, are probably insufficient to warrant the NTR development. If multiple missions are planned or if propulsive braking is desired at Mars and/or at Earth, then the savings of about $7B will easily pay for the NTR development. Estimates of the cost of rebuilding a NTR were based on the previous NERVA program's budget plus additional costs to develop a flight ready engine. The total cost to build the engine would be between $4 to 5B. The concept of developing a full-power test stand at Johnston Atoll in the Pacific appears very feasible. The added expense of building facilities on the island should be less than $1.4B.

  16. Integrated monitoring and assessment of soil restoration treatments in the Lake Tahoe Basin.

    PubMed

    Grismer, M E; Schnurrenberger, C; Arst, R; Hogan, M P

    2009-03-01

    Revegetation and soil restoration efforts, often associated with erosion control measures on disturbed soils, are rarely monitored or otherwise evaluated in terms of improved hydrologic, much less, ecologic function and longer term sustainability. As in many watersheds, sediment is a key parameter of concern in the Tahoe Basin, particularly fine sediments less than about ten microns. Numerous erosion control measures deployed in the Basin during the past several decades have under-performed, or simply failed after a few years and new soil restoration methods of erosion control are under investigation. We outline a comprehensive, integrated field-based evaluation and assessment of the hydrologic function associated with these soil restoration methods with the hypothesis that restoration of sustainable function will result in longer term erosion control benefits than that currently achieved with more commonly used surface treatment methods (e.g. straw/mulch covers and hydroseeding). The monitoring includes cover-point and ocular assessments of plant cover, species type and diversity; soil sampling for nutrient status; rainfall simulation measurement of infiltration and runoff rates; cone penetrometer measurements of soil compaction and thickness of mulch layer depths. Through multi-year hydrologic and vegetation monitoring at ten sites and 120 plots, we illustrate the results obtained from the integrated monitoring program and describe how it might guide future restoration efforts and monitoring assessments. PMID:18483773

  17. Feasibility assessment of Doppler radar long-term physiological measurements.

    PubMed

    Massagram, Wansuree; Lubecke, Victor M; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the feasibility of applying doppler radar technique for a long-term health monitoring. Doppler radar was used to detect and eliminate periods of significant motion. This technique was verified using a human study on 17 subjects, and it was determined that for 15 out of 17 subjects there was no significant motion for over 85% of the measurement interval in supine positions. Majority of subjects exhibited significantly less motion in supine position, which is promising for sleep monitoring, and monitoring of hospitalized patients. PMID:22254615

  18. Assessing the feasibility of native fish reintroductions: a framework applied to threatened bull trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunham, Jason B.; Gallo, Kirsten; Shively, Dan; Allen, Chris; Goehring, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Translocations to recover native fishes have resulted in mixed success. One reason for the failure of these actions is inadequate assessments of their feasibility prior to implementation. Here, we provide a framework developed to assess the feasibility of one type of translocation-reintroduction. The framework was founded on two simple components of feasibility: the potential for recipient habitats to support a reintroduction and the potential of available donor populations to support a reintroduction. Within each component, we developed a series of key questions. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that incorporated consideration of uncertainty in available information. The result was a simple yet transparent system for assessing reintroduction feasibility that can be rapidly applied in practice. We applied this assessment framework to the potential reintroduction of threatened bull trout Salvelinus confluentus into the Clackamas River, Oregon. In this case, the assessment suggested that the degree of feasibility for reintroduction was high based on the potential of recipient habitats and available donor populations. The assessment did not provide a comprehensive treatment of all possible factors that would drive an actual decision to implement a reintroduction,

  19. Application of EPA wetland research program approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Kolka, R., K.; Trettin, C., C.; Nelson, E., A.; Barton, C., D.; Fletcher, D., E.

    2002-01-01

    Kolka, R.K., C.C. Trettin, E.A. Nelson, C.D. Barton, and D.E. Fletcher. 2002. Application of the EPA Wetland Research Program Approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment. J. Env. Monitoring & Restoration 1(1):37-51. Forested wetland restoration assessment is difficult because of the timeframe necessary for the development of a forest ecosystem. The development of a forested wetland ecosystem includes the recovery of hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities. To assess forested wetland restoration projects, measures need to be developed that are sensitive to early changes in community development and are predictive of future conditions. In this study we apply the EPS's Wetland Research Program's (WRP) approach to assess the recovery of two thermally altered riparian wetland systems in South Carolina. In one of the altered wetland systems, approximately 75% of the wetland was planted with bottomland tree seedlings in an effort to hasten recovery. Individual studies addressing hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities indicate variable recovery responses.

  20. 78 FR 20298 - Restoration and Compensation Determination Plan and Environmental Assessment: Aluminum Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... in written form. Written comments may be sent to: Lisa Rosman, NOAA, Assessment and Restoration Division, 290 Broadway, 20th Floor, New York, NY 10007. Electronic comments may be sent directly to: lisa... information can be obtained through Lisa Rosman at the contact information provided above....

  1. Initial Feasibility Assessment of a High Altitude Long Endurance Airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony; Dolce, James (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A high altitude solar powered airship provides the ability to carry large payloads to high altitudes and remain on station for extended periods of time. This study examines the feasibility of this concept. Factors such as time of year, latitude, wind speeds and payload are considered in establishing the capabilities of a given size airship. East and West coast operation were evaluated. The key aspect to success of this type of airship is the design and operation of the propulsion and power system. A preliminary propulsion/power system design was produced based on a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system and solar photovoltaic array for energy production. A modular system design was chosen with four independent power/propulsion units utilized by the airship. Results on payload capacity and flight envelope (latitude and time of year) were produced for a range of airship sizes.

  2. Developing Computer Model-Based Assessment of Chemical Reasoning: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiufeng; Waight, Noemi; Gregorius, Roberto; Smith, Erica; Park, Mihwa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a feasibility study on developing computer model-based assessments of chemical reasoning at the high school level. Computer models are flash and NetLogo environments to make simultaneously available three domains in chemistry: macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic. Students interact with computer models to answer assessment

  3. Thermal hydraulic feasibility assessment for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.J.; Cramer, E.R.; Beaver, T.R.; Thurgood, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A series of scoping analyses have been completed investigating the thermal-hydraulic performance and feasibility of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Integrated Process Strategy (IPS). The SNFP was established to develop engineered solutions for the expedited removal, stabilization, and storage of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The subject efforts focused on independently investigating, quantifying, and establishing the governing heat production and removal mechanisms for each of the IPS operations and configurations, obtaining preliminary results for comparison with and verification of other analyses, and providing technology-based recommendations for consideration and incorporation into the design bases for the SNFP. The goal was to develop a series fo thermal-hydraulic models that could respond to all process and safety-related issues that may arise pertaining to the SNFP. A series of sensitivity analyses were also performed to help identify those parameters that have the greatest impact on energy transfer and hence, temperature control. It is anticipated that the subject thermal-hydraulic models will form the basis for a series of advanced and more detailed models that will more accurately reflect the thermal performance of the IPS and alleviate the necessity for some of the more conservative assumptions and oversimplifications, as well as form the basis for the final process and safety analyses.

  4. Feasibility of Using Virtual Reality to Assess Nicotine Cue Reactivity During Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kaganoff, Eili; Bordnick, Patrick S.; Carter, Brian Lee

    2014-01-01

    Cue reactivity assessments have been widely used to assess craving and attention to cues among cigarette smokers. Cue reactivity has the potential to offer insights into treatment decisions; however, the use of cue reactivity in treatment studies has been limited. This study assessed the feasibility of using a virtual reality–based cue reactivity assessment approach (VR-NCRAS) during treatment. In a clinical smoking cessation treatment study, 46 treatment-seeking nicotine-dependent adult smokers were assessed for cue reactivity at baseline, Week 4, and Week 10 of treatment. Measures of cue reactivity included subjective craving and attention to cues after exposure to two neutral and two smoking cue environments. Overall, feasibility of using VR-NCRAS was demonstrated and these findings support the use of the cue reactivity assessment during treatment, which can inform treatment decisions. PMID:25110453

  5. Floristic Quality Index: An assessment tool for restoration projects and monitoring sites in coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cretini, K.F.; Steyer, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) program was established to assess the effectiveness of individual coastal restoration projects and the cumulative effects of multiple projects at regional and coastwide scales. In order to make these assessments, analytical teams have been assembled for each of the primary data types sampled under the CRMS program, including vegetation, hydrology, landscape, and soils. These teams consist of scientists and support staff from the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration, and university academics. Each team is responsible for developing or identifying parameters, indices, or tools that can be used to assess coastal wetlands at various scales. The CRMS Vegetation Analytical Team has developed a Floristic Quality Index for coastal Louisiana to determine the quality of a wetland based on its plant species composition and abundance.

  6. Assessing effects of native forest restoration on soil moisture dynamics and potential aquifer recharge, Auwahi, Maui

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Kim S.; Nimmo, John R.; Medeiros, Arthur C.; Szutu, Daphne J.; von Allmen, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of soils in regulating water flow through the unsaturated zone is critical in assessing the influence of vegetation on soil moisture dynamics and aquifer recharge. Because of fire, introduced ungulates and landscape-level invasion of non-native grasses, less than 10% of original dry forest (~730?mm precipitation annually) still exists on leeward Haleakal?, Maui, Hawaiian Islands. Native dry forest restoration at Auwahi has demonstrated the potential for dramatic revegetation, allowing a unique experimental comparison of hydrologic function between tracts of restored forest and adjacent grasslands. We hypothesized that even relatively recent forest restoration can assist in the recovery of impaired hydrologic function, potentially increasing aquifer recharge. To compare restored forest and grassland sites, we experimentally irrigated and measured soil moisture and temperature with subsurface instrumentation at four locations within the reforested area and four within the grassland, each with a 2·5?×?2·5-m plot. Compared with grassland areas, water in reforested sites moved to depth faster with larger magnitude changes in water content. The median first arrival velocity of water was greater by a factor of about 13 in the reforested sites compared with the grassland sites. This rapid transport of water to depths of 1?m or greater suggests increased potential aquifer recharge. Improved characterization of how vegetation and soils influence recharge is crucial for understanding the long-term impacts of forest restoration on aquifer recharge and water resources, especially in moisture-limited regions.

  7. Feasibility Study of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System in Iran

    PubMed Central

    KHARAGHANI, Roghieh; SHARIATI, Mohammad; YUNESIAN, Masud; KERAMAT, Afsaneh; MOGHISI, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: A surveillance system helps to detect epidemics and the pattern of the incidence of the problems in the community and is important for evidence based decision making. This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) in Iran. Methods: PRAMS feasibility was assessed in a cross-sectional study in the city of Shahriar, located in the west of Tehran in 2013. In this study, 811 women within 2 to 6 months postpartum who had a live or still birth were selected from thyroid screening forms and hospital records through a systematic simple random sampling method. Trained interviewers collected the data via calling mothers from health centers or through home visits. The outcome was tested on the “TELOS” model including technical, economic, legal, operational and schedule feasibility components. Results: Thirty-seven health volunteers collected the data in this study. Many prevalence estimates were comparable with national and Tehran data (technical feasibility). A home based completed questionnaire cost 2.45 and a phone cost 1.89 USD (economic feasibility). The project was consistent with legal requirements (legal feasibility). The participation rate was 92.8% (95%CI: 92.7–95.3) for home visits and 90.9% (95% CI: 87.3–93.6) for the phonemethod. Over 80% of different sections of the questionnaire were completed (operational feasibility). All data collection processes took 35 days (schedule feasibility). Conclusion: The adapted PRAMS could be considered feasible in Iran. Its widespread and periodic implementation can provide valuable maternal and child health information in the country. PMID:26171360

  8. Blood Pressure Variability: Can Nonlinear Dynamics Enhance Risk Assessment During Cardiovascular Surgery? A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Balachundhar; Khabbaz, Kamal R.; Heldt, Thomas; Lerner, Adam B.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Davis, Roger B.; Goldberger, Ary L.; Costa, Madalena D.

    2014-01-01

    Brief Summary We propose that complex (nonlinear) fluctuations of hemodynamic variables (including systemic blood pressure parameters) during cardiovascular surgery contain information relevant to risk assessment and intraoperative management. Preliminary analysis of a pilot study supports the feasibility and potential merits of performing a larger, prospective study to assess the clinical utility of such new dynamical measures and to evaluate their potential role in enhancing contemporary approaches to risk assessment of major adverse events. PMID:24508020

  9. A feasibility assessment of magnetic bearings for free-piston Stirling space power converters

    SciTech Connect

    Curwen, P.W.; Rao, D.K.; Wilson, D.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes work performed by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) under NASA Contract NAS3-26061, {open_quotes}A Feasibility Assessment of Magnetic Bearings for Free-Piston Stirling Space Engines.{close_quotes} The work was performed over the period from July 1990 through August 1991. The objective of the effort was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of applying magnetic bearings to free-piston Stirling-cycle power conversion machinery of the type currently being evaluated for possible use in future long-term space missions.

  10. Assessing and restoring cognitive functions early after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zucchella, Chiara; Capone, Annarita; Codella, Valentina; Vecchione, Carmine; Buccino, Giovanni; Sandrini, Giorgio; Pierelli, Francesco; Bartolo, Michelangelo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cognitive impairment is a frequent complication of stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive training performed early after stroke. Ninety-two patients were randomly assigned to either the study group (SG) or the control group (CG). Cognitive rehabilitation consisted of 16 individual one-hour sessions in which patients performed therapist-guided computer exercises. The patients in the CG performed a sham intervention. After four weeks all the patients were re-evaluated. In the SG, significant improvements (p<0.05) were detected in all neuropsychological measures at the post-training evaluation, while the CG showed mild (not statistically significant) improvements on cognitive tests. Between-group analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the domains of memory and visual attention. Cognitive training performed early after stroke seems to be a viable option for improving cognitive outcome in stroke survivors. Further studies should assess whether this may favor their reintegration into everyday life. PMID:25764255

  11. System dynamic modelling to assess economic viability and risk trade-offs for ecological restoration in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Crookes, D J; Blignaut, J N; de Wit, M P; Esler, K J; Le Maitre, D C; Milton, S J; Mitchell, S A; Cloete, J; de Abreu, P; Fourie nee Vlok, H; Gull, K; Marx, D; Mugido, W; Ndhlovu, T; Nowell, M; Pauw, M; Rebelo, A

    2013-05-15

    Can markets assist by providing support for ecological restoration, and if so, under what conditions? The first step in addressing this question is to develop a consistent methodology for economic evaluation of ecological restoration projects. A risk analysis process was followed in which a system dynamics model was constructed for eight diverse case study sites where ecological restoration is currently being pursued. Restoration costs vary across each of these sites, as do the benefits associated with restored ecosystem functioning. The system dynamics model simulates the ecological, hydrological and economic benefits of ecological restoration and informs a portfolio mapping exercise where payoffs are matched against the likelihood of success of a project, as well as a number of other factors (such as project costs and risk measures). This is the first known application that couples ecological restoration with system dynamics and portfolio mapping. The results suggest an approach that is able to move beyond traditional indicators of project success, since the effect of discounting is virtually eliminated. We conclude that systems dynamic modelling with portfolio mapping can guide decisions on when markets for restoration activities may be feasible. PMID:23524327

  12. IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE FOR NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT, RESTORATION, AND REHABILITATION

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Jason R; Johnson, Philip; Hickey, Christopher W; Helm, Roger C; Fritz, Alyce; Brasfield, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Various international and national regulations hold polluters liable for the cleanup of released hazardous substances and the restoration/rehabilitation of natural resources to preincident baseline conditions, a process often referred to as natural resource damage assessment and restoration (NRDAR). Here, we, the authors, describe how global climate change (GCC) will challenge each of the steps of NRDAR processes and offer eight recommendations to improve these processes in light of GCC. First, we call for a better understanding of the net effects of GCC and contaminants on natural resources. Second, we urge facilities and environmental managers to plan for GCC-related factors that are expected to increase the probability of contaminant releases. Third, we suggest re-evaluating definitions of baseline and reference conditions given that GCC will alter both their trajectories and variability. Fourth, we encourage long-term monitoring to improve the quantification of baseline conditions that will change as climate changes. This will enhance the accuracy of injury assessments, the effectiveness of restoration, and the detection of early warning signs that ecosystems are approaching tipping points. Fifth, in response to or anticipation of GCC, restoration projects may need to be conducted in areas distant from the site of injury or focused on functionally equivalent natural resources; thus, community involvement in NRDAR processes will be increasingly important. Sixth, we promote using NRDAR restoration projects as opportunities to mitigate GCC-related impacts. Seventh, we recommend adaptive management approaches to NRDAR processes and communication of successes and failures widely. Finally, we recommend focusing on managing the stressors that might be exacerbated by GCC, such as pollution and habitat loss, because there is a long history of successfully mitigating these stressors, which can be more easily managed on local scales than climate change. We believe that adoption of these recommendations will lead to a more efficacious NRDAR process, despite the challenges posed by climate change. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:93–101. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23097077

  13. Assessing the Feasibility of Performing an Air Accountability Study in New Haven, CT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main objective of this EPA study was to examine the feasibility of conducting a local (e.g., city level) assessment of the public health impacts of cumulative air pollution reduction activities (a.k.a. accountability) from the federal, state, local and voluntary actions in t...

  14. Are We There Yet? Feasibility of Continuous Stress Assessment via Wireless Physiological Sensors

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Santosh

    Factors; Design; Measurement Keywords Mobile Health; Stress; Wireless Physiological Sensor 1. INTRODUCTION significantly to health care costs [38]. Even for healthy people, stress can degrade quality of lifeAre We There Yet? Feasibility of Continuous Stress Assessment via Wireless Physiological Sensors Md

  15. Kurzfassung: Feasibility of habitat modeling techniques for environmental flow assessments in

    E-print Network

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Kurzfassung: Feasibility of habitat modeling techniques for environmental flow assessments. With this as a basis a comparison of four habitat hydraulic approaches were conducted. The software programs in focus were the Norwegian HABITAT (SSIIM hydraulics), the Canadian RIVER2D, the German CASIMIR and the French

  16. Assessing the Feasibility of Controlling Aedes aegypti with Transgenic Methods: A Model-Based Evaluation

    E-print Network

    Lloyd, Alun

    the importance of detailed spatial models for guiding genetic mosquito control strategies. Citation: Legros M, XuAssessing the Feasibility of Controlling Aedes aegypti with Transgenic Methods: A Model of America Abstract Suppression of dengue and malaria through releases of genetically engineered mosquitoes

  17. Feasibility Assessment of Thermal Barrier Seals for Extreme Transient Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The assembly joints of modem solid rocket motor cases are generally sealed using conventional O-ring type seals. The 5500+ F combustion gases produced by rocket motors are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of phenolic insulation. Special compounds are used to fill insulation gaps leading up to the seals to prevent a direct flowpath to them. Design criteria require that the seals should not experience torching or charring during operation, or their sealing ability would be compromised. On limited occasions, NASA has observed charring of the primary O-rings of the Space Shuttle solid rocket nozzle assembly joints due to parasitic leakage paths opening up in the gap-fill compounds during rocket operation. NASA is investigating different approaches for preventing torching or charring of the primary O-rings. One approach is to implement a braided rope seal upstream of the primary O-ring to serve as a thermal barrier that prevents the hot gases from impinging on the O-ring seals. This paper presents flow, resiliency, and thermal resistance for several types of NASA rope seals braided out of carbon fibers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the seals when exposed to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion temperatures. Rope seals braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over six minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Room and high temperature flow tests are presented for the carbon seals for different amounts of linear compression. Room temperature compression tests were performed to assess seal resiliency and unit preloads as a function of compression. The thermal barrier seal was tested in a subscale "char" motor test in which the seal sealed an intentional defect in the gap insulation. Temperature measurements indicated that the seal blocked 2500 F combustion gases on the upstream side with very little temperature rise on the downstream side.

  18. Dental students' ability to assess their performance in a preclinical restorative course: comparison of students' and faculty members' assessments.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, Duygu; Arhun, Neslihan; Yamanel, K?vanç; Çelik, Çi?dem; Dayangaç, Berrin

    2015-06-01

    Dental education consists of both theoretical and practical learning for students to develop competence in treating patients clinically. When dental students encounter practical courses in their first year as a new educational experience, they must also learn to evaluate themselves. Self-evaluation is an essential skill to learn for dental professionals to keep increasing their competence over the course of their careers. The aim of this study was to compare the assessment scores of second- and third-year dental students and the faculty in two consecutive preclinical practical exams in restorative dentistry courses in a dental school in Turkey. Faculty- and student-assigned scores were calculated from two consecutive preclinical examinations on tooth restorations performed on both artificial casts and phantom patients. The students were formally instructed on grading procedures for tooth preparations, base and restoration placement, and polishing criteria. After each step, each item was assessed by faculty members, the student, and another student. The results indicated that the initial differences between second-year students' assessments of their own preclinical practical ability and that of the faculty decreased among the third-year students. Self-evaluation scores did not indicate whether the third-year students tended to over- or underestimate the quality of their own work. However, the second-year students not only overestimated themselves but thought they were above average. The results point to the need to develop students' self-insight with more exercises and practical training. PMID:26034030

  19. Development of remedial process options: Phase II, Feasibility study: Installation Restoration Program, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R.; Schlosser, R.M.

    1991-11-01

    This technical memorandum develops process options which are appropriate for environmental restoration activities at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada. Introduction of contaminants to the environment has resulted from deliberate disposal activities (both through dumping and landfilling) and accidental spills and leaks associated with normal activities at NAS Fallon over its lifetime of operation. Environmental sampling results indicate that the vast majority of contaminants of concern are petroleum hydrocarbon related. These contaminants include JP-4, JP-5, leaded and unleaded gasoline, waste oils and lubricants, hydraulic fluids, and numerous solvents and cleaners. The principal exposure pathways of concern associated with NAS Fallon contaminants appear to be the surface flows and shallow drainage systems to which the base contributes. Available data indicate NAS Fallon IR Program sites are not contributing excessive contamination to surface flows emanating from the base. Contaminants appear to be contained in a relatively immobile state in the shallow subsurface with little or no contaminant migration off site.

  20. Assessing the feasibility of providing a parenting intervention for war-affected families in northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Wieling, Elizabeth; Mehus, Christopher; Möllerherm, Julia; Neuner, Frank; Achan, Laura; Catani, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of a feasibility study of an intervention, Enhancing Family Connection (EFC), conducted in Northern Uganda in 2012. Enhancing Family Connection's sessions were an adaption of the Parent Management Training, Oregon model. Three interrelated areas of feasibility were assessed: (a) acceptability, (b) usability, and (c) limited efficacy. This study utilized questionnaires and semi-structured interviews completed by mothers and a focal child pre- and post-intervention. Results indicated that mothers found the intervention acceptable to their families and culture and showed promise for Enhancing Family Connection's efficacy in changing parenting behaviors. This study supports continued development of this intervention. PMID:26017003

  1. Union County - La Grande, Oregon geothermal district heating: feasibility assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, H. II; Giddings, M.; Hanson, P.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents an assessment of geothermal district heating in the City of La Grande, Oregon. Eight study area districts were analyzed to determine their economic feasibility. Results from the analyses conclude that certain districts within the City of La Grande are economically feasible if certain assumptions are correct. Development of geothermal district heating for these areas would provide direct energy and dollar savings to the building owners and would also provide direct and indirect benefits to low and moderate income households within the City.

  2. Aquatic ecosystem protection and restoration: Advances in methods for assessment and evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bain, M.B.; Harig, A.L.; Loucks, D.P.; Goforth, R.R.; Mills, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    Many methods and criteria are available to assess aquatic ecosystems, and this review focuses on a set that demonstrates advancements from community analyses to methods spanning large spatial and temporal scales. Basic methods have been extended by incorporating taxa sensitivity to different forms of stress, adding measures linked to system function, synthesizing multiple faunal groups, integrating biological and physical attributes, spanning large spatial scales, and enabling simulations through time. These tools can be customized to meet the needs of a particular assessment and ecosystem. Two case studies are presented to show how new methods were applied at the ecosystem scale for achieving practical management goals. One case used an assessment of biotic structure to demonstrate how enhanced river flows can improve habitat conditions and restore a diverse fish fauna reflective of a healthy riverine ecosystem. In the second case, multitaxonomic integrity indicators were successful in distinguishing lake ecosystems that were disturbed, healthy, and in the process of restoration. Most methods strive to address the concept of biological integrity and assessment effectiveness often can be impeded by the lack of more specific ecosystem management objectives. Scientific and policy explorations are needed to define new ways for designating a healthy system so as to allow specification of precise quality criteria that will promote further development of ecosystem analysis tools.

  3. The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan requires oversight, monitoring, assessment, and coordination to succeed. NOAA is contributing to these needs by establishing a coordinated network of scientific

    E-print Network

    The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan requires oversight, monitoring, assessment of scientific observations, educating the next generation of Great Lakes citizens, and providing information, education, and collaboration necessary to sustain this investment in Great Lakes restoration. Accountability

  4. A Levels-of-Evidence Approach for Assessing Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Estuary and River Restoration Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Vogt, Kristiina A.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Dawley, Earl

    2011-03-01

    Even though large-scale ecological restoration programs are beginning to supplement isolated projects implemented on rivers and tidal waterways, the effects of restoration success often continue to be evaluated at project scales or by integration in an additive manner. Today our scientific understanding is sufficient that we can begin to apply lessons learnt from assessing cumulative impacts of anthropogenic stressors on ecosystems to the assessment of ecological restoration. Integration of this knowledge has the potential to increase the efficacy of restoration projects conducted at several locations but co-managed within the confines of a larger integrative program. We introduce here a framework based on a levels-of-evidence approach that facilitates assessment of the cumulative landscape effects of individual restoration actions taken at many different locations. It incorporates data collection at restoration and reference sites, hydrodynamic modeling, geographic information systems, and meta-analyses in a five-stage process: design, data, analysis, synthesis and evaluation, and application. This framework evolved from the need to evaluate the efficacy of restoration projects designed to increase rearing habitat for outmigrating juvenile salmonids, which are being implemented in numerous wetlands on the 235-km tidal portion of the Columbia River, U.S.A.

  5. Environmental Restoration Program waste minimization and pollution prevention self-assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. is currently developing a more active waste minimization and pollution prevention program. To determine areas of programmatic improvements within the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program, the ER Program required an evaluation of the program across the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site, and the Portsmouth Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site. This document presents the status of the overall program as of fourth quarter FY 1994, presents pollution prevention cost avoidance data associated with FY 1994 activities, and identifies areas for improvement. Results of this assessment indicate that the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is firmly established and is developing rapidly. Several procedural goals were met in FY 1994 and many of the sites implemented ER waste minimization options. Additional growth is needed, however, for the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program.

  6. Feasibility Assessment for Pressure Casting of Ceramic-Aluminum Composites for NASA's Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2005-01-01

    Feasibility assessment of pressure casting of ceramic-aluminum composites for NASA% propulsion applications is summarized. A combination of several demonstration projects to produce three unique components for liquid hydrogen-oxygen rocket engine% flanges, valves and turbo-pump housing are conducted. These components are made from boron carbide, silicon carbide and alumina powders fabricated into complex net shaped parts using dry green powder compaction, slip casting or a novel 3D ink-jet printing process, followed by sintering to produce performs that can be pressure cast by infiltration with molten aluminum. I n addition, joining techniques are also explored to insure that these components can be assembled into a structure without degrading their highly tailored properties. The feasibility assessment was made to determine if these new materials could provide a significant weight savings, thereby reducing vehicle launch costs, while being durable materials to increase safety and performance for propulsion system.

  7. Preliminary assessment report for National Guard Facility, Installation 25255, Rehoboth, Massachusetts. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Haffenden, R.; Flaim, S.; Krokosz, M.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Massachusetts Army National Guard (MAARNG) property known as the Rehoboth National Guard Facility (RNGF) in Rehoboth, Massachusetts. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for ftirther action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the RNGF property, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities under the control of the MAARNG and the past activities contained within that area.

  8. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management manpower needs assessment: US Department of Energy complex

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, C.W.; Lewis, R.E.; Hunt, S.T.; Finn, M.G.

    1992-06-01

    A study was conducted Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc. to assess the supply and demand for 53 scientific, engineering, and technical occupations relevant to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM). These assessments were made by examining budget projections and the input of program/project and human resources managers throughout the DOE complex. Quantitative projections of full-time equivalent employees slots for each occupation have been developed for the 1993--1997 time frame. Qualitative assessments of the factors that affect recruitment, staffing, and retention are also reported. The implications of the study are discussed within the likely skills mix of the future workforce and the education and organization interventions most likely to address the needs of the DOE complex.

  9. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management manpower needs assessment: US Department of Energy complex

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, C.W.; Lewis, R.E.; Hunt, S.T. ); Finn, M.G. )

    1992-06-01

    A study was conducted Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc. to assess the supply and demand for 53 scientific, engineering, and technical occupations relevant to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM). These assessments were made by examining budget projections and the input of program/project and human resources managers throughout the DOE complex. Quantitative projections of full-time equivalent employees slots for each occupation have been developed for the 1993--1997 time frame. Qualitative assessments of the factors that affect recruitment, staffing, and retention are also reported. The implications of the study are discussed within the likely skills mix of the future workforce and the education and organization interventions most likely to address the needs of the DOE complex.

  10. Appalachian Rivers II Conference: Technology for Monitoring, Assessing, and Restoring Streams, Rivers, and Watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    None available

    1999-07-29

    On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.

  11. A dynamic reference model: a framework for assessing biodiversity restoration goals in a fire-dependent ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, L Katherine; Barnett, Analie; Williams, Brett W; Hiers, J Kevin; Pokswinski, Scottrr M; Mitchell, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    The use of reference models as templates of historical or natural conditions to assess restoration progress is inherently logical; however, difficulties occur in application because of the need to incorporate temporal variation in ecosystems caused by disturbance and succession, as well as seasonal, interannual, or decadal variability. The landscape-scale restoration of the globally threatened and fire-dependent longleaf pine ecosystem in the southeastern United States is an example in which restoration efforts are even more complicated by the limited availability of extant reference sites. This study uses the dynamic reference conceptual framework to assess the direction and rate of recovery with respect to biodiversity restoration goals using a 15-year vegetation data set from an experimental restoration treatment in fire-excluded, hardwood-encroached longleaf pine sandhills. We compared ground-cover vegetation response to midstory hardwood removal through herbicide application, mechanical removal, and fire only. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordinations and proportional similarity analyses suggest that, while vegetation changed in all treatments over time, no differences in species composition or hardwood density in the ground cover were attributable to hardwood reduction treatments after 15 years with frequent prescribed fire. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that considerable variability is associated with reference sites over time. Sites identified in 1994 as attainable restoration targets had become a moving target themselves, changing in magnitude consistent with alterations in restoration plots attributable to treatment effects and shaped by the modest increase in fire frequency imposed since 1998. In a broad restoration context, this study demonstrates a conceptual framework to better understand and integrate the range of spatial and temporal variation associated with the best available reference sites. It also illustrates a practical tool for statistically defining reference sites and for measuring restoration success in continually changing conditions that should be widely applicable to other ecosystems and restoration goals. PMID:24261041

  12. Conceptual Assessment Framework for Forested Wetland Restoration: The Pen Branch Experience. Restoration of a Severely Impacted Riparian Wetland System - The Pen Branch Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kolka, R.; Nelson, E.A.; Trettin, C.C.

    2000-10-01

    Development of an assessment framework and indicators can be used to evaluate effectiveness of wetland restoration. Example of these include index of biotic integrity and the hydrogeomorphic method. Both approaches provide qualitative ranks. We propose a new method based on the EPA wetland research program. Similar to other methods, indexes are compared to reference communities; however, the comparisons are quantitative. In this paper we discuss the results of our framework using the Pen Branch riparian wetland system as an example.

  13. Feasibility of combining two aquatic benthic macroinvertebrate community databases for water-quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenz, Bernard N.

    1997-01-01

    An important part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is the analysis of existing data in each of the NAWQA study areas. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) has an extensive aquatic benthic macroinvertebrate communities in streams (benthic invertebrates) database maintained by the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point. This database has data which date back to 1984 and includes data from streams within the Western Lake Michigan Drainages (WMIC) study area (fig. 1). This report looks at the feasibility of USGS scientists supplementing the data they collect with data from the WDNR database when assessing water quality in the study area.

  14. Nitrogen Retention in a Restored Tidal Stream (Kimages Creek, VA) Assessed by Mass Balance and Tracer Approaches.

    PubMed

    Bukaveckas, Paul A; Wood, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Tidal streams are attractive candidates for restoration because of their capacity to retain nutrients from upland and estuarine sources. We quantified N retention in Kimages Creek, VA, following a dam breach that restored its historical (pre-1920) connection to the James River Estuary. Estimates of N retention derived from mass balance analysis were compared to tracer-based retention estimates obtained by injecting NHCl during an incoming tide and measuring recovery on the outgoing tide. The injection experiments showed that dissolved inorganic N (DIN) retention in the restored tidal and nontidal segments was similar to nearby streams and previously published values. These data suggest that the stream has attained expected levels of functioning less than 2 yr after restoration despite 80 yr of impoundment. The mass balance analysis provided additional information for restoration assessment as this approach allowed us to track multiple N fractions. These results showed that DIN retention was offset by export of total organic N resulting in net loss of total N from the restored creek. Seasonal variation in DIN retention was significantly and positively related to tidal exchange volume and ecosystem metabolism (gross primary production and respiration). Our findings show that existing methods for measuring nutrient retention in nontidal streams can be adapted to the bidirectional flow patterns of tidal streams to assess restoration effectiveness. PMID:25603247

  15. Harnessing Natural Recovery Processes to Improve Restoration Outcomes: An Experimental Assessment of Sponge-Mediated Coral Reef Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Brendan C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Restoration is increasingly implemented to reestablish habitat structure and function following physical anthropogenic disturbance, but scientific knowledge of effectiveness of methods lags behind demand for guidelines. On coral reefs, recovery is largely dependent on coral reestablishment, and substratum stability is critical to the survival of coral fragments and recruits. Concrete is often used to immobilize rubble, but its ecological performance has not been rigorously evaluated, and restoration has generally fallen short of returning degraded habitat to pre-disturbance conditions. Fragments of erect branching sponges mediate reef recovery by facilitating rubble consolidation, yet such natural processes have been largely overlooked in restoring reefs. Methods On two reefs in Curacao, four treatments - coral rubble alone, rubble seeded with sponge fragments, rubble bound by concrete, and concrete “rubble” bound by concrete - were monitored over four years to investigate rubble consolidation with and without sponges and the ecological performance of treatments in terms of the number and diversity of coral recruits. Species specific rates of sponge fragment attachment to rubble, donor sponge growth and tissue replacement, and fragment survival inside rubble piles were also investigated to evaluate sponge species performance and determine rates for sustainably harvesting tissue. Findings/Significance Rubble piles seeded with sponges retained height and shape to a significantly greater degree, lost fewer replicates to water motion, and were significantly more likely to be consolidated over time than rubble alone. Significantly more corals recruited to sponge-seeded rubble than to all other treatments. Coral diversity was also greatest for rubble with sponges and it was the only treatment to which framework building corals recruited. Differences in overall sponge species performance suggest species selection is important to consider. Employing organisms that jump start successional pathways and facilitate recovery can significantly improve restoration outcomes; however, best practices require techniques be tailored to each system. PMID:23750219

  16. Assessment of Effectiveness and Limitations of Habitat Suitability Models for Wetland Restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.

    2008-01-01

    Habitat suitability index (HSI) models developed for wildlife in the Louisiana Coastal Area Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan (LCA study) have been assessed for parameter and overall model quality. The success of the suitability models from the South Florida Water Management District for The Everglades restoration project and from the Spatially Explicit Species Index Models (SESI) of the Across Trophic Level System Simulation (ATLSS) Program of Florida warranted investigation with possible application of modeling theory to the current LCA study. General HSI models developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service were also investigated. This report presents examinations of theoretical formulae and comparisons of the models, performed by using diverse hypothetical settings of hydrological/biological ecosystems to highlight weaknesses as well as strengths among the models, limited to the American alligator and selected wading bird species (great blue heron, great egret, and white ibis). Recommendations were made for the LCA study based on these assessments. An enhanced HSI model for the LCA study is proposed for the American alligator, and a new HSI model for wading birds is introduced for the LCA study. Performance comparisons of the proposed models with the other suitability models are made by using the aforementioned hypothetical settings.

  17. Preliminary assessment report for Camp Swift Military Reservation, Installation 48070, Bastrop County, Texas. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Texas Army National Guard property in Bastrop County, Texas. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Camp Swift property, the requirement of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The review of both historical and current practices at the property indicated that the activities at Camp Swift include no operations considered to have an adverse impact to the environment. The recommendation, therefore, is that no further IRP action is necessary at this property.

  18. Preliminary assessment report for Fort Custer Training Center, Installation 26035, Augusta, Michigan. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Flaim, S.; Krokosz, M.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Michigan Army National Guard property near Augusta, Michigan. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort Custer Training Center, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program. The environmentally significant operations associated with the property are (1) storage of hazardous materials and hazardous waste, (2) storage and dispensing of fuel, (3) washing of vehicles and equipment, and (4) weapons training ranges that may have accumulated lead.

  19. Preliminary assessment report for Fort Jacob F. Wolters, Installation 48555, Mineral Wells, Texas. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Texas Army National Guard (TXARNG) property near Mineral Wells, Texas. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort Wolters property, the requirement of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  20. Preliminary assessment report for Waiawa Gulch, Installation 15080, Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Hawaii Army National Guard (HIARNG) property near Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Waiawa Gulch property, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

  1. Assessing Systemic Stress in Otolaryngology: Methodology and Feasibility of Hair and Salivary Cortisol Testing

    PubMed Central

    Genther, Dane J.; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Sung, Yoon-kyu; Blake, Caitlin R.; Chen, David S.; Lin, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated systemic stress is a predictor of adverse health outcomes, and stress can be objectively quantified by cortisol concentration. Despite its utility, such testing is rarely performed in otolaryngology. This manuscript provides details on the principles, methodology, and feasibility of performing laboratory assessments of hair and salivary cortisol to inform researchers wishing to incorporate these novel tests in future otolaryngologic studies. Methods Participants were older adults with hearing impairment. One hair sample and eight saliva samples were collected. Feasibility of study design was assessed through rates of participation in hair and saliva sampling and protocol adherence for saliva collection. Area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate overall secretion, and cortisol awakening response (CAR) was used to evaluate the dynamic secretion response. Results From 9/1/2013 to 12/31/2013, 26/30 (86.7%) eligible participants agreed to hair sampling. All 30 subjects agreed to collect saliva, with 29 (96.7%) adhering to the collection protocol. Mean AUC was 401.2 nmol/L per hour, and CAR was 4.5 nmol/L. Conclusions Evaluating systemic stress in an otolaryngologic population using hair and saliva is feasible with acceptable participation and adherence. Repeat measurements over time will allow for evaluation of changes in systemic stress in relation to treatment. PMID:26436139

  2. Feasibility of physician peer assessment in an academic health sciences centre.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Sharon; Vozzolo, Ben; Daneman, Denis; Macgregor, Daune

    2011-01-01

    Peer assessment has become an important component of physician evaluation. In an academic health sciences centre, in addition to clinical care there is a significant focus on education, training and research. The literature suggests that the use of a 360-degree evaluation can provide physicians with valuable information on many aspects of their practice and can inform both professional and personal development. We conducted a pilot study to determine the feasibility of using peer assessment as part of the evaluation of our academic physicians. To maintain anonymity, an outside company was engaged to conduct the study. Participants completed a self-assessment and provided the names of eight physician peers and eight non-physician peers who were then requested to complete an evaluation. In addition, 25 patients were asked to provide their feedback. All questionnaires were forwarded directly to the outside company, which then compiled the data and provided each participant with a final report. Results indicate that it is feasible to carry out peer assessment within an academic health sciences centre. Participants noted the value of the process for career development and quality improvement. PMID:21301240

  3. Pilot In Command: A Feasibility Assessment of Autonomous Flight Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2004-01-01

    Several years of NASA research have produced the air traffic management operational concept of Autonomous Flight Management with high potential for operational feasibility, significant system and user benefits, and safety. Among the chief potential benefits are demand-adaptive or scalable capacity, user flexibility and autonomy that may finally enable truly successful business strategies, and compatibility with current-day operations such that the implementation rate can be driven from within the user community. A concept summary of Autonomous Flight Management is provided, including a description of how these operations would integrate in shared airspace with existing ground-controlled flight operations. The mechanisms enabling the primary benefits are discussed, and key findings of a feasibility assessment of airborne autonomous operations are summarized. Concept characteristics that impact safety are presented, and the potential for initially implementing Autonomous Flight Management is discussed.

  4. Risk assessment and restoration possibilities of some abandoned mining ponds in Murcia Region, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faz, Angel; Acosta, Jose A.; Martinez-Martinez, Silvia; Carmona, Dora M.; Zornoza, Raul; Kabas, Sebla; Bech, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    In Murcia Region, SE Spain, there are 85 tailing ponds due to intensive mining activities that occurred during last century, especially in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Union. Although mining activity was abandoned several decades ago, those tailing ponds with high amounts of heavy metals still remain in the area. The ponds, due to their composition and location, may create environmental risks of geochemical pollution, negatively affecting soil, water, and plant, animal, and human populations, as well as infrastructures. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the restoration possibilities of two representative mining ponds in order to minimize the risk for human and ecosystems. To achieve this objective, two tailing ponds generated by mining activities were selected, El Lirio and El Gorguel. These ponds are representative of the rest of existent ponds in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Unión, with similar problems and characteristics. Several techniques and studies were applied to the tailing ponds for their characterization, including: geophysics, geotechnics, geochemical, geological, hydrological, and vegetation studies. In addition, effects of particulate size in the distribution of heavy metals will be used to assess the risk of dispersion of these metals in finest particles. Once the ponds were characterized, they were divided in several sectors in order to apply different amendments (pig slurry and marble waste) to reduce the risk of metal mobility and improve soil quality for a future phytostabilization. It is known that organic amendments promote soil development processes, microbial diversity, and finally, soil ecosystem restoration to a state of self-sustainability. By comparing the results before and after applications we will be able to evaluate the effect of the different amendments on soil quality and their effectively on risk reduction. Finally, plant metal-tolerant species are used to restore vegetation in the ponds, thereby decreasing the potential migration of contamination through wind erosion, transport of exposed surface soils and leaching of soil contaminants to groundwater.

  5. Health Impact Assessments for Environmental Restoration: The Case of Caño Martín Peña

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Perry; Agu, Damiris; Rodríguez, Lyvia; Avilés, Katia

    2014-01-01

    Background Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a methodology for predicting health impacts of a proposed policy or plan. A proposed environmental restoration and development plan presented an opportunity for an HIA in an environmental justice community surrounding the Martín Peña channel in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The HIA focused on the dredging of the channel, debris removal, road, sewer, and storm water infrastructure improvements, housing demolition, and resident relocation. Objective The HIA sought to determine the potential health impacts of the proposed plan on the community to inform the funding decision by the Puerto Rican legislature. As the first HIA in Puerto Rico, a secondary objective was to build HIA capacity in Puerto Rico. Methods This HIA used a community training, literature reviews, existing local studies, focus groups, interviews, and disease surveillance data to assess baseline health, determine expected impacts, and build capacity. Findings The Martín Peña community is experiencing deteriorating environmental conditions. Flooding and negative environmental exposures, such as mold, limits to physical activity, stress, chemical toxicants, pathogenic bacteria, and pests, are worsening. The higher rates of diseases, such as asthma and diarrhea, in the community compared to elsewhere in Puerto Rico appear to be largely attributable to these factors. Overall, the proposed plan is expected to improve many of these health disparities but the successful implementation depends on continued community acceptance and participation, particularly with the relocation process. Recommendations are for full financing and several mitigation efforts to avoid negative and preserve beneficial health consequences. Conclusions As the first HIA in Puerto Rico, this assessment provided specific recommendations to benefit the health of the community affected by an environmental restoration and development plan and also capacity building for a larger audience in Puerto Rico. This approach could be generalized to other Latino environmental justice communities in Puerto Rico and abroad. PMID:25459331

  6. Second annual report of the Environmental Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, R.B.; Watts, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of environmental monitoring and field investigations conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report focuses on the watershed scale, striving to provide an ORNL site-wide perspective on types, distribution, and transport of contamination. Results are used to enhance the conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This report summarizes the efforts of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 and Site Investigations (SI) program. WAG 2 is the lower portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) system which drains the major contaminated sites at ORNL and discharges to the Clinch River where public access is allowed. The remedial investigation for WAG 2 includes a long-term multimedia environmental monitoring effort that takes advantage of WAG 2`s role as an integrator and conduit of contaminants from the ORNL site. This report also includes information from other site-specific remedial investigations and feasibility studies (RI/FS) for contaminated sites at ORNL and data from other ongoing monitoring programs conducted by other organizations [e.g., the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) compliance monitoring conducted by the Environmental Surveillance and Protection Section]. This information is included to provide an integrated basis to support ER decision making. This report summarizes information gathered through early 1993. Annual data, such as annual discharges of contaminants, are reported for calendar year 1992.

  7. A GIS based European Hydro Power Atlas: a tool for technical and economical feasibility assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagli, Stefano; Mazzoli, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The service consists of a tool for quick technical and economic feasibility assessment of small hydropower sites, based on topography, hydrology, environmental flows and other constraints such as distance from existing electric grids. The system works in a web-mapping wrap and allows analysis at a scale comparable to common geo-browsing tools (such Google Earth ©), just like e.g. popular JRC's PVGIS for the estimation of photovoltaic potential. The system provides basically two levels of operation: (1) mapping of the hydropower potential at Europe or regional scale, and (2) preliminary assessment of hydropower production at a site specific level. In the first level, a map of the potential production is provided taking into account a predefined length of the diversion of water (derivation channel and penstock) and calculating related Hydraulic jump; the system combines then topographic information together with flow duration curve information for the whole European/regional stream network and operative hypothesis on maximum derivable flow and other relevant derivation parameters. In the second level user defines in detail project parameters (amount of withdrawal, length of derivation, distance from connection grid, type of turbine, local feed in tariff) and the system evaluates preliminary feasibility check (size of the plat, maximum allowed investment for a fixed for a payback time). Interface via Google Map/Earth © or similar geo-browsing tools will be provided. This tool is expected to play a role in promoting investment in pico-to micro-hydropower plants by making preliminary feasibility assessment much quicker and affordable, and providing reliable estimation of potential available resource, which may be a critical aspect in the development of small plants and for site scouting activity The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme under Grant Agreement No. 603587 (SWITCH-ON).

  8. Carbon-Carbon Recuperators in Closed-Brayton-Cycle Nuclear Space Power Systems: A Feasibility Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Michael J.; Johnson, Paul K.

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of using carbon-carbon recuperators in closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) nuclear space power conversion systems (PCS) was assessed. Recuperator performance expectations were forecast based on projected thermodynamic cycle state values for a planetary mission. Resulting thermal performance, mass and volume for a plate-fin carbon-carbon recuperator were estimated and quantitatively compared with values for a conventional offset-strip-fin metallic design. Material compatibility issues regarding carbon-carbon surfaces exposed to the working fluid in the CBC PCS were also discussed.

  9. Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, B.N.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement pertaining to the Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Yakama Indian Nation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities for the Project within the boundaries of the Yakama Indian Reservation. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large 20, 340 hectare (50, 308 acre) project area. As individual properties are secured for the Project, three site-specific activities (habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) may be subject to further site-specific environmental review. All required Federal/Tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground disturbing activities.

  11. 74 FR 69335 - An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: The Feasibility of Incorporating Climate Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-12-31

    ...The Feasibility of Incorporating Climate Change Information Into Land Protection...The Feasibility of Incorporating Climate Change Information into Land Protection...the feasibility of incorporating climate change impacts information into the...

  12. Assessing China's ecological restoration programs: what's been done and what remains to be done?

    PubMed

    Yin, Runsheng; Yin, Guiping; Li, Lanying

    2010-03-01

    This article surveys the recent literature that has assessed China's ecological restoration programs, including the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) and the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP). Our presumption is that the performance of these programs should be determined by their effectiveness of implementation and significance of impact. Implementation effectiveness can be measured with such indicators as land area converted or conserved, and survival and stocking rates of restored vegetation, while impact significance can be gauged by the induced changes in ecosystem functionality and stability (erosion control, biodiversity protection, etc.) and socioeconomic conditions. Coupling this matrix with an exhaustive search of the publications, we find that: (1) the implementation effectiveness has not been examined as extensively as the impact significance; (2) efforts to assess the impact significance have concentrated on the SLCP, particularly its socioeconomic effects: growth of income, alternative industry, and employment, and likelihood of re-conversion; and (3) most of the socioeconomic studies are based on rural household surveys and discrete choice and difference in differences models. While much has been learned from previous studies, a lot more needs to be done in improving our understanding of the program execution and impacts. Future work should pay more attention to the NFPP and other programs, and the environmental impacts and the implementation effectiveness of all of them. To these ends, analysts must gather more field data regarding the evolving ecosystem conditions and socioeconomic information of higher aggregation, and conduct their research across scales and disciplines, with better application of geospatial technology and more effective modeling. PMID:19847479

  13. Sonography Guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Effect of Cooperative Training on the Pretreatment Assessment of the Operation's Feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ju; Choi, Dongil; Lee, Won Jae; Rhim, Hyun-Chul; Kim, Seonwoo

    2008-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cooperative training on the pretreatment assessment of the feasibility to perform Ultrasonography (US) guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for patients afflicted with hepatocellular carcinoma. Materials and Methods In our prospective study, 146 patients with 200 hepatocellular carcinomas were referred for radiofrequency ablation after triage by hepatologists. Three radiologists with different levels of experience performed the planning US before (group I) and after (group II) cooperative training, to evaluate whether radiofrequency ablation was feasible. The feasibility rates considered eligible according to our criteria were evaluated. In addition, we analyzed the reasons for the lack of feasibility were analyzed. The interobserver agreement for the assessment of feasibility before and after training was also calculated. Results The overall feasibility rates for both groups was 73%. No significant difference in the feasibility rates was observed. The feasibility rates of each observer for group I were 71% (observer 1), 77% (observer 2) and 70% (observer 3) and those for group II were 73%, 76% and 69%, respectively. In the tumors (n = 164) considered ineligible, the two most common causes for refraining from performing radiofrequency ablation included non-visualization of the tumor (62%) and the absence of a safe route for the percutaneous approach (38%). We found moderate interobserver agreement for all observers before cooperative training and a good agreement after training. Conclusion Although the cooperative training did not affect the feasibility rate of each observer, it improved the interobserver agreement for assessing the feasibility of performing US guided radiofrequency ablation, which may reduce unnecessary admission or delayed treatment. PMID:18253073

  14. The Feasibility and Acceptability of Using a Portfolio to Assess Professional Competence

    PubMed Central

    Tuekam, Rosine

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Little is known about physical therapists' views on the use of portfolios to evaluate professional competence. The purpose of this study was to gather the opinions of physical therapists on the feasibility and acceptability of a portfolio prepared to demonstrate evidence of clinical specialization through reported activities and accomplishments related to professional development, leadership, and research. Methods: Twenty-nine Canadian physical therapists practising in the neurosciences area were given 8 weeks to prepare a professional portfolio. Participants submitted the portfolio along with a survey addressing the preparation of the portfolio and its role as an assessment tool. Qualitative content analysis was used to interpret the participants' comments. Results: Participants reported that maintaining organized records facilitated the preparation of their portfolio. They experienced pride when reviewing their completed portfolios, which summarized their professional activities and highlighted their achievements. Concerns were noted about the veracity of self-reported records and the ability of the documentation to provide a comprehensive view of the full scope of the professional competencies required for clinical specialization (e.g., clinical skills). Conclusion: The study's findings support the feasibility and acceptability of a portfolio review to assess professional competence and clinical specialization in physical therapy and have implications for both physical therapists and professional agencies. PMID:22210983

  15. A feasibility assessment of nuclear reactor power system concepts for the NASA Growth Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Heller, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth Space Station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational, disposition and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of Space Station - attached concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide a feasibility of each combination.

  16. A Framework to Automate Assessment of Upper-Limb Motor Function Impairment: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Otten, Paul; Kim, Jonghyun; Son, Sang Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Standard upper-limb motor function impairment assessments, such as the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), are a critical aspect of rehabilitation after neurological disorders. These assessments typically take a long time (about 30 min for the FMA) for a clinician to perform on a patient, which is a severe burden in a clinical environment. In this paper, we propose a framework for automating upper-limb motor assessments that uses low-cost sensors to collect movement data. The sensor data is then processed through a machine learning algorithm to determine a score for a patient’s upper-limb functionality. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, we implemented a system based on the proposed framework that can automate most of the FMA. Our experiment shows that the system provides similar FMA scores to clinician scores, and reduces the time spent evaluating each patient by 82%. Moreover, the proposed framework can be used to implement customized tests or tests specified in other existing standard assessment methods. PMID:26287206

  17. A Framework to Automate Assessment of Upper-Limb Motor Function Impairment: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Otten, Paul; Kim, Jonghyun; Son, Sang Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Standard upper-limb motor function impairment assessments, such as the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), are a critical aspect of rehabilitation after neurological disorders. These assessments typically take a long time (about 30 min for the FMA) for a clinician to perform on a patient, which is a severe burden in a clinical environment. In this paper, we propose a framework for automating upper-limb motor assessments that uses low-cost sensors to collect movement data. The sensor data is then processed through a machine learning algorithm to determine a score for a patient's upper-limb functionality. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, we implemented a system based on the proposed framework that can automate most of the FMA. Our experiment shows that the system provides similar FMA scores to clinician scores, and reduces the time spent evaluating each patient by 82%. Moreover, the proposed framework can be used to implement customized tests or tests specified in other existing standard assessment methods. PMID:26287206

  18. Assessing accuracy and precision for field and laboratory data: a perspective in ecosystem restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Lewis, Timothy E; Palmer, Craig J.; Middlebrook Amos, Molly

    2015-01-01

    Unlike most laboratory studies, rigorous quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures may be lacking in ecosystem restoration (“ecorestoration”) projects, despite legislative mandates in the United States. This is due, in part, to ecorestoration specialists making the false assumption that some types of data (e.g. discrete variables such as species identification and abundance classes) are not subject to evaluations of data quality. Moreover, emergent behavior manifested by complex, adapting, and nonlinear organizations responsible for monitoring the success of ecorestoration projects tend to unconsciously minimize disorder, QA/QC being an activity perceived as creating disorder. We discuss similarities and differences in assessing precision and accuracy for field and laboratory data. Although the concepts for assessing precision and accuracy of ecorestoration field data are conceptually the same as laboratory data, the manner in which these data quality attributes are assessed is different. From a sample analysis perspective, a field crew is comparable to a laboratory instrument that requires regular “recalibration,” with results obtained by experts at the same plot treated as laboratory calibration standards. Unlike laboratory standards and reference materials, the “true” value for many field variables is commonly unknown. In the laboratory, specific QA/QC samples assess error for each aspect of the measurement process, whereas field revisits assess precision and accuracy of the entire data collection process following initial calibration. Rigorous QA/QC data in an ecorestoration project are essential for evaluating the success of a project, and they provide the only objective “legacy” of the dataset for potential legal challenges and future uses.

  19. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

  20. INVENTORY OF ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION PROJECTS WITHIN THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) REGION, NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In cooperation with the Office of Water, the Office of Research and Development's National Risk Management Research Laboratory is developing an inventory of ecosystem restoration projects within the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Region. The MAIA Region includes five s...

  1. Springville Dam, Great Lakes Fishery and Ecosystem Restoration Program, New York Detailed Project Report/Environmental Assessment

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    #12;1 Springville Dam, Great Lakes Fishery and Ecosystem Restoration Program, New York Detailed, was engaged to conduct the IEPR for the Springville Dam Fish Passage Project, Section 506 Great Lakes Fishery at Springville Dam, Draft Detailed Project Report/Environmental Assessment, 18 April 2014. The review resulted

  2. Acceptability and Feasibility of Physical Activity Assessment Methods for an Appalachian Population.

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, Yelena N; Howell, Britteny M; Studts, Christina R; Strath, Scott J; Schoenberg, Nancy E

    2015-08-01

    Nowhere is improving understanding and accurate assessment of physical activity more important for disease prevention and health promotion than among health disparities populations such as those residing in rural and Appalachian regions. To enhance accurate assessment of physical activity and potentially improve intervention capacity, we conducted a mixed-methods study examining the acceptability and feasibility of self-report physical activity questionnaires, pedometers, and accelerometers among rural Appalachian children, adolescents, and adults. Most participants reported positive experiences with all three physical activity assessment tools. Several acceptability ratings differed by age group and by sex within each age group. With very few exceptions, no significant differences in acceptability were found by race, education, employment status, health status, BMI categories, income levels, or insurance status within age groups or overall. Several factors may impact the choice of the physical activity assessment method, including target population age, equipment cost, researcher burden, and potential influence on physical activity levels. Children and adolescents appear to have more constraints on when they can wear pedometers and accelerometers. While pedometers are inexpensive and convenient, they may influence physical activity levels, rather than simply measure them. Accelerometers, while less influential on behavior, consume extensive resources, including high purchase costs and researcher burden. PMID:25608476

  3. Preliminary assessment report for Redmond Army National Guard Facility, Installation 53120, Redmond, Washington. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ketels, P.; Aggarwal, P.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Washington Army National Guard (WAARNG) property in Redmond, Washington. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Redmond ARNG property, Phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program. The environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) supply/storage of hazardous materials, (2) weapons cleaning, (3) the underground storage tanks (USTs), and (4) the use of herbicides. These ESOs are no longer active because of the closure of OMS 10 activities in 1988.

  4. Value Assessment of Ecosystem Services in Nature Reserves in Ningxia, China: A Response to Ecological Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Gao, Jixi; Wang, Jinsheng; Qiu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Changes in land use can cause significant changes in the ecosystem structure and process variation of ecosystem services. This study presents a detailed spatial, quantitative assessment of the variation in the value of ecosystem services based on land use change in national nature reserves of the Ningxia autonomous region in China. We used areas of land use types calculated from the remote sensing data and the adjusted value coefficients to assess the value of ecosystem services for the years 2000, 2005, and 2010, analyzing the fluctuations in the valuation of ecosystem services in response to land use change. With increases in the areas of forest land and water bodies, the value of ecosystem services increased from 182.3×107 to 223.8×107 US$ during 2000–2010. Grassland and forest land accounted for 90% of this increase. The values of all ecosystem services increased during this period, especially the value of ecosystem services for biodiversity protection and soil formation and protection. Ecological restoration in the reserves had a positive effect on the value of ecosystem services during 2000–2010. PMID:24586571

  5. Preliminary assessment report for Olney Military Reservation, Installation 24175, Olney, Maryland. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.; Rose, C.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Maryland Army National Guard property near Olney, Maryland. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies Phase I of the US Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program for Olney Military Reservation property. Olney Military Reservation is an 8-acre site located in the southwestern portion of Maryland, about six miles northwest of Washington, DC, in Montgomery County. The major facilities included in this PA comprise the administration building, barracks, and motor repair shops. The environmentally significant operations associated with the property are underground and aboveground storage tanks, a vehicle wash rack, a flammable materials storage area (a lean-to structure), and a hazardous materials storage building. The review of both historical and current practices at the property indicates that Olney Military Reservation property poses no immediate threat to human health or the environment. Argonne`s reviewers noted several historical potential threats to the environment that have occurred at the property that installation personnel have corrected or eliminated.

  6. Assessment of Feasibility of the Beneficial Use of Waste Heat from the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Donna P. Guillen

    2012-07-01

    This report investigates the feasibility of using waste heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). A proposed glycol waste heat recovery system was assessed for technical and economic feasibility. The system under consideration would use waste heat from the ATR secondary coolant system to preheat air for space heating of TRA-670. A tertiary coolant stream would be extracted from the secondary coolant system loop and pumped to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, where heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air in the heating and ventilation system. Historical data from Advanced Test Reactor operations over the past 10 years indicates that heat from the reactor coolant was available (when needed for heating) for 43.5% of the year on average. Potential energy cost savings by using the waste heat to preheat intake air is $242K/yr. Technical, safety, and logistics considerations of the glycol waste heat recovery system are outlined. Other opportunities for using waste heat and reducing water usage at ATR are considered.

  7. Market Assessment and Technical Feasibility Study of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash Use

    SciTech Connect

    Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H.

    1996-12-31

    Western Research Institute in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Center (METC), has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) ashes. The assessment is designed to address six applications, including: (1) structural fill, (2) road base construction, (3) supplementary cementing materials in portland cement, (4) synthetic aggregate, and (5) agricultural/soil amendment applications. Ash from low-sulfur subbituminous coal-fired Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, and ash from the high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired American Electric Power (AEP) bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC unit using low- sulfur coal and limestone sorbent (karhula ash) and high-sulfur coal and dolomite sorbents (AEP Tidd ash).

  8. Are We There Yet? Feasibility of Continuous Stress Assessment via Wireless Physiological Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Bari, Rummana; Ali, Amin Ahsan; Sharmin, Moushumi; Raij, Andrew; Hovsepian, Karen; Hossain, Syed Monowar; Ertin, Emre; Kennedy, Ashley; Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.; Jobes, Michelle; Beck, J. Gayle; Kedia, Satish; Ward, Kenneth D.; al'Absi, Mustafa; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Stress can lead to headaches and fatigue, precipitate addictive behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol and drug use), and lead to cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Continuous assessment of stress from sensors can be used for timely delivery of a variety of interventions to reduce or avoid stress. We investigate the feasibility of continuous stress measurement via two field studies using wireless physiological sensors — a four-week study with illicit drug users (n = 40), and a one-week study with daily smokers and social drinkers (n = 30). We find that 11+ hours/day of usable data can be obtained in a 4-week study. Significant learning effect is observed after the first week and data yield is seen to be increasing over time even in the fourth week. We propose a framework to analyze sensor data yield and find that losses in wireless channel is negligible; the main hurdle in further improving data yield is the attachment constraint. We show the feasibility of measuring stress minutes preceding events of interest and observe the sensor-derived stress to be rising prior to self-reported stress and smoking events. PMID:25821861

  9. The cascade construction of artificial ponds as a tool for urban stream restoration - The use of benthic diatoms to assess the effects of restoration practices.

    PubMed

    ?elazna-Wieczorek, Joanna; Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina

    2015-12-15

    A series of cascade artificial ponds were constructed to improve the ecological status of the stream. To evaluate the effects of restoration practices, a bioassessment, based on phytobenthic algae - the diatoms, was made. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of diatom assemblages allowed for evaluating the influence of a series of cascade artificial ponds on stream integrity. To reveal which environmental factors had the greatest influence on shaping diatom assemblages, the BIO-ENV procedure was used, and in order to examine whether these factors had equal influence on diatoms along the stream, Redundancy Analysis (RDA) was used. The analysis of diatom assemblages allowed for the calculation of the diatom indices in order to assess the water quality and the ecological status of the stream. Artificial ponds constructed on the stream had significant effects on the integrity of the stream ecosystem. Diatom assemblages characteristic of stream habitats were disrupted by the species from ponds. HCA and PCA revealed that the stream was clearly divided into three sections: ponds, stream parts under the influence of ponds, and stream parts isolated from ponds. The ponds thus altered stream environmental conditions. Benthic diatom assemblages were affected by a combination of four environmental factors: the concentration of ammonium ions, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and the amount of total suspended material in the water. These factors, together with water pH, had a diverse influence on diatom assemblages alongside the stream, which was caused by a series of cascade ponds. In theory, this restoration practice should restore the stream close to its natural state, but bioassessment of the stream ecosystem based on diatoms revealed that there was no improvement of the ecological status alongside the stream. The construction of artificial ponds disrupted stream continuity and altered the character of the stream ecosystem. PMID:26318812

  10. Assessing ex vivo dental biofilms and in vivo composite restorations using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R.; Aparicio, C.; Chityala, R.; Chen, R.; Fok, A.; Rudney, J.

    2012-01-01

    A cross-polarization 1310-nm optical coherence tomography system (CP-OCT), using a beam splitter based design, was used to assess ex vivo growth of complex multi-species dental biofilms. These biofilm microcosms were derived from plaque samples along the interface of composite or amalgam restoration in children with a history of early childhood caries. This paper presents a method of measuring the mean biofilm height of mature biofilms using CP-OCT. For our in vivo application, the novel swept source based CP-OCT intraoral probe (Santec Co. Komaki, Japan) dimensions and system image acquisition speed (20 image frames/second) allowed imaging pediatric subjects as young as 4 years old. The subsurface enamel under the interface of composite resin restorations of pediatric subjects were imaged using CP-OCT. Cavitated secondary caries is clearly evident from sound resin composite restorations.

  11. Assessing PreCR™ repair enzymes for restoration of STR profiles from artificially degraded DNA for human identification.

    PubMed

    Robertson, James M; Dineen, Shauna M; Scott, Kristina A; Lucyshyn, Jonathan; Saeed, Maria; Murphy, Devonie L; Schweighardt, Andrew J; Meiklejohn, Kelly A

    2014-09-01

    Forensic scientists have used several approaches to obtain short tandem repeat (STR) profiles from compromised DNA samples, including supplementing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with enhancers and using procedures yielding reduced-length amplicons. For degraded DNA, the peak intensities of the alleles separated by electrophoresis generally decrease as the length of the allele increases. When the intensities of the alleles decrease below an established threshold, they are described as drop-outs, thus contributing to a partial STR profile. This work assesses the use of repair enzymes to improve the STR profiles from artificially degraded DNA. The commercial PreCR™ repair kit of DNA repair enzymes was tested on both purified DNA and native DNA in body fluids exposed to oxidizing agents, hydrolytic conditions, ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, and desiccation. The strategy was to restrict the level of DNA damage to that which yields partial STR profiles in order to test for allele restoration as opposed to simple allele enhancement. Two protocols were investigated for allele restoration: a sequential protocol using the manufacturer's repair procedure and a modified protocol reportedly designed for optimal STR analysis of forensic samples. Allele restoration was obtained with both protocols, but the peak height appeared to be higher for the modified protocol (determined by Mann-Kendall Trend Test). The success of the approach using the PreCR™ repair enzymes was sporadic; it led to allele restoration as well as allele drop-out. Additionally, allele restoration with the PreCR™ enzymes was compared with restoration by alternative, but commonly implemented approaches using Restorase™, PCRBoost™, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the Minifiler™ STR system. The alternative methods were also successful in improving the STR profile, but their success also depended on the quality of the template encountered. Our results indicate the PreCR™ repair kit may be useful for restoring STR profiles from damaged DNA, but further work is required to develop a generalized approach. PMID:24997322

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 3. Risk assessment information. Appendixes E, F

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 3 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  13. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3: Appendixes E and F -- Risk assessment information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  14. Feasibility studies of Bragg probe for noninvasive carotid pulse waveform assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Cátia; Bilro, Lúcia; Alberto, Nélia; Antunes, Paulo; Lima, Hugo; André, Paulo S.; Nogueira, Rogério; Pinto, João L.

    2013-01-01

    The arterial stiffness evaluation is largely reported as an independent predictor of cardiovascular diseases. The central pulse waveform can provide important data about arterial health and has been studied in patients with several pathologies, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and hypertension. The implementation and feasibility studies of a fiber Bragg grating probe for noninvasive monitoring of the carotid pulse are described based on fiber Bragg grating technology. Assessment tests were carried out in carotids of different volunteers and it was possible to detect the carotid pulse waveform in all subjects. In one of the subjects, the sensor was also tested in terms of repeatability. Although further tests will be required for clinical investigation, the first studies suggest that the developed sensor can be a valid alternative to electromechanical tonometers.

  15. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

    1999-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  16. Electropalatography as an adjunct to nonspeech orofacial myofunctional disorder assessments: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Mantie-Kozlowski, Alana; Pitt, Kevin

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if electropalatography (EPG) would be a useful adjunct and feasible option for those conducting clinical assessments of individuals with suspected nonspeech orofacial myofunctional disorders (NSOMD). Three females (two adults, one child) were referred by their orthodontist for assessment of suspected NSOMD. Three adults and one child without NSOMD were recruited for the purpose of evaluating methodological construct, and to provide comparisons for participants with NSOMD. Using EPG, lingual-palatal timing and contact patterns of 105 saliva swallows (45 with NSOMD, 60 without NSOMD) were analyzed by compartmentalizing the sensor display and tracking the order and duration of activation. Lingual-palatal contact patterns were compared in terms of four stages: prepropulsion, propulsion, postpropulsion, release. Coding the lingual-palatal activation in an operationalized manner was a valuable adjunct for describing lingual-palatal timing and contact patterns. Participants with NSOMD showed unique lingual-palatal contact patterns that differed from the patterns of the participants without NSOMD, and from each other. EPG is a potential adjunct to the non-instrumental assessment of NSOMD. Larger scale investigations using EPG should proceed. PMID:24946660

  17. Feasibility of text messaging for ecological momentary assessment of marijuana use in college students.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Michael M; Phillips, Kristina T; Lalonde, Trent L; Dykema, Kristy R

    2014-09-01

    Measuring self-reported substance use behavior is challenging due to issues related to memory recall and patterns of bias in estimating behavior. Limited research has focused on the use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to evaluate marijuana use. This study assessed the feasibility of using short message service (SMS) texting as a method of EMA with college-age marijuana users. Our goals were to evaluate overall response/compliance rates and trends of data missingness, response time, baseline measures (e.g., problematic use) associated with compliance rates and response times, and differences between EMA responses of marijuana use compared to timeline followback (TLFB) recall. Nine questions were texted to participants on their personal cell phones 3 times a day over a 2-week period. Overall response rate was high (89%). When examining predictors of the probability of data missingness with a hierarchical logistic regression model, we found evidence of a higher propensity for missingness for Week 2 of the study compared to Week 1. Self-regulated learning was significantly associated with an increase in mean response time. A model fit at the participant level to explore response time found that more time spent smoking marijuana related to higher response times, while more time spent studying and greater "in the moment" academic motivation and craving were associated with lower response times. Significant differences were found between the TLFB and EMA, with greater reports of marijuana use reported through EMA. Overall, results support the feasibility of using SMS text messaging as an EMA method for college-age marijuana users. PMID:24749751

  18. Quantitative assessment of rotator cuff muscle elasticity: Reliability and feasibility of shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Taku; Giambini, Hugo; Uehara, Kosuke; Okamoto, Seiji; Chen, Shigao; Sperling, John W; Itoi, Eiji; An, Kai-Nan

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound imaging has been used to evaluate various shoulder pathologies, whereas, quantification of the rotator cuff muscle stiffness using shear wave elastography (SWE) has not been verified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and feasibility of SWE measurements for the quantification of supraspinatus (SSP) muscle elasticity. Thirty cadaveric shoulders (18 intact and 12 with torn rotator cuff) were used. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was evaluated on an established SWE technique for measuring the SSP muscle elasticity. To assess the effect of overlying soft tissues above the SSP muscle, SWE values were measured with the transducer placed on the skin, on the subcutaneous fat after removing the skin, on the trapezius muscle after removing the subcutaneous fat, and directly on the SSP muscle. In addition, SWE measurements on 4 shoulder positions (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° abduction) were compared in those with/without rotator cuff tears. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of SWE measurements were excellent for all regions in SSP muscle. Also, removing the overlying soft tissue showed no significant difference on SWE values measured in the SSP muscle. The SSP muscle with 0° abduction showed large SWE values, whereas, shoulders with large-massive tear showed smaller variation throughout the adduction-abduction positions. SWE is a reliable and feasible tool for quantitatively assessing the SSP muscle elasticity. This study also presented SWE measurements on the SSP muscle under various shoulder abduction positions which might help characterize patterns in accordance to the size of rotator cuff tears. PMID:26472309

  19. Instrumented assessment of test battery for physical capability using an accelerometer: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, A; Lara, J; Munro, C A; Wiuff, C; Chowdhury, S A; Del Din, S; Hickey, A; Mathers, J C; Rochester, L

    2015-05-01

    Recent work has identified subdomains (tests) of physical capability that are recommended for assessment of the healthy ageing phenotype (HAP). These include: postural control, locomotion, endurance, repeated sit-to-stand-to-sit and TUG. Current assessment methods lack sensitivity and are error prone due to their lack of consistency and heterogeneity of reported outcomes; instrumentation with body worn monitors provides a method to address these potential weaknesses. This work proposes the use of a single tri-axial accelerometer-based device with appropriate algorithms (referred to here as a body worn monitor, BWM) for the purposes of instrumented testing during physicality capability assessment. In this pilot study we present 14 BWM-based outcomes across the subdomains which include magnitude, frequency and spatio-temporal characteristics. Where possible, we compared BWM outcomes with manually recorded values and found no significant differences between locomotion and TUG tasks (p ? 0.319). Significant differences were found for the total distance walked during endurance (p = 0.037) and times for repeated sit-to-stand-to-sit transitions (p < 0.000). We identified reasons for differences and make recommendations for future testing. We were also able to quantify additional characteristics of postural control and gait which could be sensitive outcomes for future HAP assessment. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of this method to enhance measurement of physical capacity. The methodology can also be applied to a wide variety of accelerometer-based monitors and is applicable to a range of intervention-based studies or pathological assessment. PMID:25903399

  20. A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STREAM RESTORATION AT USEPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous stream and riparian restoration projects are being undertaken across the nation at a variety of scales and for disparate reasons. Unfortunately, there are very few studies associated with these restoration efforts which provide a consistent and practical methodology to e...

  1. National fire danger assessment and ecosystem restoration using remote sensing and ecological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.; Rollins, M.

    Hazardous fuel reduction, ecosystem rehabilitation and restoration, and firefighting safety, are land management priorities emphasized by recent national fire policies such as the National Fire Plan. Implementation of these policies requires geospatial data of vegetation conditions, fire fuels, risks, and ecosystem status developed consistently nationwide that can be used at multiple scales (i.e., local, regional, and national). A new research and development project called LANDFIRE is being conducted to develop an integrated methodology to produce geospatial fire data and predictive models for the land management community and a broad range of other applications. Main deliverables include mapped potential and existing vegetation types and vegetation structure parameters, various biophysical data layers, fire fuels models, fire risk layers, as well as state-of-the-art computer models for assessing fire risk, behavior and effects. In this presentation, we will review research results and findings of the LANDFIRE project using results from a prototype study covering central Utah Uinta and Wasatch ecosystems. Particularly we will describe how a consistent and operational vegetation mapping component may be achieved by integrating machine-learning algorithms, field reference data, satellite imagery, and ecologically significant biophysical variables. We will discuss how remotely sensed vegetation cover types and structure can be successfully converted to fire fuel classes and risk layers which are necessary input into fire behavior and fire effect models. Finally we will discuss challenges and opportunities for national implementation of the methodology.

  2. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Induced Transgression of the Chandeleur Islands for Restoration and Wildlife Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Brandie; Reahard, Ross; Billiot, Amanda; Brown, Tevin; Childs, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    The Chandeleur Islands are the first line of defense against tropical storms and hurricanes for coastal Louisiana. They provide habitats for birds species and are a wildlife refuge; however, distressingly, they are eroding and transgressing at an alarming rate. In 1998, Hurricane Georges caused severe damage to the chain, prompting restoration and monitoring efforts by both Federal and State agencies. Since then, storm events have steadily diminished the condition of the islands. Quantification of shoreline erosion, vegetation, and land loss, from 1979 to 2009, was achieved through the analysis of imagery from Landsat 2-4 Multispectral Scanner, Landsat 4 & 5 Thematic Mapper, and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer sensors. QuickBird imagery was used to validate the accuracy of these results. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data to assist in tracking the transgression of the Chandeleur Islands. The use of near infrared reflectance calculated from MOD09 surface reflectance data from 2000 to 2009 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool. The scope of this project includes not only assessments of the tropical cyclonic events during this time period, but also the effects of tides, winds, and cold fronts on the spatial extent of the islands. Partnering organizations, such as the Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Research, will utilize those results in an effort to better monitor and address the continual change of the island chain.

  3. Nature versus nurture: functional assessment of restoration effects on wetland services using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundareshwar, P.V.; Richardson, C.J.; Gleason, R.A.; Pellechia, P.J.; Honomichl, S.

    2009-01-01

    Land-use change has altered the ability of wetlands to provide vital services such as nutrient retention. While compensatory practices attempt to restore degraded wetlands and their functions, it is difficult to evaluate the recovery of soil biogeochemical functions that are critical for restoration of ecosystem services. Using solution 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, we examined the chemical forms of phosphorus (P) in soils from wetlands located across a land-use gradient. We report that soil P diversity, a functional attribute, was lowest in farmland, and greatest in native wetlands. Soil P diversity increased with age of restoration, indicating restoration of biogeochemical function. The trend in soil P diversity was similar to documented trends in soil bacterial taxonomic composition but opposite that of soil bacterial diversity at our study sites. These findings provide insights into links between ecosystem structure and function and provide a tool for evaluating the success of ecosystem restoration efforts. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Nature versus nurture: Functional assessment of restoration effects on wetland services using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundareshwar, P. V.; Richardson, C. J.; Gleason, Robert A.; Pellechia, Perry J.; Honomichl, Shawn

    2009-02-01

    Land-use change has altered the ability of wetlands to provide vital services such as nutrient retention. While compensatory practices attempt to restore degraded wetlands and their functions, it is difficult to evaluate the recovery of soil biogeochemical functions that are critical for restoration of ecosystem services. Using solution 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, we examined the chemical forms of phosphorus (P) in soils from wetlands located across a land-use gradient. We report that soil P diversity, a functional attribute, was lowest in farmland, and greatest in native wetlands. Soil P diversity increased with age of restoration, indicating restoration of biogeochemical function. The trend in soil P diversity was similar to documented trends in soil bacterial taxonomic composition but opposite that of soil bacterial diversity at our study sites. These findings provide insights into links between ecosystem structure and function and provide a tool for evaluating the success of ecosystem restoration efforts.

  5. Assessing Long-Term, System-Wide Cumulative Benefits of Multiple Restoration Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. M.

    2005-12-01

    Most river restoration projects in North America have been at a relatively small scale, and even most large restoration programs consist of multiple small projects. The CALFED Bay-Delta Program, encompassing the San Francisco Estuary system and its watershed in northern California, is one of the largest ongoing restoration programs in the nation, with over 500 million invested in restoration projects from 1997 to 2004. Yet when we look at the results of these and other restoration efforts to date in the context of habitat losses and fish population declines since European settlement in 1850, it is clear that even a restoration effort on this scale will not reverse large-scale historical changes, so restoration in this context must involve making incremental improvements within a highly altered system. The question becomes how to best allocate the (always limited) available resources strategically to achieve realistic restoration goals. For example, is it better to make small investments in many rivers or concentrate on larger projects in one or a few? An overall conceptual model on a basin scale and over a long time period is needed as a framework in which to evaluate the cumulative contributions of different possible projects. Along the Merced and Tuolumne Rivers, multiple abandoned gravel pits interrupt sediment transport continuity and provide habitat for exotic fish that prey on juvenile salmon. To reduce predation and restore river function, some of these pits have been repaired (and the channel restored), at a cost to date of about 30 million. Assuming different response functions, we can project the potential cumulative benefits of multiple projects.

  6. Feasibility of bone assessment by using the nonlinear parameter in trabecular bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kang Il

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of assessing bone status and osteoporosis by using the nonlinear parameter B/A in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The B/A values measured in 18 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using a finite-amplitude through-transmission method ranged from 63.3 to 122.6. The apparent bone density was highly correlated with the B/A and with the existing quantitative ultrasound parameters of the speed of sound (SOS) and the normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation (nBUA), with Pearson's correlation coefficients of r = 0.83 to 0.96. The best univariate predictor of the apparent bone density was the B/A, with an adjusted squared correlation coefficient of r 2 = 0.91. These results suggest that the B/A, in addition to the SOS and the nBUA, may have potential as an index for the assessment of bone status and osteoporosis.

  7. Feasibility of using an online tool to assess appropriateness for an epilepsy surgery evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jodie I.; Hrazdil, Chantelle; Wiebe, Samuel; Sauro, Khara; Hanson, Alexandra; Federico, Paolo; Pillay, Neelan; Murphy, William; Vautour, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the applicability of applying an online tool to determine the appropriateness of referral for an epilepsy surgical evaluation and to determine whether appropriateness scores are concordant with the clinical judgment of epilepsy specialists. Methods: We prospectively applied the tool in 107 consecutive patients with focal epilepsy seen in an epilepsy outpatient clinic. Variables collected included seizure type, epilepsy duration, seizure frequency, seizure severity, number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) tried, AED-related side effects, and the results of investigations. Appropriateness ratings were then compared with retrospectively collected information concerning whether a surgical evaluation had been considered. Results: Thirty-nine patients (36.4%) were rated as appropriate for an epilepsy surgical evaluation, all of whom had adequately tried 2 or more appropriate AEDs. The majority of patients (84.6%) rated as appropriate had previously been considered or referred for an epilepsy surgical evaluation. Tool feasibility of use was high, with the exception of assessing whether previous AED trials had been adequate and discrepancies between physician and patient reports of AED side effects. Conclusions: Our evidence-based, online clinical decision tool is easily applied and able to determine whether patients with focal epilepsy are appropriate for a surgical evaluation. Future validation of this tool will require application in clinical practice and assessment of potential improvements in patient outcomes. PMID:25107882

  8. Feasibility of repeated testing for learning ability in juvenile primates for pediatric safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Rose, C; Luetjens, C M; Grote-Wessels, S; Weinbauer, G F

    2015-11-01

    Assessment of learning ability in nonhuman primate (NHP) models is sometimes requested by regulatory authorities. The double choice object discrimination task using a Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus (WGTA) approach is typically being applied. In this study, the WGTA approach was performed on 66 juvenile cynomolgus monkeys aged 8-9 months in the predose phase of juvenile toxicity assessment. In addition, reversal learning data of seven control animals/gender were obtained for the weeks 25 and 52 of dosing. Gender differences in the number of days required to pass the habituation, learning or reversal learning phases were statistically comparable, males and females may be combined for statistical analysis. At first instance, the habituation phase was passed on average after 6.4 days, and the learning test on average after 8.6 days with improvement to 2.0-2.6 days for habituation and 6.4-6.7 days for learning in weeks 52. Power analysis (? = 0.05, one-sided t-test) revealed a sample size of 8 and 41 to predict a 50% and 20% difference, respectively. In conclusion, examination for learning ability, but not for memory ability (during repeated testing) is feasible in juvenile NHPs using the WGTA approach. PMID:26361857

  9. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    SciTech Connect

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S.

    1993-08-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods.

  10. Investigation and Feasibility Assessment of TOPAZ-2 Derivations for Space Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Peddicord, Kenneth L.

    1998-01-01

    The ability to provide continuous power at significant levels is of utmost importance for many space missions, from simple satellite operations to manned Mars missions. One of the main problems faced in delivering solar or chemical space power in the tens of kW range, is the increasingly massive nature of the power source and the costs associated with its launch, operation and maintenance. A national program had been initiated to study the feasibility of using certain advanced technologies in developing an efficient lightweight space power source. The starting point for these studies has been the Russian TOPAZ-2 space reactor system, with the ultimate goal to aid in the development of a TOPAZ-2 derivative which will be ready for flight by the year 2000. The main objective of this project has been to perform feasibility assessment and trade studies which would allow the development of an advanced space nuclear power system based on the in-core thermionic fuel element technology currently used in the Russian TOPAZ-2 reactor. Two of the important considerations in developing the concept are: (1) compliance of the current TOPAZ-2 and of any advanced designs with U.S. nuclear safety expectations, and (2) compliance of the design with the seven years lifetime requirement. The project was composed of two major phases. The initial phase of the project has concentrated on understanding the TOPAZ-2 thermionic reactor in sufficient detail to allow several follow-on tasks. The primary interest during this first phase has been given on identifying the potential of the TOPAZ-2 design for further improvements. The second phase of the project has focused on the feasibility of a TOPAZ-2 system capable of delivering 30-50 kWe. Towards the elimination of single-point failures in the load voltage regulation system an active voltage regulator has been designed to be used in conjunction with the available shunt load voltage regulator. The possible use of a dual-loop, model-based adaptive control system for load-following in the TOPAZ-2 has also been investigated. The objective of this fault-tolerant, autonomous control system is to deliver the demanded electric power at the desired voltage level, by appropriately manipulating the neutron power through the control drums. As a result, sufficient thermal power is produced to meet the required demand in the presence of dynamically changing system operating conditions and potential sensor failures. The designed controller is proposed for use in combination with the currently available shunt regulators, or as a back-up controller when other means of power system control, including some of the sensors, fail.

  11. Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma in weightlessness: a feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Nicolaou, Savvas; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Campbell, Mark R.; Feiveson, Alan; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Melton, Shannon; Beck, George; Dawson, David L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) examines for fluid in gravitationally dependent regions. There is no prior experience with this technique in weightlessness, such as on the International Space Station, where sonography is currently the only diagnostic imaging tool. STUDY DESIGN: A ground-based (1 g) porcine model for sonography was developed. We examined both the feasibility and the comparative performance of the FAST examination in parabolic flight. Sonographic detection and fluid behavior were evaluated in four animals during alternating weightlessness (0 g) and hypergravity (1.8 g) periods. During flight, boluses of fluid were incrementally introduced into the peritoneal cavity. Standardized sonographic windows were recorded. Postflight, the video recordings were divided into 169 20-second segments for subsequent interpretation by 12 blinded ultrasonography experts. Reviewers first decided whether a video segment was of sufficient diagnostic quality to analyze (determinate). Determinate segments were then analyzed as containing or not containing fluid. A probit regression model compared the probability of a positive fluid diagnosis to actual fluid levels (0 to 500 mL) under both 0-g and 1.8-g conditions. RESULTS: The in-flight sonographers found real-time scanning and interpretation technically similar to that of terrestrial conditions, as long as restraint was maintained. On blinded review, 80% of the recorded ultrasound segments were considered determinate. The best sensitivity for diagnosis in 0 g was found to be from the subhepatic space, with probability of a positive fluid diagnosis ranging from 9% (no fluid) to 51% (500 mL fluid). CONCLUSIONS: The FAST examination is technically feasible in weightlessness, and merits operational consideration for clinical contingencies in space.

  12. Benefits and costs of ecological restoration: Rapid assessment of changing ecosystem service values at a U.K. wetland

    PubMed Central

    Peh, Kelvin S-H; Balmford, Andrew; Field, Rob H; Lamb, Anthony; Birch, Jennifer C; Bradbury, Richard B; Brown, Claire; Butchart, Stuart H M; Lester, Martin; Morrison, Ross; Sedgwick, Isabel; Soans, Chris; Stattersfield, Alison J; Stroh, Peter A; Swetnam, Ruth D; Thomas, David H L; Walpole, Matt; Warrington, Stuart; Hughes, Francine M R

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of degraded land is recognized by the international community as an important way of enhancing both biodiversity and ecosystem services, but more information is needed about its costs and benefits. In Cambridgeshire, U.K., a long-term initiative to convert drained, intensively farmed arable land to a wetland habitat mosaic is driven by a desire both to prevent biodiversity loss from the nationally important Wicken Fen National Nature Reserve (Wicken Fen NNR) and to increase the provision of ecosystem services. We evaluated the changes in ecosystem service delivery resulting from this land conversion, using a new Toolkit for Ecosystem Service Site-based Assessment (TESSA) to estimate biophysical and monetary values of ecosystem services provided by the restored wetland mosaic compared with the former arable land. Overall results suggest that restoration is associated with a net gain to society as a whole of $199 ha?1y?1, for a one-off investment in restoration of $2320 ha?1. Restoration has led to an estimated loss of arable production of $2040 ha?1y?1, but estimated gains of $671 ha?1y?1 in nature-based recreation, $120 ha?1y?1 from grazing, $48 ha?1y?1 from flood protection, and a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worth an estimated $72 ha?1y?1. Management costs have also declined by an estimated $1325 ha?1y?1. Despite uncertainties associated with all measured values and the conservative assumptions used, we conclude that there was a substantial gain to society as a whole from this land-use conversion. The beneficiaries also changed from local arable farmers under arable production to graziers, countryside users from towns and villages, and the global community, under restoration. We emphasize that the values reported here are not necessarily transferable to other sites. PMID:25505517

  13. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the feasibility of computer interrogation of experts for WISAP

    SciTech Connect

    Wight, L.H.

    1980-05-01

    Simulation of the response of a waste repository to events that could initiate a fault tree to breach and failure is currently a keystone to the Battelle Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). The repository simulation, which is part of the Disruptive Event Analysis Task, models the repository for its entire design life, one million years. This is clearly a challenging calculation, requiring input unlike any other response analysis by virtue of the long design life of the facility. What technology will provide design criteria for a million year design life. Answers to questions like this can, to some extent, be based on data, but always require some subjective judgments. The subjectivity, which is sometimes driven by inadequate or incomplete data or by a lack of understanding of the physical process, is therefore a crucial ingredient in an analysis of initiating events. Because of the variety of possible initiating events (glaciation, man-caused disruption, volcanism, etc.), many expert opinions will be solicited as input. The complexity of the simulation, the variety of experts involved, and the volume of applicable data all suggest that there may be a more direct, economical method to solicit the expert opinion. This report addresses the feasibility of such a system. Background information is presented that demonstrates the advantages of a computer interrogation system over conventional interrogation and assessment techniques. In the subsequent three sections the three elements - structure and decomposition, scaling, and synthesis - that are basic to any interrogation and assessment technique are reviewed. The interrelationship are schematically illustrated between these three fundamental elements and, therefore, serves as a useful guide to these three sections. Each of these three sections begins with a recommended approach to the particular element and ends with an illustration of representative dialogue.

  14. A feasibility study on assessing public health impacts of cumulative air pollution reduction activities in a small geographic area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Objective: The rnain objective ofthis study was to examine the feasibility ofconducting a local (e.g., city level) assessment ofthe public health impacts ofcumulative air pollution reduction activities (a.k.a. accountability) from the federal, state, local and vo...

  15. The Feasibility of Using Video Journaling to Collect Ecological Momentary Assessment Data: Application to Health Behavior Change Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Bridget F.; Bigham, Lauren E.; Bland, Helen W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) technique in a health behavior change intervention offered within university general health courses. A six-week health behavior change project was used with two groups: video journaling and traditional (pencil and paper) group. Research…

  16. 78 FR 20298 - Restoration and Compensation Determination Plan and Environmental Assessment: Aluminum Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Restoration and Compensation...Massena, NY AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...including: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), acting...

  17. A comparative assessment of genetic diversity among differently-aged populations of Spartina alterniflora on restored versus natural wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Travis, S.E.; Proffitt, C.E.; Lowenfeld, R.C.; Mitchell, T.W.

    2002-01-01

    We collected naturally recolonizing Spartina alterniflora (smooth cord grass) from each of three restored sites and one undisturbed reference site in southwestern Louisiana to assess the impact of wetland restoration on genetic diversity. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to produce 94 polymorphic genetic markers, which were used to characterize genetic diversity as average heterozygosity and the proportion of polymorphic loci . Overall our findings indicate that restored populations of S. alterniflora maintain levels of genetic diversity comparable to natural populations, which should provide some measure of resistance against environmental disturbances. Diversity estimates were lowest for the natural reference site ( = 0.1059; = 0.2763), whereas estimates for the three restored sites ranged from = 0.1148 to 0.1256 and = 0.3114 to 0.3202. All sites maintained sufficiently high diversity levels to suggest significant rates of outcrossing. Overall, genetic differentiation among populations was small (Weir and Cockerham's ?? = 0.0645), with the values from each pairwise comparison among the populations increasing with the geographic distance between sites (range = 0.0490-0.1101). These values indicate an average migration rate of 3.6 migrants, either pollen or seeds, per generation.

  18. Assessing the feasibility of distributing child poison safety messages through three existing parent information pathways.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, L; Waters, E; Robinson, J; Young, S; Hutchinson, A

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory study was to assess the feasibility of increasing parents' poison safety awareness and behaviours using existing pathways. The aim was to compare the release of true stories of child unintentional poisoning via three modes: (a) parent "networker"; (b) maternal and child health nurse; (c) the media. The stories spread by the parent networker were readily recalled by the parents, with examples of changed behaviour and spreading of the stories. Parents who were part of the maternal and child health nurse strategy were not able to recall the stories without prompts. The media strategy could not be implemented because of difficulties finding parents ready to publicise their story. Given that it is an exploratory study, it is not possible to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of each of the intervention strategies. However, it appears that a low-resource intervention using stories shared via parent networkers may have exciting potential as a health promotion tool. A stronger study design to examine its effectiveness is proposed. PMID:19959736

  19. Assessing the feasibility of native fish reintroductions: a framework and example applied to bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunham, Jason B.; Gallo, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    In a species conservation context, translocations can be an important tool, but they frequently fail to successfully establish new populations. We consider the case of reintroductions for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a federally-listed threatened species with a widespread but declining distribution in western North America. Our specific objectives in this work were to: 1) develop a general framework for assessing the feasibility of reintroduction for bull trout, 2) provide a detailed example of implementing this framework to assess the feasibility of reintroducing bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon, and 3) discuss the implications of this effort in the more general context of fish reintroductions as a conservation tool. Review of several case histories and our assessment of the Clackamas River suggest that an attempt to reintroduce bull trout could be successful, assuming adequate resources are committed to the subsequent stages of implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

  20. A feasibility assessment of magnetic bearings for free-piston Stirling space power converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curwen, Peter W.; Rao, Dantam K.; Wilson, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a design and analysis study performed by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) under NASA Contract NAS3-26061. The objective of the study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of applying magnetic bearings to free-piston Stirling-cycle power conversion machinery of the type currently being evaluated for possible use in long-term space missions. The study was performed for a 50-kWe Reference Stirling Space Power Converter (RSSPC) system consisting of two 25-kWe free-piston Stirling engine modules. Two different versions of the RSSPC engine modules have been defined under NASA Contract NAS3-25463. These modules currently use hydrostatic gas bearings to support the reciprocating displacer and power piston assemblies. Results of this study show that active magnetic bearings of the attractive electromagnetic type are technically feasible for RSSPC application provided that wire insulation with 60,000-hr life capability at 300 C can be developed for the bearing coils. From a design integration standpoint, both versions of the RSSPC were found to be conceptually amenable to magnetic support of the power piston assembly. However, only one version of the RSSPC was found to be amendable to magnetic support of the displacer assembly. Unacceptable changes to the basic engine design would be required to incorporate magnetic displacer bearings into the second version. Complete magnetic suspension of the RSSPC can potentially increase overall efficiency of the Stirling cycle power converter by 0.53 to 1.4 percent (0.15 to 0.4 efficiency points). Magnetic bearings will also overcome several operational concerns associated with hydrostatic gas bearing systems. However, these advantages are accompanied by a 5 to 8 percent increase in specific mass of the RSSPC, depending on the RSSPC version employed. Additionally, magnetic bearings are much more complex, both mechanically and particularly electronically, than hydrostatic bearings. Accordingly, long-term stability and reliability represent areas of uncertainty for magnetic bearings. Considerable development effort will be required to establish the long-term suitability of these bearings for Stirling space power applications.

  1. Cedar River, Cedar Rapids, Iowa Flood Risk Management Feasibility Study Report with Integrated Environmental Assessment

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Cedar River, Cedar Rapids, Iowa Flood Risk Management Feasibility Study Report with Integrated for the Public Review Draft of the Cedar River, Cedar Rapids, Iowa Flood Risk Management Feasibility Study of Engineers (USACE) has developed a plan for the flood risk management for the Cedar River, Cedar Rapids, Iowa

  2. Assessing the relationship between Section 404 and wetland losses: a feasibility study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gladwin, Douglas N.; Roelle, James E.; Asherin, Duane A.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (33 U.S.C. 1251) is to restore and maintain the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. Section 404 of the Act regulates the discharge of dredged or fill materials into wetlands and represents the primary Federal authority for regulation of wetland alterations. Since its inception, the Section 404 program has been controversial in regard to the extent to which it was intended to provide wetlands regulation. Section 404 requires those who wish to discharge dredged or fill material into waters of the United States, which include many wetlands, to first obtain a Federal permit. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has overall responsibility for administration of the Section 404 program and promulgates guidelines that must be followed in issuing permits. In addition, EPA has the final authority to prohibit specific discharges if the environmental impacts are unacceptable. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) issues Section 404 permits, which can be of two types. Individual Permits are issued following case-by-case reviews of proposed discharges. General Permits, which can be either nationwide or regional in scope, are authorized by the Corps for categories of activities that are similar in nature and that have only minimal individual and cumulative adverse environmental impacts. EPA, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), and State natural resource agencies review and comment on permit applications and offer recommendations on appropriate mitigation measures. Although comments from the Service and other natural resource agencies are advisory in nature (EPA's veto authority excepted), they can serve as the basis for modifying, conditioning, or denying a Section 404 permit. In 1986, in a survey conducted by the National Ecology Research Center, Service personnel indicated interest in additional information concerning both wetland trends and the impacts of activities authorized by the Corps under Section 404 (Roelle 1986). Although there is some information concerning wetland losses for certain geographic areas and for the Nation as a whole (Frayer et al. 1983; Tiner 1984), there appears to be little information on how these losses relate to the Section 404 permitting process. The primary objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of estimating wetland losses in relationship to Individual and General Permits issued under Section 404. A secondary objective was to assemble data on acceptance and implementation of specific mitigation recommendations offered by the Service and other natural resource agencies in connection with development activities on wetlands examined. At present, 26 categories of Nationwide permits have been authorized by the Corps. Nationwide permit 26 was of particular interest in this study because it specifically authorizes discharges into wetlands under certain circumstances (see Figure 1 and related text for a more complete discussion of circumstances under which Nationwide Permit 26 is applicable). All subsequent references to Nationwide or General permits pertain to Nationwide Permit 26.

  3. Assessment Approach for Identifying Compatibility of Restoration Projects with Geomorphic and Flooding Processes in Gravel Bed Rivers.

    PubMed

    DeVries, Paul; Aldrich, Robert

    2015-08-01

    A critical requirement for a successful river restoration project in a dynamic gravel bed river is that it be compatible with natural hydraulic and sediment transport processes operating at the reach scale. The potential for failure is greater at locations where the influence of natural processes is inconsistent with intended project function and performance. We present an approach using practical GIS, hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport analyses to identify locations where specific restoration project types have the greatest likelihood of working as intended because their function and design are matched with flooding and morphologic processes. The key premise is to identify whether a specific river analysis segment (length ~1-10 bankfull widths) within a longer reach is geomorphically active or inactive in the context of vertical and lateral stabilities, and hydrologically active for floodplain connectivity. Analyses involve empirical channel geometry relations, aerial photographic time series, LiDAR data, HEC-RAS hydraulic modeling, and a time-integrated sediment transport budget to evaluate trapping efficiency within each segment. The analysis segments are defined by HEC-RAS model cross sections. The results have been used effectively to identify feasible projects in a variety of alluvial gravel bed river reaches with lengths between 11 and 80 km and 2-year flood magnitudes between ~350 and 1330 m(3)/s. Projects constructed based on the results have all performed as planned. In addition, the results provide key criteria for formulating erosion and flood management plans. PMID:25910870

  4. Assessment Approach for Identifying Compatibility of Restoration Projects with Geomorphic and Flooding Processes in Gravel Bed Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVries, Paul; Aldrich, Robert

    2015-08-01

    A critical requirement for a successful river restoration project in a dynamic gravel bed river is that it be compatible with natural hydraulic and sediment transport processes operating at the reach scale. The potential for failure is greater at locations where the influence of natural processes is inconsistent with intended project function and performance. We present an approach using practical GIS, hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport analyses to identify locations where specific restoration project types have the greatest likelihood of working as intended because their function and design are matched with flooding and morphologic processes. The key premise is to identify whether a specific river analysis segment (length ~1-10 bankfull widths) within a longer reach is geomorphically active or inactive in the context of vertical and lateral stabilities, and hydrologically active for floodplain connectivity. Analyses involve empirical channel geometry relations, aerial photographic time series, LiDAR data, HEC-RAS hydraulic modeling, and a time-integrated sediment transport budget to evaluate trapping efficiency within each segment. The analysis segments are defined by HEC-RAS model cross sections. The results have been used effectively to identify feasible projects in a variety of alluvial gravel bed river reaches with lengths between 11 and 80 km and 2-year flood magnitudes between ~350 and 1330 m3/s. Projects constructed based on the results have all performed as planned. In addition, the results provide key criteria for formulating erosion and flood management plans.

  5. A farm-scale framework for assessing vineyard soil fertility and restoration practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Leclercq, Léa

    2015-04-01

    The design of sustainable vineyard management is needed at varied scales and particularly at farm-scale. More and more winegrowers wish to adopt environmental-friendly practices while better controlling harvest composition. This leads to question complex issues with regard to sustainability of winegrowing agroecosystem and the adoption of new soil and vineyard management practices that are likely to favour a long-term preservation of quality production together with soil ecosystem functions. This study aims at elaborating a multivariate approach framework for vineyard soil fertility assessment over a 6 ha-farm planted with rainfed black Grenache and Syrah varieties in the Southern Rhone Valley. In a previous study carried out at the regional scale, soil landscape and potential terroir units had been characterized. A new field survey comprising ~20 soil pits, physico-chemical analyses for all soil profile horizons, and a series of additional soil surface samples analyzed for several parameters including soil organic carbon, calcium carbonate, copper and the major mineral nutrients, is here carried out. Along with soil parameters and soil surface condition, vine biological parameters including vigour, presence of diseases, stock-unearthing are collected. Very high resolution multispectral satellite data and resistivity EMI data are acquired and processed in order to characterize spatial variations in both physiological responses, soil surface conditions, soil depth and/or the presence of coarse elements. Multi-temporal historical aerial photographs are used in order to complement farmer's surveys regarding past management practices. The farm is characterized by a diversity of soils including Red Mediterranean soils (chromic luvisols), colluvic calcisols, arenosols, fluvisols, and regosols, which develop from top to slope then bottom of a Neogene molassic and conglomeratic plateau. Soil management past practices are marked by the absence of chemical/organic manuring in the last decades, resulting in erosional features and weakened vines. Relationships between vine spatial variability, soil spatial variability and the impact of past practices are analyzed and result in formalizing decision rules. Several restoration scenarios are then proposed, that focus either on chemical fertilizer and/or organic amendment and/or interrow cover and/or agroforestry practices.

  6. Feasibility and Safety Assessment for Advanced Reactor Concepts Using Vented Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Andrew; Matthews, Topher; Lenhof, Renae; Deason, Wesley; Harter, Jackson

    2015-01-16

    Recent interest in fast reactor technology has led to renewed analysis of past reactor concepts such as Gas Fast Reactors and Sodium Fast Reactors. In an effort to make these reactors more economic, the fuel is required to stay in the reactor for extended periods of time; the longer the fuel stays within the core, the more fertile material is converted into usable fissile material. However, as burnup of the fuel-rod increases, so does the internal pressure buildup due to gaseous fission products. In order to reach the 30 year lifetime requirements of some reactor designs, the fuel pins must have a vented-type design to allow the buildup of fission products to escape. The present work aims to progress the understanding of the feasibility and safety issues related to gas reactors that incorporate vented fuel. The work was separated into three different work-scopes: 1. Quantitatively determine fission gas release from uranium carbide in a representative helium cooled fast reactor; 2. Model the fission gas behavior, transport, and collection in a Fission Product Vent System; and, 3. Perform a safety analysis of the Fission Product Vent System. Each task relied on results from the previous task, culminating in a limited scope Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Fission Product Vent System. Within each task, many key parameters lack the fidelity needed for comprehensive or accurate analysis. In the process of completing each task, the data or methods that were lacking were identified and compiled in a Gap Analysis included at the end of the report.

  7. Feasibility Assessment of Using Geoinformatics Technology in Disaster Disease Surveillance in a Developing Country, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Faruque, Md Omar; Holakouie Naieni, Kourosh; Ardalan, Ali; Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Mohammadinia, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Geoinformatics technology retains an unprecedented trait of performing with a supersonic speed and precision in public health management whereas the existing disease surveillance systems in developing countries lack using this technology. This article aims to assess the feasibility of using geoinformatics technology in disaster disease surveillance in a developing country, Iran. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on technology acceptance model (TAM), and a semi-quantitative survey was conducted in order to collect data. Fifty TUMS & HS personnel, currently involve in disease surveillance and information technology, were included. Initially, a pilot study was conducted to test the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Cronbach alpha, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and standard error of measurement (SEM) were calculated to validate the causal model. Results: The results from structural equation analysis suggested that TAM provided a constructive picture of using geoinformatics technology in disaster disease surveillance at TUMS &HS. The study found attitude (ATT) had a significant influence on participants intention to use (ITU) a new technology, and perceived ease of use (PEOU) was a strong determinant of perceived of usefulness (PU). Subsequently, PU and PEOU explained ATT substantially; even though the analysis showed insignificant statistical association among these constructs. The high R2 (Coefficient of determination) of the constructs described respondents positive instinct towards accepting a new technology. Conclusion: The study reveals that personnel intent to adopt geoinformatics technology in disaster disease surveillance; and at the same time, they possess a positive attitude towards the technology. This study also found PEOU has a strong influence on PU, so information sessions and training on geoinformatics technology need to focus primarily on the applications and impacts of technology on disaster disease surveillance. PMID:25932348

  8. Assessing the feasibility of interrogating nuclear waste storage silos using cosmic-ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosino, F.; Bonechi, L.; Cimmino, L.; D'Alessandro, R.; Ireland, D. G.; Kaiser, R.; Mahon, D. F.; Mori, N.; Noli, P.; Saracino, G.; Shearer, C.; Viliani, L.; Yang, G.

    2015-06-01

    Muon radiography is a fast growing field in applied scientific research. In recent years, many detector technologies and imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering and absorption properties of cosmic-ray muons have been developed for the non-destructive assay of various structures across a wide range of applications. This work presents the first results that assess the feasibility of using muon radiography to interrogate waste silos within the U.K. Nuclear Industry. Two such approaches, using different techniques that exploit each of these properties, have previously been published, and show promising results from both simulation and experimental data for the detection of shielded high-Z materials and density variations from volcanic assay. Both detection systems used are based on scintillator and photomultiplier technologies. Results from dedicated simulation studies using both these proven technologies and image reconstruction techniques are presented for an intermediate-sized legacy nuclear waste storage facility filled with concrete and an array of uranium samples. Both results highlight the potential to identify uranium objects of varying thicknesses greater than 5 cm within real-time durations of several weeks. Increased contributions from Coulomb scattering within the concrete matrix of the structure hinder the ability of both approaches to resolve similar objects of 2 cm dimensions even with increased statistics. These results are all dependent on both the position of the objects within the facility and the locations of the detectors. Results for differing thicknesses of concrete, which reflect the non-standard composition of these complex, legacy structures under interrogation, are also presented alongside studies performed for a series of data collection durations. It is anticipated that with further research and optimisation of detector technologies and geometries, muon radiography in one, or both of these forms, will play a key role in future industrial applications within the U.K. Nuclear Industry.

  9. Analytical Assessment of Simultaneous Parallel Approach Feasibility from Total System Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    In a simultaneous paired approach to closely-spaced parallel runways, a pair of aircraft flies in close proximity on parallel approach paths. The aircraft pair must maintain a longitudinal separation within a range that avoids wake encounters and, if one of the aircraft blunders, avoids collision. Wake avoidance defines the rear gate of the longitudinal separation. The lead aircraft generates a wake vortex that, with the aid of crosswinds, can travel laterally onto the path of the trail aircraft. As runway separation decreases, the wake has less distance to traverse to reach the path of the trail aircraft. The total system error of each aircraft further reduces this distance. The total system error is often modeled as a probability distribution function. Therefore, Monte-Carlo simulations are a favored tool for assessing a "safe" rear-gate. However, safety for paired approaches typically requires that a catastrophic wake encounter be a rare one-in-a-billion event during normal operation. Using a Monte-Carlo simulation to assert this event rarity with confidence requires a massive number of runs. Such large runs do not lend themselves to rapid turn-around during the early stages of investigation when the goal is to eliminate the infeasible regions of the solution space and to perform trades among the independent variables in the operational concept. One can employ statistical analysis using simplified models more efficiently to narrow the solution space and identify promising trades for more in-depth investigation using Monte-Carlo simulations. These simple, analytical models not only have to address the uncertainty of the total system error but also the uncertainty in navigation sources used to alert an abort of the procedure. This paper presents a method for integrating total system error, procedure abort rates, avionics failures, and surveillance errors into a statistical analysis that identifies the likely feasible runway separations for simultaneous paired approaches.

  10. 77 FR 23741 - DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase I Early Restoration Plan and... DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill (Framework Agreement), notice is hereby given that ] the Federal and State... the DEEPWATER HORIZON oil spill, which occurred on or about April 20, 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico....

  11. 76 FR 78016 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    .... Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration Plan... from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, the Federal and State natural resource trustee agencies (Trustees... resources and services injured or lost as a result of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which occurred on...

  12. 76 FR 78016 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ...FVHC98130406900Y4-XXX-FF04G01000] Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration...Resulting from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, the Federal and State natural resource...a result of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which occurred on or about...

  13. 77 FR 23741 - DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ...FVHC98130406900Y4-XXX-FF04G01000] DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase I Early Restoration...Resulting from the DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill (Framework Agreement), notice...a result of the DEEPWATER HORIZON oil spill, which occurred on or about...

  14. Ecosystem Restoration as Community Economic Development? An Assessment of the Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbard, Michael; Karle, Kristen

    2002-01-01

    A demonstration project to test the possibilities of ecosystem restoration as a tool for community development was evaluated in 1998 and 2001. The socioeconomic climate and community problem-solving capacity were compared in four demonstration communities and two control communities. Results showed economic development must be coordinated with…

  15. Assessing the contribution of aquaculture and restoration to wild oyster populations in Rhode Island

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The decline of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) has led to renewed interest in restoration and aquaculture efforts. Recent field surveys suggest that wild populations in Rhode Island are increasing, yet the factors contributing to expansion are unknown. We used molecular tools to determine...

  16. Brackish Groundwater Desalination Feasibility

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Brackish Groundwater Desalination Feasibility Assessment Report VOLUME I -- October 2008 SAN Groundwater Desalination Feasibility Report San Antonio Water System Table of Contents Table of Contents List Plant Location....................................................................... 3-19 Section 4

  17. The Conversations about Cancer (CAC) Project: Assessing Feasibility and Audience Impacts from Viewing The Cancer Play*

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Wayne A.; Buller, Mary K.; Dozier, David M.; Buller, David B.; Gutzmer, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Basic communication research has identified a major social problem: communicating about cancer from diagnosis through death of a loved one. Over the past decade, an award winning investigation into how family members talk through cancer on the telephone, based on a corpus of 61 phone calls over a period of 13 months, has been transformed into a theatrical production entitled The Cancer Play. All dialogue in the play is drawn from naturally occurring (transcribed) interactions between family members as they navigate their way through the trials, tribulations, hopes, and triumphs of a cancer journey. This dramatic performance explicitly acknowledges the power of the arts as an exceptional learning tool for extending empirical research, exploring ordinary family life, and exposing the often taken-for-granted conceptions of health and illness. In this study, a Phase I STTR project funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), we assess the feasibility of educating and impacting cancer patients, family members, and medical professionals who viewed the play as a live performance and through DVD screenings. Pre-and post-performance questionnaires were administered to solicit audience feedback. Pre-post change scores demonstrate overwhelming and positive impacts for changing opinions about the perceived importance, and attributed significance, of family communication in the midst of cancer. Paired-sample t-tests were conducted on 5 factor analyzed indices/indicators – two indices of opinions about cancer and family communication, two indices measuring the importance of key communication activities, and the self-efficacy indicator – and all factors improved significantly (<.001). Informal talkback sessions were also held following the viewings, and selected audience members participated in focus groups. Talkback and focus group sessions generated equally strong, support responses. Implications of the Phase I study are being applied in Phase II, a currently funded effort to disseminate the play nationally and to more rigorously test its impact on diverse audiences. Future directions for advancing research, education, and training across diverse academic and health care professions are discussed. PMID:24098921

  18. A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND FEASIBILITY EVALUATION OF NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW MEASUREMENT ALTERNATIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Kendricks A. Behring II; Eric Kelner; Ali Minachi; Cecil R. Sparks; Thomas B. Morrow; Steven J. Svedeman

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation and open access in the natural gas pipeline industry has changed the gas business environment towards greater reliance on local energy flow rate measurement. What was once a large, stable, and well-defined source of natural gas is now a composite from many small suppliers with greatly varying gas compositions. Unfortunately, the traditional approach to energy flow measurement [using a gas chromatograph (GC) for composition assay in conjunction with a flow meter] is only cost effective for large capacity supplies (typically greater than 1 to 30 million scfd). A less costly approach will encourage more widespread use of energy measurement technology. In turn, the US will benefit from tighter gas inventory control, more efficient pipeline and industrial plant operations, and ultimately lower costs to the consumer. An assessment of the state and direction of technology for natural gas energy flow rate measurement is presented. The alternative technologies were ranked according to their potential to dramatically reduce capital and operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, while improving reliability and accuracy. The top-ranked technologies take an unconventional inference approach to the energy measurement problem. Because of that approach, they will not satisfy the fundamental need for composition assay, but have great potential to reduce industry reliance on the GC. Technological feasibility of the inference approach was demonstrated through the successful development of data correlations that relate energy measurement properties (molecular weight, mass-based heating value, standard density, molar ideal gross heating value, standard volumetric heating value, density, and volume-based heating value) to three inferential properties: standard sound speed, carbon dioxide concentration, and nitrogen concentration (temperature and pressure are also required for the last two). The key advantage of this approach is that inexpensive on-line sensors may be used to measure the inferential variables, which can then be applied (through the data correlations) to convert existing flow meters (ultrasonic, orifice, turbine, rotary, Coriolis, diaphragm, etc.) for on-line energy measurement. The practical issues for field development were evaluated using two transducers extracted from a $100 ultrasonic domestic gas meter, and a $400 infrared sensor.

  19. Optogenetics-enabled assessment of viral gene and cell therapy for restoration of cardiac excitability

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosi, Christina M.; Boyle, Patrick M.; Chen, Kay; Trayanova, Natalia A.; Entcheva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Multiple cardiac pathologies are accompanied by loss of tissue excitability, which leads to a range of heart rhythm disorders (arrhythmias). In addition to electronic device therapy (i.e. implantable pacemakers and cardioverter/defibrillators), biological approaches have recently been explored to restore pacemaking ability and to correct conduction slowing in the heart by delivering excitatory ion channels or ion channel agonists. Using optogenetics as a tool to selectively interrogate only cells transduced to produce an exogenous excitatory ion current, we experimentally and computationally quantify the efficiency of such biological approaches in rescuing cardiac excitability as a function of the mode of application (viral gene delivery or cell delivery) and the geometry of the transduced region (focal or spatially-distributed). We demonstrate that for each configuration (delivery mode and spatial pattern), the optical energy needed to excite can be used to predict therapeutic efficiency of excitability restoration. Taken directly, these results can help guide optogenetic interventions for light-based control of cardiac excitation. More generally, our findings can help optimize gene therapy for restoration of cardiac excitability. PMID:26621212

  20. Optogenetics-enabled assessment of viral gene and cell therapy for restoration of cardiac excitability.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Christina M; Boyle, Patrick M; Chen, Kay; Trayanova, Natalia A; Entcheva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Multiple cardiac pathologies are accompanied by loss of tissue excitability, which leads to a range of heart rhythm disorders (arrhythmias). In addition to electronic device therapy (i.e. implantable pacemakers and cardioverter/defibrillators), biological approaches have recently been explored to restore pacemaking ability and to correct conduction slowing in the heart by delivering excitatory ion channels or ion channel agonists. Using optogenetics as a tool to selectively interrogate only cells transduced to produce an exogenous excitatory ion current, we experimentally and computationally quantify the efficiency of such biological approaches in rescuing cardiac excitability as a function of the mode of application (viral gene delivery or cell delivery) and the geometry of the transduced region (focal or spatially-distributed). We demonstrate that for each configuration (delivery mode and spatial pattern), the optical energy needed to excite can be used to predict therapeutic efficiency of excitability restoration. Taken directly, these results can help guide optogenetic interventions for light-based control of cardiac excitation. More generally, our findings can help optimize gene therapy for restoration of cardiac excitability. PMID:26621212

  1. Feasibility and Acceptability of Adapting the Eating in the Absence of Hunger Assessment for Preschoolers in the Classroom Setting.

    PubMed

    Soltero, Erica G; Ledoux, Tracey; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-12-01

    Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) represents a failure to self-regulate intake leading to overconsumption. Existing research on EAH has come from the clinical setting, limiting our understanding of this behavior. The purpose of this study was to describe the adaptation of the clinical EAH paradigm for preschoolers to the classroom setting and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of measuring EAH in the classroom. The adapted protocol was implemented in childcare centers in Houston, Texas (N=4) and Phoenix, Arizona (N=2). The protocol was feasible, economical, and time efficient, eliminating previously identified barriers to administering the EAH assessment such as limited resources and the time constraint of delivering the assessment to participants individually. Implementation challenges included difficulty in choosing palatable test snacks that were in compliance with childcare center food regulations and the limited control over the meal that was administered prior to the assessment. The adapted protocol will allow for broader use of the EAH assessment and encourage researchers to incorporate the assessment into longitudinal studies in order to further our understanding of the causes and emergence of EAH. PMID:26172567

  2. Feasibility and validity of animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment of thermal stress in dairy goats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battini, Monica; Barbieri, Sara; Fioni, Luna; Mattiello, Silvana

    2015-06-01

    This investigation tested the feasibility and validity of indicators of cold and heat stress in dairy goats for on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The study was performed on two intensive dairy farms in Italy. Two different 3-point scale (0-2) scoring systems were applied to assess cold and heat stress. Cold and heat stress scores were visually assessed from outside the pen in the morning, afternoon and evening in January-February, April-May and July 2013 for a total of nine sessions of observations/farm. Temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) were recorded and Thermal Heat Index (THI) was calculated. The sessions were allocated to three climatic seasons, depending on THI ranges: cold (<50), neutral (50-65) and hot (>65). Score 2 was rarely assessed; therefore, scores 1 and 2 were aggregated for statistical analysis. The amount of goats suffering from cold stress was significantly higher in the cold season than in neutral (P < 0.01) and hot (P < 0.001) seasons. Signs of heat stress were recorded only in the hot season (P < 0.001). The visual assessment from outside the pen confirms the on-farm feasibility of both indicators: No constraint was found and time required was less than 10 min. Our results show that cold and heat stress scores are valid indicators to detect thermal stress in intensively managed dairy goats. The use of a binary scoring system (presence/absence), merging scores 1 and 2, may be a further refinement to improve the feasibility. This study also allows the prediction of optimal ranges of THI for dairy goat breeds in intensive husbandry systems, setting a comfort zone included into 55 and 70.

  3. Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility No. 3, Installation 13307, Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kolpa, R.; Smith, K.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard property located on Hunter Army Airfield (HAA) near Savannah, Georgia, known as Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) No. 3. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the AASF No. 3 property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the area now occupied by AASF No. 3. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of HAA completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on AASF No. 3 for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of HAA.

  4. Integral assessment of pollution in the Suquía River (Córdoba, Argentina) as a contribution to lotic ecosystem restoration programs.

    PubMed

    Merlo, C; Abril, A; Amé, M V; Argüello, G A; Carreras, H A; Chiappero, M S; Hued, A C; Wannaz, E; Galanti, L N; Monferrán, M V; González, C M; Solís, V M

    2011-11-01

    The Suquía River lower-middle basin (Córdoba, Argentina) is subject to a strong anthropic impact because it receives pollutants from different sources (industries, wastewaters, heavy traffic, agricultural land use, etc.) We have assessed the degree of watershed degradation of Suquía River lower-middle sections through the analysis of different ecosystem compartments (air, water, riparian soil, sediments and biota), in order to provide useful data to be considered in future river restoration programs. Four study sites were selected along the river (La Calera city, Córdoba city, Corazón de María village and Río Primero city) which were sampled during the low- and high-water flow periods. We analyzed: a) chemical and physical characteristics of water, sediments, and riparian soil; b) heavy metal content of water and sediments, and c) semi-volatile organic compounds in air. Besides, pollutant bioindicators such as fish assemblages, lichens (Usnea amblyoclada), vascular plants (Tradescantia pallida), and microorganisms (fecal coliform and Escherichia coli) were used to further assess the status of the river. All analyzed ecological compartments were affected by water pollution, particularly, fish assemblages, sediments and riparian soils by heavy metal and coliform bacteria. Moreover, we detected a possible contribution of sulfur and a high pollutant content in air that merit further research about other air-water exchanges. Accordingly, we strongly suggest that an action to restore or remediate the anthropic effect on the Suquía River be extended to all possible compartments along the river. PMID:21925711

  5. Comparison of Empirical and Analytical Physical Assessment Approaches for Stream Restoration: A Case Study on Abrams Creek, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A physical assessment approach referred to as natural channel design (NCD) is commonly used today by stream restoration practitioners, which requires an empirical-based comparison between study and reference reaches. Use of available analytical tools, or models, into pre-design physical assessments...

  6. Preliminary assessment report for Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana Army National Guard, Helena, Montana. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    DuWaldt, J.; Meyer, T.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at a Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) property near Helena, Montana. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort William Henry Harrison property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  7. Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

  8. A landscape approach for assessing the ecological feasibility of a black bear population recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great interest in recovering populations of large carnivores in locations where they previously were extirpated or severely reduced in size as a result of human activity. Determining the ecological feasibility (i.e., is adequate habitat available?) of a species is diffi...

  9. Assessing the Feasibility of Family Loans for Early Care and Education. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jerry S.; Wohlford, Jill K.

    Noting that one of the objectives of the Learning between Systems project was to design family loan programs as a potential form of financing to help families pay for early care and education, two studies examined the feasibility of such loan programs. First, focus groups were conducted in five American cities, wherein parents were asked to…

  10. A feasibility study of carotid elastography for risk assessment of atherosclerotic plaques validated by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaochang; Huang, Lingyun; Huang, Manwei; Zhao, Xihai; He, Le; Yuan, Chun; Bai, Jing; Luo, Jianwen

    2014-03-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. One of its main reasons is rupture of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Conventional B-mode ultrasound images and Doppler/color flow measurements are mostly used to evaluate degree of stenosis, which underestimates plaque vulnerability. Alternatively, the correspondence between multi-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, plaque composition and histology has been well established. In this study, the feasibility of ultrasound carotid elastography in risk assessment of carotid atherosclerotic plaques is investigated. Preliminarily in-vivo results on a small number of human subjects are initially validated by multi-contrast, highresolution MRI, and it shows that maximum strain rate might be feasible to evaluate the plaque vulnerability.

  11. Feasibility assessment of burnup credit in the criticality analysis of shipping casks with boiling water reactor spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.

    1991-08-01

    Considerable interest in the allowance of reactivity credit for the exposure history of power reactor fuel currently exists. This burnup credit'' issue has the potential to greatly reduce risk and cost when applied to the design and certification of spent fuel casks used for transportation and storage. Recently, analyses have demonstrated the technical feasibility and estimated the risk and economic incentives for allowing burnup credit in pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel shipping cask applications. This report summarizes the extension of the previous PWR technical feasibility assessment to boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel. This feasibility analysis aims to apply simple methods that adequately characterize the time-dependent isotopic compositions of typical BWR fuel. An initial analysis objective was to identify a simple and reliable method for characterizing BWR spent fuel. Two different aspects of fuel characterization were considered:l first, the generation of burn- up dependent material interaction probabilities; second, the prediction of material inventories over time (depletion). After characterizing the spent fuel at various stages of exposure and decay, three dimensional (3-D) models for an infinite array of assemblies and, in several cases, infinite arrays of assemblies in a typical shipping cask basket were analyzed. Results for assemblies without a basket provide reactivity control requirements as a function of burnup and decay, while results including the basket allow assessment of typical basket configurations to provide sufficient reactivity control for spent BWR fuel. Resulting basket worths and reactivity trends over time are then evaluated to determine whether burnup credit is needed and feasible in BWR applications.

  12. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration...

  13. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration...

  14. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration...

  15. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration...

  16. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration...

  17. 78 FR 53425 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation...Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation...Program (DARRP) is announcing new indirect cost rates on the recovery of indirect...

  18. 43 CFR 11.93 - Post-assessment phase-restoration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment...the amount of the award of a natural resource damage claim as authorized...monies will be used to address natural resources, specifically what...

  19. 43 CFR 11.93 - Post-assessment phase-restoration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment...the amount of the award of a natural resource damage claim as authorized...monies will be used to address natural resources, specifically what...

  20. 43 CFR 11.93 - Post-assessment phase-restoration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment...the amount of the award of a natural resource damage claim as authorized...monies will be used to address natural resources, specifically what...

  1. 43 CFR 11.93 - Post-assessment phase-restoration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment...the amount of the award of a natural resource damage claim as authorized...monies will be used to address natural resources, specifically what...

  2. 43 CFR 11.93 - Post-assessment phase-restoration plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Post-Assessment...the amount of the award of a natural resource damage claim as authorized...monies will be used to address natural resources, specifically what...

  3. Biological Production of Methane from Lunar Mission Solid Waste: An Initial Feasibility Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Richard; Garland, Jay; Janine, Captain

    A preliminary assessment was made of the potential for biological production of methane from solid waste generated during an early planetary base mission to the moon. This analysis includes: 1) estimation of the amount of biodegradable solid waste generated, 2) background on the potential biodegradability of plastics given their significance in solid wastes, and 3) calculation of potential methane production from the estimate of biodegradable waste. The completed analysis will also include the feasibility of biological methane production costs associated with the biological processing of the solid waste. NASA workshops and Advanced Life Support documentation have estimated the projected amount of solid wastes generated for specific space missions. From one workshop, waste estimates were made for a 180 day transit mission to Mars. The amount of plastic packaging material was not specified, but our visual examination of trash returned from stocktickerSTS missions indicated a large percentage would be plastic film. This plastic, which is not biodegradable, would amount to 1.526 kgdw crew-1 d-1 or 6.10 kgdw d-1 for a crew of 4. Over a mission of 10 days this would amount to 61 kgdw of plastics and for an 180 day lunar surface habitation it would be nearly 1100 kgdw . Approx. 24 % of this waste estimate would be biodegradable (human fecal waste, food waste, and paper), but if plastic packaging was replaced with biodegradable plastic, then 91% would be biodegradable. Plastics are man-made long chain polymeric molecules, and can be divided into two main groups; thermoplastics and thermoset plastics. Thermoplastics comprise over 90% of total plastic use in the placecountry-regionUnited States and are derived from polymerization of olefins via breakage of the double bond and subsequent formation of additional carbon to carbon bonds. The resulting sole-carbon chain polymers are highly resistant to biodegradation and hydrolytic cleavage. Common thermoplastics include low density polyethylene (packaging, bags), high density polyethylene (bottles, containers, pipes), polystyrene (tanks, containers), polypropylene (tanks, containers), and polyvinylchloride (pipes, containers). Thermoset plastics are formed by the condensation of alcohols or amines to form polyesters or polyamides, and are typically solidified after heating. As opposed to the linear structure of thermoplastic, thermoset plastics have a cross-linked structure which results in higher strength. The most common thermoset plastic is polyurethane which is used for coatings, insulation, paints, and packing. Given both the concerns over pollution reduction and energy conservation, significant efforts are underway on Earth to evaluate biodegradable plastics made from renewable feedstocks; the following summarizes the current state of these efforts. Production of biodegradable plastics involves either the introduction of biodegradable or photo-oxidizable components into the polymer chain or the use of biodegradable polymers themselves. The first approach is based on the observation that polyolefins of low molecular weight (<500 Da) are biodegradable. Insertion of structures susceptible to either photoor chemical degradation within the overall polyolefins chain (which are of 4 - 28 kDa molecular weight), can produce segments sufficiently small to be assimilated and degraded by microorganisms. Biodegradable polymers based strictly on nonpetroleum, biologically-based material have been developed, including some which are used to make currently marketed products. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters which are accumulated as carbon storage materials by microorganisms under nutrient limiting conditions. MirelTM , a "bioplastic" based on stocktickerPHA produced from microbial fermentation of sugars or oils from vegetables crops, is being produced by TellesTM . The company markets MirelTM bioplastics for use in molding, coatings, films, adhesives, and fibers. Another type of bioplastic is based on polylactic acid, or stocktickerPLA. Starch, typically from corn, is f

  4. Habitat restoration across large areas: Assessing wildlife responses in the Clearwater basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanvara, L.K.; Servheen, G.; Melquist, W.; Davis, D.; Scott, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past century, fire suppression and prevention have altered disturbance regimes across the Pacific Northwest, resulting in a significant divergence of historical and current conditions in forested habitats. To address this continuing trend in habitat changes and begin restoring historical patterns of disturbance, the Clearwater Basin Elk Habitat Initiative (CEI) proposes relatively extensive management actions in the Clearwater basin of north-central Idaho. We attempted to evaluate potential effects of such management actions on selected wildlife species using extant data sets and suggest ways to improve such projects with respect to a multispecies and adaptive management approach. Although there is increased interest in ecosystem management over large areas, the increased scale of analysis and implementation require a substantial increase in the level of species information beyond what currently exists. We conclude that baseline information required for an effective multispecies land-management policy in the Clearwater basin does not exist for many terrestrial wildlife species. To implement a true multispecies or ecosystem approach, wildlife and land managers should cooperate to increase existing population data and modeling efforts for wildlife species in the basin and develop a sustainable monitoring program to evaluate habitat management changes and their influence on wildlife populations within the context of adaptive management theory. Management actions to restore disturbance patterns should attempt spatial and temporal scales that are biologically relevant to the population ecology of species being affected. ?? 2004 by the Society of American Foresters.

  5. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Induced Transgression of the Chandeleur Islands for Restoration and Wildlife Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reahard, Ross; Mitchell, Brandie; Brown, Tevin; Billiot, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Barrier Islands are the first line of defense against tropical storms and hurricanes for coastal areas. Historically, tropical cyclonic events have had a great impact on the transgression of barrier islands, especially the Chandeleur Island chain off the eastern coast of Louisiana. These islands are of great importance, aiding in the protection of southeastern Louisiana from major storms, providing habitat for nesting and migratory bird species, and are part of the second oldest wildlife refuge in the country. In 1998, Hurricane Georges caused severe damage to the chain, prompting restoration and monitoring efforts by both federal and state agencies. Since then, multiple storm events have steadily diminished the integrity of the islands. Hurricane Katrina in 2005 thwarted all previous restoration efforts, with Hurricane Gustav in 2008 exacerbating island erosion and vegetation loss. Data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat 2-4 Multispectral Scanner (MSS), and Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) will be utilized to detect land loss, island transgression, and vegetation change from 1979 to 2009. This study looks to create a more synoptic view of the transgression of the Chandeleur Islands and correlate weather and sea surface phenomena with erosion trends over the past 30 years, so that partnering organizations such as the Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES) can better monitor and address the continual change of the island chain.

  6. Assessment of exposures and potential risks to the US adult population from wear (attrition and abrasion) of gold and ceramic dental restorations.

    PubMed

    Richardson, G Mark; Clemow, Scott R; Peters, Rachel E; James, Kyle J; Siciliano, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Little has been published on the chemical exposures and risks of dental restorative materials other than from dental amalgam and composite resins. Here we provide the first exposure and risk assessment for gold (Au) alloy and ceramic restorative materials. Based on the 2001-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we assessed the exposure of US adults to the components of Au alloy and ceramic dental restorations owing to dental material wear. Silver (Ag) is the most problematic component of Au alloy restorations, owing to a combination of toxicity and proportional composition. It was estimated that adults could possess an average of four tooth surfaces restored with Au alloy before exceeding, on average, the reference exposure level (REL) for Ag. Lithium (Li) is the most problematic component of dental ceramics. It was estimated that adults could possess an average of 15 tooth surfaces restored with ceramics before exceeding the REL for Li. Relative risks of chemical exposures from dental materials decrease in the following order: Amalgam>Au alloys>ceramics>composite resins. PMID:25805253

  7. Feasibility study using non-contact ultrasonic sensors for assessing reservoir fill state

    SciTech Connect

    Min, S.; Wei-yang Lu

    1995-12-01

    The change out of reservoirs in weapon systems can pose a significant safety threat if the reservoir has inadvertently transferred its contents. While the possibility of this occurring is very remote, the consequence can be extremely severe. There is therefore a need for equipment and procedures to determine the gas containment status before the component is removed from the weapon during normal maintenance procedures. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of using ultrasonics to detect a change in stress states of a filled and unfilled reservoir. Electromagnetic-acoustic transducers (EMATs) and laser ultrasonics (LU), two non-contact ultrasonic techniques, were examined. A second approach which measures the changes in modal resonances was also explored. This report summarizes the experimental results from an initial feasibility study aimed at demonstrating the use of acoustics to determine the gas containment status of GTS reservoirs.

  8. Assessment of the advantages and feasibility of a nuclear rocket for a manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of rebuilding and testing a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) for the Mars mission was investigted. Calculations indicate that an NTR would substantially reduce the Earth-orbit assemble mass compared to LOX/LH2 systems. The mass savings were 36 and 65% for the cases of total aerobraking and of total propulsive braking respectively. Consequently, the cost savings for a single mission of using an NTR, if aerobraking is feasible, are probably insufficient to warrant the NTR development. If multiple missions are planned or if propulsive braking is desired at Mars and/or at Earth, then the savings of about $7 billion will easily pay for the NTR. Estimates of the cost of rebuilding a NTR were based on the previous NERVA program's budget plus additional costs to develop a flight ready engine. The total cost to build the engine would be between $4 to 5 billion. The concept of developing a full-power test stand at Johnston Atoll in the Pacific appears very feasible. The added expense of building facilities on the island should be less than $1.4 billion.

  9. FEASIBILITY OF USING THE MACROACTIVITY APPROACH TO ASSESS CHILDREN'S DERMAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results derived from an initial assessment of critical exposure pathways for children indicate that dermal contact may result in high residential exposures to pesticides. However, data on children's exposures and activities are insufficient to support quantitative assessments ...

  10. Assessing the value of the Central Everglades Planning Project (CEPP) in Everglades restoration: an ecosystem service approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Leslie A.; Keefe, Kelly; Huber, Christopher C.; Racevskis, Laila; Gregg, Reynolds; Thourot, Scott; Miller, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies a full range of ecosystem services that could be affected by a restoration project in the central Everglades and monetizes the economic value of a subset of these services using existing data. Findings suggest that the project will potentially increase many ecosystem services that have considerable economic value to society. The ecosystem services monetized within the scope of this study are a subset of the difference between the future-with the Central Everglades Planning Project (CEPP) and the future-without CEPP, and they totaled ~ $1.8 billion USD at a 2.5% discount rate. Findings suggest that the use of ecosystem services in project planning and communications may require acknowledgment of the difficulty of monetizing important services and the limitations associated with using only existing data and models. Results of this study highlight the need for additional valuation efforts in this region, focused on those services that are likely to be impacted by restoration activities but were notably challenging to value in this assessment due to shortages of data.

  11. Assessment, evaluation, and testing of technologies for environmental restoration, decontamination, and decommissioning and high level waste management. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Uzochukwu, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management objectives are being assessed and evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objectives of the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

  12. Environmental, Safety, and Health Plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Revision 1, Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C. M.; El-Messidi, O. E.; Cowser, D. K.; Kannard, J. R.; Carvin, R. T.; Will, III, A. S.; Clark, Jr., C.; Garland, S. B.

    1993-05-01

    This Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Plan presents the concepts and methodologies to be followed during the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to protect the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. This ES&H Plan acts as a management extension for ORNL and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to direct and control implementation of the project ES&H program. The subsections that follow describe the program philosophy, requirements, quality assurance measures, and methods for applying the ES&H program to individual waste area grouping (WAG) remedial investigations. Hazardous work permits (HWPs) will be used to provide task-specific health and safety requirements.

  13. In vivo assessment of secondary caries and dentin characteristics after traditional amalgam restorations

    PubMed Central

    de Assunção Pinheiro, Isauremi Vieira; Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; de Lima, Kenio Costa

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate in vivo the occurrence of secondary caries and dentin characteristics in permanent molars after traditional amalgam restorations, by means of clinical visual examination, radiographs and laser-induced fluorescence (LF) (DIAGNOdent). Methods: Thirty first permanent molars of 30 schoolchildren in the 7 to14 year-old age group were included. Caries was removed by hand. Thus, indirect pulp capping was performed with glass-ionomer cement (GIC), the cavity was varnished and amalgam filled. LF was measured before and after cavity preparation and after a 12-month observation period. Dentin color after cavity preparation and after the 12-month observation period was recorded. Recurrent caries was also investigated by visual clinical and radiographic examinations, in addition to dentin thickness between pulp and indirect GIC pulp capping. Data was analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measurements, paired “t” test and descriptive statistic. Results: There were statistically significant differences (P<.05) among LF scores for dentin in all periods evaluated, with the lowest scores shown after 12 month of observation. There was no statistical difference between dentin color after cavity preparation and following 12 months of observation. Moreover, there was no recurrent caries attack at 12-month follow-up; dentin thickness between pulp and indirect GIC pulp capping was similar between baseline and final observation periods. It was concluded that the clinical restorative procedure using hand caries removal, indirect pulp capping with GIC, varnishing and amalgam filling the cavity did not provide secondary caries and increased dentin mineral content after 12 months. PMID:22904654

  14. Approach and Strategy for Performing Ecological Risk Assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II

    1992-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments (ERAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.2.3.04.07.02 (Activity Data Sheet 8304) and meets an Environmental Restoration Program milestone for FY 95. The strategy discussed in this report is consistent with the overall strategy for site management and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) compliance developed for the ORR and relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency documents and guidance. The general approach and strategy presented herein was developed for the ORR, but it could be applicable to other complex CERCLA sites that possess significant ecological resources.

  15. Feasibility, Reliability, and Validity of a Smartphone Based Application for the Assessment of Cognitive Function in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Brouillette, Robert M.; Foil, Heather; Fontenot, Stephanie; Correro, Anthony; Allen, Ray; Martin, Corby K.; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.; Keller, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    While considerable knowledge has been gained through the use of established cognitive and motor assessment tools, there is a considerable interest and need for the development of a battery of reliable and validated assessment tools that provide real-time and remote analysis of cognitive and motor function in the elderly. Smartphones appear to be an obvious choice for the development of these “next-generation” assessment tools for geriatric research, although to date no studies have reported on the use of smartphone-based applications for the study of cognition in the elderly. The primary focus of the current study was to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone-based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly. A total of 57 non-demented elderly individuals were administered a newly developed smartphone application-based Color-Shape Test (CST) in order to determine its utility in measuring cognitive processing speed in the elderly. Validity of this novel cognitive task was assessed by correlating performance on the CST with scores on widely accepted assessments of cognitive function. Scores on the CST were significantly correlated with global cognition (Mini-Mental State Exam: r?=?0.515, p<0.0001) and multiple measures of processing speed and attention (Digit Span: r?=?0.427, p<0.0001; Trail Making Test: r?=??0.651, p<0.00001; Digit Symbol Test: r?=?0.508, p<0.0001). The CST was not correlated with naming and verbal fluency tasks (Boston Naming Test, Vegetable/Animal Naming) or memory tasks (Logical Memory Test). Test re-test reliability was observed to be significant (r?=?0.726; p?=?0.02). Together, these data are the first to demonstrate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using a smartphone-based application for the purpose of assessing cognitive function in the elderly. The importance of these findings for the establishment of smartphone-based assessment batteries of cognitive and motor function in the elderly is discussed. PMID:23776570

  16. Feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Brouillette, Robert M; Foil, Heather; Fontenot, Stephanie; Correro, Anthony; Allen, Ray; Martin, Corby K; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2013-01-01

    While considerable knowledge has been gained through the use of established cognitive and motor assessment tools, there is a considerable interest and need for the development of a battery of reliable and validated assessment tools that provide real-time and remote analysis of cognitive and motor function in the elderly. Smartphones appear to be an obvious choice for the development of these "next-generation" assessment tools for geriatric research, although to date no studies have reported on the use of smartphone-based applications for the study of cognition in the elderly. The primary focus of the current study was to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone-based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly. A total of 57 non-demented elderly individuals were administered a newly developed smartphone application-based Color-Shape Test (CST) in order to determine its utility in measuring cognitive processing speed in the elderly. Validity of this novel cognitive task was assessed by correlating performance on the CST with scores on widely accepted assessments of cognitive function. Scores on the CST were significantly correlated with global cognition (Mini-Mental State Exam: r?=?0.515, p<0.0001) and multiple measures of processing speed and attention (Digit Span: r?=?0.427, p<0.0001; Trail Making Test: r?=?-0.651, p<0.00001; Digit Symbol Test: r?=?0.508, p<0.0001). The CST was not correlated with naming and verbal fluency tasks (Boston Naming Test, Vegetable/Animal Naming) or memory tasks (Logical Memory Test). Test re-test reliability was observed to be significant (r?=?0.726; p?=?0.02). Together, these data are the first to demonstrate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using a smartphone-based application for the purpose of assessing cognitive function in the elderly. The importance of these findings for the establishment of smartphone-based assessment batteries of cognitive and motor function in the elderly is discussed. PMID:23776570

  17. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Feasibility of assessing crop condition and yield from LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Yield modelling for crop production estimation derived a means of predicting the within-a-year yield and the year-to-year variability of yield over some fixed or randomly located unit of area. Preliminary studies indicated that the requirements for interpreting LANDSAT data for yield may be sufficiently similar to those of signature extension that it is feasible to investigate the automated estimation of production. The concept of an advanced yield model consisting of both spectral and meteorological components was endorsed. Rationale for using meteorological parameters originated from known between season and near harvest dynamics in crop environmental-condition-yield relationships.

  18. Watershed Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  19. Blood Pressure Variability: Can Nonlinear Dynamics Enhance Risk Assessment During Cardiovascular Surgery? A Feasibility Study

    E-print Network

    Subramaniam, Balachundhar

    We propose that complex (nonlinear) fluctuations of hemodynamic variables including systemic blood pressure parameters) during cardiovascular surgery contain information relevant to risk assessment and intraoperative ...

  20. River Restoration by Dam Removal: Assessing Riverine Re-Connectivity Across New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magilligan, F. J.; Nislow, K. H.; Graber, B.; Sneddon, C.; Fox, C.; Martin, E.

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of dams in New England are especially acute as it possesses one of the highest densities of dams in the US, with the NID documenting more than 4,000 dams, and state agency records indicating that >14,000 dams are peppered throughout the landscape. This large number of dams contributes to pervasive watershed fragmentation, threatening the ecological integrity of rivers and streams, and in the case of old, poorly maintained structures, posing a risk to lives and property. These concerns have generated active dam removal efforts throughout New England. To best capture the geomorphic, hydrologic, and potential ecological effects of dam removal at a regional level, we have compiled a dataset of 127 removed dams in New England, which includes information about structural characteristics, georectified locations, and key watershed attributes (including basin size, distance to next upstream obstacle, and number of free-flowing river kms opened up). Our specific research questions address (1) what is the spatial distribution of removed dams and how does this pattern relate to stated management goals of restoring critical habitat for native resident freshwater and diadromous fish, (2) what are the structural or management commonalities in dam types that have been removed, and (3) what has been the incremental addition of free-flowing river length? Rather than reflecting an overall management prioritization strategy, results indicate that dam removals are characterized more by opportunistic removals. For example, despite a regional emphasis on diadromous fish protection and restoration, most removals are inland rather than coastal settings. Most of the removed dams were small (~ 45% < 4 m) although ~10% of the removed dams were 6-8 m high. However, despite the predominant removal of small dams, these dams were not restricted to headwater locations; most (38%) occurred in medium-sized watersheds having upstream drainage areas between 100-1,000 km2 with 8% formerly impounding watersheds between 1,000 - 10,000 km2. The combined effect has been significant in opening up >2,300 river kms over the past several decades, with implication for both resident and diadromous fish, and with many removals located in mid-sized rivers that are a key link between upstream and downstream/coastal aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Using conservation value to assess land restoration and management alternatives across a degraded oak savanna landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N.B.

    2008-01-01

    1. Managers considering restoration of landscapes often face a fundamental challenge - what should be the habitat composition of the restored landscape? We present a method for evaluating an important conservation trade-off inherent in making that decision. 2. Oak savannas and grasslands were historically widespread across central North America but are now rare. Today, in north-west Indiana, USA, habitats spanning a range of woody vegetation density, from nearly treeless open habitats to forests, occur across the conserved landscape where savannas probably once dominated. To understand the benefits of different potential landscape compositions, we evaluated how different proportions of five habitats - open, savanna, woodland, scrub and forest - might affect the conservation value of the north-west Indiana landscape for birds. Two variables of potential conservation importance were examined: species diversity, a measure of avian community richness, and conservation index, the percentage of a bird species' global population occurring on a hectare of landscape, summed across all bird species present. Higher values of conservation index were associated with higher local densities of globally more rare and more threatened species. 3. Conservation index and species diversity were correlated negatively across hypothetical landscapes composed of different proportions of the five habitats. Therefore, a management trade-off existed between conservation index and species diversity because landscapes that maximized species diversity differed from landscapes that maximized conservation index. 4. A landscape of 50% open, 22% savanna, 15% scrub and 13% forest was predicted to represent a compromise at which conservation index and species diversity reached the same percentage of their maxima. In contrast, the current landscape is dominated by forest. 5. Synthesis and applications. We quantified the trade-off between two potential aspects of a landscape's conservation value for birds - the landscape's ability to promote avian species diversity and the landscape's use by threatened avian species. This quantification allowed us to evaluate the ability of different landscape compositions to achieve preferable trade-off compromises, such as maximizing diversity for a given level of landscape use by threatened species. Managers can use these trade-off results to determine which landscape compositions are associated with particular conservation and management priorities.

  2. The feasibility of a new intake routine to assess substance use disorders by means of a structured interview.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, B; Jonasson, U; Ekselius, L; von Knorring, L

    1997-01-01

    A structured interview, ADDIS (Alkohol Drog Diagnos InStrument), designed to assess substance use disorders, was included as a part of the intake protocol in a department of orthopedics at a general hospital. To evaluate both the effectiveness and feasibility of the new procedure, the attitudes of 29 staff members were sampled during follow-up interviews. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to 254 patients to examine their opinions about the interview. The staff made a global evaluation of the new routine on a 10-point scale, ranging from completely negative (1) to completely positive (10). The mean rating was 8.2 (range 5-10). The evaluations made by the staff members in the interviews were very positive. Of the 254 patients, 177 (70%) returned the questionnaire. More than 90% of the patients appreciated being asked about their use of analgesics and sedatives, and 77% felt it was positive to be asked about their alcohol use. The result of the patient questionnaire supports the feasibility of the routine, suggesting that a structured interview can be included in the intake protocol in order to improve the assessment of substance use disorders. PMID:9034810

  3. Assessing the economic and environmental feasibility of utility scaled PV electricity production in the state of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ruthie; Critttenden, John

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology, an increasingly popular source for renewable energy, is being deployed in places with solar insolation that is comparable to that in state of Georgia. This study assesses the feasibility and environmental impact of utility scale photovoltaic (PV) electricity production in Georgia by assessing the economic costs, avoided costs, health benefits, and environmental benefits. The cost of PV used in this study is 3.52 $/kW. The RETScreen model was employed to analyze the impact of incentives on the economic viability of the plants that produce 93 GWh, 371 GWh, and 1,484 GWh, respectively. 57% of the capital cost is required in the form of incentives or subsidies to make the projects economically feasible. The high estimated cost of cleaning the equivalent amount of emissions from a coal-fired power plant is $14.5 million, $58 million, and $232 million for a 50 MW, 200 MW, and 800 MW plant, respectively Avoided costs in health damages are estimated to be $28 million, $112 million, and $449 million and the numbers of jobs to be created are 2,500, 10,000, and 40,000 for 50 MW, 200 MW, and 800 MW plants, respectively. And, the cumulative value of renewable energy credits from a 50 MW, 200 MW, and a 800 MW plant are $59 million, $237 million, and $789 million, respectively. PMID:23741866

  4. Inversion of submesoscale patterns from a high-resolution Solomon Sea model: Feasibility assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaultier, Lucile; Djath, Bughsin'; Verron, Jacques; Brankart, Jean-Michel; Brasseur, Pierre; Melet, Angelique

    2014-07-01

    A high-resolution realistic numerical model of the Solomon Sea, which exhibits a high level of variability at mesoscales and submesoscales, is used to explore new avenues for data assimilation. Image data assimilation represents a powerful methodology to integrate information from high-resolution observations such as satellite sea surface temperature or chlorophyll, or high-resolution altimetric sea surface height that will be observed in the forthcoming SWOT mission. The present study investigates the feasibility and accuracy of the inversion of the dynamical submesoscale information contained in high-resolution images of sea surface temperature (SST) or salinity (SSS) to improve the estimation of oceanic surface currents. The inversion method is tested in the context of twin experiments, with SST and SSS data provided by a model of the Solomon Sea. For that purpose, synthetic tracer images are built by binarizing the norm of the gradient of SST, SSS or spiciness. The binarized tracer images are compared to the dynamical image which is derived from the Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents. The adjustment of the dynamical image to the tracer image provides the optimal correction to be applied on the surface velocity field. The method is evaluated by comparing the result of the inversion to the reference model solution. The feasibility of the inversion of various images (SST, SSS, both SST and SSS or spiciness) is explored on two small areas of the Solomon Sea. We show that errors in the surface velocity field can be substantially reduced through the inversion of tracer images.

  5. Assessing the Feasibility of Renewable Energy Development and Energy Efficiency Deployment on Tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Nominelli, Gregg R.

    2012-12-17

    The Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (KBIC) is committed to preserving our natural environment and reducing the amount of fossil fuels consumed while developing "green" business manufacturing jobs on tribal lands. The Tribe's Comprehensive Strategic Plan seeks to diversify the Tribal Economy through the creation of alternative energy businesses, such as wind, solar and bio-mass facilities while protecting the waters of Lake Superior, tribal inland lakes and streams. In addition, the Community desired to utilize clean/green energy resources to promote the self-sufficiency of the Tribal Nation. The objective of the study is to preserve our environment and maintain our cultural goals of using the resources of the land wisely. To reduce our consumption of fossil fuels, mercury and carbon dioxide emissions, which harm our water and land; we have decided to evaluate the opportunities of utilizing wind power. Preliminary projections show that we may eliminate pollution from our land in a cost effective manner. This study will evaluate wind capacity and our current energy consumption while projecting the feasibility of converting to wind power for operations at our major facilities. This project will study the feasibility of wind power at two locations for the purpose of reducing the Tribe's reliance upon fossil fuels and creating business opportunities, jobs and revenue for the community.

  6. U.S. Department of Energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C.; Simek, M.A.; Sutherland, J.; Scofield, P.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments.

  7. 75 FR 22737 - Final Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan for the Bayou Verdine and Calcasieu River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Final Damage Assessment...River AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...Trustees). The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is the lead agency...

  8. 75 FR 29336 - Penobscot River Restoration Trust; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...prepared an Final Environmental Assessment (FEA) for an application filed by the Penobscot...Comprehensive Settlement Agreement. The FEA evaluates the environmental impacts that...the licensee's proposed surrenders. The FEA finds that approval of the application...

  9. Annual report of the Environmental Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for FY 1992. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, R.B.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of the investigations and monitoring, conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented can be used to develop a conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This information forms a basis for prioritizing sites and for selecting, implementing, and evaluating remedial actions. Groundwater, soils, sediments, and surface water monitoring results are described.

  10. Facility assessment summary report for project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, R.W.

    1996-06-13

    The Facility Assessment Summary Report (FSAR) is a key element in the systems engineering document hierarchy, and provides an evaluation overview of the physical conditions and requirements for upgrading facility systems, subsystems, and/or components (SSC). This Project W- 314 FASR was prepared to address the evaluations, inspections, and assessments conducted on the Tank Farm facilities associated with the preliminary Project W-314 scope, and to provide requirements for specifying necessary upgrades.

  11. 78 FR 16655 - Draft Damage Assessment, Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National...Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico, Request for...November 11, 2005, T/B DBL 152 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The...

  12. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and sustainability.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOLS AND DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS FOR ASSESSING WATERSHED SYSTEM ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY (SAC), IN SUPPORT OF RISK-BASED ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT/RESTORATION PRACTICES (TEXOMA PROJECT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project funded through Ecosystem Restoration internal solicitation within NRMRL. This project will focus on Lake Texoma (located on the Oklahoma/Texas border) and the surrounding watershed to develop methods and protocols for assessing SAC, and to evaluate its potential for use ...

  14. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential for TVA's John Sevier and Kingston Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ellen D; Saulsbury, Bo

    2008-03-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the potential for geologic carbon sequestration for the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) John Sevier and Kingston power plants. The purpose of this assessment is to make a 'first cut' determination of whether there is sufficient potential for geologic carbon sequestration within 200 miles of the plants for TVA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to proceed with a joint proposal for a larger project with a strong carbon management element. This assessment does not consider alternative technologies for carbon capture, but assumes the existence of a segregated CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration.

  15. Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites.

  16. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...to directly restore injured natural resources and services to baseline...actions to directly restore the natural resources and services to baseline...

  17. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...to directly restore injured natural resources and services to baseline...actions to directly restore the natural resources and services to baseline...

  18. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...to directly restore injured natural resources and services to baseline...actions to directly restore the natural resources and services to baseline...

  19. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...to directly restore injured natural resources and services to baseline...actions to directly restore the natural resources and services to baseline...

  20. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...to directly restore injured natural resources and services to baseline...actions to directly restore the natural resources and services to baseline...

  1. Assessment of interim flow water-quality data of the San Joaquin River restoration program and implications for fishes, California, 2009-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulff, Marissa L.; Brown, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    After more than 50 years of extensive water diversion for urban and agriculture use, a major settlement was reached among the U.S. Departments of the Interior and Commerce, the Natural Resources Defense Council, and the Friant Water Users Authority in an effort to restore the San Joaquin River. The settlement received Federal court approval in October 2006 and established the San Joaquin River Restoration Program, a multi-agency collaboration between State and Federal agencies to restore and maintain fish populations, including Chinook salmon, in the main stem of the river between Friant Dam and the confluence with the Merced River. This is to be done while avoiding or minimizing adverse water supply effects to all of the Friant Division contractors that could result from restoration flows required by the settlement. The settlement stipulates that water- and sediment-quality data be collected to help assess the restoration goals. This report summarizes and evaluates water-quality data collected in the main stem of the San Joaquin River between Friant Dam and the Merced River by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for the San Joaquin River Restoration Program during 2009-11. This summary and assessment consider sampling frequency for adequate characterization of variability, sampling locations for sufficient characterization of the San Joaquin River Restoration Program restoration reach, sampling methods for appropriate media (water and sediment), and constituent reporting limits. After reviewing the water- and sediment-quality results for the San Joaquin River Restoration Program, several suggestions were made to the Fisheries Management Work Group, a division of the San Joaquin River Restoration Program that focuses solely on the reintroduction strategies and health of salmon and other native fishes in the river. Water-quality results for lead and total organic carbon exceeded the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program Basin Plan Objectives for the San Joaquin Basin, and results for copper exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs' aquatic-life chronic and acute benchmarks for invertebrates. One sediment sample contained detections of pyrethroid pesticides bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and total permethrin at concentrations above published chronic toxicity thresholds.

  2. A decision support system for income-producing real estate development feasibility analysis and alternative assessment 

    E-print Network

    Leelarasamee, Yosaporn

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this study is to design, develop, and evaluate a prototype scenarioassisted decision support system (DSS) for use in venture and alternative assessment during the predevelopment stage of income-producing real estate development...

  3. Assessing the potential to restore historic grazing ecosystems with tortoise ecological replacements.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Christine J; Zuël, Nicolas; Jones, Carl G; Ahamud, Zairabee; Harris, Stephen

    2013-08-01

    The extinction of large herbivores, often keystone species, can dramatically modify plant communities and impose key biotic thresholds that may prevent an ecosystem returning to its previous state and threaten native biodiversity. A potentially innovative, yet controversial, landscape-based long-term restoration approach is to replace missing plant-herbivore interactions with non-native herbivores. Aldabran giant (Aldabrachelys gigantea) and Madagascan radiated (Astrochelys radiata) tortoises, taxonomically and functionally similar to the extinct Mauritian giant tortoises (Cylindraspis spp.), were introduced to Round Island, Mauritius, in 2007 to control the non-native plants that were threatening persistence of native species. We monitored the response of the plant community to tortoise grazing for 11 months in enclosures before the tortoises were released and, compared the cost of using tortoises as weeders with the cost of using manual labor. At the end of this period, plant biomass; vegetation height and cover; and adult, seedling, flower, and seed abundance were 3-136 times greater in adjacent control plots than in the tortoise enclosures. After their release, the free-roaming tortoises grazed on most non-native plants and significantly reduced vegetation cover, height, and seed production, reflecting findings from the enclosure study. The tortoises generally did not eat native species, although they consumed those native species that increased in abundance following the eradication of mammalian herbivores. Our results suggest that introduced non-native tortoises are a more cost-effective approach to control non-native vegetation than manual weeding. Numerous long-term outcomes (e.g., change in species composition and soil seed bank) are possible following tortoise releases. Monitoring and adaptive management are needed to ensure that the replacement herbivores promote the recovery of native plants. PMID:23773124

  4. Environmental assessment of the Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of the Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land controlled by DOE within the boundaries of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. This report provides an environmental assessment of proposed remedial action activities at the solid waste management units at SNL/NM. A risk assessment of health hazards is also discussed.

  5. Cascadia GeoSciences: Community-Based Earth Science Research Focused on Geologic Hazard Assessment and Environmental Restoration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. B.; Patton, J. R.; Leroy, T. H.

    2007-12-01

    Cascadia GeoSciences (CG) is a new non-profit membership governed corporation whose main objectives are to conduct and promote interdisciplinary community based earth science research. The primary focus of CG is on geologic hazard assessment and environmental restoration in the Western U.S. The primary geographic region of interest is Humboldt Bay, NW California, within the southern Cascadia subduction zone (SCSZ). This region is the on-land portion of the accretionary prism to the SCSZ, a unique and exciting setting with numerous hazards in an active, dynamic geologic environment. Humboldt Bay is also a region rich in history. Timber harvesting has been occurring in California's coastal forestlands for approximately 150 years. Timber products transported with ships and railroads from Mendocino and Humboldt Counties helped rebuild San Francisco after the 1906 earthquake. Historic land-use of this type now commonly requires the services of geologists, engineers, and biologists to restore road networks as well as provide safe fish passage. While Humboldt Bay is a focus of some of our individual research goals, we welcome regional scientists to utilize CG to support its mission while achieving their goals. An important function of CG is to provide student opportunities in field research. One of the primary charitable contributions of the organization is a student grant competition. Funds for the student grant will come from member fees and contributions, as well as a percent of all grants awarded to CG. A panel will review and select the student research proposal annually. In addition to supporting student research financially, professional members of CG will donate their time as mentors to the student researchers, promoting a student mentor program. The Humboldt Bay region is well suited to support annual student research. Thorough research like this will help unravel some of the mysteries of regional earthquake-induced land-level changes, as well as possible fault segmentation in the SCSZ. CG will also provide educational materials and resources to the public regarding environmental restoration and earthquake hazards. All research conducted through CG will be published to a publicly accessible digital archive. Education and outreach activities include the student grant program, a digital public archive (maps, reports, geospatial data, guidebooks, MS theses, etc), web-based resources, bi-monthly publications, and annual reports. We invite all types of earth scientists to help support student field research and join us in promoting collaboration, communication, and cooperation with Cascadia GeoSciences.

  6. 77 FR 57074 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ...darrp.noaa.gov/library/12_b.html FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further...darrp.noaa.gov/library/12_b.html. R&M continued its assessment of DARRP's...darrp.noaa.gov/library/12_b.html Cotton reaffirmed that the Direct...

  7. 75 FR 29336 - Penobscot River Restoration Trust; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486,52 FR 47879) the Office of Energy Projects has prepared an Final Environmental Assessment (FEA) for an application filed by... River Basin Comprehensive Settlement Agreement. The FEA evaluates the environmental impacts that...

  8. Using Shoreline Video Assessment for coastal planning and restoration in the context of climate change in Kien Giang, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Russell, Michael; Brown, Sharon; Dart, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Kien Giang, bordering Cambodia in the Mekong River Delta, is one of the two most vulnerable provinces in the region to coastal erosion and flooding. Coastal protection can conflict with current land use and economic development activities. The conditions of the mangrove forest and mainland coastline of the Kien Giang province were assessed using the Shoreline Video Assessment Method (SVAM) backed up with information from satellite images. Half of the 206 km Kien Giang coastline has been eroded or is being eroded. Protective mangrove forests naturally occurred in 74% of the coastline but have been under threat from illegal cutting, erosion and coastal retreat. Accurate information on the state of the coastline and mangrove forest health provided invaluable data for developing a new coastal rehabilitation plan to guard against future sea level rise. In contrast to the current boundary management of land and natural resources, this plan divided the provincial coastline into 19 sections based on the landscape condition and exposure to erosion. Priority strategic actions for erosion management, mangrove restoration and sustainable livelihood development for local communities for each section of coast were developed based on an integrated cross sectoral approach and practical experience in the Conservation and Development of the Kien Giang Biosphere Reserve Project.

  9. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Yakama Indian Nation, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Gregory

    2003-05-01

    This document represents the FY2002 BPA contract Statement of Work for the Yakama Nation (YN) portion of the project entitled 'Assessment of current and potential salmonid production in Rattlesnake Creek associated with restoration efforts'. The purpose of the project is to complete detailed surveys of water quality, fish populations, habitat conditions and riparian health in the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin of the White Salmon River in south central Washington. Results of the surveys will be used to establish Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin baseline environmental factors prior to anticipated removal of Condit Dam in 2006 and enable cost-effective formulation of future watershed restoration strategies.

  10. Implementation of the natural resource damage assessment rule. Workshop summary; interim notification policy: Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    Regulations have been promulgated by the Department of Interior (DOI) which provide an administrative process whereby natural resource trustees may establish the type and extent of injury and evaluate the damages to natural resources. These regulations provide an optional mechanism for Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDAs), with four major components. A workshop was held to develop recommendations for DOE-OR regarding implementation of the DOI NRDA regulations at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The attendants were divided into three working groups to consider (1) administrative/legal requirements, (2) ecological assessments, and (3) the NRDA/economic evaluation process. This report supplies an overview of the DOI NRDA regulations as well as summaries of the consensus of each of the three working groups.

  11. Development of sludge-based adsorbents: preparation, characterization, utilization and its feasibility assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoren; Yang, Xin; Spinosa, Ludovico

    2015-03-15

    The increasing generation of sludge and its subsequent treatment are very sensitive environmental problems. For a more stable and sustainable treatment of sludge, there have been many studies, including the conversion of sludge into sludge-based adsorbents (SBAs) for pollutants removal. In this review, current SBAs preparation conditions and use as adsorbent for contaminant removal in water treatment are summarized and discussed. Carbonization, physical activation and chemical activation are three common preparation methods. The controlling key parameters include pyrolysis temperature, dwell time, heating rate, activator and feedstock type. The efficacy of SBAs in contaminant adsorption depends on their surface area, pore size distribution, surface functional groups and ion-exchange capacity. It has been demonstrated that SBAs can attain high uptakes of dyes and metal ions due to their high cation exchange capacity; whereas the strong antibiotics adsorption performance of SBAs derives from high degree of mesoporosity. In addition, thermal treatment significantly stabilizes heavy metals contained in sludge. The paper also discusses the economic feasibility and environmental safety of preparation and application of SBAs. Further research will include investigations on the migration and transformation of element in sludge by thermal treatment, more economical and efficient chemical activation reagents, obtaining SBAs for designated application, combination of coagulation and SBAs adsorption, regeneration of SBAs and full-scale tests. PMID:25577702

  12. ASSESSING THE FEASIBILITY OF COSMIC-RAY ACCELERATION BY MAGNETIC TURBULENCE AT THE GALACTIC CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    Fatuzzo, M.; Melia, F. E-mail: fmelia@email.arizona.edu

    2012-05-01

    The presence of relativistic particles at the center of our Galaxy is evidenced by the diffuse TeV emission detected from the inner {approx}2 Degree-Sign of the Galaxy. Although it is not yet entirely clear whether the origin of the TeV photons is due to hadronic or leptonic interactions, the tight correlation of the intensity distribution with the distribution of molecular gas along the Galactic ridge strongly points to a pionic-decay process involving relativistic protons. In previous work, we concluded that point-source candidates, such as the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* (identified with the High-Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) source J1745-290) or the pulsar wind nebulae dispersed along the Galactic plane, could not account for the observed diffuse TeV emission from this region. Motivated by this result, we consider here the feasibility that the cosmic rays populating the Galactic center region are accelerated in situ by magnetic turbulence. Our results indicate that even in a highly conductive environment, this mechanism is efficient enough to energize protons within the intercloud medium to the {approx}>TeV energies required to produce the HESS emission.

  13. An Integrated Approach for Platoon-based Simulation and Its Feasibility Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kok Mun; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne

    2015-01-01

    Research on developing mathematical and simulative models to evaluate performance of signalized arterials is still ongoing. In this paper, an integrated model (IM) based on Rakha vehicle dynamics and LWR model is proposed. The IM which imitates actuated performance measurement in signalized arterials is described using continuous timed Petri net with variable speeds (VCPN). This enables systematic discretized description of platoon movement from an upstream signalized intersection towards a downstream signalized intersection. The integration is based on the notion that speed and travel time characteristics in a link can be provided using Rakha model. This will assist the LWR to estimate arrival profiles of vehicles at downstream intersection. One immediate benefit of the model is that platoon arrival profile obtained from the IM can be directly manipulated to estimate queues and delays at the target intersection using input-output analysis without considering the effect of shockwaves. This is less tedious as compared to analysing the LWR model through tracing trajectory of shockwave. Besides, time parameters of a platoon could be estimated for self-scheduling control approach from a cycle to cycle basis. The proposed IM is applied to a test intersection where simulated queues and average delays from the IM are compared with the platoon dispersion model (PDM) implemented in TRANSYT, cell transmission model (CTM) and HCM2000 for both under-saturated and oversaturated situations. The comparisons yielded acceptable and reasonable results, thus ascertained the feasibility and validity of the model. PMID:25785693

  14. An integrated approach for platoon-based simulation and its feasibility assessment.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kok Mun; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne

    2015-01-01

    Research on developing mathematical and simulative models to evaluate performance of signalized arterials is still ongoing. In this paper, an integrated model (IM) based on Rakha vehicle dynamics and LWR model is proposed. The IM which imitates actuated performance measurement in signalized arterials is described using continuous timed Petri net with variable speeds (VCPN). This enables systematic discretized description of platoon movement from an upstream signalized intersection towards a downstream signalized intersection. The integration is based on the notion that speed and travel time characteristics in a link can be provided using Rakha model. This will assist the LWR to estimate arrival profiles of vehicles at downstream intersection. One immediate benefit of the model is that platoon arrival profile obtained from the IM can be directly manipulated to estimate queues and delays at the target intersection using input-output analysis without considering the effect of shockwaves. This is less tedious as compared to analysing the LWR model through tracing trajectory of shockwave. Besides, time parameters of a platoon could be estimated for self-scheduling control approach from a cycle to cycle basis. The proposed IM is applied to a test intersection where simulated queues and average delays from the IM are compared with the platoon dispersion model (PDM) implemented in TRANSYT, cell transmission model (CTM) and HCM2000 for both under-saturated and oversaturated situations. The comparisons yielded acceptable and reasonable results, thus ascertained the feasibility and validity of the model. PMID:25785693

  15. Fuel ethanol and South Carolina: a feasibility assessment. Volume II. Detailed report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The feasibility of producing ethanol from carbohydrates in the State of South Carolina is discussed. It is preliminary in the sense that it provides partial answers to some of the questions that exist concerning ethanol production in the state, and is not intended to be a comprehensive treatment of the subject. A great deal more work needs to be done as ethanol fuels become a more significant element in South Carolina's energy mix. The existing carbohydrate resource base in the state is reviewed, the extent to which this base can be increased is estimated, and importation of out-of-state feedstocks to expand the base further is discussed. A discussion of the economics of ethanol production is provided for farm-scale and commercial-sized plants, as is a general discussion of environmental impacts and state permitting and approval requirements. Several other considerations affecting the small-scale producer are addressed, including the use of agricultural residues and manure-derived methane to fuel the ethanol production process. Research needs are identified, and brief case studies for Williamsburg and Orangeburg counties are provided.

  16. 76 FR 59731 - Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the M/V Cosco Busan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ...Assessment for the M/V Cosco Busan Oil Spill AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...SUMMARY: In accordance with the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA) and...losses resulting from the Cosco Busan oil spill, which occurred in November...

  17. A Multiple Watershed Approach to Assessing the Effects of Habitat Restoration Actions on Anadromous and Resident Fish Populations, Technical Report 2003-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Marmorek, David

    2004-03-01

    Habitat protection and restoration is a cornerstone of current strategies to restore ecosystems, recover endangered fish species, and rebuild fish stocks within the Columbia River Basin. Strategies featuring habitat restoration include the 2000 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS BiOp) developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the 2000 Biological Opinion on Bull Trout developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Sub-Basin Plans developed under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NWPCC). There is however little quantitative information about the effectiveness of different habitat restoration techniques. Such information is crucial for helping scientists and program managers allocate limited funds towards the greatest benefits for fish populations. Therefore, it is critical to systematically test the hypotheses underlying habitat restoration actions for both anadromous and resident fish populations. This pilot project was developed through a proposal to the Innovative Projects fund of the NWPCC (ESSA 2002). It was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) following reviews by the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP 2002), the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA 2002), the NWPCC and BPA. The study was designed to respond directly to the above described needs for information on the effectiveness of habitat restoration actions, including legal measures specified in the 2000 FCRPS BiOp (RPA 183, pg. 9-133, NMFS 2000). Due to the urgency of addressing these measures, the timeline of the project was accelerated from a duration of 18 months to 14 months. The purpose of this pilot project was to explore methods for evaluating past habitat restoration actions and their effects on fish populations. By doing so, the project will provide a foundation of retrospective analyses, on which to build prospective, multi-watershed designs for future habitat restoration actions. Such designs are being developed concurrently with this project by several other groups in the Columbia Basin (RME Workgroup 2003, NMFS 2003, Hillman and Paulsen 2002, Hillman 2003). By addressing questions about habitat restoration and monitoring (in coordination with other related efforts), we hope that this project will catalyze a shift in the Basin's paradigm of habitat restoration, moving from implementation of individual watershed projects towards rigorously designed and monitored, multiwatershed, adaptive management experiments. The project involved three phases of work, which were closely integrated with various related and ongoing efforts in the region: (1) Scoping - We met with a Core Group of habitat experts and managers to scope out a set of testable habitat restoration hypotheses, identify candidate watersheds and recommend participants for a data evaluation workshop. (2) Data Assembly - We contacted over 80 scientists and managers to help evaluate the suitability of each candidate watershed's historical data for assessing the effectiveness of past restoration actions. We eventually settled on the Yakima, Wenatchee, Clearwater, and Salmon subbasins, and began gathering relevant data for these watersheds at a workshop with habitat experts and managers. Data assembly continued for several months after the workshop. (3) Data Analysis and Synthesis - We explored statistical approaches towards retrospectively analyzing the effects of restoration 'treatments' at nested spatial scales across multiple watersheds (Chapters 2-5 of this report). These analyses provided a foundation for identifying existing constraints to testing restoration hypotheses, and opportunities to overcome these constraints through improved experimental designs, monitoring protocols and project selection strategies (Chapters 6 and 7 of this report). Finally, we developed a set of recommendations to improve the design, implementation, and monitoring of prospective habitat restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin (Chapter 8).

  18. Feasibility of an Assessment Tool for Children's Competence to Consent to Predictive Genetic Testing: a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hein, Irma M; Troost, Pieter W; Lindeboom, Robert; Christiaans, Imke; Grisso, Thomas; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge on children's capacities to consent to medical treatment is limited. Also, age limits for asking children's consent vary considerably between countries. Decision-making on predictive genetic testing (PGT) is especially complicated, considering the ongoing ethical debate. In order to examine just age limits for alleged competence to consent in children, we evaluated feasibility of a standardized assessment tool, and investigated cutoff ages for children's competence to consent to PGT. We performed a pilot study, including 17 pediatric outpatients between 6 and 18 years at risk for an autosomal dominantly inherited cardiac disease, eligible for predictive genetic testing. The reference standard for competence was established by experts trained in the relevant criteria for competent decision-making. The MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T) served as index test. Data analysis included raw agreement between competence classifications, difference in mean ages between children judged competent and judged incompetent, and estimation of cutoff ages for judgments of competence. Twelve (71 %) children were considered competent by the reference standard, and 16 (94 %) by the MacCAT-T, with an overall agreement of 76 %. The expert judgments disagreed in most cases, while the MacCAT-T judgments agreed in 65 %. Mean age of children judged incompetent was 9.3 years and of children judged competent 12.1 years (p?=?.035). With 90 % sensitivity, children younger than 10.0 years were judged incompetent, with 90 % specificity children older than 11.8 years were judged competent. Feasibility of the MacCAT-T in children is confirmed. Initial findings on age cutoffs are indicative for children between the age of 12 and 18 to be judged competent for involvement in the informed consent process. Future research on appropriate age-limits for children's alleged competence to consent is needed. PMID:25911621

  19. A feasibility assessment of automated FISH image and signal analysis to assist cervical cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Li, Yuhua; Liu, Hong; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy R.; Zheng, Bin

    2012-02-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology provides a promising molecular imaging tool to detect cervical cancer. Since manual FISH analysis is difficult, time-consuming, and inconsistent, the automated FISH image scanning systems have been developed. Due to limited focal depth of scanned microscopic image, a FISH-probed specimen needs to be scanned in multiple layers that generate huge image data. To improve diagnostic efficiency of using automated FISH image analysis, we developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme. In this experiment, four pap-smear specimen slides were scanned by a dual-detector fluorescence image scanning system that acquired two spectrum images simultaneously, which represent images of interphase cells and FISH-probed chromosome X. During image scanning, once detecting a cell signal, system captured nine image slides by automatically adjusting optical focus. Based on the sharpness index and maximum intensity measurement, cells and FISH signals distributed in 3-D space were projected into a 2-D con-focal image. CAD scheme was applied to each con-focal image to detect analyzable interphase cells using an adaptive multiple-threshold algorithm and detect FISH-probed signals using a top-hat transform. The ratio of abnormal cells was calculated to detect positive cases. In four scanned specimen slides, CAD generated 1676 con-focal images that depicted analyzable cells. FISH-probed signals were independently detected by our CAD algorithm and an observer. The Kappa coefficients for agreement between CAD and observer ranged from 0.69 to 1.0 in detecting/counting FISH signal spots. The study demonstrated the feasibility of applying automated FISH image and signal analysis to assist cyto-geneticists in detecting cervical cancers.

  20. Feasibility study for the assessment of the exposed dose with TENORM added in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Do Hyeon; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Shin, Wook-Geun; Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jae Ryong; Yoon, Seok-Won; Lee, Jiyon; Choi, Won-Chul; Min, Chul Hee

    2015-11-01

    Consumer products including naturally occurring radioactive material have been distributed widely in human life. The potential hazard of the excessively added technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in consumer products should be assessed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the organ equivalent dose and the annual effective dose with the usage of the TENORM added in paints. The activities of gammas emitted from natural radionuclides in the five types of paints were measured with the high-purity germanium detector, and the annual effective dose was assessed with the computational human phantom and the Monte Carlo method. The results show that uranium and thorium series were mainly measured over the five paints. Based on the exposure scenario of the paints in the room, the highest effective dose was evaluated as <1 mSv y(-1) of the public dose limit. PMID:25956783

  1. Preliminary assessment report for Florence Military Reservation, Installation 04080, Florence, Arizona. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Arizona Army National Guard property near Florence, Arizona. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. Florence Military Reservation is a 5,655-acre site located in the southern portion of Arizona, about 65 mi southeast of Phoenix, in the county of Pinal. Florence Military Reservation includes Unit Training Equipment Site (UTES) 1, an artillery firing range, and ammunition storage. The subject of this PA is the UTES. The environmentally significant operations associated with the UTES property are (1) vehicle maintenance and refueling, (2) supply/storage of materials, and (3) the vehicle washrack.

  2. Willingness-to-pay utility assessment: feasibility of use in normative patient decision support systems.

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, C. R.; Garber, A. M.; Bergen, M. R.; Lenert, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    The authors developed an automated patient interviewing tool to elicit individuals' willingness-to-pay (WTP) utilities under conditions of uncertainty and examined the reliability of this method and its potential usefulness in clinical decision support. We tested this method in 52 healthy volunteers using a computer-based interview that trained subjects in standard gamble (SG) and WTP methods, and elicited preferences for moderate Gaucher disease using WTP and SG. We assessed the validity of the WTP method by calculating the cost-effectiveness threshold implied by subjects' WTP and SG utilities; we also assessed subjects' understanding and comfort with using WTP for decision making by a questionnaire. The WTP method had good test-retest reliability (r = 0.796), and produced a cost-effectiveness ratio and ratings for understanding and clarity that support its validity. Moreover, many subjects felt that WTP was a reasonable (83%) method for therapeutic decision making and expressed comfort (62%) in using the method for their own health care decisions. These results suggest that a probabilistic method for WTP utility assessment is potentially useful for acquiring patient preferences for use in normative decision support systems. PMID:9357621

  3. Stream habitat assessment project: Prince William Sound and lower Kenai Peninsula. Restoration project 93051. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sundet, K.; Kuwada, M.N.; Barnhart, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Habitat and Restoration Division, conducted surveys of anadromous fish streams in Prince William Sound and Lower Kenai Peninsula from August 2 to September 23, 1993. These surveys focused on Chenega, Eyak and Tatilek corporation lands and Chugach Alaska Corporation lands in Prince William Sound, and on Port Graham and English Bay corporation lands on the lower Kenai Peninsula in order to document anadromous fish distribution and habitat on private lands throughout the spill area. 180 new anadromous fish streams were documented totalling approximately 57 km (35 miles). Pink and coho salmon were the principal fish species found, followed by chum salmon, sockeye salmon, Dolly Varden, rainbow trout, cutthroat trout, stickleback and sculpin, and in intertidal channels, juvenile founder.

  4. An overview of the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, K.L.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) computer model designed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for use in evaluating the health risks associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. This report has been prepared to provide DOE Oak Ridge Field Office personnel with a simplified explanation of MEPAS and an understanding of how MEPAS is used to quantify potential risks to human health. The scope and limitations of the MEPAS model are presented, and the possible contaminant release media and transport pathways are outlined. The two main types of health indexes generated -- the hazard potential index (HPI) and the maximum individual index are described; and calculations used to obtain these indexes are presented. Guidance on interpretation of the HPI is also included. Finally, the HPI calculations for 3 contaminants in a hypothetical environmental problem are demonstrated.

  5. Preliminary assessment report for Camp Carroll Training Center, Installation 02045, Anchorage, Alaska. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Krokosz, M.; Sefano, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Alaska Army National Guard property known as Camp Carroll Training Center, located on the Fort Richardson Army facility near Anchorage, Alaska. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for the completion of preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing, corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances used, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The primary environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) the Alaska Air National Guard storage area behind Building S57112 (Organizational Maintenance Shop [OMS] 6); (2) the state of Alaska maintenance facility and the soil/tar-type spill north of the state of Alaska maintenance facility; (3) the waste storage area adjacent to OMS 6; (4) the contaminated area from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) and the oil-water separator; and (5) soil staining in the parking area at the Camp Carroll Headquarters Building. Camp Carroll appears to be in excellent condition from an environmental standpoint, and current practices are satisfactory. Argonne recommends that the Alaska Department of Military Affairs consider remediation of soil contamination associated with all storage areas, as well as reviewing the practices of other residents of the facility. Argonne also recommends that the current methods of storing waste material behind Building S57112 (OMS 6) be reviewed for alternatives.

  6. Technical Feasibility Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting on the Golden Gate Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2012-09-01

    Subsequent to preliminary investigations by the Golden Gate Bridge Highway & Transportation District (GGB), in coordination with Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), the GATEWAY Demonstration program was asked to evaluate the technical feasibility of replacing existing roadway lighting on the bridge with products utilizing LED technology. GGB and PG&E also indicated interest in induction (i.e., electrodeless fluorescent) technology, since both light source types feature rated lifetimes significantly exceeding those of the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) and low-pressure sodium (LPS) products. The goal of the study was to identify any solutions which would reduce energy use and maintenance without compromising the quantity or quality of existing illumination. Products used for roadway lighting on the historic bridge must be installed within the existing amber-lensed shoebox-style luminaire housings. It was determined that induction technology does not appear to represent a viable alternative for the roadway luminaires in this application; any energy savings would be attributable to a reduction in light levels. Although no suitable LED retrofit kits were identified for installation within existing luminaire housings, several complete LED luminaires were found to offer energy savings of 6-18%, suggesting custom LED retrofit kits could be developed to match or exceed the performance of the existing shoeboxes. Luminaires utilizing ceramic metal halide (CMH) were also evaluated, and some were found to offer 28% energy savings, but these products might actually increase maintenance due to the shorter rated lamp life. Plasma technology was evaluated, as well, but no suitable products were identified. Analysis provided in this report was completed in May 2012. Although LED technologies are expected to become increasingly viable over time, and product mock-ups may reveal near-term solutions, some options not currently considered by GGB may ultimately merit evaluation. For example, it would be preferable in terms of performance to simply replace existing luminaires (some of which may already be nearing end of life) with fully-integrated LED or CMH luminaires rather than replacing internal components. Among other benefits, this would allow reputable manufacturers to offer standard warranties for their products. Similarly, the amber lenses might be reformulated such that they do not render white light sources in a greenish cast, thereby allowing the use of off-the-shelf LED or CMH products. Last, it should be noted that the existing amber-lensed shoeboxes bear no daytime resemblance to the LPS luminaires originally used to light the roadway.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF NEAR-STREAM GROUND WATER-SURFACE WATER INTERACTION (GSI) OF A DEGRADED STREAM BEFORE RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Fall 2001, EPA undertook an intensive collaborative research effort with the USGS and the Institute of Ecosystem Studies (IES) to evaluate the impact of restoration on water quality at a degraded stream in an urban watershed using a before/after stream restoration study design...

  8. Multistate assessment of wetland restoration on CO2 and N2O emissions and soil bacterial communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last 200 years, wetlands have been converted to other land uses leading to the loss of approximately 53% of wetlands in the continental United States. In the late 1980’s, policies were instated to mitigate further wetland loss through wetland creation and restoration. Restored wetlands prov...

  9. Third annual environmental restoration monitoring and assessment report for FY 1994 of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, R.B.; Watts, J.A.; Guth, M.A.S.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of environmental monitoring, field investigations, and assessments conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report focuses on the watershed scale, providing an ORNL site-wide perspective on types, distribution, and transport of contamination. The results presented are used to enhance the conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This information forms a basis for prioritizing sites and for selecting, implementing, and evaluating remedial actions. This report summarizes the efforts of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 and Site Investigations (SI) Project. WAG 2 is the lower portion of the White Oak Creek system which drains the major contaminated sites at ORNL and discharges to the Clinch River where public access is allowed. The Remedial Investigation Plan (DOE 1992) for WAG 2 includes a long-term multimedia environmental monitoring effort that takes advantage of WAG 2`s role as an integrator and the major conduit of contaminants from the ORNL site. During FY 1992, the remedial investigation activities were integrated with a series of environmental monitoring and SI activities at ORNL that address pathways and processes important for contaminant movement to gain a more integrated perspective of contamination movement at the watershed scale.

  10. River restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen; Angermeier, Paul L.; Bledsoe, Brian; Kondolf, G. Mathias; Macdonnell, Larry; Merritt, David M.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Poff, N. Leroy; Tarboton, David

    2005-10-01

    River restoration is at the forefront of applied hydrologic science. However, many river restoration projects are conducted with minimal scientific context. We propose two themes around which a research agenda to advance the scientific basis for river restoration can be built. First, because natural variability is an inherent feature of all river systems, we hypothesize that restoration of process is more likely to succeed than restoration aimed at a fixed end point. Second, because physical, chemical, and biological processes are interconnected in complex ways across watersheds and across timescales, we hypothesize that restoration projects are more likely to be successful in achieving goals if undertaken in the context of entire watersheds. To achieve restoration objectives, the science of river restoration must include (1) an explicit recognition of the known complexities and uncertainties, (2) continued development of a theoretical framework that enables us to identify generalities among river systems and to ask relevant questions, (3) enhancing the science and use of restoration monitoring by measuring the most effective set of variables at the correct scales of measurement, (4) linking science and implementation, and (5) developing methods of restoration that are effective within existing constraints. Key limitations to river restoration include a lack of scientific knowledge of watershed-scale process dynamics, institutional structures that are poorly suited to large-scale adaptive management, and a lack of political support to reestablish delivery of the ecosystem amenities lost through river degradation. This paper outlines an approach for addressing these shortcomings.

  11. The feasibility of using electronic clinical outcome assessments in people with schizophrenia and their informal caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, Chloe; Rofail, Diana; Gater, Adam; Lalonde, Justine K

    2015-01-01

    Many clinical outcome assessments (COAs) were originally developed for completion via pen and paper. However, in recent years there have been movements toward electronic capture of such data in an effort to reduce missing data, provide time-stamped records, minimize administrative burden, and avoid secondary data entry errors. Although established in many patient populations, the implications of using electronic COAs in schizophrenia are unknown. In accordance with International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) Task Force recommendations, in-depth cognitive debriefing and usability interviews were conducted with people with schizophrenia (n=12), their informal (unpaid) caregivers (n=12), and research support staff (n=6) to assess the suitability of administration of various electronic COA measures using an electronic tablet device. Minimal issues were encountered by participants when completing or administering the COAs in electronic format, with many finding it easier to complete instruments in this mode than by pen and paper. The majority of issues reported were specific to the device functionality rather than the electronic mode of administration. Findings support data collection via electronic tablet in people with schizophrenia and their caregivers. The appropriateness of other forms of electronic data capture (eg, smartphones, interactive voice response systems, etc) is a topic for future investigation. PMID:25870518

  12. Recruiting clinical personnel as research participants: a framework for assessing feasibility.

    PubMed

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Smitham, Kristen Broussard; Knox, Melissa; Johnson, Khai-El; SoRelle, Richard; Haidet, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of research studies test interventions for clinicians in addition to or instead of interventions for patients. Although previous studies have enumerated barriers to patient enrolment in clinical trials, corresponding barriers have not been identified for enrolling clinicians as subjects. We propose a framework of metrics for evidence-based estimation of time and resources required for recruiting clinicians as research participants, and present an example from a federally funded study. Our framework proposes metrics for tracking five steps in the recruitment process: gaining entry into facilities, obtaining accurate eligibility and contact information, reaching busy clinicians, assessing willingness to participate, and scheduling participants for data collection. We analyzed recruitment records from a qualitative study exploring performance feedback at US Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs); five recruiters sought to reach two clinicians at 16 facilities for a one-hour interview. Objective metrics were calculable for all five steps; metric values varied considerably across facilities. Obtaining accurate contact information slowed down recruiting the most. We conclude that successfully recruiting even small numbers of employees requires considerable resourcefulness and more calendar time than anticipated. Our proposed framework provides an empirical basis for estimating research-recruitment timelines, planning subject-recruitment strategies, and assessing the research accessibility of clinical sites. PMID:24153049

  13. Preliminary feasibility assessment for Earth-to-space electromagnetic (Railgun) launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Earhart, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    An Earth to space electromagnetic (railgun) launcher (ESRL) for launching material into space was studied. Potential ESRL applications were identified and initially assessed to formulate preliminary system requirements. The potential applications included nuclear waste disposal in space, Earth orbital applications, deep space probe launchers, atmospheric research, and boost of chemical rockets. The ESRL system concept consisted of two separate railgun launcher tubes (one at 20 deg from the horizontal for Earth orbital missions, the other vertical for solar system escape disposal missions) powered by a common power plant. Each 2040 m launcher tube is surrounded by 10,200 homopolar generator/inductor units to transmit the power to the walls. Projectile masses are 6500 kg for Earth orbital missions and 2055 kg for nuclear waste disposal missions. For the Earth orbital missions, the projectile requires a propulsion system, leaving an estimated payload mass of 650 kg. For the nuclear waste disposal in space mission, the high level waste mass was estimated at 250 kg. This preliminary assessment included technical, environmental, and economic analyses.

  14. 7 CFR 1737.71 - Interest rate to be considered for the purpose of assessing feasibility for loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Treasury rate will be used in all feasibility studies for loans with a final maturity...determine the rate used in feasibility studies for loans with final maturities...determination” means the date of the feasibility study used in support of the...

  15. Assessing habitat exposure to eutrophication in restored wetlands: model-supported ex-ante approach to rewetting drained mires.

    PubMed

    Grygoruk, Mateusz; Ba?kowska, Agnieszka; Jab?o?ska, Ewa; Janauer, Georg A; Kubrak, Janusz; Miros?aw-?wi?tek, Dorota; Kotowski, Wiktor

    2015-04-01

    A multi-model-based study was performed in order to unravel valuable fen meadow habitats' possible exposure to eutrophication, which is expected to occur as a result of the re-saturation of degraded peat soils. The framework was tested in a 3000-ha fen-drain system to be restored in the Middle Biebrza Basin (northeast Poland), where the datasets and related models were used to delineate prospective eutrophication hotspots and nutrient transport. A 1-d hydrodynamic model and a 3-d groundwater flow model were applied to constitute the hydrological response of the fen-drain system to the prospective construction and function of weirs and spillways, which are expected to induce the increase of groundwater levels in degraded fens. A groundwater particle-tracking postprocessor was applied to delineate flow pathways and discharge zones and to determine water residence time in modelled layers. Soil and habitat maps, a high-resolution digital elevation model and historic groundwater level observations were applied to the model performance, calibration and spatial analysis of prospective eutrophication hotspots where increased eutrophication of groundwater can be expected due to the re-saturation of degraded peat soils. The study revealed that the large-scale fen rewetting that occurred as a result of surface water bodies' damming can potentially result in groundwater-driven nutrient dispersion along with an enhanced nutrient transport from a fen to the adjacent water bodies. Spatial analyses showed that, although the rewetting-driven eutrophication of Molinia fen meadows located in the study area is not likely, one can expect increased nutrient discharges to adjacent drains, inducing the contamination of ox-bow lakes located along the rivers. We propose the presented methodology to be applied ex-ante to fen-rewetting projects in strategic environmental assessments of restoration projects in order to manage the potentially negative environmental consequences of fen and river eutrophication with special regard to nutrient hotspots that are likely to occur within the rewetted fens. PMID:25682202

  16. Feasibility of utilizing the patellar ligament angle for assessing cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-ha; Jeong, Soon-wuk

    2014-12-01

    The patellar ligament angle (PLA) was assessed in 105 normal stifle joints of 79 dogs and 33 stifle joints of 26 dogs with a ruptured cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL). The PLA of stifles with complete CrCL rupture was significantly lower than that of normal stifles, particularly at a flexion angle of 60 ˜ 80° in both plain and stress views. If the PLA was < 90.55° on the stress view with a 60 ˜ 80° flexion angle, the dog was diagnosed with a complete rupture of the CrCL with a sensitivity of 83.9% and specificity of 100%. In conclusion, measuring the PLA is a quantitative method for diagnosing complete CrCL rupture in canines. PMID:24962409

  17. Feasibility of utilizing the patellar ligament angle for assessing cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-ha

    2014-01-01

    The patellar ligament angle (PLA) was assessed in 105 normal stifle joints of 79 dogs and 33 stifle joints of 26 dogs with a ruptured cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL). The PLA of stifles with complete CrCL rupture was significantly lower than that of normal stifles, particularly at a flexion angle of 60~80° in both plain and stress views. If the PLA was <90.55° on the stress view with a 60~80° flexion angle, the dog was diagnosed with a complete rupture of the CrCL with a sensitivity of 83.9% and specificity of 100%. In conclusion, measuring the PLA is a quantitative method for diagnosing complete CrCL rupture in canines. PMID:24962409

  18. Feasibility and Validity of Dementia Assessment by Trained Community Health Workers Based on Clinical Dementia Rating

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hae-Ra; Park, So-Youn; Song, Heejung; Kim, Miyong; Kim, Kim B.; Lee, Hochang Ben

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Ethnic minority elders, particularly recent Asian immigrants, have a heightened prevalence of dementia but lack timely diagnosis and treatment. This study was designed to determine the level of agreement between dementia rating by trained community health workers (CHWs) based on the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and the gold standard, physician diagnosis. Design Cross-sectional validation study. Settings Key community gathering places such as ethnic churches, senior centers, low-income elderly apartments, and ethnic groceries in the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area. Participants Ninety community-dwelling Korean American elderly (aged 60 years or older). Measurements The CDR is a standardized clinical dementia staging instrument to assess a patient’s cognitive and functional performance after a semi-structured interview protocol. A total of six CHWs who were trained and certified as CDR raters interviewed and rated study participants. A bilingual geriatric psychiatrist evaluated the participants independently for dementia status. Results 61.1% of the participants were rated as having either mild cognitive impairment (CDR=0.5) or dementia (CDR=1 or higher) by CHWs, as compared to 56.7% diagnosed by the clinician. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated a good predictive capability for CDR rating by trained CHWs (ROC area under the curve=0.86 [95% confidence interval=0.78–0.93], with sensitivity=85.5% and specificity=88.6%) in detecting mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Conclusion The findings provide preliminary evidence that trained CHWs can effectively identify community-dwelling Korean elderly with mild cognitive impairment and dementia for early follow-up assessment and care in the resource scarce community. PMID:23730928

  19. Feasibility Assessment of Micro-Electrode Chip Assay as a Method of Detecting Neurotoxicity in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Defranchi, Enrico; Novellino, Antonio; Whelan, Maurice; Vogel, Sandra; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; van Ravenzwaay, Ben; Landsiedel, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Detection and characterization of chemically induced toxic effects in the nervous system represent a challenge for the hazard assessment of chemicals. In vivo, neurotoxicological assessments exploit the fact that the activity of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system has functional consequences. And so far, no in vitro method for evaluating the neurotoxic hazard has yet been validated and accepted for regulatory purpose. The micro-electrode array (MEA) assay consists of a culture chamber into which an integrated array of micro-electrodes is capable of measuring extracellular electrophysiology (spikes and bursts) from electro-active tissues. A wide variety of electrically excitable biological tissues may be placed onto the chips including primary cultures of nervous system tissue. Recordings from this type of in vitro cultured system are non-invasive, give label free evaluations and provide a higher throughput than conventional electrophysiological techniques. In this paper, 20 substances were tested in a blinded study for their toxicity and dose–response curves were obtained from fetal rat cortical neuronal networks coupled to MEAs. The experimental procedure consisted of evaluating the firing activity (spiking rate) and modification/reduction in response to chemical administration. Native/reference activity, 30?min of activity recording per dilution, plus the recovery points (after 24?h) were recorded. The preliminary data, using a set of chemicals with different mode-of-actions (13 known to be neurotoxic, 2 non-neuroactive and not toxic, and 5 non-neuroactive but toxic) show good predictivity (sensitivity: 0.77; specificity: 0.86; accuracy: 0.85). Thus, the MEA with a neuronal network has the potency to become an effective tool to evaluate the neurotoxicity of substances in vitro. PMID:21577249

  20. Feasibility of Genome-Wide Screening for Biosafety Assessment of Probiotics: A Case Study of Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463.

    PubMed

    Senan, S; Prajapati, J B; Joshi, C G

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have witnessed an explosion in genome sequencing of probiotic strains for accurate identification and characterization. Regulatory bodies are emphasizing on the need for performing phase I safety studies for probiotics. The main hypothesis of this study was to explore the feasibility of using genome databases for safety screening of strains. In this study, we attempted to develop a framework for the safety assessment of a potential probiotic strain, Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 based on genome mining for genes associated with antibiotic resistance, production of harmful metabolites, and virulence. The sequencing of MTCC 5463 was performed using GS-FLX Titanium reagents. Genes coding for antibiotic resistance and virulence were identified using Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database and Virulence Factors Database. Results indicated that MTCC 5463 carried antibiotic resistance genes associated with beta-lactam and fluoroquinolone. There is no threat of transfer of these genes to host gut commensals because the genes are not plasmid encoded. The presence of genes for adhesion, biofilm, surface proteins, and stress-related proteins provides robustness to the strain. The presence of hemolysin gene in the genome revealed a theoretical risk of virulence. The results of in silico analysis complemented the in vitro studies and human clinical trials, confirming the safety of the probiotic strain. We propose that the safety assessment of probiotic strains administered live at high doses using a genome-wide screening could be an effective and time-saving tool for identifying prognostic biomarkers of biosafety. PMID:26223907

  1. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Redfearn, A.; White, R.K.; Shaw, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    This document is intended to supplement exiting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites by providing guidance that is more specific and more tailored to US Department of Energy sites than the guidance available from the EPA. However, it is a conceptual strategy document and does not include specific guidance on data, assumptions, and models. That detailed guidance is under development and will be presented in subsequent documents. Ecological risk assessments are equal to human health risk assessments in regulatory importance and can use many of the same data and some of the same estimation methods. However, they also have peculiar data needs and methods. Ecological risk assessments begin with an initial scoping phase, termed hazard definition, that characterizes the sources, the potentially environment, and the assessment endpoints. In the subsequent measurement and estimation phase, in which data are obtained concerning source of the endpoint biota to the contaminants and the effects of those exposures, and assumptions and models are used to relate the data to the desired exposure and effects parameters. Finally, in an integration phase, termed risk characterization, the various exposure and effects estimates are combined to infer the existence, cause, magnitude, and extent of effects of contaminants on the ecological endpoints. This phase is much more complicated for ecological risk assessments than for human health assessments because more types of data are available. Ecological risk assessments estimate effects using laboratory toxicity test results, like human health assessments, but also use results of ambient toxicity tests and biological surveys.

  2. Feasibility assessment of the interactive use of a Monte Carlo algorithm in treatment planning for intraoperative electron radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Pedro; Udías, José M.; Herranz, Elena; Santos-Miranda, Juan Antonio; Herraiz, Joaquín L.; Valdivieso, Manlio F.; Rodríguez, Raúl; Calama, Juan A.; Pascau, Javier; Calvo, Felipe A.; Illana, Carlos; Ledesma-Carbayo, María J.; Santos, Andrés

    2014-12-01

    This work analysed the feasibility of using a fast, customized Monte Carlo (MC) method to perform accurate computation of dose distributions during pre- and intraplanning of intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) procedures. The MC method that was implemented, which has been integrated into a specific innovative simulation and planning tool, is able to simulate the fate of thousands of particles per second, and it was the aim of this work to determine the level of interactivity that could be achieved. The planning workflow enabled calibration of the imaging and treatment equipment, as well as manipulation of the surgical frame and insertion of the protection shields around the organs at risk and other beam modifiers. In this way, the multidisciplinary team involved in IOERT has all the tools necessary to perform complex MC dosage simulations adapted to their equipment in an efficient and transparent way. To assess the accuracy and reliability of this MC technique, dose distributions for a monoenergetic source were compared with those obtained using a general-purpose software package used widely in medical physics applications. Once accuracy of the underlying simulator was confirmed, a clinical accelerator was modelled and experimental measurements in water were conducted. A comparison was made with the output from the simulator to identify the conditions under which accurate dose estimations could be obtained in less than 3?min, which is the threshold imposed to allow for interactive use of the tool in treatment planning. Finally, a clinically relevant scenario, namely early-stage breast cancer treatment, was simulated with pre- and intraoperative volumes to verify that it was feasible to use the MC tool intraoperatively and to adjust dose delivery based on the simulation output, without compromising accuracy. The workflow provided a satisfactory model of the treatment head and the imaging system, enabling proper configuration of the treatment planning system and providing good accuracy in the dosage simulation.

  3. Integrated Assessment Methodologies For Land Use Changes and Flood Plain Restoration As Alternative Flood Protection Strategies In The River Basins of Rhine and Meuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, Roy; van Ek, Remco; Bouma, Jetske

    Water policy and management decisions become increasingly better informed. Often a large number of studies is carried out before a decision is taken. In the Netherlands, some of these studies, such as environmental impact assessment, are obligatory by law if serious environmental impacts are expected. However, an integrated assessment based on these separate studies is lacking. In this study, an attempt was made to combine and where possible integrate procedures and methods from environmental, social and economic impact assessment. The main objective of the study is to assess, separately and in combination, the ecological, social and economic consequences of land use changes and floodplain restoration as alternative flood protection strategies in the river basins of the rivers Rhine and Meuse in the Netherlands. Based on scenarios of climate change, land subsidence and sea level rise over the next fifty years the associated hy drological changes are translated into the corresponding ecological, economic and social impacts, using a combination of expert judgement and advanced modelling techniques. These impacts are assessed and evaluated with the help of integrated assessment methods such as cost-benefit and multi-criteria analysis in order to support decision-making towards the implementation of new policy regarding flood protection. The outcome of the integrated assessment is related to other water policy objectives, including restoration of the resilience of water systems and nature conservation.

  4. Performance Assessment Uncertainty Analysis for Japan's HLW Program Feasibility Study (H12)

    SciTech Connect

    BABA,T.; ISHIGURO,K.; ISHIHARA,Y.; SAWADA,A.; UMEKI,H.; WAKASUGI,K.; WEBB,ERIK K.

    1999-08-30

    Most HLW programs in the world recognize that any estimate of long-term radiological performance must be couched in terms of the uncertainties derived from natural variation, changes through time and lack of knowledge about the essential processes. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute followed a relatively standard procedure to address two major categories of uncertainty. First, a FEatures, Events and Processes (FEPs) listing, screening and grouping activity was pursued in order to define the range of uncertainty in system processes as well as possible variations in engineering design. A reference and many alternative cases representing various groups of FEPs were defined and individual numerical simulations performed for each to quantify the range of conceptual uncertainty. Second, parameter distributions were developed for the reference case to represent the uncertainty in the strength of these processes, the sequencing of activities and geometric variations. Both point estimates using high and low values for individual parameters as well as a probabilistic analysis were performed to estimate parameter uncertainty. A brief description of the conceptual model uncertainty analysis is presented. This paper focuses on presenting the details of the probabilistic parameter uncertainty assessment.

  5. Feasibility assessment of optical technologies for reliable high capacity feeder links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witternigg, Norbert; Schönhuber, Michael; Leitgeb, Erich; Plank, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Space telecom scenarios like data relay satellite and broadband/broadcast service providers require reliable feeder links with high bandwidth/data rate for the communication between ground station and satellite. Free space optical communication (FSOC) is an attractive alternative to microwave links, improving performance by offering abundant bandwidth at small apertures of the optical terminals. At the same time Near-Earth communication by FSOC avoids interference with other services and is free of regulatory issues. The drawback however is the impairment by the laser propagation through the atmosphere at optical wavelengths. Also to be considered are questions of eye safety for ground personnel and aviation. In this paper we assess the user requirements for typical space telecom scenarios and compare these requirements with solutions using optical data links through the atmosphere. We suggest a site diversity scheme with a number of ground stations and a switching scheme using two optical terminals on-board the satellite. Considering the technology trade-offs between four different optical wavelengths we recommend the future use of 1.5 ?m laser technology and calculate a link budget for an atmospheric condition of light haze on the optical path. By comparing link budgets we show an outlook to the future potential use of 10 ?m laser technology.

  6. Electrochemical Disinfection Feasibility Assessment Materials Evaluation for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Shindo, David; Montgomery, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program recognizes the risk of microbial contamination in their potable and non-potable water sources. The end of the Space Shuttle Program limited the ability to send up shock kits of biocides in the event of an outbreak. Currently, the United States Orbital Segment water system relies primarily on iodine to mitigate contamination concerns, which has been successful in remediating the small cases of contamination documented. However, a secondary method of disinfection is a necessary investment for future space flight. Over the past year, NASA Johnson Space Center has investigated the development of electrochemically generated systems for use on the ISS. These systems include: hydrogen peroxide, ozone, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid. To use these biocides on deployed water systems, NASA must understand of the effect these biocides have on current ISS materials prior to proceeding forward with possible on-orbit applications. This paper will discuss the material testing that was conducted to assess the effects of the biocides on current ISS materials.

  7. Feasibility Assessment of an EVA Glove Sensing Platform to Evaluate Potential Hand Injury Risk Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane M.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). When the gloves are pressurized, they restrict movement and create pressure points during tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally more severe injuries such as onycholysis. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals that 58% of total astronaut hand and arm injuries from NBL training between 1993 and 2010 occurred either to the fingernail, MCP, or fingertip. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of using small sensors to measure force acting on the fingers and hand within pressurized gloves and other variables such as blood perfusion, skin temperature, humidity, fingernail strain, skin moisture, among others. Tasks were performed gloved and ungloved in a pressurizable glove box. The test demonstrated that fingernails saw greater transverse strain levels for tension or compression than for longitudinal strain, even during axial fingertip loading. Blood perfusion peaked and dropped as the finger deformed during finger presses, indicating an initial dispersion and decrease of blood perfusion levels. Force sensitive resistors to force plate comparisons showed similar force curve patterns as fingers were depressed, indicating suitable functionality for future testing. Strategies for proper placement and protection of these sensors for ideal data collection and longevity through the test session were developed and will be implemented going forward for future testing.

  8. Hybrid ICA-Seed-Based Methods for fMRI Functional Connectivity Assessment: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Robert E.; Wang, Zhishun; Alexopoulos, George S.; Gunning, Faith M.; Murphy, Christopher F.; Morimoto, Sarah Shizuko; Kanellopoulos, Dora; Jia, Zhiru; Lim, Kelvin O.; Hoptman, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Brain functional connectivity (FC) is often assessed from fMRI data using seed-based methods, such as those of detecting temporal correlation between a predefined region (seed) and all other regions in the brain; or using multivariate methods, such as independent component analysis (ICA). ICA is a useful data-driven tool, but reproducibility issues complicate group inferences based on FC maps derived with ICA. These reproducibility issues can be circumvented with hybrid methods that use information from ICA-derived spatial maps as seeds to produce seed-based FC maps. We report results from five experiments to demonstrate the potential advantages of hybrid ICA-seed-based FC methods, comparing results from regressing fMRI data against task-related a priori time courses, with “back-reconstruction” from a group ICA, and with five hybrid ICA-seed-based FC methods: ROI-based with (1) single-voxel, (2) few-voxel, and (3) many-voxel seed; and dual-regression-based with (4) single ICA map and (5) multiple ICA map seed. PMID:20689712

  9. Pesticide fate modeling in soils with the crop model STICS: Feasibility for assessment of agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Queyrel, Wilfried; Habets, Florence; Blanchoud, Hélène; Ripoche, Dominique; Launay, Marie

    2016-01-15

    Numerous pesticide fate models are available, but few of them are able to take into account specific agricultural practices, such as catch crop, mixing crops or tillage in their predictions. In order to better integrate crop management and crop growth in the simulation of diffuse agricultural pollutions, and to manage both pesticide and nitrogen pollution, a pesticide fate module was implemented in the crop model STICS. The objectives of the study were: (i) to implement a pesticide fate module in the crop model STICS; (ii) to evaluate the model performance using experimental data from three sites with different pedoclimatic contexts, one in The Netherlands and two in northern France; (iii) to compare the simulations with several pesticide fate models; and (iv) to test the impact of specific agricultural practices on the transfer of the dissolved fraction of pesticides. The evaluations were carried out with three herbicides: bentazone, isoproturon, and atrazine. The strategy applied in this study relies on a noncalibration approach and sensitivity test to assess the operating limits of the model. To this end, the evaluation was performed with default values found in the literature and completed by sensitivity tests. The extended version of the STICS named STICS-Pest, shows similar results with other pesticide fate models widely used in the literature. Moreover, STICS-Pest was able to estimate realistic crop growth and catch crop dynamic, which thus illustrate agricultural practices leading to a reduction of nitrate and a change in pesticide leaching. The dynamic plot-scale model, STICS-Pest is able to simulate nitrogen and pesticide fluxes, when the hydrologic context is in the validity range of the reservoir (or capacity) model. According to these initial results, the model may be a relevant tool for studying the effect of long-term agricultural practices on pesticide residue dynamics in soil and the associated diffuse pollution transfer. PMID:26556743

  10. Influence of gag reflex on removable prosthetic restoration tolerance according to the patient section of the short form of the Gagging Problem Assessment Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Akarslan, Zuhre Zafersoy

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess removable prosthetic restoration tolerance according to the patient section of the short form of the Gagging Problem Assessment Questionnaire (GPA-pa SF) and the influence of gender, education level and prosthesis type and denture-related mucosal irritation on the GPA-pa SF scores before treatment and over a period of two months after prosthesis insertion. MATERIALS AND METHODS 130 participants who required removable prosthesis were surveyed with a standard form that included questions regarding age, gender, education level, dental attendance, and prosthetic restoration type. Participants answered the GPA-pa SF before restoration (T0) and 1 day (T1), 2 days (T2), 15 days (T3), 1 month (T4), and 2 months (T5) after prosthesis insertion. RESULTS Of the 130 participants, 110 participants completed the prosthetic restoration procedure, but only 93 of these were able to use the prosthesis over the two-month period. The mean GPA-pa SF score obtained at T0 was higher than the scores obtained at the other periods in the total of the sample. Significant difference was present between mean scores obtained at T0-T1 and T2-T3 than scores obtained at other periods (P<.05). Female participants and participants with denture-related mucosal irritation had higher GPA-pa SF scores at all time points analysed. Significant difference was present between mean GPA-pa SF scores obtained at T2-T3 than scores obtained at other periods for females and participants with denture-related mucosal irritation (P<.05). Education level and prosthesis type did not significantly influence the GPA-pa SF score at any time point analysed (P>.05). CONCLUSION GPA-pa SF scores were higher before the restoration procedure began, and decreased over time with the use of prosthesis. Gender and denture-related mucosal irritation affected the GPA-pa SF scores. PMID:25551008

  11. Assessing the Acceptability and Feasibility of a School-Located Influenza Vaccination Program with Third-Party Billing in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Julie J.; Humiston, Sharon G.; Long, Christine E.; Kennedy, Allison M.; DiMattia, Kimberly; Kolasa, Maureen S.

    2012-01-01

    This study qualitatively assesses the acceptability and feasibility of a school-located vaccination for influenza (SLIV) project that was conducted in New York State in 2009-2011, from the perspectives of project participants with different roles. Fourteen in-depth semistructured interviews with participating schools' personnel and the mass…

  12. Understanding and assessing the feasibility of ocean iron fertilization to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesseler, K.; Lampitt, R. S.; de Baar, H. J.; Blain, S.; Chai, F.; Coale, K. H.; Dai, M.; Karl, D. M.; Leinen, M.; Lohan, M. C.; Rothstein, L.; Trull, T. W.; Whaley, D.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Zhou, M.

    2011-12-01

    Regardless of the strategy for fossil fuel use, atmospheric CO2 is predicted to increase and then decrease such that after 10,000 years, levels will still be much higher than pre-industrial. The objectives of geoengineering CO2 reduction techniques are to reduce the rate of CO2 increase and the height of the CO2 peak. Because the oceans represent such a large reservoir of carbon, small perturbations of the system could cause large changes to carbon flows. The objective of ocean carbon sequestration would be to encourage the oceans to take up carbon at a faster rate than they currently do but with predictable and acceptable consequences. From iron addition experiments in the laboratory and in the open ocean and from studies where there are natural additions of iron to the ocean several conclusions can be drawn. Relief of iron stress increases the biomass of marine phytoplankton and as a consequence reduces surface water CO2. This leads to increased export of carbon from the upper ocean and probably enhanced sequestration in the deep ocean. However, the experiments were not planned from the perspective of geoengineering and conclusions about the potential of this approach as a means of reducing atmospheric CO2 have large uncertainties. In addition, few experiments have addressed the unintended consequences of deliberate additions. This has been a major focus of recent discussion of a risk assessment framework for experimentation by the London Convention and London Protocol. Given the uncertainties, there is an urgent requirement to carry out more studies on ocean iron fertilization with three clear objectives 1: To develop coupled global scale computation models so that predictions can become more reliable and so that in situ experiments are effective. 2: To carry out experiments on a sufficiently large scale and duration to determine the extent, efficiencies and time scales of carbon sequestration. 3: To explore the consequences of ocean iron fertilization, and not just carbon uptake from the atmosphere and sequestration in the deep ocean. The ISIS consortium (In Situ Iron Studies) of 13 institutions worldwide was formed in 2011 specifically to promote such studies so that informed decisions will be possible in the future. The mission statement is: "To resolve the impact of iron fertilization on marine ecosystems, to quantify its potential for removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and to improve our collective understanding of the changing ocean."

  13. Feasibility Assessment of an ISS Artificial Gravity Conditioning Facility by Means of Multi-Body Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toso, Mario; Baldesi, Gianluigi; Moratto, Claudio; De Wilde, Don; Bureo Dacal, Rafael; Castellsaguer, Joaquim

    2012-07-01

    Even though human exploration of Mars is a distant objective, it is well understood that, for human space voyages of several years duration, crews would be at risk of catastrophic consequences should any of the systems that provide adequate air, water, food, or thermal protection fail. Moreover, crews will face serious health and/or safety risks resulting from severe physiologic deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. The principal ones are related to physical and functional deterioration of the regulation of the blood circulation, decreased aerobic capacity, impaired musculo-skeletal systems, and altered sensory- motor system performance. As the reliance of future space programmes on virtual modelling, simulation and justification has substantially grown together with the proto-flight hardware development approach, a range of simulation capabilities have become increasingly important in the requirements specification, design, verification, testing, launch and operation of new space systems. In this frame, multibody software is a key tool in providing a more coordinated and consistent approach from the preliminary development phases of the most complex systems. From a scientific prospective, an artificial gravity facility, such as the one evaluated in this paper, would be the first in-flight testing of the effectiveness and acceptability of short radius centrifuge as a countermeasure to human deconditioning on orbit. The ISS represents a unique opportunity to perform this research. From an engineering point of view, the preliminary assessment described in this paper, highlights the difficult engineering challenges of such a facility. The outcome proves that a human can be accommodated in the available volume, while respecting the human ergonomic basic requirements and preserving the global structural integrity of the hosting ISS module. In particular, analysis shows that, although the load capacity of the structural interfaces imposes a very low limit on the maximum centre of mass eccentricity of the complete rotating system, the displacements allowed by traditional isolation mountings are incompatible with the available volume in the ISS module. Therefore, in order to manage the eccentricity, alternative counteracting measures shall be foreseen, such as an adjustable balance mass, which is carefully positioned for each astronaut at the beginning of the exercise cycle. However, during operation, the centre of mass is instantaneously disturbed by body fluid migration as well as adjustments of torso, arms and head due to the inevitable physiological degrees of freedom granted to the exercising astronaut. The influence of all the above factors on the transmitted loads is summarised in the paper; in conclusion, an automated system capable of keeping the maximum eccentricity below the allowable boundaries is foreseeable.

  14. Assessment of Chair-side Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Restorations: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Ibraheem, Shukran Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper aimed to evaluate the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and the factors that affect the survival of restorations. Materials and Methods: A thorough literature search using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library and Grey literature were performed from the year 2004 up to June 2014. Only relevant research was considered. Results: The use of chair-side CAD/CAM systems is promising in all dental branches in terms of minimizing time and effort made by dentists, technicians and patients for restoring and maintaining patient oral function and aesthetic, while providing high quality outcome. Conclusion: The way of producing and placing the restorations made with the chair-side CAD/CAM (CEREC and E4D) devices is better than restorations made by conventional laboratory procedures. PMID:25954082

  15. Feasibility Assessment of Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MW) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MW) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  16. Feasibility assessment of the water energy resources of the United States for new low power and small hydro classes of hydroelectric plants: Main report and Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas G.; Reeves, Kelly S.; Brizzee, Julie; Lee, Randy D.; Carroll, Gregory R.; Sommers, Garold L.

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  17. Coronary Artery Anomalies and Variants: Technical Feasibility of Assessment with Coronary MR Angiography at 3 T1

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Ahmed M.; Ho, Vincent B.; Rosing, Douglas R.; Herzka, Daniel A.; Stuber, Matthias; Arai, Andrew E.; Pettigrew, Roderic I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively use a whole-heart three-dimensional (3D) coronary magnetic resonance (MR) angiography technique specifically adapted for use at 3 T and a parallel imaging technique (sensitivity encoding) to evaluate coronary arterial anomalies and variants (CAAV). This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the local institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all participants. Twenty-two participants (11 men, 11 women; age range, 18–62 years) were included. Ten participants were healthy volunteers, whereas 12 participants were patients suspected of having CAAV. Coronary MR angiography was performed with a 3-T MR imager. A 3D free-breathing navigator-gated and vector electrocardiographically–gated segmented k-space gradient-echo sequence with adiabatic T2 preparation pulse and parallel imaging (sensitivity encoding) was used. Whole-heart acquisitions (repetition time msec/echo time msec, 4/1.35; 20° flip angle; 1 × 1 × 2-mm acquired voxel size) lasted 10–12 minutes. Mean examination time was 41 minutes ± 14 (standard deviation). Findings included aneurysms, ectasia, arteriovenous fistulas, and anomalous origins. The 3D whole-heart acquisitions developed for use with 3 T are feasible for use in the assessment of CAAV. © RSNA, 2008 PMID:18372470

  18. [Assessment of Feasibility of Early Ambulation and Food-intake on the Operative Day after Lung Resection].

    PubMed

    Harada, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Handa, Yoshinori; Tsubokawa, Norifumi; Takenaka, Chie; Misumi, Keizo; Kubota, Makiko; Nakao, Junichi; Takahama, Miho; Michihiro, Hiroyuki; Arinaga, Orie

    2015-09-01

    To decrease the risk of morbidity, we have started an early ambulation and food-intake program conducted on the same day as pulmonary resection. This protocol was developed with consideration of the characteristics of lung surgery and conducted through an interdisciplinary team-approach. The assessment of feasibility and clinical effectiveness of this protocol was evaluated in 64 consecutive patients. No apparent adverse effect relating to this protocol was recorded. Fifty-five of 64 patients( 80%) were able to accomplish ambulation to the up-right standing position. Thirty-four of 64 patients( 53%) were able to consume more than half the amount of their hospital supper. No patients, including 5 patients who had had a past-history of postoperative delirium after their previous surgery, developed postoperative delirium after conducting this protocol. This protocol, which consisted of extraordinary early ambulation and food-intake on the operative day, was done safely and is expected to have some benefit as a postoperative management protocol for lung surgery. PMID:26329621

  19. Assessing the Feasibility and Sample Quality of a National Random-digit Dialing Cellular Phone Survey of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gundersen, Daniel A.; ZuWallack, Randal S.; Dayton, James; Echeverría, Sandra E.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of adults aged 18–34 years have only cellular phones, making random-digit dialing of landline telephones an obsolete methodology for surveillance of this population. However, 95% of this group has cellular phones. This article reports on the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey (NYAHS), a pilot study conducted in the 50 US states and Washington, DC, that used random-digit dialing of cellular phones and benchmarked this methodology against that of the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Comparisons of the demographic distributions of subjects in the NYAHS and BRFSS (aged 18–34 years) with US Census data revealed adequate reach for all demographic subgroups. After adjustment for design factors, the mean absolute deviations across demographic groups were 3 percentage points for the NYAHS and 2.8 percentage points for the BRFSS, nationally, and were comparable for each census region. Two-sided z tests comparing cigarette smoking prevalence revealed no significant differences between NYAHS and BRFSS participants overall or by subgroups. The design effects of the sampling weight were 2.09 for the NYAHS and 3.26 for the BRFSS. Response rates for the NYAHS and BRFSS cellular phone sampling frames were comparable. Our assessment of the NYAHS methodology found that random-digit dialing of cellular phones is a feasible methodology for surveillance of young adults. PMID:24100957

  20. 3D Assessment of Mandibular Growth Based on Image Registration: A Feasibility Study in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, I.; Oliveira, M. E.; Duncan, W. J.; Cioffi, I.; Farella, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Our knowledge of mandibular growth mostly derives from cephalometric radiography, which has inherent limitations due to the two-dimensional (2D) nature of measurement. Objective. To assess 3D morphological changes occurring during growth in a rabbit mandible. Methods. Serial cone-beam computerised tomographic (CBCT) images were made of two New Zealand white rabbits, at baseline and eight weeks after surgical implantation of 1?mm diameter metallic spheres as fiducial markers. A third animal acted as an unoperated (no implant) control. CBCT images were segmented and registered in 3D (Implant Superimposition and Procrustes Method), and the remodelling pattern described used color maps. Registration accuracy was quantified by the maximal of the mean minimum distances and by the Hausdorff distance. Results. The mean error for image registration was 0.37?mm and never exceeded 1?mm. The implant-based superimposition showed most remodelling occurred at the mandibular ramus, with bone apposition posteriorly and vertical growth at the condyle. Conclusion. We propose a method to quantitatively describe bone remodelling in three dimensions, based on the use of bone implants as fiducial markers and CBCT as imaging modality. The method is feasible and represents a promising approach for experimental studies by comparing baseline growth patterns and testing the effects of growth-modification treatments. PMID:24527442

  1. Feasibility of the hydrogen sulfide test for the assessment of drinking water quality in post-earthquake Haiti.

    PubMed

    Weppelmann, Thomas A; Alam, Meer T; Widmer, Jocelyn; Morrissey, David; Rashid, Mohammed H; De Rochars, Valery M Beau; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A

    2014-12-01

    In 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti, severely damaging the drinking and wastewater infrastructure and leaving millions homeless. Compounding this problem, the introduction of Vibrio cholerae resulted in a massive cholera outbreak that infected over 700,000 people and threatened the safety of Haiti's drinking water. To mitigate this public health crisis, non-government organizations installed thousands of wells to provide communities with safe drinking water. However, despite increased access, Haiti currently lacks the monitoring capacity to assure the microbial safety of any of its water resources. For these reasons, this study was designed to assess the feasibility of using a simple, low-cost method to detect indicators of fecal contamination of drinking water that could be implemented at the community level. Water samples from 358 sources of drinking water in the Léogâne flood basin were screened with a commercially available hydrogen sulfide test and a standard membrane method for the enumeration of thermotolerant coliforms. When compared with the gold standard method, the hydrogen sulfide test had a sensitivity of 65 % and a specificity of 93 %. While the sensitivity of the assay increased at higher fecal coliform concentrations, it never exceeded 88 %, even with fecal coliform concentrations greater than 100 colony-forming units per 100 ml. While its simplicity makes the hydrogen sulfide test attractive for assessing water quality in low-resource settings, the low sensitivity raises concerns about its use as the sole indicator of the presence or absence of fecal coliforms in individual or community water sources. PMID:25182685

  2. Preservation & Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue on preservation and restoration presents selected resources for elementary and secondary education that include Web sites, CD-ROM and software, videos, books, magazines, and professional resources as well as classroom activities. Age levels are specified for most materials. I Sidebars discuss restoring a masterpiece, a bug's life,…

  3. Assessment of the restoration measures in a man-made reservoir: do oligochaete communities respond to the improvement of water quality?

    PubMed

    Krodkiewska, Mariola; Kostecki, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Studies were carried out in a man-made reservoir that was undergoing restoration using selective hypolimnetic withdrawal (P?awniowice reservoir, Southern Poland). The aim of the research was to assess the changes in the composition of oligochaete fauna in relation to water quality and to estimate whether indices based on oligochaetes may be useful in the assessment of a reservoir's recovery from eutrophication. Samples were collected in the first, fifth, and eighth year of the restoration during the summer stratification at 22 sites along six transects that covered depths from 2 to 15 m. The results of the survey indicated an improvement in some physical and chemical water parameters in respect to those during the period prior to the restoration measures. The present study showed an increase in the oligochaete diversity and a decrease in their abundance accompanied by a shift toward a larger share of taxa that are characteristic of mesotrophic and oligotrophic conditions. This study detected slow changes in the values of the trophic indices based on oligochaetes toward mesotrophic conditions. Discriminant analysis, performed using stepwise forward selection, demonstrated a good separation of samples from 2004 and 2011 according to trophic condition (TC) and biotic quality index (BQI) indices. The present data shows that metrics based on Oligochaeta may be useful for detecting changes in the trophic status. PMID:26311264

  4. The Feasibility of Assessing Alcohol Use among College Students Using Wireless Mobile Devices: Implications for Health Education and Behavioural Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Darren; Cremeens, Jennifer; Usdan, Stuart; Martin, Ryan J.; Arriola, Kimberly J.; Bernhardt, Jay M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the feasibility of using wireless mobile devices (MDs) to collect daily alcohol information among college students, in particular examining feasibility in the context of costs associated with the use of wireless MDs. This study reports on practical aspects of using MDs to collect alcohol data, including compliance,…

  5. Field and laboratory tests for assessing the feasibility on the use of municipal treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, Helena; Lovera, Raúl; Himi, Mahjoub; Sendrós, Alexandre; Marguí, Eva; Tapias, Josefina C.; Queralt, Ignasi; Casas, Albert

    2014-05-01

    he scarcity of water resources in many regions of the planet in the XXIst century is a challenge which concerns the current societies. Water use has been growing during the last decades. Therefore, different strategies of water management in many water-deficient regions are being carried out, especially in densely populated areas, in coastal zones or in regions under arid or semi-arid climate. During the last years, there has been a growing interest in the use of the subsurface for water storage though shallow percolating ponds. Moreover, on a best-practices basis, the use of reclaimed wastewater for different purposes is becoming more usual. The irrigation with municipal treated wastewater (MTWW) is an interesting strategy especially in the agricultural sector, which represents the main water user in contrast with other socioeconomic activities. The study area is located near Castellbisbal, on the lower stretches of the Llobregat River close to the Metropolitan area of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). The site consists on a percolating pond and agricultural fields around. In order to assess the feasibility of using reclaimed wastewater for different uses in this site, several experiments both on field and at the laboratory were carried out. First of all, a detailed non-destructive geophysical survey was conducted using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) technique. Geophysical data were constrained by geological and hydrogeological properties from boreholes and water wells. On the other hand, laboratory experiments were carried out through batch and column assays, focused on the detailed water-mineral particles interrelationships that can occur at the vadose zone. Soil samples from the crop fields around and water samples from the nearest well, as from the municipal wastewater treatment plant were used. Chemical and mineralogical composition of the soils were determined by using non-destructive spectroscopic techniques as x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), respectively. Water chemistry, both input water and leachates obtained after experiments, was assessed by means of multielemental inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. The objective of this experiment was to observe whether differences about soil- water interactions exist by using either groundwater and reclaimed wastewater. To conclude, this study aims to support the development and assessment of using MTWW for different potential uses on this area, as a strategy of water management.

  6. 15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans. (a) General. OPA requires that damages be based upon...

  7. 15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans. (a) General. OPA requires that damages be based upon...

  8. 15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans. (a) General. OPA requires that damages be based upon...

  9. 15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans. (a) General. OPA requires that damages be based upon...

  10. 15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration selection-developing... POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.55 Restoration selection—developing restoration plans. (a) General. OPA requires that damages be based upon...

  11. Comparative assessment of the value of papyrus and cocoyams for the restoration of the Nakivubo wetland in Kampala, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kansiime, F.; Oryem-Origa, H.; Rukwago, S.

    Nakivubo wetland, located on the northern shores of Lake Victoria, separates the city of Kampala from the Inner Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria (the sole raw water supply for Kampala). It provides tertiary treatment for the secondary effluent from the Bugolobi sewage treatment works, and heavily polluted wastewater (run-off, domestic and industrial effluents) from the Nakivubo channel. However, more than half of the wetland has been drained for agriculture and the natural papyrus vegetation ( Cyperus papyrus) has been progressively replaced by cocoyams ( Colocasia esculenta). In order to provide information that could be used in the restoration of Nakivubo wetland, a pilot study was carried out to assess the ecological characteristics (nutrient retention and growth characteristics) of the two plants. The plants were grown in wastewater effluent from the Bugolobi sewage treatment works, in experimental buckets under floating and rooted conditions. The wastewater was replaced every seven days. Papyrus plants were more efficient at removing NH 4-N while growing floating in wastewater or rooted in gravel (maximum values being 89.4% and 79%, respectively) than were cocoyams (67.7% and 68.3%) or the controls without plants (11% and 9%, respectively). The removal of orthophosphate by papyrus was also greater under the two growing conditions (values being 80% and 73%) than by cocoyams (66% and 63%) or the controls (11% and 14%). Biomass densities of papyrus were also higher (16.9 kg Dw/m 2 for the floating plants and 18.7 kg Dw/m 2 for the rooted ones) than of yams (5.9 kg DW/m 2 and 6.8 kg DW/m 2, respectively). It was also observed that the rhizomes of yams did not develop well under the floating conditions and were often rotten. It is concluded that, since papyrus has better wastewater treatment efficiency and superior growth characteristics, it should be encouraged to grow again in the wetland. It was also noted that if encroachment of the wetland by agricultural activities is halted, papyrus would eventually out-compete the yams. Keeping Nakivubo wetland inundated would offer papyrus a competitive advantage, since yams grow poorly when floating in water.

  12. Assessment of the feasibility of using sunlight exposure to obtain the recommended level of vitamin D in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Pavandeep

    2015-01-01

    Background Endogenous vitamin D synthesis can be affected by a number of variables, including skin colour, amount of skin exposed and levels of ultraviolet radiation. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using only sunlight exposure in Canada to meet the daily recommended level of vitamin D, given differences in these variables and adherence to guidelines for sun protection. Methods Ultraviolet index data for 13 Canadian sites were obtained from Environment Canada. The sun exposure times required to synthesize 1000 IU of vitamin D in fair- and dark-skinned people who exposed either 1/4 or 1/8 of their body surface area to the sun were calculated for each hour of the year. These times were then classified according to whether the ultraviolet index was 3 or more (when sun protection is advised) or less than 3. Results During the fall and winter months and in the more northern sites, ultraviolet radiation levels were too low for all skin types to use sun exposure alone to obtain enough vitamin D within one time period. The required exposure time became longer when a smaller surface area was exposed. For people with darker skin, it can be difficult even in the summer to find opportunities outside of when sun protection is advised to use sunlight to obtain the recommended dose of vitamin D. Interpretation Although sun exposure is an important source of vitamin D, Canadians should look to other safe sources to meet the body’s vitamin D requirements throughout the year. PMID:26442223

  13. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RIPARIAN ZONE RESTORATION IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS BY ASSESSING SOIL MICROBIAL POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial biomass, nitrifiers and denitrifiers in surface soil (0?10 cm) were quantified in a riparian zone restoration project at Coweeta, North Carolina, USA. Four treatments are included in this study: (1) a degraded (+N) riparian zone with continued compaction, vegetation rem...

  14. FROM RESTORING FLORIDA'S EVERGLADES TO ASSESSING OUR NATION'S ECOLOGICAL CONDITION: SCIENCE PROVIDES THE BASIS FOR UNDERSTANDING AND POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on first hand experiences, Dr. Fontaine will provide a personal and insightful look at major environmental research and restoration programs he has been involved in. Starting with a visual tour through the Florida Everglades and a discussion of the $12 B science-based rest...

  15. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Effors; US Geological Survey Reports, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie S.

    2006-02-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the third year of at least a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  16. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-12-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  17. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-01-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1914. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for future genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the first year of a three-year study, this report is restricted to describing our work on the first two objectives only.

  18. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Efforts, US Geological Survey Report, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G.

    2006-06-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attended to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first objective was to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort included measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective was to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the fourth year of a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  19. Annual report of the Environmental Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, R.B.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of the investigations and monitoring, conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented can be used to develop a conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This information forms a basis for prioritizing sites and for selecting, implementing, and evaluating remedial actions. Groundwater, soils, sediments, and surface water monitoring results are described.

  20. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05). The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in southern China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China’s afforestation program. PMID:26115116

  1. Assessing shoreline exposure and oyster habitat suitability maximizes potential success for sustainable shoreline protection using restored oyster reefs.

    PubMed

    La Peyre, Megan K; Serra, Kayla; Joyner, T Andrew; Humphries, Austin

    2015-01-01

    Oyster reefs provide valuable ecosystem services that contribute to coastal resilience. Unfortunately, many reefs have been degraded or removed completely, and there are increased efforts to restore oysters in many coastal areas. In particular, much attention has recently been given to the restoration of shellfish reefs along eroding shorelines to reduce erosion. Such fringing reef approaches, however, often lack empirical data to identify locations where reefs are most effective in reducing marsh erosion, or fully take into account habitat suitability. Using monitoring data from 5 separate fringing reef projects across coastal Louisiana, we quantify shoreline exposure (fetch + wind direction + wind speed) and reef impacts on shoreline retreat. Our results indicate that fringing oyster reefs have a higher impact on shoreline retreat at higher exposure shorelines. At higher exposures, fringing reefs reduced marsh edge erosion an average of 1.0 m y(-1). Using these data, we identify ranges of shoreline exposure values where oyster reefs are most effective at reducing marsh edge erosion and apply this knowledge to a case study within one Louisiana estuary. In Breton Sound estuary, we calculate shoreline exposure at 500 random points and then overlay a habitat suitability index for oysters. This method and the resulting visualization show areas most likely to support sustainable oyster populations as well as significantly reduce shoreline erosion. Our results demonstrate how site selection criteria, which include shoreline exposure and habitat suitability, are critical to ensuring greater positive impacts and longevity of oyster reef restoration projects. PMID:26500825

  2. Assessing shoreline exposure and oyster habitat suitability maximizes potential success for sustainable shoreline protection using restored oyster reefs

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Kayla; Joyner, T. Andrew; Humphries, Austin

    2015-01-01

    Oyster reefs provide valuable ecosystem services that contribute to coastal resilience. Unfortunately, many reefs have been degraded or removed completely, and there are increased efforts to restore oysters in many coastal areas. In particular, much attention has recently been given to the restoration of shellfish reefs along eroding shorelines to reduce erosion. Such fringing reef approaches, however, often lack empirical data to identify locations where reefs are most effective in reducing marsh erosion, or fully take into account habitat suitability. Using monitoring data from 5 separate fringing reef projects across coastal Louisiana, we quantify shoreline exposure (fetch + wind direction + wind speed) and reef impacts on shoreline retreat. Our results indicate that fringing oyster reefs have a higher impact on shoreline retreat at higher exposure shorelines. At higher exposures, fringing reefs reduced marsh edge erosion an average of 1.0 m y?1. Using these data, we identify ranges of shoreline exposure values where oyster reefs are most effective at reducing marsh edge erosion and apply this knowledge to a case study within one Louisiana estuary. In Breton Sound estuary, we calculate shoreline exposure at 500 random points and then overlay a habitat suitability index for oysters. This method and the resulting visualization show areas most likely to support sustainable oyster populations as well as significantly reduce shoreline erosion. Our results demonstrate how site selection criteria, which include shoreline exposure and habitat suitability, are critical to ensuring greater positive impacts and longevity of oyster reef restoration projects. PMID:26500825

  3. 15 CFR 990.55 - Restoration selection-developing restoration plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase ...Restoration Plan should address such factors as duration and frequency of monitoring needed to gauge progress and success,...

  4. Assessment of Darkling Beetle Fauna after Implementation of an Environmental Restoration Program in the Southern Iberian Peninsula Affected by the Aznalcóllar Toxic Spill

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Ana M.; Bujalance, José L.; Hidalgo, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    This study is part of the Follow up Restoration Program of animal communities that colonize the Guadiamar River Basin. In 1998, the area was affected by a release of toxic sludge after the retention walls of the Aznalcóllar Mines (southern Iberian Peninsula) broke. The main objective of this study was to assess the current state of the population of Tenebrionidae, one of the most representative groups of edaphic Coleoptera inhabiting the Guadiamar River Basin. This paper analyses the progress made by the darkling beetle community six years after the disaster occurred and the Restoration Program was implemented. The study is based on faunistic data from systematic sampling carried out for six years to monitor plots distributed across the damaged area. To make an overall assessment of the tenebrionid fauna in relation to adjacent areas qualitative and quantitative ecological indices were applied, and temporal follow up and biogeographical comparisons were also made. The results indicate that, on the whole, tenebrionid fauna was somewhat affected by the Aznalcóllar Mine spill, and that a greater loss of fauna was detected closer to the accident site. The analysis of the temporal population dynamic suggests that the most affected zones are undergoing a process of re-colonization. However, this process varies widely by species and has not yet reached the expected levels of a non-affected river basin in the southern Iberian Peninsula. PMID:21864152

  5. Preliminary assessment report for Wayland Army National Guard Armory (former Boston Defense Area Nike Battery 73), Installation 23295, Wayland, Massachusetts. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Haffenden, R.; Flaim, S.; Krokosz, M.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Massachusetts Army National Guard property near Wayland, Massachusetts. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in respond to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining sites activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Wayland Army National Guard Army property, Phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  6. Preliminary assessment report for Grubbs/Kyle Training Center, Smyrna/Rutherford County Regional Airport, Installation 47340, Smyrna, Tennessee. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, C.; Stefano, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Tennessee Army National Guard (TNARNG) property near Smyrna, Tennessee. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Grubbs/Kyle Training Center property, the requirement of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  7. Vegetative ecological characteristics of restored reed (Phragmites australis) wetlands in the Yellow River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuehong; Yu, Junbao; Zhou, Di; Dong, Hongfang; Li, Yunzhao; Lin, Qianxin; Guan, Bo; Wang, Yongli

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we compared ecological characteristics of wetland vegetation in a series of restoration projects that were carried out in the wetlands of Yellow River Delta. The investigated characteristics include plant composition structure, species diversity and community similarity in three kinds of Phragmites australis wetlands, i.e. restored P. australis wetlands (R1, R2, R3 and R4: restored in 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2009, respectively), natural P. australis wetland (N) and degraded P. australis wetland (D) to assess the process of wetlands restoration. The coverage of the R1 was 99%, which was similar to natural wetland. Among all studied wetlands, the highest and lowest stem density was observed in R1 and R2, respectively, Plant height and stem diameter show the same trend as N > R2 > R1 > R3 > D > R4. Species diversity of restored P. australis wetlands became closed to natural wetland. Both species richness and Shannon-Wiener index had similar tendency: increased first and then decreased with restored time. The highest species richness and species diversity were observed in R2, while the lowest values of those parameters were found in natural P. australis wetland. Similarity indexes between restored wetlands and natural wetland increased with the restoration time, but they were still less than 50%. The results indicate that the vegetation of P. australis wetlands has experienced a great improvement after several years' restoration, and it is feasible to restored degraded P. australis wetlands by pouring fresh water into those wetlands in the Yellow River Delta. However, it is notable that costal degraded P. australis wetland in this region may take years to decades to reach the status of natural wetland. PMID:21968874

  8. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfli, Steve

    2004-02-01

    The White Salmon River Watershed Enhancement Project (WSRWEP) began in 1993 through efforts of the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), local stakeholders and various agencies. Early accomplishments of the project included the formation of a multi-stakeholder watershed management committee (WMC) and technical advisory committee (TAC), completion of several baseline assessments, drafting of a watershed management plan, and beginning implementation of the plan. Since inception, the effort has utilized the support of various government/private grants, and local in-kind contributions to accomplish project goals. The WMC and its partners utilize a four-pronged approach for achieving watershed enhancement: on-ground restoration, extension of technical and financial assistance to cooperators, community and environmental education, and assessment/monitoring to develop strategies and track the success of ongoing work. Project activities are generally targeted to sub-basins and stream reaches within the White Salmon watershed that exhibit important water quality and fish/wildlife habitat problems. Such project prioritization is being conducted with the active input of both the White Salmon WMC and TAC. An important current phase of the WSRWEP targets detailed monitoring and assessment of the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin, and is the focus of this report. The 'Assessment of Rattlesnake Creek in Relation to Restoration Efforts' project (BPA Project ID Number 21009) was identified and prioritized for accomplishment by the White Salmon River TAC in January of 2000. Rationale for the project stemmed from the group's realization that Condit Dam on the lower White Salmon is scheduled for removal, or fish passage retrofitting, within the near future. Given this eventuality, the TAC identified the current lack of understanding regarding both potential anadromous habitat and existing native fish and habitat conditions above Condit Dam (RM 3.2) as an important need. In response to the TAC's determination, the US Geological Survey (USGS), Yakama Nation (YN) and UCD began work to develop the current project that is intended to address the above. The overall goal of the Rattlesnake Creek assessment is to document existing riparian habitat and water quality conditions, native fish populations, and future restoration sites before future return of anadromous fish to the basin above RM 3.2. Since the project is jointly enacted by the USGS, YN and UCD, a high degree of shared planning and joint implementation is applied during completion of tasks. In general, the USGS and YN are cooperatively working to monitor and assess fish populations and riparian habitat conditions within the drainage and adjacent sections of the White Salmon. The UCD is generally responsible for assessing water quality, mapping stream channel geomorphology to enable future restoration planning, and measuring the ratios of carbon and nitrogen isotopes at various trophic levels The remainder of this report provides a summary of significant activities achieved by the UCD under BPA Project 21009 during the first project year. The report follows the FY 2001 UCD/BPA contract Statement of Work (SOW) format. Discussion of major problems encountered, changes in the work plan and schedule deviations are noted in italics after the description of accomplishments for each task.

  9. Assessing the feasibility of screening and providing brief advice for alcohol misuse in general dental practice: a clustered randomised control trial protocol for the DART study

    PubMed Central

    Ntouva, Antiopi; Porter, Jessie; Crawford, Mike J; Britton, Annie; Gratus, Christine; Newton, Tim; Tsakos, Georgios; Heilmann, Anja; Pikhart, Hynek; Watt, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol misuse is a significant public health problem with major health, social and economic consequences. Systematic reviews have reported that brief advice interventions delivered in various health service settings can reduce harmful drinking. Although the links between alcohol and oral health are well established and dentists come into contact with large numbers of otherwise healthy patients regularly, no studies have been conducted in the UK to test the feasibility of delivering brief advice about alcohol in general dental settings. Methods and analysis The Dental Alcohol Reduction Trial (DART) aims to assess the feasibility and acceptability of screening for alcohol misuse and delivering brief advice in patients attending National Health Service (NHS) general dental practices in North London. DART is a cluster randomised control feasibility trial and uses a mixed methods approach throughout the development, design, delivery and evaluation of the intervention. It will be conducted in 12 NHS general dental practices across North London and will include dental patients who drink above the recommended guidance, as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) screening tool. The intervention involves 5?min of tailored brief advice delivered by dental practitioners during the patient's appointment. Feasibility and acceptability measures as well as suitability of proposed primary outcomes of alcohol consumption will be assessed. Initial economic evaluation will be undertaken. Recruitment and retention rates as well as acceptability of the study procedures from screening to follow-up will be measured. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the Camden and Islington Research Ethics Committee. Study outputs will be disseminated via scientific publications, newsletters, reports and conference presentations to a range of professional and patient groups and stakeholders. Based on the results of the trial, recommendations will be made on the conduct of a definitive randomised controlled trial. Trial registration number ISRCTN81193263. PMID:26443659

  10. Model-based feasibility assessment and evaluation of prostate hyperthermia with a commercial MR-guided endorectal HIFU ablation array

    SciTech Connect

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A. Hsu, I-C.; Diederich, Chris J.; Prakash, Punit; Rieke, Viola; Ozhinsky, Eugene; Kurhanewicz, John; Plata, Juan

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Feasibility of targeted and volumetric hyperthermia (40–45?°C) delivery to the prostate with a commercial MR-guided endorectal ultrasound phased array system, designed specifically for thermal ablation and approved for ablation trials (ExAblate 2100, Insightec Ltd.), was assessed through computer simulations and tissue-equivalent phantom experiments with the intention of fast clinical translation for targeted hyperthermia in conjunction with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Methods: The simulations included a 3D finite element method based biothermal model, and acoustic field calculations for the ExAblate ERUS phased array (2.3 MHz, 2.3 × 4.0 cm{sup 2}, ?1000 channels) using the rectangular radiator method. Array beamforming strategies were investigated to deliver protracted, continuous-wave hyperthermia to focal prostate cancer targets identified from representative patient cases. Constraints on power densities, sonication durations and switching speeds imposed by ExAblate hardware and software were incorporated in the models. Preliminary experiments included beamformed sonications in tissue mimicking phantoms under MR temperature monitoring at 3 T (GE Discovery MR750W). Results: Acoustic intensities considered during simulation were limited to ensure mild hyperthermia (T{sub max} < 45?°C) and fail-safe operation of the ExAblate array (spatial and time averaged acoustic intensity I{sub SATA} < 3.4 W/cm{sup 2}). Tissue volumes with therapeutic temperature levels (T > 41?°C) were estimated. Numerical simulations indicated that T > 41?°C was calculated in 13–23 cm{sup 3} volumes for sonications with planar or diverging beam patterns at 0.9–1.2 W/cm{sup 2}, in 4.5–5.8 cm{sup 3} volumes for simultaneous multipoint focus beam patterns at ?0.7 W/cm{sup 2}, and in ?6.0 cm{sup 3} for curvilinear (cylindrical) beam patterns at 0.75 W/cm{sup 2}. Focused heating patterns may be practical for treating focal disease in a single posterior quadrant of the prostate and diffused heating patterns may be useful for heating quadrants, hemigland volumes or even bilateral targets. Treatable volumes may be limited by pubic bone heating. Therapeutic temperatures were estimated for a range of physiological parameters, sonication duty cycles and rectal cooling. Hyperthermia specific phasing patterns were implemented on the ExAblate prostate array and continuous-wave sonications (?0.88 W/cm{sup 2}, 15 min) were performed in tissue-mimicking material with real-time MR-based temperature imaging (PRFS imaging at 3.0 T). Shapes of heating patterns observed during experiments were consistent with simulations. Conclusions: The ExAblate 2100, designed specifically for thermal ablation, can be controlled for delivering continuous hyperthermia in prostate while working within operational constraints.

  11. Techno-economic feasibility and life cycle assessment of dairy effluent to renewable diesel via hydrothermal liquefaction.

    PubMed

    Summers, Hailey M; Ledbetter, Rhesa N; McCurdy, Alex T; Morgan, Michael R; Seefeldt, Lance C; Jena, Umakanta; Hoekman, S Kent; Quinn, Jason C

    2015-11-01

    The economic feasibility and environmental impact is investigated for the conversion of agricultural waste, delactosed whey permeate, through yeast fermentation to a renewable diesel via hydrothermal liquefaction. Process feasibility was demonstrated at laboratory-scale with data leveraged to validate systems models used to perform industrial-scale economic and environmental impact analyses. Results show a minimum fuel selling price of $4.78 per gallon of renewable diesel, a net energy ratio of 0.81, and greenhouse gas emissions of 30.0g-CO2-eqMJ(-1). High production costs and greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to operational temperatures and durations of both fermentation and hydrothermal liquefaction. However, high lipid yields of the yeast counter these operational demands, resulting in a favorable net energy ratio. Results are presented on the optimization of the process based on economy of scale and a sensitivity analysis highlights improvements in conversion efficiency, yeast biomass productivity and hydrotreating efficiency can dramatically improve commercial feasibility. PMID:26276094

  12. Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Evaluation of selected feasibility studies of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G. ); Hartz, K.E.; Hilliard, N.D. and Associates, Seattle, WA )

    1990-04-01

    Congress and the public have mandated much closer scrutiny of the management of chemically hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes. Legislative language, regulatory intent, and prudent technical judgment, call for using scientifically based studies to assess current conditions and to evaluate and select costeffective strategies for mitigating unacceptable situations. The NCP requires that a Remedial Investigation (RI) and a Feasibility Study (FS) be conducted at each site targeted for remedial response action. The goal of the RI is to obtain the site data needed so that the potential impacts on public health or welfare or on the environment can be evaluated and so that the remedial alternatives can be identified and selected. The goal of the FS is to identify and evaluate alternative remedial actions (including a no-action alternative) in terms of their cost, effectiveness, and engineering feasibility. The NCP also requires the analysis of impacts on public health and welfare and on the environment; this analysis is the endangerment assessment (EA). In summary, the RI, EA, and FS processes require assessment of the contamination at a site, of the potential impacts in public health or the environment from that contamination, and of alternative RAs that could address potential impacts to the environment. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Positive evolution features in soil restoration assessed by means of glomalin and its relationship to aggregate stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Gispert Negrell, María; Pardini, Giovanni; Solé Benet, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Restoration of limestone quarries in arid environments mainly consists of regenerating a highly degraded soil and/or creating a soil-like substrate with minimal physico-chemical and biological properties. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion, 18 plots 15 x 5 m were prepared to test organic amendments (sludge, compost, control) and different mulches (gravel, chopped forest residue, control). In order to evaluate the soil quality of the different treatments, their chemical, physical and biological properties were analyzed. Among the most efficient biological indicators are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). AMF play an important role in aggregate stability due to the production of a glycoprotein called glomalin. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify, 5 years after the start the experiment, the content of total glomalin (TG) and to analyze its relationship with other soil parameters such as organic matter (OM) and aggregate stability soil (AE). Results indicated a remarkable effect of organic amendments on glomalin content, which was higher in the treatments with compost (6.96 mg g -1) than in sludge and control (0.54 and 0.40 mg g-1, respectively). Amendments also significantly influenced aggregate stability: the highest values were recorded in treatments with sludge and compost (23.14 and 25.09%, respectively) compared to control (13.37%). The gravel mulch had a negative influenced on AE: an average of 16% compared to 23.4% for chopped forest residues and 23.1% of control. Data showed a positive and significant correlation between values of TG and OM content (r = 0.95). We also found a positive and significant correlation between abundance of TG and AE when OM contents were lower than 4% (r = 0.93), however, there was no significant correlation to higher OM when it was higher than 4% (r = 0.34). This suggests that all protein sources which are different to glomalin have not been removed by the extraction process with sodium citrate. Other studies have shown that the ratio between proteins associated to glomalin and AE is curvilinear, meaning that increases in aggregate stability are not detected if the amount of these proteins is very high. In soil restoration, glomalin is an adequate indicator of soil/substrate evolution when organic amendments deliver low to medium OM contents. Nevertheless, further studies are necessary to improve the knowledge about AMF activity on soil aggregate formation and stability.

  14. Restoration Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

  15. A strategic analysis study-based approach to integrated risk assessment: Occupational health risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Mahaffey, J.A.; Doctor, P.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Glantz, C.S.; Daling, P.M.; Sever, L.E.; Vargo, G.J. Jr.; Strachan, D.M. ); Pajunen, A.L.; Hoyt, R.C.; Ludowise, J.D. )

    1993-06-01

    The goal of environmental restoration and waste management activities is to reduce public health risks or to delay risks to the future when new technology will be available for improved cleanup solutions. Actions to remediate the wastes on the Hanford Site will entail risks to workers, the public, and the environment that do not currently exist. In some circumstances, remediation activities will create new exposure pathways that are not present without cleanup activities. In addition, cleanup actions will redistribute existing health risks over time and space, and will likely shift health risks to cleanup workers in the short term. This report describes an approach to occupational risk assessment based on the Hanford Strategic Analysis Study and illustrates the approach by comparing worker risks for two options for remediation of N/K fuels, a subcategory of unprocessed irradiated fuels at Hanford.

  16. Assessment of impacts and evaluation of restoration methods on areas affected by a well blowout, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, California

    SciTech Connect

    Warrick, G.D.; Kato, T.T.; Phillips, M.V.

    1996-12-01

    In June 1994, an oil well on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 blew-out and crude oil was deposited downwind. After the well was capped, information was collected to characterize the release and to assess effects to wildlife and plants. Oil residue was found up to 13.7 km from the well site, but deposition was relatively light and the oil quickly dried to form a thin crust on the soil surface. Elevated levels of hydrocarbons were found in livers collected from Heermann`s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni) from the oiled area but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (known carcinogens or mutagens) were not detected in the livers. Restoration techniques (surface modification and bioremediation) and natural recovery were evaluated within three portions of the oiled area. Herbaceous cover and production, and survival and vigor of desert saltbush (Atriplex polycarpa) were also monitored within each trapping grid.

  17. Feasibility of a large cohort study in sub-Saharan Africa assessed through a four-country study

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Shona; Holmes, Michelle D.; Laurence, Carien; Bajunirwe, Francis; Guwatudde, David; Njelekela, Marina; Adebamowo, Clement; Nankya-Mutyoba, Joan; Chiwanga, Faraja S.; Volmink, Jimmy; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo; Kalyesubula, Robert; Reid, Todd G.; Dockery, Douglas; Hemenway, David; Adami, Hans-Olov

    2015-01-01

    Background Large prospective epidemiologic studies are vital in determining disease etiology and forming national health policy. Yet, such studies do not exist in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) notwithstanding the growing burden of chronic diseases. Objective We explored the feasibility of establishing a large-scale multicountry prospective study at five sites in four sub-Saharan countries. Design Based on country-specific considerations of feasibility, Nigeria enrolled health care professionals, South Africa and Tanzania enrolled teachers, and Uganda enrolled village residents at one rural and one periurban site each. All sites used a 6-month follow-up period but different approaches for data collection, namely standardized questionnaires filled out by participants or face-to-face interviews. Results We enrolled 1415 participants from five sites (range 200–489) with a median age of 41 years. Approximately half had access to clean-burning cooking fuel and 70% to piped drinking water, yet 92% had access to a mobile phone. The prevalence of chronic diseases was 49% among 45- to 54-year-olds and was dominated by hypertension (21.7% overall) – ranging from 4.5 to 31.2% across sites – and a serious injury in the past 12 months (12.4% overall). About 80% of participants indicated willingness to provide blood samples. At 6-month follow-up, 68% completed a questionnaire (45 to 96% across sites) with evidence that mobile phones were particularly useful. Conclusions Our pilot study indicates that a large-scale prospective study in SSA is feasible, and the burden of chronic disease in SSA may already be substantial necessitating urgent etiologic research and primary prevention. PMID:26015082

  18. Monitoring Dietary Intake and Physical Activity Electronically: Feasibility, Usability, and Ecological Validity of a Mobile-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Paulussen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Van Empelen, Pepijn

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the growing body of research on complex lifestyle behaviors (eg, Dietary Intake [DI] and Physical Activity [PA]), monitoring of these behaviors has been hampered by a lack of suitable methods. A possible solution to this deficiency is mobile-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (mEMA), which enables researchers to collect data on participants’ states in real-time by means of a smartphone application. However, feasibility, usability, and ecological validity need to be anticipated and managed in order to enhance the validity of mEMA. Objective To examine the feasibility, usability, and ecological validity of a mEMA application (app) with regard to DI and PA among Dutch vocational education students. Methods The students (n=30) participated in the mEMA study for seven consecutive days. They downloaded the mEMA app on their smartphone. Feasibility and usability of the mEMA app were evaluated by completing an online evaluation after seven days of participation. Ecological validity was measured by assessing the degree to which the content of the mEMA app approximated the real-world setting that was being examined, through several multiple-choice questions. Results Compliance rates, as registered by the mEMA app, declined 46% over a seven-day period, while self-reported compliance, as measured with an online evaluation questionnaire afterwards, indicated a smaller decrease in compliance (29%). The students evaluated the mEMA app as feasible and usable. Ecological validity analyses showed that all DI and almost all PA multiple-choice options were covered with the compound response categories. Conclusions The mEMA app offers the opportunity to assess complex health behaviors (eg, DI and PA) in real-time settings, in which specifically routinized behaviors are involved. However, the mEMA app faced several challenges that needed to be overcome in order to improve its validity. Overall, the present study showed that the mEMA app is a usable and ecologically valid tool to measure DI and PA behaviors among vocational education students, but compliance is still limited. PMID:24067298

  19. A Framework for Statewide Analysis of Site Suitability, Energy Estimation, Life Cycle Costs, Financial Feasibility and Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms: A Case Study of Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Indraneel

    In the last decade, Midwestern states including Indiana have experienced an unprecedented growth in utility scale wind energy farms. For example, by end of 2013, Indiana had 1.5 GW of wind turbines installed, which could provide electrical energy for as many as half-a-million homes. However, there is no statewide systematic framework available for the evaluation of wind farm impacts on endangered species, required necessary setbacks and proximity standards to infrastructure, and life cycle costs. This research is guided to fill that gap and it addresses the following questions. How much land is suitable for wind farm siting in Indiana given the constraints of environmental, ecological, cultural, settlement, physical infrastructure and wind resource parameters? How much wind energy can be obtained? What are the life cycle costs and economic and financial feasibility? Is wind energy production and development in a state an emission free undertaking? The framework developed in the study is applied to a case study of Indiana. A fuzzy logic based AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) spatial site suitability analysis for wind energy is formulated. The magnitude of wind energy that could be sited and installed comprises input for economic and financial feasibility analysis for 20-25 years life cycle of wind turbines in Indiana. Monte Carlo simulation is used to account for uncertainty and nonlinearity in various costs and price parameters. Impacts of incentives and cost variables such as production tax credits, costs of capital, and economies of scale are assessed. Further, an economic input-output (IO) based environmental assessment model is developed for wind energy, where costs from financial feasibility analysis constitute the final demand vectors. This customized model for Indiana is used to assess emissions for criteria air pollutants, hazardous air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) across life cycle events of wind turbines. The findings of the case study include that, Indiana has adequate suitable land area available to locate wind farms with installed capacity between 11 and 51 GW if 100 meters high turbines are used. For a 1.5 MW standard wind turbine, financial feasibility analysis shows that production tax credits and property tax abatements are helpful for financial success in Indiana. Also, the wind energy is not entirely emission free if life cycle events of wind turbine manufacturing, production, installation, construction and decommissioning are considered. The research developed a replicable and integrated framework for statewide life cycle analysis of wind energy production accounting for uncertainty into the analyses. Considering the complexity of life cycle analysis and lack of state specific data on performance of wind turbines and wind farms, this study should be considered an intermediate step.

  20. A feasibility assessment of installation, operation and disposal options for nuclear reactor power system concepts for a NASA growth space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.; Heller, Jack A.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth space station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational disposition, and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of space station - attached concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide the feasibility of each combination.

  1. NOAA COMMUNITY-BASED RESTORATION PROGRAM PORTFOLIO OF SUCCESS Hands on HabitatCELEBRATING 10 YEARS OF COASTAL RESTORATION

    E-print Network

    NOAA COMMUNITY-BASED RESTORATION PROGRAM PORTFOLIO OF SUCCESS Hands on HabitatCELEBRATING 10 YEARS complementary programs: the Coastal Wetland Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act Program; the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program; the Restoration Research Program; and the Community

  2. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Redfearn, A.; White, R.K.; Shaw, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    This document is intended to supplement exiting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites by providing guidance that is more specific and more tailored to US Department of Energy sites than the guidance available from the EPA. However, it is a conceptual strategy document and does not include specific guidance on data, assumptions, and models. That detailed guidance is under development and will be presented in subsequent documents. Ecological risk assessments are equal to human health risk assessments in regulatory importance and can use many of the same data and some of the same estimation methods. However, they also have peculiar data needs and methods. Ecological risk assessments begin with an initial scoping phase, termed hazard definition, that characterizes the sources, the potentially environment, and the assessment endpoints. In the subsequent measurement and estimation phase, in which data are obtained concerning source of the endpoint biota to the contaminants and the effects of those exposures, and assumptions and models are used to relate the data to the desired exposure and effects parameters. Finally, in an integration phase, termed risk characterization, the various exposure and effects estimates are combined to infer the existence, cause, magnitude, and extent of effects of contaminants on the ecological endpoints. This phase is much more complicated for ecological risk assessments than for human health assessments because more types of data are available. Ecological risk assessments estimate effects using laboratory toxicity test results, like human health assessments, but also use results of ambient toxicity tests and biological surveys.

  3. Stream habitat assessment project: Afognak Island. Restoration study number 47. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwada, M.N.; Sundet, K.

    1993-02-01

    The Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Habitat and Restoration Division, conducted surveys of anadromous fish streams on Afognak Island from July 6 to September 1, 1992. These surveys focused on Afognak Native Corporation and Afognak Joint Venture lands in order to document anadromous fish distribution and habitat on private lands throughout the spill area. 167 new anadromous fish streams were documented totalling approximately 56 km (35 miles). Dolly Varden and coho salmon were the principal fish species found, followed by pink salmon, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, rainbow trout, stickleback and sculpin. The study additionally found 34 streams that have a high potential for rehabilitation.

  4. JV Task 109 - Risk Assessment and Feasibility of Remedial Alternatives for Coal Seam at Garrison, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Jarda Solc

    2008-01-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted an evaluation of alternative technologies for remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated coal seam, including impacted soils and groundwater in Garrison, North Dakota. Geotechnical characteristics of the impacted fractured coal seam provide for rapid off-site contaminant transport, with the currently identified impacted zone covering an area of about 40 acres. Regardless of the exposure mechanism (free, dissolved, or vapor phase), results of laboratory tests confirmed secondary release of gasoline-based compounds from contaminated coal to water reaching concentrations documented from the impacted areas. Coal laboratory tests confirmed low risks associated with spontaneous ignition of gasoline-contaminated coal. High contaminant recovery efficiency for the vacuum-enhanced recovery pilot tests conducted at three selected locations confirmed its feasibility for full-scale remediation. A total of 3500 gallons (13.3 m{sup 3}) of contaminated groundwater and over 430,000 ft{sup 3} (12,200 m{sup 3}) of soil vapor were extracted during vacuum-enhanced recovery testing conducted July 17-24, 2007, resulting in the removal of about 1330 lb (603 kg) of hydrocarbons, an equivalent of about 213 gallons of product. The summary of project activities is as follows: (1) Groundwater and vapor monitoring for existing wells, including domestic wells, conducted on a monthly basis from December 12, 2006, to June 6, 2007. This monitoring activity conducted prior to initiation of the EERC field investigation was requested by NDDH in a letter dated December 1, 2006. (2) Drilling of 20 soil borings, including installation of extraction and monitoring wells conducted April 30-May 4 and May 14-18, 2007. (3) Groundwater sampling and water-table monitoring conducted June 11-13, 2007. (4) Evaluation of the feasibility of using a camera survey for delineation of mining voids conducted May 16 and September 10-11, 2007. (5) Survey of all wells at the site. (6) Laboratory testing of the coal samples conducted from August to October 2007. (7) Vacuum-enhanced pilot tests at three locations: Cenex corner, Tesoro corner, and cavity area, conducted July 17-24, 2007. (8) Verification of plume delineation for a full-scale design and installation of six monitoring wells September 10-13, 2007. (9) Groundwater sampling and monitoring conducted September 11-12, September 26, and October 3, 2007. (10) Feasibility evaluation of alternative technologies/strategies for the subject site.

  5. A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from grown and waste organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    An estimate is obtained of the yearly supply of organic material for conversion to fuels, the energy potential is evaluated, and the fermentation and pyrolysis conversion processes are discussed. An investigation is conducted of the estimated cost of fuel from organics and the conclusions of an overall evaluation are presented. It is found that climate, land availability and economics of agricultural production and marketing, food demand, fertilizer shortage, and water availability combine to cast doubts on the feasibility of producing grown organic matter for fuel, in competition with food, feed, or fiber. Less controversial is the utilization of agricultural, industrial, and domestic waste as a conversion feedstock. The evaluation of a demonstration size system is recommended.

  6. Assessment of technological options and economical feasibility for cyanophycin biopolymer and high-value amino acid production

    PubMed Central

    Oosterhuis, Nico; Giuseppin, Marco; Toonen, Marcel; Franssen, Henk; Scott, Elinor; Sanders, Johan; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Major transitions can be expected within the next few decades aiming at the reduction of pollution and global warming and at energy saving measures. For these purposes, new sustainable biorefinery concepts will be needed that will replace the traditional mineral oil-based synthesis of specialty and bulk chemicals. An important group of these chemicals are those that comprise N-functionalities. Many plant components contained in biomass rest or waste stream fractions contain these N-functionalities in proteins and free amino acids that can be used as starting materials for the synthesis of biopolymers and chemicals. This paper describes the economic and technological feasibility for cyanophycin production by fermentation of the potato waste stream Protamylasse™ or directly in plants and its subsequent conversion to a number of N-containing bulk chemicals. PMID:17876577

  7. A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from grown and waste organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The anticipated depletion of our resources of natural gas and petroleum in a few decades has caused a search for renewable sources of fuel. Among the possibilities is the chemical conversion of waste and grown organic matter into gaseous or liquid fuels. The overall feasibility of such a system is considered from the technical, economic, and social viewpoints. Although there are a number of difficult problems to overcome, this preliminary study indicates that this option could provide between 4 and 10 percent of the U.S. energy needs. Estimated costs of fuels derived from grown organic material are appreciably higher than today's market price for fossil fuel. The cost of fuel derived from waste organics is competitive with fossil fuel prices. Economic and social reasons will prohibit the allocation of good food producing land to fuel crop production.

  8. Assessment of Fine Needle Aspiration Feasibility and Specimen Adequacy for Molecular Diagnostics of Benign Vocal Fold Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nicole Y. K.; Dailey, Seth; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The use of molecular testing is becoming more significant for the diagnosis and classification of disease. The application of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy as the means of sampling lesions in union with molecular testing could be a powerful combination in laryngology. The objectives of this study were to investigate 1) if FNA was feasible to sample benign vocal fold lesions; 2) if FNA samples provided sufficient RNA quality for molecular analysis; and 3) if gene expression of FNA samples matched paired surgical excised specimens. Study Design Prospective cross-sectional. Methods Fifteen vocal fold specimens were obtained from adult patients undergoing routine surgical removal for benign vocal fold lesions using FNA and surgical excision. Comparisons were made between FNA and excision biopsies for RNA quality. Correlative analysis was completed for RNA expression of nine genes, including decorin (DCN), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), collagen type VI alpha 3 (COL6A3), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), glutathione S-transferase (GST2), collagen type I alpha 2 (COL1A2), ATP binding cassette (ABC), and procollagen I alpha 1 (COL1A1). Results FNA and excision samples demonstrated similar RNA quality (P > 0.05). Per gene expression, four out of nine genes were moderately correlated between the paired samples (P < 0.05). Conclusions FNA of the vocal fold lamina propria is technically feasible to perform. Further improvement in the FNA technology is desirable to optimize RNA quality for reliable gene expression analysis. PMID:23404571

  9. Use of compost to restore a contaminated site in Southern Italy: preliminary study to assess compost efficiency in remediating a heavily polluted soil in Taranto city.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Valeria; Campanale, Claudia; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Vito Felice, Uricchio; Simona, Regano

    2014-05-01

    Soil pollution is one of the most soil relevant threats recognized in the world. Contamination affects soil quality and soil capacity to react against several land degradation processes (erosion, organic depletion, desertification, etc.). The identification of opportune strategies to hinder pollution is a fundamental requirement to restore soil quality. In particular, large attentions have got the techniques, which promote the decontamination, and at the same time, improve fertility allowing a new use of a soil restored. In this work we present a preliminary study to assess the use of compost (an organic fertilizer produced through a process of transformation and controlled stabilization of selected organic waste at the source) in remediating a heavily polluted soil in southern Italy. The study site is located in Taranto city (Apulia Region) and is contaminated predominantly by heavy metals and lightly by organic toxic compounds such us polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). An exhaustive chemical characterization has been carried out on soil samples and then, a treatment with compost was applied on the study site. Successively, two data acquisition campaigns have been realized (after 4 and 7 months by compost treatment, respectively). Soil chemical analyses of texture, electrical conductivity, pH, organic carbon content, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, carbonate and water content have been carried out to investigate soil properties. In the polluted site chemical analyses of characterization showed low content of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and high level of carbonate. Heavy metals screenings, carried out through ICP-MS equipment, evidenced a massive contamination by Be, Se, Sn, Pb, Cr, Zn, while GC-MS investigations revealed a lower pollution by PCBs. The results of the monitoring campaigns showed a consistent reduction of the heavy metals concentrations: a higher decrease is observed after 7 months by compost treatment. At the same time, a considerable increase of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus is also registered. The overall results suggest that the use of compost contributed to improve soil physico-chemical properties and promote a relevant decrease of pollution suggesting that a process of soil quality restoration is performing.

  10. Cross-cultural challenges for assessing medical professionalism among clerkship physicians in a Middle Eastern country (Bahrain): feasibility and psychometric properties of multisource feedback

    PubMed Central

    Al Ansari, Ahmed; Al Khalifa, Khalid; Al Azzawi, Mohamed; Al Amer, Rashed; Al Sharqi, Dana; Al-Mansoor, Anwar; Munshi, Fadi M

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to design, implement, and evaluate the feasibility and reliability of a multisource feedback (MSF) system to assess interns in their clerkship year in the Middle Eastern culture, the Kingdom of Bahrain. Method The study was undertaken in the Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, a military teaching hospital in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A total of 21 interns (who represent the total population of the interns for the given year) were assessed in this study. All of the interns were rotating through our hospital during their year-long clerkship rotation. The study sample consisted of nine males and 12 females. Each participating intern was evaluated by three groups of raters, eight medical intern colleagues, eight senior medical colleagues, and eight coworkers from different departments. Results A total of 21 interns (nine males and 12 females) were assessed in this study. The total mean response rates were 62.3%. A factor analysis was conducted that found that the data on the questionnaire grouped into three factors that counted for 76.4% of the total variance. These three factors were labeled as professionalism, collaboration, and communication. Reliability analysis indicated that the full instrument scale had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s ? 0.98). The generalizability coefficients for the surveys were estimated to be 0.78. Conclusion Based on our results and analysis, we conclude that the MSF tool we used on the interns rotating in their clerkship year within our Middle Eastern culture provides an effective method of evaluation because it offers a reliable, valid, and feasible process. PMID:26316836

  11. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Implementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Upper East River, Tributary to Green Bay, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  12. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Iimplementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Alger Creek, Tributary to Saginaw River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  13. Brief smoking cessation advice from practice nurses during routine cervical smear tests appointments: a cluster randomised controlled trial assessing feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S; Reid, E; Ukoumunne, O C; Weinman, J; Marteau, T M

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the potential effectiveness, acceptability and feasibility of a brief smoking cessation intervention delivered as part of cervical screening. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted with clinic week as the unit of randomisation, comparing a group (n=121) receiving brief smoking cessation advice supplemented with written information given by practice nurses during cervical smear test appointments, with a group (n=121) not receiving this advice. Outcomes were intention to stop smoking (potential effectiveness); intention to attend for future cervical screening (acceptability); duration of intervention (feasibility). 172/242 (71%) and 153/242 (63%) participants completed 2-week and 10-week follow-ups, respectively. Compared to women in the control group, those in the intervention group had higher intentions to stop smoking at 2-weeks (adjusted mean difference 0.51, 95% CI: ?0.02 to 1.03, P=0.06) and 10-weeks (adjusted mean difference 0.80, 95% CI 0.10 to 1.50, P=0.03). The two groups had similarly high intentions to attend for future screening. Consultations in the intervention arm took a mean of 4.98?min (95% CI: 3.69 to 6.27; P<0.001) longer than the control arm. In conclusion, brief smoking cessation advice given by practice nurses as part of cervical screening seems acceptable, feasible and potentially effective. Evidence is lacking on the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of this intervention in achieving biochemically validated smoking cessation. PMID:17406348

  14. Preliminary assessment report for Bee Caves Armory (former Nike BG-80 Fire Control Facility), Installation 48055, Austin, Texas. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, C.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Texas Army National Guard (ARNG) property in Austin, Texas. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing, preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining, site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Bee Caves Armory property, the requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program. Of concern is the potential for hazardous waste to be present on the property as a result of the former Nike Missile Base operations or in the form of original construction materials. Environmentally sensitive operations associated with the property from that period include (1) underground fuel storage, (2) hazardous materials storage/use, (3) disposal of hazardous waste and (4) release of hazardous waste water.

  15. Basic research for environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. The feasibility of applying immature yard-waste compost to remove nitrate from agricultural drainage effluents: A preliminary assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsui, L.; Krapac, I.G.; Roy, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate is a major agricultural pollutant found in drainage waters. Immature yard-waste compost was selected as a filter media to study its feasibility for removing nitrate from drainage water. Different operation parameters were tested to examine the denitrification efficiency, including the amounts of compost packed in columns, the flow rate, and the compost storage periods. The experimental results suggested that hydraulic retention time was the major factor to determine the extent of nitrate removal, although the amount of compost packed could also contribute to the nitrate removal efficiency. The effluent nitrate concentration increased as the flow rate decreased, and the compost column reduced nitrate concentrations from 20 mg/L to less than 5 mg/L within 1.5 h. The solution pH increased at the onset of experiment because of denitrification, but stabilized at a pH of about 7.8, suggesting that the compost had a buffering capacity to maintain a suitable pH for denitrification. Storing compost under air-dried conditions may diminish the extent nitrate removed initially, but the effects were not apparent after longer applications. It appeared that immature yard-waste compost may be a suitable material to remove nitrate from tile drainage water because of its relatively large organic carbon content, high microbial activity, and buffering capacity. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the Colonie site, Colonie, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This work plan has been prepared to document the scoping and planning process performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support remedial action activities at the Colonie site. The site is located in eastern New York State in the town of Colonie near the city of Albany. Remedial action of the Colonie site is being planned as part of DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The DOE is responsible for controlling the release of all radioactive and chemical contaminants from the site. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) must be prepared to support the decision-making process for evaluating remedial action alternatives. This work plan contains a summary of information known about the site as of January 1988, presents a conceptual site model that identifies potential routes of human exposure to site containments, identifies data gaps, and summarizes the process and proposed studies that will be used to fill the data gaps. In addition, DOE activities must be conducted in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires consideration of the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of its decision-making process. This work also describes the approach that will be used to evaluate potential remedial action alternatives and includes a description of the organization, project controls, and task schedules that will be employed to fulfill the requirements of both CERCLA and NEPA. 48 refs., 18 figs., 25 tabs.

  18. Cultural Tailoring and Feasibility Assessment of a Sexual Health Middle School Curriculum: A Pilot Test in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Shegog, Ross; Moscoso-Alvarez, Margarita R.; Markham, Christine; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Peskin, Melissa; Tortolero, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background: To assess the need for cultural tailoring of an effective sexual health middle school curriculum, "It's Your Game: Keep It Real" (IYG), prior to implementation in Puerto Rican (PR) middle schools. Methods: Seventy-three seventh-grade bilingual students participated in IYG curriculum activities (both group-based and computer-based) in…

  19. Establishing the Feasibility of Direct Observation in the Assessment of Tics in Children with Chronic Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himle, Michael B.; Chang, Susanna; Woods, Douglas W.; Pearlman, Amanda; Buzzella, Brian; Bunaciu, Liviu; Piacentini, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Behavior analysis has been at the forefront in establishing effective treatments for children and adults with chronic tic disorders. As is customary in behavior analysis, the efficacy of these treatments has been established using direct-observation assessment methods. Although behavior-analytic treatments have enjoyed acceptance and integration…

  20. Computer-Based Assessment of Collaborative Problem Solving: Exploring the Feasibility of Human-to-Agent Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Yigal

    2015-01-01

    How can activities in which collaborative skills of an individual are measured be standardized? In order to understand how students perform on collaborative problem solving (CPS) computer-based assessment, it is necessary to examine empirically the multi-faceted performance that may be distributed across collaboration methods. The aim of this…

  1. Using Digital and Paper Diaries for Learning and Assessment Purposes in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Feasibility and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleaves, Alan; Walker, Caroline; Grey, John

    2007-01-01

    The incorporation of diaries and journals as learning and assessment vehicles into programmes of study within higher education has enabled the further growth of reflection, creative writing, critical thinking and meta-cognitive processes of students' learning. However, there is currently little research that aims to compare how different types of…

  2. Standards-Based Assessments in the Classroom: A Feasible Approach to Improving the Quality of Students' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    In the new millennium, the Indian education system has experienced a major shift and the issue of the quality of education has taken centre stage in policy discussion fora. Globally, assessment has become an important means of improving the quality of education, both at the systemic level and at the level of individual students. It necessitates…

  3. Feasibility of simultaneous correction of ametropia by varying gel refractive index with phaco-ersatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Arthur; Erickson, Paul; Manns, Fabrice; Pham, Therese; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    2001-06-01

    Recent developments in surgical procedures for restoring accommodation saw the availability of Phaco-ersatz as a feasible procedure returning near vision to the presbyopies. In Phaco-ersatz, the presbyopic crystalline lens is extracted and replaced by a flexible polymer gel in the intact lens capsule. The ability to simultaneously correct ametropia while restoring accommodation with this procedure is seen to be extremely attractive. One strategy by which this may be achieved within the Phaco-ersatz procedure is by making use of polymer gel of different refractive indices. We assessed the feasibility of simultaneously correcting ametropia while restoring accommodation using phaco-ersatz using this approach. Two model eyes (Gullstrand and Navarro) were used to evaluate this approach. Computation results using paraxial equations and ray tracing indicated that while this approach might be feasible for the hypermetrope, its usefulness for correcting myopia is limited due to significant reductions in the resultant amplitude of accommodation. A number of practical considerations may also influence the applicability of this approach.

  4. Assessment of treatment response by total tumor volume and global apparent diffusion coefficient using diffusion-weighted MRI in patients with metastatic bone disease: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Blackledge, Matthew D; Collins, David J; Tunariu, Nina; Orton, Matthew R; Padhani, Anwar R; Leach, Martin O; Koh, Dow-Mu

    2014-01-01

    We describe our semi-automatic segmentation of whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI (WBDWI) using a Markov random field (MRF) model to derive tumor total diffusion volume (tDV) and associated global apparent diffusion coefficient (gADC); and demonstrate the feasibility of using these indices for assessing tumor burden and response to treatment in patients with bone metastases. WBDWI was performed on eleven patients diagnosed with bone metastases from breast and prostate cancers before and after anti-cancer therapies. Semi-automatic segmentation incorporating a MRF model was performed in all patients below the C4 vertebra by an experienced radiologist with over eight years of clinical experience in body DWI. Changes in tDV and gADC distributions were compared with overall response determined by all imaging, tumor markers and clinical findings at serial follow up. The segmentation technique was possible in all patients although erroneous volumes of interest were generated in one patient because of poor fat suppression in the pelvis, requiring manual correction. Responding patients showed a larger increase in gADC (median change = +0.18, range = -0.07 to +0.78 × 10(-3) mm2/s) after treatment compared to non-responding patients (median change = -0.02, range = -0.10 to +0.05 × 10(-3) mm2/s, p = 0.05, Mann-Whitney test), whereas non-responding patients showed a significantly larger increase in tDV (median change = +26%, range = +3 to +284%) compared to responding patients (median change = -50%, range = -85 to +27%, p = 0.02, Mann-Whitney test). Semi-automatic segmentation of WBDWI is feasible for metastatic bone disease in this pilot cohort of 11 patients, and could be used to quantify tumor total diffusion volume and median global ADC for assessing response to treatment. PMID:24710083

  5. Assessment of Treatment Response by Total Tumor Volume and Global Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Using Diffusion-Weighted MRI in Patients with Metastatic Bone Disease: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Blackledge, Matthew D.; Collins, David J.; Tunariu, Nina; Orton, Matthew R.; Padhani, Anwar R.; Leach, Martin O.; Koh, Dow-Mu

    2014-01-01

    We describe our semi-automatic segmentation of whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI (WBDWI) using a Markov random field (MRF) model to derive tumor total diffusion volume (tDV) and associated global apparent diffusion coefficient (gADC); and demonstrate the feasibility of using these indices for assessing tumor burden and response to treatment in patients with bone metastases. WBDWI was performed on eleven patients diagnosed with bone metastases from breast and prostate cancers before and after anti-cancer therapies. Semi-automatic segmentation incorporating a MRF model was performed in all patients below the C4 vertebra by an experienced radiologist with over eight years of clinical experience in body DWI. Changes in tDV and gADC distributions were compared with overall response determined by all imaging, tumor markers and clinical findings at serial follow up. The segmentation technique was possible in all patients although erroneous volumes of interest were generated in one patient because of poor fat suppression in the pelvis, requiring manual correction. Responding patients showed a larger increase in gADC (median change?=?+0.18, range?=??0.07 to +0.78×10?3 mm2/s) after treatment compared to non-responding patients (median change?=??0.02, range?=??0.10 to +0.05×10?3 mm2/s, p?=?0.05, Mann-Whitney test), whereas non-responding patients showed a significantly larger increase in tDV (median change?=?+26%, range?=?+3 to +284%) compared to responding patients (median change?=??50%, range?=??85 to +27%, p?=?0.02, Mann-Whitney test). Semi-automatic segmentation of WBDWI is feasible for metastatic bone disease in this pilot cohort of 11 patients, and could be used to quantify tumor total diffusion volume and median global ADC for assessing response to treatment. PMID:24710083

  6. Improving Hazardous Waste Remediation and Restoration Decisions Using Ecosystem Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous site management in the US includes remediation of contaminated environmental media and restoration of injured natural resources. Site remediation decisions are informed by ecological risk assessment (ERA), while restoration and compensation decisions are informed by the...

  7. Assessing the Impacts of Land-Use Change and Ecological Restoration on CH4 and CO2 Fluxes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California: Findings from a Regional Network of Eddy Covariance Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, S. H.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Oikawa, P. Y.; Matthes, J. H.; Koteen, L. E.; Anderson, F. E.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    The new generation of open-path, low power, laser spectrometers has allowed us to measure methane (CH4) fluxes continuously in remote regions and answer new and exciting questions on the spatial and temporal variability of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes using networks of eddy covariance (EC) towers. Our research is focused in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta where we have installed a regional network of flux towers to assess the impacts of land-use change and ecological restoration on CH4 and CO2 fluxes. The Delta was drained for agriculture over a century ago and has since has experienced high rates of subsidence. It is recognized that agriculture on drained peat soils in the Delta is unsustainable in the long-term, and to help reverse subsidence and capture carbon (C) there is an interest in restoring drained land-use types to flooded conditions. However, flooding increases CH4 emissions. We conducted multiple years of simultaneous EC measurements at drained agricultural peatlands (a pasture, a corn field and an alfalfa field) and flooded land-use types (a rice paddy and 3 restored wetlands) to assess the impact of drained to flooded land-use change on CO2 and CH4 fluxes. Since these sites are all within 20 km of each other, they share the same basic meteorology, enabling a direct comparison of differences in the C and GHG budgets between sites. Using a multi-tower approach we found that converting drained agricultural peatlands to flooded land-use types can help reverse soil subsidence and reduce GHG emissions from the Delta. Furthermore, there is a growing interest in wetland restoration in California to generate C credits for both the voluntary C market and the state's cap-and-trade program. However, information on GHG fluxes from restored wetlands is lacking. Using multi-year measurements of GHG fluxes from restored wetlands of varying ages, our research also aims to understand how CO2 and CH4 fluxes from restored wetlands vary during ecosystem development, determine the daily and seasonal forcings controlling these fluxes, and assess management strategies that can help minimize CH4 fluxes and maximize C uptake in restored wetlands. Our multi-year multi-site research program is beginning to answer these questions and bridge understanding between biometeorology, biogeochemistry and climate policy.

  8. The exposure assessment in current time study: implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of real-time data collection in a community cohort of illicit drug users.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Gregory D; Linas, Beth S; Westergaard, Ryan P; Piggott, Damani; Bollinger, Robert C; Chang, Larry W; Genz, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objective. We describe the study design and evaluate the implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study of illicit drug users. Design. Four sequential field trials targeting observation of 30 individuals followed for a four week period. Participants. Participants were recruited from an ongoing community-cohort of current or former injection drug users. Of 113 individuals enrolled, 109 completed study procedures during four trials conducted from November 2008 to May 2013. Methods. Hand-held electronic diaries used in the initial trials were transitioned to a smartphone platform for the final trial with identical data collection. Random-prompts delivered five times daily assessed participant location, activity, mood, and social context. Event-contingent data collection involved participant self-reports of illicit drug use and craving. Main Outcome Measures. Feasibility measures included participant retention, days of followup, random-prompt response rates, and device loss rate. Acceptability was evaluated from an end-of-trial questionnaire. Sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and trial characteristics were evaluated as correlates of weekly random-prompt response rates ?80% using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Results. Study participants were a median of 48.5 years old, 90% African American, 52% male, and 59% HIV-infected with limited income and educational attainment. During a median followup of 28 days, 78% of 11,181 random-prompts delivered were answered (mean of 2.8 responses daily), while 2,798 participant-initiated events were reported (30% drug use events; 70% craving events). Self-reported acceptability to study procedures was uniformly favorable. Device loss was rare (only 1 lost device every 190 person-days of observation). Higher educational attainment was consistently associated with a higher response rate to random-prompts, while an association of HIV infection with lower response rates was not observed after accounting for differences in trial recruitment procedures. Conclusion. Near real-time EMA data collection in the field is feasible and acceptable among community-dwelling illicit drug users. These data provide the basis for future studies of EMA-informed interventions to prevent drug relapse and improve HIV treatment outcomes in this population. PMID:24307943

  9. Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility 2, Installation 25075, Westover Air Force Base, Chicopee, Massachusetts. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Haffenden, R.; Flaim, S.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Massachusetts Army National Guard (MAARNG) property known as the Army Aviation Support Facility 2 (AASF 2) near Chicopee, Massachusetts. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The AASF 2 is a 10-acre site located in the western portion of Massachusetts, in the town of Chicopee, in the county of Hampden. The facilities included in this PA are Building 7400, adjacent paved areas, grassy areas, and the hazardous waste drum storage buildings. The environmentally significant operations (ESOS) associated with the property are (1) the waste drum storage area, (2) abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs), and (3) refueling activities.

  10. Estuary Restoration Act Estuary Habitat Restoration Council

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    juvenile rearing habitat Project, CA in the Salt River delta by setting back levees, filling drainage dams to enhance tidal and Restoration, WA fluvial hydrology to 22.5 acres of salt marsh, returning stream restoration activities. Recommend NOOA fund. 11. Scaling-Up Native Oyster Will restore 4 acres

  11. Estuary Restoration Act Estuary Habitat Restoration Council

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    densiflora) ("Spartina") as part of a regional eradication program. 3. Eelgrass Restoration in Puget Sound estuary restoration efforts and to contribute to the Puget Sound Partnership's Action Agenda recovery goal, 2013 1. Grassy Flats Estuarine Habitat Restoration Project, FL This project will cap anoxic, fine

  12. Clinical Feasibility of Noninvasive Visualization of Lymphatic Flow using Principles of Spin Labeling MRI: Implications for Lymphedema Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Rane, Swati; Donahue, Paula M. C.; Towse, Ted; Ridner, Sheila; Chappell, Michael; Jordi, John; Gore, John; Donahue, Manus J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To extend a commonly employed, noninvasive arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI method for measuring blood flow to evaluate lymphatic flow. Materials and Methods All volunteers (n=12) provided informed consent in accordance with IRB and HIPAA regulations. Quantitative relaxation time (T1 and T2) measurements were made in extracted human lymphatic fluid at 3.0T. Guided by these parameters, an ASL MRI approach was adapted to measure lymphatic flow (flow-alternating-inversion-recovery lymphatic water labeling; 3×3×5 mm3) in healthy subjects (n=6; 30±1 yrs; recruitment duration=2 months). Lymphatic flow velocity was quantified by performing spin labeling measurements as a function of post-labeling delay time and measuring the time-to-peak of signal in axillary lymph nodes. Clinical feasibility was evaluated in Stage II lymphedema patients (n=3; 60yr/F, 43yr/F, 64yr/F) and control subjects with unilateral cuff-induced lymphatic stenosis (n=3; 31yr/M, 31yr/M, 35yr/F). Results T1 and T2 of lymphatic fluid at 3.0T were 3100±160 ms (range=2930-3210 ms; median=3200 ms) and 610±12 ms (range=598-618 ms; median=610 ms), respectively. Healthy lymphatic flow (afferent vessel to axillary node) velocity was found to be 0.61±0.13 cm/min (n=6). A reduction (P<0.005) in lymphatic flow velocity in the affected arms of patients and the affected arms of healthy subjects with manipulated cuff-induced flow reduction was observed. The ratio of unaffected to affected axilla lymphatic velocity (1.24±0.18) was significantly (P<0.005) higher than the Left/Right ratio in healthy subjects (0.91±0.18). Conclusion This work provides a foundation for clinical investigations whereby lymphedema etiogenesis and therapies may be interrogated without exogenous agents and with clinically available imaging equipment. PMID:23864103

  13. Assessing the Feasibility of Using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) for Assaying Plutonium in Spent Fuel Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; J. W. Sterbentz

    2012-07-01

    Neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA) is an active-interrogation nondestructive assay (NDA) technique capable of assaying spent nuclear fuel to determine plutonium content. Prior experimental work has definitively shown the technique capable of assaying plutonium isotope composition in spent-fuel pins to a precision of approximately 3%, with a spatial resolution of a few millimeters. As a Grand Challenge to investigate NDA options for assaying spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) in the commercial fuel cycle, Idaho National Laboratory has explored the feasibility of using NRTA to assay plutonium in a whole SFA. The goal is to achieve a Pu assay precision of 1%. The NRTA technique uses low-energy neutrons from 0.1-40 eV, at the bottom end of the actinide-resonance range, in a time-of-flight arrangement. Isotopic composition is determined by relating absorption of the incident neutrons to the macroscopic cross-section of the actinides of interest in the material, and then using this information to determine the areal density of the isotopes in the SFA. The neutrons used for NRTA are produced using a pulsed, accelerator-based neutron source. Distinguishable resonances exist for both the plutonium (239,240,241,242Pu) and uranium (235,236,238U) isotopes of interest in spent fuel. Additionally, in this energy range resonances exists for six important fission products (99Tc, 103Rh, 131Xe, 133Cs, 145Nd, and 152Sm) which provide additional information to support spent fuel plutonium assay determinations. Based on extensive modeling of the problem using Monte Carlo-based simulation codes, our preliminary results suggest that by rotating an SFA to acquire four symmetric views, sufficient neutron transmission can be achieved to assay a SFA. In this approach multiple scan information for the same pins may also be unfolded to potentially allow the determination of plutonium for sub-regions of the assembly. For a 17 ? 17 pressurized water reactor SFA, a simplistic preliminary analysis indicates the mass of 239Pu may be determined with a precision on the order of 5%, without the need for operator-supplied fuel information or operational histories. This paper will present our work to date on this topic, indicate our preliminary findings for a conceptual assay approach, discuss resilience against spoofing, and outline our future plans for evaluating the NRTA technique for SFA plutonium determination.

  14. Feasibility of the music therapy assessment tool for awareness in disorders of consciousness (MATADOC) for use with pediatric populations

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Wendy L.; Ghetti, Claire M.; Moyer, Alvin

    2015-01-01

    Measuring responsiveness to gain accurate diagnosis in populations with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is of central concern because these patients have such complex clinical presentations. Due to the uncertainty of accuracy for both behavioral and neurophysiological measures in DOC, combined assessment approaches are recommended. A number of standardized behavioral measures can be used with adults with DOC with minor to moderate reservations relating to the measures’ psychometric properties and clinical applicability. However, no measures have been standardized for use with pediatric DOC populations. When adapting adult measures for children, confounding factors include developmental considerations for language-based items included in all DOC measures. Given the lack of pediatric DOC measures, there is a pressing need for measures that are sensitive to the complex clinical presentations typical of DOC and that can accommodate the developmental levels of pediatric populations. The music therapy assessment tool for awareness in disorders of consciousness (MATADOC) is a music-based measure that has been standardized for adults with DOC. Given its emphasis on non-language based sensory stimuli, it is well-suited to pediatric populations spanning developmental stages. In a pre-pilot exploratory study, we examined the clinical utility of this measure and explored trends for test-retest and inter-rater agreement as well as its performance against external reference standards. In several cases, MATADOC items in the visual and auditory domains produced outcomes suggestive of higher level functioning when compared to outcomes provided by other DOC measures. Preliminary findings suggest that the MATADOC provides a useful protocol and measure for behavioral assessment and clinical treatment planning with pediatric DOC. Further research with a larger sample is warranted to test a version of the MATADOC that is refined to meet developmental needs of pediatric DOC populations. PMID:26074850

  15. Final environmental assessment and Finding-of-No-Significant-Impact - drum storage facility for interim storage of materials generated by environmental restoration operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0995, for the construction and operation of a drum storage facility at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for construction of the facility was generated in response to current and anticipated future needs for interim storage of waste materials generated by environmental restoration operations. A public meeting was held on July 20, 1994, at which the scope and analyses of the EA were presented. The scope of the EA included evaluation of alternative methods of storage, including no action. A comment period from July 5, 1994 through August 4, 1994, was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to submit written comment on the EA. No written comments were received regarding this proposed action, therefore no comment response is included in the Final EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  16. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-23

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Project. The project proposes to continue to carry out harvest monitoring and stock status updates coordinated with fisheries management planning, annual young-of-the year recruitment indexing, research, experimental artificial propagation, and transport of white sturgeon to less densely populated areas of the river(s). Additionally, release of hatchery-reared juveniles is proposed to evaluate release strategies. Actions will take place in the following Columbia River mainstem reaches: Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Reservoirs; Hanford Reach, as well as the Wanapum and Rock Island Reservoirs; and the following Snake River mainstem reaches: Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental and Little Goose Reservoirs. Spawning and rearing are undertaken at established hatcheries at McNary Dam and also the Abernathy Fish Technology Center. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1367, April 2003) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  17. Feasibility study on the solidification of liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Trussell, S.; Spence, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to help determine the feasibility of solidifying a liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this report is to facilitate a decision on the disposition of these wastes by identifying any waste constituents that might (1) compromise the strength or stability of the waste form or (2) be highly leachable. Furthermore, its goal is to identify ways to circumvent interferences and to decrease the leachability of the waste constituents. This study has sought to provide an understanding of inhibition of cement set by identifying the fundamental chemical mechanisms by which this inhibition takes place. From this fundamental information, it is possible to draw some conclusions about the potential effects of waste constituents, even in the absence of particular studies on specific compounds.

  18. Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, J.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was initially chartered on October 1, 1989, as a ``entral Environmental Restoration Division`` to manage the investigation and remediation of inactive sites and facilities that have been declared surplus and have no further programmatic use. The Energy Systems ER Division was established to support the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) consolidated ER Program. The DOE-OR Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management provides program and budget direction to the Energy Systems ER Program for environmental restoration activities at the sites operated by Energy Systems (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant) and at the off-site locations. The Energy Systems ER Division is specifically charged with assessing these sites for potential contamination and managing the cleanup processes. The Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division was chartered on October 1, 1989, as a central organization to manage the Remedial Action (RA) Program. The purpose of this document is to ensure that: senior ER management provides planning, organization, direction, control, and support to achieve the organization`s objectives; the line organization achieves quality; and overall performance is reviewed and evaluated using a rigorous assessment process.

  19. 7-Years of Using Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) to assess river restoration efforts : synergies of high-resolution observation and modeling on the Middle Fork of the John Day River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A.; Diabat, M.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature is a key factor for salmonid health and is an important restoration metric on the Middle Fork of the John Day River, northeast Oregon. The longest undammed tributary to the Columbia, the headwaters of the Middle Fork are crucial to steelhead and spring Chinook and summer Chinook juvenile rearing. In the past century the river has been altered by dredge mining, overgrazing, logging activities, and irrigation resulting in bank erosion, low effective shade, and channelization. These factors decreased fish habitat and led to increased stream temperature maxima. Restoration has focused on restoring fish habitat, creating thermal refugia, and planting native vegetation. The most recent completed restoration project diverted the flow into the historic, meandering stream channel from the dredged, straightened channel. Over the past seven years, Oregon State University researchers (Tara O'Donnell-2012, Julie Huff-2009) have been involved in a planned-to-be 10-year stream temperature monitoring study to assess maximum temperatures during low-flow summer months. The use of fiber optics through distributed temperature sensing (DTS) made it possible to record high resolution temperature data at both temporal and spatial scales; data which is used to assess the efficacy of restoration efforts on the reach. Furthermore, DTS provided temperature data that reveals subtle hydrologic processes such as groundwater or hyporheic inflows and quantifies their effect on the stream. Current research has focused on large scale DTS installations on the Middle Fork of the John Day River on the Oxbow, Forrest, and the upstream Galena ("RPB") conservation properties. In the summers of 2013 and 2014, 16 km of river were monitored. Our study compares temperatures before and after the restoration project and provides essential guidance for future restoration projects. Direct comparisons coupled with a deterministic modeling using HeatSource assist in better understanding the responsiveness of the stream to restoration. Results showed that reconstructing the stream channel influenced stream temperature as a function of modifying channel geometry, hydraulics, and riparian conditions. Special attention in this work is focused on the role of tributary fans in the creation of distributed cold-water emergences.

  20. Feasibility of using postal questionnaires to examine carer satisfaction with palliative care: a methodological assessment. South Tyneside MAAG Palliative Care Study Group.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, A; Lecouturier, J; Bradshaw, C; Lovel, T; Eccles, M

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports on the methodological findings from a project which examined the feasibility of using a postal questionnaire to assess lay carer satisfaction with palliative care. The focus of this paper is the process of questionnaire development and its psychometric evaluation. The questionnaire was derived from an interview schedule used in previous national surveys of care for the dying, and was refined through qualitative work with recently bereaved lay carers. It was then tested in a postal survey of 355 lay carers identified from death registration certificates. Overall response rates were low, but significantly enhanced by the use of a single reminder sent 3 weeks after the initial mailshot. The analysis indicated that in the majority of cases the person targeted to receive the questionnaire was the most appropriate informant. Psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire against five criteria was encouraging, with low item nonresponse and ineligible response, and some evidence of discriminatory power, reliability, and face and content validity. Postal approaches appear to represent an acceptable means of assessing user satisfaction with palliative care, compared with more resource-intensive methods. PMID:10659098

  1. Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, J.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was initially chartered on October 1, 1989, as a entral Environmental Restoration Division'' to manage the investigation and remediation of inactive sites and facilities that have been declared surplus and have no further programmatic use. The Energy Systems ER Division was established to support the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) consolidated ER Program. The DOE-OR Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management provides program and budget direction to the Energy Systems ER Program for environmental restoration activities at the sites operated by Energy Systems (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant) and at the off-site locations. The Energy Systems ER Division is specifically charged with assessing these sites for potential contamination and managing the cleanup processes. The Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division was chartered on October 1, 1989, as a central organization to manage the Remedial Action (RA) Program. The purpose of this document is to ensure that: senior ER management provides planning, organization, direction, control, and support to achieve the organization's objectives; the line organization achieves quality; and overall performance is reviewed and evaluated using a rigorous assessment process.

  2. Estuary Habitat Restoration INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    1 Estuary Habitat Restoration STRATEGY 2012 INTRODUCTION The Estuary Restoration Act of 2000 (ERA agencies to maximize benefits derived from estuary habitat restoration projects and address the pressures facing our nation's estuaries. The ERA established an inter-agency Estuary Habitat Restoration Council

  3. Theoretical assessment of feasibility to sequence DNA through interlayer electronic tunneling transport at aligned nanopores in bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Prasongkit, Jariyanee; Feliciano, Gustavo T; Rocha, Alexandre R; He, Yuhui; Osotchan, Tanakorn; Ahuja, Rajeev; Scheicher, Ralph H

    2015-01-01

    Fast, cost effective, single-shot DNA sequencing could be the prelude of a new era in genetics. As DNA encodes the information for the production of proteins in all known living beings on Earth, determining the nucleobase sequences is the first and necessary step in that direction. Graphene-based nanopore devices hold great promise for next-generation DNA sequencing. In this work, we develop a novel approach for sequencing DNA using bilayer graphene to read the interlayer conductance through the layers in the presence of target nucleobases. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of DNA translocation through the pore were performed to trace the nucleobase trajectories and evaluate the interaction between the nucleobases and the nanopore. This interaction stabilizes the bases in different orientations, resulting in smaller fluctuations of the nucleobases inside the pore. We assessed the performance of a bilayer graphene nanopore setup for the purpose of DNA sequencing by employing density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method to investigate the interlayer conductance of nucleobases coupling simultaneously to the top and bottom graphene layers. The obtained conductance is significantly affected by the presence of DNA in the bilayer graphene nanopore, allowing us to analyze DNA sequences. PMID:26634811

  4. Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs: Cost Assessment of Manufacturing/Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metschan, S.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) program was to demonstrate, for an integrally stiffened structural concept, performance and weight equal to "built-up" structure with lower manufacturing cost. This report presents results of the cost assessment for several design configuration/manufacturing method combinations. The attributes of various cost analysis models were evaluated and COSTRAN selected for this study. A process/design cost evaluation matrix was developed based on material, forming, machining, and assembly of structural sub-elements and assembled structure. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current built-up technology baseline. This would correspond to a total cost reduction of $1.7 million per ship set for a 777-sized airplane. However, there are important outstanding issues with regard to the cost of capacity of high technology machinery, and the ability to cost-effectively provide surface finish acceptable to the commercial aircraft industry. The projected high raw material cost of large extrusions also played an important role in the trade-off between plate and extruded concepts.

  5. Theoretical assessment of feasibility to sequence DNA through interlayer electronic tunneling transport at aligned nanopores in bilayer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Prasongkit, Jariyanee; Feliciano, Gustavo T.; Rocha, Alexandre R.; He, Yuhui; Osotchan, Tanakorn; Ahuja, Rajeev; Scheicher, Ralph H.

    2015-01-01

    Fast, cost effective, single-shot DNA sequencing could be the prelude of a new era in genetics. As DNA encodes the information for the production of proteins in all known living beings on Earth, determining the nucleobase sequences is the first and necessary step in that direction. Graphene-based nanopore devices hold great promise for next-generation DNA sequencing. In this work, we develop a novel approach for sequencing DNA using bilayer graphene to read the interlayer conductance through the layers in the presence of target nucleobases. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of DNA translocation through the pore were performed to trace the nucleobase trajectories and evaluate the interaction between the nucleobases and the nanopore. This interaction stabilizes the bases in different orientations, resulting in smaller fluctuations of the nucleobases inside the pore. We assessed the performance of a bilayer graphene nanopore setup for the purpose of DNA sequencing by employing density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green’s function method to investigate the interlayer conductance of nucleobases coupling simultaneously to the top and bottom graphene layers. The obtained conductance is significantly affected by the presence of DNA in the bilayer graphene nanopore, allowing us to analyze DNA sequences. PMID:26634811

  6. Building on community outreach for childhood vaccination to deliver maternal and child health services in Laos: a feasibility assessment.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Bart; Lindelow, Magnus; Xayyavong, Phoxay; Sackett, Philippa

    2012-12-01

    Outreach services for vaccination present a useful vehicle to deliver maternal and child health (MCH) care to hard-to-reach women and children. In Laos, uptake of MCH services inversely correlates with distance from a health facility; hence, the concurrent delivery of MCH services during community vaccination outreach has been promoted. Here we assess factors affecting delivery of MCH services during vaccination outreach in six districts of three provinces. We conducted 58 in-depth interviews with representatives of district and provincial health offices, health centre staff and village health volunteers. Vaccination outreach sessions by health centre staff were observed in eight villages, and 12 focus group discussions were held with 120 mothers on their perceptions of these sessions. The regularity and frequency of outreach sessions and the number of integrated vaccination/MCH services varied widely between sites. Availability of external financial and technical support was the major determinant of optimal delivery of integrated services, with implications for future policy. To enable concurrent delivery of a range of MCH services during vaccination outreach, the number of these services should gradually be increased in tandem with additional financial and technical support. At the same time, ways need to be found to ensure remote villages are reached and coverage of children and women receiving services increased, to reduce inequity. PMID:23245416

  7. Physicochemical characterization of coke-plant soil for the assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon availability and the feasibility of phytoremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, S.; Werner, D.; Luthy, R.G.

    2005-09-01

    Coke oven site soil was characterized to assess the particle association and availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We identified various carbonaceous materials including coal, coke, pitch, and tar decanter sludge. Most of the PAHs were associated with the polymeric matrix of tar sludge or hard pitch as discrete particles, coatings on soil mineral particles, or complex aggregates. The PAH availability from these particles was very low due to hindered diffusive release from solid tar or pitch with apparent diffusivities of 6 x 10{sup -15} for phenanthrene, 3 x 10{sup -15} for pyrene, and 1 x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}/s for benzo(a)pyrene. Significant concentrations of PAHs were observed in the interior of solid tar aggregates with up to 40,000 mg/kg total PAHs. The release of PAHs from the interior of such particles requires diffusion over a substantial distance, and semipermeable membrane device tests confirmed a very limited availability of PAHs. These findings explain the results from three years of phytoremediation of the site soil, for which no significant changes in the total PAH concentrations were observed in the test plot samples. The observed low bioavailability of PAHs probably inhibited PAH phytoremediation, as diffusion-limited mass transfer would limit the release of PAHs to the aqueous phase.

  8. The Brazilian Version of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) Is a Feasible, Valid and Reliable Instrument for the Measurement of Symptoms in Advanced Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Manfredini, Luciana Lopes; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; Hui, David; Bruera, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purposes To develop and validate a Portuguese version of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) in Brazilian patients with advanced cancer. Methods The ESAS was translated and then back translated into Portuguese in accordance with international guidelines. The final version was approved by an Expert Committee after pilot testing on 24 advanced cancer patients. Subsequently, we evaluated the time to complete the assessment, the number of unanswered items, internal consistency, convergent validity, and known-group validity in a sample of 249 advanced cancer patients who completed the ESAS along with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A total of 90 clinically stable patients were retested after 4 to 96 hours (test-retest reliability), and 80 patients answered the ESAS after 21 (±7) days to measure scale responsiveness using an anchor-based method. Results The ESAS was completed in a mean time of only 2.2 minutes. The internal consistency was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.861), and the removal of single items did not change the overall alpha value. For convergent validity, Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the ESAS symptom scores and the corresponding EORTC QLQ-C30 and ESS symptom scores ranged between 0.520 (95% CI = 0.424–0.605) and 0.814 (95% CI = 0.760–0.856), indicating moderate to strong correlations. Test-retest reliability values were considered adequate, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.758 (95% CI = 0.627–0.843) to 0.939 (95% CI = 0.905–0.960). Conclusions ESAS is a feasible, valid and reliable multi-symptom assessment instrument for use in Brazil. PMID:26154288

  9. Integrating Environmental Restoration and Ecological Restoration: Long-Term Stewardship at the Department of Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2000-11-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, several federal agencies are reclaiming land through remediation and restoration and are considering potential future land uses that are compatible with current uses and local needs. Some sites are sufficiently contaminated that it is likely that the responsible federal agency will retain control over the land for the foreseeable future, providing them with a stewardship mission. This is particularly true of some of the larger Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contaminated during the production of nuclear weapons. The use of the term "restoration" is explored in this paper because the word means different things to the public, ecologists, and environmental managers responsible for contaminated sites, such as Superfund sites and the DOE facilities. While environmental restoration usually refers to remediation and removal of hazardous wastes, ecological restoration refers to the broader process of repairing damaged ecosystems and enhancing their productivity and/or biodiversity. The goals of the two types of restoration can be melded by considering environmental restoration as a special case of ecological restoration, one that involves risk reduction from hazardous wastes, and by broadening environmental restoration to include a more extensive problem-formulation phase (both temporal and spatial), which includes the goal of reestablishing a functioning ecosystem after remediation. Further, evaluating options for the desired post remediation result will inform managers and policy-makers concerning the feasibility and efficacy of environmental restoration itself.

  10. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...the equivalent of the injured natural resources and services and compensate...to, the same or comparable natural resources and services as those...

  11. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration...the equivalent of the injured natural resources and services and compensate...to, the same or comparable natural resources and services as those...

  12. Assessing the Feasibility of a Test Item Bank and Assessment Clearinghouse: Strategies to Measure Technical Skill Attainment of Career and Technical Education Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derner, Seth; Klein, Steve; Hilber, Don

    2008-01-01

    This report documents strategies that can be used to initiate development of a technical skill test item bank and/or assessment clearinghouse and quantifies the cost of creating and maintaining such a system. It is intended to inform state administrators on the potential uses and benefits of system participation, test developers on the needs and…

  13. Characterization and Feasibility Assessment of Recycled Paper Mill Sludges for Land Application in Relation to the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Rosazlin; Ishak, Che Fauziah; Kadir, Wan Rasidah; Bakar, Rosenani Abu

    2015-01-01

    The disposal of industrial paper mill sludge waste is a big issue and has a great importance all over the world. A study was conducted to determine the chemical properties of recycled paper mill sludge (RPMS) and assess its possibilities for land application. RPMS samples were collected from six different paper mills in Malaysia and analyzed for physical and chemical properties, heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 13C-NMR spectra and for the presence of dioxins/furans. The RPMS was dewatered, sticky with a strong odour, an average moisture of 65.08%, pH 7.09, cation exchange capacity (CEC) 14.43 cmol (+) kg–1, N 1.45, P 0.18, K 0.12, Ca 0.82, Mg 0.73, Na 0.76 and Al, 1.38%. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals levels were below the standard Class 2 limits. The dioxin and furan were in below the standard concentration of Class 1. The most prominent peak in the 13C-NMR spectra of RPMS was centered at 31 ppm, proving the presence of methylene (-CH2) groups in long aliphatic chains, with lipids and proteins. The signal at 89 ppm and highly shielded shoulder at 83 ppm were due to presence of cellulose carbon C-4, and the peak at 63 and 65 ppm was due to the cellulose carbon spectrum. The RPMS therefore contains significant amount of nutrients with safe levels of heavy metals and PAHs for environment and can be used as a fertilizer and soil amendment for land application. PMID:26262636

  14. Characterization and Feasibility Assessment of Recycled Paper Mill Sludges for Land Application in Relation to the Environment.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Rosazlin; Ishak, Che Fauziah; Kadir, Wan Rasidah; Bakar, Rosenani Abu

    2015-01-01

    The disposal of industrial paper mill sludge waste is a big issue and has a great importance all over the world. A study was conducted to determine the chemical properties of recycled paper mill sludge (RPMS) and assess its possibilities for land application. RPMS samples were collected from six different paper mills in Malaysia and analyzed for physical and chemical properties, heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, (13)C-NMR spectra and for the presence of dioxins/furans. The RPMS was dewatered, sticky with a strong odour, an average moisture of 65.08%, pH 7.09, cation exchange capacity (CEC) 14.43 cmol (+) kg(-1), N 1.45, P 0.18, K 0.12, Ca 0.82, Mg 0.73, Na 0.76 and Al, 1.38%. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals levels were below the standard Class 2 limits. The dioxin and furan were in below the standard concentration of Class 1. The most prominent peak in the (13)C-NMR spectra of RPMS was centered at 31 ppm, proving the presence of methylene (-CH2) groups in long aliphatic chains, with lipids and proteins. The signal at 89 ppm and highly shielded shoulder at 83 ppm were due to presence of cellulose carbon C-4, and the peak at 63 and 65 ppm was due to the cellulose carbon spectrum. The RPMS therefore contains significant amount of nutrients with safe levels of heavy metals and PAHs for environment and can be used as a fertilizer and soil amendment for land application. PMID:26262636

  15. ORNL/TM-2013/221 Technical and Economic Feasibility

    E-print Network

    Post, Wilfred M.

    ORNL/TM-2013/221 Technical and Economic Feasibility Assessment of Small Hydropower Development Sciences Division TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ASSESSMENT OF SMALL HYDROPOWER DEVELOPMENT..................................................................................................................1 1.2 EXISTING HYDROPOWER FACILITIES IN THE DESCHUTES AND CROOKED BASINS

  16. Study protocol for iQuit in Practice: a randomised controlled trial to assess the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of tailored web- and text-based facilitation of smoking cessation in primary care

    E-print Network

    Sutton, Stephen; Smith, Susan; Jamison, James; Boase, Sue; Mason, Dan; Prevost, A Toby; Brimicombe, James; Sloan, Melanie; Gilbert, Hazel; Naughton, Felix

    2013-04-10

    tailored to relevant characteristics of the smoker; and (2) a three-month programme of automated tailored text messages sent to the smoker’s mobile phone. The objectives of the trial are to assess the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention...

  17. Feasibility and Acceptability of Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment of Alcohol Use Among African American Men Who Have Sex With Men in Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Gregory; Bollinger, Robert; Chang, Larry; Chander, Geetanjali; Siconolfi, Daniel; Braxton, Sharif; Rudolph, Abby; Latkin, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol use is a risk factor for the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Mobile phone-based ecological momentary assessments (EMA) could minimize bias due to retrospective recall and thus provide a better understanding of the social and structural context of alcohol use and its relationship with HIV-related risk behaviors in this population as well as other highly stigmatized populations. Objective We describe the study design and the implementation, feasibility, reactivity, and acceptability of an EMA study of alcohol use and HIV-related behaviors among African American MSM in Baltimore. Methods Participants were recruited through flyers and word-of-mouth in Baltimore from September 2013 to November 2014. Each participant was loaned an Android smartphone and instructed to respond to multiple prompts from the mobile app for 4 weeks. Data were collected through (1) random prompts delivered three times daily assessing participants’ location, activity, mood, and social context, (2) daily prompts capturing drinking and sex events occurring in the past 24 hours, and (3) event-contingent responses collecting participants’ self-reported episodes of drinking. Results A total of 16 participants enrolled in the study. The current analyses focused on 15 participants who completed at least 24 days of follow-up (mean follow-up time 29 days; range 24-35 days). Study participants (N=15) were a median 38 years of age (range 27-62 years) with low levels of income and educational attainment. Ten individuals self-reported living with HIV/AIDS, over half reported drinking alcohol at least 2-3 times a week, and a third reported binge drinking (ie, 6 or more drinks on one occasion) on a weekly basis. Based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score, nearly half were classified as hazardous drinkers (score 8-15) and a fifth were likely dependent (score ?16). A total of 140 participant-initiated events were reported, and 75% of 1308 random prompts and 81% of 436 daily prompts delivered were answered. Of seven devices used during the study, five were reported lost by participants. We did not observe strong reactivity effects, and self-reported acceptability to study procedures was uniformly favorable. Conclusions This study provides evidence to support the feasibility and acceptability of using EMA methods for collecting data on alcohol use among African American men who have sex with men living in urban settings. These data provide the basis for future studies of EMA-informed mHealth interventions to promote the reduction of substance use and HIV risk-taking behaviors among African American MSM living in urban settings. PMID:26085078

  18. Technology needs for environmental restoration remedial action. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.S.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important technology needs for the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. These facilities are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The sources of information used in this assessment were a survey of selected representatives of the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at each facility, results from a questionnaire distributed by Geotech CWM, Inc., for DOE, and associated discussions with individuals from each facility. This is not a final assessment, but a brief look at an ongoing assessment; the needs will change as the plans for restoration change and, it is hoped, as some technical problems are solved through successful development programs.

  19. Rapid Assessment of Ecosystem Services Provided by Two Mineral Extraction Sites Restored for Nature Conservation in an Agricultural Landscape in Eastern England

    PubMed Central

    Blaen, Phillip J.; Jia, Li; Peh, Kelvin S.-H.; Field, Rob H.; Balmford, Andrew; MacDonald, Michael A.; Bradbury, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing recognition that mineral sites restored for nature conservation can enhance local biodiversity, the wider societal benefits provided by this type of restoration relative to alternative options are not well understood. This study addresses this research gap by quantifying differences in ecosystem services provision under two common mineral site after-uses: nature conservation and agriculture. Using a combination of site-specific primary field data, benefits transfer and modelling, we show that for our sites restoration for nature conservation provides a more diverse array of ecosystem services than would be delivered under an agricultural restoration scenario. We also explore the effects of addressing different conservation targets, which we find alter the provision of ecosystem services on a service-specific basis. Highly species-focused intervention areas are associated with increased carbon storage and livestock grazing provision, whereas non-intervention areas are important for carbon sequestration, fishing, recreation and flood risk mitigation. The results of this study highlight the wider societal importance of restored mineral sites and may help conservation managers and planners to develop future restoration strategies that provide benefits for both biodiversity and human well-being. PMID:25894293

  20. Sault Tribe Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Osterhout; Global Energy Concepts

    2005-07-31

    The Sault Tribe conducted a feasibility study on tribal lands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to determine the technical and economic feasibility of both small and large-scale wind power development on tribal lands. The study included a wind resource assessment, transmission system analysis, engineering and regulatory analyzes and assessments.

  1. Preliminary Evidence for Feasibility, Use, and Acceptability of Individualized Texting for Adherence Building for Antiretroviral Adherence and Substance Use Assessment among HIV-Infected Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David J.; Montoya, Jessica L.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Depp, Colin A.; Atkinson, J. Hampton; TMARC Group, The

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility, use, and acceptability of text messages to track methamphetamine use and promote antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence among HIV-infected methamphetamine users was examined. From an ongoing randomized controlled trial, 30-day text response rates of participants assigned to the intervention (individualized texting for adherence building (iTAB), n = 20) were compared to those in the active comparison condition (n = 9). Both groups received daily texts assessing methamphetamine use, and the iTAB group additionally received personalized daily ART adherence reminder texts. Response rate for methamphetamine use texts was 72.9% with methamphetamine use endorsed 14.7% of the time. Text-derived methamphetamine use data was correlated with data from a structured substance use interview covering the same time period (P < 0.05). The iTAB group responded to 69.0% of adherence reminder texts; among those responses, 81.8% endorsed taking ART medication. Standardized feedback questionnaire responses indicated little difficulty with the texts, satisfaction with the study, and beliefs that future text-based interventions would be helpful. Moreover, most participants believed the intervention reduced methamphetamine use and improved adherence. Qualitative feedback regarding the intervention was positive. Future studies will refine and improve iTAB for optimal acceptability and efficacy. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01317277. PMID:24078868

  2. Vision 20/20: The role of Raman spectroscopy in early stage cancer detection and feasibility for application in radiation therapy response assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Devpura, Suneetha Barton, Kenneth N.; Brown, Stephen L.; Siddiqui, Farzan; Chetty, Indrin J.; Palyvoda, Olena; Kalkanis, Steven; Naik, Vaman M.; Naik, Ratna

    2014-05-15

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique capable of identifying chemical constituents of a sample by their unique set of molecular vibrations. Research on the applicability of Raman spectroscopy in the differentiation of cancerous versus normal tissues has been ongoing for many years, and has yielded successful results in the context of prostate, breast, brain, skin, and head and neck cancers as well as pediatric tumors. Recently, much effort has been invested on developing noninvasive “Raman” probes to provide real-time diagnosis of potentially cancerous tumors. In this regard, it is feasible that the Raman technique might one day be used to provide rapid, minimally invasive real-time diagnosis of tumors in patients. Raman spectroscopy is relatively new to the field of radiation therapy. Recent work involving cell lines has shown that the Raman technique is able to identify proteins and other markers affected by radiation therapy. Although this work is preliminary, one could ask whether or not the Raman technique might be used to identify molecular markers that predict radiation response. This paper provides a brief review of Raman spectroscopic investigations in cancer detection, benefits and limitations of this method, advances in instrument development, and also preliminary studies related to the application of this technology in radiation therapy response assessment.

  3. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area.

  4. Quantitative assessment of seismic source performance: Feasibility of small and affordable seismic sources for long term monitoring at the Ketzin CO2 storage site, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopher, Daniel; Juhlin, Christopher; Huang, Fei; Ivandic, Monika; Lueth, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    We apply a range of quantitative pre-stack analysis techniques to assess the feasibility of using smaller and cheaper seismic sources, than those currently used at the Ketzin CO2 storage site. Results from two smaller land sources are presented alongside those from a larger, more powerful source, typically utilized for seismic acquisition at the Ketzin. The geological target for the study is the Triassic Stuttgart Formation which contains a saline aquifer currently used for CO2 storage. The reservoir lies at a depth of approximately 630 m, equivalent to a travel time of 500 ms along the study profile. The three sources discussed in the study are the Vibsist 3000, Vibsist 500 (using industrial hydraulic driven concrete breaking hammers) and a drop hammer source. Data were collected for the comparison using the three sources in 2011, 2012 and 2013 along a 984 m long line with 24 m receiver spacing and 12 m shot spacing. Initially a quantitative analysis is performed of the noise levels between the 3 surveys. The raw shot gathers are then analyzed quantitatively to investigate the relative energy output, signal to noise ratio, penetration depth, repeatability and frequency content for the different sources. The performance of the sources is also assessed based on stacked seismic sections. Based on the results from this study it appears that both of the smaller sources are capable of producing good images of the target reservoir and can both be considered suitable as lower cost, less invasive sources for use at the Ketzin site or other shallow CO2 storage projects. Finally, the results from the various pre-stack analysis techniques are discussed in terms of how representative they are of the final stacked sections.

  5. Can paramedics use FRAX (the WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool) to help GPs improve future fracture risk in patients who fall? Protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Shane; Bradley, Rachel; Simmonds, Bethany; Salisbury, Chris; Benger, Jonathan; Marques, Elsa; Greenwood, Rosemary; Shepstone, Lee; Robinson, Maria; Appleby-Fleming, John; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Currently identification, and therefore, management of patients at risk of osteoporotic fracture in the UK is suboptimal. As the majority of patients who fracture have fallen, it follows that people who fall can usefully be targeted in any programme that aims to reduce osteoporotic fracture. Targeting vulnerable patients who are likely to benefit from intervention may help shift the management of fracture prevention into primary care, away from emergency departments. Paramedics who attend to patients who have fallen may be well placed to assess future fracture risk, using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) and communicate that information directly to general practitioners (GPs). Methods and analysis This feasibility study takes the form of a pragmatic, randomised controlled trial aimed at exploring and refining issues of study design, recruitment, retention, sample size and acceptability preceding a large-scale study with fracture as the end point. Patients (aged >50) who fall, call an ambulance, are attended by a study paramedic and give verbal consent will be asked FRAX and fall questions. Patients who subsequently formally consent to participation will be randomised to control (usual care) or intervention groups. Intervention will constitute transmission of calculated future fracture risk to the patients’ GP with suitable, evidence-based recommendations for investigation or treatment. 3?months after the index fall, data (proportion of patients in each group undergoing investigation or starting new treatment, quality of life and health economic) will be collected and analysed using descriptive statistics. A nested qualitative study will explore issues of acceptability and study design with patients, paramedics and GPs. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by NRES Committee South Central Oxford C in October 2012. Research Ethics Committee ref.12/SC/0604. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and local public events. A publication plan and authorship criteria have been preagreed. Trial registration number ISRCTN: 36245726. PMID:25186156

  6. A Chronosequence Feasibility Assessment of Emergency Fire Rehabilitation Records within the Intermountain Western United States - Final Report to the Joint Fire Science Program - Project 08-S-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, Kevin C.; Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy A.; Pilliod, David S.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.

    2009-01-01

    Department of the Interior (DOI) bureaus have invested heavily (for example, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) spent more than $60 million in fiscal year 2007) in seeding vegetation for emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation of non-forested arid lands over the past 10 years. The primary objectives of these seedings commonly are to (1) reduce the post-fire dominance of non-native annual grasses, such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and red brome (Bromus rubens); (2) minimize the probability of recurrent fire; and (3) ultimately produce desirable vegetation characteristics (for example, ability to recover following disturbance [resilience], resistance to invasive species, and a capacity to support a diverse flora and fauna). Although these projects historically have been monitored to varying extents, land managers currently lack scientific evidence to verify whether seeding arid and semiarid lands achieves desired objectives. Given the amount of resources dedicated to post-fire seeding projects, a synthesis of information determining the factors that result in successful treatments is critically needed. Although results of recently established experiments and monitoring projects eventually will provide useful insights for the future direction of emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation programs, a chronosequence approach evaluating emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation treatments (both referenced hereafter as ESR treatments) over the past 30 years could provide a comprehensive assessment of treatment success across a range of regional environmental gradients. By randomly selecting a statistically robust sample from the population of historic ESR treatments in the Intermountain West, this chronosequence approach would have inference for most ecological sites in this region. The goal of this feasibility study was to compile and examine historic ESR records from BLM field offices across the Intermountain West to determine whether sufficient documentation existed for a future field-based chronosequence project. We collected ESR records and data at nine BLM field offices in four States (Oregon, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah) and examined the utility of these data for the development of a chronosequence study of post-fire seeding treatments from multiple sites and different ages (since seeding) throughout the Intermountain West. We collected records from 730 post-fire seeding projects with 1,238 individual seeding treatments. Records from each project ranged from minimal reporting of the project's occurrence to detailed documentation of planning, implementation, and monitoring. Of these 1,238 projects, we identified 468 (38 percent) that could potentially be used to implement a field-based chronosequence study. There were 206 ground-seeding treatments and 262 aerial-seeding treatments within this initial population, not including hand plantings. We also located a considerable number of additional records from other potential field offices that would be available for the chronosequence study but have yet to be compiled for this feasibility report. There are a number of potential challenges involved in going forward with a field-based chronosequence study derived from data collected at these nine BLM offices. One challenge is that not all seed mixtures in ESR project files have on-the-ground confirmation about what was sown or rates of application. Most projects, particularly records before 2000, just list the planned or purchased seed mixtures. Although this could potentially bias assessments of factors influencing establishment rates of individual species for treatments conducted before 2000, a chronosequence study would not be intended to assess success solely at the species-level. Treatment success would be evaluated based on the establishment of healthy vegetation communities, such as the abundance and density of perennial species, regardless of their lifeforms (grasses, fo

  7. A Spatially Based Area–Time Inundation Index Model Developed to Assess Habitat Opportunity in Tidal–Fluvial Wetlands and Restoration Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Andre M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ward, Duane L.; Borde, Amy B.

    2015-09-01

    The hydrodynamics of tidal wetland areas in the lower Columbia River floodplain and estuary directly affect habitat opportunity for endangered salmonid fishes. Physical and biological structures and functions in the system are directly affected by inundation patterns influenced by tidal cycles, hydropower operations, river discharge, upriver water withdrawals, climate, and physical barriers such as dikes, culverts, and tide gates. Ongoing ecosystem restoration efforts are intended to increase the opportunity for salmon to access beneficial habitats by hydrologically reconnecting main-stem river channels and diked areas within the historical floodplain. To address the need to evaluate habitat opportunity, a geographic information system-based Area-Time Inundation Index Model (ATIIM) was developed. The ATIIM integrates in situ or modeled hourly water-surface elevation (WSE) data and advanced terrain processing of high-resolution elevation data. The ATIIM uses a spatially based wetted-area algorithm to determine site average bankfull elevation, two- and three-dimensional inundation extent, and other site metrics. Hydrological process metrics such as inundation frequency, duration, maximum area, and maximum frequency area can inform evaluation of proposed restoration sites; e.g., determine trade-offs between WSE and habitat opportunity, contrast alternative restoration designs, predict impacts of altered flow regimes, and estimate nutrient and biomass fluxes. In an adaptive management framework, this model can be used to provide standardized site comparisons and effectiveness monitoring of changes in the developmental trajectories of restoration sites. Results are presented for 11 wetlands representative of tidal marshes, tidal forested wetlands, and restoration sites.

  8. Incorporating climate change projections into riparian restoration planning and design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Laura G.; Lindsay V. Reynolds; Beechie, Timothy J.; Collins, Mathias J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and associated changes in streamflow may alter riparian habitats substantially in coming decades. Riparian restoration provides opportunities to respond proactively to projected climate change effects, increase riparian ecosystem resilience to climate change, and simultaneously address effects of both climate change and other human disturbances. However, climate change may alter which restoration methods are most effective and which restoration goals can be achieved. Incorporating climate change into riparian restoration planning and design is critical to long-term restoration of desired community composition and ecosystem services. In this review, we discuss and provide examples of how climate change might be incorporated into restoration planning at the key stages of assessing the project context, establishing restoration goals and design criteria, evaluating design alternatives, and monitoring restoration outcomes. Restoration planners have access to numerous tools to predict future climate, streamflow, and riparian ecology at restoration sites. Planners can use those predictions to assess which species or ecosystem services will be most vulnerable under future conditions, and which sites will be most suitable for restoration. To accommodate future climate and streamflow change, planners may need to adjust methods for planting, invasive species control, channel and floodplain reconstruction, and water management. Given the considerable uncertainty in future climate and streamflow projections, riparian ecological responses, and effects on restoration outcomes, planners will need to consider multiple potential future scenarios, implement a variety of restoration methods, design projects with flexibility to adjust to future conditions, and plan to respond adaptively to unexpected change.

  9. Jump In! An Investigation of School Physical Activity Climate, and a Pilot Study Assessing the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Novel Tool to Increase Activity during Learning

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Dan J.; Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G.; O’Donnell, Maeve B.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) benefits children’s physical and mental health and enhances academic performance. However, in many nations, PA time in school is decreasing under competing pressures for time during the school day. The present paper argues that PA should not be reduced or seen as incompatible with academic learning. Instead, the authors contend that it is critical to develop tools that incorporate PA into content learning during the school day. To facilitate the development of such tools, the authors conducted 6 focus group discussions with 12 primary school teachers and administrators to better understand the school climate around PA as well as school readiness to embrace PA tools that can be used during academic content learning. In addition, a pilot test of a new health promotion tool, the Jump In! educational response mat, was conducted with 21 second-grade students from one classroom in Northern Colorado in 2013. The results of both studies demonstrated acceptability and feasibility of incorporating PA into classroom learning, and suggested that tools like Jump In! may be effective at overcoming many of the PA barriers at schools. Teachers and administrators valued PA, believed that students were not getting enough PA, and were receptive to the idea of incorporating PA into classroom learning. Students who used Jump In! mats during a math lesson reported more interest in the class material and rated themselves as more alert during the lesson, compared to students who did not use the response mats. In addition, incorporating PA into the lesson did not impair performance on a quiz that assessed learning of the math content. Jump In! mats were successfully integrated into the lesson plan and were well-received by teachers and students. Together, the results of these studies suggest that, given the right tools, incorporating more PA into classroom learning may be beneficial and well-received by students, teachers, and administrators. PMID:24904919

  10. Jump In! An Investigation of School Physical Activity Climate, and a Pilot Study Assessing the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Novel Tool to Increase Activity during Learning.

    PubMed

    Graham, Dan J; Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; O'Donnell, Maeve B

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) benefits children's physical and mental health and enhances academic performance. However, in many nations, PA time in school is decreasing under competing pressures for time during the school day. The present paper argues that PA should not be reduced or seen as incompatible with academic learning. Instead, the authors contend that it is critical to develop tools that incorporate PA into content learning during the school day. To facilitate the development of such tools, the authors conducted 6 focus group discussions with 12 primary school teachers and administrators to better understand the school climate around PA as well as school readiness to embrace PA tools that can be used during academic content learning. In addition, a pilot test of a new health promotion tool, the Jump In! educational response mat, was conducted with 21 second-grade students from one classroom in Northern Colorado in 2013. The results of both studies demonstrated acceptability and feasibility of incorporating PA into classroom learning, and suggested that tools like Jump In! may be effective at overcoming many of the PA barriers at schools. Teachers and administrators valued PA, believed that students were not getting enough PA, and were receptive to the idea of incorporating PA into classroom learning. Students who used Jump In! mats during a math lesson reported more interest in the class material and rated themselves as more alert during the lesson, compared to students who did not use the response mats. In addition, incorporating PA into the lesson did not impair performance on a quiz that assessed learning of the math content. Jump In! mats were successfully integrated into the lesson plan and were well-received by teachers and students. Together, the results of these studies suggest that, given the right tools, incorporating more PA into classroom learning may be beneficial and well-received by students, teachers, and administrators. PMID:24904919

  11. USE OF CONTINUOUS DATALOGGERS TO ASSESS THE TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION OF GROUND WATER/SURFACE WATER INTERACTION BEFORE AND AFTER STREAM RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Minebank Run is a degraded second-order flashy urban stream in Baltimore County which is slated to undergo restoration in August 2003 to re-establish geomorphic stability. We are currently conducting an intensive investigation of surface water/ground water interaction and nutrien...

  12. Feasibility of assessing the public health impacts of air pollution reduction programs on a local scale: New Haven accountability case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: New approaches on how to link health surveillance data with environmental and population exposure information are needed in order to examine the health benefits of risk management decisions. Objective: This study's objective was to examine the feasibility of conductin...

  13. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.53... an effective approach to achieving or accelerating a return to baseline (e.g., replacing...

  14. 15 CFR 990.53 - Restoration selection-developing restoration alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.53... an effective approach to achieving or accelerating a return to baseline (e.g., replacing...

  15. 15 CFR 990.15 - Considerations to facilitate restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction...expediting restoration of injured natural resources and services, including...Pre-incident plans may identify natural resource damage assessment teams,...

  16. 15 CFR 990.15 - Considerations to facilitate restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction...expediting restoration of injured natural resources and services, including...Pre-incident plans may identify natural resource damage assessment teams,...

  17. 15 CFR 990.15 - Considerations to facilitate restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction...expediting restoration of injured natural resources and services, including...Pre-incident plans may identify natural resource damage assessment teams,...

  18. 15 CFR 990.15 - Considerations to facilitate restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction...expediting restoration of injured natural resources and services, including...Pre-incident plans may identify natural resource damage assessment teams,...

  19. 15 CFR 990.15 - Considerations to facilitate restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction...expediting restoration of injured natural resources and services, including...Pre-incident plans may identify natural resource damage assessment teams,...

  20. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    This project addresses existing habitat conditions, fish population status, and restoration priority sites within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the White Salmon River. Our partners in this project are the United States Geological Service (USGS), and the Yakama Indian Nation (YIN). Underwood Conservation District (UCD) is involved in the project via accomplishment of water quality monitoring, sampling for stable isotopes, and characterization of the watershed geomorphology. These work items are part of an effort to characterize the stream and riparian habitat conditions in Rattlesnake Creek, to help guide habitat and fish restoration work. Water chemistry and temperature information is being collected both on Rattlesnake Creek, and on other tributaries and the main stem of the White Salmon River. Information on the entire system enables us to compare results obtained from Rattlesnake Creek with the rest of the White Salmon system. Water chemistry and temperature data have been collected in a manner that is comparable with data gathered in previous years. The results from data gathered in the 2001-2002 performance period are reported in appendix A at the end of this 2002-2003 report. Additional work being conducted as part of this study includes; an estimate of salmonid population abundance (YIN and USGS); a determination of fish species composition, distribution, and life history (YIN and USGS), and a determination of existing kinds, distribution, and severity of fish diseases (YIN and USGS). The overall objective is to utilize the above information to prioritize restoration efforts in Rattlesnake Creek.

  1. Women's Health in Women's Hands: A Pilot Study Assessing the Feasibility of Providing Women With Medications to Reduce Postpartum Hemorrhage and Sepsis in Rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Gail C.; Chirangi, Bwire

    2014-01-01

    In rural Africa, deaths from childbirth are common and access to health care facilities with skilled providers is very limited. Leading causes of death for women are bleeding and infection. In this pilot study, we establish the feasibility of distributing oral medications to women in rural Tanzania to self-administer after delivery to reduce bleeding and infection. Of the 642 women provided with medications, 90% of the women took them appropriately, while the remaining 10% did not require them. We conclude that is it feasible to distribute oral medications to rural women to self-administer after delivery. PMID:24786175

  2. Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ariwite, Roderick

    2015-07-31

    This "Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report" seeks to provide an overall assessment and review of renewable energy development opportunities on the Fallon Indian Reservation and Colony Lands.

  3. Optopharmacological tools for restoring visual function in degenerative retinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Tochitsky, Ivan; Kramer, Richard H

    2015-10-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are progressive retinal diseases that result from the death of rod and cone photoreceptors, ultimately leading to blindness. The only currently approved vision restoration treatment employs an implanted retinal 'chip' as a prosthetic device to electrically stimulate retinal neurons that survive after the photoreceptors are gone, thereby restoring light-driven neural signaling to the brain. Alternative strategies have been proposed, which would utilize optogenetic or optopharmacological tools to enable direct optical stimulation of surviving retinal neurons. Here, we review the latest studies evaluating the feasibility of these molecular tools as potential therapeutics for restoring visual function in human blinding disease. PMID:25706312

  4. A Feasibility Study to Assess Alternative Energy Program Development Potential at the Community College Level, October 1, 1983-June 30, 1984. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Brittain A.

    In 1983-84, a feasibility study was conducted to determine the viability of establishing a comprehensive alternative energy technology program at Southeastern Illinois College (SIC). The study involved an examination of a number of exemplary associate degree programs in alternative energy, through on-site visits and telephone surveys; a survey of…

  5. Willamette River Floodplain Restoration, Oregon Ecosystem Restoration Project

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Willamette River Floodplain Restoration, Oregon Ecosystem Restoration Project 18 September 2013 ABSTRACT: The project proposes to restore floodplain ecosystem functions along the Willamette River in the vicinity of Eugene, Oregon, by reconnecting floodplain habitats to the river and improving fish

  6. Restoration of Firearm Rights in New York.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Carl E; Cohen, Ziv E; Hoge, Steven K; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2015-06-01

    The National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) Improvement Amendments Act of 2007 encouraged states to create processes by which individuals who have lost their rights to firearm possession for mental-illness-related reasons could receive relief from restrictions. Over 20 states have created relief processes for this sub-group, but there still exists considerable state-by-state heterogeneity. The spectrum ranges from states that require a physician's opinion regarding appropriateness for restoration to those that rely solely on judicial proceedings without input from psychiatrists or other mental health professionals. This article reviews the restoration process in New York State, a model in which psychiatrists participate in the process of assessing whether an individual's firearm rights can be restored. It discusses the legislative background of these regulations, the specific policies and procedures governing the restoration process, and clinical considerations for the forensic evaluation. PMID:25711715

  7. Restoration 2013 ACTION PLAN

    E-print Network

    was prepared by the BPA/Corps with review by and collaboration with regional restoration sponsors, researchers Administration (BPA) and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (Corps) by updating the 2012 Action Plan with the most current plans and schedule for restoration actions and research, monitoring, and evaluation

  8. Power system restoration issues

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Kafka, R.J. )

    1991-04-01

    This article describes some of the problems encountered in the three phases of power system restoration (PSR). The three phases of PSR are: Planning for restart and reintegration of the bulk power supply; Actions during system degradation for saving and retaining critical sources of power; Restoration when the power system has stabilized at some degraded level.

  9. Kootenai River Habitat Restoration

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Constructed channel features and changes in the Phase 1A side channel restoration area of the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho. The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho is managing a large-scale, ecosystem-based river habitat restoration effort that will be implemented over a period of 10 to 15 years acr...

  10. USDA PROGRAMS WETLAND RESTORATION

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    PROGRAM OBJECTIVES RESTORE FUNCTIONS/VALUES MAXIMIZE WILDLIFE BENEFITS PROVIDE HABITAT FOR MIGRATORY BIRDS Pre-conversion native plant restoration 70% reforestation 30% open/shallow water/otherwise different native plant communities 5% food plots #12;11/2/2011 5 LANDOWNER RESERVED RIGHTS QUIET ENJOYMENT

  11. Gill's 'History' restored

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurn, Mark

    2009-06-01

    Note about the restoration of the copy of Sir David Gill's 'A History and Description of the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope' in the Library of the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge. The book was restored with funds provided by the SHA in thanks for facilities for meetings provided to the Institute.

  12. Minimally invasive facet restoration implant for chronic lumbar zygapophysial pain: 1-year outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The zygapophysial (facet) joint is the primary pain generator in one third of chronic low back pain cases. Current treatment options include temporarily palliative nonsurgical approaches, facet injections, radiofrequency denervation, and, rarely, lumbar arthrodesis. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of a minimally invasive implant intended to restore facet joint function in patients with chronic lumbar facetogenic pain. Methods This prospective, multi-center feasibility study enrolled patients with confirmed lumbar facetogenic joint pain at 1 or 2 levels who underwent at least 6 months of unsuccessful nonoperative care. Patients received a minimally invasive implant (Glyder® Facet Restoration Device, Zyga Technology, Inc., Minnetonka, MN) intended to restore facet joint function while preserving the native anatomy. Main outcomes included back pain severity using a visual analogue scale, back-specific disability using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and adverse events adjudicated by an independent Clinical Events Committee. Results Of 40 enrolled patients, 37 patients received the facet restoration implant and 34 patients had complete 1-year follow-up data available. Over the 1-year follow-up period, back pain severity decreased 41% and ODI decreased 34%, on average. Freedom from a device- or procedure-related serious adverse event through 1 year was 84%. Implant migration was observed in 3 patients and implant expulsion from the facet joint occurred in 3 patients. In total, 2 (5.4%) patients underwent implant removal through 1 year post-treatment. Conclusions A minimally invasive facet restoration implant is a promising treatment option in select patients with chronic lumbar zygapophysial pain who have exhausted nonsurgical treatments, with therapeutic benefit persisting at 1 year follow-up.

  13. An Economic Analysis of Stream Restoration in an Urban Watershed: Austin, Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Huang, Chi-Ying

    2012-07-16

    associated with housing and environmental characteristics. Repeat ground photography was utilized to assess stream restoration activities at spatial and temporal scales. Our results suggest that the stream restoration project resulted in significant positive...

  14. Monitoring Approaches to Assess the Impact of Watershed Development and Restoration on Land-based Sedimentation in the US Virgin Islands: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, S. C.; Sears, W.; Campbell, S.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Hirsh, H.; Barnes, T.

    2014-12-01

    Development in coastal tropical watersheds (especially unpaved roads) has led to increased turbidity and runoff of land-based sediment into coastal bays with coral reefs. Unlike other threats to coral reefs, land-based sedimentation can be managed locally through sound watershed management practices. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of watershed restoration projects or track how future watershed building or changing climate affect land-based sedimentation, it is necessary to adapt monitoring approaches that will effectively capture marine sediment dynamics at appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Since 2007 we've monitored rainy-season sedimentation (tube sediment traps) and turbidity (TSS) (26-day intervals) in eastern St. John, USVI. More recently (2013-14) we added SedPods and a program of terrestrial-marine integrated monitoring including shoreline runoff (stream and crest gauges) and current meters and nephelometers, which measure sediment deposition, turbidity, and hydrographic parameters at minute resolution. Our 15 shoreline and reef sites are below developed and undeveloped "reference" watersheds and ARRA-funded watershed restoration projects completed in 2011. Through examples from our study, we will compare monitoring approaches and share lessons learned. Our sediment trap data resolved greater mean terrigenous accumulation below developed compared to undeveloped watersheds, increases in terrigenous accumulation in response to storm events, and reductions in terrigenous accumulation following watershed restoration during storms. However, they lacked the temporal resolution to capture the sedimentary response to ephemeral runoff or re-suspension events. They also dampen short-term acute sedimentation events that have the greatest impact on coral condition. Based on our studies, we recommend: a) monitoring over periods which capture the natural variability of the system; b) combining time-averaged approaches (long term [core], gross [sed. traps] and net [SedPods] deposition) that provide sample material, with high temporal-resolution instrumentation (nephelometers and current meters); c) integrated monitoring of the watershed-bay-coral reef by an inter-disciplinary team of experts working together; and d) community participation.

  15. Restoration of blanket peatlands.

    PubMed

    Parry, Lauren E; Holden, Joseph; Chapman, Pippa J

    2014-01-15

    There is concern that ecosystem services provided by blanket peatlands have come under threat due to increasing degradation. Blanket peatlands are subject to a wide range of drivers of degradation and are topographically variable. As a result, many degradation forms can develop, including those resulting from eroding artificial drainage, incising gullies and areas of bare peat. Many degraded blanket peatlands have undergone restoration measures since the turn of the century. However, there has been little formal communication of the techniques used and their success. Using practitioner knowledge and a review of the available literature, this paper discusses the methodologies used for restoring sloping blanket peatlands. It then considers current understanding of the impact of restoration on blanket peatland ecosystem services. There is a paucity of research investigating impacts of several common restoration techniques and much more is needed if informed management decisions are to be made and funding is to be appropriately spent. Where data are available we find that restoration is largely beneficial to many ecosystem services, with improvements being observed in water quality and ecology. However, the same restoration technique does not always result in the same outcomes in all locations. The difference in response is predominantly due to the spatial and temporal heterogeneity inherent in all blanket peatlands. Peatland practitioners must take this variability into account when designing restoration strategies and monitoring impact. PMID:24384281

  16. Bearing restoration by grinding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  17. RESTORATION PLUS: A COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS TO ACHIEVE ECOLOGICALLY AND ECONOMICALLY SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is evaluating ecosystem restoration and management techniques to ensure they create sustainable solutions for degraded watersheds. ORD NRMRL initiated the Restoration Plus (RePlus) program in 2002 to a) evaluate ecosystem restoration and management options, b) assess the non-...

  18. Ecological restoration of farmland: progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Wade, Mark R; Gurr, Geoff M; Wratten, Steve D

    2008-02-27

    Sustainable agricultural practices in conjunction with ecological restoration methods can reduce the detrimental effects of agriculture. The Society for Ecological Restoration International has produced generic guidelines for conceiving, organizing, conducting and assessing ecological restoration projects. Additionally, there are now good conceptual frameworks, guidelines and practical methods for developing ecological restoration programmes that are based on sound ecological principles and supported by empirical evidence and modelling approaches. Restoration methods must also be technically achievable and socially acceptable and spread over a range of locations. It is important to reconcile differences between methods that favour conservation and those that favour economic returns, to ensure that conservation efforts are beneficial for both landowners and biodiversity. One option for this type of mutual benefit is the use of agri-environmental schemes to provide financial incentives to landholders in exchange for providing conservation services and other benefits. However, further work is required to define and measure the effectiveness of agri-environmental schemes. The broader potential for ecological restoration to improve the sustainability of agricultural production while conserving biodiversity in farmscapes and reducing external costs is high, but there is still much to learn, particularly for the most efficient use of agri-environmental schemes to change land use practice. PMID:17761469

  19. Manganese toxicity thresholds for restoration grass species.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Mark W; Valdecantos, Alejandro; Redente, Edward F

    2005-05-01

    Manganese toxicity thresholds for restoration plants have not been established. As a result, ecological risk assessments rely on toxicity thresholds for agronomic species, which may differ from those of restoration species. Our objective was to provide Mn toxicity thresholds for grasses commonly used in restoration. We used a greenhouse screening study where seedlings of redtop, slender wheatgrass, tufted hairgrass, big bluegrass, basin wildrye, and common wheat were grown in sand culture and exposed to increasing concentrations of Mn. The LC50, EC50-plant, EC50-shoot, EC50-root, PT50-shoot, and the PT50-root were then determined. Phytotoxicity thresholds and effective concentrations for the restoration species were generally higher than values reported for agronomic species. Our estimates of PT50-shoot for the five restoration grasses range from 41,528 to 120,082 mg Mn kg(-1). Measures of EC50-plant for these restoration grasses ranged from 877 to >6,000 mg Mn l(-1). These thresholds might be more useful for risk assessors than those based on crop plants that are widely used. PMID:15734591

  20. Background studies in support of a feasibility assessment on the use of copper-base materials for nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Kundig, K.J.A.; Lyman, W.S.; Prager, M.; Meyers, J.R.; Servi, I.S.

    1990-06-01

    This report combines six work units performed in FY`85--86 by the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Research Association under contract with the University of California. The work includes literature surveys and state-of-the-art summaries on several considerations influencing the feasibility of the use of copper-base materials for fabricating high-level nuclear waste packages for the proposed repository in tuff rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The general conclusion from this work was that copper-base materials are viable candidates for inclusion in the materials selection process for this application. 55 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  1. Estimating Administrative and Procedural Costs Natural Resource Restoration Settlements

    E-print Network

    4/22/98 Estimating Administrative and Procedural Costs for Natural Resource Restoration Settlements Running Head Title: Estimating Administrative and Procedural Costs Donald A. Wickham Restoration Center assessment costs incurred by natural resource trustee agencies (i.e., the federal, state, Indian tribe, and

  2. Adaptive Restoration of Airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    D. Yuan; E. Doak; P. Guss; A. Will

    2002-01-01

    To incorporate the georegistration and restoration processes into airborne data processing in support of U.S. Department of Energy's nuclear emergency response task, we developed an adaptive restoration filter for airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM thermal data based on the Wiener filtering theory. Preliminary assessment shows that this filter enhances the detectability of small weak thermal anomalies in AADS1268 thermal images.

  3. Restoring Stream Ecosystems: Lessons from a Midwestern State

    E-print Network

    Lamberti, Gary A.

    in Indiana, questionnaires and on-site assessments were used to better evaluate current designs for restoring, monitoring, reach scale, rehabilita- tion, restoration, streams, watershed. Introduction Urban and agricultural activities contribute to the degrad- ation of streams and riparian zones worldwide, primarily

  4. Restoration of Ailing Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Oswald J.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes) can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide. PMID:22291573

  5. Estimation theoretical image restoration

    E-print Network

    Dolne, Jean J

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, we have developed an extensive study to evaluate image restoration from a single image, colored or monochromatic. Using a mixture of Gaussian and Poisson noise process, we derived an objective function to ...

  6. 40 CFR 35.1605-8 - Diagnostic-feasibility study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diagnostic-feasibility study. 35.1605-8 Section 35.1605-8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements for Protecting and Restoring Publicly...

  7. 40 CFR 35.1605-8 - Diagnostic-feasibility study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diagnostic-feasibility study. 35.1605-8 Section 35.1605-8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements for Protecting and Restoring Publicly...

  8. 40 CFR 35.1605-8 - Diagnostic-feasibility study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diagnostic-feasibility study. 35.1605-8 Section 35.1605-8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements for Protecting and Restoring Publicly...

  9. 40 CFR 35.1605-8 - Diagnostic-feasibility study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diagnostic-feasibility study. 35.1605-8 Section 35.1605-8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements for Protecting and Restoring Publicly...

  10. MONITORING THE ACCOTINK CREEK STREAM RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the inception of the Clean Water Act (CWA) in 1972, the United States has made great efforts in restoring and preserving the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Nation’s waters. However, nearly half of the nation’s assessed surface water resource...

  11. Wide area restoration following biological contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lynn; Hibbard, Wilthea; Edwards, Donna; Franco, David; Fruetel, Julie; Tucker, Mark; Einfeld, Wayne; Knowlton, Robert; Brown, Gary; Brockmann, John; Greenwalt, Robert; Miles, Robin; Raber, Ellen; Carlsen, Tina; Krauter, Paula; Dillon, Michael; MacQueen, Don; Intrepido, Tony; Hoppes, Bill; Wilson, Wendy; Mancieri, Sav

    2008-04-01

    Current understanding of how to restore a wide area that has been contaminated following a large biological attack is limited. The Department of Homeland Security and Department of Defense are executing a four-year collaborative program named the Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration (IBRD) program. This program is aimed at developing technologies, methods, plans and policies necessary to restore a wide area, including military installations and critical infrastructures, in the event of a large outdoor aerosol release of anthrax. The IBRD program partner pilot city is the Seattle Urban Area to include Fort Lewis, WA and McChord Air Force Base. A front-end systems analysis was conducted as part of IBRD, to: 1) assess existing technologies and processes for wide area restoration; from this, 2) develop an "as-is" decision framework for wide area restoration; and 3) identify and prioritize capability gaps. Qualitative assessments and quantitative analyses, including sensitivity, timeline and case study analyses, were conducted to evaluate existing processes and rank capability gaps. This paper describes the approach and results from this front-end systems analysis.

  12. The Feasibility of Assessing Teenagers' Oral English Language Performance with a Rubric (La viabilidad de evaluar el desempeño oral de los adolescentes en inglés con una rúbrica)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineda, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the experience of a study group in a public university in Colombia, formed mostly by academic coordinators who worked in the design of assessment rubrics. Its focus is on the experience of the academic coordinator of the English program for teenagers, who concentrated on implementing the rubric to assess the students' oral…

  13. A pilot cohort study to assess the feasibility of HIV prevention science research among men who have sex with men in Dakar, Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Dramé, Fatou Maria; Crawford, Emily E; Diouf, Daouda; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan D

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately burdened by HIV in Senegal, across sub-Saharan Africa and throughout the world. This is driven in part by stigma, and limits health achievements and social capital among these populations. To date, there is a limited understanding of the feasibility of prospective HIV prevention studies among MSM in Senegal, including HIV incidence and cohort retention rates. Methods One hundred and nineteen men who reported having anal sex with another man in the past 12 months were randomly selected from a sampling frame of 450 unique members of community groups serving MSM in Dakar. These men were enrolled in a 15-month pilot cohort study implemented by a community-based partner. The study included a structured survey instrument and biological testing for HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B virus at two time points. Results Baseline HIV prevalence was 36.0% (43/114), with cumulative HIV prevalence at study end being 47.2% (51/108). The annualized incidence rate was 16% (8/40 at risk for seroconversion over 15 months of follow-up, 95% confidence interval 4.6–27.4%). Thirty-seven men were lost to follow up, including at least four deaths. Men who were able to confide in someone about health, emotional distress and sex were less likely to be HIV positive (OR 0.36, p < 0.05, 95% CI 0.13, 0.97). Conclusions High HIV prevalence and incidence, as well as mortality in this young population of Senegalese MSM indicate a public health emergency. Moreover, given the high burden of HIV and rate of incident HIV infections, this population appears to be appropriate for the evaluation of novel HIV prevention, treatment and care approaches. Using a study implemented by community-based organizations, there appears to be feasibility in implementing interventions addressing the multiple levels of HIV risk among MSM in this setting. However, low retention across arms of this pilot intervention, and in the cohort, will need to be addressed for larger-scale efficacy trials to be feasible. PMID:24321115

  14. Voids in Sonic Fill(TM) restorations compared to traditional incrementally-filled composite restorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abourezq, Ibraheem A.

    SonicFill(TM) is a new composite resin and delivery system designed to provide rapid filling of cavity preparations by decreasing viscosity through application of sonic energy. However, it may produce unwanted air voids in the final restoration due to the short filling time. Air voids compromise long-term performance by providing weak foci, discontinuity at cavosurface margins and at internal cavity walls, and potential crack propagation. This study assessed the locations, sizes, and numbers of voids in SonicFill restorations compared with traditional composite resin restorations in a set of extracted molars with mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavity preparations. Fifty noncarious intact extracted third molars were collected randomly from a large collection of discarded anonymous tooth specimens. Standardized MOD cavity preparations were cut, and teeth were assigned randomly to one of two groups ( n = 25). The first group was restored with SonicFill composite in two steps. The second group was restored with Herculite Ultra(TM) using an multiple increment layering technique (1-2 mm per layer). Cross-sectional images of the filling were taken by digital microscope. A total of 196 voids were found in the 50 specimens: 97 in SonicFill restorations and 99 in conventional restorations. Mean number of voids in SonicFill restorations was 3.88 versus 3.96 for conventional restorations. Mean percentage of void area in SonicFill restorations was 0.588% versus 0.508% for conventional restorations. Unpaired t tests for these differences indicated no statistically significant differences (p =.931 and p =.629, respectively). One-way ANOVA tests for mean void count and mean void area percentage differences by three location zones for conventional and SonicFill restorations also indicated no significant differences among the groups. The bulk-fill SonicFill system does not result in increased or decreased numbers or ii area of voids within Class II MOD restorations compared with a conventional composite resin layering system.

  15. Long-term deterioration of composite resin and amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Smales, R J

    1991-01-01

    Previous long-term longitudinal studies of two different methods of placing an auto-cured conventional anterior composite resin, and of a low- and a high-copper amalgam alloy, had shown similar restoration survivals despite the different resin treatment methods used or the types of amalgam alloy placed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess several clinical factors or characteristics of these restorations that were believed to affect the survival of the restorative materials. The 950 composite resin and the 1042 amalgam restorations examined were placed by many operators in numerous patients attending a dental hospital. The composite resin restorations were placed using unetched- and etched-enamel-bonding treatment methods, and the amalgam restorations were polished after insertion. Clinical ratings supplemented by color transparencies were used for the assessment of four factors for the resin, and four factors for the amalgam restoration. Significant deterioration differences were found for several of the clinical factors assessed for both the two different composite resin treatment methods, and for the two different amalgam alloys, which were not directly related to the restoration survivals. PMID:1840079

  16. Final Report and Strategic Plan on the Feasibility Study to Assess Geothermal Potential on Warm Springs Reservation Lands. Report No. DOE/GO/15177

    SciTech Connect

    James Manion, Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises; David McClain, McClain & Associates

    2007-05-17

    In 2005 the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Tribal Council authorized an evaluation of the geothermal development potential on the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises obtained a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct a geological assessment and development estimate. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises utilized a team of expert consultants to conduct the study and develop a strategic plan. The resource assessment work was completed in 2006 by GeothermEx Inc., a consulting company specializing in geothermal resource assessments worldwide. The GeothermEx report indicates there is a 90% probability that a commercial geothermal resource exists on tribal lands in the Mt. Jefferson area. The geothermal resource assessment and other cost, risk and constraints information has been incorporated into the strategic plan.

  17. Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-09-01

    In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered species and wetlands, and wild turkeys that may feed on contaminated vegetation and insects in WAG 5 have been screened for beta-emitting isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. The screening-level ecological risk assessment identified some data gaps that were addressed in the ecological assessment plan. These include gaps in data on the toxicity of surface water and soil within WAG 5 and on the status of rare and endangered species. In addition, the screening-level risk assessment identified the need for data on the level of contaminants in wild turkeys that may be consumed by predatory wildlife and humans. Three rounds of ambient toxicity tests on six streams and seeps, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia, have identified potential toxicity in three of the sample sites. Further tests are required to identify the toxicant. No rare or endangered animal species have been identified in the WAG 5 area.

  18. Assessing regional environmental quality by integrated use of remote sensing, GIS, and spatial multi-criteria evaluation for prioritization of environmental restoration.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Rejaur; Shi, Z H; Chongfa, Cai

    2014-11-01

    This study was an attempt to analyse the regional environmental quality with the application of remote sensing, geographical information system, and spatial multiple criteria decision analysis and, to project a quantitative method applicable to identify the status of the regional environment of the study area. Using spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) approach with expert knowledge in this study, an integrated regional environmental quality index (REQI) was computed and classified into five levels of regional environment quality viz. worse, poor, moderate, good, and very good. During the process, a set of spatial criteria were selected (here, 15 criterions) together with the degree of importance of criteria in sustainability of the regional environment. Integrated remote sensing and GIS technique and models were applied to generate the necessary factors (criterions) maps for the SMCE approach. The ranking, along with expected value method, was used to standardize the factors and on the other hand, an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was applied for calculating factor weights. The entire process was executed in the integrated land and water information system (ILWIS) software tool that supports SMCE. The analysis showed that the overall regional environmental quality of the area was at moderate level and was partly determined by elevation. Areas under worse and poor quality of environment indicated that the regional environmental status showed decline in these parts of the county. The study also revealed that the human activities, vegetation condition, soil erosion, topography, climate, and soil conditions have serious influence on the regional environment condition of the area. Considering the regional characteristics of environmental quality, priority, and practical needs for environmental restoration, the study area was further regionalized into four priority areas which may serve as base areas of decision making for the recovery, rebuilding, and protection of the environment. PMID:25037964

  19. 15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of... ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.54 Restoration selection—evaluation of alternatives. (a) Evaluation standards. Once trustees have developed a...

  20. 15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of... ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.54 Restoration selection—evaluation of alternatives. (a) Evaluation standards. Once trustees have developed a...

  1. 15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of... ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.54 Restoration selection—evaluation of alternatives. (a) Evaluation standards. Once trustees have developed a...

  2. 15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of... ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.54 Restoration selection—evaluation of alternatives. (a) Evaluation standards. Once trustees have developed a...

  3. 15 CFR 990.54 - Restoration selection-evaluation of alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-evaluation of... ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.54 Restoration selection—evaluation of alternatives. (a) Evaluation standards. Once trustees have developed a...

  4. Restoring the prairie

    SciTech Connect

    Mlot, C.

    1990-12-01

    The US DOE at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois, prairie restoration is taking place in order to conserve the rich topsoil. This is the largest of many prairie restoration experiments. Big bluestem grass (Andropogon gerardi), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), and buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides) are the main initial grasses grown. After their growth reaches enough biomass to sustain a fire, other prairie plants such as purple prairie clover and dropseed grass appear. The goal of this is to provide a generous refuge for disappearing native plants and animals, a site for scientific research, and a storehouse of genes adapted to a region that produces much of the worlds food. Plans for restoring the marsh and oak savanna, also native to the Fermilab site are also in the works.

  5. Preoperative evaluation for tracheoesophageal voice restoration.

    PubMed

    Gress, Carla DeLassus

    2004-06-01

    Systematic preoperative assessment by the surgeon and speech pathologist reduces complications and increases the success rates of tracheoesophageal (TE) voice restoration by identifying unsuitable candidates for the procedure. Preselection criteria are based on the various medical, psychologic, structural, and physiologic factors that are contraindications to the procedure or are associated with failure of the TE method. Predictive testing as part of the preoperative evaluation for secondary voice restoration can identify patients with structural or physiologic abnormalities that will hinder the development of satisfactory TE speech. Early recognition and management of potential obstacles to TE voice production will shorten the recovery time to achieve functional communication,and allow more laryngectomees to benefit from the TE voice restoration method of alaryngeal communication. PMID:15163598

  6. Computer-assisted, Le Fort-based, face–jaw–teeth transplantation: a pilot study on system feasiblity and translational assessment

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Ryan J.; Gordon, Chad R.; Basafa, Ehsan; Liacouras, Peter; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Le Fort-based face–jaw–teeth transplantation (FJTT) attempts to marry bone and teeth geometry of size-mismatched face–jaw–teeth segments to restore function and form due to severe mid-facial trauma. Recent development of a computer-assisted planning and execution (CAPE) system for Le Fort-based FJTT in a pre-clinical swine model offers preoperative planning, and intraoperative navigation. This paper addresses the translation of the CAPE system to human anatomy and presents accuracy results. Methods Single-jaw, Le Fort-based FJTTs were performed on plastic models, one swine and one human, and on a human cadaver. Preoperative planning defined the goal placement of the donor’s Le Fort-based FJTT segment on the recipient. Patient-specific navigated cutting guides helped achieve planned osteotomies. Intraoperative cutting guide and donor fragment placement were compared with postoperative computed tomography (CT) data and the preoperative plan. Results Intraoperative measurement error with respect to postoperative CT was less than 1.25 mm for both mock transplants and 3.59 mm for the human cadaver scenario. Donor fragment placement (as compared to the planned position) was less accurate for the human model test case (2.91 mm) compared with the swine test (2.25 mm) and human cadaver (2.26 mm). Conclusion The results indicate the viability of the CAPE system for assisting with Le Fort-based FJTT and demonstrate the potential in human surgery. This system offers a new path forward to achieving improved outcomes in Le Fort-based FJTT and can be modified to assist with a variety of other surgeries involving the head, neck, face, jaws and teeth. PMID:25230895

  7. Technology needs for environmental restoration remedial action

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.S.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important technology needs for the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. These facilities are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The sources of information used in this assessment were a survey of selected representatives of the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at each facility, results from a questionnaire distributed by Geotech CWM, Inc., for DOE, and associated discussions with individuals from each facility. This is not a final assessment, but a brief look at an ongoing assessment; the needs will change as the plans for restoration change and, it is hoped, as some technical problems are solved through successful development programs.

  8. Technical approach to groundwater restoration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures.

  9. Using Computerized Workflow Simulations to Assess the Feasibility of Whole Slide Imaging Full Adoption in a High-Volume Histology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, David S.; Lee, Roy E.; Gilbertson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Whole slide Imaging (WSI) has been touted by many as the future of pathology, with estimates of full adoption occurring sometime in the next 5 to 15 years. While WSI devices have become increasingly capable since their inception, there has been little consideration of how WSI will be implemented and subsequently affect the workflow of high volume histology laboratories. Methods: Histology workflow process data was collected from a high-volume histology laboratory (Massachusetts General Hospital) and a process model developed using business process management software. Computerized workflow simulations were performed and total histology process time evaluated under a number of different WSI conditions. Results: Total histology process time increased approximately 10-fold to 20-fold over baseline with the presence of one WSI robot in the histology workflow. Depending on the specifications of the WSI robot, anywhere from 9 to 14 WSI robots were required within the histology workflow to minimize the effects of WSI. Conclusion: Placing a WSI robot into the current workflow of a high-volume histology laboratory with the intent of full adoption is not feasible. Implementing WSI without making significant changes to the current workflow of the histology laboratory would prove to be both disruptive and costly to surgical pathology. PMID:21987587

  10. A comparative study of microneedle-based cutaneous immunization with other conventional routes to assess feasibility of microneedles for allergy immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Akhilesh Kumar; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2015-08-01

    Feasibility of microneedles (MNs) for cutaneous allergen specific immunotherapy (ASI) is demonstrated by comparing against currently practiced subcutaneous (SC) allergen immunotherapy, and the intramuscular (IM) and intraperitoneal (IP) routes. In Balb/c mice with ovalbumin (Ova, 25 ?g) as the allergen MNs-Ova without alum induced anti-Ova IgG response comparable to IM but higher than SC and IP groups (250 ?g alum was additionally used for SC, IM and IP groups). MNs-Ova induced higher anti-Ova IgG1 and IgG2a responses in comparison to other routes; however IgG2b and IgG3 responses were significantly lower than the IP group. As in SC group, anti-Ova IgE and IgA were low for MNs-Ova. Furthermore, MNs-Ova induced expression of IL-5, IL-13, IFN-? and IL-1? cytokines in serum, but at significantly lower levels than other routes. Overall, MNs-Ova induced allergen-specific IgG antibodies, and activated the Th1 pathway (evidenced by higher IgG2a levels), suggesting their potential use for painless ASI. PMID:26092307

  11. Clinical Measures Are Feasible and Sensitive to Assess Balance and Gait Capacities in Older Persons with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enkelaar, Lotte; Smulders, Ellen; Lantman-de Valk, Henny van Schrojenstein; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Geurts, Alexander C. H.

    2013-01-01

    Mobility limitations are common in persons with Intellectual Disabilities (ID). Differences in balance and gait capacities between persons with ID and controls have mainly been demonstrated by instrumented assessments (e.g. posturography and gait analysis), which require sophisticated and expensive equipment such as force plates or a 3D motion…

  12. Using in vitro/in silico data for consumer safety assessment of feed flavoring additives--A feasibility study using piperine.

    PubMed

    Thiel, A; Etheve, S; Fabian, E; Leeman, W R; Plautz, J R

    2015-10-01

    Consumer health risk assessment for feed additives is based on the estimated human exposure to the additive that may occur in livestock edible tissues compared to its hazard. We present an approach using alternative methods for consumer health risk assessment. The aim was to use the fewest possible number of animals to estimate its hazard and human exposure without jeopardizing the safety upon use. As an example we selected the feed flavoring substance piperine and applied in silico modeling for residue estimation, results from literature surveys, and Read-Across to assess metabolism in different species. Results were compared to experimental in vitro metabolism data in rat and chicken, and to quantitative analysis of residues' levels from the in vivo situation in livestock. In silico residue modeling showed to be a worst case: the modeled residual levels were considerably higher than the measured residual levels. The in vitro evaluation of livestock versus rodent metabolism revealed no major differences in metabolism between the species. We successfully performed a consumer health risk assessment without performing additional animal experiments. As shown, the use and combination of different alternative methods supports animal welfare consideration and provides future perspective to reducing the number of animals. PMID:26107290

  13. An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: The Feasibility of Incorporating Climate Change Information into Land Protection Planning (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared by the Global Change Research Program (GCRP) in the National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) of the Office of Research and Development (ORD) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This draft report is a review of decision-making pro...

  14. Development and evaluation of the feasibility and effects on staff, patients, and families of a new tool, the Psychosocial Assessment and Communication Evaluation (PACE), to improve communication and palliative care in intensive care and during clinical uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are widespread concerns about communication and support for patients and families, especially when they face clinical uncertainty, a situation most marked in intensive care units (ICUs). Therefore, we aimed to develop and evaluate an interventional tool to improve communication and palliative care, using the ICU as an example of where this is difficult. Methods Our design was a phase I-II study following the Medical Research Council Guidance for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions and the (Methods of Researching End-of-life Care (MORECare) statement. In two ICUs, with over 1900 admissions annually, phase I modeled a new intervention comprising implementation training and an assessment tool. We conducted a literature review, qualitative interviews, and focus groups with 40 staff and 13 family members. This resulted in the new tool, the Psychosocial Assessment and Communication Evaluation (PACE). Phase II evaluated the feasibility and effects of PACE, using observation, record audit, and surveys of staff and family members. Qualitative data were analyzed using the framework approach. The statistical tests used on quantitative data were t-tests (for normally distributed characteristics), the ?2 or Fisher’s exact test (for non-normally distributed characteristics) and the Mann–Whitney U-test (for experience assessments) to compare the characteristics and experience for cases with and without PACE recorded. Results PACE provides individualized assessments of all patients entering the ICU. It is completed within 24 to 48 hours of admission, and covers five aspects (key relationships, social details and needs, patient preferences, communication and information status, and other concerns), followed by recording of an ongoing communication evaluation. Implementation is supported by a training program with specialist palliative care. A post-implementation survey of 95 ICU staff found that 89% rated PACE assessment as very or generally useful. Of 213 family members, 165 (78%) responded to their survey, and two-thirds had PACE completed. Those for whom PACE was completed reported significantly higher satisfaction with symptom control, and the honesty and consistency of information from staff (Mann–Whitney U-test ranged from 616 to 1247, P-values ranged from 0.041 to 0.010) compared with those who did not. Conclusions PACE is a feasible interventional tool that has the potential to improve communication, information consistency, and family perceptions of symptom control. PMID:24083470

  15. 14. EAST ELEVATION, COTTAGE. EXTERIOR NEARLY RESTORED. INTERIOR UNDERGOING RESTORATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. EAST ELEVATION, COTTAGE. EXTERIOR NEARLY RESTORED. INTERIOR UNDERGOING RESTORATION. EUCALYPTUS TREE PLANTED BY GERTRUDE KEIL PLANNED FOR REMOVAL. - Gold Ridge Farm, 7777 Bodega Avenue, Sebastopol, Sonoma County, CA

  16. Manzanita Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Trisha Frank

    2004-09-30

    The Manzanita Indian Reservation is located in southeastern San Diego County, California. The Tribe has long recognized that the Reservation has an abundant wind resource that could be commercially utilized to its benefit. Manzanita has explored the wind resource potential on tribal land and developed a business plan by means of this wind energy feasibility project, which enables Manzanita to make informed decisions when considering the benefits and risks of encouraging large-scale wind power development on their lands. Technical consultant to the project has been SeaWest Consulting, LLC, an established wind power consulting company. The technical scope of the project covered the full range of feasibility assessment activities from site selection through completion of a business plan for implementation. The primary objectives of this feasibility study were to: (1) document the quality and suitability of the Manzanita Reservation as a site for installation and long-term operation of a commercially viable utility-scale wind power project; and, (2) develop a comprehensive and financeable business plan.

  17. Elwha River Restoration

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A large cooperative project is taking place with Olympic National Park in the Elwha River in anticipation of removal of two dams. Restoration of the entire river to natural free flows will allow returning salmon access to historic spawning grounds. This promises to return the historic giant Chinook ...

  18. Elwha River Restoration

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A large cooperative project is taking place with Olympic National Park in the Elwha River in anticipation of removal of two dams. Restoration of the entire river to natural free flows will allow returning salmon access to historic spawning grounds. This promises to return the historic giant Chinook...

  19. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  20. Model for Coastal Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Judd, Chaeli

    2007-07-27

    Successful restoration of wetland habitats depends on both our understanding of our system and our ability to characterize it. By developing a conceptual model, looking at different spatial scales and integrating diverse data streams: GIS datasets and NASA products, we were able to develop a dynamic model for site prioritization based on both qualitative and quantitative relationships found in the coastal environment.