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Sample records for restorative treatment art

  1. [Post-academic dental specialties. 11. Discomfort during atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) versus conventional restorative treatment].

    PubMed

    van Gemert-Schriks, M C M

    2007-05-01

    Although Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) claims to be a patient-friendly method of treatment, little scientific proof of this is available. The aim of this study, therefore, was to acquire a reliable measurement of the degree of discomfort which children experience during dental treatment performed according to the ART approach and during the conventional method. A number of 403 Indonesian schoolchildren were randomly divided into 2 groups. In each child, one class II restoration was carried out on a deciduous molar either by means of ART or the use of rotary instruments (750 rpm). Discomfort scores were determined both by physiological measurements (heart rate) and behavioral observations (Venham scale). Venham scores showed a marked difference between the 2 groups, whereas heart rate scores only differed significantly during deep excavation. A correlation was found between Venham scores and heart rate measurements. Sex, initial anxiety and performing dentist were shown to be confounding variables. In conclusion it can be said that children treated according to the ART approach experience less discomfort than those treated with rotary instruments. PMID:17552299

  2. Dental practitioners' attitudes, subjective norms and intentions to practice atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kikwilu, Emil N; Frencken, Jo E; Mulder, Jan; Masalu, Joyce R

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the attitude and subjective norm of dental practitioners towards practicing the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) in Tanzania. A pre-tested questionnaire on attitudes and subjective norms to practice ART was mailed to all 147 dental practitioners working in the regional and district government clinics. The independent variables were: gender, working experience, qualification and ever heard of ART. The dependent variables were: attitude, subjective norm and intention to practice ART. Chi-square tests and multiple regression analysis were used to test for effects between independent and dependent variables. Significance level was set at 5%. A total of 138 practitioners returned completed questionnaires. More experienced dental practitioners encountered moderate social pressure than less experienced dental practitioners, who met strong social pressure (p=0.045). A total of 73.2% of dental practitioners felt that ART was worth introducing in Tanzania, 92.8% recommended ART training for all dental practitioners and 97.8% recommended inclusion of ART in dental curricula. Positive attitude, strong subjective norm and high intention to practice ART were recorded in 76.3%, 28.1% and 90.6% of the practitioners, respectively. Only subjective norm had a statistically significant influence on the intention to practice ART (p<0.0001). The results indicated that dental practitioners were willing to have ART introduced in Tanzania and had positive attitudes towards practicing this technique. Nevertheless, their intention to perform ART was strongly influenced by social pressures. Therefore, in order to have a successful introduction of ART in Tanzania, people who matter in the daily practice of dental practitioners need to accept and appraise the ART approach positively. PMID:19274393

  3. E-learning used in a training course on atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) for Brazilian dentists.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Lucila Basto; Aldrigui, Janaina Merli; Imparato, José Carlos Pettorossi; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Wen, Chao Lung; Bönecker, Marcelo; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; Haddad, Ana Estela

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the benefits of using e-learning resources in a dental training course on Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART). This e-course was given in a DVD format, which presented the ART technique and philosophy. The participants were twenty-four dentists from the Brazilian public health system. Prior to receiving the DVD, the dentists answered a questionnaire regarding their personal data, previous knowledge about ART, and general interest in training courses. The dentists also participated in an assessment process consisting of a test applied before and after the course. A single researcher corrected the tests, and intraexaminer reproducibility was calculated (kappa=0.89). Paired t-tests were carried out to compare the means between the assessments, showing a significant improvement in the performance of the subjects on the test taken after the course (p<0.05). A linear regression model was used with the difference between the means as the outcome. A greater improvement on the test results was observed among female dentists (p=0.034), dentists working for a shorter period of time in the public health system (p=0.042), and dentists who used the ART technique only for urgent and/or temporary treatment (p=0.010). In conclusion, e-learning has the potential of improving the knowledge that dentists working in the public health system have about ART, especially those with less clinical experience and less knowledge about the subject. PMID:22012785

  4. Proposal of e-learning strategy to teach Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) to undergraduate and graduate students

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate e-learning strategy in teaching Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) to undergraduate and graduate students. The sample comprised 76 participants—38 dental students and 38 pediatric dentistry students—in a specialization course. To evaluate knowledge improvement, participants were subjected to a test performed before and after the course. Results A single researcher corrected the tests and intraexaminer reproducibility was calculated (CCI = 0.991; 95% IC = 0.975–0.996). All students improved their performances after the e-learning course (Paired t-tests p < 0.001). The means of undergraduate students were 4.7 (initial) and 6.4 (final) and those of graduate students were 6.8 (initial) and 8.2 (final). The comparison of the final evaluation means showed a statistically significant difference (t-tests p < 0.0001). Conclusions The e-learning strategy has the potential of improving students’ knowledge in ART. Mature students perform better in this teaching modality when it is applied exclusively via distance learning. PMID:25034167

  5. PERFORMANCE OF BRAZILIAN AND IMPORTED GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS USED IN ATRAUMATIC RESTORATIVE TREATMENT (ART) REGARDING MICROLEAKAGE IN PRIMARY MOLARS

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Fernanda de Morais; do Vale, Miriam Pimenta Parreira; Jansen, Wellington Corrêa; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of assessing the performance of Brazilian and imported glass ionomer cements (GIC) with regard to microleakage, 40 primary molars received two standard class II cavity preparations with margins in enamel. Twenty cavities were filled with Brazilian materials (Vidrion® R and Vidrion® RCaps) and the other 20 cavities were filled with imported materials (Fuji® IX and Fuji® IXGPFast capsule). All fillings were performed by a single operator according to the manufacturer's instructions. Teeth were immersed in 0.5% methylene blue and half-sectioned. Three independent calibrated examiners assessed microleakage using scores (0-3). Data were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis statistical test and Wilcoxon analysis. High microleakage indexes were verified for all ionomer cements: 59.5% of the samples restored with Vidrion® R or Vidrion® RCaps and 83.4% of the samples restored with Fuji® IX or Fuji® IXGpFast capsule obtained the maximum score (3). The Brazilian ionomer cements presented less microleakage than imported cements, although this difference was only significant (p=0.003) among the encapsulated materials. PMID:19089050

  6. [Combined orthodontic and restorative treatment].

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, M A R; Loomans, B

    2015-11-01

    In patients with agenesis or enamel anomalies in anterior teeth combined orthodontic and restorative treatment is often necessary to achieve an optimal aesthetic result. How both can best be achieved, but also how to maintain the result, requires communication between the dentist and the orthodontist. The orthodontic treatment plan needs to be established in cooperation with the dentist who will carry out the restorative treatment while the patient is at a young age. Since with these young patients, who are still growing craniofacially and whose teeth are still developing, possible future restorative and/or orthodontic treatment, as well as the means of orthodontic retention, need to be included in the treatment plan. In cleft palate patients, it is also important that methods of orthodontic retention of maxillary arch width are given timely attention in the restorative treatment plan because it is especially vulnerable to relapse. PMID:26568998

  7. Treatment planning for restorative implantology.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Ricardo A; Klemons, Gary

    2015-04-01

    In this article, current literature on fixed and removable prosthodontics is reviewed along with evidence-based systematic reviews, including advice from those in the dental profession with years of experience, which help restorative dentists manage and treat their cases successfully. Treatment planning for restorative implantology should be looked at in 4 sections: (1) review of past medical history, (2) oral examination and occlusion, (3) dental imaging (ie, cone-beam computed tomography), and (4) fixed versus removable prosthodontics. These 4 concepts of treatment planning, along with proper surgical placements of the implant(s), result in successful cases. PMID:25835794

  8. One year survival of ART and conventional restorations in patients with disability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing restorative treatment for persons with disability may be challenging and has been related to the patient’s ability to cope with the anxiety engendered by treatment and to cooperate fully with the demands of the clinical situation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival rate of ART restorations compared to conventional restorations in people with disability referred for special care dentistry. Methods Three treatment protocols were distinguished: ART (hand instruments/high-viscosity glass-ionomer); conventional restorative treatment (rotary instrumentation/resin composite) in the clinic (CRT/clinic) and under general anaesthesia (CRT/GA). Patients were referred for restorative care to a special care centre and treated by one of two specialists. Patients and/or their caregivers were provided with written and verbal information regarding the proposed techniques, and selected the type of treatment they were to receive. Treatment was provided as selected but if this option proved clinically unfeasible one of the alternative techniques was subsequently proposed. Evaluation of restoration survival was performed by two independent trained and calibrated examiners using established ART restoration assessment codes at 6 months and 12 months. The Proportional Hazard model with frailty corrections was applied to calculate survival estimates over a one year period. Results 66 patients (13.6 ± 7.8 years) with 16 different medical disorders participated. CRT/clinic proved feasible for 5 patients (7.5%), the ART approach for 47 patients (71.2%), and 14 patients received CRT/GA (21.2%). In all, 298 dentine carious lesions were restored in primary and permanent teeth, 182 (ART), 21 (CRT/clinic) and 95 (CRT/GA). The 1-year survival rates and jackknife standard error of ART and CRT restorations were 97.8 ± 1.0% and 90.5 ± 3.2%, respectively (p = 0.01). Conclusions These short-term results indicate that ART appears to be an

  9. Hair restoration surgery: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Vogel, James E; Jimenez, Francisco; Cole, John; Keene, Sharon A; Harris, James A; Barrera, Alfonso; Rose, Paul T

    2013-01-01

    Hair restoration is a highly sophisticated subspecialty that offers significant relief to patients with hair loss. An improved understanding of the aesthetics of hair loss and cosmetic hair restoration, hair anatomy and physiology, and the development of microvascular surgical instrumentation has revolutionized the approach to surgical hair restoration since the original description. Additional elements that contribute to the current state of the art in hair restoration include graft size, site creation, packing density, and medical control of hair loss. The results of hair restoration are natural in appearance and are provided with a very high level of patient satisfaction and safety. This aspect of cosmetic surgery is a very welcome addition to a traditional aesthetic practice and serves as a tremendous source for internal cross-referral. The future of hair restoration surgery is centered on minimal-incision surgery as well as cell-based therapies. PMID:23169821

  10. Two years survival rate of class II composite resin restorations prepared by ART with and without a chemomechanical caries removal gel in primary molars.

    PubMed

    Topaloglu-Ak, Asli; Eden, Ece; Frencken, Jo E; Oncag, Ozant

    2009-09-01

    The aim was to test the null hypotheses that there is no difference: (1) in carious lesion development at the restoration margin between class II composite resin restorations in primary molars produced through the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) with and without a chemomechanical caries removal gel and (2) in the survival rate of class II composite resin restorations between two treatment groups after 2 years. Three hundred twenty-seven children with 568 class II cavitated lesions were included in a parallel mouth study design. Four operators placed resin composite (Filtek Z 250) restorations bonded with a self-etch adhesive (Adper prompt L pop). Two independent examiners evaluated the restorations after 0.5, 1, and 2 years using the modified Ryge criteria. The Kaplan-Meier survival method was applied to estimate survival percentages. A high proportion of restorations were lost during the study period. Therefore, the first hypothesis could not be tested. No statistically significant difference was observed between the cumulative survival percentages of restorations produced by the two treatment approaches over the 2-year period (ART, 54.1 +/- 3.4%; ART with Carisolv, 46.0 +/- 3.4%). This hypothesis was accepted. ART with chemomechanical gel might not provide an added benefit increasing the survival percentages of ART class II composite resin restorations in primary teeth. PMID:19101739

  11. Enamel hypoplasia: challenges of esthetic restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Ruschel, Vanessa Carla; Araújo, Élito; Bernardon, Jussara Karina; Lopes, Guilherme Carpena

    2016-01-01

    Enamel defects, such as white or yellow-brown spots, usually cause problems that are more esthetic than functional. Enamel hypoplasia may be the result of hereditary, systemic, or local factors. Dental trauma is a local etiologic factor. It is relatively common in the primary dentition and can cause defects on the surface of permanent successors. Treatment for such defects can differ, depending on the depth of the spots. For deeper white-spot lesions, a composite resin restoration may be necessary. This is an excellent mode of treatment, due to both its low cost and its conservation of healthy tooth structure. The objective of this case report is to describe composite resin restoration of a maxillary central incisor affected by enamel hypoplasia. PMID:27599287

  12. Three-year survival of one-surface ART restorations and glass-ionomer sealants in a school oral health programme in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Frencken, J E; Makoni, F; Sithole, W D; Hackenitz, E

    1998-01-01

    An oral health care programme in secondary schools using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach for dental caries was started in 1993. Glass ionomer (restorative type II, 1) was used as the restorative and sealant material. Sealants were placed using the 'press-finger' technique. Results after 3 years revealed a survival percentage for one-surface ART restorations of 85.3 (95% CL: 89.7-80.9%), which ranged from 96.1 to 69.3% per operator. Failures were related to 'unacceptable marginal defects' (8.1%), 'falling out' (6.1%) and 'excessive wear' (2.5%). Of the 33 failed one-surface ART restorations, 17 were material-related, 7 had caries and no information was available for 9 restorations. Sealants were placed only on surfaces diagnosed as early enamel lesions and on some small dentinal lesions. After 3 years, 50.1% (95% CL: 55.1-45.1%) of the fully and partially retained sealants survived with a range of 68.5-25.9% per operator. Regardless of the low rate of retention, the sealed surfaces had a 4 times lower chance of developing caries than unsealed surfaces with early enamel lesions over the 3-year period. The retention of sealants and the survival of one-surface ART restorations were influenced by an operator effect. The mean treatment time for one-surface ART restorations without chairside assistance was 22.1 min (range per operator of 19.8-23.6 min), whilst the mean time for placing sealants was 9.3 min (range per operator of 8.2-10.8 min). It is concluded that the ART approach and the use of glass-ionomer sealants have made preventive and restorative dental care available for this student population and further that ART seems to be appropriate for population groups currently not receiving preventive and restorative dental care. PMID:9544860

  13. A FIELD-TRIAL OF TWO RESTORATIVE MATERIALS USED WITH ATRAUMATIC RESTORATIVE TREATMENT IN RURAL TURKEY: 24-MONTH RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Ertugrul; Dülgergil, Ç. Türksel; Soyman, Mübin; Dalli, Mehmet; Yildirim, Isil

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of high-strength glass ionomer cement (HSGIC) and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC) in single and multiple surface carious cavities in the field conditions. Material and Methods: A split-mouth design, including ninety-one fillings placed on contra lateral molar pairs of 37 children, was used in permanent dentition. As filling materials, a HSGIC (Ketac Molar/3M ESPE) and a RMGIC (Vitremer/ 3M ESPE) were used with the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART). Baseline and 6, 12 and 24-month evaluations of the fillings were made with standard-ART and USPHS criteria by two examiners with kappa values of 0.92 and 0.87 for both criteria. Results: According to the USPHS criteria, the retention rates of RMGIC and HSGIC restorations were 100% and 80.9% for single surface, and 100% and 41.2% for multiple surface restorations after 24 months, respectively. Irrespective of surface number, RMGIC was significantly superior to HSGIC (p= 0.004), according to both standard-ART and USPHS criteria. Conclusion: The results indicate that RMGIC may be an alternative restorative technique in comparison to high-strength GIC applications in ART-field-trials. However, further clinical and field trials are needed to support this conclusion. PMID:19668990

  14. Toward the Restoration of the Liberal Arts Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    Important trends concerning the role of the liberal arts curriculum in American higher education are discussed in this collection of conference papers. The "great books" program at St. John's College is examined in a paper by Eva T. H. Brann focusing on why the St. John's plan has endured and changed little since its inception. Authors of the…

  15. Restoring Wisconsin Art Therapy Association in Art Therapy History: Implications for Professional Definition and Inclusivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potash, Jordan; Burnie, Michele; Pearson, Rosemary; Ramirez, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The Wisconsin Art Therapy Association (WATA), formally established in 1969, was the first incorporated organization of art therapists in the United States. Under the leadership of Wayne Ramirez, WATA lobbied the national association for an inclusive definition of art therapy that aimed to foster respect for psychiatric, educational, and community…

  16. [The atraumatic restorative treatment approach in pediatric dental care: a comparative clinical study].

    PubMed

    Dmitrova, A G; Kulakov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare the discomfort levels during Atraumatic Restorative Treatment and Minimal Cavity Preparation using rotary instruments and Air abrasion method. The results of the study suggest that ART induces less discomfort, therefore this method can be recommended for children who have a fear of dental procedures as well as for children with intellectual disabilities. PMID:26145474

  17. Iatrogenic Damage to Periodontium by Restorative Treatment Procedures: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sirajuddin, Syed; Narasappa, Kumuda M; Gundapaneni, Veenadharini; Chungkham, Sachidananda; Walikar, Ambica S

    2015-01-01

    The regenerative capability found in most other tissues is not possessed by teeth. Hence, enamel or dentin once lost as a result of caries, trauma, wear, and restorative materials must be replaced to restore form and function. Teeth require preparation to receive restorations, and these preparations must be based on fundamental principles from which basic criteria can be developed to help predict the success of restorative treatment. PMID:26312091

  18. STATE-OF-THE-ART OF AQUIFER RESTORATION. VOLUME 2. APPENDICES A THROUGH G

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two-volume report presents a summary of the state-of-the-art of aquifer restoration. Included are eight sections and seven appendices. The text includes sections on: (1) ground water pollution control through institutional measures, source control, stabilization/solidificati...

  19. STATE-OF-THE ART OF AQUIFER RESTORATION. VOLUME 1. SECTIONS 1 THROUGH 8

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two-volume report presents a summary of the state-of-the-art of aquifer restoration. Included are eight sections and seven appendices. The text includes sections on: (1) ground water pollution control through institutional measures, source control, stabilization/solidificati...

  20. Clinical outcome of root caries restorations using ART and rotary techniques in institutionalized elders.

    PubMed

    Cruz Gonzalez, Alberto Carlos; Marín Zuluaga, Dairo Javier

    2016-05-31

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical performance of root caries restorations after a six-month period using two methods, a conventional technique with rotary instruments and an atraumatic restorative technique (ART), in an institutionalized elderly population in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. Root caries represents a multifactorial, progressive, chronic lesion with softened, irregular and darkened tissue involving the radicular surface; it is highly prevalent in the elderly, especially in those who are physically or cognitively impaired. A quasi-experimental, double-blind, longitudinal study was carried out after cluster randomization of the sample. Two different experienced dentists, previously trained, performed the restorations using each technique. After six months, two new investigators performed a blind evaluation of the condition of the restorations. The results showed a significantly higher rate of success (92.9%) using the conventional technique (p < 0.03). However, we concluded that ART may have been the preferred technique in the study population because 81% of those restorations survived or were successful during the observation period. PMID:27253146

  1. The effects of ambient temperature and mixing time of glass ionomer cement material on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars

    PubMed Central

    Kemoli, Arthur M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Temperature fluctuations and material mixing times are likely to affect the consistency and integrity of the material mixture, and hence the restoration made out of it. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of the ambient temperature and the mixing time of glass ionomer cement (GIC) restorative material on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations placed in primary molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 804 restorations were placed in the primary molars of 6-8-year-olds using the ART approach. The restorations were then followed for a period of 2 years and evaluated at given intervals. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS computer statistical program, and the results tested and compared using the Chi-square, Kaplan Meier survival analysis and Cox Proportional hazard statistical tests. Results: The cumulative survival rate of the restorations dropped from the initial 94.4% to 30.8% at the end of 2 years. The higher survival rate of the restorations was associated with the experienced operators and assistants when using the rubber dam isolation method. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the survival rate of the restorations when related to the room temperature and the mixing time of the GIC materials used in spite of the variations in the temperature recoded and the methods used in mixing the materials. Conclusion: The ambient temperature and mixing time of GIC did not have a significant effect on the survival of the proximal ART restorations. PMID:24808692

  2. [Atraumatic restorative treatment to control dental caries: history, characteristics, and contributions of the technique].

    PubMed

    Tascón, Jorge

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents relevant scientific information on the history, characteristics, and contributions of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) for use in preventing and controlling dental caries. Within the area of oral public health, ART has been for years an economical, effective method for preventing and controlling caries in vulnerable populations. Among other things, ART reduces the stress and anxiety in patients that conventional restoration methods produce. This technique promises major benefits for Latin America. However, given its limitations with dental cavities on two or more surfaces, it is recommended that more research on this approach be encouraged, with the aim of improving the technique's effectiveness based on its characteristics, indications, and technical merits. PMID:15826387

  3. Multilevel modelling of clustered grouped survival data using Cox regression model: an application to ART dental restorations.

    PubMed

    Wong, May C M; Lam, K F; Lo, Edward C M

    2006-02-15

    In some controlled clinical trials in dental research, multiple failure time data from the same patient are frequently observed that result in clustered multiple failure time. Moreover, the treatments are often delivered by more than one operator and thus the multiple failure times are clustered according to a multilevel structure when the operator effects are assumed to be random. In practice, it is often too expensive or even impossible to monitor the study subjects continuously, but they are examined periodically at some regular pre-scheduled visits. Hence, discrete or grouped clustered failure time data are collected. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the use of the Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) approach and non-informative prior in a Bayesian framework to mimic the maximum likelihood (ML) estimation in a frequentist approach in multilevel modelling of clustered grouped survival data. A three-level model with additive variance components model for the random effects is considered in this paper. Both the grouped proportional hazards model and the dynamic logistic regression model are used. The approximate intra-cluster correlation of the log failure times can be estimated when the grouped proportional hazards model is used. The statistical package WinBUGS is adopted to estimate the parameter of interest based on the MCMC method. The models and method are applied to a data set obtained from a prospective clinical study on a cohort of Chinese school children that atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations were placed on permanent teeth with carious lesions. Altogether 284 ART restorations were placed by five dentists and clinical status of the ART restorations was evaluated annually for 6 years after placement, thus clustered grouped failure times of the restorations were recorded. Results based on the grouped proportional hazards model revealed that clustering effect among the log failure times of the different restorations from the same child was

  4. Caries assessment and restorative treatment thresholds reported by Swedish dentists.

    PubMed

    Mejàre, I; Sundberg, H; Espelid, I; Tveit, B

    1999-06-01

    The aim was to study any variability in approximal and occlusal caries diagnoses and restorative treatment decisions among Swedish dentists. The material consisted of a pre-coded questionnaire sent to a random sample of 923 dentists with 4 items concerning approximal and occlusal caries diagnosis and restorative treatment decisions. Responses were received from 651 (70.5%) dentists. In an adolescent with low caries activity and good oral hygiene, more than 90% of the dentists stated that they would not automatically restore a primary approximal caries lesion if its radiographic appearance did not show obvious progression in the outer 1/3 to 1/2 of the dentin. Moreover, 67% of the dentists would only consider immediate restorative treatment of an occlusal surface if obvious cavitation and/or radiographic signs of dentin caries could be observed. When diagnosing questionable occlusal caries, the dentists largely relied on the radiographic appearance. Concerning both approximal and occlusal caries, the threshold for restorative treatment differed between the metropolitan regions in Sweden, and younger more often than older dentists would postpone restorative treatment of approximal caries until the lesion had reached a relatively advanced stage of progression. The responses also showed that dentists in private practice would restore approximal caries at an earlier stage of progression than the dentists in the Public Dental Health Service. PMID:10480281

  5. Electronic restoration of great works of art: color analysis and reconstruction of Piero della Francesca's frescoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Lillian F.

    1994-05-01

    A computer was used to examine the surface colors and compositions of Piero della Francesca's frescoes The Resurrection of Christ, St. Julien, and a section from the panel La morte di Adamo from the Leggenda della Vera Croce to electronically analyze Piero's palettes, repair cracks in his works, replace damaged areas, and identify sections in which earlier restorers changed the original work. Electronic restoration now serves as a road map to art restorers, as well as provides the public with a closer representation of works as the artist originally intended. The analysis also reveals surprising new insights into Piero della Francesca's The Resurrection of Christ, including the thorn-based structure of a symbolic tree, and resolves a historical controversy.

  6. The metal-free approach to restorative treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Cortellini, Davide; Valenti, Marco; Canale, Angelo

    2006-01-01

    Considerable developments in the area of metal-free restorations--in response to increasing esthetic demands from patients--are offering the clinician and dental technician new therapeutic paths to follow when performing restorative treatments. Effective and reliable high-strength ceramic systems, suitable for anterior and posterior sites, may allow the achievement of predictable esthetics and function. Along with the evident indications for the treatment of anterior compromised elements, these types of restorations may be used in a wider variety of clinical cases, including complex prosthetic rehabilitations. Appropriate usage of different materials according to the specific clinical situation is mandatory for long-lasting, functional, and esthetic results. Therefore, a thorough application of metal-free restorations may be considered a "metal-free approach", which includes a specific formulation of treatment planning. In this article, the different materials, selection criteria, clinical indications, and benefits are evaluated, with a particular regard for treatment planning. PMID:19655489

  7. Teaching atraumatic restorative treatment in U.S. dental schools: a survey of predoctoral pediatric dentistry program directors.

    PubMed

    Kateeb, Elham T; Warren, John J; Damiano, Peter; Momany, Elizabeth; Kanellis, Michael; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Ansley, Tim

    2013-10-01

    The International Dental Federation and World Health Organization have promoted the use of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) in modern clinical settings worldwide. In the United States, the practice of ART is not believed to be widely used, which may be a result of little attention given to ART training in predoctoral pediatric dentistry curricula in U.S. dental schools. This study investigated the extent of clinical and didactic instruction on ART provided in U.S. dental schools by surveying the predoctoral pediatric dentistry programs in 2010. Of the fifty-seven directors asked to complete the survey, forty-four responded for a response rate of 77 percent. Of these forty-four programs, 66 percent reported providing clinical training on ART, though only 14 percent provide this training often or very often. The types of ART training provided often or very often included interim treatment (18 percent) and single-surface cavities (14 percent) in primary teeth. However, ART was said to be rarely taught as a definitive treatment in permanent teeth (2 percent). Attitude was a major predictor, for clinical training provided and using professional guidelines in treatment decisions were associated with a positive attitude towards ART. These predoctoral pediatric dentistry programs used ART mainly in primary, anterior, and single-surface cavities and as interim treatment. As ART increases access of children to dental care, the incorporation of the ART approach into the curricula of U.S. dental schools should be facilitated by professional organizations. PMID:24098034

  8. [Atraumatic restorative treatment in relation to pain, discomfort and dental treatment anxiety].

    PubMed

    Frencken, J E F M; Flohil, K A; de Baat, C

    2014-01-01

    Dental treatment anxiety usually develops during childhood due to a bad experience and the dental drill as well as the injection needle are the most common causes. The Atraumatic Restorative Treatment provides the opportunity to provoke little or no dental treatment anxiety because only hand instruments are used and local anaesthesia is seldom required. Several scientific studies have indicated that the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment causes less pain, discomfort and anxiety by comparison with conventional treatments. Therefore, the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment is considered to be promising for the treatment of carious lesions in anxious children and adults, and potentially also for patients suffering from dental treatment phobia. Furthermore, the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment may be indicated as the primary treatment method in children to prevent dental treatment anxiety and treatment under general anaesthesia. These conclusions must still be confirmed with responsible scientific research. PMID:25174188

  9. Creative Art Therapy Groups: A Treatment Modality for Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapeau, Marie-Celine; Kronish, Neomi

    2007-01-01

    This brief report examines the benefits of a creative art therapy group program for outpatients suffering from psychiatric disorders. Included is a review of relevant treatment outcomes literature on the effectiveness of group art therapy. The authors describe the Creative Art Therapy Group Program offered to adult psychiatric outpatients that is…

  10. Does atraumatic restorative treatment reduce dental anxiety in children? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Arun K.; Bhumika, T. V.; Nair, N. Sreekumaran

    2015-01-01

    Dental anxiety is one of the major problems affecting children, which impairs the rendering of dental care, leading to impaired quality of life. It often leads to occupational stress in dental personnel and conflict between parents/caregivers. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials done in children, to synthesize evidence of the effectiveness of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) in reducing dental anxiety in children compared to conventional restorative treatments. The databases searched included PubMed, Google Scholar and The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register. Eligible studies reporting dental anxiety by a variety of psychometric scales were tabulated. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the guidelines provided by the Cochrane Collaboration. Among 416 studies retrieved through literature search, six studies matched the inclusion criteria. Due to lack of data, only three studies were included for meta-analysis using RevMan software (Review Manager, Version 5.3;The Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, 2014). The pooled meta-analysis data, (standardized mean difference − 2.12 [95% confidence interval: −4.52, 0.27]) failed to show any difference between ART group and the conventional treatment group. In conclusion, ART was not more beneficial in reducing dental anxiety among pediatric dental patients. The findings are relevant in the field of clinical practice in dentistry in the management of the anxious pediatric dental patient. PMID:26038668

  11. Lead poisoning from art restoration and pottery work: unusual exposure source and household risk.

    PubMed

    Fischbein, A; Wallace, J; Sassa, S; Kappas, A; Butts, G; Rohl, A; Kaul, B

    1992-01-01

    Two cases of lead poisoning following exposures in the arts and crafts environment are presented. The first illustrates the impact of an unusual exposure source experienced by a female art conservator while restoring an antique Peruvian tapestry from the Chancay Period (A.D. 1000-1500). The second demonstrates the extension to the artist's family members of a lead hazard associated with pottery work. Noted were a wide spectrum of clinical and biochemical abnormalities, ranging from severe neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms to subtle alterations in the biosynthetic pathway of heme. Marked elevation of the blood lead level (up to 130 mcg/100 mL) was found in the most severe case of lead poisoning. The cases illustrate the need for industrial hygiene measures in this type of work in order to prevent lead intoxication, both in the adult artist and children in the household. However, in some instances of increased lead absorption in persons with lead-related hobbies, sources other than those associated with arts and crafts should be investigated. This alternative is illustrated by a third case, in which firearms training was the more likely source of excessive exposure. Multiple occupational factors must occasionally be considered in evaluating increased lead absorption. PMID:1740771

  12. Biologic Restoration: A Treatment Option for Reconstruction of Anterior Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Priyanka; S, Shankar; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Masamatti, Vinaykumar S

    2014-01-01

    Several procedures are advised to manage fractured anterior tooth structure using acrylic resin, composite restoration, ceramic or metal crown with ceramic facing. Biologic restoration is a procedure to restore fractured tooth structure with natural tooth material. In this in vitro case we have made an attempt for aesthetic rehabilitation of maxillary central incisor with similar biologic crown taken form extracted maxillary central incisor. It was observed that biologic restoration is an aesthetic, economical, fast and functional procedure which can be used as an alternative method to restore fractured primary or permanent anteriors. PMID:25584332

  13. Inhibition of cultivable bacteria by chlorhexidine treatment of dentin lesions treated with the ART technique.

    PubMed

    Ersin, Nazan Kocatas; Uzel, Atac; Aykut, Arzu; Candan, Umit; Eronat, Cemal

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the cultivable microflora of carious dentin before and after atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) and investigate the inhibitory effect of chlorhexidine-gluconate-based cavity disinfectant in the microflora. Using a split mouth design, 35 primary molar pairs with class II carious lesions in 35 patients (mean age 7.31+/-0.47 years) were selected. The total viable counts (TVC), Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli were first measured in the center of the infected demineralized lesion and then from the hard dentine after caries removal by the ART technique. Chlorhexidine-gluconate (2%)-based cavity disinfectant was applied to one of the molar pairs and the other molar received no disinfectant treatment. Thereafter, all of the teeth were restored with glass ionomer cement (GIC). Cavities were reassessed after 6 months and again dentine samples were microbiologically investigated. Removal of carious dentine by ART significantly reduced TVC, S. mutans and lactobacilli. After 6 months, application of chlorhexidine exhibited a greater significant reduction in TVC (p=0.013), and a significant reduction in S. mutans compared to the nondisinfected group (p<0.001). A significant reduction in lactobacilli counts was observed in both groups after 6 months, but the difference between the disinfected and nondisinfected groups was not significant (p=0.056). ART was found to be effective in reducing the cultivable microflora and chlorhexidine-gluconate-based cavity disinfectant might serve as a suitable additional agent in inhibiting the residual bacteria in the dentine. PMID:16508277

  14. Painting the future for ART.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, C J; Frencken, J E

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to review recent research and developments with respect to the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach and to outline future areas of research and development. Areas identified as requiring further investigation include the evaluation of: ART restorations for longer than 3 years duration using recognised evaluation criteria, multi-surface ART restorations, ART restorations in primary teeth and ART sealants. In addition, the possibility and potential dangers of caries remaining after cavity cleaning with hand instruments must be investigated and the findings balanced against the known damage to sound tooth tissue caused by more routine cavity preparation techniques. New bioactive restorative materials which offer the possibility of healing dentinal caries lesions should be developed and evaluated. Finally, behavioural and educational aspects of the ART approach should be investigated. PMID:10600080

  15. Optimizing ART Adherence: Update for HIV Treatment and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Reuben N.; Spector, Anya Y.; Mellins, Claude A.; Remien, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is central to achieving viral suppression and positive health outcomes in HIV-infected individuals. Virally suppressed individuals can also reduce the risk of HIV transmission to uninfected partners. Hence, adherence to ART has become both an HIV treatment and an HIV prevention strategy. However, achieving optimal ART adherence can be challenging, especially over the long term. It is increasingly important for clinicians and researchers to be abreast of the most recent developments in the field as new biomedical approaches to treatment emerge, and as guidelines for the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are disseminated to providers serving HIV affected populations. Several reviews have described numerous ART adherence interventions that have been developed and/or tested with the most recent review including literature up to 2012. To augment the literature, we present a review of ART adherence interventions from 2013 – present. We included peer-reviewed journals as well as abstracts from two key conferences. PMID:25304006

  16. HIV Care and Treatment Beliefs among Patients Initiating Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tymejczyk, Olga; Hoffman, Susie; Kulkarni, Sarah Gorrell; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Lahuerta, Maria; Remien, Robert H; Elul, Batya; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Melaku, Zenebe; Nash, Denis

    2016-05-01

    To better understand patient beliefs, which may influence adherence to HIV care and treatment, we examined three dimensions of beliefs among Ethiopian adults (n = 1177) initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Beliefs about benefits of ART/HIV clinical care were largely accurate, but few patients believed in the ability of ART to prevent sexual transmission and many thought Holy Water could cure HIV. Factors associated with lower odds of accurate beliefs included advanced HIV, lack of formal education, and Muslim religion (benefits of ART/clinical care); secondary or university education and more clinic visits (ART to prevent sexual transmission); and pregnancy and Orthodox Christian religion (Holy Water). Assessment of patient beliefs may help providers identify areas needing reinforcement. In this setting, counselors also need to stress the benefits of ART as prevention and that Holy Water should not be used to the exclusion of HIV care and ART. PMID:26346333

  17. Technique of radiation polymerization in fine art conservation: a potentially new method of restoration and preservation. [Uv and electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, J.L.; Major, G.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of using radiation polymerization for the restoration and preservation of art treasures is considered. The processes discussed include both radiation grafting and rapid cure procedures, particularly reactions initiated by uv and eb. Representative examples where the technique has already been used are treated including typical applications with paintings, tapestries, leather and archival repair. The structure of the monomers and oligomers used in both grafting and rapid cure systems is outlined. The experimental conditions where grafting may occur during radiation rapid cure processing are discussed. Possible future developments of the technique are outlined. 1 figure, 8 tables.

  18. Antibacterial dental restorative materials: a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Shen, Hong; Suh, Byoung In

    2012-12-01

    This review presents an updated knowledge on the antibacterial dental restorative materials and their performance clinically and in the laboratory. A search of English peer-reviewed dental literature over the last 30 years from PubMed and MEDLINE databases was conducted, and the key words included antibacterial, antimicrobial, dental, primer, adhesive, bonding agent, cement, and composite. Titles and abstracts of the articles listed from search results were reviewed and evaluated for relevancy. In summary, the incorporation of an appropriate amount of antibacterial agent provided dental restorative materials (dental bonding agents, resin composites, resin cements, glass-ionomer cements) antibacterial activity without significantly influencing mechanical properties. PMID:23409624

  19. Biological Restorations: An Alternative Esthetic Treatment for Restoration of Severely Mutilated Primary Anterior Teeth

    PubMed Central

    N, Grewal; S, Reeshu

    2008-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) affects more than one out of seven preschoolers and is more prevalent in lowincome families, who generally have limited access to dental services. The seriousness and societal costs of ECC continue to be a significant health issue for children from racial/ethnic minorities and from developing countries. Hence, a biological restoration seems to be a successful cost-effective alternative approach for treating such cases. PMID:25206088

  20. Periodontal and Restorative Treatment of Gingival Recession Associated with Non-Carious Cervical Lesions: Case Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Analice Giovani; Teixeira, Daniela Navarro Ribeiro; Soares, Michelle Pereira Costa Mundim; Gonzaga, Ramon Corrêa de Queiroz; Fernandes-Neto, Alfredo Júlio; Soares, Paulo Vinícius

    2016-01-01

    The association between the presence of gingival recession and non-carious cervical lesions is a common finding in dentistry. These diseases have multifactorial etiology and the treatment should be multidisciplinary. Although traditionally the majority of professionals treat non-carious cervical lesions only with conventional restorative procedures, in most cases a combination of periodontal and restorative treatments provides the best functional and esthetic results. Thus, the objective of this case report was to present a new option for treatment, which consists of a subepithelial connective tissue graft associated with a coronally advanced flap placed on dentin and non-carious cervical lesions restored with lithium disilicate partial veneers. A patient complaining about the esthetic aspects of her teeth and cervical dentin hypersensitivity was submitted to occlusal adjustments and daily diet analysis in order to manage etiologic factors. Experienced operators then performed restorative and surgical treatments. Periodontal clinical attachment level (probing depth + gingival margin), bleeding on probing, plaque index, and the integrity of the restorations were observed. During the monitoring period, the treatment was effective, with good functional and esthetic results. The hypersensitivity disappeared, and neither inflammatory characteristics in gingival tissue nor failures in restorations were noted. It might be concluded that treatment with a combination of techniques can be effective and predictable for patients with gingival recession and non-carious cervical lesions that may or may not require restorative procedures under controlled conditions. PMID:26764967

  1. Hormone Treatment Restores Bone Density for Young Women with Menopause-Like Condition (Primary Ovarian Insufficiency)

    MedlinePlus

    ... determine the effects of hormone treatment on bone mineral density of women with primary ovarian insufficiency. Researchers ... insufficiency (POI) led to increases in their bone mineral density, restoring levels to normal. The study was ...

  2. Relative contribution of restorative treatment to tooth extraction in a teaching institution.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Q D; Khalaf, M E; Al-Shawaf, N M

    2013-06-01

    Teeth can be extracted due to multiple factors. The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to identify the relative contribution of restorative treatments to tooth loss. The study reviewed records of 826 patients (1102 teeth). Patient's gender, age and education were obtained. In addition to the main reason for extraction (caries, periodontal disease, pre-prosthetic extraction, restorative failure and remaining root), the following information was collected about each extracted tooth: type, the status of caries if any (primary or secondary) and pulpal status (normal or reversible pulpitis, irreversible pulpitis, necrotic or root canal treated) and type and size of restoration, if present. Following data collection, descriptive analysis was performed. A log-linear model was used to examine the association between restorative treatment and tooth loss and between reasons for tooth loss and type of tooth. Lower molars followed by upper molars were the most commonly extracted teeth. Teeth with no restorations or with crowns were less likely to be extracted (P < 0·001). Lower and upper molars and lower premolars were more likely to be extracted due to restorative failure, while lower anterior teeth were more likely to be extracted due to periodontal disease (P < 0·05). Twenty two per cent of the extractions was due to restorative failure, and at least 65·9% of these teeth had secondary caries. Gender, age and educational level were factors that affect tooth loss. In conclusion, teeth receiving multiple restorative therapies were more likely to be extracted. PMID:23600993

  3. Restoration treatments in urban park forests drive long-term changes in vegetation trajectories.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lea R; Handel, Steven N

    2016-04-01

    Municipalities are turning to ecological restoration of urban forests as a measure to improve air quality, ameliorate urban heat island effects, improve storm water infiltration, and provide other social and ecological benefits. However, community dynamics following urban forest restoration treatments are poorly documented. This study examines the long-term effects of ecological restoration undertaken in New York City, New York, USA, to restore native forest in urban park natural areas invaded by woody non-native plants that are regional problems. In 2009 and 2010, we sampled vegetation in 30 invaded sites in three large public parks that were restored 1988-1993, and 30 sites in three large parks that were similarly invaded but had not been restored. Data from these matched plots reveal that the restoration treatment achieved its central goals. After 15-20 years, invasive species removal followed by native tree planting resulted in persistent structural and compositional shifts, significantly lower invasive species abundance, a more complex forest structure, and greater native tree recruitment. Together, these findings indicate that successional trajectories of vegetation dynamics have diverged between restored forests and invaded forests that were not restored. In addition, the data suggest that future composition of these urban forest patches will be novel assemblages. Restored and untreated sites shared a suite of shade-intolerant, quickly-growing tree species that colonize disturbed sites, indicating that restoration treatments created sites hospitable for germination and growth of species adapted to high light conditions and disturbed soils. These findings yield an urban perspective on the use of succession theory in ecological restoration. Models of ecological restoration developed in more pristine environments must be modified for use in cities. By anticipating both urban disturbances and ecological succession, management of urban forest patches can be

  4. Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arviso, Kathern; And Others

    Designed as a helpful guide and "how-to-do-it" outline for those on the Navajo Reservation who work with children, this guide is arranged to offer quick reference and simple projects requiring the minimum of materials. The projects are designed to meet the Navajo child's art needs based on the belief that the art program of the elementary school…

  5. [Lead poisoning caused by stonework treatment in architectural restoration].

    PubMed

    Bellotto, E; Zanin, F; Zanon, P; Busetto, D

    1994-01-01

    An unexpected lead exposure occurred among a team of masons employed in restoration work of the facade of an 18th century church in Vicenza, Italy. The unusual case of lead intoxication (PbB up to 71 micrograms/dL, PbU-EDTA 8636 micrograms/24 h after the first 1 g dose of Na2Ca EDTA) in a mason suffering from abdominal pain was reported to our unit by the local General Hospital. An investigation on the possible sources was therefore set up and the source was identified in the removal of an old paint made of white lead (basic lead carbonate) from the statues and decorative stonework of the church. An extension of the investigation confirmed that many sculptures and stonework from the same period, especially in religious buildings, were treated in the same way. The biological exposure indices of the subject's work fellows also confirmed an abnormal lead absorption. The occupational risks involved in various methods in restoration crafts are evaluated and preventive measures are suggested. PMID:7731409

  6. Effect of pre-treatment with chlorhexidine on the retention of restorations: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Montagner, Anelise Fernandes; Perroni, Ana Paula; Corrêa, Marcos Britto; Masotti, Alexandre Severo; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) application on etched dentin on the 6-month retention of restorations placed on non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs). A randomized controlled split-mouth and triple blind trial was carried out. Patients (n=42) with at least two non-carious cervical lesions were included. NCCLs were randomly assigned to two groups: control (placebo solution) or test group (2% CHX solution for 60 s after acid etching and before the adhesive application). Class V restorations (n=169) were performed with an etch-and-rinse adhesive system and composite resin by 10 trained operators. A calibrated examiner evaluated the restorations at 1 week (baseline) and at 6 months using the FDI criteria. The primary outcome was retention of the restorations. The analysis of factors associated to failure of restorations was carried out by Fisher's exact test (α=0.05). After 6 months of follow-up, 3.4% (CI 95% 1.3-7.3) of the restorations failed. There was no statistically significant difference between control and CHX (p=0.920). Regarding the cavity variables, deeper (p=0.04), wider (p=0.004) and wedge-shaped (p=0.033) cavities failed more. Both treatments provided acceptable clinical performance of the restorations. The use of CHX as a adjuvant in dentin adhesion did not influence the retention of Class V restorations after 6 months of follow-up. PMID:26200146

  7. Treatment of traumatic injuries in the front teeth: restorative aspects in crown fractures.

    PubMed

    Dietschi, D; Jacoby, T; Dietschi, J M; Schatz, J P

    2000-10-01

    Crown fractures are the most common form of traumatic dental injuries encountered in permanent dentition. Restorative treatment modalities incorporate adhesive materials to effectively maintain function and aesthetics. While uncomplicated injuries of the enamel and/or dentin can be treated solely with adhesive procedures, complicated trauma that involves pulp exposure requires the incorporation of a multidisciplinary treatment approach. Fragment reattachment is facilitated by the utilization of bonding agents that enhance retention and aesthetics. This article discusses the application of provisional and permanent restorative options for the treatment of complications following traumatic injuries. PMID:11404871

  8. Treatment of an endodontic perforation with a restoration and a root coverage gingival graft.

    PubMed

    Harris, R J

    1995-07-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a perforation on the facial surface of the maxillary right central incisor made during endodontic therapy. Treatment of this highly visible area required a creative approach to therapy. The perforation was repaired with an amalgam restoration. A connective tissue with partial thickness double pedicle graft was used to replace missing periodontal structures, cover the exposed root surface, and obscure from view, as much as possible, the amalgam restoration placed in the perforation. This unconventional therapy is offered as a possible treatment option when few or no other acceptable options exist. PMID:7562357

  9. The Life Cycle of Images: Revisiting the Ethical Treatment of the Art Therapy Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinz, Lisa D.

    2013-01-01

    Using the metaphor of the human life cycle, the author of this viewpoint suggests that consideration of the birth, life, and death of images made in art therapy may promote a new perspective on their ethical treatment. A developmental view of images encourages art therapists to see art images as living entities that undergo a natural life cycle.…

  10. The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

    2013-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice. PMID:23928450

  11. Semidirect Restorations in Multidisciplinary Treatment: Viable Option for Children and Teenagers.

    PubMed

    Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Frizzera, Fausto; Silva, Monica Barros da; Bhandi, Shilpa H; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Kamila Figueiredo; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maio; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho

    2015-04-01

    Due to the esthetic necessity required nowadays, the multidisciplinary treatment became a fundamental step in the restoration success. When the patient exhibits dental agenesis of one or more elements, he can show difficulty in social interactions. The age of the patient is a limiting factor to esthetic procedures, however, it should be evaluated as a real indicative with each case. The utilization of semi-direct restorations is a viable option due the cost, esthetic and improvement of physical and mechanical properties. The purpose of this paper is to present a case detailing the confection and cementation of anterior semi-direct restorations aimed at an anatomic reestablishment associated with integrated treatment with periodontics and orthodontics. PMID:26067730

  12. Biocomposition and reaction of pulp tissues to restorative treatments.

    PubMed

    Cox, C F; Hafez, A A

    2001-01-01

    Dentistry has experienced exponential growth in the biologic and physiologic knowledge of enamel, dentin, and pulp tissues. In one decade, material development has exceeded clinical testing limits, allowing their arrival to the commercial market without proper validation. This article clarifies the enigma of acid etching; explaining and clarifying the diverse opinions and issues of material toxicity between in vitro and in vivo usage test perspectives. This article also demystifies the biology of pulp healing regarding calcium hydroxide and adhesive systems to promote dentin bridge formation. Lastly, this article provides biologically lucid pulp exposure treatment regimens with agents such as NaOCl, allowing clinicians to increase their long-term clinical success. PMID:11210698

  13. Biologic restoration: the effects of composite inlays on patient treatment plans.

    PubMed

    Bottacchiari, Stefano; De Paoli, Sergio; Bottacchiari, Paul A

    2011-04-01

    A technique for restoration of decayed and fractured teeth with composite inlays or onlays is presented. This approach conserves the tooth structure, requires less preprosthetic periodontal surgical intervention, and provides excellent functional results, while minimizing the incidence of post-therapeutic endodontic involvement. Two thousand seven teeth were restored using this technique over a period of 120 months, with a mean time of 59.6 months in function. The technique is described, and the advantages of this treatment modality are discussed. PMID:21491010

  14. Microbiological evaluation of salivary Streptococcus mutans from children of age 5-7 years, pre- and post-atraumatic restorative treatment

    PubMed Central

    Roshan, N. M.; Shigli, Anand L.; Deshpande, Shobha D.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective: The objective of the study was to monitor Streptococcus mutans (SM) counts in saliva of children aged 5-7 years old over a period of 6 months with the subsequent use of Fuji IX, glass ionomer cement in atraumatic restorative technique (ART). Materials and Methods: One hundred children were selected to receive ART using Fuji IX glass ionomer cement. Caries status was recorded using DMFT index (WHO 1997) and revaluated after 6 months using DMFS index (WHO 1979). Saliva was collected for microbiological assessment of SM count on four occasions, baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months after ART approach. The results of the microbiological tests were statistically analyzed using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney rank test. Results: The results showed a significant reduction of SM levels in saliva immediately 1 week following the ART approach with mean SM counts of 1.5763 (106 CFU/ml) and 1.1286 (105 CFU/ml) pre- and 1 week post–ART, respectively. Reduction in the SM count was seen in 89.47% of children after 1 week of ART treatment. The mean SM count after 1 month and 6 months post-ART was 1.4814 (106 CFU/ml) and 1.4722(106 CFU/ml), respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results that the ART technique was successful in reducing the SM counts in saliva significantly for a period of 1 week post treatment. Although the mean SM counts remained less than the baseline after 6 month evaluation, a trend toward re-establishment of SM to the baseline count was noticed. PMID:22114391

  15. Use of an Electronic Patient Record system to evaluate restorative treatment following root canal therapy.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Peter Q; Johnson, Bradford R; BeGole, Ellen A

    2007-10-01

    Electronic Patient Record (EPR) systems are rapidly gaining acceptance as an important tool for managing patient information. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the use of an EPR system for assessment of quality of care in an academic dental institution. The primary outcome of interest was the timeliness and completeness of restorative care following completion of nonsurgical root canal therapy. An initial query of the EPR database was performed using the following inclusion criteria: root canal treatment performed in the postgraduate endodontics clinic between September 2002 and June 2004, patient age > or =18 years old, and posterior tooth (premolars and molars). A total of 925 patients with 1,014 endodontically treated teeth met the inclusion criteria. A random sample of 30 percent of the treated teeth (302 teeth on 281 patients) was selected for detailed review. This sample of 302 teeth was then screened to determine if any restorative treatment had been performed between September 2002 and November 2005. Forty-eight percent (n=146) of the 302 teeth did not receive any form of permanent restoration over the time period studied. Twenty-five percent (n=75) of the teeth received a buildup only, and 27 percent (n=82) received the recommended treatment, a full occlusal coverage restoration. This study documents the use of an EPR system to objectively and efficiently assess one aspect of quality of care in a dental school environment. PMID:17923711

  16. Association of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and parental infertility diagnosis with autism in ART-conceived children

    PubMed Central

    Kissin, D.M.; Zhang, Y.; Boulet, S.L.; Fountain, C.; Bearman, P.; Schieve, L.; Yeargin-Allsopp, M.; Jamieson, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment factors or infertility diagnoses associated with autism among ART-conceived children? SUMMARY ANSWER Our study suggests that the incidence of autism diagnosis in ART-conceived children during the first 5 years of life was higher when intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was used compared with conventional IVF, and lower when parents had unexplained infertility (among singletons) or tubal factor infertility (among multiples) compared with other types of infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Some studies found an increased risk of autism among ART-conceived infants compared with spontaneously-conceived infants. However, few studies, and none in the USA, have examined the associations between types of ART procedures and parental infertility diagnoses with autism among ART-conceived children. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Population-based retrospective cohort study using linkages between National ART Surveillance System (NASS) data for 1996–2006, California Birth Certificate data for 1997–2006, and California Department of Developmental Services (DDS) Autism Caseload data for 1997–2011. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All live born ART-conceived infants born in California in 1997–2006 (n = 42 383) with 5-year observation period were included in the study. We assessed the annual incidence of autism diagnosis documented in DDS, which includes information on the vast majority of persons with autism in California, and the association of autism diagnosis with ART treatment factors and infertility diagnoses. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Among ART-conceived singletons born in California between 1997 and 2006, the incidence of autism diagnosis remained at ∼0.8% (P for trend 0.19) and was lower with parental diagnosis of unexplained infertility (adjusted hazard risk ratio [aHRR]; 95% confidence interval: 0.38; 0.15–0.94) and higher when ICSI was used (aHRR 1.65; 1.08–2.52), when

  17. Cleidocranial Dysplasia Case Report: Remodeling of Teeth as Aesthetic Restorative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Caetano, Isabela Maria; Dalitz, Fernando; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Mondelli, José

    2014-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), is an autosomal dominant disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 1,000,000 individuals. It is generally characterized by orofacial manifestations, including enamel hypoplasia, retained primary teeth, and impacted permanent and supernumerary teeth. The successful treatment involving a timing intervention (orthodontic-maxillofacial surgeons-restorative) is already described. However, the restorative treatment might improve the aesthetic final result in dentistry management for patients with cleidocranial dysplasia. Objective. Therefore, this clinical report presents a conservative restorative management (enamel microabrasion, dental bleaching, and direct composite resin) for aesthetic solution for a patient with CCD. Clinical Considerations. The cosmetic remodeling is a conservative, secure, and low cost therapy that can be associated with other procedures such as enamel microabrasion and dental bleaching to achieve optimal outcome. Additionally, the Golden Proportion can be used to guide dental remodeling to improve the harmony of the smile and the facial composition. Conclusions. Thus, dentists must know and be able to treat dental aesthetic problems in cleidocranial dysplasia patients. The intention of this paper is to describe a restorative approach with the cosmetic remodeling teeth (by grinding or addicting material) associated with enamel microabrasion and dental bleaching to reestablish the form, shape, and color of smile for patients with cleidocranial dysplasia. PMID:25045546

  18. Long-Term Effectiveness of Restoration Treatments on Closed Wilderness Campsites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, David N.

    2013-03-01

    This study assessed long-term recovery of vegetation on six wilderness campsites in subalpine forests in Oregon that were closed to use and that received common restoration treatments (scarification, soil amendments, mulch, transplanting, and seeding). Vegetation cover was assessed every year for the first 7 years following treatment, as well as 10 and 15 years after treatment. This made it possible to compare long-term treatment effectiveness to short-term efficacy. Plots that were closed and not scarified had virtually no vegetation cover even after 15 years without use. If long-used campsites in these subalpine forests are simply closed and allowed to recover on their own, restoration of undisturbed conditions will require hundreds if not thousands of years. Study results show, however, that simple treatments can accelerate recovery rates substantially. Scarification and transplanting were highly effective treatments, with seeding and soil amendment with organic matter and compost also contributing to success, but to a lesser degree. The use of a mulch mat, in contrast, had no effect, either positive or negative. Assessments of success conducted within the first few years of treatment overestimate treatment efficacy, particularly the effectiveness of soil amendments and seeding.

  19. Long-term effectiveness of restoration treatments on closed wilderness campsites.

    PubMed

    Cole, David N

    2013-03-01

    This study assessed long-term recovery of vegetation on six wilderness campsites in subalpine forests in Oregon that were closed to use and that received common restoration treatments (scarification, soil amendments, mulch, transplanting, and seeding). Vegetation cover was assessed every year for the first 7 years following treatment, as well as 10 and 15 years after treatment. This made it possible to compare long-term treatment effectiveness to short-term efficacy. Plots that were closed and not scarified had virtually no vegetation cover even after 15 years without use. If long-used campsites in these subalpine forests are simply closed and allowed to recover on their own, restoration of undisturbed conditions will require hundreds if not thousands of years. Study results show, however, that simple treatments can accelerate recovery rates substantially. Scarification and transplanting were highly effective treatments, with seeding and soil amendment with organic matter and compost also contributing to success, but to a lesser degree. The use of a mulch mat, in contrast, had no effect, either positive or negative. Assessments of success conducted within the first few years of treatment overestimate treatment efficacy, particularly the effectiveness of soil amendments and seeding. PMID:23322127

  20. Semi-arid aquifer responses to forest restoration treatments and climate change.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Clinton J W; O'Donnell, Frances C; Springer, Abraham E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an interpretive groundwater-flow model to assess the impacts that planned forest restoration treatments and anticipated climate change will have on large regional, deep (>400 m), semi-arid aquifers. Simulations were conducted to examine how tree basal area reductions impact groundwater recharge from historic conditions to 2099. Novel spatial analyses were conducted to determine areas and rates of potential increases in groundwater recharge. Changes in recharge were applied to the model by identifying zones of basal area reduction from planned forest restoration treatments and applying recharge-change factors to these zones. Over a 10-year period of forest restoration treatment, a 2.8% increase in recharge to one adjacent groundwater basin (the Verde Valley sub-basin) was estimated, compared to conditions that existed from 2000 to 2005. However, this increase in recharge was assumed to quickly decline after treatment due to regrowth of vegetation and forest underbrush and their associated increased evapotranspiration. Furthermore, simulated increases in groundwater recharge were masked by decreases in water levels, stream baseflow, and groundwater storage resulting from surface water diversions and groundwater pumping. These results indicate that there is an imbalance between water supply and demand in this regional, semi-arid aquifer. Current water management practices may not be sustainable into the far future and comprehensive action should be taken to minimize this water budget imbalance. PMID:24665998

  1. Focusing and Expressive Arts Therapy as a Complementary Treatment for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klagsbrun, Joan; Rappaport, Laury; Speiser, Vivien Marcow; Post, Pamela; Byers, Julia; Stepakoff, Shanee; Karman, Shira

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study (N = 18) explored the effectiveness of focusing and expressive arts therapies intervention on the quality of life of women with breast cancer. The format was a 2-day (7 hours per day) retreat/support group in which complementary treatments (focusing, writing, art, and movement) were provided in an intensive format. Our hypothesis…

  2. Art Therapy Outcomes in the Rehabilitation Treatment of a Stroke Patient: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Min-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Chun, Sae-il

    2008-01-01

    This case report discusses the potential for art therapy to aid in the recovery of early-chronic stroke patients. The patient was diagnosed with having a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a cerebral aneurysm rupture 1 year prior to hospitalization. Therapies used as part of the patient's treatment included 10 weeks of art therapy conducted twice a…

  3. Effects of Four Different Restoration Treatments on the Natural Abundance of 15N Stable Isotopes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Temperton, Vicky M.; Märtin, Lea L. A.; Röder, Daniela; Lücke, Andreas; Kiehl, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    δ15N signals in plant and soil material integrate over a number of biogeochemical processes related to nitrogen (N) and therefore provide information on net effects of multiple processes on N dynamics. In general little is known in many grassland restoration projects on soil–plant N dynamics in relation to the restoration treatments. In particular, δ15N signals may be a useful tool to assess whether abiotic restoration treatments have produced the desired result. In this study we used the range of abiotic and biotic conditions provided by a restoration experiment to assess to whether the restoration treatments and/or plant functional identity and legume neighborhood affected plant δ15N signals. The restoration treatments consisted of hay transfer and topsoil removal, thus representing increasing restoration effort, from no restoration measures, through biotic manipulation to major abiotic manipulation. We measured δ15N and %N in six different plant species (two non-legumes and four legumes) across the restoration treatments. We found that restoration treatments were clearly reflected in δ15N of the non-legume species, with very depleted δ15N associated with low soil N, and our results suggest this may be linked to uptake of ammonium (rather than nitrate). The two non-legume species differed considerably in their δ15N signals, which may be related to the two species forming different kinds of mycorrhizal symbioses. Plant δ15N signals could clearly separate legumes from non-legumes, but our results did not allow for an assessment of legume neighborhood effects on non-legume δ15N signals. We discuss our results in the light of what the δ15N signals may be telling us about plant–soil N dynamics and their potential value as an indicator for N dynamics in restoration. PMID:22645597

  4. Water Treatment Plant Sludges--An Update of the State of the Art: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Water Works Association Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This report outlines the state of the art with respect to nonmechanical and mechanical methods of dewatering water treatment plant sludge, ultimate solids disposal, and research and development needs. (CS)

  5. Combined periodontal and restorative approach to the treatment of gingival recessions with noncarious cervical lesions: a case treated with acellular dermal matrix allograft and compomer restorations.

    PubMed

    Efeoğlu, Ahmet; Hanzade, Mete; Sari, Esra; Alpay, Hande; Karakaş, Ozan; Koray, Fatma

    2012-08-01

    Treatment of gingival recessions has become one of the most challenging procedures in periodontal plastic surgery. Various surgical options with predictable outcomes are available, but in cases with cervical lesions or restorations, optimal functional and esthetic results may require the combination of periodontal and restorative procedures. In this case report, one patient treated with acellular dermal matrix allograft and a coronally positioned flap in combination with compomer cervical restorations is presented. Clinical parameters were recorded immediately prior to surgery and after 12 months. Postoperatively, significant root coverage, reductions in probing depths, and gains in clinical attachment were observed. The final clinical results, esthetics, color match, and tissue contours were acceptable to both the patient and clinicians. PMID:22577650

  6. The use of art and music therapy in substance abuse treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Aletraris, Lydia; Paino, Maria; Edmond, Mary Bond; Roman, Paul M; Bride, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Although the implementation of evidence-based practices in the treatment of substance use disorders has attracted substantial research attention, little consideration has been given to parallel implementation of complementary and alternative medical (CAM) practices. Using data from a nationally representative sample (N = 299) of U.S. substance abuse treatment programs, this study modeled organizational factors falling in the domains of patient characteristics, treatment ideologies, and structural characteristics, associated with the use of art therapy and music therapy. We found that 36.8% of treatment programs offered art therapy and 14.7% of programs offered music therapy. Programs with a greater proportion of women were more likely to use both therapies, and programs with larger proportions of adolescents were more likely to offer music therapy. In terms of other treatment ideologies, programs' use of Motivational Enhancement Therapy was positively related to offering art therapy, whereas use of contingency management was positively associated with offering music therapy. Finally, our findings showed a significant relationship between requiring 12-step meetings and the use of both art therapy and music therapy. With increasing use of CAM in a diverse range of medical settings and recent federal legislation likely to reduce barriers in accessing CAM, the inclusion of CAM in addiction treatment is growing in importance. Our findings suggest treatment programs may be utilizing art and music therapies to address unique patient needs of women and adolescents. PMID:25514689

  7. Restoration of nitric oxide availability after calcium antagonist treatment in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Taddei, S; Virdis, A; Ghiadoni, L; Magagna, A; Favilla, S; Pompella, A; Salvetti, A

    2001-03-01

    Essential hypertension is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation caused by oxygen free radical-induced nitric oxide (NO) breakdown. Because calcium antagonists can improve endothelial function in patients with essential hypertension, in this study we tested the hypothesis that this beneficial effect could be related to restoration of NO availability by antioxidant properties. In 15 healthy subjects and 15 hypertensive patients, we studied forearm blood flow (strain-gauge plethysmography) modifications induced by intrabrachial acetylcholine (ACh; 0.15, 0.45, 1.5, 4.5, and 15 microg/100 mL per minute), an endothelium-dependent vasodilator in basal conditions, during infusion of N:(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 100 microg/100 mL forearm tissue per minute), an NO-synthase inhibitor, vitamin C (8 mg/100 mL forearm tissue per minute), and finally, simultaneous infusion of L-NMMA and vitamin C. The response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 1, 2, and 4 microg/100 mL forearm tissue per minute) was also evaluated. In control subjects, vasodilation to ACh was inhibited by L-NMMA and not changed by vitamin C. In hypertensive patients, vasodilation to ACh was blunted as compared with control subjects and resistant to L-NMMA. Vitamin C, which decreased plasma isoprostanes and increased plasma antioxidant capacity, increased the response to ACh and restored the inhibiting effect of L-NMMA. In hypertensive patients, the study was repeated after 3-month treatment with nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (30 to 60 mg/daily). Nifedipine treatment decreased circulating plasma lipoperoxides and isoprostanes and increased plasma antioxidant capacity. Moreover, nifedipine increased the vasodilation to ACh but not to SNP and restored the inhibiting effect of L-NMMA on ACh-induced vasodilation, whereas vitamin C no longer exerted its facilitating activity. These results indicate that nifedipine increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation by restoring NO

  8. How effective is ART in the management of dental caries?

    PubMed

    Frencken, J E; Holmgren, C J

    1999-12-01

    The ART approach involves excavating cavitated dentine caries with hand instruments, then restoring the cavity and sealing any associated fissures and pits with an adhesive restorative material, resulting in a sealant restoration. Until recently, ART has mainly been used under field conditions, and thus the adhesive restorative material used has been glass ionomer which does not require mixing machines and curing lights. Since the inception of ART, a growing number of studies world-wide have taken place. A total of four studies have reported 3-year survival percentages for one-surface ART restorations. The highest 3-year survival percentage in permanent teeth was 88%, which is comparable to the 85% survival of one-surface amalgam restorations placed under the same field conditions after 3 years. The outcomes depend to some extent on the material used, operator experience and presence of caries. The presence of caries as a reason for failure was higher in the early than in the most recent studies. Only one study has reported on the use of ART restorations in the deciduous dentition. It is concluded that: a very large proportion of dentine lesions in the permanent teeth can be treated using the ART approach; the 3-year survival rate of the more recently placed one-surface ART restorations in permanent teeth was higher than that of ART restorations placed in the beginning; the survival of one-surface ART restorations in the permanent dentition with newer glass ionomers is comparable to that of one-surface conventional restorations placed using amalgam in a comparable setting after 3 years; more studies of longer duration are needed to confirm these findings; ART should be considered a caries treatment modality that benefits people; and educational courses need to be organised before the approach is applied in the clinic. PMID:10600076

  9. [Surgical treatment of portal hypertension: the state of art].

    PubMed

    Shertsinger, A G; Zhigalova, S B; Lebezev, V M; Manukian, G V; Kitsenko, E A

    2013-01-01

    The article highlights modern approaches to the treatment of portal hypertension. The differential tactics is based on the type of portal hypertension, functional liver state, urgency of the situation and severity of blood loss, localization and stage of varices, concomitant diseases, etc. The role of miniinvasive methods is stressed. The reasonability of general treatment algorithm of portal hypertention in specialized centers is proved. PMID:23503380

  10. Review: treatment of schizophrenia. State of the art.

    PubMed

    Möller, H J

    1996-01-01

    As a result of the multifactorial etiopathology of schizophrenia, a treatment strategy combining drug therapy with psychosocial measures is indicated. Depending on the stage of the disease and on the individual condition of the patient, the accent is set alternatively more on one approach or on the other. However, under aspects of symptom reduction and relapse prophylaxis, the therapy with neuroleptics plays the most important role. In order to keep their side effects to a minimum during acute and long term treatment, there is nowadays a trend towards administration of the lowest possible dose. Under this aspect, the use of so called atypical neuroleptics should be taken into consideration. The treatment of negative symptoms, especially in the context of chronic residual syndrome, is still a problem which hasn't been solved to satisfaction. Beside the use of atypical neuroleptics, treatment with antidepressives should be tried. During the long term relapse prophylactic treatment, it is important that not only the criterion "reduction of the relapse rate" but also that of individual risk/benefit relation be considered. Concerning psychosocial therapies, especially focused behavioural therapy approaches, for example educational programs and specific family therapeutical intervention following the high-EE-concept, as well as training of social and cognitive competences have proved useful beside supportive psychotherapy and the whole range of sociotherapeutical measures. However they need further evaluation before they get integrated in routine treatment. PMID:8863000

  11. State of the art treatments for cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Danovitch, Itai; Gorelick, David A

    2012-06-01

    The treatment of cannabis dependence can be viewed as a cup half empty or half full. On the one hand, few people who might benefit from treatment actually receive it. Among those who undergo treatment in randomized trials, long-term abstinence is achieved by fewer than 20%. Moderate use goals have been associated with decreases in consequences, but the differential impact of such goals on the long-term course of cannabis dependence is unknown. Optimal duration of treatment is unclear, and certain populations, particularly patients with co-occurring disorders, have not been studied adequately. Twelve-step programs are low cost, effective for other substance use disorders, and readily available in most regions of the world. However, their role and efficacy in cannabis dependence has not been examined. Finally, effective pharmacologic treatments are under development, but none have yet been firmly established. On the other hand, psychotherapeutic strategies used to treat other substance use disorders can be effective for cannabis dependence. A recent meta-analysis of psychosocial interventions for illicit substance use disorders found that treatments for cannabis dependence had comparatively larger effect sizes than treatments for other substance use disorders. Combination therapies have proven most effective, particularly those that begin with a motivational intervention, utilize incentives to enhance the commitment to change, and teach behavioral and cognitive copings skills to prevent relapse. Among adolescents, family engagement and collaboration with community stakeholders adds substantial value. Although only 9% of cannabis users develop cannabis dependence, the volume of people who smoke cannabis ensures that the total number of people in need of help is larger than the capacity of substance abuse specialty services. Thus, although efforts to refine and improve the efficacy of treatment interventions continue, innovations that increase the availability and

  12. Innovative systems for cultural heritage conservation. Millimeter wave application for non-invasive monitoring and treatment of works of art.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Bisceglia; De Leo, Roberto; Pastore, Anna Pia; von Gratowski, Svetlana; Meriakri, Viatcheslav

    2011-01-01

    A novel non invasive technique and a suitable apparatus for disinfestation of artworks is introduced. Non destructive and non invasive techniques are often irreplaceable in order to preserve and restore cultural heritage objects in its structure and shape. Although many techniques are available for art and archaeological works the non invasive methods are preferred as they leave the object untouched after treatment. Environmental parameters, such as humidity, can damage culture heritage objects and also results in spring up variety of pests and other micro-organisms. Non-invasive monitoring of these damage and also disinfestation treatments and drying with help of electromagnetic waves are preferred as they keep the object untouched after treatment. Application of millimeter waves for solving this problem is discussed here. Millimeter waves have high spatial resolution and absorption in water as well as in bio-objects that are usually moist and at the same time minimal interaction with dry culture heritage objects by itself. Different phases of the microwaves treatment (MW) of artworks are described, some results are shown and discussed. Many biological forms don't survive over a certain temperature, called lethal temperature which, for most xylophages is about 53-55 degrees C, while for moulds and funguses is between 65 and 70 degrees C. In order to evaluate the management of disinfestation of works of art, incident power, temperature, exposure time were monitored. The monitoring of temperature is essential in order to prevent damages. A computer simulation allows to predict and monitor the heating process. PMID:24427872

  13. Growing season soil moisture following restoration treatments of varying intensity in semi-arid ponderosa pine forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, F. C.; Springer, A. E.; Sankey, T.; Masek Lopez, S.

    2014-12-01

    Forest restoration projects are being planned for large areas of overgrown semi-arid ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern US. Restoration involves the thinning of smaller trees and prescribed or managed fire to reduce tree density, restore a more natural fire regime, and decrease the risk of catastrophic wildfire. The stated goals of these projects generally reduced plant water stress and improvements in hydrologic function. However, little is known about how to design restoration treatments to best meet these goals. As part of a larger project on snow cover, soil moisture, and groundwater recharge, we measured soil moisture, an indicator of plant water status, in four pairs of control and restored sites near Flagstaff, Arizona. The restoration strategies used at the sites range in both amount of open space created and degree of clustering of the remaining trees. We measured soil moisture using 30 cm vertical time domain reflectometry probes installed on 100 m transects at 5 m intervals so it would be possible to analyze the spatial pattern of soil moisture. Soil moisture was higher and more spatially variable in the restored sites than the control sites with differences in spatial pattern among the restoration types. Soil moisture monitoring will continue until the first snow fall, at which point measurements of snow depth and snow water equivalent will be made at the same locations.

  14. Medical treatment of hyperthyroidism: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Fumarola, A; Di Fiore, A; Dainelli, M; Grani, G; Calvanese, A

    2010-11-01

    Methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU) are the main antithyroid drugs used for hyperthyroidism. They inhibit the synthesis of thyroid hormone at various levels and are used as the primary treatment for hyperthyroidism or as a preparation before radioiodine therapy or thyroidectomy. MMI is the drug of choice because of its widespread availability, longer half-life and small number of severe side effects. Drugs of second choice are potassium perchlorate, beta blockers, iodine, lithium carbonate and glucocorticoids. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against human CD20, was recently proposed as a biological therapy for cases of Graves' disease unresponsive to traditional drugs. PMID:20496313

  15. Current state of the art brachytherapy treatment planning dosimetry algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Pantelis, E; Karaiskos, P

    2014-01-01

    Following literature contributions delineating the deficiencies introduced by the approximations of conventional brachytherapy dosimetry, different model-based dosimetry algorithms have been incorporated into commercial systems for 192Ir brachytherapy treatment planning. The calculation settings of these algorithms are pre-configured according to criteria established by their developers for optimizing computation speed vs accuracy. Their clinical use is hence straightforward. A basic understanding of these algorithms and their limitations is essential, however, for commissioning; detecting differences from conventional algorithms; explaining their origin; assessing their impact; and maintaining global uniformity of clinical practice. PMID:25027247

  16. Survey of subsurface treatment technologies for environmental restoration sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.

    2003-08-01

    This report provides a survey of remediation and treatment technologies for contaminants of concern at environmental restoration (ER) sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The sites that were evaluated include the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater, Technical Area V, and Canyons sites. The primary contaminants of concern at these sites include trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and nitrate in groundwater. Due to the low contaminant concentrations (close to regulatory limits) and significant depths to groundwater ({approx}500 feet) at these sites, few in-situ remediation technologies are applicable. The most applicable treatment technologies include monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation/denitrification to reduce the concentrations of TCE, PCE, and nitrate in the groundwater. Stripping technologies to remove chlorinated solvents and other volatile organic compounds from the vadose zone can also be implemented, if needed.

  17. Treatment of Diabetes With Insulin—From Art to Science

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Matthew C.

    1983-01-01

    Improved understanding of the physiology and pharmacokinetics of insulin and new therapeutic devices allow an increasingly rational approach to the treatment of diabetes with insulin. The complexity of the regimen necessary for successful control of blood glucose levels depends largely on a patient's relative deficiency of endogenous insulin. Patients initially treated successfully with single or twice-a-day injections often, as the amount of endogenous insulin dwindles, progress to a complex regimen more closely mimicking normal patterns of secretion. Self-monitoring of blood glucose values and attention to many simple factors affecting absorption of insulin and glycemic behavior strongly enhance the success of all regimens. Patients and physicians must collaborate to plan and execute individualized therapeutic regimens using available tools to the best advantage. PMID:6351440

  18. How long will it last? The expected longevity of prosthodontic and restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Schwass, Donald R; Lyons, Karl M; Purton, David G

    2013-09-01

    With the Internet facilitating access to vast amounts of free information, dental practitioners face providing treatment for an increasingly informed public. However, the available content is not filtered, and it can be difficult for patients to discriminate between research-informed evidence and "glamorised" material of dubious origin. Patients reasonably expect a return for their investment and want to know how long their treatment will last. Clinicians have an obligation to inform their patients so that they can make reasoned decisions about treatment options. Longevity data are also informative for health agencies setting service schedules for publicly funded treatment, and for determining settlements by insurers such as ACC. Historically, much of the prosthodontic treatment performed in practice has relied heavily on dogma, low-level anecdotal evidence, and clinical case reports. This paper considers the literature on fixed and removable prosthodontic restorations and provides a critical review which can be used practically as the basis for informing patients, and to assist decision-makers in making fair and appropriate judgements. PMID:24027972

  19. Can Antihypertensive Treatment Restore the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease to Ideal Levels?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kiang; Colangelo, Laura A; Daviglus, Martha L; Goff, David C; Pletcher, Mark; Schreiner, Pamela J; Sibley, Christopher T; Burke, Gregory L; Post, Wendy S; Michos, Erin D; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether antihypertensive treatment can restore cardiovascular disease risk to the risk level of persons with ideal blood pressure (BP) levels. Methods and Results Data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study were analyzed. Outcomes were compared among participants without or with antihypertensive treatment at 3 BP levels: <120/<80 mm Hg, systolic BP 120 to 139 mm Hg or diastolic BP 80 to 89 mm Hg (120 to 129/≤80 mm Hg for participants with diabetes), and systolic BP ≥140 or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg (systolic BP ≥130 or diastolic BP ≥80 mm Hg for participants with diabetes). Among MESA participants aged ≥50 years at baseline, those with BP <120/<80 mm Hg on treatment had higher left ventricular mass index, prevalence of estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2, prevalence of coronary calcium score >100, and twice the incident cardiovascular disease rate over 9.5 years of follow-up than those with BP <120/<80 mm Hg without treatment. In CARDIA at year 25, persons with BP <120/<80 mm Hg with treatment had much longer exposure to higher BP and higher risk of end-organ damage and subclinical atherosclerosis than those with BP <120/<80 mm Hg without treatment. An exploratory analysis suggested that when cumulative systolic BP was high (eg, >3000 mm Hg–years in 25 years), the increase in left ventricular mass index accelerated. Conclusions The data suggest that based on the current approach, antihypertensive treatment cannot restore cardiovascular disease risk to ideal levels. Emphasis should be placed on primordial prevention of BP increases to further reduce cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. PMID:26391135

  20. State of the Art in the Treatment of Systemic Vasculitides

    PubMed Central

    Luqmani, Raashid Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) are associated with small vessel vasculitides (AASV) affecting the lungs and kidneys. Structured clinical assessment using the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score and Vasculitis Damage Index should form the basis of a treatment plan and be used to document progress, including relapse. Severe disease with organ or life threatening manifestations needs cyclophosphamide or rituximab, plus high dose glucocorticoids, followed by lower dose steroid plus azathioprine, or methotrexate. Additional plasmapheresis is effective for very severe disease, reducing dialysis dependence from 60 to 40% in the first year, but with no effect on mortality or long-term renal function, probably due to established renal damage. In milder forms of ANCA-associated vasculitis, methotrexate, leflunomide, or mycophenolate mofetil are effective. Mortality depends on initial severity: 25% in patients with renal failure or severe lung hemorrhage; 6% for generalized non-life threatening AASV but rising to 30–40% at 5 years. Mortality from GPA is four times higher than the background population. Early deaths are due to active vasculitis and infection. Subsequent deaths are more often due to cardiovascular events, infection, and cancer. We need to improve the long-term outcome, by controlling disease activity but also preventing damage and drug toxicity. By contrast, in large vessel vasculitis where mortality is much less but morbidity potentially greater, such as giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis, therapeutic options are limited. High dose glucocorticoid results in significant toxicity in over 80%. Advances in understanding the biology of the vasculitides are improving therapies. Novel, mechanism based therapies such as rituximab in AASV, mepolizumab in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and tocilizumab in GCA, but the lack of reliable biomarkers remains a challenge to progress in these chronic relapsing diseases. PMID

  1. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bonett, Jotham

    2015-09-15

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department.

  2. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    PubMed Central

    Bonett, Jotham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Methods Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. Results The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. Conclusion The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department. PMID:26451241

  3. Dental Composite Restorations and Neuropsychological Development in Children: Treatment Level Analysis from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maserejian, Nancy N.; Trachtenberg, Felicia L.; Hauser, Russ; McKinlay, Sonja; Shrader, Peter; Bellinger, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Resin-based dental restorations may intra-orally release their components and bisphenol A. Gestational bisphenol A exposure has been associated with poorer executive functioning in children. Objectives To examine whether exposure to resin-based composite restorations is associated with neuropsychological development in children. Methods Secondary analysis of treatment level data from the New England Children’s Amalgam Trial, a 2-group randomized safety trial conducted from 1997–2006. Children (N=534) aged 6–10 y with >2 posterior tooth caries were randomized to treatment with amalgam or resin-based composites (bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-dimethacrylate-composite for permanent teeth; urethane dimethacrylate-based polyacid-modified compomer for primary teeth). Neuropsychological function at 4- and 5-year follow-up (N=444) was measured by a battery of tests of executive function, intelligence, memory, visual-spatial skills, verbal fluency, and problem-solving. Multivariable generalized linear regression models were used to examine the association between composite exposure levels and changes in neuropsychological test scores from baseline to follow-up. For comparison, data on children randomized to amalgam treatment were similarly analyzed. Results With greater exposure to either dental composite material, results were generally consistent in the direction of slightly poorer changes in tests of intelligence, achievement or memory, but there were no statistically significant associations. For the four primary measures of executive function, scores were slightly worse with greater total composite exposure, but statistically significant only for the test of Letter Fluency (10-surface-years β= −0.8, SE=0.4, P=0.035), and the subtest of color naming (β= −1.5, SE=0.5, P=0.004) in the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test. Multivariate analysis of variance confirmed that the negative associations between composite level and executive function were not

  4. Cheap and Cheerful Stream Restoration - An Example of System Wide Woody Addition Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheaton, J. M.; Bennett, S. N.; Bouwes, N.; Camp, R.

    2012-12-01

    Stream restoration has been plagued with high price tags, limited spatial extents, and questionable effectiveness in light of largely absent monitoring efforts. One prominent example is the placement of large woody debris (LWD) structures and engineered log jams that are frequently employed to promote heterogeneity of instream habitat. Ironically, many of these treatments attempt to lock in place and over-engineer the woody structures as opposed to allowing them to adjust and rearrange themselves as natural LWD would have. We are in the midst of a large scale restoration experiment using LWD to recover ESA-listed steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Asotin Creek Watershed of Southeast Washington. The project is an Intensively Monitored Watershed (IMW) where the restoration treatment and monitoring use a hierarchal staircase design maximizing the power to detect a population level response in steelhead. We are treating over 12 km of stream with enough LWD input (> 200 pieces per km) to mimic the historic background wood loading and encourage the stream to reshape and regularly rework itself leaving. We are using hundreds of structures we call DWS (dynamic woody structures), which generally consist of a series of wooden fence posts driven into the stream bed and complex LWD anchored between them to invoke a specific hydrogeomorphic response. The real advantage of these DWS are their cost. They can be installed quickly (15-30 minutes each) and cheaply (< $100/DWS); even in remote settings with a 2-3 person crew, hydraulic post pounder, very cheap materials, and avoiding impacts associated with operating heavy equipment. This allows us to install lots of the structures at high density (every 5-15 channel widths) over an entire stream system. We call this overall approach System Wide Woody Addition Treatment (SWWAT). In the long term, we hypothesize that the SWWAT will provide an intial input LWD that will become a part of study creeks which are more

  5. A Comparison of Therapeutic Factors in Two Group Treatment Modalities: Verbal and Art Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shechtman, Zipora; Perl-Dekel, Ofra

    2000-01-01

    Compares therapeutic factors in verbal and art group psychotherapy in a psychiatric day-treatment clinic in Israel. Results only partly support the differences between modalities, but do reveal significant differences between participants with only a few interactions between participants and modalities. All therapeutic factors appear in both…

  6. Structured Sensory Therapy (SITCAP-ART) for Traumatized Adjudicated Adolescents in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raider, Melvyn C.; Steele, William; Delillo-Storey, Margaret; Jacobs, Jacqueline; Kuban, Caelan

    2008-01-01

    This randomized controlled study assessed the efficacy of a structured group therapy for traumatized, adjudicated adolescents in residential treatment. Youth were randomly assigned to a trauma intervention (SITCAP-ART) or to a waitlist/comparison group. The intervention included both sensory and cognitive/behavioral components. Standardized trauma…

  7. Art Therapy for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Comprehensive Neurorehabilitation-Informed Approach to Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Tori

    2016-01-01

    I describe an approach to art therapy treatment for survivors of traumatic brain injury developed at a rehabilitation facility for adults that serves inpatient, outpatient, and long-term residential clients. This approach is based on a review of the literature on traumatic brain injury, comprehensive neurorehabilitation, brain plasticity, and art…

  8. Restoration of body image and self-esteem for women after cancer treatment: a rehabilitative strategy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M S; Johnson, J

    1994-01-01

    Cancer treatment has the potential for limited or permanent impact on body image and self-esteem. Physical changes that impose cosmetic and appearance challenges can be psychologically immobilizing for women with cancer. Their ability to function within social roles may also be affected. This paper describes a restorative strategy as part of a comprehensive cancer rehabilitation program. Women who have had cancer are invited to an informal event that combines fashion modeling with practical suggestions for adaptive and cosmetic needs. Fashion and beauty products are displayed and informational materials provided. It incorporates components of Look Good ... Feel Better, a joint program of the American Cancer Society, the National Cosmetology Association and the Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association Foundation. Evaluations show this program to be helpful and enjoyable for attendees. Health professionals can utilize this strategy in a variety of settings as a component of a cancer rehabilitation program. PMID:7697072

  9. Effects of eradication and restoration treatments on Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGinnis, Thomas; Keeley, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Low elevation grasslands in California long have been dominated by Mediterranean grasses, but many areas still have large native forb populations. Alien forbs invade these grasslands, displacing both native and other alien species. Italian thistle is a noxious alien herb that has recently invaded these grasslands, including ungrazed blue oak (Quercus douglassii) and interior live oak (Quercus wislizenii) stands in Sequoia National Park. Here, Italian thistle tends to dominate under oaks and has the potential to substantially alter the foothill ecosystem by displacing native plants and acting as a ladder fuel that can carry fires into the oak canopy. We tested the effects of selectively reducing Italian thistle populations alone and in combination with restoration of native species. Two thistle eradication techniques (clipping and the application of clopyralid herbicide) and two restoration techniques (addition of native forb seeds or planting native grass plugs) were used. After two consecutive years of treatment we found: a) clipping was not effective at reducing Italian thistle populations (clipping reduced Italian thistle density in some areas, but not vegetative cover), b) herbicide reduced both Italian thistle density and vegetative cover for the first two growing seasons after application, but cover rebounded in the third growing season, c) native forb cover and species richness were not significantly affected by clipping or spot-treating with herbicide, d) the grass and forb addition treatments by themselves were not effective at reducing Italian thistle during the course of this study and e) sowing annual forb seeds after clipping resulted in greater forb cover and moderately reduced Italian thistle vegetative cover in the short term.

  10. Treatment with Thyroxine Restores Myelination and Clinical Recovery after Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Vose, Linnea R.; Vinukonda, Govindaiah; Jo, Sungro; Miry, Omid; Diamond, Daniel; Korumilli, Ritesh; Arshad, Arslan; Zia, Muhammad T. K.; Hu, Furong; Kayton, Robert J.; La Gamma, Edmund F.; Bansal, Rashmi; Bianco, Antonio C.

    2013-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) remains a major cause of white matter injury in preterm infants with no viable therapeutic strategy to restore myelination. Maturation of oligodendrocytes and myelination is influenced by thyroid hormone (TH) signaling, which is mediated by TH receptor α (TRα) and TRβ. In the brain, cellular levels of TH are regulated by deiodinases, with deiodinase-2 mediating TH activation and deiodinase-3 TH inactivation. Therefore, we hypothesized that IVH would decrease TH signaling via changes in the expression of deiodinases and/or TRs, and normalization of TH signaling would enhance maturation of oligodendrocytes and myelination in preterm infants with IVH. These hypotheses were tested using both autopsy materials from human preterm infants and a rabbit model of IVH. We found that deiodinase-2 levels were reduced, whereas deiodinase-3 levels were increased in brain samples of both humans and rabbits with IVH compared with controls without IVH. TRα expression was also increased in human infants with IVH. Importantly, treatment with TH accelerated the proliferation and maturation of oligodendrocytes, increased transcription of Olig2 and Sox10 genes, augmented myelination, and restored neurological function in pups with IVH. Consistent with these findings, the density of myelinating oligodendrocytes was almost doubled in TH-treated human preterm infants compared with controls. Thus, in infants with IVH the combined elevation in deiodinase-3 and reduction in deiodinase-2 decreases TH signaling that can be worsened by an increase in unliganded TRα. Given that TH promotes neurological recovery in IVH, TH treatment might improve the neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants with IVH. PMID:24174657

  11. Triangular Fixation Technique for Bicolumn Restoration in Treatment of Distal Humerus Intercondylar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seung-Hoon; Jeong, Min; Lim, Hae-Seong

    2016-01-01

    Background Distal humerus intercondylar fractures are intra-articular and comminuted fractures involving soft tissue injury. As distal humerus is triangle-shaped, parallel plating coupled with articular fixation would be suitable for bicolumn restoration in treatment of distal humerus intercondylar fracture. Methods This study included 38 patients (15 males and 23 females) who underwent olecranon osteotomy, open reduction and internal fixation with the triangle-shaped cannulated screw and parallel locking plates (triangular fixation technique). Functional results were assessed with the visual analog scale (VAS) scores, Mayo elbow performance (MEP) scores and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaires. Anteroposterior and lateral elbow radiographs were assessed for reduction, alignment, fracture union, posttraumatic arthrosis, and heterotopic ossification, and computed tomography (CT) scans were used to obtain more accurate measurements of articular discrepancy. Results All fractures healed primarily with no loss of reduction. The mean VAS, MEP, and DASH scores of the affected elbow were not significantly different from those of the unaffected elbow (p = 0.140, p = 0.090, and p = 0.262, respectively). The mean degree of flexion was significantly lower in the affected elbow than in the unaffected elbow, but was still considered as functional (p = 0.001, > 100° in 33 of 38 patients). Two cases of articular step-offs (> 2 mm) were seen on follow-up CT scans, but not significantly higher in the affected elbow than in the unaffected elbow (p = 0.657). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that only Association for Osteosynthesis (AO) type C3 fractures correlated with good/excellent functional outcome (p = 0.012). Complications occurred in 12 of the 38 patients, and the overall reoperation rate for complications was 10.5% (4 of 38 patients). Conclusions Triangular fixation technique for bicolumn restoration was an effective and reliable

  12. Restoring the gut microbiome for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Allegretti, Jessica R; Hamilton, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is considered to be a highly successful therapy for recurrent and refractory Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) based on recent clinical trials. The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is thought to be due in part to perturbations in the gut microflora that disrupt homeostasis. FMT restores essential components of the microflora which could reverse the inflammatory processes observed in IBD. Case reports and series for the treatment of IBD by FMT have shown promise with regards to treatment success and safety despite the limitations of the reporting. Future studies will determine the optimal delivery and preparation of stool as well as the conditions under which the recipient will derive maximal benefit. The long term consequences of FMT with regards to infection, cancer, auto-immune, and metabolic diseases are not known and will require continued regulation and study. Despite these limitations, FMT may be beneficial for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, particularly those with concurrent CDI or with pouchitis. PMID:24707129

  13. Evaluation of the relationship between the cost and properties of glass ionomer cements indicated for atraumatic restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Ana Flávia Bissoto; Kicuti, Ariane; Tedesco, Tamara Kerber; Braga, Mariana Minatel; Raggio, Daniela Prócida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate microshear bond strength (μSBS), water sorption and solubility of glass ionomer cements (GIC) indicated for atraumatic restorative treatment (ART). Cylindrical specimens (6 x 2.4 mm) were used to test the sorption and solubility of each GIC (n = 5). The specimens were weighed before and after immersion in water and desiccation. For the μSBS test, 60 primary molars were ground to obtain flat surfaces from both enamel and dentin. The teeth were then assigned to the tested GIC (n = 10) groups, namely Fuji IX - FIX, Ketac Molar - KM and Maxxion R - MX. The exposed surfaces were pre-treated with GIC liquid. Polyethylene tubes were placed on the pre-treated surface and filled with one of the GIC. After 24 h, the specimens were submitted to the μSBS test. The failure mode was assessed using a stereomicroscope (400 x magnification). The powder to liquid ratio and cost of material were also determined (n = 3). The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Linear regression was used to determine the relation between cost and the other variables. Overall, MX showed lower μSBS values (enamel: 3.93 ± 0.38; dentin: 5.04 ± 0.70) than FIX (enamel: 5.95 ± 0.85; dentin: 7.01 ± 1.06) and KM (enamel: 5.91 ± 0.78; dentin: 6.88 ± 1.35), as well as higher sorption and solubility. The regression analyses showed a significant and positive correlation between cost and μSBS in enamel (R2 = 0.62; p < 0.001) and dentin (R2 = 0.43; p < 0.001); and a negative correlation between cost and water sorption (R2 = 0.93; p < 0.001) and solubility (R2 = 0.79; p < 0.001). In conclusion, the materials indicated for ART exhibit distinct physical and mechanical properties; in addition, low-priced materials may interfere with GIC properties. PMID:26676191

  14. Group art therapy as an adjunctive treatment for people with schizophrenia: multicentre pragmatic randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Killaspy, Helen; Barnes, Thomas R E; Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Clayton, Katie; Dinsmore, John; Floyd, Siobhan; Hoadley, Angela; Johnson, Tony; Kalaitzaki, Eleftheria; King, Michael; Leurent, Baptiste; Maratos, Anna; O’Neill, Francis A; Osborn, David P; Patterson, Sue; Soteriou, Tony; Tyrer, Peter; Waller, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of group art therapy for people with schizophrenia and to test whether any benefits exceed those of an active control treatment. Design Three arm, rater blinded, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. Setting Secondary care services across 15 sites in the United Kingdom. Participants 417 people aged 18 or over, who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia and provided written informed consent to take part in the study. Interventions Participants, stratified by site, were randomised to 12 months of weekly group art therapy plus standard care, 12 months of weekly activity groups plus standard care, or standard care alone. Art therapy and activity groups had up to eight members and lasted for 90 minutes. In art therapy, members were given access to a range of art materials and encouraged to use these to express themselves freely. Members of activity groups were offered various activities that did not involve use of art or craft materials and were encouraged to collectively select those they wanted to pursue. Main outcome measures The primary outcomes were global functioning, measured using the global assessment of functioning scale, and mental health symptoms, measured using the positive and negative syndrome scale, 24 months after randomisation. Main secondary outcomes were levels of group attendance, social functioning, and satisfaction with care at 12 and 24 months. Results 417 participants were assigned to either art therapy (n=140), activity groups (n=140), or standard care alone (n=137). Primary outcomes between the three study arms did not differ. The adjusted mean difference between art therapy and standard care at 24 months on the global assessment of functioning scale was −0.9 (95% confidence interval −3.8 to 2.1), and on the positive and negative syndrome scale was 0.7 (−3.1 to 4.6). Secondary outcomes did not differ between those referred to art therapy or those referred to standard care at 12 or 24 months

  15. MissMarble, a multi-user interdisciplinary data base of marble for archaeometric, art historian and restoration use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zöldföldi, J.; Székely, B.; Hegedüs, P.

    2009-04-01

    During a research project a lot of data are compiled by literature research, field studies, surveys, measurements. After the termination of the project these data remain in general unpublished, and are stored in the respective research institutions analogously or digitally. There exist the countless data which are stored on different media often decentralised in databases of different formats. All these data would be ready in principle for any scientific purposes on request; however, only the author has the information about the storage system of the data. This makes it difficult to verify the conclusions of the publications in the light of the gathered data; and this makes it almost impossible to prepare the data for later use in answering research-related questions. Sometimes unnecessarily repeated work is done; consequently the resources of the respective research equipment are needlessly used. To avoid duplicated research, the researchers are expected to publish the data together with the scientific contributions to provide public access to the original information. Nevertheless, it is often difficult to fulfil this demand. The standards for raw data publication are quite different from the requirements for research publications. The storage must be organised in such a way that it is conceivable for the researchers worldwide. Furthermore the data must be filed in reliable data centres where they are maintained and are put into archives for long time and remain available. The co-ordinated and clear availability of the research data serves all scientists - interdisciplinary and internationally. Via the availability of the raw data the original research results gain also importance and become valuable. Restorers, researchers working in various fields of humanities, museologists and specialists managing collections, are basically interested in the construction of data retrieval system of primary data. Thus, the storage, access and safety of scientific data can be

  16. Effect of ultrasound application during setting on the mechanical properties of high viscous glass-ionomers used for ART restorations.

    PubMed

    Daifalla, Lamia E; Mobarak, Enas H

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ultrasound application on the surface microhardness (VHN) and diametral tensile strength (DTS) of three high viscous glass-ionomer restorative materials (HVGIRMs). For each test (VHN and DTS), a total of 180 specimens were prepared from three HVGIRMs (Ketac-Molar Aplicap, Fuji IX GP Fast, and ChemFil Rock). Specimens of each material (n = 60) were further subdivided into three subgroups (n = 20) according to the setting modality whether ultrasound (20 or 40 s) was applied during setting or not (control). Specimens within each subgroup were then equally divided (n = 10) and tested at 24 h or 28 days. For the VHN measurement, five indentations, with a 200 g load and a dwell time for 20 s, were made on the top surface of each specimen. The DTS test was done using Lloyd Testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Ultrasound application had no significant effect on the VHN. Fuji IX GP Fast revealed the highest VHN value, followed by Ketac-Molar Aplicap, and the least was recorded for ChemFil Rock. Fuji IX GP Fast and Ketac-Molar Aplicap VHN values were significantly increased by time. ChemFil Rock recorded the highest DTS value at 24 h and was the only material that showed significant improvement with both US application times. However, this improvement did not sustain till 28 days. The ultrasound did not enhance the surface microhardness, but its positive effect on the diametral tensile strength values was material and time dependent. PMID:26644916

  17. Pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer's dementia: state of the art and current dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Omerovic, Muamer; Hampel, Harald; Teipel, Stefan J; Buerger, Katharina

    2008-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most frequent disorders of the central nervous system characterised by a progressive cognitive decline. The demographic changes of our aging population lead to increased numbers of patients and a need of early diagnosis and treatment of cognitive and behavioural symptoms of AD. Drugs are available for symptomatic treatment of AD. The pharmacological treatment of behavioural disturbances experienced dynamic changes in the last years. In this paper, we present the current state and future perspectives in the treatment of AD. Furthermore, we discuss current difficulties regarding AD treatment by looking for explanations for a still unsatisfying rate of state-of-the-art treatment of AD-patients. PMID:17886162

  18. Clinical assessment of a combination lip treatment to restore moisturization and fullness.

    PubMed

    Trookman, Nathan S; Rizer, Ronald L; Ford, Rosanne; Mehta, Rahul; Gotz, Vincent

    2009-12-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of a topical lip-care treatment. Step one of the two-step treatment is a lip-renewal formulation containing human growth factors, hyaluronic acid and marine filling spheres, emollients, and a tripeptide palmitoyl-glycyl-histidyl-lysine complex. Step two is a lip-plumper formulation containing niacin, emollients, and essential fatty acids. Design. Four-week, single-center, open-label, clinical study with clinical assessments at Baseline, Week 2, and Week 4. Treatment. Subjects wore the lip products at least eight hours every day with a minimum of three applications per day. Participants. Thirty-two women ages 22 to 40 years with mild-to-moderate lip dryness and average size lips completed the study. Measurements. Visual grading of the condition of the lips, rating of subjective irritation, corneometry, digital caliper measurements of lower lip, and digital photography. A self-assessment questionnaire was also employed to assess patient satisfaction. Results. Clinical assessments showed statistically significant improvements (P<0.001) in key lip condition parameters after both two and four weeks of use. Key parameters included lip scaling, cupping, cracking/fissuring, fine lines due to dryness, lip texture/visual roughness, lip color/rosiness, lip definition/contour, and overall lip condition. Significant increases (P<0.001) were observed in both corneometer measurements, which confirm the moisturizing benefits, and in digital caliper measurements, which confirm the lip-plumping benefits. Self-assessment questionnaires showed a 97-percent overall satisfaction rating. No adverse events were reported during the course of the study. Conclusion. The results from this clinical study demonstrate that this two-part lip-care treatment product was well tolerated and effective in restoring moisture and fullness to the lips of female subjects with mild-to-moderate lip dryness. PMID:20725584

  19. Clinical Assessment of a Combination Lip Treatment to Restore Moisturization and Fullness

    PubMed Central

    Trookman, Nathan S.; Rizer, Ronald L.; Ford, Rosanne; Gotz, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of a topical lip-care treatment. Step one of the two-step treatment is a lip-renewal formulation containing human growth factors, hyaluronic acid and marine filling spheres, emollients, and a tripeptide palmitoyl-glycyl-histidyl-lysine complex. Step two is a lip-plumper formulation containing niacin, emollients, and essential fatty acids. Design. Four-week, single-center, open-label, clinical study with clinical assessments at Baseline, Week 2, and Week 4. Treatment. Subjects wore the lip products at least eight hours every day with a minimum of three applications per day. Participants. Thirty-two women ages 22 to 40 years with mild-to-moderate lip dryness and average size lips completed the study. Measurements. Visual grading of the condition of the lips, rating of subjective irritation, corneometry, digital caliper measurements of lower lip, and digital photography. A self-assessment questionnaire was also employed to assess patient satisfaction. Results. Clinical assessments showed statistically significant improvements (P<0.001) in key lip condition parameters after both two and four weeks of use. Key parameters included lip scaling, cupping, cracking/fissuring, fine lines due to dryness, lip texture/visual roughness, lip color/rosiness, lip definition/contour, and overall lip condition. Significant increases (P<0.001) were observed in both corneometer measurements, which confirm the moisturizing benefits, and in digital caliper measurements, which confirm the lip-plumping benefits. Self-assessment questionnaires showed a 97-percent overall satisfaction rating. No adverse events were reported during the course of the study. Conclusion. The results from this clinical study demonstrate that this two-part lip-care treatment product was well tolerated and effective in restoring moisture and fullness to the lips of female subjects with mild-to-moderate lip dryness. PMID:20725584

  20. Demethylation treatment restores erectile function in a rat model of hyperhomocysteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng; Zhu, Lei-Lei; Jiang, He-Song; Chen, Hai; Chen, Yun; Dai, Yu-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Methylation modification is an important cellular mechanism of gene expression regulation. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-2 (DDAH-2) protein is a pivotal molecular for endothelium function. To explore the effects of 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza), a demethylation agent, in hyperhomocysteinemia (hhcy)-related erectile dysfunction (ED) rats, 5-aza (1 mg kg−1) was administrated to Sprague-Dawley hhcy-rats induced by supplemented methionine chow diet. Erectile function, nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) levels, expression of DDAH-2 protein and promoter methylation status of DDAH-2 were studied in the corpora cavernosa. We found that supplemented methionine diet induced a high homocysteine level after 6 weeks of treatment. DDAH-2 protein was down-regulated in the corpora cavernosa while the administration of 5-aza up-regulated DDAH-2 expression and restored erectile function. The methionine-fed rats showed high methylation levels of DDAH-2 promoter region while the group treated with 5-aza demonstrated lower-methylation levels when compared to the methionine-fed group. Besides, the administration of 5-aza improved NO and cGMP levels in methionine-fed rats. Therefore, the methylation mechanism involves in ED pathogenesis, and demethylation offers a potential new strategy for ED treatment. PMID:26585696

  1. Eighteenth and nineteenth century dental restoration, treatment and consequences in a British nobleman.

    PubMed

    Cox, M; Chandler, J; Boyle, A; Kneller, P; Haslam, R

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines unusual eighteenth and nineteenth century dental treatment and its consequences, in a nobleman excavated from beneath St. Nicholas' Church, Sevenoaks, Kent, UK in the early 1990s. This rare archaeological case exhibits erosion of dental enamel on the labial surface of all the anterior dentition. A programme of historical research suggests that this might be attributed to the application of an acid-based dental tincture or the use of an abrasive substance to whiten the teeth. Palliative treatment for the consequence of this application was prescribed by Dr Robert Blake of Dublin. Further, it bears witness to three dental restorations, two of gold and one tin. The two gold (foil) fillings are an occlusal in the upper-right second molar and a cervical on the labial surface of the upper left canine. The tin filling is an occlusal in the upper left second molar. Excavation of the carious tissue appears to have been undertaken using a spoon shaped implement. PMID:11132689

  2. Chemistry, Color, and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orna, Mary Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Describes pigments and artists' colors from a chronological perspective. Explains how chemical analysis can be used to distinguish the differences between artists' palettes, identify the evolution of art, and lead to restoration of an art work. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  3. Development of NanoART for HIV Treatment: Minding the Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Midde, Narasimha M.; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Sustained suppression of HIV viral load is the primary objective for HIV treatment, which successfully achieved by the use of a wide array of antiretroviral therapies (ART). Despite this enormous success low level of virus persists in the anatomical and cellular reservoirs of the body causing a multitude of immunological and neurocognitive deficits. Towards this, nano-formulations are gaining attention to solve these problems by delivering ART to the targeted locations such as brain, lymphoid tissues, and monocytes/macrophages. As cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play a critical role in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics, it is expected that the interaction of nanoparticles with CYP enzymes may result in adverse drug reactions, cellular toxicity, and alterations in CYP-mediated metabolism of other drug molecules. Considering these potential adverse outcomes it is imperative to design the nano-carriers that will have minimal impact on CYP enzymes. Therefore, developing a long-acting nanoART regimen with minimal side effects is an essential step to improve patient’s adherence to the treatment paradigm, effective treatment strategy, and to combat the HIV infection & AIDS. PMID:26635972

  4. Landscape variability in soil and vegetation response to 70-year-old restoration treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the 1930’s the Civilian Conservation Corps implemented a number of landscape restoration projects, most of which were abandoned in the early 1940’s. Although many restoration projects failed, several projects had a lasting effect on the landscape and can be used to study the long term effects...

  5. Restoration of Neuromuscular Control During The Pitch After Operative Treatment Of Slap Tears

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Peter Nissen; Cip, Johannes; Trombley, Robert; Monson, Brett; Wimmer, Markus; Cole, Brian J.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2014-01-01

    , and pitchers status-post tenodesis during each phase, loss of the normal activation contours was seen for both pitchers status-post SLAP repair and those status-post tenodesis, suggesting continued reflex inhibition. As confirmation, significantly less overactivity (>100% activity) was seen in post-operative deltoids than normal deltoids (p=0.025). Conclusion: Simultaneous EMG and motion analysis of pitchers status-post operative treatment of SLAP tears suggests that while tenodesis and repair may restore physiologic muscular activation amplitude, persistent changes in activation contours persist for both tenodesis and repair. Both treatments may have biomechanical and neuromuscular consequences, even in pitchers with a full painless return to play. Further study is needed to determine potential differences between patients with persistent pain following surgery, as well as differing treatment modalities (tenotomy, tenodesis, repair).

  6. The morphology of amputated human teeth and its relation to mechanical properties after restoration treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gugger, Jonas; Krastl, Gabriel; Huser, Marius; Deyhle, Hans; Müller, Bert

    2010-09-01

    The increased susceptibility to fracture of root canal- and post-treated teeth is less affected by alterations of the dentin structure, but seems to crucially depend on the loss of coronal tooth substance. The surface, available for adhesion of the composite material in the root canal and in the coronal part of the tooth, is assumed to be of key importance for the fracture resistance. Thus, an appropriate three-dimensional method should be identified to determine the adhesive surface with necessary precision. For this purpose, severely decayed teeth were simulated decapitating clinical crowns. After root canal filling and post space preparation, impressions of the root canal and the amputation surface were obtained using silicone. Micro computed tomography scans of these impressions were acquired. For one selected specimen, an additional high-resolution scan was recorded at a synchrotron radiation source. Software of ImageLab served for the extraction of the amputation interface, the post surface and the post volume from the tomography data, which have been finally correlated with the Young's modulus and the maximal load derived from mechanical tests. The morphological parameters show a realistic relationship to the mechanical tests performed after the restoration treatments and are consequently important for improving the dental skills.

  7. Restoration of underdeveloped cortical functions: evidence from treatment of adult amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Polat, Uri

    2008-01-01

    Amblyopia is a reduction of visual functions that cannot be attributed directly to the effect of any structural abnormality of the eye or the posterior visual pathway. It is caused by abnormal binocular visual experience early in life, during the 'critical period' that prevents normal development of the visual system. It is widely accepted that therapy can only be effective during the critical period, and that it is not administered after the first decade of life. Here we provide an overview describing a recent finding of visual abnormalities in amblyopia and propose a treatment that we developed based on this finding. Both previous and new results that are presented here clearly show the success of the structured method, targeted at the specific deficiencies in amblyopia, to improve vision in children and adults. Our results suggest that the training was successful in rejuvenating the visual system and in restoring lost development from the sensory obstacle period. It is possible that the perceptual learning method used here can be applied to other sensory and non-sensory brain modules suffering from developmental problems. PMID:18997316

  8. Direct Restorative Treatment of Missing Maxillary Laterals with Composite Laminate Veneer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bagis, Bora; Aydoğan, Elif; Bagis, Yildirim H.

    2008-01-01

    This clinical report describes a direct composite laminate veneer restoration of the maxillary anterior teeth in one chair time to produce a better esthetic appearance in a patient with diastemata and missing laterals. PMID:19088889

  9. Art for the Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casazza, Ornella; Franchi, Paolo

    1985-01-01

    Description of encoding of art works and digitization of paintings to preserve and restore them reviews experiments which used chromatic selection and abstraction as a painting restoration method. This method utilizes the numeric processing resulting from digitization to restore a painting and computer simulation to shorten the restoration…

  10. Integrating Art into Group Treatment for Adults with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Carol-Lynne J.

    2015-01-01

    Current research supports the use of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and integrated treatments show potential for enhanced symptom reduction. This pilot study developed a manualized group treatment integrating art interventions with exposure, grounding, and narrative therapy for five adults with PTSD who were…

  11. Adhesive restorations in the posterior area with subgingival cervical margins: new classification and differentiated treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Veneziani, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze some of the issues related to the adhesive restoration of teeth with deep cervical and/or subgingival margins in the posterior area. Three different problems tend to occur during restoration: loss of dental substance, detection of subgingival cervical margins, and dentin sealing of the cervical margins. These conditions, together with the presence of medium/large-sized cavities associated with cuspal involvement and absence of cervical enamel, are indications for indirect adhesive restorations. Subgingival margins are associated with biological and technical problems such as difficulty in isolating the working field with a dental dam, adhesion procedures, impression taking, and final positioning of the restoration itself. A new classification is suggested based on two clinical parameters: 1) a technicaloperative parameter (possibility of correct isolation through the dental dam) and 2) a biological parameter (depending on the biologic width). Three different clinical situations and three different therapeutic approaches are identified (1st, 2nd, and 3rd, respectively): coronal relocation of the margin, surgical exposure of the margin, and clinical crown lengthening. The latter is associated with three further operative sequences: immediate, early, or delayed impression taking. The different therapeutic options are described and illustrated by several clinical cases. The surgical-restorative approach, whereby surgery is strictly associated with buildup, onlay preparation, and impression taking is particularly interesting. The restoration is cemented after only 1 week. This approach makes it possible to speed up the therapy by eliminating the intermediate phases associated with positioning the provisional restorations, and with fast and efficient healing of the soft marginal tissue. PMID:20305873

  12. Insulin Treatment Directly Restores Neutrophil Phagocytosis and Bactericidal Activity in Diabetic Mice and Thereby Improves Surgical Site Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Hidekazu; Fujino, Keiichi; Nakashima, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Yoritsuna; Miyazaki, Hiromi; Hamada, Koji; Ono, Satoshi; Iwaya, Keiichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Tanaka, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial infections, including surgical site infections (SSI), are a common and serious complication of diabetes. Staphylococcus aureus, which is eliminated mainly by neutrophils, is a major cause of SSI in diabetic patients. However, the precise mechanisms by which diabetes predisposes to staphylococcal infection are not fully elucidated. The effect of insulin on this infection is also not well understood. We therefore investigated the effect of insulin treatment on SSI and neutrophil function in diabetic mice. S. aureus was inoculated into the abdominal muscle in diabetic db/db and high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice with or without insulin treatment. Although the diabetic db/db mice developed SSI, insulin treatment ameliorated the infection. db/db mice had neutrophil dysfunction, such as decreased phagocytosis, superoxide production, and killing activity of S. aureus; however, insulin treatment restored these functions. Ex vivo treatment (coincubation) of neutrophils with insulin and euglycemic control by phlorizin suggest that insulin may directly activate neutrophil phagocytic and bactericidal activity independently of its euglycemic effect. However, insulin may indirectly restore superoxide production by neutrophils through its euglycemic effect. HFD-fed mice with mild hyperglycemia also developed more severe SSI by S. aureus than control mice and had impaired neutrophil phagocytic and bactericidal activity, which was improved by insulin treatment. Unlike db/db mice, in HFD mice, superoxide production was increased in neutrophils and subsequently suppressed by insulin treatment. Glycemic control by insulin also normalized the neutrophil superoxide-producing capability in HFD mice. Thus, insulin may restore neutrophil phagocytosis and bactericidal activity, thereby ameliorating SSI. PMID:23027538

  13. Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial – Attention and Reading Trial (CITT-ART): Design and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Scheiman, Mitchell; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Cotter, Susan A.; Kulp, Marjean; Chase, Christopher; Borsting, Eric; Arnold, Eugene; Denton, Carolyn; Hertle, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the design and methodology of the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial: Attention and Reading Trial (CITT-ART), the first randomized clinical trial evaluating the effect of vision therapy on reading and attention in school-age children with symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI). Methods CITT-ART is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of 324 children ages 9 to 14 years in grades 3 to 8 with symptomatic CI. Participants are randomized to 16 weeks of office-based vergence/accommodative therapy (OBVAT) or placebo therapy (OBPT), both supplemented with home therapy. The primary outcome measure is the change in the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Version 3 (WIAT-III) reading comprehension subtest score. Secondary outcome measures are changes in attention as measured by the Strengths and Weaknesses of Attention (SWAN) as reported by parents and teachers, tests of binocular visual function, and other measures of reading and attention. The long-term effects of treatment are assessed 1 year after treatment completion. All analyses will test the null hypothesis of no difference in outcomes between the two treatment groups. The study is entering its second year of recruitment. The final results will contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between the treatment of symptomatic CI and its effect on reading and attention. Conclusion The study will provide an evidence base to help parents, eye professionals, educators, and other health care providers make informed decisions as they care for children with CI and reading and attention problems. Results may also generate additional hypothesis and guide the development of other scientific investigations of the relationships between visual disorders and other developmental disorders in children. PMID:26942226

  14. Restoring a sludge holding tank at a wastewater treatment plant using high-performance coatings

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dea, V.

    2005-11-01

    Faced with a serious hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion problem in two sludge holding tanks in 1993, the city of Concord, New Hampshire, repaired the deteriorating substrate by using a conventional acrylic-modified cementitious resurfacer and a coal tar epoxy (CTE) coating system. CTE failure occurred within 2 years, leading to more severe coating delamination. Restoration was delayed for 10 years, which caused extensive chemical attack on the concrete substrate-upwards of 2 in. (50 mm) of concrete loss. This article explains how one of these tanks was restored and prepared for another 15+ years of service.

  15. State of the art of biological processes for coal gasification wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW) poses a serious challenge on the sustainable development of the global coal industry. The CGW contains a broad spectrum of high-strength recalcitrant substances, including phenolic, monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds and long chain aliphatic hydrocarbon. So far, biological treatment of CGW has been considered as an environment-friendly and cost-effective method compared to physiochemical approaches. Thus, this reviews aims to provide a comprehensive picture of state of the art of biological processes for treating CGW wastewater, while the possible biodegradation mechanisms of toxic and refractory organic substances were also elaborated together with microbial community involved. Discussion was further extended to advanced bioprocesses to tackle high-concentration ammonia and possible options towards in-plant zero liquid discharge. PMID:27364381

  16. Use of Narrow-Diameter Implants in Treatment of Severely Atrophic Maxillary Anterior Region With Implant-Supported Fixed Restorations.

    PubMed

    Froum, Stuart J; Cho, Sang-Choon; Florio, Salvatore; Misch, Craig M

    2016-05-01

    The edentulous anterior atrophic maxilla represents a challenge for the surgeon and restorative dentist. Soft- and hard-tissue augmentation procedures are often required prior to, or simultaneously with, implant placement. A well-planned treatment protocol, patient compliance, and collaboration between the treating clinicians and the laboratory are requirements in achieving predictable long-term outcomes that satisfy patient expectations. Avoiding transmucosal loading and movement of the graft during the healing phase are crucial factors in achieving lasting success. In this case report, a fixed provisional restoration supported by four immediately loaded narrow-diameter implants (NDIs) was used to enable function during healing and protect the grafted site. Two of the NDIs, along with three conventional-diameter implants, were subsequently used to support the final restoration. NDIs with diameters of less than 3 mm can achieve excellent long-term osseointegration and may be used together with conventional implants for definitive prosthodontic treatment as demonstrated by the 11-year follow-up reported in this case. PMID:27213779

  17. Treatment with garlic restores membrane thiol content and ameliorates lead induced early death of erythrocytes in mice.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Avik; Sengupta, Dipanwita; Mandal, Samir; Sen, Gargi; Dutta Chowdhury, Kaustav; Chandra Sadhukhan, Gobinda

    2015-04-01

    Sequelae of chronic lead (Pb(2+) ) toxicity includes anemia that is partially due to early death of erythrocytes characterized by excess accumulation of ROS and downregulation of antioxidant system causing oxidative stress and externalization of phosphatidylserine. In this study, pathophysiological based therapeutic application of garlic was evaluated against erythrocyte death. Results suggest that garlic administration prevents oxidative stress, restored the antioxidant balance in erythrocytes of Pb(2+) exposed mice. Moreover, in vitro studies revealed that activity of both scramblase and aminophospholipid translocase could be changed by modifying the critical sulfhydryl groups in presence of dithiothreitol during Pb(2+) exposure. Data also indicated that garlic treatment in Pb(2+) exposed mice exhibited sharp decline in PS exposure and increase in erythrocyte membrane thiol group followed by increase in aminophospholipid translocase activity and decline in scramblase activity. Findings indicated that garlic has the ability to restore the lifespan of erythrocytes during Pb(2+) exposure. PMID:23997012

  18. Treatment of neuromyelitis optica: state-of-the-art and emerging therapies

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Marios C.; Bennett, Jeffrey L.; Verkman, Alan S.

    2014-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disease of the CNS that is characterized by inflammatory demyelinating lesions in the spinal cord and optic nerve, potentially leading to paralysis and blindness. NMO can usually be distinguished from multiple sclerosis (MS) on the basis of seropositivity for IgG antibodies against the astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Differentiation from MS is crucial, because some MS treatments can exacerbate NMO. NMO pathogenesis involves AQP4-IgG antibody binding to astrocytic AQP4, which causes complement-dependent cytotoxicity and secondary inflammation with granulocyte and macrophage infiltration, blood–brain barrier disruption and oligodendrocyte injury. Current NMO treatments include general immunosuppressive agents, B-cell depletion, and plasma exchange. Therapeutic strategies targeting complement proteins, the IL-6 receptor, neutrophils, eosinophils and CD19—all initially developed for other indications—are under clinical evaluation for repurposing for NMO. Therapies in the preclinical phase include AQP4-blocking antibodies and AQP4-IgG enzymatic inactivation. Additional, albeit currently theoretical, treatment options include reduction of AQP4 expression, disruption of AQP4 orthogonal arrays, enhancement of complement inhibitor expression, restoration of the blood–brain barrier, and induction of immune tolerance. Despite the many therapeutic options in NMO, no controlled clinical trials in patients with this condition have been conducted to date. PMID:25112508

  19. Treatment of neuromyelitis optica: state-of-the-art and emerging therapies.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Marios C; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Verkman, Alan S

    2014-09-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disease of the CNS that is characterized by inflammatory demyelinating lesions in the spinal cord and optic nerve, potentially leading to paralysis and blindness. NMO can usually be distinguished from multiple sclerosis (MS) on the basis of seropositivity for IgG antibodies against the astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Differentiation from MS is crucial, because some MS treatments can exacerbate NMO. NMO pathogenesis involves AQP4-IgG antibody binding to astrocytic AQP4, which causes complement-dependent cytotoxicity and secondary inflammation with granulocyte and macrophage infiltration, blood-brain barrier disruption and oligodendrocyte injury. Current NMO treatments include general immunosuppressive agents, B-cell depletion, and plasma exchange. Therapeutic strategies targeting complement proteins, the IL-6 receptor, neutrophils, eosinophils and CD19--all initially developed for other indications--are under clinical evaluation for repurposing for NMO. Therapies in the preclinical phase include AQP4-blocking antibodies and AQP4-IgG enzymatic inactivation. Additional, albeit currently theoretical, treatment options include reduction of AQP4 expression, disruption of AQP4 orthogonal arrays, enhancement of complement inhibitor expression, restoration of the blood-brain barrier, and induction of immune tolerance. Despite the many therapeutic options in NMO, no controlled clinical trials in patients with this condition have been conducted to date. PMID:25112508

  20. Microleakage in Resin Composite Restoration following Antimicrobial Pre-treatments with 2% Chlorhexidine and Clearfil Protect Bond

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Hisham; Babu, Biju P; Sagir, V M Mohammed; Chiriyath, Kennet J; Mathias, Jones; Shaji, A P

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate microleakage in resin composite restorations after antimicrobial pre – treatments Materials and Methods: Forty freshly extracted non carious human premolars were procured. In all forty premolar specimens, class V preparation of standard dimension were prepared and were randomly divided into three experimental and one control group. In all control and experimental groups the class V preparations were restored with FILTEK Z350 composite restorative material. The experimental groups included different self etching primers and 2% Chlorhexidine gluconate. The control group included Xeno III and no antimicrobial pre-treatment was done for the control group. Thereafter these specimens were thermocycled, dried and sealed with nail varnish, leaving 1mm around the restoration and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then the specimens were subjected for microleakage evaluation. The results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal Wallis Test and Mann Whitney ‘U’ test. Results: Results indicate that group II (2% chlorhexidine gluconate group) had the minimum mean value (15.05) and group III(Clearfil protect Bond group) and IV(control group) had the maximum mean microleakage at the enamel margin (23.00). At the gingival margin the lowest mean microleakage values were obtained with group I (Clearfil SE bond group) and group II (2% chlorhexidine gluconate) (20.25) and highest with group III and group IV (20.85). The difference was not statistically significant both at the enamel margin and the dentin margin (p>0.05). Interpretation & Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in-vitro study, we conclude that: None of the materials tested in this study completely eliminated microleakage at the enamel and at the gingival margin.All of the tested materials provided better sealing at the enamel margin than at the gingival margin. PMID:26229374

  1. Restorative Treatment Thresholds for Occlusal Primary Caries by Dentists in “The Dental Practice-Based Research Network”

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Valeria V; Bader, James D; Garvan, Cynthia W; Richman, Joshua S; Qvist, Vibeke; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Rindal, D. Brad; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2010-01-01

    Objectives (1) Quantify at which carious lesion depths dentists intervene surgically for cases of varying caries penetration and caries risk; (2) Identify characteristics that are associated with surgical intervention. Methods Dentists in a practice-based research network who reported doing at least some restorative dentistry were surveyed. Dentists were asked to indicate whether they would surgically intervene in a series of cases depicting occlusal caries. Each case included a photograph of an occlusal surface displaying typical characteristics of caries penetration, and a written description of a patient at a specific level of caries risk. Using logistic regression, we analyzed associations of surgical treatment with dentist and practice characteristics, and patient caries risk levels. Results 519 DPBRN practitioner-investigators responded, of whom 63% indicated that they would surgically restore lesions located on inner enamel surfaces, and 90% of lesions located in outer dentin surfaces in a low caries risk individual. Regarding individuals at high caries risk, 77% reported that they would surgically restore inner enamel lesions and 94% reported restoring lesions located on the outer dentin surface. Dentists who did not assess caries risk were more likely to intervene on dentin lesions (p=.004). Practitioner-investigators who were in private practice were significantly more likely to intervene surgically on enamel lesions, compared to dentists from large group practices (p<.001). Conclusion Most dentists chose to provide some treatment to lesions that were within the enamel surface. Decisions to intervene surgically in the caries process differ by caries lesion depth, patient caries risk, assessment of caries risk, type of practice model, and percent of patients who self-pay. PMID:20123876

  2. Principles of restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Banker, T

    1993-08-01

    A great deal of information regarding materials, instrumentation, and techniques used for restorative dentistry can be borrowed from the human dental field. Veterinary restorative dentistry is in its infancy. A thorough knowledge of the commonly used materials and how they can be effectively applied is important. Treatment planning is probably one of the most critical phases of restorative dentistry as is painstaking attention to detail. If the guidelines for restorative dental techniques are followed, failures will be minimal. However, one of the most important points to remember is that the success of a restoration is not determined at the completion of the procedure. A restoration, if properly planned and performed, should last the lifetime of the animal patient. It is very important that veterinary dentists continue to evaluate and assess their restorative work at regular intervals so that restorative failures can be detected early, and so that restorative techniques and materials can be critically evaluated in veterinary patients. PMID:8210800

  3. Prolonged treatment with N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine restores gonadal function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Masha, A; Manieri, C; Dinatale, S; Bruno, G A; Ghigo, E; Martina, V

    2009-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a wide spectrum of biological actions including a positive role in oocyte maturation and ovulation. Free radicals levels have been shown elevated in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and therefore would be responsible for quenching NO that, in turn, would play a role in determining oligo- or amenorrhea connoting PCOS. Eight patients with PCOS displaying oligo-amenorrhea from at least 1 yr underwent a combined treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (1200 mg/die) plus L-arginine (ARG) (1600 mg/die) for 6 months. Menstrual function, glucose and insulin levels, and, in turn, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index were monitored. Menstrual function was at some extent restored as indicated by the number of uterine bleedings under treatment (3.00, 0.18-5.83 vs 0.00, 0.00-0.83; p<0.02). Also, a well-defined biphasic pattern in the basal body temperature suggested ovulatory cycles. The HOMA index decreased under treatment (2.12, 1.46-4.42 vs 3.48, 1.62-5.95; p<0.05). In conclusion, this preliminary, open study suggests that prolonged treatment with NAC+ARG might restore gonadal function in PCOS. This effect seems associated to an improvement in insulin sensitivity. PMID:19494711

  4. [The influence of segmental lumbosacral anatomy restoration on clinical outomes in the operative treatment of the isthmic spondylolisthesis].

    PubMed

    Pankowski, Rafał; Smoczyński, Andrzej; Jaskólski, Dawid; Rocławski, Marek; Samson, Lucjan; Piotrowski, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    The influence of lumbosacral spine segmental anatomy restoration on the outcome of the operative treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis was taken into evaluation. A series of 55 patients (29 males and 26 females) was examined. The long-term follow up period exceeded 3 years. The Oswestry Disability Questionaire was used to evaluate the objective clinical condition of the patients, while for the subjective assessment an analog pain score and the two questions survey concerning the evaluation of success of the operative treatment and a possible agreement to a following operation if necessary were used. The presence of neurological radical symptoms was evaluated. The radiological assessment was consisted of the evaluation of the degree of spondylolisthesis, the angle of lumbosacral lordosis, the height of the interbody space and intervertebral foramen. In conclusions, the proper spine anatomy restoration had the influence on the improvement of the outcome of operative treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis. A metal cage usage for the anterior interbody fusion of lumbar spine in the operative treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis enables long-lasting proper anatomical relations of the fused segment. PMID:19241885

  5. Dentist and practice characteristics associated with restorative treatment of enamel caries in permanent teeth: multiple-regression modeling of observational clinical data from The National Dental PBRN

    PubMed Central

    Fellows, Jeffrey L; Gordan, Valeria V.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Rindal, D. Brad; Qvist, Vibeke; Litaker, Mark S.; Benjamin, Paul; Flink, Håkan; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Johnson, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Current evidence in dentistry recommends non-surgical treatment to manage enamel caries lesions. However, surveyed practitioners report they would restore enamel lesions that are confined to the enamel. We used actual clinical data to evaluate patient, dentist, and practice characteristics associated with restoration of enamel caries, while accounting for other factors. Methods We combined data from a National Dental Practice-Based Research Network observational study of consecutive restorations placed in previously unrestored permanent tooth surfaces and practice/demographic data from 229 participating network dentists. Analysis of variance and logistic regression, using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and variable selection within blocks, were used to test the hypothesis that patient, dentist, and practice characteristics were associated with variations in enamel restorations of occlusal and proximal caries compared to dentin lesions, accounting for dentist and patient clustering. Results Network dentists from 5 regions placed 6,891 restorations involving occlusal and/or proximal caries lesions. Enamel restorations accounted for 16% of enrolled occlusal caries lesions and 6% of enrolled proximal caries lesions. Enamel occlusal restorations varied significantly (p<0.05) by patient age and race/ethnicity, dentist use of caries risk assessment, network region, and practice type. Enamel proximal restorations varied significantly (p<0.05) by dentist race/ethnicity, network region, and practice type. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Identifying patient, dentist, and practice characteristics associated with enamel caries restorations can guide strategies to improve provider adherence to evidence-based clinical recommendations. PMID:25000667

  6. [Treatment and personality development with art therapy. A description of the method].

    PubMed

    Antalfai, Márta

    2007-01-01

    Composition as a creative form of self-expression plays an important role not only in maintaining health, but also in gaining insight into the healthy personality and in the definition of this category. It seems nowadays that psychology has collected more information on the pathological personality than on the healthy one. Therefore, different workshops of art therapy are also scenes of a "spiritual alchemy" because they can give a deeper insight into the personality in addition to the primary aim of treatment. The method of the thematic art psychotherapy based on catharsis-experience is based on analytical psychology and on analytically oriented group-therapy. The aim is to generate artificial catharsis-experiences employing the impressive forces of poems, music compositions in order to raise the unconscious or the partly experienced partner-conflicts to the surface, which could manifest themselves in the process of the creative work and could be elaborated in group-activity. The creative process (specially adapted art techniques) provides good opportunities for patients to depict their traumas and complexes and also to resolve them involving the whole personality and not only at a cognitive level. The method, tuned to the workings of nature, helps the personality to develop the emotional and volitional segments, the sensitive and empathetic capabilities, as well as the recognition skills of consciousness. In the therapeutic process, the work of art that is created holds a mirror to the creator, offering to him or her the opportunity to face the real complex at the background the actual conflict. The method aims to achieve a reconstruction of psychic dynamics in two ways. The first is an emotional resonance to the changes of nature, of the year and of the feasts, in which the psychic process starts from inside to the direction of the outside world (psychic enrichment and accomodation). The second way leads from the outer world to the inner one and this psychic

  7. [Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of musculoskeletal disorders on the sports medicine. State of the art].

    PubMed

    Drobnic, Franchek; Turmo, Antonio

    2010-03-13

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (OHB) is a therapeutic modality based on the properties of partial pressure of oxygen, when breathing pure oxygen under hyperbaric conditions in a chamber designed for that purpose. Its indications in medicine are considered as primary, complementary or experimental depending on the evidence based effects. From different sectors of medicine, OHB has been recently proposed as a new tool for other pathologies, primarily in musculoskeletal disorders. In this paper, the state of the art of the influence from experimental studies is reviewed. Some considerations based on these studies are hypothesized as the minimum required to obtain good results when this therapy is decided to be used as co adjuvant to standard treatment. PMID:19931876

  8. Innovative manure treatments in the USA – state of the art (Tratamientos Innovadores de estiercoles en USA - estado del arte)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, the potential impact of manure on the environment represents one of the world agriculture’s major challenges. Treatment technologies can play an important role in the management of livestock manure by providing a more flexible approach to land application and acreage limitations and by so...

  9. Gene therapies that restore dystrophin expression for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Hamm, Jacqueline N; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is one of the most common inherited genetic diseases and is caused by mutations to the DMD gene that encodes the dystrophin protein. Recent advances in genome editing and gene therapy offer hope for the development of potential therapeutics. Truncated versions of the DMD gene can be delivered to the affected tissues with viral vectors and show promising results in a variety of animal models. Genome editing with the CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently been used to restore dystrophin expression by deleting one or more exons of the DMD gene in patient cells and in a mouse model that led to functional improvement of muscle strength. Exon skipping with oligonucleotides has been successful in several animal models and evaluated in multiple clinical trials. Next-generation oligonucleotide formulations offer significant promise to build on these results. All these approaches to restoring dystrophin expression are encouraging, but many hurdles remain. This review summarizes the current state of these technologies and summarizes considerations for their future development. PMID:27542949

  10. Potassium channel blockers as an effective treatment to restore impulse conduction in injured axons.

    PubMed

    Shi, Riyi; Sun, Wenjing

    2011-02-01

    Most axons in the vertebral central nervous system are myelinated by oligodendrocytes. Myelin protects and insulates neuronal processes, enabling the fast, saltatory conduction unique to myelinated axons. Myelin disruption resulting from trauma and biochemical reaction is a common pathological event in spinal cord injury and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Myelin damage-induced axonal conduction block is considered to be a significant contributor to the devastating neurological deficits resulting from trauma and illness. Potassium channels are believed to play an important role in axonal conduction failure in spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. Myelin damage has been shown to unmask potassium channels, creating aberrant potassium currents that inhibit conduction. Potassium channel blockade reduces this ionic leakage and improves conduction. The present review was mainly focused on the development of this technique of restoring axonal conduction and neurological function of demyelinated axons. The drug 4-aminopyridine has recently shown clinical success in treating multiple sclerosis symptoms. Further translational research has also identified several novel potassium channel blockers that may prove effective in restoring axonal conduction. PMID:21270902

  11. Monitoring the Effects of Forest Restoration Treatments on Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery with MODIS Multitemporal Data

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how satellite based time-series vegetation greenness data and phenological measurements can be used to monitor and quantify vegetation recovery after wildfire disturbances and examine how pre-fire fuel reduction restoration treatments impact fire severity and impact vegetation recovery trajectories. Pairs of wildfire affected sites and a nearby unburned reference site were chosen to measure the post-disturbance recovery in relation to climate variation. All site pairs were chosen in forested uplands in Arizona and were restricted to the area of the Rodeo-Chediski fire that occurred in 2002. Fuel reduction treatments were performed in 1999 and 2001. The inter-annual and seasonal vegetation dynamics before, during, and after wildfire events can be monitored using a time series of biweekly composited MODIS NDVI (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data. Time series analysis methods included difference metrics, smoothing filters, and fitting functions that were applied to extract seasonal and inter-annual change and phenological metrics from the NDVI time series data from 2000 to 2007. Pre- and post-fire Landsat data were used to compute the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) and examine burn severity at the selected sites. The phenological metrics (pheno-metrics) included the timing and greenness (i.e. NDVI) for the start, peak and end of the growing season as well as proxy measures for the rate of green-up and senescence and the annual vegetation productivity. Pre-fire fuel reduction treatments resulted in lower fire severity, which reduced annual productivity much less than untreated areas within the Rodeo-Chediski fire perimeter. The seasonal metrics were shown to be useful for estimating the rate of post-fire disturbance recovery and the timing of phenological greenness phases. The use of satellite time series NDVI data and derived pheno-metrics show potential for tracking vegetation cover dynamics

  12. Nanocarriers for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme: Current state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Karim, Reatul; Palazzo, Claudio; Evrard, Brigitte; Piel, Geraldine

    2016-04-10

    Glioblastoma multiforme, a grade IV glioma, is the most frequently occurring and invasive primary tumor of the central nervous system, which causes about 4% of cancer-associated-deaths, making it one of the most fatal cancers. With present treatments, using state-of-the-art technologies, the median survival is about 14months and 2year survival rate is merely 3-5%. Hence, novel therapeutic approaches are urgently necessary. However, most drug molecules are not able to cross the blood-brain barrier, which is one of the major difficulties in glioblastoma treatment. This review describes the features of blood-brain barrier, and its anatomical changes with different stages of tumor growth. Moreover, various strategies to improve brain drug delivery i.e. tight junction opening, chemical modification of the drug, efflux transporter inhibition, convection-enhanced delivery, craniotomy-based drug delivery and drug delivery nanosystems are discussed. Nanocarriers are one of the highly potential drug transport systems that have gained huge research focus over the last few decades for site specific drug delivery, including drug delivery to the brain. Properly designed nanocolloids are capable to cross the blood-brain barrier and specifically deliver the drug in the brain tumor tissue. They can carry both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, protect them from degradation, release the drug for sustained period, significantly improve the plasma circulation half-life and reduce toxic effects. Among various nanocarriers, liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles and lipid nanocapsules are the most widely studied, and are discussed in this review. For each type of nanocarrier, a general discussion describing their composition, characteristics, types and various uses is followed by their specific application to glioblastoma treatment. Moreover, some of the main challenges regarding toxicity and standardized evaluation techniques are narrated in brief. PMID:26892752

  13. Limits to Understory Plant Restoration Following Fuel-Reduction Treatments in a Piñon-Juniper Woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, Miranda D.; Zelikova, Tamara J.; Barger, Nichole N.

    2014-11-01

    National fuel-reduction programs aim to reduce the risk of wildland fires to human communities and to restore forest and rangeland ecosystems to resemble their historical structure, function, and diversity. There are a number of factors, such as seed bank dynamics, post-treatment climate, and herbivory, which determine whether this latter goal may be achieved. Here, we examine the short-term (2 years) vegetation response to fuel-reduction treatments (mechanical mastication, broadcast burn, and pile burn) and seeding of native grasses on understory vegetation in an upland piñon-juniper woodland in southeast Utah. We also examine how wildlife herbivory affects the success of fuel-reduction treatments. Herbaceous cover increased in response to fuel-reduction treatments in all seeded treatments, with the broadcast burn and mastication having greater increases (234 and 160 %, respectively) in herbaceous cover than the pile burn (32 %). In the absence of seeding, herbaceous cover only increased in the broadcast burn (32 %). Notably, fuel-reduction treatments, but not seeding, strongly affected herbaceous plant composition. All fuel-reduction treatments increased the relative density of invasive species, especially in the broadcast burn, which shifted the plant community composition from one dominated by perennial graminoids to one dominated by annual forbs. Herbivory by wildlife reduced understory plant cover by over 40 % and altered plant community composition. If the primary management goal is to enhance understory cover while promoting native species abundance, our study suggests that mastication may be the most effective treatment strategy in these upland piñon-juniper woodlands. Seed applications and wildlife exclosures further enhanced herbaceous cover following fuel-reduction treatments.

  14. Limits to understory plant restoration following fuel-reduction treatments in a piñon-juniper woodland.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Miranda D; Zelikova, Tamara J; Barger, Nichole N

    2014-11-01

    National fuel-reduction programs aim to reduce the risk of wildland fires to human communities and to restore forest and rangeland ecosystems to resemble their historical structure, function, and diversity. There are a number of factors, such as seed bank dynamics, post-treatment climate, and herbivory, which determine whether this latter goal may be achieved. Here, we examine the short-term (2 years) vegetation response to fuel-reduction treatments (mechanical mastication, broadcast burn, and pile burn) and seeding of native grasses on understory vegetation in an upland piñon-juniper woodland in southeast Utah. We also examine how wildlife herbivory affects the success of fuel-reduction treatments. Herbaceous cover increased in response to fuel-reduction treatments in all seeded treatments, with the broadcast burn and mastication having greater increases (234 and 160 %, respectively) in herbaceous cover than the pile burn (32 %). In the absence of seeding, herbaceous cover only increased in the broadcast burn (32 %). Notably, fuel-reduction treatments, but not seeding, strongly affected herbaceous plant composition. All fuel-reduction treatments increased the relative density of invasive species, especially in the broadcast burn, which shifted the plant community composition from one dominated by perennial graminoids to one dominated by annual forbs. Herbivory by wildlife reduced understory plant cover by over 40 % and altered plant community composition. If the primary management goal is to enhance understory cover while promoting native species abundance, our study suggests that mastication may be the most effective treatment strategy in these upland piñon-juniper woodlands. Seed applications and wildlife exclosures further enhanced herbaceous cover following fuel-reduction treatments. PMID:25064466

  15. HDAC inhibitor treatment of hepatoma cells induces both TRAIL-independent apoptosis and restoration of sensitivity to TRAIL.

    PubMed

    Pathil, Anita; Armeanu, Sorin; Venturelli, Sascha; Mascagni, Paolo; Weiss, Thomas S; Gregor, Michael; Lauer, Ulrich M; Bitzer, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) displays a striking resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs or innovative tumor cell apoptosis-inducing agents such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Recently, we found 2 histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC-I), valproic acid and ITF2357, exhibiting inherent therapeutic activity against HCC. In TRAIL-sensitive cancer cells, the mechanism of HDAC-I-induced cell death has been identified to be TRAIL-dependent by inducing apoptosis in an autocrine fashion. In contrast, in HCC-derived cells, a prototype of TRAIL-resistant tumor cells, we found a HDAC-I-mediated apoptosis that works independently of TRAIL and upregulation of death receptors or their cognate ligands. Interestingly, TRAIL resistance could be overcome by a combinatorial application of HDAC-I and TRAIL, increasing the fraction of apoptotic cells two- to threefold compared with HDAC-I treatment alone, whereas any premature HDAC-I withdrawal rapidly restored TRAIL resistance. Furthermore, a tumor cell-specific downregulation of the FLICE inhibitory protein (FLIP) was observed, constituting a new mechanism of TRAIL sensitivity restoration by HDAC-I. In contrast, FLIP levels in primary human hepatocytes (PHH) from different donors were upregulated by HDAC-I. Importantly, combination HDAC-I/TRAIL treatment did not induce any cytotoxicity in nonmalignant PHH. In conclusion, HDAC-I compounds, exhibiting a favorable in vivo profile and inherent activity against HCC cells, are able to selectively overcome the resistance of HCC cells toward TRAIL. Specific upregulation of intracellular FLIP protein levels in nonmalignant hepatocytes could enhance the therapeutic window for clinical applications of TRAIL, opening up a highly specific new treatment option for advanced HCC. PMID:16583461

  16. Non-thermal Atmospheric Plasma Treatment for Deactivation of Oral Bacteria and Improvement of Dental Composite Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qing Song; Li, H.; Ritts, A. C.; Yang, B.; Chen, M.; Hong, L.; Xu, C.; Yao, X.; Wang, Y.

    This paper reviews our recent research results of using non-thermal ­atmospheric plasmas for oral bacterial deactivation and for composite restoration improvement. Oral bacteria of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) with an initial bacterial population density between 1.0 × 108 and 5.0 × 108 cfu/ml were seeded on various media and their survivability with plasma exposure was examined. The plasma exposure time for a 99.9999% cell reduction was less than 15 s for S. mutans and within 5 min for L. acidophilus. To evaluate the dentin/composite interfacial bonding, extracted unerupted human third molars were used by removing the crowns and etching the exposed dentin surfaces with 35% phosphoric acid gel. After dental composite application and light curing, the teeth were then sectioned into micro-bars as the specimens for microtensile test. Student Newman Keuls (SNK) tests showed that the bonding strength of the composite restoration to peripheral dentin was significantly increased (by 64%) after 30 s plasma treatment of the dentin surfaces. These findings indicated that non-thermal atmospheric plasma technology is very promising for dental clinical applications.

  17. The Efficacy of Noncontingent Escape for Decreasing Children's Disruptive Behavior during Restorative Dental Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Patrick M.; Allen, Keith D.; Powell, Shawn; Salama, Fouad

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a dentist-implemented behavioral intervention in which brief escape from dental treatment was provided on a regular basis, independent of the child's behavior. Within a multiple baseline design across subjects, 5 children, ages 4 to 7 years, were provided with temporary escape from dental treatment on a fixed-time…

  18. Effect of Art Production on Negative Mood and Anxiety for Adults in Treatment for Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurer, Mattye; van der Vennet, Renée

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether art production or viewing and sorting art reproductions would be more effective in reducing negative mood and anxiety for 28 adults with substance use disorders. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups and completed pre- and posttest measures of negative mood and anxiety The hypothesis that art…

  19. Treatment of Mutilated Art Books: A Survey of Academic ARL Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth H.; Olszak, Lydia

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how main and departmental art libraries handle mutilated art books based on experiences at East Carolina University (North Carolina). Highlights include a survey of academic libraries which are members of ARL (Association of Research Libraries); costs; importance of the work; amount of mutilation; and availability of photocopiers to…

  20. Chemical and structural characterization of glass ionomer cements indicated for atraumatic restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Nakatani, Mariana Kyosen; de Araújo Estrela, Cyntia Rodrigues; de Alencar, Ana Helena Gonçalves; Estrela, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are restorative materials, which clinical use has increased significantly during the last decade. The aim of the present study was to analyze the chemical constitution and surface morphology of four glass ionomer cements: Maxxion R, VitroFill, Vidrion R and Vitremer. Twelve polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 3 and 3 mm in length were prepared, filled and then transferred to a chamber with 95% relative humidity and a temperature of 37°C. The surface morphology of the tested materials was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and main components were investigated by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). Scanning electron microscopy revealed irregular and rough external surface. Cracking was not observed. The main constituents were found to be aluminum, silicon, calcium, sodium and fluoride. Phosphorus, sulfur and barium were only observed in Vidrion R, while chlorine were only observed in Maxxion R. Elemental mapping of the outer surface revealed high concentration of aluminum and silicon. Significant irregularities on the surface of the tested materials were observed. The chemical constitution of all GIC was similar. PMID:25876952

  1. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and infection control for restorative dental treatment in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Hall, David L

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nursing home residents now averages 20-35%. This includes both numerous asymptomatic mostly unidentified carriers, and the occasional patient with an active infection. Among the most common sites for positive MRSA colonization are the nares and mouth (saliva). Ohio State University (OSU) dental students perform routine restorative dental care onsite in local nursing homes using portable equipment including handpieces that can generate aerosols. Using a series of cultured test swabs and plates, this pilot study suggests that protection for both dental health care personnel and patients are provided by the following: 1. universal barrier precautions (for example, gloves, gowns, masks, hats, facial shields, glasses), 2. surface disinfectants, 3. pre-op 0.12% chlorhexidene mouth rinses, 4. high volume evacuation, 5. perioral skin scrubs. Additional infection control methods, techniques and equipment were evaluated and compared including rubber dam isolation, hand excavation and bond technique, high-speed air turbine and electric "high" speed handpiece. There was no indication of a special tendency or heightened ability of MRSA to aerosolize. PMID:14650558

  2. MicroRNA-126 contributes to Niaspan treatment induced vascular restoration after diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Yan, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious microvascular complication of diabetes and a major cause of blindness in the developing world. Early diabetic retinopathy is characterized by a loss of pericytes and vascular endothelial cells, a breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier, vascular dysfunction and vascular-neuroinflammation. However, optimal treatment options and related mechanisms are still unclear. MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) plays a potential role in the pathogenesis in DR, which may regulate VEGF, Ang-1 and VCAM-1 expressions. This study investigated the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of Niaspan treatment of DR in diabetes (DM) rats. DM rats exhibits significantly decreased miR-126 and tight junction Claudin-5/Occludin/ZO-1 genes expression, and increased Blood retinal-barrier (BRB) breakdown, retinal apoptosis and VEGF/VEGFR, as well as VCAM-1/CD45 expressions in the retina compared to normal control group. Niaspan treatment significantly improved clinical and histopathological outcomes; decreased the expressions of VEGF/VEGFR, VCAM-1/CD45, apoptosis and BRB breakdown, significantly increased tight junction proteins and Ang-1/Tie-2 expressions, as well as increased retinal miR-126 expression compared to non-treatment diabetic rats. These data are the first to show that Niaspan treatment ameliorates DR through its repair vascular and inhibits inflammatory effects, and also suggest that the miR-126 pathway may contribute to Niaspan treatment induced benefit effects. PMID:27225425

  3. MicroRNA-126 contributes to Niaspan treatment induced vascular restoration after diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Yan, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious microvascular complication of diabetes and a major cause of blindness in the developing world. Early diabetic retinopathy is characterized by a loss of pericytes and vascular endothelial cells, a breakdown of the blood–retinal barrier, vascular dysfunction and vascular-neuroinflammation. However, optimal treatment options and related mechanisms are still unclear. MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) plays a potential role in the pathogenesis in DR, which may regulate VEGF, Ang-1 and VCAM-1 expressions. This study investigated the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of Niaspan treatment of DR in diabetes (DM) rats. DM rats exhibits significantly decreased miR-126 and tight junction Claudin-5/Occludin/ZO-1 genes expression, and increased Blood retinal-barrier (BRB) breakdown, retinal apoptosis and VEGF/VEGFR, as well as VCAM-1/CD45 expressions in the retina compared to normal control group. Niaspan treatment significantly improved clinical and histopathological outcomes; decreased the expressions of VEGF/VEGFR, VCAM-1/CD45, apoptosis and BRB breakdown, significantly increased tight junction proteins and Ang-1/Tie-2 expressions, as well as increased retinal miR-126 expression compared to non-treatment diabetic rats. These data are the first to show that Niaspan treatment ameliorates DR through its repair vascular and inhibits inflammatory effects, and also suggest that the miR-126 pathway may contribute to Niaspan treatment induced benefit effects. PMID:27225425

  4. In vitro evaluation of marginal and internal adaptation after occlusal stressing of indirect class II composite restorations with different resinous bases and interface treatments. "Post-fatigue adaptation of indirect composite restorations".

    PubMed

    Rocca, Giovanni Tommaso; Gregor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Maria Jose; Krejci, Ivo; Dietschi, Didier

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluated the influence of different composite bases and surface treatments on marginal and internal adaptation of class II indirect composite restorations, after simulated occlusal loading. Thirty-two class II inlay cavities were prepared on human third molars, with margins located in cementum. A 1-mm composite base extending up to the cervical margins was applied on all dentin surfaces in the experimental groups; impressions were made and composite inlays fabricated. The following experimental conditions were tested: no liner (control group), flowable composite treated with soft air abrasion (experiment 1), flowable composite sandblasted (experiment 2) and restorative composite sandblasted (experiment 3). All specimens were submitted to 1,000,000 cycles with a 100-N eccentric load. Tooth-restoration margins were analysed semi-quantitatively by scanning electron microscopy before and after loading; internal adaptation was also evaluated after test completion. The percentage of perfect adaptation in enamel was 79.5% to 92.7% before loading and 73.3% to 81.9% after loading. Perfect adaptation to dentin was reduced before loading (54.8% to 77.6%) and after loading (41.9% to 63%), but no difference was found among groups for pre- and post-loading conditions. No debonding occurred between the base and composite luting. A significant, negative influence of cyclic loading was observed. The results of the present study support the use of flowable or restorative composites as base/liner underneath large class II restorations. Soft air abrasion represents a potential alternative to airborne particle abrasion for treating cavities before cementation. The application of a composite base underneath indirect composite restorations represents a feasible non-invasive alternative to surgical crown lengthening to relocate cavity margins from an intra-crevicular to supra-gingival position. PMID:22065245

  5. Technical framework for groundwater restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This document provides the technical framework for groundwater restoration under Phase II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. A preliminary management plan for Phase II has been set forth in a companion document titled ``Preplanning Guidance Document for Groundwater Restoration``. General principles of site characterization for groundwater restoration, restoration methods, and treatment are discussed in this document to provide an overview of standard technical approaches to groundwater restoration.

  6. Restoration of blood pressure by choline treatment in rats made hypotensive by haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Ulus, I. H.; Arslan, B. Y.; Savci, V.; Kiran, B. K.

    1995-01-01

    1. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of choline (25-150 micrograms) increased blood pressure in rats made acutely hypotensive by haemorrhage. Intraperitoneal administration of choline (60 mg kg-1) also increased blood pressure, but to a lesser extent. Following i.c.v. injection of 25 micrograms or 50 micrograms of choline, heart rate did not change, while 100 micrograms or 150 micrograms i.c.v. choline produced a slight and short lasting bradycardia. Choline (150 micrograms) failed to alter the circulating residual volume of blood in haemorrhaged rats. 2. The pressor response to i.c.v. choline (50 micrograms) in haemorrhaged rats was abolished by pretreatment with mecamylamine (50 micrograms, i.c.v.) but not atropine (10 micrograms, i.c.v.). The pressor response to choline was blocked by pretreatment with hemicholinium-3 (20 micrograms, i.c.v.). 3. The pressor response to i.c.v. choline (150 micrograms) was associated with a several fold increase in plasma levels of vasopressin and adrenaline but not of noradrenaline and plasma renin. 4. The pressor response to i.c.v. choline (150 micrograms) was not altered by bilateral adrenalectomy, but was attenuated by systemic administration of either phentolamine (10 mg kg-1) or the vasopressin antagonist [beta-mercapto-beta,beta-cyclopenta-methylenepropionyl1, O-Me-Tyr2,Arg8]-vasopressin (10 micrograms kg-1). 5. It is concluded that the precursor of acetylcholine, choline, can increase and restore blood pressure in acutely haemorrhaged rats by increasing central cholinergic neurotransmission. Nicotinic receptor activation and an increase in plasma vasopressin and adrenaline level appear to be involved in this effect of choline. PMID:8528579

  7. An application of baseflow isolation and passive wetland treatment to watershed restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, K.L.; Rightnour, T.A.; Zug, F.R. III

    1999-07-01

    The project site, located in West Virginia, is a reclaimed wood waste disposal area situated on Pennsylvanian coal strata. Following reclamation of the disposal area, flow in the adjacent stream was observed to have elevated iron and manganese concentrations. The source of the groundwater baseflow entering this portion of the stream appeared to be hydrologically related to the landfill by its close proximity. The source of the metals contamination was not determined, but may be related to percolation from the disposal area into the underlying coal strata. The observable contamination was typical of alkaline coal mine drainage and met the criteria for passive wetland treatment. However, the contaminated baseflow entered the stream along the sides and bottom of the channel at several locations over a 100-meter section and could not be collected for accurate characterization of pollutant loading. Treatment of the entire contaminated stream flow to comply with NPDES permit requirements would have been prohibitively expensive, and insufficient space was available for a treatment facility of adequate size within the narrow stream valley. Given these constraints, it was decided to isolate the contaminated baseflow from the surface flow by construction of a lined stream relocation on top of a gravity-drained collection zone in the existing stream channel. The collection zone consists of a bed of coarse aggregate with a central collection pipe discharging to a submerged outlet, which prevents air from entering the collection zone and minimizes the formation of iron precipitates. The relocated stream channel was formed in place on top of the collection zone with compacted earth, and lined with one layer of polypropylene geomembrane covered by two layers of geotextile. Gabion baskets were then placed on top of the liner for stream stabilization and shaping of the final channel. Accurate discharge characterization at the end of the collection pipe allowed the design of a

  8. Time to ART Initiation among Patients Treated for Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in Khayelitsha, South Africa: Impact on Mortality and Treatment Success

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Johnny Flippie; Khogali, Mohammed; Mohr, Erika; Cox, Vivian; Moyo, Sizulu; Edginton, Mary; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund; Meintjes, Graeme; Hughes, Jennifer; De Azevedo, Virginia; van Cutsem, Gilles; Cox, Helen Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Setting Khayelitsha, South Africa, with high burdens of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) and HIV co-infection. Objective To describe time to antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation among HIV-infected RR-TB patients initiating RR-TB treatment and to assess the association between time to ART initiation and treatment outcomes. Design A retrospective cohort study of patients with RR-TB and HIV co-infection not on ART at RR-TB treatment initiation. Results Of the 696 RR-TB and HIV-infected patients initiated on RR-TB treatment between 2009 and 2013, 303 (44%) were not on ART when RR-TB treatment was initiated. The median CD4 cell count was 126 cells/mm3. Overall 257 (85%) patients started ART during RR-TB treatment, 33 (11%) within 2 weeks, 152 (50%) between 2–8 weeks and 72 (24%) after 8 weeks. Of the 46 (15%) who never started ART, 10 (21%) died or stopped RR-TB treatment within 4 weeks and 16 (37%) had at least 4 months of RR-TB treatment. Treatment success and mortality during treatment did not vary by time to ART initiation: treatment success was 41%, 43%, and 50% among patients who started ART within 2 weeks, between 2–8 weeks, and after 8 weeks (p = 0.62), while mortality was 21%, 13% and 15% respectively (p = 0.57). Mortality was associated with never receiving ART (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 6.0, CI 2.1–18.1), CD4 count ≤100 (aHR 2.1, CI 1.0–4.5), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) with second-line resistance (aHR 2.5, CI 1.1–5.4). Conclusions Despite wide variation in time to ART initiation among RR-TB patients, no differences in mortality or treatment success were observed. However, a significant proportion of patients did not initiate ART despite receiving >4 months of RR-TB treatment. Programmatic priorities should focus on ensuring all patients with RR-TB/HIV co-infection initiate ART regardless of CD4 count, with special attention for patients with CD4 counts ≤ 100 to initiate ART as soon as possible after RR

  9. The exposure of urologists and the treatment for male factor infertility on the Web sites of ART centers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Fu-Yin; Huang, William J; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Couples with male factor disorders can have their own biologic offspring nowadays via in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection technologies. Because infertile couples commonly seek treatment options through public Web sites on the Internet, an appropriate exposure of urologic opinions on male factor infertility is important. It was therefore of interest to survey the extent of urologists' exposure on the official Web sites of the assisted reproductive technology (ART) centers. We surveyed the official Web sites of all 74 qualified ART centers in Taiwan. Web sites of these centers were evaluated for their information on male factor infertility and varicoceles, especially treatment suggestions for varicocele and attitudes toward urologist referral. Among the 74 centers, only 69 had established official Web sites. Forty-eight Web sites (69.6%) provided information regarding infertility, whereas only 42 Web sites (60.9%) mentioned male factor infertility and 23 (33.3%) had descriptions of varicoceles. The quantity and quality of disclosed information varied, 11 (15.9%) sites provided treatment opinions for varicocele, and only 4 (5.8%) supported surgical intervention. Most Web sites of ART centers in Taiwan had content on male factor infertility, but the vast majority did not mention urologist referral or varicocele treatment. Urologists' opinions are relatively less exposed on the Web sites of fertility services. Further efforts should be made by urologists to provide comprehensive information to the public and to reinforce the importance of urologist referral in male factor infertility. PMID:20829520

  10. The ART approach using glass-ionomers in relation to global oral health care.

    PubMed

    Frencken, Jo E

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent non-communicable disease in the world. Its management in high-income countries over the last four decades has resulted in relatively low caries prevalence in child and adolescent populations. In low- and middle-income countries, caries management is virtually non-existent and this may lead to serious physical and mental complications, particularly in children. Toothache is predominantly treated by extracting the cavitated tooth. Absence of restorative oral care is partly due to the copying from high-income countries, of restorative treatment reliant on electrically driven equipment and often inappropriate for use in many low- and middle-income countries. Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART), which does not rely on electrically driven equipment, has yielded good results over the last two decades. ART uses hand instruments and high-viscosity glass-ionomers. Its introduction into public oral healthcare systems has been piloted in several countries. Initial short-term results show that the introduction of ART, using high-viscosity glass-ionomers, has increased the ratio of restorations to extractions. Moreover, the percentage of ART restorations in relation to the total number of restorations placed increased steeply after its introduction and has remained high. However, ART introduction faced a few barriers, the most important being high patient workloads and the absence of a constant supply of dental instruments and glass-ionomers. High-viscosity glass-ionomer has become an essential element in public oral healthcare systems, particularly in those operating inadequately. PMID:19804903

  11. The efficacy of noncontingent escape for decreasing children's disruptive behavior during restorative dental treatment.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Patrick M; Allen, Keith D; Powell, Shawn; Salama, Fouad

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a dentist-implemented behavioral intervention in which brief escape from dental treatment was provided on a regular basis, independent of the child's behavior. Within a multiple baseline design across subjects, 5 children, ages 4 to 7 years, were provided with temporary escape from dental treatment on a fixed-time schedule. The intervals were signaled by an electronic timer worn by the dentist. Clinically significant reductions were observed in physically disruptive behavior across all 5 children with the introduction of noncontingent escape, and verbally disruptive behavior was markedly reduced in 4 of the 5 children. In addition, the dental staff s use of physical restraint was reduced to near zero across all 5 children. The research extends the literature in both clinical dentistry and in applied behavior analysis by demonstrating that a dentist can easily and effectively implement noncontingent reinforcement to produce clinically significant and socially important changes in children's health behavior. PMID:16813038

  12. Effect of oxalic acid pre-treatment in restorations of non-carious cervical lesions: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, André Mattos Brito; Colares, Regina Claudia Ramos; Mendonça, Juliano Satori; Rodrigues, Lidiany Karla Azevedo; Santiago, Sérgio Lima

    2014-01-01

    Context: Non-carious cervical lesions are usually associated with dentin hypersensitivity. The use of oxalic acid in restorations of these lesions could be beneficial in relieving pain. Aims: To evaluate the use of oxalic acid in restorations of non-carious cervical lesions. Settings and Design: A randomized clinical trial. Subjects and Methods: One operator placed 90 restorations in 20 volunteers of both sexes, with at least two lesions to be restored with the techniques: Control — Restoration with total-etch technique and Experimental — Restoration with pretreatment with oxalic acid followed by application of adhesive system. The restorative adhesive system used was XP Bond/Durafill. The restorations were directly assessed by two independent examiners using a modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) method at baseline, 6 and 12 months, taking into account the following criteria: Retention (R), marginal integrity (MI), marginal discoloration (MD), postoperative sensitivity (S), caries (C), and anatomic form (AF). Statistical analysis used: The data were statistically analyzed using the Fisher exact and McNemar tests. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: After 1 year, the results of restorations clinically satisfactory obtained for the control and experimental group respectively were: R (97% / 89%), MI (100% / 100%), MD (100% / 100%), S (100% / 100%), C (100% / 100%), and AF (100% / 100%). Conclusions: The use of oxalic acid as an agent of dentin pretreatment did not influence the clinical performance of restorations in non-carious cervical lesions after 1 year. PMID:25298641

  13. Regulated recycling of mutant CFTR is partially restored by pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Holleran, John P; Zeng, Jianxin; Frizzell, Raymond A; Watkins, Simon C

    2013-06-15

    Efficient trafficking of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to and from the cell surface is essential for maintaining channel density at the plasma membrane (PM) and ensuring proper physiological activity. The most common mutation, F508del, exhibits reduced surface expression and impaired function despite treatment with currently available pharmacological small molecules, called correctors. To gain more detailed insight into whether CFTR enters compartments that allow corrector stabilization in the cell periphery, we investigated the peripheral trafficking itineraries and kinetics of wild type (WT) and F508del in living cells using high-speed fluorescence microscopy together with fluorogen activating protein detection. We directly visualized internalization and accumulation of CFTR WT from the PM to a perinuclear compartment that colocalized with the endosomal recycling compartment (ERC) markers Rab11 and EHD1, reaching steady-state distribution by 25 minutes. Stimulation by protein kinase A (PKA) depleted this intracellular pool and redistributed CFTR channels to the cell surface, elicited by reduced endocytosis and active translocation to the PM. Corrector or temperature rescue of F508del also resulted in targeting to the ERC and exhibited subsequent PKA-stimulated trafficking to the PM. Corrector treatment (24 hours) led to persistent residence of F508del in the ERC, while thermally destabilized F508del was targeted to lysosomal compartments by 3 hours. Acute addition of individual correctors, C4 or C18, acted on peripheral trafficking steps to partially block lysosomal targeting of thermally destabilized F508del. Taken together, corrector treatment redirects F508del trafficking from a degradative pathway to a regulated recycling route, and proteins that mediate this process become potential targets for improving the efficacy of current and future correctors. PMID:23572510

  14. Restoration of cardiomyocyte function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after treatment with vanadate in a tea decoction.

    PubMed

    Clark, Tod A; Maddaford, Thane G; Tappia, Paramjit S; Heyliger, Clayton E; Ganguly, Pallab K; Pierce, Grant N

    2010-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with abnormal cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) transients and contractile performance. We investigated the possibility that an alteration in inositol trisphosphate/phospholipase C (IP₃/PLC) signalling may be involved in this dysfunction. Phosphatidic acid stimulates cardiomyocyte contraction through an IP₃/PLC signaling cascade. We also tested a novel therapeutic intervention to assess its efficacy in reversing any potential defects. Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocin treatment and maintained for an 8 week experimental period. Active cell shortening was significantly depressed in cardiomyocytes obtained from diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic rats in comparison to normal control animals. Perfusion of the cells with phosphatidic acid induced an increase in contraction of control rat cardiomyocytes whereas its effect was inhibitory in cells from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were also treated orally with vanadate administered in a black tea extract (T/V) for the 8 week period. T/V treatment resulted in a contractile response that was not different from cells of control animals. Furthermore, cardiomyocytes from T/V-treated animals exhibited significantly improved Ca(2+) transients in comparison to diabetic animals and exhibited a normalized response to phosphatidic acid perfusion. It is concluded that a T/V glycemic therapy is capable of preventing the defect in IP₃/PLC signaling that occurs in diabetes and can restore normal cardiac contractile function. PMID:20874687

  15. Restoring large-scale brain networks in PTSD and related disorders: a proposal for neuroscientifically-informed treatment interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lanius, Ruth A.; Frewen, Paul A.; Tursich, Mischa; Jetly, Rakesh; McKinnon, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Three intrinsic connectivity networks in the brain, namely the central executive, salience, and default mode networks, have been identified as crucial to the understanding of higher cognitive functioning, and the functioning of these networks has been suggested to be impaired in psychopathology, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective 1) To describe three main large-scale networks of the human brain; 2) to discuss the functioning of these neural networks in PTSD and related symptoms; and 3) to offer hypotheses for neuroscientifically-informed interventions based on treating the abnormalities observed in these neural networks in PTSD and related disorders. Method Literature relevant to this commentary was reviewed. Results Increasing evidence for altered functioning of the central executive, salience, and default mode networks in PTSD has been demonstrated. We suggest that each network is associated with specific clinical symptoms observed in PTSD, including cognitive dysfunction (central executive network), increased and decreased arousal/interoception (salience network), and an altered sense of self (default mode network). Specific testable neuroscientifically-informed treatments aimed to restore each of these neural networks and related clinical dysfunction are proposed. Conclusions Neuroscientifically-informed treatment interventions will be essential to future research agendas aimed at targeting specific PTSD and related symptoms. PMID:25854674

  16. Effects of Dentin Surface Treatments on Hypersensitivity to Bond Strength of Restorations: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Tulga, Ayça; Saraç, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of desensitizing treatments on the shear bond strength (SBS) of adhesive resin cement (Rely X U100) applied to dentin. Human molars (n = 120) with exposed dentin were divided into 12 groups. In the experimental groups, dentin surfaces were treated with (1) an erbium:yttrium- aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser, (2) a neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, (3) glutaraldehyde (Gluma)-, (4) fluoride (Aqua Prep-F)-, and (5) oxalate (BisBlock)-containing desensitizing agents, (6) Gluma preceding the Er:YAG laser, (7) Aqua Prep-F preceding the Er:YAG laser, (8) BisBlock preceding the Er:YAG laser, (9) Gluma preceding the Nd:YAG laser, (10) Aqua Prep-F preceding the Nd:YAG laser, (11) and BisBlock preceding the Nd:YAG laser, in groups EL, NL, G, F, O, EL-G, EL-F, EL-O, NL-G , NL-F, and NL-O, respectively. Then, lithium disilicate ceramics were cemented to the treated surfaces. Subsequently, an SBS test was performed and the data were statistically analyzed (α = .001). The results suggested that the combined treatment of Gluma preceding Er:YAG laser increased the bond strength of ceramic to the dentin surface using a self-adhesive resin cement. PMID:26357704

  17. Conceptual Site Treatment Plan Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research Environmental Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, T.E.

    1993-10-01

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (the Act) of 1992 waives sovereign immunity for federal facilities for fines and penalties under the provisions of the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act, state, interstate, and local hazardous and solid waste management requirements. However, for three years the Act delays the waiver for violations involving US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Act, however, requires that the DOE prepare a Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) for each of its sites that generate or store mixed wastes (MWs). The purpose of the CSTP is to present DOE`s preliminary evaluations of the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating a site`s MW. This CSTP presents the preliminary capacity and technology evaluation for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR). The five identified MW streams at LEHR are evaluated to the extent possible given available information. Only one MW stream is sufficiently well defined to permit a technology evaluation to be performed. Two other MW streams are in the process of being characterized so that an evaluation can be performed. The other two MW streams will be generated by the decommissioning of inactive facilities onsite within the next five years.

  18. A new separation and treatment method for soil and groundwater restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchens, G.D.

    1997-10-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination by organic compounds is a widespread environmental pollution problem. In many cases, contaminated soil is excavated and transported to a landfill or is incinerated to remove contaminants. These remediation practices are expensive, environmentally disruptive, require extensive permitting, and only move contamination from one location to another. Onsite and in situ treatment techniques offer a safer, more cost-effective, and permanent solution. Many soil and groundwater contaminants are highly volatile, enabling the use of methods such as in situ vacuum extraction and air injection for their removal. However, these methods are often difficult to use because of slow volatilization rates and the lack of effective methods to treat the extracted hazardous material. This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program focuses on developing an in situ soil and groundwater remediation technique that is effective against volatile as well as nonvolatile compounds and that will shorten treatment times. The technique forms the basis of a new catalytic process to degrade extracted contaminants onsite. Key hardware elements on which the new technique is based have been proven in preliminary research. The method has a high potential for public and regulatory acceptance because of its low environment impact.

  19. Ecological Restoration: Bringing Back the Prairie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Molly Fifield

    1997-01-01

    Defines ecological restoration and offers a plan for prairie restoration as a schoolyard project. Steps include researching and planning the site, preparation and planting, and continuing management of the site. Ecological concepts in this activity also relate to science, language arts, math, social studies, art, and music for K-12 students. (AIM)

  20. Watershed Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  1. Implementation of the ART approach in South Africa: an activity report.

    PubMed

    Mickenautsch, S; Rudolph, M J

    2001-07-01

    The Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach has been adopted in public dental services in South Africa as an appropriate and economical means to provide basic restorative care in communities where it was not possible before. The approach also offers a less-traumatic treatment concept for fearful patients and children in the private dental practice. In 2000, the Division of Community Dentistry, University of the Witwatersrand, implemented a training, research and service programme in the ART approach. The aim of these activities was the promotion of ART at various levels within the oral health care system in the Republic of South Africa. The objectives of the programme were to initiate and provide training of oral health workers in ART, to evaluate the outcome of training and service programmes and to disseminate results. This paper describes the Division's ART activities in 2000, regarding public, private and refugee health services. PMID:11575117

  2. Restoration of thyroid hormone balance: a game changer in the treatment of heart failure?

    PubMed

    Gerdes, A Martin

    2015-01-01

    The link between low thyroid hormone (TH) function and heart failure is reviewed in the present report. The idea that TH dysfunction may contribute to diseases leading to HF has been discussed for over 60 yr. A growing body of evidence from animal and human studies, particularly in recent years, suggests that TH treatment may improve clinical outcomes. Indeed, if a similar amount of positive information were available for a newly developed heart drug, there is little doubt that large-scale clinical trials would be underway with considerable excitement. THs offer the promise of improving ventricular contraction and relaxation, improving coronary blood flow, and inhibiting atherosclerosis, and new results suggest they may even reduce the incidence of arrhythmias in heart diseases. Are the potential clinical benefits worth the risk of possible overdosing? After so many years, why has this question not been answered? Clearly, the concept has not been disproven. This review explores the body of clinical evidence related to TH dysfunction and heart failure, discuss insights into pathophysiological, cellular, and molecular mechanisms provided by animal research, and discuss what is needed to resolve this long-standing issue in cardiology and move forward. PMID:25380818

  3. Role Development Applied to Art Therapy Treatment of an Artist Diagnosed with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Victoria P.; Pletnick, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Role Development is a theory-based, individualized intervention developed for health care practitioners, including art therapists, to assist individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia to learn roles and their underlying task and interpersonal skills. The role of artist is particularly suited to this intervention. This paper describes the role…

  4. "The Worst School I've Ever Been To:" Empirical Evaluations of a Restorative School and Treatment Milieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirsky, Laura; Wachtel, Ted

    2007-01-01

    While anecdotal reports have strongly supported restorative practices, there is a need to expand the evidence base through empirical studies of the efficacy of these interventions. This article highlights such emerging findings reported by Paul McCold of the Institute for Restorative Practices in collaboration with researchers from Temple…

  5. Influence of the use of Er:YAG laser for cavity preparation and surface treatment in microleakage of resin-modified glass ionomer restorations.

    PubMed

    Chinelatti, Michelle A; Ramos, Renata P; Chimello, Daniela T; Borsatto, Maria C; Pécora, Jesus D; Palma-Dibb, Regina G

    2004-01-01

    This study quantitatively assessed the amount of microleakage on Class V cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser and high-speed handpiece, varying the surface treatment and restoring with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Fifty cavities were prepared using either an Er:YAG laser device or a carbide bur at high speed. The surface treatment was performed as follows: Er:YAG laser irradiation (G1); 40% polyacrylic acid (G2); laser + acid (G3); finishing with low speed + laser + acid (G4); conventional bur preparation + acid (G5-control). The samples were restored with Fuji II LC, thermocycled, isolated and immersed in a 50% AgNO3 solution. The restorations were serially sectioned and the extent of dye penetration was measured in milimeters using specific computer software. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test. The lowest degree of microleakage was observed for G5, which was statistically similar (p>0.05) to G4 but different (p<0.05) from all the other experiental groups. Lesser microleakage was observed at the occlusal margins than at the cervical margins (p<0.05). It may be concluded that the use of Er:YAG laser for cavity preparation and surface treatment negatively affected the marginal sealing of resin-modified glass ionomer restorations. PMID:15279483

  6. Engineering approaches to ecosystem restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.F.

    1998-07-01

    This proceedings CD ROM contains 127 papers on developing and evaluating engineering approaches to wetlands and river restoration. The latest engineering developments are discussed, providing valuable insights to successful approaches for river restoration, wetlands restoration, watershed management, and constructed wetlands for stormwater and wastewater treatment. Potential solutions to a wide variety of ecosystem concerns in urban, suburban, and coastal environments are presented.

  7. Chronic P7C3 treatment restores hippocampal neurogenesis in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down Syndrome [Corrected].

    PubMed

    Latchney, Sarah E; Jaramillo, Thomas C; Rivera, Phillip D; Eisch, Amelia J; Powell, Craig M

    2015-03-30

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability and developmental delay. In addition to cognitive dysfunction, DS patients are marked by diminished neurogenesis, a neuropathological feature also found in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Interestingly, manipulations that enhance neurogenesis - like environmental enrichment or pharmacological agents - improve cognition in Ts65Dn mice. P7C3 is a proneurogenic compound that enhances hippocampal neurogenesis, cell survival, and promotes cognition in aged animals. However, this compound has not been tested in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. We hypothesized that P7C3 treatment would reverse or ameliorate the neurogenic deficits in Ts65Dn mice. To test this, adult Ts65Dn and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice were administered vehicle or P7C3 twice daily for 3 months. After 3 months, brains were examined for indices of neurogenesis, including quantification of Ki67, DCX, activated caspase-3 (AC3), and surviving BrdU-immunoreactive(+) cells in the granule cell layer (GCL) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. P7C3 had no effect on total Ki67+, DCX+, AC3+, or surviving BrdU+ cells in WT mice relative to vehicle. GCL volume was also not changed. In keeping with our hypothesis, however, P7C3-treated Ts65Dn mice had a significant increase in total Ki67+, DCX+, and surviving BrdU+ cells relative to vehicle. P7C3 treatment also decreased AC3+ cell number but had no effect on total GCL volume in Ts65Dn mice. Our findings show 3 months of P7C3 is sufficient to restore the neurogenic deficits observed in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. PMID:25668489

  8. Epigenetic alteration by DNA-demethylating treatment restores apoptotic response to glucocorticoids in dexamethasone-resistant human malignant lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoids (GCs) are often included in the therapy of lymphoid malignancies because they kill several types of malignant lymphoid cells. GCs activate the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), to regulate a complex genetic network, culminating in apoptosis. Normal lymphoblasts and many lymphoid malignancies are sensitive to GC-driven apoptosis. Resistance to GCs can be a significant clinical problem, however, and correlates with resistance to several other major chemotherapeutic agents. Methods We analyzed the effect of treatment with the cytosine analogue 5 aza-2’ deoxycytidine (AZA) on GC resistance in two acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T or pre-T ALL) cell lines- CEM and Molt-4- and a (B-cell) myeloma cell line, RPMI 8226. Methods employed included tissue culture, flow cytometry, and assays for clonogenicity, cytosine extension, immunochemical identification of proteins, and gene transactivation. High throughput DNA sequencing was used to confirm DNA methylation status. Conclusions Treatment of these cells with AZA resulted in altered DNA methylation and restored GC-evoked apoptosis in all 3 cell lines. In CEM cells the altered epigenetic state resulted in site-specific phosphorylation of the GR, increased GR potency, and GC-driven induction of the GR from promoters that lie in CpG islands. In RPMI 8226 cells, expression of relevant coregulators of GR function was altered. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is central to a feed-forward mechanism of site-specific GR phosphorylation and ultimately, apoptosis, occurred in all 3 cell lines. These data show that in certain malignant hematologic B- and T-cell types, epigenetically controlled GC resistance can be reversed by cell exposure to a compound that causes DNA demethylation. The results encourage studies of application to in vivo systems, looking towards eventual clinical applications. PMID:24795534

  9. The ART of HIV therapies: dopaminergic deficits and future treatments for HIV pediatric encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Katy M; Mactutus, Charles F; Booze, Rosemarie M

    2013-01-01

    The concerted efforts of clinicians, scientists and caregivers of HIV-infected children have led to tremendous advances in our understanding of pediatric HIV/AIDS. Antiretroviral therapy (ART; formerly known as highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART]) has significantly extended the longevity of HIV-infected children, but there are limitations to improvements in quality of life that may persist despite therapy. ART has remarkably reduced the incidence of neurologic deficits for the majority of infected children, but some patients do not experience these benefits and children living in poorer nations, who may not have access to antiretrovirals, are particularly at risk for developing neurologic deficits. This article reviews the neurologic symptoms of pediatric HIV infection that manifest as dopaminergic disruptions and explores potential future adjuvant therapies for HIV-related neurologic disorders in children. PMID:19254168

  10. Restricting Access to ART on the Basis of Criminal Record : An Ethical Analysis of a State-Enforced "Presumption Against Treatment" With Regard to Assisted Reproductive Technologies.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kara; McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    As assisted reproductive technologies (ART) become increasingly popular, debate has intensified over the ethical justification for restricting access to ART based on various medical and non-medical factors. In 2010, the Australian state of Victoria enacted world-first legislation that denies access to ART for all patients with certain criminal or child protection histories. Patients and their partners are identified via a compulsory police and child protection check prior to commencing ART and, if found to have a previous relevant conviction or child protection order, are given a "presumption against treatment." This article reviews the legislation and identifies arguments that may be used to justify restricting access to ART for various reasons. The arguments reviewed include limitations of reproductive rights, inheriting undesirable genetic traits, distributive justice, and the welfare of the future child. We show that none of these arguments justifies restricting access to ART in the context of past criminal history. We show that a "presumption against treatment" is an unjustified infringement on reproductive freedom and that it creates various inconsistencies in current social, medical, and legal policy. We argue that a state-enforced policy of restricting access to ART based on the non-medical factor of past criminal history is an example of unjust discrimination and cannot be ethically justified, with one important exception: in cases where ART treatment may be considered futile on the basis that the parents are not expected to raise the resulting child. PMID:25701147

  11. Research proposal: evaluation of ART in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Zanata, Régia Luzia

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) is to reduce the indication of tooth extraction by means of a low-cost technique. Considering the difficulties of Brazilian public services to meet the demand of care of the low-income population, with lack of care to the adult population, which usually receives only emergency care, the aim of this study is to assess the performance of high-viscosity glass ionomer cements accomplished by the modified atraumatic restorative treatment in one- and multiple-surface cavities, compared to the conventional restorative approach. It will be analyzed the clinical performance of the materials; cost (material and human resources); patient satisfaction with the treatment received; and preventive effect of treatment. PMID:19089083

  12. Restoring Study 329: efficacy and harms of paroxetine and imipramine in treatment of major depression in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Le Noury, Joanna; Nardo, John M; Healy, David; Raven, Melissa; Tufanaru, Catalin; Abi-Jaoude, Elia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To reanalyse SmithKline Beecham’s Study 329 (published by Keller and colleagues in 2001), the primary objective of which was to compare the efficacy and safety of paroxetine and imipramine with placebo in the treatment of adolescents with unipolar major depression. The reanalysis under the restoring invisible and abandoned trials (RIAT) initiative was done to see whether access to and reanalysis of a full dataset from a randomised controlled trial would have clinically relevant implications for evidence based medicine. Design Double blind randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting 12 North American academic psychiatry centres, from 20 April 1994 to 15 February 1998. Participants 275 adolescents with major depression of at least eight weeks in duration. Exclusion criteria included a range of comorbid psychiatric and medical disorders and suicidality. Interventions Participants were randomised to eight weeks double blind treatment with paroxetine (20-40 mg), imipramine (200-300 mg), or placebo. Main outcome measures The prespecified primary efficacy variables were change from baseline to the end of the eight week acute treatment phase in total Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D) score and the proportion of responders (HAM-D score ≤8 or ≥50% reduction in baseline HAM-D) at acute endpoint. Prespecified secondary outcomes were changes from baseline to endpoint in depression items in K-SADS-L, clinical global impression, autonomous functioning checklist, self-perception profile, and sickness impact scale; predictors of response; and number of patients who relapse during the maintenance phase. Adverse experiences were to be compared primarily by using descriptive statistics. No coding dictionary was prespecified. Results The efficacy of paroxetine and imipramine was not statistically or clinically significantly different from placebo for any prespecified primary or secondary efficacy outcome. HAM-D scores decreased by 10.7 (least squares mean) (95

  13. Efficacy of chemical treatment of the Pietra cantone limestone in the restoration of historic buildings of Cagliari (southern Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Stefano; Lisci, Carla; Sitzia, Fabio; Buccellato, Giampaolo

    2015-04-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the efficacy of some chemical products in the restoration works of the "Pietra cantone" limestone, a calcarenitic rock belonging to the carbonatic miocenic series (lower Tortonian) of Cagliari (southern Sardinia, Italy), widely used in historic buildings. Such stone, once used in the masonry, if is not protected by plaster or in the presence of aqueous solutions circulating, frequently shows problems of chemical-physical decay, due to their petrophysical characteristics. In fact, being characterized by a highly porous (on average 35-42% vol.) carbonate matrix low-medium cemented, are easily alterable by weathering processes (i.e., dissolution, sulfation, etc.) and by cyclic mechanism of crystallization/solubilisation of salts and hydration/dehydration of hygroscopic phases belonging to the clay component of these calcarenites. These processes induce negative effects on physical-mechanical properties of stone, producing various macroscopic forms of alteration such as decohesion, disintegration, exfoliation, alveolation, etc. Where the decay of the walls is in an advanced stage, there was a strong retreat of the vertical profile of the facade of the building, resulting in critical static-structural. As a case study was taken the historic building of a tobacco manufacture, one of the first industrial establishments in Cagliari, then owned by the Italian State Monopoly. The factory dates back to the early decades of the XVIII century, the walls of which, however, belonged to the convent of the "Frati Minori" built towards the end of the XIV century along the wall that closed the east the historic district of "Marina" in front of the port of Cagliari. In addressing the structural restoration of this building, before selecting chemical products for dealing adequately of limestone, we proceeded at the outset to a thorough analysis of the structures built in "Pietra Cantone", and their physical-mechanical decay. Only thereafter the stone

  14. COMPARISON OF TWO MINIMALLY INVASIVE METHODS ON THE LONGEVITY OF GLASS IONOMER CEMENT RESTORATIONS: SHORT-TERM RESULTS OF A PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Barata, Terezinha Jesus Esteves; Bresciani, Eduardo; Mattos, Maria Cecília Ribeiro; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Ericson, Dan; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of glass ionomer cement (GIC) restorations comparing two minimally invasive methods in permanent teeth after 12 months. Fifty pregnant women (second trimester of pregnancy), mean age 22 ± 5.30 years, were treated by two previously trained operators. The treatment approaches tested were: chemomechanical method (CarisolvTM; MediTeam) and atraumatic restorative treatment (ART). A split-mouth study design was used in which the two treatments were randomly placed in 50 matched pairs of permanent teeth. The chemomechanical method (CM) was the test group and the ART was the control group. The treatments were performed in Public Health Centers. The tested restorative material was a high-strength GIC (Ketac Molar; 3M/ESPE). The restorations were placed according to the ART guidelines. Two calibrated independent examiners evaluated the restorations in accordance with ART criteria. The interexaminer kappa was 0.97. Data were analyzed using 95% confidence interval on the binomial distribution and Fisher's exact test at 5% significance level. In a 12-month follow-up, 86% of the restorations were evaluated. In the test group (CM), 100% (CI=93.3-100%) of the restorations were considered successful. In the control group (ART) 97.6% (CI=87.4-99.9%) of the restorations were considered successful and 2.4% unsuccessful (marginal defect >0.5 mm). There was no statistically significant difference between the 12-mounth success rate for both groups (Fisher's exact test: P=0.49) and between the two operators (Fisher's exact test: P=1.00). Both minimally invasive methods, chemomechanical method and ART, showed a similar clinical performance after 12 months of follow up. PMID:19089209

  15. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, fluoride release, and antimicrobial properties of glass ionomer cements indicated for atraumatic restorative treatment

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Sudhanshu; Tiwari, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare constituents of glass powder, fluoride release, and antimicrobial properties of new atraumatic restorative treatment material with zirconia fillers and conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) type IX. Materials and Methods: Thisin vitro study comparing Zirconomer and Fuji IX was executed in three parts: (1) energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of glass powders (2) analysis of fluoride release at 1st, 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 30th day, and (3) antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Candida albicans at 48 hours. Data was analyzed using unpaired t-test and two way analysis of variance followed by least significant difference post hoc test. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed that, in both Zirconomer and Fuji IX glass powders, mean atomic percentage of oxygen was more than 50%. According to the weight percentage, zirconium in Zirconomer and silica in Fuji IX were the second main elements. Calcium, zinc, and zirconium were observed only in Zirconomer. At all the time intervals, statistically significant higher amount of fluoride release was observed with Zirconomer than Fuji IX. At 48 hours, mean ± standard deviation (SD) of zone of inhibition against Streptococcus mutans was 11.14 ± 0.77 mm and 8.51 ± 0.43 mm for Zirconomer and Fuji IX, respectively. Against Lactobacillus casei, it was 14.06 ± 0.71 mm for Zirconomer and 11.70 ± 0.39 mm for Fuji IX. No antifungal activity was observed against Candida albicans by Zirconomer and Fuji IX. Conclusion: Zirconomer had higher antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei, which may be attributed to its composition and higher fluoride release. However, it failed to show antifungal effect againstCandida albicans. PMID:27583226

  16. Endo-restorative treatment of a severly discolored upper incisor: resolution of the “aesthetic” problem through Componeer veneering System

    PubMed Central

    Migliau, Guido; Besharat, Laith Konstantinos; Sofan, Afrah Ali Abdullah; Sofan, Eshrak Ali Abdullah; Romeo, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim Re-establishing a patient’s lost dental aesthetic appearance is one of the most important topics for contemporary dentistry. New treatment materials and methods have been coming on the scene, day by day, in order to achieve such an aim. Most dentists prefer more conservative and aesthetic approaches, such as direct or indirect veneer restorations, instead of full-ceramic crowns for anteriors where aesthetics is really important. The aim of the study is to evaluate clinically the effectiveness of a direct composite veneering system in resolving aesthetic problem of an upper incisor with a multidisciplinary treatment approach. Methods Patient with a severe discolored upper incisor came to our attention; at the X-ray exam there was an evidence of a past not good root canal treatment and also old and incongruent composite obturation. After removing all the material inside the root canal was performed a new correct endodontic filling, then Authors tried to bleach the tooth trough “walking-bleach” technique with a hydrogen peroxide (30 volumes) and sodium perborate solution without excellent results. So it was decided to insert a glass-fiber post and than to perform a direct composite veneer with Componeer System (Coltene). Componeer System is a system of prefabricated composite veneers that are abled to be applied directly in the first appointment: after a conservative preparation of the tooth, it must be used an adhesive agent (for example a “three steps”) and then with composite stratification it’s possible to apply the componeer veneer (choosing the right measure, modified as necessary) as the last covering aesthetic layer. Result The evaluation of result of this multidisciplinary treatment was essentially clinical and radiological; in fact it’s possible to observe, from a clinical point of view, the good aesthetic aspect of the direct composite restoration with componeer veneer that offers also some advantages: conservative preparation with

  17. Achieving equity in HIV-treatment outcomes: can social protection improve adolescent ART-adherence in South Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Cluver, L. D.; Toska, E.; Orkin, F. M.; Meinck, F.; Hodes, R.; Yakubovich, A. R.; Sherr, L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Low ART-adherence amongst adolescents is associated with morbidity, mortality and onward HIV transmission. Reviews find no effective adolescent adherence-promoting interventions. Social protection has demonstrated benefits for adolescents, and could potentially improve ART-adherence. This study examines associations of 10 social protection provisions with adherence in a large community-based sample of HIV-positive adolescents. All 10–19-year-olds ever ART-initiated in 53 government healthcare facilities in a health district of South Africa’s Eastern Cape were traced and interviewed in 2014–2015 (n = 1175 eligible). About 90% of the eligible sample was included (n = 1059). Social protection provisions were “cash/cash in kind”: government cash transfers, food security, school fees/materials, school feeding, clothing; and “care”: HIV support group, sports groups, choir/art groups, positive parenting and parental supervision/monitoring. Analyses used multivariate regression, interaction and marginal effects models in SPSS and STATA, controlling for socio-demographic, HIV and healthcare-related covariates. Findings showed 36% self-reported past-week ART non-adherence (<95%). Non-adherence was associated with increased opportunistic infections (p = .005, B .269, SD .09), and increased likelihood of detectable viral load at last test (>75 copies/ml) (aOR 1.98, CI 1.1–3.45). Independent of covariates, three social protection provisions were associated with reduced non-adherence: food provision (aOR .57, CI .42–.76, p < .001); HIV support group attendance (aOR .60, CI .40–.91, p < .02), and high parental/caregiver supervision (aOR .56, CI .43–.73, p < .001). Combination social protection showed additive benefits. With no social protection, non-adherence was 54%, with any one protection 39–41%, with any two social protections, 27–28% and with all three social protections, 18%. These results demonstrate that social protection provisions

  18. Achieving equity in HIV-treatment outcomes: can social protection improve adolescent ART-adherence in South Africa?

    PubMed

    Cluver, L D; Toska, E; Orkin, F M; Meinck, F; Hodes, R; Yakubovich, A R; Sherr, L

    2016-03-01

    Low ART-adherence amongst adolescents is associated with morbidity, mortality and onward HIV transmission. Reviews find no effective adolescent adherence-promoting interventions. Social protection has demonstrated benefits for adolescents, and could potentially improve ART-adherence. This study examines associations of 10 social protection provisions with adherence in a large community-based sample of HIV-positive adolescents. All 10-19-year-olds ever ART-initiated in 53 government healthcare facilities in a health district of South Africa's Eastern Cape were traced and interviewed in 2014-2015 (n = 1175 eligible). About 90% of the eligible sample was included (n = 1059). Social protection provisions were "cash/cash in kind": government cash transfers, food security, school fees/materials, school feeding, clothing; and "care": HIV support group, sports groups, choir/art groups, positive parenting and parental supervision/monitoring. Analyses used multivariate regression, interaction and marginal effects models in SPSS and STATA, controlling for socio-demographic, HIV and healthcare-related covariates. Findings showed 36% self-reported past-week ART non-adherence (<95%). Non-adherence was associated with increased opportunistic infections (p = .005, B .269, SD .09), and increased likelihood of detectable viral load at last test (>75 copies/ml) (aOR 1.98, CI 1.1-3.45). Independent of covariates, three social protection provisions were associated with reduced non-adherence: food provision (aOR .57, CI .42-.76, p < .001); HIV support group attendance (aOR .60, CI .40-.91, p < .02), and high parental/caregiver supervision (aOR .56, CI .43-.73, p < .001). Combination social protection showed additive benefits. With no social protection, non-adherence was 54%, with any one protection 39-41%, with any two social protections, 27-28% and with all three social protections, 18%. These results demonstrate that social protection provisions, particularly combinations of "cash

  19. Donepezil Treatment Restores the Ability of Estradiol to Enhance Cognitive Performance in Aged Rats: Evidence for the Cholinergic Basis of the Critical Period Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, R.B.; Mauk, R.; Nelson, D.; Johnson, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the ability of estradiol to enhance cognitive performance diminishes with age and/or time following loss of ovarian function. We hypothesize that this is due, in part, to a decrease in basal forebrain cholinergic function. This study tested whether donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, could restore estradiol effects on cognitive performance in aged rats that had been ovariectomized as young adults. Rats were ovariectomized at 3 months of age, and then trained on a delayed matching to position (DMP) T-maze task, followed by a configural association (CA) operant condition task, beginning at 12–17 or 22–27 months of age. Three weeks prior to testing, rats started to receive either donepezil or vehicle. After one week, half of each group also began receiving estradiol. Acclimation and testing began seven days later and treatment continued throughout testing. Estradiol alone significantly enhanced DMP acquisition in middle-aged rats, but not in aged rats. Donepezil alone had no effect on DMP acquisition in either age group; however, donepezil treatment restored the ability of estradiol to enhance DMP acquisition in aged rats. This effect was due largely to a reduction in the predisposition to adopt a persistent turn strategy during acquisition. These same treatments did not affect acquisition of the CA task in middle-aged rats, but did have small but significant effects on response time in aged rats. The data are consistent with the idea that estrogen effects on cognitive performance are task specific, and that deficits in basal forebrain cholinergic function are responsible for the loss of estradiol effect on DMP acquisition in aged ovariectomized rats. In addition, the data suggest that enhancing cholinergic function pharmacologically can restore the ability of estradiol to enhance acquisition of the DMP task in very old rats following long periods of hormone deprivation. Whether donepezil has similar restorative effects on other

  20. Restoring the smile: Inexpensive biologic restorations

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Neeti P.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive breakdown of primary teeth to the cervical level and their loss in very young children is not uncommon. Owing to increasing concerns over self-appearance, due considerations to esthetic aspects in addition to restoring function are necessary aspects of rehabilitation of mutilated teeth to help children grow into a psychologically balanced personality. The present article describes rehabilitation of grossly decayed teeth with biologic restorations such as dentine posts, dentine post and core and biologic shell crown. This treatment modality provided a cost-effective esthetic solution. PMID:25097656

  1. Anticoagulant Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism: The Present State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Johannes; Pabinger, Ingrid; Ay, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), a disease entity comprising deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a frequent and potentially life-threatening event. To date different agents are available for the effective treatment of acute VTE and the prevention of recurrence. For several years, the standard of care was the subcutaneous application of a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or fondaparinux, followed by a vitamin K antagonist (VKA). The so-called direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) were introduced rather recently in clinical practice for the treatment of VTE. DOAC seem to have a favorable risk-benefit profile compared to VKA. Moreover, DOAC significantly simplify VTE treatment because they are administered in fixed doses and no routine monitoring is needed. Patients with objectively diagnosed DVT or PE should receive therapeutic anticoagulation for a minimum of 3 months. Whether a patient ought to receive extended treatment needs to be evaluated on an individual basis, depending mainly on risk factors determined by characteristics of the thrombotic event and patient-related factors. In specific patient groups (e.g., pregnant women, cancer patients, and elderly patients), treatment of VTE is more challenging than that in the general population and additional issues need to be considered in those patients. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the currently available treatment modalities of acute VTE and secondary prophylaxis. In particular, specific aspects regarding the initiation of VTE treatment, duration of anticoagulation, and specific patient groups will be discussed. PMID:26664901

  2. Phoneme Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Arthur

    1996-01-01

    Notes that phonemic restoration is a powerful auditory illusion. Points out that when part of an utterance is replaced by another sound, listeners perceptually restore the missing speech. Several paradigms measure this illusion and explore its bottom-up and top-down bases. Findings reveal that acoustic properties of the replacement sound strongly…

  3. Identifying Pigment Mixtures in Art Using SERS: A Treatment Flowchart Approach.

    PubMed

    Roh, Joo Yeon; Matecki, Mary K; Svoboda, Shelley A; Wustholz, Kristin L

    2016-02-16

    A novel treatment flowchart approach for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is used to identify both blue and yellow organic pigments in a single microscopic sample from a series of reference oil paints as well as an actual 18th century oil painting. In particular, several treatment strategies using acids and solvents are integrated into a specific flowchart designed to enable the minimally invasive identification of unknown blue (i.e., indigo, Prussian blue) and yellow organic (i.e., Reseda lake, Stil de Grain, gamboge) pigments in one sample. We demonstrate the first successful identification of a yellow lake pigment in a historic painting using SERS as well as the utility of our treatment flowchart approach for identifying pigments of varying resonance conditions, surface affinities, and treatment requirements in a single microscopic sample from a historic oil painting. PMID:26799174

  4. Treatment for neovascular age related macular degeneration: The state of the art.

    PubMed

    Eandi, Chiara M; Alovisi, Camilla; De Sanctis, Ugo; Grignolo, Federico M

    2016-09-15

    With the introduction in the clinical practice of drugs inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) the visual outcomes of patients with neovascular age related macular degeneration (AMD) dramatically improved. Since 2006 repeated intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF became the standard of care for the treatment of neovascular AMD. This review provides an overview of available data form clinical trials supporting the use of anti-VEGF molecules for the treatment of this condition. Several questions remain open, in particular the regimen of treatment, the frequency of injection, the safety of the different drugs, and the poor response to the treatment in some cases. Therefore, new agents and alternative delivery are currently under evaluation. PMID:26948315

  5. STATE-OF-THE-ART: MILITARY EXPLOSIVES AND PROPELLANTS PRODUCTION INDUSTRY. VOLUME III. WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study has surveyed the military explosives and propellant manufacturing industry, covering both 'GOGO' and 'GOCO' facilities. Sources of wastewater, volumes, and pollutant constituents have been reported where such data existed. Treatment technology currently in use at the v...

  6. State of the art psychopharmacological treatment options in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Mesut; Batmaz, Sedat; Songur, Emrah; Oral, Esat Timuçin

    2016-03-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is defined as a subtype of mood disorders in DSM 5, and it is characterized by a seasonal onset. SAD is proposed to be related to the seasonal changes in naturally occurring light, and the use of bright light therapy for depressive symptoms has been shown to reduce them in placebo controlled trials. Cognitive behavioral therapy has also been demonstrated to be effective in SAD. This review article aims to focus on the psychopharmacological treatment options for SAD. According to clinical trial results, first line treatment options seem to be sertraline and fluoxetine, and are well tolerated by the patients. There is some evidence that other antidepressants (e.g. bupropion) might be effective as well. Although clinical trials have shown that some of these antidepressants may be of benefit, a recent review has concluded that there is not enough evidence to support the use of any of these agents for the treatment of SAD yet. Moreover, more studies are still needed to evaluate the effectiveness of other treatment options, e.g., propranolol, melatonin, hypericum, etc. In addition to the above proposed treatments, patients with seasonal depressive symptoms should thoroughly be evaluated for any cues of bipolarity, and their treatment should be planned accordingly. PMID:26938817

  7. Glaucoma –state of the art and perspectives on treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wójcik-Gryciuk, Anna; Skup, Małgorzata; Waleszczyk, Wioletta J.

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy characterized by progressive damage to the optic nerve, death of retinal ganglion cells and ultimately visual field loss. It is one of the leading causes of irreversible loss of vision worldwide. The most important trigger of glaucomatous damage is elevated eye pressure, and the current standard approach in glaucoma therapy is reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP). However, despite the use of effective medications or surgical treatment leading to lowering of IOP, progression of glaucomatous changes and loss of vision among patients with glaucoma is common. Therefore, it is critical to prevent vision loss through additional treatment. To implement such treatment(s), it is imperative to identify pathophysiological changes in glaucoma and develop therapeutic methods taking into account neuroprotection. Currently, there is no method of neuroprotection with long-term proven effectiveness in the treatment of glaucoma. Among the most promising molecules shown to protect the retina and optic nerve are neurotrophic factors. Thus, the current focus is on the development of safe and non-invasive methods for the long-term elevation of the intraocular level of neurotrophins through advanced gene therapy and topical eye treatment and on the search for selective agonists of neurotrophin receptors affording more efficient neuroprotection. PMID:26684267

  8. State of the art: diagnostic tools and innovative therapies for treatment of advanced thymoma and thymic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ried, Michael; Marx, Alexander; Götz, Andrea; Hamer, Okka; Schalke, Berthold; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan

    2016-06-01

    In this review article, state-of-the-art diagnostic tools and innovative treatments of thymoma and thymic carcinoma (TC) are described with special respect to advanced tumour stages. Complete surgical resection (R0) remains the standard therapeutic approach for almost all a priori resectable mediastinal tumours as defined by preoperative standard computed tomography (CT). If lymphoma or germ-cell tumours are differential diagnostic considerations, biopsy may be indicated. Resection status is the most important prognostic factor in thymoma and TC, followed by tumour stage. Advanced (Masaoka-Koga stage III and IVa) tumours require interdisciplinary therapy decisions based on distinctive findings of preoperative CT scan and ancillary investigations [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] to select cases for primary surgery or neoadjuvant strategies with optional secondary resection. In neoadjuvant settings, octreotide scans and histological evaluation of pretherapeutic needle biopsies may help to choose between somatostatin agonist/prednisolone regimens and neoadjuvant chemotherapy as first-line treatment. Finally, a multimodality treatment regime is recommended for advanced and unresectable thymic tumours. In conclusion, advanced stage thymoma and TC should preferably be treated in experienced centres in order to provide all modern diagnostic tools (imaging, histology) and innovative therapy techniques. Systemic and local (hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy) medical treatments together with extended surgical resections have increased the therapeutic options in patients with advanced or recurrent thymoma and TC. PMID:26670806

  9. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil

    EPA Science Inventory

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  10. State of the Art in the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Garlipp, Benjamin; Bruns, Christiane J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most frequently diagnosed mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite their biological and clinical heterogeneity, the majority of these tumors are positive for the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT and are driven by KIT- or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA)-activating mutations. There are still uncertainties regarding their clinical and molecular characterization and the optimal treatment regimens, making it difficult to establish a universal treatment algorithm for these tumors. Summary From a clinical perspective, the main difference between GISTs and other gastrointestinal neoplasms is that the benign or malignant behavior of GISTs cannot be predicted from histopathology, but instead relies on empirically established scoring systems. Clinical data suggest that malignant potential may be an inherent quality of some GISTs rather than a feature acquired by the tumor during disease progression. Thus, some patients may require prolonged anti-tumor treatment even after complete surgical removal of the tumor. Key Message Although GISTs are the most frequently occurring mesenchymal neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract, no universal treatment algorithms exist. This paper reviews the current evidence that guides the management of GISTs. Practical Implications The management of localized GISTs involves the use of surgical resection, with the inclusion of preoperative tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment for locally advanced, primarily unresectable tumors and for resectable cases requiring extensive surgery. Imatinib is also indicated as adjuvant therapy after complete surgical removal of GISTs with a high estimated risk of recurrence unless specific mutations conferring imatinib resistance are present. The optimal duration of adjuvant treatment is still controversial. For patients with metastatic imatinib-sensitive GISTs, imatinib constitutes the first-line standard treatment

  11. Current state of the art of regional hyperthermia treatment planning: a review.

    PubMed

    Kok, H P; Wust, P; Stauffer, P R; Bardati, F; van Rhoon, G C; Crezee, J

    2015-01-01

    Locoregional hyperthermia, i.e. increasing the tumor temperature to 40-45 °C using an external heating device, is a very effective radio and chemosensitizer, which significantly improves clinical outcome. There is a clear thermal dose-effect relation, but the pursued optimal thermal dose of 43 °C for 1 h can often not be realized due to treatment limiting hot spots in normal tissue. Modern heating devices have a large number of independent antennas, which provides flexible power steering to optimize tumor heating and minimize hot spots, but manual selection of optimal settings is difficult. Treatment planning is a very valuable tool to improve locoregional heating. This paper reviews the developments in treatment planning software for tissue segmentation, electromagnetic field calculations, thermal modeling and optimization techniques. Over the last decade, simulation tools have become more advanced. On-line use has become possible by implementing algorithms on the graphical processing unit, which allows real-time computations. The number of applications using treatment planning is increasing rapidly and moving on from retrospective analyses towards assisting prospective clinical treatment strategies. Some clinically relevant applications will be discussed. PMID:26383087

  12. Chemistry and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Martyn

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Chemistry and Art project developed for secondary students and teachers sponsored by the National Gallery and The Royal Society of Chemistry in the United Kingdom. Discusses aspects of the techniques used in creating five paintings as well as the chemistry involved in their making, deterioration, conservation, and restoration.…

  13. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during the early months of treatment in rural Zambia: influence of demographic characteristics and social surroundings of patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Around 70% of those living with HIV in need of treatment accessed antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Zambia by 2009. However, sustaining high levels of adherence to ART is a challenge. This study aimed to identify the predictive factors associated with ART adherence during the early months of treatment in rural Zambia. Methods This is a field based observational longitudinal study in Mumbwa district, which is located 150 km west of Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. Treatment naive patients aged over 15 years, who initiated treatment during September-November 2010, were enrolled. Patients were interviewed at the initiation and six weeks later. The treatment adherence was measured according to self-reporting by the patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictive factors associated with the adherence. Results Of 157 patients, 59.9% were fully adherent to the treatment six weeks after starting ART. According to the multivariable analysis, full adherence was associated with being female [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), 3.3; 95% Confidence interval (CI), 1.2-8.9], having a spouse who were also on ART (AOR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.5-13.1), and experience of food insufficiency in the previous 30 days (AOR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.8-13.8). Some of the most common reasons for missed doses were long distance to health facilities (n = 21, 53.8%), food insufficiency (n = 20, 51.3%), and being busy with other activities such as work (n = 15, 38.5%). Conclusions The treatment adherence continues to be a significant challenge in rural Zambia. Social supports from spouses and people on ART could facilitate their treatment adherence. This is likely to require attention by ART services in the future, focusing on different social influences on male and female in rural Zambia. In addition, poverty reduction strategies may help to reinforce adherence to ART and could mitigate the influence of HIV infection for poor patients and those who fall into poverty after

  14. Malpositioned implants in the anterior maxilla: a novel restorative approach to reestablish peri-implant tissue health and acceptable esthetics. Part I. Case presentation and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Moráguez, Osvaldo D; Vailati, Francesca; Belser, Urs C

    2015-01-01

    This two-part case presentation describes the prosthetic challenge of managing complications after inadequate esthetic risk assessment, treatment planning, and implant positioning in the anterior maxilla. Here, the case report of a 50-year-old woman, referred after inappropriate execution of immediate implant placement, is presented. Different restorative treatment alternatives are proposed, excluding major surgical procedures. In the next part of the article, the advantages and shortcomings of the various prosthetic options will be discussed and the selected treatment revealed. The aim of this part of the article is to illustrate the importance of treatment planning, emphasizing that the correction of esthetic implant failures consistently leads to compromised results when compared to what could have been achieved first time round. PMID:26171441

  15. State-of-the-art report on low-level radioactive waste treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibbey, A. H.; Godbee, H. W.

    1980-09-01

    An attempt is made to identify the main sources of low-level radioactive wastes that are generated in the United States. To place the waste problem in perspective, rough estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of waste that is generated. Most of the wet solid wastes arise from the cleanup of gaseous and liquid radioactive streams prior to discharge or recycle. The treatment of the process streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described for each type of government or fuel cycle installation. Similarly, the institutional wet wastes are also described. The dry wastes from all sources have similar physical and chemical characteristics in that they can be classified as compactible, noncompactible, combustible, noncombustible, or combinations thereof. The various treatment options for concentrated or solid wet wastes and for dry wastes are discussed. The treatment of radioactive medical and bioresearch wastes is described. Recovery of waste metals and treatment of hazardous contaminated wastes are discussed briefly.

  16. Remediation of textile effluents by membrane based treatment techniques: a state of the art review.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Jhilly; Sikder, Jaya; Chakraborty, Sudip; Curcio, Stefano; Drioli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The textile industries hold an important position in the global industrial arena because of their undeniable contributions to basic human needs satisfaction and to the world economy. These industries are however major consumers of water, dyes and other toxic chemicals. The effluents generated from each processing step comprise substantial quantities of unutilized resources. The effluents if discharged without prior treatment become potential sources of pollution due to their several deleterious effects on the environment. The treatment of heterogeneous textile effluents therefore demands the application of environmentally benign technology with appreciable quality water reclamation potential. These features can be observed in various innovative membrane based techniques. The present review paper thus elucidates the contributions of membrane technology towards textile effluent treatment and unexhausted raw materials recovery. The reuse possibilities of water recovered through membrane based techniques, such as ultrafiltration and nanofiltration in primary dye houses or auxiliary rinse vats have also been explored. Advantages and bottlenecks, such as membrane fouling associated with each of these techniques have also been highlighted. Additionally, several pragmatic models simulating transport mechanism across membranes have been documented. Finally, various accounts dealing with techno-economic evaluation of these membrane based textile wastewater treatment processes have been provided. PMID:25261752

  17. State of the art and review on the treatment technologies of water reverse osmosis concentrates.

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, A; Urtiaga, A M; Ibáñez, R; Ortiz, I

    2012-02-01

    The growing demand for fresh water is partially satisfied by desalination plants that increasingly use membrane technologies and among them reverse osmosis to produce purified water. Operating with water recoveries from 35% to 85% RO plants generate huge volumes of concentrates containing all the retained compounds that are commonly discharged to water bodies and constitute a potentially serious threat to marine ecosystems; therefore there is an urgent need for environmentally friendly management options of RO brines. This paper gives an overview on the potential treatments to overcome the environmental problems associated to the direct discharge of RO concentrates. The treatment options have been classified according to the source of RO concentrates and the maturity of the technologies. For the sake of clarity three different sources of RO concentrates are differentiated i) desalination plants, ii) tertiary processes in WWTP, and iii) mining industries. Starting with traditional treatments such as evaporation and crystallization other technologies that have emerged in last years to reduce the volume of the concentrate before disposal and with the objective of achieving zero liquid discharge and recovery of valuable compounds from these effluents are also reviewed. Most of these emerging technologies have been developed at laboratory or pilot plant scale (see Table 1). With regard to RO concentrates from WWTP, the manuscript addresses recent studies that are mainly focused on reducing the organic pollutant load through the application of innovative advanced oxidation technologies. Finally, works that report the treatment of RO concentrates from industrial sources are analyzed as well. PMID:22119366

  18. Moving Towards Gray: Art Therapy and Ambivalence in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horay, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    Although some consider the 12-step method of Alcoholics Anonymous to be the treatment of choice for people struggling with substance abuse, differing approaches have been developed within the area of addictions. Motivational interviewing (Miller & Rollnick, 2002), enacted within a stages-of change model (DiClemente & Velasquez, 2002), seeks to…

  19. STATE OF THE ART IN TREATMENT AND SURVIVAL OF PATHOGENS IN BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the pathogen/stability concerns for municipal residuals and the applicability of current sludge treatment processes to control health risks potentially associated with the use or disposal of these residuals. In recent years, there has been a rise in public co...

  20. Multi-Country Analysis of Treatment Costs for HIV/AIDS (MATCH): Facility-Level ART Unit Cost Analysis in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Tagar, Elya; Sundaram, Maaya; Condliffe, Kate; Matatiyo, Blackson; Chimbwandira, Frank; Chilima, Ben; Mwanamanga, Robert; Moyo, Crispin; Chitah, Bona Mukosha; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Assefa, Yibeltal; Pillay, Yogan; Mayer, Sam; Shear, Lauren; Dain, Mary; Hurley, Raphael; Kumar, Ritu; McCarthy, Thomas; Batra, Parul; Gwinnell, Dan; Diamond, Samantha; Over, Mead

    2014-01-01

    Background Today's uncertain HIV funding landscape threatens to slow progress towards treatment goals. Understanding the costs of antiretroviral therapy (ART) will be essential for governments to make informed policy decisions about the pace of scale-up under the 2013 WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines, which increase the number of people eligible for treatment from 17.6 million to 28.6 million. The study presented here is one of the largest of its kind and the first to describe the facility-level cost of ART in a random sample of facilities in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia. Methods & Findings In 2010–2011, comprehensive data on one year of facility-level ART costs and patient outcomes were collected from 161 facilities, selected using stratified random sampling. Overall, facility-level ART costs were significantly lower than expected in four of the five countries, with a simple average of $208 per patient-year (ppy) across Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda and Zambia. Costs were higher in South Africa, at $682 ppy. This included medications, laboratory services, direct and indirect personnel, patient support, equipment and administrative services. Facilities demonstrated the ability to retain patients alive and on treatment at these costs, although outcomes for established patients (2–8% annual loss to follow-up or death) were better than outcomes for new patients in their first year of ART (77–95% alive and on treatment). Conclusions This study illustrated that the facility-level costs of ART are lower than previously understood in these five countries. While limitations must be considered, and costs will vary across countries, this suggests that expanded treatment coverage may be affordable. Further research is needed to understand investment costs of treatment scale-up, non-facility costs and opportunities for more efficient resource allocation. PMID:25389777

  1. State-of-the-art report on low-level radioactive waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kibbey, A.H.; Godbee, H.W.

    1980-09-01

    An attempt is made to identify the main sources of low-level radioactive wastes that are generated in the United States. To place the waste problem in perspective, rough estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of waste that is generated. Most of the wet solid wastes arise from the cleanup of gaseous and liquid radioactive streams prior to discharge or recycle. The treatment of the process streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described for each type of government or fuel cycle installation. Similarly, the institutional wet wastes are also described. The dry wastes from all sources have smilar physical and chemical characteristics in that they can be classified as compactible, noncompactible, combustible, noncombustible, or combinations thereof. The various treatment options for concentrated or solid wet wastes and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry-waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting, and shredding. Organic materials can usually be incinerated or, in some cases, biodegraded. The filter sludges, spent resins, incinerator ashes, and concentrated liquids are usually solidified in cement, urea-formaldehyde, or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Asphalt has not yet been used as a solidificaton agent in the United States, but it probably will be used in the near future. The treatment of radioactive medical and bioresearch wastes is described, but the waste from radiochenmical, pharmaceutical, and other industries is not well defined at the present time. Recovery of waste metals and treatment of hazardous contaminated wastes are discussed briefly. Some areas appearing to need more research, development, and demonstration are specifically pointed out.

  2. Restoration of R117H CFTR folding and function in human airway cells through combination treatment with VX-809 and VX-770.

    PubMed

    Gentzsch, Martina; Ren, Hong Y; Houck, Scott A; Quinney, Nancy L; Cholon, Deborah M; Sopha, Pattarawut; Chaudhry, Imron G; Das, Jhuma; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Randell, Scott H; Cyr, Douglas M

    2016-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal recessive genetic disease caused primarily by the F508del mutation in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The potentiator VX-770 was the first CFTR modulator approved by the FDA for treatment of CF patients with the gating mutation G551D. Orkambi is a drug containing VX-770 and corrector VX809 and is approved for treatment of CF patients homozygous for F508del, which has folding and gating defects. At least 30% of CF patients are heterozygous for the F508del mutation with the other allele encoding for one of many different rare CFTR mutations. Treatment of heterozygous F508del patients with VX-809 and VX-770 has had limited success, so it is important to identify heterozygous patients that respond to CFTR modulator therapy. R117H is a more prevalent rare mutation found in over 2,000 CF patients. In this study we investigated the effectiveness of VX-809/VX-770 therapy on restoring CFTR function in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells from R117H/F508del CF patients. We found that VX-809 stimulated more CFTR activity in R117H/F508del HBEs than in F508del/F508del HBEs. R117H expressed exclusively in immortalized HBEs exhibited a folding defect, was retained in the ER, and degraded prematurely. VX-809 corrected the R117H folding defect and restored channel function. Because R117 is involved in ion conductance, VX-770 acted additively with VX-809 to restore CFTR function in chronically treated R117H/F508del cells. Although treatment of R117H patients with VX-770 has been approved, our studies indicate that Orkambi may be more beneficial for rescue of CFTR function in these patients. PMID:27402691

  3. Ex vivo Enzymatic Treatment of Aged CD4 T Cells Restores Cognate T-cell Helper Function and Enhances Antibody Production in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Perkey, Eric; Miller, Richard A.; Garcia, Gonzalo G.

    2012-01-01

    Previous in vitro studies have shown that CD4 T cells from old mice have defects in T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, immune synapse formation, activation, and proliferation. We have reported that removing a specific set of surface glycoproteins by ex vivo treatment with O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase (OSGE) can reverse many aspects of the age-related decline in CD4 T cell function. However, the specific mechanism by which this process occurs remains unclear, and it is unknown whether this enzymatic treatment can also restore important aspects of adaptive immunity in vivo. By using an in vivo model of the immune response based on adoptive transfer of CD4 T cells from pigeon cytochrome C (PCC)-specific transgenic H-2(k/k) TCR-Vα11Vβ3 CD4+ mice to syngeneic hosts, we now demonstrat that aging diminishes CD28 costimulatory signals in CD4 T cells. These age-associated defects include changes in phosphorylation of AKT and expression of glucose transporter type I, inducible T-cell costimulatory molecule, and CD40 ligand, suggesting that the lack of CD28 costimulation contributes to age-dependent loss of CD4 function. All of these deficits can be reversed by ex vivo OSGE treatment. Blocking B7-CD28 interactions on T cells prevents OSGE-mediated restoration of T cell function, suggesting that changes in surface glycosylation, including CD28, may be responsible for age-related costimulation decline. Finally, we showed that the age-related decline in CD4 cognate helper function for immunoglobin G production and long-term humoral immunity can also be restored by OSGE treatments of CD4 T cells prior to adoptive transfer. PMID:23136198

  4. Health literacy in HIV treatment: accurate understanding of key biological treatment principles is not required for good ART adherence.

    PubMed

    Laws, M Barton; Danielewicz, Michael; Rana, Aadia; Kogelman, Laura; Wilson, Ira B

    2015-04-01

    Findings on the relationship between health literacy and outcomes in HIV have been inconsistent. Health literacy has previously been operationalized as general functional literacy, but has not included content knowledge about HIV disease and treatment. Semi-structured interviews with people living with HIV in 2 U.S. cities, including questions about the etiology, pathophysiology and treatment of HIV. We compared responses to biomedical conceptions. The 32 respondents were demographically diverse. Although most understood that HIV degrades the immune system, none could explain the nature of a virus, or the mechanism of antiretroviral (ARV) drug action. Fewer than half accurately reported that it is desirable to have a high CD4+ cell count and low viral load. A minority understood the concept of drug resistance. While most believed that strict adherence to ARV regimens was important to maintain health, three believed that periodic treatment interruption was beneficial, and three believed they should not take ARVs when they used alcohol or illicit drugs. Respondents generally had very limited, and often inaccurate biomedical understanding of HIV disease. Most reported good regimen adherence but did not have any mechanistic rationale for it. The failure to find a consistent relationship between health literacy and ARV adherence may be largely because most people simply follow their doctors' instructions, without the need for deep understanding. PMID:25354736

  5. Health Literacy in HIV Treatment: Accurate Understanding of Key Biological Treatment Principles is Not Required for Good ART Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Laws, M. Barton; Danielewicz, Michael; Rana, Aadia; Kogelman, Laura; Wilson, Ira B.

    2016-01-01

    Findings on the relationship between health literacy and outcomes in HIV have been inconsistent. Health literacy has previously been operationalized as general functional literacy, but has not included content knowledge about HIV disease and treatment. Semi-structured interviews with people living with HIV in 2 U.S. cities, including questions about the etiology, pathophysiology and treatment of HIV. We compared responses to biomedical conceptions. The 32 respondents were demographically diverse. Although most understood that HIV degrades the immune system, none could explain the nature of a virus, or the mechanism of antiretroviral (ARV) drug action. Fewer than half accurately reported that it is desirable to have a high CD4+ cell count and low viral load. A minority understood the concept of drug resistance. While most believed that strict adherence to ARV regimens was important to maintain health, three believed that periodic treatment interruption was beneficial, and three believed they should not take ARVs when they used alcohol or illicit drugs. Respondents generally had very limited, and often inaccurate biomedical understanding of HIV disease. Most reported good regimen adherence but did not have any mechanistic rationale for it. The failure to find a consistent relationship between health literacy and ARV adherence may be largely because most people simply follow their doctors’ instructions, without the need for deep understanding. PMID:25354736

  6. Oxybutynin for the Treatment of Primary Hyperhidrosis: Current State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Campanati, Anna; Gregoriou, Stamatis; Kontochristopoulos, George; Offidani, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Oxybutynin is an anticholinergic drug with an emerging role in the treatment of hyperhidrosis. Several recent studies have documented that it is effective both in focal and generalized hyperhidrosis and shows universally good response among different groups of patients regardless of age, gender, and weight. The most common adverse event is dry mouth reported by almost all patients treated. The way this might affect long-term compliance and tolerability should be better investigated in the future. PMID:27172124

  7. State of the art and perspectives in the treatment of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Sean A; Chamberlain, Marc C

    2012-09-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor. Cures are rare and median survival varies from several to 22 months. Standard treatment for good performance patients consists of maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy and six cycles of postradiotherapy TMZ. At recurrence, treatment options include repeat surgery (with or without Gliadel wafer placement), reirradiation or systemic therapy. Most patients with good performance status are treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy or targeted biologic therapy following or in lieu of repeat surgery. Cytotoxic chemotherapy options include nitrosoureas, rechallenge with TMZ, platins, phophoramides and topoisomerase inhibitors, although efficacy is limited. Despite the intense effort of developing biologic agents that target angiogenesis and growth and proliferative pathways, bevacizumab is the only agent that has shown efficacy in clinical trials. It was awarded accelerated approval in the USA after demonstrating an impressive radiographic response in two open-label, prospective Phase II studies. Two randomized, Phase III trials of upfront bevacizumab have completed and may demonstrate survival benefit; however, results are pending at this time. Given the limited treatment options at tumor recurrence, consideration for enrollment on a clinical trial is encouraged. PMID:25054300

  8. Naringin treatment induces neuroprotective effects in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease in vivo, but not enough to restore the lesioned dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Deok; Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2016-02-01

    We recently reported that treatment with naringin, a major flavonoid found in grapefruit and citrus fruits, attenuated neurodegeneration in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD) in vivo. In order to investigate whether its effects are universally applied to a different model of PD and whether its treatment induces restorative effects on the lesioned nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) projection, we observed the effects of pre-treatment or post-treatment with naringin in a mouse model of PD. For neuroprotective effects, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was unilaterally injected into the striatum of mouse brains for a neurotoxin model of PD in the presence or absence of naringin by daily intraperitoneal injection. Our results showed that naringin protected the nigrostriatal DA projection from 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, similar to the effects in rat brains, this treatment induced the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which is well known as an important survival factor for DA neurons, and inhibited microglial activation in the substantia nigra (SN) of mouse brains treated with 6-OHDA. However, there was no significant change of DA phenotypes in the SN and striatum post-treated with naringin compared with 6-OHDA-lesioned mice, despite the treatment being continued for 12 weeks. These results suggest that post-treatment with naringin alone may not be enough to restore the nigrostriatal DA projection in a mouse model of PD. However, our results apparently suggest that naringin is a beneficial natural product to prevent DA degeneration, which is involved in PD. PMID:26878791

  9. State-of-the-Art Management of Complications of Myeloma and Its Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hartley-Brown, Monique A.; Sullivan, Daniel M.; Baz, Rachid

    2010-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is an incurable disease, although patient survival has increased with the availability of novel agents. Both multiple myeloma and its therapies often affect the renal, immune, skeletal, hematologic, and nervous systems. The resulting organ dysfunctions often impair the quality of life of affected patients, complicate and limit subsequent therapies, and may result in significant mortality. Research on the treatment of complications of multiple myeloma has been limited; hence, preventative and management strategies for patients with these complications are heterogeneous and often based on anecdotal experience. In this paper, we review the effects of myeloma and the novel therapies on organ systems and suggest management strategies. PMID:20671999

  10. The state of the art on heat treatment quenching technologies in China

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, L.

    1996-12-31

    The progress on heat treatment quenching technologies in the past decade in China has been reviewed in the present paper. The technologies concerned in the R&D and application of quenching media, verification of cooling rate, improving and control of quenching process, and the modelling and simulation of the processes are described. The author points out that although there are a lot of R&D achievements from universities and research institutes, it is necessary to pay attention to quenching technologies for most of heat treating factories and workshops.

  11. On-treatment platelet reactivity: State of the art and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Rossella; Grifoni, Elisa; Giusti, Betti

    2016-02-01

    High on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (HcPR) during dual-antiplatelet therapy is a marker of vascular risk, in particular stent thrombosis, in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Genetic determinants (CYP2C19*2 polymorphism), advanced age, female gender, diabetes and reduced ventricular function are related to a higher risk to develop HcPR. In addition, inflammation and increased platelet turnover, as revealed by the elevated percentage of reticulated platelets in patients' blood, that characterize the acute phase of acute coronary syndromes, are associated with HcPR. To overcome the limitation of clopidogrel, new antiplatelet agents (prasugrel and ticagrelor) were developed and the demonstration of their superiority over clopidogrel was obtained in the two randomized trials, TRITON TIMI 38 and PLATO. Emerging evidence is accumulating on the role of high-on aspirin platelet reactivity (HaPR), especially in the clinical context of diabetes. Finally, the presence of new, potent antiplatelet drugs has shifted the focus from thrombotic to bleeding risk. Recent data document that low on-treatment platelet reactivity (LPR) is associated with a significantly higher bleeding risk. Due to the current possibility to choose between multiple antiplatelet strategies, the future perspective is to include in the management of ACS, in addition to clinical data and classical risk factors, the definition of platelet function during treatment in order to set a tailored therapy. PMID:26520003

  12. Essential Oils for Complementary Treatment of Surgical Patients: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Stea, Susanna; Beraudi, Alina; De Pasquale, Dalila

    2014-01-01

    Aromatherapy is the controlled use of plant essences for therapeutic purposes. Its applications are numerous (i.e., wellbeing, labour, infections, dementia, and anxiety treatment) but often they have not been scientifically validated. The aim of the present study is to review the available literature to determine if there is evidence for effectiveness of aromatherapy in surgical patients to treat anxiety and insomnia, to control pain and nausea, and to dress wound. Efficacy studies of lavender or orange and peppermint essential oils, to treat anxiety and nausea, respectively, have shown positive results. For other aspects, such as pain control, essential oils therapy has shown uncertain results. Finally, there are encouraging data for the treatment of infections, especially for tea tree oil, although current results are still inconclusive. It should also be considered that although they are, allergic reactions and toxicity can occur after oral ingestion. Therefore, while rigorous studies are being carried out, it is important that the therapeutic use of essential oils be performed in compliance with clinical safety standards. PMID:24707312

  13. Essential oils for complementary treatment of surgical patients: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Stea, Susanna; Beraudi, Alina; De Pasquale, Dalila

    2014-01-01

    Aromatherapy is the controlled use of plant essences for therapeutic purposes. Its applications are numerous (i.e., wellbeing, labour, infections, dementia, and anxiety treatment) but often they have not been scientifically validated. The aim of the present study is to review the available literature to determine if there is evidence for effectiveness of aromatherapy in surgical patients to treat anxiety and insomnia, to control pain and nausea, and to dress wound. Efficacy studies of lavender or orange and peppermint essential oils, to treat anxiety and nausea, respectively, have shown positive results. For other aspects, such as pain control, essential oils therapy has shown uncertain results. Finally, there are encouraging data for the treatment of infections, especially for tea tree oil, although current results are still inconclusive. It should also be considered that although they are, allergic reactions and toxicity can occur after oral ingestion. Therefore, while rigorous studies are being carried out, it is important that the therapeutic use of essential oils be performed in compliance with clinical safety standards. PMID:24707312

  14. State-of-the-Art Treatment and Novel Agents in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Paula; Hallek, Michael; Eichhorst, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Chemoimmunotherapy is the established first-line treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who do not display the high-risk genetic features del(17p) and/or TP53 mutation: Physically fit patients without or with only mild comorbidities should receive fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab, while bendamustine and rituximab can be considered in fit elderly patients of over 65 years and in patients with a higher risk of infections. Patients with relevant coexisting conditions should receive chlorambucil with a CD20 antibody, preferably obinutuzumab. Patients with a del(17p) and/or TP53 mutation respond poorly to conventional chemo(immuno)therapies. However, the recently approved BTK and PI3K inhibitors ibrutinib and idelalisib have the best efficacy ever documented in patients with these high-risk genomic alterations and/or refractory CLL. The choice between ibrutinib and idelalisib should be based on the patients' comorbidities and concomitant medications since both agents have a distinct toxicity profile, although they are generally well tolerated in the majority of patients. For treatment of patients with a late relapse, chemoimmunotherapy instead of kinase inhibitors is still a reasonable approach, but has to be determined for every patient individually. Further targeted drugs and their combinations are currently being evaluated in clinical trials and have the potential to eradicate all residual CLL cells and thus lead to a cure of CLL. PMID:26890007

  15. Strategies for addressing restorative challenges in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Abdelnur, Juliana Pires; Cerqueira, Daniella Ferraz; Castro, Gloria Fernanda; Maia, Lucianne Cople; de Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    The complete caries removal of deep/extensive dentin carious lesions with conventional procedures (high- and low-speed bur) may increase the risk of pulp exposure. In children with systemic diseases, such as HIV-infected children, the dental treatment proposed for the primary dentition with pulp involvement is tooth extraction once endodontic therapies cannot be guaranteed successfully. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe 3 cases of alternative techniques for caries removal in extensive and/or deep dentin carious lesions in the primary dentition of HIV-infected children: (1) atraumatic restorative treatment (ART); (2) Carisolv; and (3) Papacarie. PMID:18505652

  16. Nanotechnology-based inhalation treatments for lung cancer: state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Javed; Akhter, Sohail; Rizwanullah, Md; Amin, Saima; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki; Rizvi, Moshahid Alam; Kamal, Mohammad A; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees

    2015-01-01

    Considering the challenges associated with conventional chemotherapy, targeted and local delivery of chemotherapeutics via nanoparticle (NP) carriers to the lungs is an emerging area of interest. Recent studies and growing clinical application in cancer nanotechnology showed the huge potential of NPs as drug carriers in cancer therapy, including in lung carcinoma for diagnosis, imaging, and theranostics. Researchers have confirmed that nanotechnology-based inhalation chemotherapy is viable and more effective than conventional chemotherapy, with lesser side effects. Recently, many nanocarriers have been investigated, including liposomes, polymeric micelles, polymeric NPs, solid lipid NPs, and inorganic NPs for inhalation treatments of lung cancer. Yet, the toxicity of such nanomaterials to the lungs tissues and further distribution to other organs due to systemic absorption on inhalation delivery is a debatable concern. Here, prospect of NPs-based local lung cancer targeting through inhalation route as well as its associated challenges are discussed. PMID:26640374

  17. Initiating Patients on ART at CD4 Counts above 200 is Associated with Improved Treatment Outcomes in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Matthew P; Sanne, Ian M; Conradie, Francesca; Zeinecker, Jennifer; Orrell, Catherine; Ive, Prudence; Rassool, Mohammed; Dehlinger, Marjorie; van der Horst, Charles; McIntyre, James; Wood, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To compare treatment outcomes by starting CD4 counts using data from the CIPRA-South Africa trial. Design Observational cohort study. Methods Patients presenting to primary care clinics with CD4 cell counts <350 cells/mm3 were randomized to either doctor- or nurse-managed HIV care and followed for at least two years after ART initiation. Clinical and laboratory outcomes were compared by baseline CD4 count. Results 812 patients were followed for a median of 27.5 months and 36% initiated with a CD4 count >200. While 10% of patients failed virologically (VF), the risk was nearly double among those with a CD4 ≤200 vs. >200 (12.2% vs. 6.8%). 21 deaths occurred, with a five-fold increased risk for the low CD4 group (3.7% vs. 0.7%). After adjustment, those with a CD4 count ≤200 had twice the risk of death/VF (HR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1–3.3) and twice the risk of incident tuberculosis (HR: 1.90; 95% CI: 0.89–4.04) as those >200. Those with either a CD4 ≤200 (HR 2.1; 1.2–3.8) or a WHO IV condition (HR 2.9; 0.93–8.8) alone had a two to three-fold increased risk of death/VF vs. those with neither, but those with both conditions had a 4-fold increased risk (HR 3.9; 95% CI: 1.9–8.1). We observed some increased loss to follow-up among those initiating <200 (HR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.50–1.25). Conclusions Patients initiating ART with higher CD4 counts had reduced mortality, tuberculosis and less virologic failure than those initiated at lower CD4 counts. Our data support increasing CD4 count eligibility criteria for ART initiation. PMID:20613459

  18. Restoring primary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, William F

    2002-01-01

    A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available for restoring primary incisors. Knowledge of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material will enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages and the clinical conditions of placement may be a strong determining factor as to which material is utilized. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and those crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are some type of stainless steel crown. However, due to lack of supporting clinical data, none of the crowns can be said to be superior to the others under all circumstances. Though caries in the mandibular region is rare, restorative solutions for mandibular incisors are needed. Neither stainless steel crowns nor celluloid crown forms are made specifically for mandibular incisors. Many options exist to repair carious primary incisors, but there is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. This does not discount the fact that dentists have been using many of these crowns for years with much success. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables which affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative treatment is chosen. PMID:12412967

  19. Sustained-release nanoART formulation for the treatment of neuroAIDS

    PubMed Central

    Jayant, Rahul Dev; Atluri, Venkata SR; Agudelo, Marisela; Sagar, Vidya; Kaushik, Ajeet; Nair, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach was developed for the coencapsulation of an anti-HIV drug (tenofovir) and a latency-breaking agent (vorinostat), using magnetically guided layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled nanocarriers for the treatment of neuroAIDS. Ultrasmall iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (10±3 nm) were synthesized and characterized. The LbL technique was used to achieve a sustained release profile, and application of 2 bilayers ([tenofovir+dextran sulphate]2+vorinostat) to magnetic nanoparticles resulted in a 2.8 times increase in drug (tenofovir) loading and also resulted in an increase in the drug release period by 30-fold, with 100% drug release in sustained manner over a period of 5 days with the simultaneous stimulation of latent HIV expression. Nanoformulation showed a good blood–brain barrier transmigration ability (37.95%±1.5%) with good in vitro antiviral efficacy (~33% reduction of p24 level) over a period of 5 days after HIV infection in primary human astrocytes, with good cell viability (>90%). Hence, LbL arrangements of drugs on magnetic nanoparticles provides sustained release and, therefore, may improve the patient’s adherence to therapy and lead to better compliance. PMID:25709433

  20. Life cycle assessment applied to wastewater treatment: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Ll; Foley, J; Guest, J S; Hospido, A; Larsen, H F; Morera, S; Shaw, A

    2013-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a technique to quantify the impacts associated with a product, service or process from cradle-to-grave perspective. Within the field of wastewater treatment (WWT) LCA was first applied in the 1990s. In the pursuit of more environmentally sustainable WWT, it is clear that LCA is a valuable tool to elucidate the broader environmental impacts of design and operation decisions. With growing interest from utilities, practitioners, and researchers in the use of LCA in WWT systems, it is important to make a review of what has been achieved and describe the challenges for the forthcoming years. This work presents a comprehensive review of 45 papers dealing with WWT and LCA. The analysis of the papers showed that within the constraints of the ISO standards, there is variability in the definition of the functional unit and the system boundaries, the selection of the impact assessment methodology and the procedure followed for interpreting the results. The need for stricter adherence to ISO methodological standards to ensure quality and transparency is made clear and emerging challenges for LCA applications in WWT are discussed, including: a paradigm shift from pollutant removal to resource recovery, the adaptation of LCA methodologies to new target compounds, the development of regional factors, the improvement of the data quality and the reduction of uncertainty. Finally, the need for better integration and communication with decision-makers is highlighted. PMID:23969400

  1. Achieving Controlled Intraocular Pressure and Restoration of Vision Following Proactive Treatment of Total Choroidal Detachment Due to Endocyclophotocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Al-Asbali, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Ocular hypotony due to choroidal detachment (CD) following endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP) is transient. If hypotony lasts for more than 1 week, it could affect vision. This is a case of refractory glaucoma following cataract surgery that was managed by ECP. We drained subchoroidal fluid as CD did not resolve after 1 week. After 5 months, the intraocular pressure was restored to 16 mmHg with one topical glaucoma medication, uncorrected vision improved to 20/300, and with aphakic soft contact lens, it was 20/50. Ophthalmologists facing such complications need not panic and manage hypotony, and the prognosis of such intervention seems to be promising. PMID:27555714

  2. Achieving Controlled Intraocular Pressure and Restoration of Vision Following Proactive Treatment of Total Choroidal Detachment Due to Endocyclophotocoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asbali, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Ocular hypotony due to choroidal detachment (CD) following endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP) is transient. If hypotony lasts for more than 1 week, it could affect vision. This is a case of refractory glaucoma following cataract surgery that was managed by ECP. We drained subchoroidal fluid as CD did not resolve after 1 week. After 5 months, the intraocular pressure was restored to 16 mmHg with one topical glaucoma medication, uncorrected vision improved to 20/300, and with aphakic soft contact lens, it was 20/50. Ophthalmologists facing such complications need not panic and manage hypotony, and the prognosis of such intervention seems to be promising. PMID:27555714

  3. Immune Restoration

    MedlinePlus

    ... marrow cells immune to HIV infection. Letting the immune system repair itself: CD4 counts have increased for many ... have taken ART. Some scientists believe that the immune system might be able to heal and repair itself ...

  4. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Proportions Are Diminished in Young Helminth Infected Children and Restored by Curative Anti-helminthic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nausch, Norman; Appleby, Laura J.; Sparks, Alexandra M.; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Mutapi, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Background Group 2 Innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are innate cells that produce the TH2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. The importance of these cells has recently been demonstrated in experimental models of parasitic diseases but there is a paucity of data on ILC2s in the context of human parasitic infections and in particular of the blood dwelling parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Methodology/Principal Findings In this case-control study human peripheral blood ILC2s were analysed in relation to infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 36 S. haematobium infected and 36 age and sex matched uninfected children were analysed for frequencies of ILC2s identified as Lin-CD45+CD127+CD294+CD161+. ILC2s were significantly lower particularly in infected children aged 6–9 years compared to healthy participants. Curative anti-helminthic treatment resulted in an increase in levels of the activating factor TSLP and restoration of ILC2 levels. Conclusion This study demonstrates that ILC2s are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by removal of the parasites by treatment, indicating a previously undescribed association between a human parasitic infection and ILC2s and suggesting a role of ILC2s before the establishment of protective acquired immunity in human schistosomiasis. PMID:25799270

  5. Chronic 5-HT4 receptor agonist treatment restores learning and memory deficits in a neuroendocrine mouse model of anxiety/depression.

    PubMed

    Darcet, Flavie; Gardier, Alain M; David, Denis J; Guilloux, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-11

    Cognitive disturbances are often reported as serious invalidating symptoms in patients suffering from major depression disorders (MDD) and are not fully corrected by classical monoaminergic antidepressant drugs. If the role of 5-HT4 receptor agonists as cognitive enhancers is well established in naïve animals or in animal models of cognitive impairment, their cognitive effects in the context of stress need to be examined. Using a mouse model of anxiety/depression (CORT model), we reported that a chronic 5-HT4 agonist treatment (RS67333, 1.5mg/kg/day) restored chronic corticosterone-induced cognitive deficits, including episodic-like, associative and spatial learning and memory impairments. On the contrary, a chronic monoaminergic antidepressant drug treatment with fluoxetine (18mg/kg/day) only partially restored spatial learning and memory deficits and had no effect in the associative/contextual task. These results suggest differential mechanisms underlying cognitive effects of these drugs. Finally, the present study highlights 5-HT4 receptor stimulation as a promising therapeutic mechanism to alleviate cognitive symptoms related to MDD. PMID:26850572

  6. Effects of a Treatment Package to Facilitate English/Language Arts Learning for Middle School Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Pamela J.; Lee, Angel; Browder, Diane M.; Zakas, Tracie-Lynn; Flynn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate the use of a treatment package that included systematic and direct instruction on acquisition of literacy skills aligned with middle school English/Language Arts standards for students with moderate to severe disabilities, including autism. Participants included five teachers and 15 middle school…

  7. Experience Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Brenda

    This Arkansas art education curriculum guide for grades 1 to 6 covers basic concepts, vocabulary, activities, and evaluation for each grade. The basic concepts to be taught throughout these grades include line, shape, color, space, drawing, painting, printing, art history, and art careers. Specific art techniques and types of arts are introduced…

  8. Atomic Oxygen Used to Restore Artworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2004-01-01

    Techniques developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to produce atomic oxygen in order to simulate the low-Earth-orbit environment for spacecraft materials testing can also be applied in the field of art restoration. Defaced or fire-damaged artwork can be treated with atomic oxygen to remove the damage and enable restoration that could not be accomplished with conventional methods. The process has been patented (U.S. Patents 5,560,781 and 5,693,241) and has been used to restore several works of art.

  9. Natural restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Kamlet, K.S.

    1993-02-01

    After a company pays millions of dollars to clean up contaminated site, its liability may not be over. It may have to spend tens of millions more to restore damaged natural resources under an oft-overlooked Superfund program. Examples of liability are cited in this report from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and a pcb leak which contaminated a harbor.

  10. Stability of the Helical TomoTherapy Hi·Art II detector for treatment beam irradiations.

    PubMed

    Schombourg, Karin; Bochud, François; Moeckli, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    The Hi·Art II Helical TomoTherapy (HT) unit is equipped with a built-in onboard MVCT detector used for patient imaging and beam monitoring. Our aim was to study the detector stability for treatment beam measurements. We studied the MVCT detector response with the 6 MV photon beam over time, throughout short-term (during an irradiation) and long-term (two times 50 days) periods. Our results show a coefficient of variation ≤ 1% for detector chambers inside the beam (excluding beam gradients) for short- and long-term response of the MVCT detector. Larger variations were observed in beam gradients and an influence of the X-ray target where degradation was found. The results assume that an 'air scan' procedure is performed daily to recalibrate the detector with the imaging beam. On short term, the detector response stability is comparable to other devices. Long-term measure- ments during two 50-day periods show a good reproducibility.  PMID:25493514

  11. Chronic treatment with estrogen receptor agonists restores acquisition of a spatial learning task in young ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, R.; Mauk, R.; Ninaci, D.; Nelson, D.; Gibbs, RB

    2009-01-01

    Previous work has shown that continuous estradiol replacement in young ovariectomized rats enhances acquisition of a delayed matching-to-position (DMP) T-maze task over that of ovariectomized controls. The mechanism by which estradiol confers this benefit has not been fully elucidated. This study examined the role of selective estrogen receptor agonists of ERα, ERβ, and GPR30 in the enhancement of spatial learning on a DMP task by comparing continuous estradiol replacement with continuous administration of PPT (an agonist of ERα), DPN (an agonist of ERβ), or G-1 (an agonist of GPR30) relative to gonadally intact and ovariectomized vehicle-treated controls. It was found that ovariectomy impaired acquisition on this task, whereas all ER selective agonists restored the rate of acquisition to that of gonadally intact controls. These data suggest that estradiol can work through any of several estrogen receptors to enhance the rate of acquisition on this task. PMID:19560466

  12. Value of Antiquity in the Restoration Process of the Art Nouveau Villa Duelfer in Barlinek/ Wartość Dawności W Procesie Renowacji Secesyjnej Willi Architekta W Barlinku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutyna, Halina

    2015-06-01

    The value assigned to time-worn objects and buildings seems crucial to a conservator's theoretical beliefs. The notion of antiquity is almost imprinted in the structure of the building itself, as well as in the concept of the time that has lapsed since the erection of the building. The head of the restoration project of the 1908 art nouveau Villa Duelfer, in Barlinek, which gradually fell into ruin after the war, presents how, in practice, this idea of antiquity was respected in that project. On the hundredth anniversary of the construction of the villa, the building, commonly referred to as the `Pałacyk Cebulowy`, has lived to see its revival by sustaining its primary residential function, its architectural form and its historic values, in an urban context. Kluczowa dla poglądów konserwatora zabytków architektury jawi się idea wartości dawności. Jest ona niejako odciśnięta w strukturze budowli i w wyobrażeniu o czasie, jaki upłynął od chwili powstania. Dobrym przykładem ilustrującym zagadnienie dawności zabytku jest ostatnia renowacja Willi Duelfera w Barlinku, wzniesionej w 1908 roku i potocznie zwanej "Pałacykiem Cebulowym". Po wojnie popadającej w ruinę, W 2008 roku w wyniku konsultacji z konserwatorem zabytków właściciel postanowił przywrócić jej symetrię i dobudować z lewej strony dodatkowe pomieszczenie. Podjęto także rozbudowę wilii od strony zachodniej poprzez dostawienie klatki schodowej i dodanie balkonu opartego na kolumnach na wzór elewacji wschodniej. Dokonano również renowacji zdobień elewacji i odtworzono brakujące elementy od frontu i z tyłu obiektu. Prace przebiegały w szybkim tempie i trwały zaledwie dwa lata, choć budynek był bardzo zniszczony.

  13. Effects of various chair-side surface treatment methods on dental restorative materials with respect to contact angles and surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Sturz, Candida R C; Faber, Franz-Josef; Scheer, Martin; Rothamel, Daniel; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Available chair-side surface treatment methods may adversely affect prosthetic materials and promote plaque accumulation. This study investigated the effects of treatment procedures on three resin restorative materials, zirconium-dioxide and polyetheretherketone in terms of surface roughness and hydrophobicity. Treatments were grinding with silicon carbide paper or white Arkansas stone, blasting with prophylaxis powder and polishing with diamond paste. Surface roughness was assessed using confocal laser scanning. Hydrophobicity as measured by water contact angle was determined by computerized image analysis using the sessile drop technique. All of the specific surface treatments performed led to significant changes in contact angle values and surface roughness (Ra) values. Median contact angle values ranged from 51.6° to 114°. Ra values ranged from 0.008 µm to 2.917 µm. Air-polishing as well as other polishing procedures increased surface roughness values in all materials except zirconium dioxide. Polyetheretherketone displayed greatest change in contact angle values after air-polishing treatment. PMID:26632228

  14. Restoring Ancestral Language, Restoring Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Kay T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Cherokee Language Renewal Program that was designed to help Cherokee elementary school children learn to function in the dominant culture without sacrificing their own cultural heritage. Explains how the program got started, and reports on how it helps restore a cultural identify to a people who are at risk of losing their identity.…

  15. A synopsis of short-term responses to alternative restoration treatments in sagebrush-steppe: the SageSTEP project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is an integrated long-term study that evaluates ecological effects of alternative treatments designed to reduce woody fuels and to stimulate the herbaceous understory of sagebrush steppe communities of the intermountain west. This synopsis...

  16. Restoration Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

  17. Gourdeous Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a gourd art project for her art club. Prior to students actually working on the gourds, the author and her art volunteer did a joint demonstration on the process students would go through to create their project. The volunteer brought in and explained her gourd art and shared information about the drying and…

  18. Two randomized controlled clinical trials to study the effectiveness of prednisolone treatment in preventing and restoring clinical nerve function loss in leprosy: the TENLEP study protocols

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nerve damage in leprosy often causes disabilities and deformities. Prednisolone is used to treat nerve function impairment (NFI). However, optimal dose and duration of prednisolone treatment has not been established yet. Besides treating existing NFI it would be desirable to prevent NFI. Studies show that before NFI is clinically detectable, nerves often show subclinical damage. Within the ‘Treatment of Early Neuropathy in LEProsy’ (TENLEP) study two double blind randomized controlled trials (RCT) will be carried out: a trial to establish whether prednisolone treatment of 32 weeks duration is more effective than 20 weeks in restoring nerve function in leprosy patients with clinical NFI (Clinical trial) and a trial to determine whether prednisolone treatment of early sub-clinical NFI can prevent clinical NFI (Subclinical trial). Methods Two RCTs with a follow up of 18 months will be conducted in six centers in Asia. In the Clinical trial leprosy patients with recent (< 6 months) clinical NFI, as determined by Monofilament Test and Voluntary Muscle Test, are included. The primary outcomes are the proportion of patients with restored or improved nerve function. In the Subclinical trial leprosy patients with subclinical neuropathy, as determined by Nerve Conduction Studies (NCS) and/or Warm Detection Threshold (WDT), and without any clinical signs of NFI are randomly allocated to a placebo group or treatment group receiving 20 weeks prednisolone. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients developing clinical NFI. Reliability and normative studies are carried out before the start of the trial. Discussion This study is the first RCT testing a prednisolone regimen with a duration longer than 24 weeks. Also it is the first RCT assessing the effect of prednisolone in the prevention of clinical NFI in patients with established subclinical neuropathy. The TENLEP study will add to the current understanding of neuropathy due to leprosy and provide insight

  19. Art Education/Art Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, John R., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    The special issue presents 13 articles dealing with art education and art therapy for special groups. Included are the following titles and authors: "Art Education for Special Groups: The Emotionally Disturbed" (E. Ulman); "You Are The Early Warning System" (C. Stember); "School Art Therapist Rationale for DPI Certification" (V. Minar); "Art…

  20. Multiple Drug Treatments That Increase cAMP Signaling Restore Long-Term Memory and Aberrant Signaling in Fragile X Syndrome Models

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Catherine H.; Schoenfeld, Brian P.; Bell, Aaron J.; Hinchey, Joseph; Rosenfelt, Cory; Gertner, Michael J.; Campbell, Sean R.; Emerson, Danielle; Hinchey, Paul; Kollaros, Maria; Ferrick, Neal J.; Chambers, Daniel B.; Langer, Steven; Sust, Steven; Malik, Aatika; Terlizzi, Allison M.; Liebelt, David A.; Ferreiro, David; Sharma, Ali; Koenigsberg, Eric; Choi, Richard J.; Louneva, Natalia; Arnold, Steven E.; Featherstone, Robert E.; Siegel, Steven J.; Zukin, R. Suzanne; McDonald, Thomas V.; Bolduc, Francois V.; Jongens, Thomas A.; McBride, Sean M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X is the most common monogenic disorder associated with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Additionally, many patients are afflicted with executive dysfunction, ADHD, seizure disorder and sleep disturbances. Fragile X is caused by loss of FMRP expression, which is encoded by the FMR1 gene. Both the fly and mouse models of fragile X are also based on having no functional protein expression of their respective FMR1 homologs. The fly model displays well defined cognitive impairments and structural brain defects and the mouse model, although having subtle behavioral defects, has robust electrophysiological phenotypes and provides a tool to do extensive biochemical analysis of select brain regions. Decreased cAMP signaling has been observed in samples from the fly and mouse models of fragile X as well as in samples derived from human patients. Indeed, we have previously demonstrated that strategies that increase cAMP signaling can rescue short term memory in the fly model and restore DHPG induced mGluR mediated long term depression (LTD) in the hippocampus to proper levels in the mouse model (McBride et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2011, 2015). Here, we demonstrate that the same three strategies used previously with the potential to be used clinically, lithium treatment, PDE-4 inhibitor treatment or mGluR antagonist treatment can rescue long term memory in the fly model and alter the cAMP signaling pathway in the hippocampus of the mouse model. PMID:27445731

  1. Multiple Drug Treatments That Increase cAMP Signaling Restore Long-Term Memory and Aberrant Signaling in Fragile X Syndrome Models.

    PubMed

    Choi, Catherine H; Schoenfeld, Brian P; Bell, Aaron J; Hinchey, Joseph; Rosenfelt, Cory; Gertner, Michael J; Campbell, Sean R; Emerson, Danielle; Hinchey, Paul; Kollaros, Maria; Ferrick, Neal J; Chambers, Daniel B; Langer, Steven; Sust, Steven; Malik, Aatika; Terlizzi, Allison M; Liebelt, David A; Ferreiro, David; Sharma, Ali; Koenigsberg, Eric; Choi, Richard J; Louneva, Natalia; Arnold, Steven E; Featherstone, Robert E; Siegel, Steven J; Zukin, R Suzanne; McDonald, Thomas V; Bolduc, Francois V; Jongens, Thomas A; McBride, Sean M J

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X is the most common monogenic disorder associated with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Additionally, many patients are afflicted with executive dysfunction, ADHD, seizure disorder and sleep disturbances. Fragile X is caused by loss of FMRP expression, which is encoded by the FMR1 gene. Both the fly and mouse models of fragile X are also based on having no functional protein expression of their respective FMR1 homologs. The fly model displays well defined cognitive impairments and structural brain defects and the mouse model, although having subtle behavioral defects, has robust electrophysiological phenotypes and provides a tool to do extensive biochemical analysis of select brain regions. Decreased cAMP signaling has been observed in samples from the fly and mouse models of fragile X as well as in samples derived from human patients. Indeed, we have previously demonstrated that strategies that increase cAMP signaling can rescue short term memory in the fly model and restore DHPG induced mGluR mediated long term depression (LTD) in the hippocampus to proper levels in the mouse model (McBride et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2011, 2015). Here, we demonstrate that the same three strategies used previously with the potential to be used clinically, lithium treatment, PDE-4 inhibitor treatment or mGluR antagonist treatment can rescue long term memory in the fly model and alter the cAMP signaling pathway in the hippocampus of the mouse model. PMID:27445731

  2. Orthodontic-restorative treatment as an option for biologic replacement of a maxillary central incisor: 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rizzatto, Susana Maria Deon; Closs, Luciane Quadrado; Freitas, Maria Perpétua Mota; Rizzatto, Laura Escobar

    2012-09-01

    The maxillary central incisor is the tooth most often affected by trauma, especially in the age range of 7 to 10 years, when high-impact sports are prevalent. The options for conservative treatment should be prioritized in these patients, aiming to achieve a biologic response that might provide continuity of growth of the alveolus, to provide functional and esthetic development of the affected region. This case report describes a patient with a history of trauma during the deciduous dentition with consequent intrusion, root dilaceration, and retention of the maxillary left central incisor. The treatment involved extraction of the traumatized tooth and mesial movement of the lateral incisor and posterior segments. PMID:22920706

  3. Hepatitis C virus-specific cytotoxic T cell response restoration after treatment-induced hepatitis C virus control

    PubMed Central

    Larrubia, Juan-Ramón; Moreno-Cubero, Elia; Miquel, Joaquín; Sanz-de-Villalobos, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response plays a major role in viral control during spontaneous infection resolution. These cells develop an exhausted and pro-apoptotic status during chronic onset, being unable to get rid of HCV. The role of this response in contributing to sustained viral response (SVR) after anti-HCV is controversial. Recent studies show that after successful interferon-based anti-HCV treatment, HCV traces are still detectable and this correlates with a peak of HCV-specific CTL response activation, probably responsible for maintaining SVR by subsequent complete HCV clearing. Moreover, SVR patients’ serum is still able to induce HCV infection in naïve chimpanzees, suggesting that the infection could be under the control of the immune system after a successful treatment, being transmissible in absence of this adaptive response. At least theoretically, treatment-induced viral load decrease could allow an effective HCV-specific CTL response reestablishment. This effect has been recently described with anti-HCV interferon-free regimes, based on direct-acting antivirals. Nevertheless, this is to some extent controversial with interferon-based therapies, due to the detrimental immunoregulatory α-interferon effect on T cells. Moreover, HCV-specific CTL response features during anti-HCV treatment could be a predictive factor of SVR that could have clinical implications in patient management. In this review, the recent knowledge about the role of HCV-specific CTL response in the development of SVR after anti-HCV treatment is discussed. PMID:25834312

  4. Brain stem activity changes associated with restored sympathetic drive following CPAP treatment in OSA subjects: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Lundblad, Linda C; Fatouleh, Rania H; McKenzie, David K; Macefield, Vaughan G; Henderson, Luke A

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with significantly elevated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), leading to hypertension and increased cardiovascular morbidity. Although little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the sympathoexcitation, we have recently shown that the elevated MSNA in OSA is associated with altered neural processing in various brain stem sites, including the dorsolateral pons, rostral ventrolateral medulla, medullary raphe, and midbrain. Given the risk associated with elevated MSNA, we aimed to determine if treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would reduce the elevated MSNA and reverse the brain stem functional changes associated with the elevated MSNA. We performed concurrent recordings of MSNA and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity of the brain stem, using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, in 15 controls and 13 subjects with OSA, before and after 6 mo CPAP treatment. As expected, 6 mo of CPAP treatment significantly reduced MSNA in subjects with OSA, from 54 ± 4 to 23 ± 3 bursts/min and from 77 ± 7 to 36 ± 3 bursts/100 heart beats. Importantly, we found that MSNA-coupled changes in BOLD signal intensity within the dorsolateral pons, medullary raphe, and rostral ventrolateral medulla returned to control levels. That is, CPAP treatment completely reversed brain stem functional changes associated with elevated MSNA in untreated OSA subjects. These data highlight the effectiveness of CPAP treatment in reducing one of the most significant health issues associated with OSA, that is, elevated MSNA and its associated elevated morbidity. PMID:25995345

  5. Brain stem activity changes associated with restored sympathetic drive following CPAP treatment in OSA subjects: a longitudinal investigation

    PubMed Central

    Lundblad, Linda C.; Fatouleh, Rania H.; McKenzie, David K.; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with significantly elevated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), leading to hypertension and increased cardiovascular morbidity. Although little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the sympathoexcitation, we have recently shown that the elevated MSNA in OSA is associated with altered neural processing in various brain stem sites, including the dorsolateral pons, rostral ventrolateral medulla, medullary raphe, and midbrain. Given the risk associated with elevated MSNA, we aimed to determine if treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would reduce the elevated MSNA and reverse the brain stem functional changes associated with the elevated MSNA. We performed concurrent recordings of MSNA and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity of the brain stem, using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, in 15 controls and 13 subjects with OSA, before and after 6 mo CPAP treatment. As expected, 6 mo of CPAP treatment significantly reduced MSNA in subjects with OSA, from 54 ± 4 to 23 ± 3 bursts/min and from 77 ± 7 to 36 ± 3 bursts/100 heart beats. Importantly, we found that MSNA-coupled changes in BOLD signal intensity within the dorsolateral pons, medullary raphe, and rostral ventrolateral medulla returned to control levels. That is, CPAP treatment completely reversed brain stem functional changes associated with elevated MSNA in untreated OSA subjects. These data highlight the effectiveness of CPAP treatment in reducing one of the most significant health issues associated with OSA, that is, elevated MSNA and its associated elevated morbidity. PMID:25995345

  6. Restoration of Normal Cerebral Oxygen Consumption with Rapamycin Treatment in a Rat Model of Autism-Tuberous Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chi, Oak Z; Wu, Chang-Chih; Liu, Xia; Rah, Kang H; Jacinto, Estela; Weiss, Harvey R

    2015-09-01

    Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is associated with autism spectrum disorders and has been linked to metabolic dysfunction and unrestrained signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin can mitigate some of the phenotypic abnormalities associated with TSC and autism, but whether this is due to the mTOR-related function in energy metabolism remains to be elucidated. In young Eker rats, an animal model of TSC and autism, which harbors a germ line heterozygous Tsc2 mutation, we previously reported that cerebral oxygen consumption was pronouncedly elevated. Young (4 weeks) male control Long-Evans and Eker rats were divided into control and rapamycin-treated (20 mg/kg once daily for 2 days) animals. Cerebral regional blood flow ((14)C-iodoantipyrine) and O2 consumption (cryomicrospectrophotometry) were determined in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. We found significantly increased basal O2 consumption in the cortex (8.7 ± 1.5 ml O2/min/100 g Eker vs. 2.7 ± 0.2 control), hippocampus, pons and cerebellum. Regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral O2 extractions were also elevated in all brain regions. Rapamycin had no significant effect on O2 consumption in any brain region of the control rats, but significantly reduced consumption in the cortex (4.1 ± 0.3) and all other examined regions of the Eker rats. Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 was similar in the two groups and equally reduced by rapamycin. Thus, a rapamycin-sensitive, mTOR-dependent but S6K1-independent, signal led to enhanced oxidative metabolism in the Eker brain. We found decreased Akt phosphorylation in Eker but not Long-Evans rat brains, suggesting that this may be related to the increased cerebral O2 consumption in the Eker rat. Our findings suggest that rapamycin targeting of Akt to restore normal cerebral metabolism could have therapeutic potential in tuberous sclerosis and autism. PMID:26048361

  7. Restoration of Normal Cerebral Oxygen Consumption with Rapamycin Treatment in a Rat Model of Autism–Tuberous Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Oak Z.; Wu, Chang-Chih; Liu, Xia; Rah, Kang H.; Jacinto, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is associated with autism spectrum disorders and has been linked to metabolic dysfunction and unrestrained signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin can mitigate some of the phenotypic abnormalities associated with TSC and autism, but whether this is due to the mTOR-related function in energy metabolism remains to be elucidated. In young Eker rats, an animal model of TSC and autism, which harbors a germ line heterozygous Tsc2 mutation, we previously reported that cerebral oxygen consumption was pronouncedly elevated. Young (4 weeks) male control Long–Evans and Eker rats were divided into control and rapamycin-treated (20 mg/kg once daily for 2 days) animals. Cerebral regional blood flow (14C-iodoantipyrine) and O2 consumption (cryomicrospectrophotometry) were determined in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. We found significantly increased basal O2 consumption in the cortex (8.7 ± 1.5 ml O2/min/100 g Eker vs. 2.7 ± 0.2 control), hippocampus, pons and cerebellum. Regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral O2 extractions were also elevated in all brain regions. Rapamycin had no significant effect on O2 consumption in any brain region of the control rats, but significantly reduced consumption in the cortex (4.1 ± 0.3) and all other examined regions of the Eker rats. Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 was similar in the two groups and equally reduced by rapamycin. Thus, a rapamycin-sensitive, mTOR-dependent but S6K1-independent, signal led to enhanced oxidative metabolism in the Eker brain. We found decreased Akt phosphorylation in Eker but not Long–Evans rat brains, suggesting that this may be related to the increased cerebral O2 consumption in the Eker rat. Our findings suggest that rapamycin targeting of Akt to restore normal cerebral metabolism could have therapeutic potential in tuberous sclerosis and autism. PMID:26048361

  8. Restoration of peripheral blood natural killer and B cell levels in patients affected by rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis during etanercept treatment

    PubMed Central

    Conigliaro, P; Triggianese, P; Perricone, C; Chimenti, M S; Di Muzio, G; Ballanti, E; Guarino, M D; Kroegler, B; Gigliucci, G; Grelli, S; Perricone, R

    2014-01-01

    Etanercept (ETN) is an anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α agent used in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Few studies focused on the effects of anti-TNF-α on peripheral blood cells. We aimed to evaluate peripheral blood cells in RA and PsA patients during ETN treatment and to explore their relationships with disease activity. RA (n = 82) and PsA (n = 32) patients who started ETN were included into the study and evaluated prospectively before the beginning of ETN therapy and after 14, 22, 54 and 102 weeks. Patients were studied in terms of disease activity score on 28 joints (DAS28), clinical response and laboratory findings. Natural killer (NK) cells, B cells and T cells were characterized by immunophenotyping. Both the RA and the PsA patients showed reduced NK and B cell count before ETN treatment compared with controls. A negative correlation was demonstrated between DAS28 and B cell count in RA patients at baseline. Sustained significant increase of NK and B cells up to normal levels was observed in RA and PsA patients along ETN treatment. Increase of NK cell count was associated with a good–moderate clinical response to ETN in both RA and PsA patients. During ETN treatment peripheral blood NK and B cells levels were restored in RA and PsA patients. Correlations between NK and B cells with disease activity were observed, suggesting that those effects could be mediated by ETN treatment. PMID:24666401

  9. Virological and Immunological Status of the People Living with HIV/AIDS Undergoing ART Treatment in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Chet Raj; Shakya, Geeta; Dumre, Shyam Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased the life span of the people living with HIV (PLHIV), but their virological and immunological outcomes are not well documented in Nepal. The study was conducted at a tertiary care center including 826 HIV-1 seropositive individuals undergoing ART for at least six months. Plasma viral load (HIV-1 RNA) was detected by Real Time PCR and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte (CD4(+)) counts were estimated by flow cytometry. The mean CD4(+) count of patients was 501 (95% CI = 325-579) cells/cumm, but about 35% of patients had CD4(+) T cell counts below 350 cells/cumm. With increasing age, average CD4(+) count was found to be decreasing (p = 0.005). Of the total cases, 82 (9.92%) were found to have virological failure (viral load: >1000 copies/ml). Tenofovir/Lamivudine/Efavirenz (TDF/3TC/EFV), the frequently used ART regimen in Nepal, showed virological failure in 11.34% and immunological failure in 37.17% of patients. Virological failure rate was higher among children < 15 years (14.5%) (p = 0.03); however, no association was observed between ART outcomes and gender or route of transmission. The study suggests there are still some chances of virological and immunological failures despite the success of highly active ART (HAART). PMID:27547761

  10. Virological and Immunological Status of the People Living with HIV/AIDS Undergoing ART Treatment in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Dumre, Shyam Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased the life span of the people living with HIV (PLHIV), but their virological and immunological outcomes are not well documented in Nepal. The study was conducted at a tertiary care center including 826 HIV-1 seropositive individuals undergoing ART for at least six months. Plasma viral load (HIV-1 RNA) was detected by Real Time PCR and CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4+) counts were estimated by flow cytometry. The mean CD4+ count of patients was 501 (95% CI = 325–579) cells/cumm, but about 35% of patients had CD4+ T cell counts below 350 cells/cumm. With increasing age, average CD4+ count was found to be decreasing (p = 0.005). Of the total cases, 82 (9.92%) were found to have virological failure (viral load: >1000 copies/ml). Tenofovir/Lamivudine/Efavirenz (TDF/3TC/EFV), the frequently used ART regimen in Nepal, showed virological failure in 11.34% and immunological failure in 37.17% of patients. Virological failure rate was higher among children < 15 years (14.5%) (p = 0.03); however, no association was observed between ART outcomes and gender or route of transmission. The study suggests there are still some chances of virological and immunological failures despite the success of highly active ART (HAART). PMID:27547761

  11. A synopsis of short-term response to alternative restoration treatments in sagebrush-steppe: the SageSTEP project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIver, James; Brunson, Mark; Bunting, Steve; Chambers, Jeanne; Doescher, Paul; Grace, James; Hulet, April; Johnson, Dale; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard; Pellant, Mike; Pierson, Fred; Pyke, David; Rau, Benjamin; Rollins, Kim; Roundy, Bruce; Schupp, Eugene; Tausch, Robin; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is an integrated long-term study that evaluates ecological effects of alternative treatments designed to reduce woody fuels and to stimulate the herbaceous understory of sagebrush steppe communities of the Intermountain West. This synopsis summarizes results through 3 yr posttreatment. Woody vegetation reduction by prescribed fire, mechanical treatments, or herbicides initiated a cascade of effects, beginning with increased availability of nitrogen and soil water, followed by increased growth of herbaceous vegetation. Response of butterflies and magnitudes of runoff and erosion closely followed herbaceous vegetation recovery. Effects on shrubs, biological soil crust, tree cover, surface woody fuel loads, and sagebrush-obligate bird communities will take longer to be fully expressed. In the short term, cool wet sites were more resilient than warm dry sites, and resistance was mostly dependent on pretreatment herbaceous cover. At least 10 yr of posttreatment time will likely be necessary to determine outcomes for most sites. Mechanical treatments did not serve as surrogates for prescribed fire in how each influenced the fuel bed, the soil, erosion, and sage-obligate bird communities. Woody vegetation reduction by any means resulted in increased availability of soil water, higher herbaceous cover, and greater butterfly numbers. We identified several trade-offs (desirable outcomes for some variables, undesirable for others), involving most components of the study system. Trade-offs are inevitable when managing complex natural systems, and they underline the importance of asking questions about the whole system when developing management objectives. Substantial spatial and temporal heterogeneity in sagebrush steppe ecosystems emphasizes the point that there will rarely be a “recipe” for choosing management actions on any specific area. Use of a consistent evaluation process linked to monitoring may be the

  12. Mifepristone Treatment during Early Adolescence Fails to Restore Maternal Deprivation-Induced Deficits in Behavioral Inhibition of Adult Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Kentrop, Jiska; van der Tas, Liza; Loi, Manila; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Joëls, Marian; van der Veen, Rixt

    2016-01-01

    Early life adversity has a profound impact on brain development and later life health. Animal models have provided insight how early life stress programs stress responsiveness and might contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders. In the present study, the long-term effects of maternal deprivation (MD) on behavioral inhibition and attention were examined in adult male Wistar rats. To this end animals were tested in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-choice SRTT). We also explored the potential of a 3-day treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone during early adolescence to normalize putative behavioral effects of early life stress. Deprivation of the mother for 24 h on postnatal day (PND) 3 led to a modest but significant increase in premature responses in the 5-choice SRTT, but did not affect measures of attention. Body weight was lower in deprived animals from weaning until the start of testing. Early adolescent mifepristone treatment (PND 26-28) did not influence performance on the 5-choice SRTT and did not mitigate the deprivation-related impairment in behavioral inhibition. Our results indicate that MD leads to impaired behavioral inhibition, and that mifepristone treatment during early adolescence does not normalize the behavioral changes caused by early life stress. PMID:27378873

  13. Mifepristone Treatment during Early Adolescence Fails to Restore Maternal Deprivation-Induced Deficits in Behavioral Inhibition of Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kentrop, Jiska; van der Tas, Liza; Loi, Manila; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Joëls, Marian; van der Veen, Rixt

    2016-01-01

    Early life adversity has a profound impact on brain development and later life health. Animal models have provided insight how early life stress programs stress responsiveness and might contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders. In the present study, the long-term effects of maternal deprivation (MD) on behavioral inhibition and attention were examined in adult male Wistar rats. To this end animals were tested in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-choice SRTT). We also explored the potential of a 3-day treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone during early adolescence to normalize putative behavioral effects of early life stress. Deprivation of the mother for 24 h on postnatal day (PND) 3 led to a modest but significant increase in premature responses in the 5-choice SRTT, but did not affect measures of attention. Body weight was lower in deprived animals from weaning until the start of testing. Early adolescent mifepristone treatment (PND 26–28) did not influence performance on the 5-choice SRTT and did not mitigate the deprivation-related impairment in behavioral inhibition. Our results indicate that MD leads to impaired behavioral inhibition, and that mifepristone treatment during early adolescence does not normalize the behavioral changes caused by early life stress. PMID:27378873

  14. Redox biology in normal cells and cancer: restoring function of the redox/Fyn/c-Cbl pathway in cancer cells offers new approaches to cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Noble, Mark; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot; Li, Zaibo; Dong, Tiefei; Cui, Wanchang; Pröschel, Christoph; Ambeskovic, Ibro; Dietrich, Joerg; Han, Ruolan; Yang, Yin Miranda; Folts, Christopher; Stripay, Jennifer; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Stevens, Brett M

    2015-02-01

    This review discusses a unique discovery path starting with novel findings on redox regulation of precursor cell and signaling pathway function and identification of a new mechanism by which relatively small changes in redox status can control entire signaling networks that regulate self-renewal, differentiation, and survival. The pathway central to this work, the redox/Fyn/c-Cbl (RFC) pathway, converts small increases in oxidative status to pan-activation of the c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase, which controls multiple receptors and other proteins of central importance in precursor cell and cancer cell function. Integration of work on the RFC pathway with attempts to understand how treatment with systemic chemotherapy causes neurological problems led to the discovery that glioblastomas (GBMs) and basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) inhibit c-Cbl function through altered utilization of the cytoskeletal regulators Cool-1/βpix and Cdc42, respectively. Inhibition of these proteins to restore normal c-Cbl function suppresses cancer cell division, increases sensitivity to chemotherapy, disrupts tumor-initiating cell (TIC) activity in GBMs and BLBCs, controls multiple critical TIC regulators, and also allows targeting of non-TICs. Moreover, these manipulations do not increase chemosensitivity or suppress division of nontransformed cells. Restoration of normal c-Cbl function also allows more effective harnessing of estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-independent activities of tamoxifen to activate the RFC pathway and target ERα-negative cancer cells. Our work thus provides a discovery strategy that reveals mechanisms and therapeutic targets that cannot be deduced by standard genetics analyses, which fail to reveal the metabolic information, isoform shifts, protein activation, protein complexes, and protein degradation critical to our discoveries. PMID:25481740

  15. Biological restorations using tooth fragments.

    PubMed

    Busato, A L; Loguercio, A D; Barbosa, A N; Sanseverino, M do C; Macedo, R P; Baldissera, R A

    1998-02-01

    A "biological" restoration technique using dental fragments and adhesive materials is described. These fragments were obtained from extracted human teeth which had been previously sterilized and stored in a tooth bank. The advantages are: the use of extracted teeth as restorative material, esthetics, and treatment cost. The positive sensation of having back the missing tooth was the most mentioned comment among patients. The disadvantages are: the difficulty of obtaining teeth with the needed characteristics, problems of making an indirect restoration, matching the original color, and the non-acceptance by some patients who consider it strange to have other people's teeth placed in their mouths. PMID:9823086

  16. Safe Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Though most art materials are safe for children (and labelled accordingly), parents and teachers should follow recommended safety guidelines, such as those presented in this article, when choosing, using, and storing children's art materials. (SM)

  17. Car Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses car art and its appeal to boys and girls. Describes the popularity of customizing cars, focusing on this as a future career for students. Includes a list of project ideas that focuses on car art. (CMK)

  18. Black Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baraka, Amiri

    1987-01-01

    Discusses black art as not only an expression of black life but as revolutionary art. It must be collective, functional, and committing. It must also be anti-racist, anti-capitalist, and anti-imperialist. (LHW)

  19. The natural killer cell dysfunction of aged mice is due to the bone marrow stroma and is not restored by IL-15/IL-15Rα treatment.

    PubMed

    Nair, Savita; Fang, Min; Sigal, Luis J

    2015-04-01

    Immune dysfunctions in the elderly result in increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Natural killer (NK) cells are bone marrow-derived lymphocytes crucial for host defense against several infections and cancer. We have previously shown that compared to young, aged C57BL/6 mice have decreased numbers of mature NK cells in the blood, spleen, and bone marrow, resulting in susceptibility to mousepox, a lethal disease caused by ectromelia virus. Here, we describe further age-related defects in NK cells including reduced proliferation in vivo, additional signs of immaturity, and dysregulated expression of activating and inhibitory receptors. Aging also alters the expression of collagen-binding integrins in conventional NK cells and the frequency and phenotype of liver tissue-resident NK cells. We additionally show that the defect in NK maturation is the consequence of deficient maturational cues provided by bone marrow stromal cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that in aged mice, treatment with complexes of the cytokine IL-15 and IL-15Rα induce massive expansion of the NK cells, but most of these NK cells remain immature and are unable to restore resistance to mousepox. The use of rodent model to understand immunosenescence may help the development of treatments to improve the immune fitness of the aged. Our work with NK cells should contribute toward this goal. PMID:25399821

  20. Gene dysregulation is restored in the Parkinson’s disease MPTP neurotoxic mice model upon treatment of the therapeutic drug CuII(atsm)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lesley; Quek, Camelia Y. J.; Hung, Lin W.; Sharples, Robyn A.; Sherratt, Nicki A.; Barnham, Kevin J.; Hill, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    The administration of MPTP selectively targets the dopaminergic system resulting in Parkinsonism-like symptoms and is commonly used as a mice model of Parkinson’s disease. We previously demonstrated that the neuroprotective compound CuII(atsm) rescues nigral cell loss and improves dopamine metabolism in the MPTP model. The mechanism of action of CuII(atsm) needs to be further defined to understand how the compound promotes neuronal survival. Whole genome transcriptomic profiling has become a popular method to examine the relationship between gene expression and function. Substantia nigra samples from MPTP-lesioned mice were evaluated using whole transcriptome sequencing to investigate the genes altered upon CuII(atsm) treatment. We identified 143 genes affected by MPTP lesioning that are associated with biological processes related to brain and cognitive development, dopamine synthesis and perturbed synaptic neurotransmission. Upon CuII(atsm) treatment, the expression of 40 genes involved in promoting dopamine synthesis, calcium signaling and synaptic plasticity were restored which were validated by qRT-PCR. The study provides the first detailed whole transcriptomic analysis of pathways involved in MPTP-induced Parkinsonism. In addition, we identify key therapeutic pathways targeted by a potentially new class of neuroprotective agents which may provide therapeutic benefits for other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26928495

  1. Epistemic Petrification and the Restoration of Epistemic Trust: A New Conceptualization of Borderline Personality Disorder and Its Psychosocial Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fonagy, Peter; Luyten, Patrick; Allison, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    A new developmental model of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and its treatment is advanced based on evolutionary considerations concerning the role of attachment, mentalizing, and epistemic trust in the development of psychopathology. We propose that vulnerability to psychopathology in general is related to impairments in epistemic trust, leading to disruptions in the process of salutogenesis, the positive effects associated with the capacity to benefit from the social environment. BPD is perhaps the disorder par excellence that illustrates this view. We argue that this conceptualization makes sense of the presence of both marked rigidity and instability in BPD, and has far-reaching implications for intervention. PMID:26393477

  2. A Multi-Analytical Approach for the Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Conservation-Restoration Treatment of Moroccan Historical Manuscripts Dating to the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Kerbal, Abdelali; Kajjout, Mohamed; Doumenq, Pierre; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

    2015-08-01

    The most critical steps during the conservation-restoration treatment applied in Moroccan libraries are the deacidification using immersion in a saturated aqueous calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) solution and the consolidation of degraded manuscripts using Japanese paper. The present study aims to assess the efficiency of this restoration method using a multi-analytical approach. For this purpose, three ancient Arabic Moroccan manuscript papers dating back to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries were investigated to characterize the paper support and make a comparative study between pre-restoration and post-restoration states. Three structural and molecular characterization techniques including solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on (13)C with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP-MAS NMR), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to elucidate the cellulose main features, to identify the inorganic composition of the papers, and to study the crystallinity of the samples. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) allowed us to obtain a qualitative and quantitative characterization of the mineral fillers used in the manufacturing of the papers. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) ascertained the state of conservation of the different papers and helped us to study the elemental composition of the samples. After restoration, it was shown that the deacidification improved the stability of papers by providing an important alkaline buffer, as demonstrated using FT-IR and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) results. However, XRD and ICP-AES did not confirm the pertinence of the treatment for all samples because of the unequal distribution of Ca on the paper surface during the restoration. The consolidation process was studied using SEM analysis; its effectiveness in restoring

  3. Intraoral repair of cosmetic restorations.

    PubMed

    Denehy, G; Bouschlicher, M; Vargas, M

    1998-10-01

    The longevity of porcelain and composite resin restorations can often be prolonged by using sound principles, up-to-date materials, and judicious attention to repair when fracture problems arise. Careful case selection and correct usage of surface treatment agents, followed by the use of a quality bonding system and restorative materials, can result in a repair that exhibits excellent retention and natural color blending. This article outlines procedures and materials to repair both resin composite and porcelain intraorally. PMID:9891653

  4. Spironolactone treatment attenuates vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO/GC signaling.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcondes A B; Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Cau, Stefany B A; Lopes, Rheure A M; Mestriner, Fabiola L A C; Fais, Rafael S; Touyz, Rhian M; Tostes, Rita C

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aldosterone, which has pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular system, is positively regulated in DM2. We assessed whether blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) with spironolactone decreases reactive oxygen species (ROS)-associated vascular dysfunction and improves vascular nitric oxide (NO) signaling in diabetes. Leptin receptor knockout [LepR(db)/LepR(db) (db/db)] mice, a model of DM2, and their counterpart controls [LepR(db)/LepR(+), (db/+) mice] received spironolactone (50 mg/kg body weight/day) or vehicle (ethanol 1%) via oral per gavage for 6 weeks. Spironolactone treatment abolished endothelial dysfunction and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation (Ser(1177)) in arteries from db/db mice, determined by acetylcholine-induced relaxation and Western Blot analysis, respectively. MR antagonist therapy also abrogated augmented ROS-generation in aorta from diabetic mice, determined by lucigenin luminescence assay. Spironolactone treatment increased superoxide dismutase-1 and catalase expression, improved sodium nitroprusside and BAY 41-2272-induced relaxation, and increased soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) β subunit expression in arteries from db/db mice. Our results demonstrate that spironolactone decreases diabetes-associated vascular oxidative stress and prevents vascular dysfunction through processes involving increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and sGC. These findings further elucidate redox-sensitive mechanisms whereby spironolactone protects against vascular injury in diabetes. PMID:26500555

  5. Lake restoration by hypolimnetic Ca(OH)2 treatment: impact on phosphorus sedimentation and release from sediment.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Maria; Gabriel, Oliver; Rutzen, Christian; Koschel, Rainer

    2011-03-15

    A whole-lake hypolimnetic Ca(OH)(2) addition, that induced calcium carbonate precipitation, combined with deep water aeration has been applied to eutrophic Lake Luzin, Germany during 1996-1998. In this study we investigated the dynamic of phosphorus and its binding forms in seston and sediment before and during the treatment. The sedimentation rates of phosphorus increased within three years of induced calcite precipitation. The phosphorus binding forms shifted to the calcite-bound phosphorus in the settling matter. The increase of calcite-bound P in the settling material did not coincide with the maximum induced CaCO(3)-precipitation caused by the hypolimnetic addition of Ca(OH)(2). An impact of chemicals additions and pH on phosphorus binding forms in seston and surface sediments has been studied in laboratory experiments with sediment core incubations and slurry experiments. Laboratory studies showed that the lowest phosphorus flux from sediment was related to the experiment with pH=7 in overlaying water adjusted with Ca(OH)(2). The adjusting of pH with Ca(OH)(2) leads to a lower P flux of 2.3 mg Pm(-2)d(-1), while the highest P-flux is attributed to the experiment with the pH which was adjusted with NaOH. Phosphorus fraction which reflects phosphorus binding on carbonates in surface sediments increased within one year of treatment, enhancing the phosphorus retention capacity of sediments. PMID:21292312

  6. Spironolactone treatment attenuates vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO/GC signaling

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marcondes A. B.; Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Cau, Stefany B. A.; Lopes, Rheure A. M.; Mestriner, Fabiola L. A. C.; Fais, Rafael S.; Touyz, Rhian M.; Tostes, Rita C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aldosterone, which has pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular system, is positively regulated in DM2. We assessed whether blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) with spironolactone decreases reactive oxygen species (ROS)-associated vascular dysfunction and improves vascular nitric oxide (NO) signaling in diabetes. Leptin receptor knockout [LepRdb/LepRdb (db/db)] mice, a model of DM2, and their counterpart controls [LepRdb/LepR+, (db/+) mice] received spironolactone (50 mg/kg body weight/day) or vehicle (ethanol 1%) via oral per gavage for 6 weeks. Spironolactone treatment abolished endothelial dysfunction and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation (Ser1177) in arteries from db/db mice, determined by acetylcholine-induced relaxation and Western Blot analysis, respectively. MR antagonist therapy also abrogated augmented ROS-generation in aorta from diabetic mice, determined by lucigenin luminescence assay. Spironolactone treatment increased superoxide dismutase-1 and catalase expression, improved sodium nitroprusside and BAY 41-2272-induced relaxation, and increased soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) β subunit expression in arteries from db/db mice. Our results demonstrate that spironolactone decreases diabetes-associated vascular oxidative stress and prevents vascular dysfunction through processes involving increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and sGC. These findings further elucidate redox-sensitive mechanisms whereby spironolactone protects against vascular injury in diabetes. PMID:26500555

  7. Rock Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  8. Wall Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  9. Art Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and Kilns Safely in the Classroom"…

  10. [Percutaneous implantation of a left ventricular restoration device [Parachute(TM)] for the treatment of ischemic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Ielasi, Alfonso; Tespili, Maurizio; Repossini, Alberto; Scopelliti, Pasquale; Paganoni, Silvia; Cafro, Andrea; Silvestro, Antonio; Personeni, Davide; Saino, Antonio; Muneretto, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Congestive heart failure secondary to myocardial infarction is associated with significant morbidity and mortality despite currently available therapies. A novel catheter-based left ventricular partitioning device (ParachuteTM, CardioKinetix, Inc., Menlo Park, CA) is currently available for the treatment of patients with severe systolic dysfunction after antero-apical myocardial infarction with regional wall motion abnormalities. Preliminary clinical data showed that the ParachuteTM implantation could be associated with favorable clinical and left ventricular hemodynamic improvements post-implantation. Here, we present the case of a patient with symptomatic congestive heart failure after myocardial infarction implanted with the ParachuteTM device and we briefly review the current literature on this left ventricular partitioning system. PMID:25689752

  11. Sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification (SPSS) treatment of mixed waste mercury recovered from environmental restoration activities at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.; Adams, J.; Milian, L.

    2001-01-29

    Over 1,140 yd{sup 3} of radioactively contaminated soil containing toxic mercury (Hg) and several liters of mixed-waste elemental mercury were generated during a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Mixed Waste Focus Area (DOE MWFA) is sponsoring a comparison of several technologies that may be used to treat these wastes and similar wastes at BNL and other sites across the DOE complex. This report describes work conducted at BNL on the application and pilot-scale demonstration of the newly developed Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process for treatment of contaminated mixed-waste soils containing high concentrations ({approximately} 5,000 mg/L) of mercury and liquid elemental mercury. BNL's SPSS (patent pending) process chemically stabilizes the mercury to reduce vapor pressure and leachability and physically encapsulates the waste in a solid matrix to eliminate dispersion and provide long-term durability. Two 55-gallon drums of mixed-waste soil containing high concentrations of mercury and about 62 kg of radioactive contaminated elemental mercury were successfully treated. Waste loadings of 60 wt% soil were achieved without resulting in any increase in waste volume, while elemental mercury was solidified at a waste loading of 33 wt% mercury. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses indicate the final waste form products pass current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allowable TCLP concentrations as well as the more stringent proposed Universal Treatment Standards. Mass balance measurements show that 99.7% of the mercury treated was successfully retained within the waste form, while only 0.3% was captured in the off gas system.

  12. Treatment with Interleukin-7 Restores Host Defense against Pneumocystis in CD4+ T-Lymphocyte-Depleted Mice

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, D. R.; Assouline, B.; Morre, M.; Shellito, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. CD4+ T lymphocytes are critical for host defense against this infection, but in the absence of CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes may provide limited host defense. The cytokine interleukin-7 (IL-7) functions to enhance lymphocyte proliferation, survival, and recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection. However, there is little known about the role of IL-7 in PCP or its potential use as an immunotherapeutic agent. We hypothesized that treatment with recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) would augment host defense against Pneumocystis and accelerate pathogen clearance in CD4-depleted mice. Control and CD4-depleted mice were infected with Pneumocystis, and rhIL-7 was administered via intraperitoneal injection. Our studies indicate that endogenous murine IL-7 is part of the normal host response to Pneumocystis murina and that administration of rhIL-7 markedly enhanced clearance of Pneumocystis in CD4-depleted mice. Additionally, we observed increased recruitment of CD8+ T lymphocytes to the lungs and decreased apoptosis of pulmonary CD8+ T lymphocytes in rhIL-7-treated animals compared to those in untreated mice. The antiapoptotic effect of rhIL-7 was associated with increased levels of Bcl-2 protein in T lymphocytes. rhIL-7 immunotherapy in CD4-depleted mice also increased the number of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-positive CD8+ central memory T lymphocytes in the lungs. We conclude that rhIL-7 has a potent therapeutic effect in the treatment of murine Pneumocystis pneumonia in CD4-depleted mice. This therapeutic effect is mediated through enhanced recruitment of CD8+ T cells and decreased apoptosis of lung T lymphocytes, with a preferential action on central memory CD8+ T lymphocytes. PMID:26483405

  13. UV and hydrogen peroxide treatment restores changes in innate immunity caused by exposure of fish to reuse water.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arvinder; Havixbeck, Jeffrey J; Smith, Matthew K; Shu, Zengquan; Tierney, Keith B; Barreda, Daniel R; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2015-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the innate immunity of goldfish exposed to reuse water, and UV/H2O2-treated reuse water, using a real-time flow-through exposure system. The reuse water generated by ultrafiltration of finished wastewater from the municipal wastewater treatment plant was analyzed for the presence of a panel of 20 herbicides/fungicides and 46 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP). There was a seasonal variation in the profile and concentrations of xenobiotics in reuse water with lowest levels occurring in the summer. The innate immunity parameters assessed were cytokine (IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-10, TNFα2), and cytokine receptor (TNFR1, TNFR2, IFNGR1, IFNGR2) gene expression, and phagocytosis of kidney leukocyte subpopulations. Assessment of innate immunity parameters was done after acute (7 days) and sub chronic (30 and 60 days) exposure to reuse water, UV/H2O2-treated reuse water, and activated carbon-treated reuse water (ACT; control), during spring, summer and fall of 2012. Temporal (acute versus sub chronic) as well as seasonal differences in innate immunity of fish exposed to reuse water were observed. The acute exposure of fish to reuse water caused significant down-regulation in cytokine gene expression in different organs of fish (kidney, spleen, liver) and phagocytic ability of different kidney leukocyte subpopulations. The immune gene expression and phagocytosis of kidney leukocytes of fish returned to ACT control levels after sub chronic exposure suggesting that fish have habituated to the reuse water exposure. The changes in gene expression after acute exposure were related to variations in the profile of xenobiotics in reuse water during different seasons. The efficiency of xenobiotic removal using UV/H2O2 ranged between 1.6 and 100% indicating that treatment of reuse water using high dose UV/H2O2 was only partially effective in removing the xenobiotics, as assessed by both chemical analyses and measurement of innate immune

  14. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  15. Optimal time for initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected, treatment-naive children aged 2 to 5 years old

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Nandi; Davies, Mary-Ann; Penazzato, Martina; Muhe, Lulu M; Egger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) comprising three antiretroviral medications from at least two classes of drugs is the current standard treatment for HIV infection in adults and children. Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for antiretroviral therapy recommend early treatment regardless of immunologic thresholds or the clinical condition for all infants (less than one years of age) and children under the age of two years. For children aged two to five years current WHO guidelines recommend (based on low quality evidence) that clinical and immunological thresholds be used to identify those who need to start cART (advanced clinical stage or CD4 counts ≤ 750 cells/mm3 or per cent CD4 ≤ 25%). This Cochrane review will inform the current available evidence regarding the optimal time for treatment initiation in children aged two to five years with the goal of informing the revision of WHO 2013 recommendations on when to initiate cART in children. Objectives To assess the evidence for the optimal time to initiate cART in treatment-naive, HIV-infected children aged 2 to 5 years. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the AEGIS conference database, specific relevant conferences, www.clinicaltrials.gov, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry platform and reference lists of articles. The date of the most recent search was 30 September 2012. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared immediate with deferred initiation of cART, and prospective cohort studies which followed children from enrolment to start of cART and on cART. Data collection and analysis Two review authors considered studies for inclusion in the review, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data on the primary outcome of death from all causes and several secondary outcomes, including incidence of CDC category C and B clinical events and

  16. Successful Treatment of Human Visceral Leishmaniasis Restores Antigen-Specific IFN-γ, but not IL-10 Production

    PubMed Central

    Adem, Emebet; Tajebe, Fitsumbirhan; Getahun, Mulusew; Kiflie, Amare; Diro, Ermias; Hailu, Asrat; Shkedy, Ziv; Mengesha, Bewketu; Mulaw, Tadele; Atnafu, Saba; Deressa, Tekalign; Mathewos, Biniam; Abate, Ebba; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Müller, Ingrid; Takele, Yegnasew; Kropf, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    One of the key immunological characteristics of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a profound immunosuppression and impaired production of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ). However, recent studies from Bihar in India showed using a whole blood assay, that whole blood cells have maintained the capacity to produce IFN-γ. Here we tested the hypothesis that a population of low-density granulocytes (LDG) might contribute to T cell responses hyporesponsiveness via the release of arginase. Our results show that this population is affected by the anticoagulant used to collect blood: the frequency of LDGs is significantly lower when the blood is collected with heparin as compared to EDTA; however, the anticoagulant does not impact on the levels of arginase released. Next, we assessed the capacity of whole blood cells from patients with active VL to produce IFN-γ and IL-10 in response to antigen-specific and polyclonal activation. Our results show that whole blood cells produce low or levels below detection limit of IFN-γ and IL-10, however, after successful treatment of VL patients, these cells gradually regain their capacity to produce IFN-γ, but not IL-10, in response to activation. These results suggest that in contrast to VL patients from Bihar, India, whole blood cells from VL patients from Gondar, Ethiopia, have lost their ability to produce IFN-γ during active VL and that active disease is not associated with sustained levels of IL-10 production following stimulation. PMID:26962865

  17. Successful Treatment of Human Visceral Leishmaniasis Restores Antigen-Specific IFN-γ, but not IL-10 Production.

    PubMed

    Adem, Emebet; Tajebe, Fitsumbirhan; Getahun, Mulusew; Kiflie, Amare; Diro, Ermias; Hailu, Asrat; Shkedy, Ziv; Mengesha, Bewketu; Mulaw, Tadele; Atnafu, Saba; Deressa, Tekalign; Mathewos, Biniam; Abate, Ebba; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Müller, Ingrid; Takele, Yegnasew; Kropf, Pascale

    2016-03-01

    One of the key immunological characteristics of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a profound immunosuppression and impaired production of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ). However, recent studies from Bihar in India showed using a whole blood assay, that whole blood cells have maintained the capacity to produce IFN-γ. Here we tested the hypothesis that a population of low-density granulocytes (LDG) might contribute to T cell responses hyporesponsiveness via the release of arginase. Our results show that this population is affected by the anticoagulant used to collect blood: the frequency of LDGs is significantly lower when the blood is collected with heparin as compared to EDTA; however, the anticoagulant does not impact on the levels of arginase released. Next, we assessed the capacity of whole blood cells from patients with active VL to produce IFN-γ and IL-10 in response to antigen-specific and polyclonal activation. Our results show that whole blood cells produce low or levels below detection limit of IFN-γ and IL-10, however, after successful treatment of VL patients, these cells gradually regain their capacity to produce IFN-γ, but not IL-10, in response to activation. These results suggest that in contrast to VL patients from Bihar, India, whole blood cells from VL patients from Gondar, Ethiopia, have lost their ability to produce IFN-γ during active VL and that active disease is not associated with sustained levels of IL-10 production following stimulation. PMID:26962865

  18. Curative drug treatment of trypanosomosis leads to the restoration of B-cell lymphopoiesis and splenic B-cell compartments.

    PubMed

    Cnops, J; Bockstal, V; De Trez, C; Miquel, M C; Radwanska, M; Magez, S

    2015-09-01

    African trypanosomosis is a parasitic disease affecting both humans (sleeping sickness) and animals (nagana). In murine trypanosomosis, the B-cell compartment is rapidly destroyed after infection. In addition, B-cell lymphopoiesis in the bone marrow is abrogated, B-cell subsets in the spleen are irreversibly depleted, and B-cell memory is destroyed. Here, we investigated the effect of cure of infection on the B-cell compartment. Suramin and diminazene aceturate were used in this study as these drugs exhibit different modes of uptake and different mechanisms of trypanocidal action. Curative drug treatment of trypanosomosis infection led to the re-initiation of B-cell lymphopoiesis in the bone marrow, and to the repopulation of splenic B-cell subsets, independent of the drug used. Neither of these drugs by itself induced measurable effects on B-cell lymphopoiesis in the bone marrow or B-cell homoeostasis in the spleen in healthy, naïve animals. PMID:26072963

  19. Repetitive administration of Shaoyao-Gancao-tang to rats restores the bioavailability of glycyrrhizin reduced by antibiotic treatment.

    PubMed

    He, Ju-Xiu; Akao, Teruaki; Tani, Tadato

    2003-11-01

    Shaoyao-Gancao-tang (SGT), a traditional Chinese formulation, is often used together with antibiotics such as amoxicillin and metronidazole (AMPC-MET) for the treatment of peptic ulcers in Japan. However, the bioavailability of glycyrrhizin (GL) in SGT is severely reduced by a single administration of AMPC-MET, and the reducing effect continues for 12 days. GL is one of the major pharmacologically important glycosides in SGT and is transformed into the active metabolite 18beta-glycyrrhetic acid (GA) by intestinal bacteria in the gut, followed by absorption of the latter into the blood. In order to reduce the negative effect of AMPC-MET on the bioavailability of GL, the optimum scheduling of the medications was examined. We found that the reduction in the plasma GA concentration and the GL-metabolizing activity in faeces caused by a single dose of AMPC-MET could be sharply attenuated by the repetitive administration of SGT for 4 days. The GA concentration and the GL-metabolizing activity were strongly enhanced by further continuous administration of SGT. These findings suggest that repetitive administration of SGT starting 1 or 2 days after the administration of AMPC-MET speeds the recovery of the bioavailability of GL in SGT. Similar strategies for administering medications may also be useful for combination therapy of antibiotics with other traditional Chinese formulations containing bioactive glycosides. PMID:14713369

  20. A treatment of the Zeeman effect using Stokes formalism and its implementation in the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Richard; Buehler, Stefan A.; Eriksson, Patrick; Mendrok, Jana

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the practical theory that was used to implement the Zeeman effect using Stokes formalism in the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS). ARTS now treats the Zeeman effect in a general manner for several gas species for all polarizations and takes into account variations in both magnetic and atmospheric fields along a full 3D geometry. We present how Zeeman splitting affects polarization in radiative transfer simulations and find that the effect may be large in Earth settings for polarized receivers in limb observing geometry. We find that not taking a spatially varying magnetic field into account can result in absolute errors in the measurement vector of at least 10 K in Earth magnetic field settings. The paper also presents qualitative tests for O2 lines against previous models (61.15 GHz line) and satellite data from Odin-SMR (487.25 GHz line), and the overall consistency between previous models, satellite data, and the new ARTS Zeeman module seems encouraging.

  1. Characterization of Treatment-Naive HIV/HBV Co-Infected Patients Attending ART Clinic of a Tertiary Healthcare Centre in Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Avik; Panigrahi, Rajesh; Sarkar, Neelakshi; Sarkar, Jayeeta; Pal, Manisha; Guha, Subhasish Kamal; Saha, Bibhuti; Chakrabarti, Sekhar; Chakravarty, Runu

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study was designed to assess the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection scenario among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients attending a tertiary healthcare unit in eastern India. Additionally, clinical and virological characterization of these viruses, prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation was also done for better understanding of the disease profile. Methods Pool of ART-naive HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients, participating in two different studies, were included in this study. HBV DNA was detected by nested-PCR amplification followed by HBV genotype determination and HBV reverse transcriptase (RT) region amplification and direct sequencing for detecting drug resistance. Results The prevalence of HBsAg (11.3%) was higher compared to anti-HCV (1.9%) among the HIV infected ART-naive patients. Moreover, majority of the HBeAg positive HIV/HBV co-infected patients (87.7%) had HBV DNA ≥20,000 IU/ml with median HBV DNA significantly higher than that of HBeAg negative subjects (5.7 log10 IU/ml vs. 4.2 log10 IU/ml; p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis also showed that HBeAg-positive status was independently associated with higher HBV DNA level (p = <0.001). Notably, 60.9% of the HBeAg negative co-infected subjects had HBV DNA ≥2,000 IU/ml of which 37.0% had HBV DNA ≥20,000 IU/ml. Genotype HBV/D (68.2%) was the predominant genotype followed by HBV/A (24.3%) and HBV/C (7.5%). Anti-HBV drug resistant mutations were detected in two (3.8%) of the ART-naive patients. Conclusion The prevalence of HIV/HBV co-infection was relatively higher in our study subjects. HBeAg testing might provide clue for early treatment initiation. Furthermore, HBeAg negative patients are also associated with high HBV DNA levels and therefore require appropriate medical attention. Pre-treatment screening for anti-HBV drug resistant mutations is not necessary before ART initiation. PMID:24023688

  2. Treatment of wastewater and restoration of aquatic systems through an eco-technology based constructed treatment wetlands - a successful experience in Central India.

    PubMed

    Billore, S K; Sharma, J K; Singh, N; Ram, H

    2013-01-01

    In the last couple of decades constructed wetlands (CWs) have drawn considerable interest in Central India. CWs offer an effective means of integrating wastewater treatment and resource enhancement, often at competitive cost in comparison to conventional wastewater treatments, with additional benefits of Green Urban Landscaping and wildlife habitat. This paper describes treatment performances and the design of some Sub Surface Flow CWs (SSFCW) and Artificial Floating Islands (AFIs) in Central India. Central Indian CWs show significant pollution reduction load for total suspended solids (TSS) (62-82%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (40-75%), NH(4)-N (67-78%) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) (59-78%). Field scale SSFCWs installed so far in Central India are rectangular, earthen, single/multiple celled having similar depths of 0.60-0.90 m, hydraulic retention capacity 18-221 m(3) with effective size 41.8-1,050 m(2). The major components of CWs incorporate puddled bottom/side walls, sealed with impermeable low-density polyethylene, a bed of locally available river gravel planted with Phragmites karka, and an inlet distribution and outlet collection system. A new variant on CWs are AFIs working under hydroponics. The field scale experimental AFIs installed in-situ in a slowly flowing local river were composed of hollow bamboo, a bed of coconut coir, floating arrangements and Phragmites karka as nutrient stripping plant species. The AFIs polish the aquatic system by reducing 46.6% of TSS, 45-55% of NH(4)-N, 33-45% of NO(3)-N, 45-50% of TKN and 40-50% of BOD. The study established that there is a need for further research and sufficient data to assist the development of CWs by instilling confidence in policymakers, planners and in the public. PMID:24135106

  3. April Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Ideas for spring arts activities include a whimsical play about royal dragons, a skit on an April fool, and a song. Instructions for making brightly colored birds from boxes, a happy day hat, decorated eggs, and other art projects are given. (PP)

  4. Art Smart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    As evidenced by countless studies, time spent engaging in the arts has lasting effects on children of all ages, not only instilling in them a sense of creativity and innovation, but also providing them the skills needed to compete in a global economy. In May 2011, the President's Committee on the Arts and the Humanities released "Reinvesting in…

  5. Art Rocks!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, Erika

    2008-01-01

    Though people may like different types of music, everyone likes music. In middle school, music and art are of key importance for students to express and define what kind of person they are. In this article, the author presents an art project where students are asked to create their own guitars. (Contains 1 resource and 3 online resources.)

  6. Creative Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Richard J.; Fleming, Mary Ann

    Educational goals and objectives, student activities, and visual aids are included in this guide to a three-dimensional design unit that combines creative art and industrial arts skills. Course goals include challenging students' creative skills, encouraging student interaction and successful group work, and providing an atmosphere of fun and…

  7. Indigenous Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Linda Lomahaftewa, a noted painter, has taught at much bigger places than the Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA). But Lomahaftewa, who is Hopi-Choctaw, and others on the faculty of IAIA are intensely devoted to the mission of this small but unique school. IAIA--the nation's only four-year fine arts institution devoted to American Indian and…

  8. Vanadate treatment restores the expression of genes for key enzymes in the glucose and ketone bodies metabolism in the liver of diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Valera, A; Rodriguez-Gil, J E; Bosch, F

    1993-01-01

    Oral administration of vanadate to diabetic streptozotocin-treated rats decreased the high blood glucose and D-3-hydroxybutyrate levels related to diabetes. The increase in the expression of the P-enolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene, the main regulatory enzyme of gluconeogenesis, was counteracted in the liver and the kidney after vanadate administration to diabetic rats. Vanadate also counteracted the induction in tyrosine aminotransferase gene expression due to diabetes and was able to increase the expression of the glucokinase gene to levels even higher than those found in healthy animals. Similarly, an induction in pyruvate kinase mRNA transcripts was observed in diabetic vanadate-treated rats. These effects were correlated with changes on glucokinase and pyruvate kinase activities. Vanadate treatment caused a decrease in the expression of the liver-specific glucose transporter, GLUT-2. Thus, vanadate was able to restore liver glucose utilization and block glucose production in diabetic rats. The increase in the expression of the mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCoAS) gene, the key regulatory enzyme in the ketone bodies production pathway, observed in diabetic rats was also blocked by vanadate. Furthermore, a similar pattern in the expression of PEPCK, GLUT-2, HMGCoAS, and the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha genes has been observed. All of these results suggest that the regulation of the expression of genes involved in the glucose and ketone bodies metabolism could be a key step in the normalization process induced by vanadate administration to diabetic rats. Images PMID:8100835

  9. Disequilibrium in Arts and Arts Education: Sustainability as Loss through Giving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slivka, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability defined as ecological restoration and stewardship (Blandy, Congdon & Krug, 1998; Garoian, 1998), environmental justice (Hicks & King, 2007), and politicizing arts and arts education practices (jagodzinski, 2007) is expanded in this article by articulating the consumption and production dialectic and the resulting forms of waste as…

  10. Predicting restorability of incompetent criminal defendants.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    U.S. courts frequently require forensic examiners to offer opinions concerning the likelihood that criminal defendants found incompetent to stand trial can have their competence "restored" through treatment. Yet no jurisdiction has established legal guidelines for testimony concerning restorability, and several authors have suggested that mental health professionals cannot accurately predict whether treatment to restore competence will succeed. This study asked whether reliable information that is consistently available at the time of examination might support empirically grounded opinions about the likelihood of restoration. Using records from all 351 inpatient pretrial defendants who underwent competence restoration at a state psychiatric hospital from 1995 through 1999, I evaluated whether several types of information that are reliable and that could consistently be made available to forensic examiners--including evaluees' demographic characteristics, diagnoses, symptom patterns, criminal charges, number of prior public sector hospitalizations, and cumulative prior length of stay (LOS)--would predict outcome of restoration efforts. I modeled the probability of successful restoration using logistic regression equations, and evaluated the equations' predictive accuracy using k-fold cross-validation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Lower probability of restoration was associated with having a misdemeanor charge, longer cumulative LOS, older age, and diagnoses of mental retardation, schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder. Although the overall rate of successful restoration for felony defendants was 75 percent, logistic equations allowed selection of subgroups with high predicted probabilities of restoration (>90%) and low probabilities of restoration (<35%). In cross-validation simulations, predictive equations had ROC areas of 0.727 for all defendants, and 0.735 for felony defendants. These findings provide scientific support for testimony

  11. Pregnenolone co-treatment partially restores steroidogenesis, but does not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mouse ovarian antral follicles treated with mono-hydroxy methoxychlor

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Zelieann R. Hannon, Patrick R. Flaws, Jodi A.

    2013-11-01

    Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor (mono-OH MXC) is a metabolite of the pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC). Although MXC is known to decrease antral follicle numbers, and increase follicle death in rodents, not much is known about the ovarian effects of mono-OH MXC. Previous studies indicate that mono-OH MXC inhibits mouse antral follicle growth, increases follicle death, and inhibits steroidogenesis in vitro. Further, previous studies indicate that CYP11A1 expression and production of progesterone (P{sub 4}) may be the early targets of mono-OH MXC in the steroidogenic pathway. Thus, this study tested whether supplementing pregnenolone, the precursor of progesterone and the substrate for HSD3B, would prevent decreased steroidogenesis, inhibited follicle growth, and increased follicle atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Mouse antral follicles were exposed to vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), mono-OH MXC (10 μg/mL), pregnenolone (1 μg/mL), or mono-OH MXC and pregnenolone together for 96 h. Levels of P{sub 4}, androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E{sub 1}), and 17β-estradiol (E{sub 2}) in media were determined, and follicles were processed for histological evaluation of atresia. Pregnenolone treatment alone stimulated production of all steroid hormones except E{sub 2}. Mono-OH MXC-treated follicles had decreased sex steroids, but when given pregnenolone, produced levels of P{sub 4}, A, T, and E{sub 1} that were comparable to those in vehicle-treated follicles. Pregnenolone treatment did not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Collectively, these data support the idea that the most upstream effect of mono-OH MXC on steroidogenesis is by reducing the availability of pregnenolone, and that adding pregnenolone may not be sufficient to prevent inhibited follicle growth and survival. - Highlights: • Mono-OH MXC inhibited antral follicle steroidogenesis, growth, and survival. • Pregnenolone partially restored steroidogenesis

  12. Treatment with novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors restores the colonic endocrine cells to normal levels in rats with DSS-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    EL-SALHY, MAGDY; UMEZAWA, KAZUO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two anti-inflammatory agents on the abnormalities in colonic endocrine cells in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats (n=45) using DSS; a further 15 rats without colitis were included in a healthy control group. The animals with DSS-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups as follows: i) DSS group, rats were treated with 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); ii) DSS-G group, rats were treated with 3-[(dodecyl thiocarbonyl)-methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G), a novel activator protein 1 (AP-1) inhibitor, 20 mg/kg in CMC; and iii) DSS-Q group, rats were treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin, a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, 15 mg/kg in CMC. The treatments were administered intraperitoneally, twice daily for 5 days, after which the animals were sacrificed and tissue samples from the colon were immunostained for chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, peptide YY (PYY), enteroglucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, leukocytes, B/T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells. The densities of these endocrine and immune cells were quantified by computer-aided image analysis. The densities of CgA-, serotonin-, PYY- and enteroglucagon-producing cells were significantly higher, and those of PP- and somatostatin-producing cells were significantly lower in the DSS-G, DSS-Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all the immune cells were lower in the DSS-G, DSS-Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all endocrine cell types and immune cells in both the DSS groups treated with anti-inflammatory agents were restored to control levels. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that there is an interaction between endocrine and immune cells during inflammation. This interaction with subsequent changes in endocrine cells is responsible for the clinical manifestation of

  13. The restorative management of microdontia.

    PubMed

    Laverty, D P; Thomas, M B M

    2016-08-26

    Microdontia is a dental abnormality that will often present to the dental practitioner due to the aesthetic concerns of the patient. Treatment is therefore aimed at addressing the aesthetics issue of the patient and this can present a number of challenges which may require a multidisciplinary approach in its management. This article presents the restorative management of localised and generalised microdontia. PMID:27561572

  14. Generalized probabilistic scale space for image restoration.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alexander; Mishra, Akshaya K

    2010-10-01

    A novel generalized sampling-based probabilistic scale space theory is proposed for image restoration. We explore extending the definition of scale space to better account for both noise and observation models, which is important for producing accurately restored images. A new class of scale-space realizations based on sampling and probability theory is introduced to realize this extended definition in the context of image restoration. Experimental results using 2-D images show that generalized sampling-based probabilistic scale-space theory can be used to produce more accurate restored images when compared with state-of-the-art scale-space formulations, particularly under situations characterized by low signal-to-noise ratios and image degradation. PMID:20421184

  15. Experimental model: dye penetration of extensive interim restorations used during endodontic treatment while under load in a multiple axis chewing simulator.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Arna-Lee; Abbott, Paul V

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to design an experimental model that allowed extensive endodontic interim restorations to be tested for dye penetration while under simulated masticatory load. Extracted premolar teeth had standardized mesio-occluso-distal cavities prepared, and the root canals were instrumented. A cotton wool pellet was placed in the pulp chamber, and the cavities were restored with Cavit, IRM, Ketac-Fil Plus, Ketac-Silver, or composite resin (Z100). They were subjected to the equivalent of 3 months of clinical load while exposed to methylene blue dye. Results of this study could not support IRM as a suitable interim endodontic restorative material to use in extensive cavities. The dye penetration in the Ketac-Fil Plus and Ketac-Silver specimens was not predictable, and the results suggested Cavit and Z100 composite resin require further investigations as potentially useful materials for this purpose. PMID:17889699

  16. Normalization of blood glucose in diabetic rats with phlorizin treatment reverses insulin-resistant glucose transport in adipose cells without restoring glucose transporter gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, B B; Shulman, G I; DeFronzo, R A; Cushman, S W; Rossetti, L

    1991-01-01

    Evidence is emerging for a direct role of glucose, independent of changes in insulin, in the regulation of cellular glucose transport and glucose utilization in vivo. In this study we investigate potential cellular and molecular mechanisms for this regulatory effect of glucose by determining how normalization of glycemia without insulin therapy in diabetic rats influences 3-O-methylglucose transport and the expression and translocation of two genetically distinct species of glucose transporters (GTs) in adipose cells. These results are compared with alterations in glucose disposal in vivo measured by euglycemic clamp. In rats rendered diabetic by 90% pancreatectomy, insulin-stimulated glucose transport in adipose cells is decreased 50% in parallel with reduced insulin-mediated glucose disposal in vivo. Levels of adipose/muscle GTs measured by immunoblotting are decreased in adipose cell subcellular membrane fractions, as are the corresponding mRNA levels assessed by Northern blotting of total adipose cell RNA. Normalization of blood glucose in diabetic rats with phlorizin, which impairs renal tubular glucose reabsorption and thus enhances glucose excretion, restores insulin-stimulated glucose transport in adipose cells and insulin-mediated glucose disposal in vivo. Importantly, levels of the adipose/muscle GT protein remain 43% reduced in the low-density microsomes in the basal state and 46% reduced in the plasma membranes in the insulin-stimulated state. Adipose/muscle GT mRNA levels remain approximately 50% depressed. Levels of the HepG2/brain GT protein and mRNA are unaltered by diabetes or phlorizin treatment. Thus, changes in ambient glucose independent of changes in ambient insulin can regulate the glucose transport response to insulin in isolated adipose cells and changes in responsiveness parallel alterations in glucose uptake in vivo. Since this effect can occur without alteration in the expression of the two species of glucose transporters present in

  17. Behavioral Approaches to the Treatment of Sleep Problems in Children with Developmental Disorders: What Is the State of the Art?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richdale, Amanda; Wiggs, Luci

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews behavioral treatments for sleep problems in children with a developmental disorder (DD). Sleep problems are common in children with a DD and children's sleep problems may be associated with adverse consequences including behaviour problems, compromised daytime functioning and family stress. However, the sleep intervention…

  18. Can genotype be used to tailor treatment of obesity? State of the art and guidelines for future studies and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current treatments for losing weight based mainly on diet and exercise are, in general, unsuccessful. So, as an alternative to the general strategy of one-size-fits-all, a more individualized approach is proposed through the so-called Personalized Medicine in which genotype data are used to personal...

  19. Acceleration of tomographic hyperspectral restoration algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schau, Harvey C.

    2006-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging spectrometers have proven to be both versatile and powerful instruments with applications in diverse areas such as medical diagnosis, land usage, military target detection, and art forgery. In many applications scanning systems cannot be effectively employed and true "flash" operation is necessary. Multiplex systems have been developed which can gather information in multispectral bands simultaneously, and then produce a datacube after mathematical restoration. Such system enjoy compact size, robust construction, inexpensive costs and zero moving parts at the cost of highly complex mathematical restoration operations. Currently the limiting feature of such tomographic hyperspectral imagers such as the FMDIS [1,2] is the speed of restoration. Due to the large sizes of the restoration kernel, restorations are typically recursive and require many iterations to achieve satisfactory results. Little can be done to make the systems smaller since the size is determined by the number of colors and pixel size of the focal plane arrays (FPA) employed. Thus, techniques must be investigated to speed up the restoration either by reducing the number of iterations or reducing the number of operations within an iteration. It is assumed that little can be done to reduce the number of operations in an iteration since the operations are done in sparse format, we therefore investigate reducing the number of iterations through mathematical accelerations. We assume this acceleration will work to advantage regardless of the mechanism (PC-based or dedicated processor such as a gate array) by which the restoration is implemented.

  20. Brief Report: Virologic Monitoring Can Be a Cost-Effective Strategy to Diagnose Treatment Failure on First-Line ART

    PubMed Central

    Boulware, David R.; Tanser, Frank C.; Bärnighausen, Till W.; Stott, Katharine E.; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: CD4 count testing is perceived to be an affordable strategy to diagnose treatment failure on first-line antiretroviral therapy. We hypothesize that the superior accuracy of viral load (VL) testing will result in less patients being incorrectly switched to more expensive and toxic second-line regimens. Using data from a drug resistance cohort, we show that CD4 testing is approximately double the cost to make 1 correct regimen switch under certain diagnostic thresholds (CD4 = US $499 vs. VL = US $186 or CD4 = US $3031 vs. VL = US $1828). In line with World Health Organization guidelines, our findings show that VL testing can be both an accurate and cost-effective treatment monitoring strategy. PMID:26484740

  1. Nanogels as potential nanomedicine carrier for treatment of cancer: A mini review of the state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Govind; Yadav, Khushwant S.

    2014-01-01

    Nanogels are being explored as drug delivery agents for targeting cancer due to their easy tailoring properties and ability to efficiently encapsulate therapeutics of diverse nature through simple mechanisms. Nanogels are proficiently internalized by the target cells, avoid accumulating in nontarget tissues thereby lower the therapeutic dosage and minimize harmful side effects. However, there is an urgent need for relevant clinical data from nanogels so as to allow translation of the nanogel concept into a viable therapeutic application for the treatment of cancer. This review highlights some of the recent progress in nanogels as a carrier in the field of nanomedicine for the treatment of cancer. The present review critically analyzes the use of extracellular pH targeting for nanogels, siRNA delivery, PEGylated nanogels, multi-responsive nanogels and intracellular delivery of nanogels for improved therapy of cancer. PMID:27013905

  2. Clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of acquired and hereditary angioedema: Exploring state-of-the-art therapies in RI.

    PubMed

    Guo, Canting; Settipane, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary and acquired angioedema are potentially life-threatening diseases characterized by spontaneous episodes of subcutaneous and submucosal swelling of face, lips, oral cavity, larynx, and GI tract. Hereditary angioedema (HAE) usually presents within the first and second decades of life, whereas acquired angioedema presents in adults after 40 years of age. These clinical symptoms together with reduced C1 inhibitor levels and/or activity can usually confirm the diagnosis. In recent years, multiple novel therapies for treating hereditary angioedema have emerged including C1 inhibitor concentrates, ecallantide/kallikrein inhibitor, and icatibant/bradykinin receptor antagonist. This article reviews the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis of HAE. Lastly, this article takes into consideration that, in reality, acute care treatment can often be limited by each hospital's formulary, included is a review of HAE treatments available at the nine major hospitals in Rhode Island. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-06.asp, free with no login]. PMID:27247973

  3. Art Therapy with Laryngectomy Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, Susan Ainlay; Anand, Vinod K.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the experiences of patients with laryngeal cancer who used art therapy. Drawing on 14 years of experience and 109 laryngeal cancer patients, describes treatment results and the case material substantiating the distinct role of art therapy. Provides an overview of the special medical and therapeutic needs of this group. (RJM)

  4. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  5. Can genotype be used to tailor treatment of obesity? State of the art and guidelines for future studies and applications.

    PubMed

    Corella, D; Ordovás, J M

    2013-09-01

    Current treatments for losing weight based mainly on diet and exercise are, in general, unsuccessful. So, as an alternative to the general strategy of one-size-fits-all, a more individualized approach is proposed through the so-called Personalised Medicine in which genotype data are used to personalize treatment and to optimize the results. This paper examines the current situation of the evidence on the influence of the genotype in modulating the association between diet or exercise on obesity and weight-related measures. Most of these studies are observational studies, as there are far fewer experimental ones assessing short-term weight-loss or its long-term maintenance. Many more studies are therefore required for that purpose. Having reviewed the results of the studies undertaken to date, we can say that huge progress has been made in identifying polymorphisms in genes related with obesity and that there is a great consistency of the influence of the FTO gene on the same, while for other variants, there is less consistency. Moreover, the results on gene-diet and gene-physical activity interactions in determining obesity phenotypes are very heterogeneous, so an important recommendation is to standardize the methodology for undertaking these studies. Furthermore, an important lack of replication has been observed suggesting undetected higher-level interactions and/or experimental caveats. Therefore, the current evidence level of applying genotype data to obesity treatment is at its early stages. Nevertheless, future prospects are encouraging and to make this come true, several guidelines are proposed for carrying out new studies on applications in clinical practice. PMID:24126543

  6. State-of-the-art and emerging treatment options in the management of head and neck cancer: news from 2013.

    PubMed

    Denaro, Nerina; Russi, Elvio Grazioso; Adamo, Vincenzo; Merlano, Marco Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Its treatment is complex and evolving. In general, early-stage disease may be managed with single-modality treatment while an advanced stage (about 60% of clinical presentation) needs a multidisciplinary approach. In this setting concurrent chemoradiation has been associated with improvement in locoregional control and organ preservation, but at the cost of significant acute and chronic toxicity. Molecular target therapies specially directed to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) might improve the outcomes and reduce toxicities. In recurrent-metastatic (R/M) HNSCC, cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody against EGFR, plus platinum-based chemotherapy (CT) allow an overall survival (OS) of about 10 months. However, the prognosis for R/M-HNSCC remains dismal and additional efforts are needed. At the 2013 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Meeting, data on induction CT, anti-EGFR inhibitors, innovative molecular targets and predictor factors were reported. Further results on target therapies were presented at the European Cancer Congress (ECC) 2013, where a large study also showed that hyperfractionated radiotherapy (RT) improve OS rates compared with standard RT. The aim of this review is to discuss current standards and emerging therapies by considering recent new updates. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24820548

  7. Art & Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmulsky, Lucinda

    2009-01-01

    In July 2004, The National Endowment for the Arts released the results of a survey entitled "Reading at Risk." The survey covered a 20-year period from 1982 to 2002 and documented a dramatic decline in the reading of literary works by all age groups during that period. The steepest decline of 28 percent was found among the youngest age group of…

  8. Fine Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.; Newman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of fine arts as sources to enrich the study of history. Suggests that such works will serve as barometers of change, examples of cross-cultural influences, and political messages. Includes suggestions of works and artists from different historic periods. (DK)

  9. Chicken Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  10. Nature's Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Vicki; And Others

    Over 60 art activities, designed to enhance environmental awareness and incorporate environmental concepts, are outlined in this document. A sample of the activities presented are: decorated notepaper and cards with feathers or weeds; wall plaques of prairie plants; methods of flower preservation; water plant prints; construction of dolls,…

  11. Scanner Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworski, Joy; Murphy, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they incorporated environmental awareness into their art curriculum. Here, they describe a digital photography project in which their students used flatbed scanners as cameras. Their students composed their objects directly on the scanner. The lesson enabled students to realize that artists have voices…

  12. Spanish Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Anne; Wilson, Mary Ellen

    1995-01-01

    Provides instructional strategies and materials designed to introduce students to Spanish art. Includes four lesson plans with student objectives, background information, and step-by-step instructional procedures. Also includes four full-page color reproductions of paintings by Murillo, Picasso, El Greco, and de Goya. (CFR)

  13. Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keener, Paul L.

    Capitalizing on the resources available in an urban city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents a resource list and objectives and activities relative to teaching language arts (reading, English, listening, speaking, and writing). The resource list is comprised of approximately 150 physical facilities (e.g.,…

  14. Janus kinase inhibition as a potential strategy for the treatment of psoriasis: state of the art and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cassano, N; Vena, G A

    2012-01-01

    Research is focusing the attention on drugs acting on intracellular signaling as a possible strategy for various malignancies and autoimmune disorders, as well as prevention of transplant rejection. In such a context, an intriguing therapeutic target appears to be the signaling pathway mediated by Janus kinases (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) protein family. Several companies are developing and evaluating JAK inhibitors for immune-mediated disorders, including psoriasis. Among these drugs, ruxolitinib and especially tofacitinib have reached more advanced phases of clinical and experimental development. This review discusses the potential role of JAK inhibition in the treatment of psoriasis and presents the preliminary data regarding the clinical development of JAK inhibitors in this disease. PMID:23241109

  15. Periodontal restorative interrelationships: the isolated restoration.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, P A

    1985-06-01

    Only by controlling plaque early and consistently, before periodontal and restorative problems require intervention in the form of a full prosthetic and periodontal reconstruction, the continued maintenance of a full dentition is assured. Plaque control is not merely continued prophylaxes, but a striving for a healthy biologic situation with the placement of every restoration. This is attainable only through ensuring a normal attachment apparatus and establishing that all restorative margins be accessible to plaque control measures. Deep, subgingival restorations are not only difficult to place and finish correctly, but, by providing an environment conducive to microbial plaque retention and proliferation, also lead to inflammatory periodontal destruction and recurrent carious lesions. Early detection, although difficult, is essential to avoid excessive destruction of the tooth and its supporting structures. A deterrent to early detection may be the response of the patient's tissue. Paradoxically, if the patient's periodontal tissues respond in a fibrotic manner to early gingival inflammation, rather than in a dramatic, edematous manner, the situation may appear clinically healthy. Waerhaug discussed "submarginal gingivitis," a situation in which the tissue will appear pink and firm, elicit to exudate or bleeding on probing, and mimic healthy to the casual examiner. When this is coupled with the difficulty inherent in detecting early recurrent carious lesions, resulting from the radiographic superimposition of the existing restoration or the deep subgingival extent of the restoration, the situation becomes all the more demanding of the practitioner's efforts. PMID:3860551

  16. Hemodynamic Monitoring for the Evaluation and Treatment of Shock: What Is the Current State of the Art?

    PubMed

    Suess, Eric M; Pinsky, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Hemodynamic monitoring has become a fundamental and ubiquitous, if not defining, aspect of critical care medicine practice. Modern monitoring techniques have changed significantly over the past few years and are now able to rapidly identify shock states earlier, define the etiology, and monitor the response to therapies. Many of these techniques are now minimally invasive or noninvasive. Basic hemodynamic monitoring and evaluation usually includes a focused physical examination and static hemodynamic vital signs: temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, mean arterial pressure, and arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation, typically measured with pulse photoplethysmography. When available, measurement of urinary output is often included. Advanced hemodynamic monitoring incorporates both noninvasive and invasive continuous hemodynamic monitoring. Noninvasive ultrasound has emerged as a fundamental hemodynamic evaluation tool and its use is now rapidly increasing. Invasive monitoring from arterial and central venous catheters, and occasionally pulmonary artery catheters, provides measurement of arterial pressure, intracardiac filling pressures, arterial and venous blood gases, and cardiac index. Minimally invasive and noninvasive measure of arterial pressure and cardiac output are also possible and often remain as accurate as invasive measures. Importantly, such advanced monitoring provides the foundation for goal-directed therapies for the treatment of shock. When coupled with functional hemodynamic monitoring analyses, these measures markedly extend the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of all monitoring modalities by defining preload reserve, vasomotor tone, cardiac performance, and tissue perfusion. PMID:26595049

  17. State-of-the-Art Treatment and Novel Agents in Local and Distant Recurrences of Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tempfer, Clemens B; Beckmann, Matthias W

    2016-01-01

    Depending on the stage at initial presentation, cervical cancer will recur in 25-61% of women. Typical manifestations of recurrent cervical cancer include the central pelvis and the pelvic side walls as well as retroperitoneal lymph node basins in the pelvis and the para-aortic region, and - more rarely - supraclavicular lymph nodes. There are no typical symptoms of recurrent cervical cancer. Women with suspected recurrence after cervical cancer based on gynecological examination or organ-specific symptoms must undergo imaging studies and - if technically feasible - biopsy with histological verification, especially in cases of distant metastases, in order to rule out a second primary. Radiotherapy-naïve women should be treated with salvage radiochemotherapy with curative intention. For women with previous radiotherapy, surgery in the form of hysterectomy, local resection, or pelvic exenteration is the treatment of choice. Pelvic exenteration can lead to cure in selected patients, but at the price of a high rate of complications and significant morbidity and mortality. If complete surgical resection is not feasible or if the woman is not a candidate for surgery, chemotherapy with palliative intent should be offered. Patients with recurrent disease outside the pelvis are candidates for systemic chemotherapy. Several agents have shown to be active in this situation, either in single-agent or combination regimens. Platinum-containing regimens have a superior efficacy over non-platinum regimens and bevacizumab may be added to chemotherapy. PMID:27614445

  18. An Art Centered Art Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Hope

    1984-01-01

    There are 10 approaches that teachers can use to sort out and present works of art to students, e.g., stylistic, topical, specific artist. Teachers should use all the approaches when developing a curriculum. An example of how a study of impressionism by secondary students might include these approaches is provided. (RM)

  19. Art, Education, and Community: Arts Genesis, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestler, Carol S.

    Arts Genesis, Inc. (AGI) forms partnerships with diverse communities to assist them in finding fulfillment through the arts by meeting their own self-defined needs; uses arts experiences to encourage discovery, creativity, and diversity; and continually strives for excellence in the arts and education. Arts Genesis grew out of "Project…

  20. [Conservative restoration of pulpectomized teeth].

    PubMed

    Lasfargues, J J

    1990-04-01

    In endodontic treatment of teeth, partial or "conservative" crown reconstructions are clinically acceptable where loss of substance is limited and recourse to radicular pivots is contraindicated. Such reconstructions bring into play a variety of currently available biomaterials, including those inserted in the plastic phase. They make it possible to delay a prosthetic solution (full crown restoration) without impinging on the conservation of the devitalized tooth. PMID:2135781

  1. Art Preservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A new class of polyimides, synthesized by Langley Research Center, has been evaluated by the Getty Conservation Institute's Materials Science Group for possible art conservation applications. Polyimides are noted for resistance to high temperature, wear and radiation. They are thermally stable and soluble in some common solvents. After testing under simulated exposures for changes in color, permeability and flexibility, one coating, ODPA-3, 3-ODA may be used to protect bronze statues from corrosion. A test on stained glass windows was unsuccessful.

  2. Snow Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    It was nearing the end of a very long, rough winter with a lot of snow and too little time to play outside. The snow had formed small hills and valleys over the bushes and this was at the perfect height for the students to paint. In this article, the author describes how her transitional first-grade students created snow art paintings. (Contains 1…

  3. Antiretroviral Therapy Fails to Restore Levels of HIV-1 Restriction miRNAs in PBMCs of HIV-1-infected MSM

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhao, Min; Kong, Wen-Hua; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Fang; Qiu, Hong-Yan; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Tang, Li; Sang, Ming; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ho, Wen-Zhe; Zhou, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A number of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to have the ability to inhibit HIV-1 replication. In this study, we examined the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on the expression of HIV-1 restriction miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-1–infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Compared with male healthy donors, HIV-infected MSM had significantly lower levels of 9 HIV-1 restriction miRNAs. The treatment of HIV-1–infected MSM with cART, however, failed to restore the levels of these miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These observations suggest that the suppression of the cellular restriction miRNAs by HIV-1 may attribute to the virus latency during cART. PMID:26579828

  4. Antiretroviral Therapy Fails to Restore Levels of HIV-1 Restriction miRNAs in PBMCs of HIV-1-infected MSM.

    PubMed

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhao, Min; Kong, Wen-Hua; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Fang; Qiu, Hong-Yan; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Tang, Li; Sang, Ming; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ho, Wen-Zhe; Zhou, Wang

    2015-11-01

    A number of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to have the ability to inhibit HIV-1 replication. In this study, we examined the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on the expression of HIV-1 restriction miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-1-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Compared with male healthy donors, HIV-infected MSM had significantly lower levels of 9 HIV-1 restriction miRNAs. The treatment of HIV-1-infected MSM with cART, however, failed to restore the levels of these miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These observations suggest that the suppression of the cellular restriction miRNAs by HIV-1 may attribute to the virus latency during cART. PMID:26579828

  5. Micronutrient Deficiency and Treatment Adherence in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Micronutrient Supplementation in ART-Naïve Persons with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Balfour, Louise; Spaans, Johanna N.; Fergusson, Dean; Huff, Harold; Mills, Edward J.; la Porte, Charles J.; Walmsley, Sharon; Singhal, Neera; Rosenes, Ron; Tremblay, Nancy; Gill, M. John; Loemba, Hugues; Conway, Brian; Rachlis, Anita; Ralph, Edward; Loutfy, Mona; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Moorhouse, Rika; William Cameron, D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The MAINTAIN study is an on-going RCT comparing high-dose micronutrient and anti-oxidant supplementation versus recommended daily allowance (RDA) vitamins in slowing HIV immune deficiency progression in ART-naïve people with HIV infection. Objective We planned analysis of the first 127 participants to determine the baseline prevalence of serum micronutrient deficiencies and correlates, as well as tolerance and adherence to study interventions. Methods Participants receive eight capsules twice daily of 1) high-dose or 2) RDA supplements for two years and are followed-up quarterly for measures of immune deficiency progression, safety and tolerability. Regression analysis was used to identify correlates of micronutrient levels at baseline. Adherence was measured by residual pill count, self-report using the General Treatment Scale (GTS) and short-term recall HIV Adherence Treatment Scale (HATS). Results Prior micronutrient supplementation (within 30 days) was 27% at screening and 10% of study population, and was not correlated with baseline micronutrient levels. Low levels were frequent for carotene (24%<1 nmol/L), vitamin D (24%<40 nmol/L) and serum folate (20%<15 nmol/L). The proportion with B12 deficiency (<133 pmol/L) was 2.4%. Lower baseline levels of B12 correlated lower baseline CD4 count (r = 0.21, p = 0.02) with a 21 pmol/L reduction in B12 per 100 cells/µL CD4. Vitamin D levels were higher in men (p<0.001). After a median follow-up of 1.63 years, there were 19 (15%) early withdrawals from the study treatment. Mean treatment adherence using pill count was 88%. Subjective adherence by the GTS was 81% and was moderately but significantly correlated with pill count (r = 0.29, p<0.001). Adherence based on short-term recall (HATS) was >80% in 75% of participants. Conclusion Micronutrient levels in asymptomatic HIV+ persons are in keeping with population norms, but micronutrient deficiencies are frequent. Adherence levels are high, and

  6. Group Art Therapy with Incarcerated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Bonnie J.; Young, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Art therapy is often thought of as an adjunct to counseling; however, because of its unique ability to bypass defenses, in some situations, art therapy may be a treatment of choice to allow clients to discover and express feelings that are often difficult to express verbally. Using art as therapy does not require that the therapist or the client…

  7. Avicenna on Education in Philosophy and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azadpur, Mohammad; Silvers, Anita

    2005-01-01

    This article, the tenth in an occasional series on past treatments of major issues in arts education policy from antiquity through the twentieth century, discusses philosopher Avicenna's view that art's aesthetic value bestows intrinsic public benefits sufficient to command community support of the arts. By exploring Avicenna's comparison of the…

  8. Scaling-up parameters for site restoration process using surfactant-enhanced soil washing coupled with wastewater treatment by Fenton and Fenton-like processes.

    PubMed

    Bandala, Erick R; Cossio, Horacio; Sánchez-Lopez, Adriana D; Córdova, Felipe; Peralta-Herández, Juan M; Torres, Luis G

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of scaling-up parameters for a site restoration process using a surfactant-enhanced soil washing (SESW) process followed by the application of advanced oxidation processes (Fenton and photo-Fenton) was performed. For the SESW, different parameters were varied and the soil washing efficiency for pesticide (2,4-D) removal assessed. The resulting wastewater was treated using the Fenton reaction in the absence and presence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation for pesticide removal. Results showed that agitation speed of 1550 rpm was preferable for the best pesticide removal from contaminated soil. It was possible to wash contaminated soils with different soil concentrations; however the power drawn was higher as the soil concentration increased. Complete removal of the pesticide and the remaining surfactant was achieved using different reaction conditions. The best degradation conditions were for the photo-Fenton process using [Fe(II)] = 0.3 mM; [H2O2] = 4.0 mM where complete 2,4-D and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) removal was observed after 8 and 10 minutes of reaction, respectively. Further increase in the hydrogen peroxide or iron salt concentration did not show any improvement in the reaction rate. Kinetic parameters, i.e. reaction rate constant and scaling-up parameters, were determined. It was shown that, by coupling both processes (SESW and AOPs), it is possible the restoration of contaminated sites. PMID:23530350

  9. Combination restoration in full mouth rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S.; Mahadevan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Successful restoration of the dentition requires plenty of contemporary and conventional treatment techniques and planning and attachment retained partial dentures are one such kind of treatment modality in prosthodontics. Satisfactory restoration in a patient with a partially edentulous situation can be challenging especially when unilateral or bilateral posterior segment of teeth is missing. One such treatment modality is attachment-retained cast partial dentures. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of a case with maxillary complete denture and opposing cast partial denture with precision attachment. PMID:26015735

  10. Utah Paiute Tribal Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Allen C.

    The Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah Restoration Act (1980) restored federal recognition of the tribe after a quarter century of ambiguous political status, and resulted in significant improvements of educational status of tribal members and intensification of the political presence of Southern Paiutes. Following the Paiute Indian Termination Act…

  11. Restoration of bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Hanau, H.

    1977-01-01

    Process consisting of grinding raceways to oversize but original quality condition and installing new oversize balls or bearings restores wornout ball and roller bearings to original quality, thereby doubling their operating life. Evaluations reveal process results in restoration of 90% of replaced bearings at less than 50% of new-bearing costs.

  12. Gill's 'History' restored

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurn, Mark

    2009-06-01

    Note about the restoration of the copy of Sir David Gill's 'A History and Description of the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope' in the Library of the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge. The book was restored with funds provided by the SHA in thanks for facilities for meetings provided to the Institute.

  13. Power system restoration issues

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Kafka, R.J. )

    1991-04-01

    This article describes some of the problems encountered in the three phases of power system restoration (PSR). The three phases of PSR are: Planning for restart and reintegration of the bulk power supply; Actions during system degradation for saving and retaining critical sources of power; Restoration when the power system has stabilized at some degraded level.

  14. Art, dance, and music therapy.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Rosalie Rebollo

    2004-11-01

    Art, dance, and music therapy are a significant part of complementary medicine in the twenty-first century. These creative arts therapies contribute to all areas of health care and are present in treatments for most psychologic and physiologic illnesses. Although the current body of solid research is small compared with that of more traditional medical specialties, the arts therapies are now validating their research through more controlled experimental and descriptive studies. The arts therapies also contribute significantly to the humanization and comfort of modern health care institutions by relieving stress, anxiety, and pain of patients and caregivers. Arts therapies will greatly expand their role in the health care practices of this country in the twenty-first century. PMID:15458755

  15. Lake restoration technology transfer assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Daschbach, M.H.; Roe, E.M.; Sharpe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    Based upon a review of the eutrophication problem and its impact on lake restoration (LR) programs, treatment of the relatively new problem of acid deposition and its impact on LR activities, consideration of the LR programs of the Environmental Protection Agency and several states, and a review of individual LR technology transfer publications, it is recommended that new LR technology transfer programs be given a low priority until more new information is available on the restoration of acidified lakes. Both primary and secondary users of LR research, technology transfer documents, and public awareness documents were considered in this assessment. Primary users included the general public and recreationists, lakeshore property owners, lake/homeowner associations, lake/sanitary districts, and research and environmental organizations; secondary users included state/county/local officials who administer/manage water-related regulations/activities. 4 tables.

  16. Retributive and restorative justice.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking. PMID:17957457

  17. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years; (3... implementation of the approved conservation treatment identified in the restoration plan; and (8) Include...

  18. 7 CFR 625.9 - 10-year restoration cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... restoration cost-share agreements. (a) The restoration plan developed under § 625.13 forms the basis for the... agreement will: (1) Incorporate all portions of a restoration plan; (2) Be for a period of 10 years; (3... implementation of the approved conservation treatment identified in the restoration plan; and (8) Include...

  19. What Is Art History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Bradford R.

    1991-01-01

    Defines art history by examining visual and contextual information and distinguishes between the fine and applied arts. Discusses scientific neutrality and the personal and social uses of art. Concludes that it is impossible for art historians to be truly objective, but this should not be problematic because art historians interpret art works for…

  20. Restoration of ankle movements with the ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator: a safe and reliable treatment option for permanent central leg palsy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Klaus Daniel; Polanski, Witold Henryk; Schulz, Anne-Kathrin; Jöbges, Michael; Hoff, Hansjoerg; Schackert, Gabriele; Pinzer, Thomas; Sobottka, Stephan B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The ActiGait drop foot stimulator is a promising technique for restoration of lost ankle function by an implantable hybrid stimulation system. It allows ankle dorsiflexion by active peroneal nerve stimulation during the swing phase of gait. In this paper the authors report the outcome of the first prospective study on a large number of patients with stroke-related drop foot. METHODS Twenty-seven patients who experienced a stroke and with persisting spastic leg paresis received an implantable ActiGait drop foot stimulator for restoration of ankle movement after successful surface test stimulation. After 3 to 5 weeks, the stimulator was activated, and gait speed, gait endurance, and activation time of the system were evaluated and compared with preoperative gait tests. In addition, patient satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire. RESULTS Postoperative gait speed significantly improved from 33.9 seconds per 20 meters to 17.9 seconds per 20 meters (p < 0.0001), gait endurance from 196 meters in 6 minutes to 401 meters in 6 minutes (p < 0.0001), and activation time from 20.5 seconds to 10.6 seconds on average (p < 0.0001). In 2 patients with nerve injury, surgical repositioning of the electrode cuff became necessary. One patient showed a delayed wound healing, and in another patient the system had to be removed because of a wound infection. Marked improvement in mobility, social participation, and quality of life was confirmed by 89% to 96% of patients. CONCLUSIONS The ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator improves gait speed, endurance, and quality of life in patients with stroke-related drop foot. Regarding gait speed, the ActiGait system appears to be advantageous compared with foot orthosis or surface stimulation devices. Randomized trials with more patients and longer observation periods are needed to prove the long-term benefit of this device. PMID:26207599

  1. Art Supply Inventors. Children's Art Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2001-01-01

    Discusses types of art materials that children enjoy using in their artworks. Explores the art materials such as tasty art supplies, such as candy; peeled supplies, such as pencil shavings; sticky art supplies, such as Band-Aids; and fast-food supplies, such as forks and spoons. (CMK)

  2. History and Art: The Heart of Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiferth, Berniece B; And Others

    Learning to appreciate religious art and to understand the interdependence of history and art are basic to the foundations of culture. Students need to be exposed to the art of the diverse adherents of all major religions in order to understand the beliefs and practices of others. Students can examine religious art from ancient times, including…

  3. Fine Arts: Secondary Visual Arts Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This guide to Utah's requirements for students in secondary visual arts is organized and based upon a student achievement portfolio for each course. Foundation I, the required junior high/middle school visual arts course, is designed to provide an overview of visual arts while studying various art tools and materials. With an emphasis on studio…

  4. Art Therapy Teaching as Performance Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    This viewpoint asserts that art therapy education is a form of performance art. By designing class sessions as performance artworks, art therapy educators can help their students become more fully immersed in their studies. This view also can be extended to conceptualizing each semester--and the entire art therapy curriculum--as a complex and…

  5. Occupational illness in the arts.

    PubMed

    McCunney, R J; Russo, P K; Doyle, J R

    1987-11-01

    Artists and craftspeople are exposed to the same hazardous materials as workers in industry. Art materials, including solvents, stones, clay, metals and dyes, are all potential health hazards. Patients whose symptoms cannot be easily categorized or who do not respond to initial treatment should be questioned about personal activities in the arts and crafts. A questionnaire devised by the Occupational and Environmental Health Committee of the American Lung Association may be useful. PMID:3318355

  6. Restoration in Its Natural Context: How Ecological Momentary Assessment Can Advance Restoration Research.

    PubMed

    Beute, Femke; de Kort, Yvonne; IJsselsteijn, Wijnand

    2016-04-01

    More and more people use self-tracking technologies to track their psychological states, physiology, and behaviors to gain a better understanding of themselves or to achieve a certain goal. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) also offers an excellent opportunity for restorative environments research, which examines how our physical environment (especially nature) can positively influence health and wellbeing. It enables investigating restorative health effects in everyday life, providing not only high ecological validity but also opportunities to study in more detail the dynamic processes playing out over time on recovery, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory (i.e., short-term effects) and epidemiological (long-term effects) research. We have identified four main areas in which self-tracking could help advance restoration research: (1) capturing a rich set of environment types and restorative characteristics; (2) distinguishing intra-individual from inter-individual effects; (3) bridging the gap between laboratory and epidemiological research; and (4) advancing theoretical insights by measuring a more broad range of effects in everyday life. This paper briefly introduces restorative environments research, then reviews the state of the art of self-tracking technologies and methodologies, discusses how these can be implemented to advance restoration research, and presents some examples of pioneering work in this area. PMID:27089352

  7. Restoration in Its Natural Context: How Ecological Momentary Assessment Can Advance Restoration Research

    PubMed Central

    Beute, Femke; de Kort, Yvonne; IJsselsteijn, Wijnand

    2016-01-01

    More and more people use self-tracking technologies to track their psychological states, physiology, and behaviors to gain a better understanding of themselves or to achieve a certain goal. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) also offers an excellent opportunity for restorative environments research, which examines how our physical environment (especially nature) can positively influence health and wellbeing. It enables investigating restorative health effects in everyday life, providing not only high ecological validity but also opportunities to study in more detail the dynamic processes playing out over time on recovery, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory (i.e., short-term effects) and epidemiological (long-term effects) research. We have identified four main areas in which self-tracking could help advance restoration research: (1) capturing a rich set of environment types and restorative characteristics; (2) distinguishing intra-individual from inter-individual effects; (3) bridging the gap between laboratory and epidemiological research; and (4) advancing theoretical insights by measuring a more broad range of effects in everyday life. This paper briefly introduces restorative environments research, then reviews the state of the art of self-tracking technologies and methodologies, discusses how these can be implemented to advance restoration research, and presents some examples of pioneering work in this area. PMID:27089352

  8. Hair restoration approaches for early onset male androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Hammad A; Basra, Mohammad K A; Patel, Girish K

    2013-09-01

    Society places great emphasis on the presence of hair. Some degree of hair loss is accepted as a normal part of the aging process, in line with the observation that more than 50% of men will develop androgenetic alopecia by the age of 50 years. However, it is possible to understand the psychosocial isolation and distress felt by men with a strong familial predisposition to androgenetic alopecia, who tend to display hair loss in their late teens or twenties. There are currently two drugs which have been licensed for the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia: oral finasteride and topical minoxidil solution which are effective to some extent. Furthermore, upon discontinuing treatment, any gain that has been achieved is quickly lost. Added to which there is an entire market of unproven over the counter products: advertised in the electronic media, local hair salons, and various departmental stores. In this review, we highlight the important advances in the management of male androgenetic alopecia with emphasis on approaches that can lead to more successful and long-term hair restoration for young adults. In particular, we discuss the evidence supporting the use of the follicular unit grafting technique in conjunction with medical treatment before and after the procedure. Moreover, some other alterations of this most popular state of the art hair restoration technique have been mentioned briefly. As a result, patients and physicians seem equally satisfied from this procedure for its naturally looking results which are cosmetically more acceptable and esthetically pleasing for longer period of time. PMID:23992164

  9. Inexpensive, Near-Infrared Imaging of Artwork Using a Night-Vision Webcam for Chemistry-of-Art Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory D.; Nunan, Elizabeth; Walker, Claire; Kushel, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Imaging of artwork is an important aspect of art conservation, technical art history, and art authentication. Many forms of near-infrared (NIR) imaging are used by conservators, archaeologists, forensic scientists, and technical art historians to examine the underdrawings of paintings, to detect damages and restorations, to enhance faded or…

  10. Bearing restoration by grinding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  11. Fracture resistance of posterior teeth restored with modern restorative materials

    PubMed Central

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M.; Shehata, Salah H.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the fracture resistance of maxillary premolars restored with recent restorative materials. Fifty maxillary premolars were divided into five groups: Group 1 were unprepared teeth; Group 2 were teeth prepared without restoration; Group 3 were teeth restored with tetric ceram HB; Group 4 were teeth restored with InTen S; and Group 5 were teeth restored with Admira. The samples were tested using a universal testing machine. Peak loads at fracture were recorded. The teeth restored with Admira had the highest fracture resistance followed by those restored with InTen-S and tetric ceram HB. Prepared, unrestored teeth were the weakest group. There was a significant difference between the fracture resistance of intact teeth and the prepared, unrestored teeth. There was also a significant difference among the tested restorative materials. Teeth restored with Admira showed no significant difference when compared with the unprepared teeth. It was concluded that the teeth restored with Admira exhibited the highest fracture resistance. PMID:23554719

  12. Characterization of secondary solid waste anticipated from the treatment of trench water from Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, T.E.; Taylor, P.A.

    1992-09-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that new liquid waste streams, generated as a consequence of closure activities at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6, can be treated adequately by existing wastewater treatment facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) without producing hazardous secondary solid wastes. Previous bench-scale treatable studies indicated that ORNL treatment operations will adequately remove the contaminants although additional study was required in order to characterize the secondary waste materials produced as a result of the treatment A 0.5-L/min pilot plant was designed and constructed to accurately simulate the treatment capabilities of ORNL fill-scale (490 L/min) treatment facilities-the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). This new test system was able to produce secondary wastes in the quantities necessary for US Environmental Protection Agency toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) testing. The test system was operated for a 45-d test period with a minimum of problems and downtime. The pilot plant operating data verified that the WAG 6 trench waters can be treated at the PWTP and NRWTP to meet the discharge limits. The results of TCLP testing indicate that none of the secondary solid wastes will be considered hazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  13. Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH) have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supporting the concept of restoration of endogenous testosterone in the treatment of LOH. PMID:25578932

  14. Restoration of Ailing Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Oswald J.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes) can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide. PMID:22291573

  15. Left ventricular restoration devices.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Guilherme H; Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Bezerra, Hiram G; Costa, Marco A

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular (LV) remodeling results in continuous cardiac chamber enlargement and contractile dysfunction, perpetuating the syndrome of heart failure. With current exhaustion of the neurohormonal medical paradigm, surgical and device-based therapies have been increasingly investigated as a way to restore LV chamber architecture and function. Left ventricular restoration has been attempted with surgical procedures, such as partial left ventriculectomy, surgical ventricular restoration with or without revascularization, and devices, such as the Acorn CorCap, the Paracor HeartNet, and the Myocor Myosplint. Whereas all these techniques require surgical access, with or without cardiopulmonary bypass, a newer ventricular partitioning device (VPD) called Parachute, can be delivered percutaneously through the aortic valve. Designed to achieve LV restoration from within the ventricle, this VPD partitions the LV by isolating aneurysmal from normal myocardium thereby diminishing the functioning cavity. This review aims to critically appraise the above methods, with particular attention to device-based therapies. PMID:24574107

  16. Immune Restoration Diseases Reflect Diverse Immunopathological Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Price, Patricia; Murdoch, David M.; Agarwal, Upasna; Lewin, Sharon R.; Elliott, Julian H.; French, Martyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Up to one in four patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and given antiretroviral therapy (ART) experiences inflammatory or cellular proliferative disease associated with a preexisting opportunistic infection, which may be subclinical. These immune restoration diseases (IRD) appear to result from the restoration of immunocompetence. IRD associated with intracellular pathogens are characterized by cellular immune responses and/or granulomatous inflammation. Mycobacterial and cryptococcal IRD are attributed to a pathological overproduction of Th1 cytokines. Clinicopathological characteristics of IRD associated with viral infections suggest different pathogenic mechanisms. For example, IRD associated with varicella-zoster virus or JC polyomavirus infection correlate with a CD8 T-cell response in the central nervous system. Exacerbations or de novo presentations of hepatitis associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection following ART may also reflect restoration of pathogen-specific immune responses as titers of HCV-reactive antibodies rise in parallel with liver enzymes and plasma markers of T-cell activation. Correlations between immunological parameters assessed in longitudinal sample sets and clinical presentations are required to illuminate the diverse immunological scenarios described collectively as IRD. Here we present salient clinical features and review progress toward understanding their pathogeneses. PMID:19822893

  17. Complications in hair restoration surgery.

    PubMed

    Perez-Meza, David; Niedbalski, Robert

    2009-02-01

    Hair loss affects more than 1.2 billion people worldwide. As the technology and artistry of hair restoration surgery has improved including natural results, so too has the popularity of this procedure. As with any other surgical procedure, complications may occur and this presents a major challenge for the surgeon and the patient. This article provides an overview of the complications most likely to occur during the pre, intra, and postoperative periods with modern hair transplant surgery (single follicular unit or multifollicular unit) including scalp surgery, and discusses their treatment and most importantly their prevention. PMID:19185800

  18. The Art of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of integrating the arts into education to help students learn more and better. The paper looks at advantages to including music, visual arts, dance, and theater arts in the classroom, explaining the part that arts play in assessment. Resources for integrated arts activities are included. (SM)

  19. Art: What Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    Is art merely an adjunct to the serious business of life? Is there a secret ingredient that makes some art more worthwhile than other art? Does art have something to offer that makes its pursuit or purchase worthwhile, or is it simply an outlet for spare capital? Does art really matter at all? (Contains 5 figures.)

  20. Impact of early cART in the gut during acute HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Deleage, Claire; Schuetz, Alexandra; Alvord, W. Gregory; Johnston, Leslie; Hao, Xing-Pei; Morcock, David R.; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Fletcher, James L.K.; Puttamaswin, Suwanna; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Dewar, Robin; McCune, Joseph M.; Sereti, Irini; Robb, Merlin; Kim, Jerome H.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Hunt, Peter; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Estes, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Early after HIV infection there is substantial depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract lamina propria (LP), with associated epithelial barrier damage, leading to microbial translocation and systemic inflammation and immune activation. In this study, we analyzed these early events in the GI tract in a cohort of Thai acute HIV-infected patients and determined the effect of early combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). HIV-uninfected and chronically and acutely HIV-infected patients at different Fiebig stages (I–V) underwent colonic biopsies and then received cART. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis were performed on cross-sectional and longitudinal colon biopsy specimens (day 0 to week 96) to measure GI tract damage (infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells), inflammation (M×1, TNF-α), immune activation (Ki-67), and the CD4+ T cell population in the LP. The magnitude of GI tract damage, immune activation, and inflammation was significantly increased, with significantly depleted CD4+ T cells in the LP in all acutely infected groups prior to cART compared with HIV-uninfected control participants. While most patients treated during acute infection resolved GI tract inflammation and immune activation back to baseline levels after 24 weeks of cART, most acutely infected participants did not restore their CD4+ T cells after 96 weeks of cART. PMID:27446990

  1. Technical framework for groundwater restoration. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This document provides the technical framework for groundwater restoration under Phase II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. A preliminary management plan for Phase II has been set forth in a companion document titled Preplanning Guidance Document for Groundwater Restoration''. General principles of site characterization for groundwater restoration, restoration methods, and treatment are discussed in this document to provide an overview of standard technical approaches to groundwater restoration.

  2. Restoration of Dioxin-Induced Damage to Fetal Steroidogenesis and Gonadotropin Formation by Maternal Co-Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Takayuki; Ishida, Takumi; Takeda, Tomoki; Ishii, Yuji; Uchi, Hiroshi; Tsukimori, Kiyomi; Yamamoto, Midori; Himeno, Masaru; Furue, Masutaka; Yamada, Hideyuki

    2012-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an endocrine disruptor, causes reproductive and developmental toxic effects in pups following maternal exposure in a number of animal models. Our previous studies have demonstrated that TCDD imprints sexual immaturity by suppressing the expression of fetal pituitary gonadotropins, the regulators of gonadal steroidogenesis. In the present study, we discovered that all TCDD-produced damage to fetal production of pituitary gonadotropins as well as testicular steroidogenesis can be repaired by co-treating pregnant rats with α-lipoic acid (LA), an obligate co-factor for intermediary metabolism including energy production. While LA also acts as an anti-oxidant, other anti-oxidants; i.e., ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole and edaravone, failed to exhibit any beneficial effects. Neither wasting syndrome nor CYP1A1 induction in the fetal brain caused through the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) could be attenuated by LA. These lines of evidence suggest that oxidative stress makes only a minor contribution to the TCDD-induced disorder of fetal steroidogenesis, and LA has a restorative effect by targeting on mechanism(s) other than AhR activation. Following a metabolomic analysis, it was found that TCDD caused a more marked change in the hypothalamus, a pituitary regulator, than in the pituitary itself. Although the components of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the ATP content of the fetal hypothalamus were significantly changed by TCDD, all these changes were again rectified by exogenous LA. We also provided evidence that the fetal hypothalamic content of endogenous LA is significantly reduced following maternal exposure to TCDD. Thus, the data obtained strongly suggest that TCDD reduces the expression of fetal pituitary gonadotropins to imprint sexual immaturity or disturb development by suppressing the level of LA, one of the key players serving energy production. PMID:22911699

  3. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  4. Prosthetic-restorative approach for the restoration of tooth wear. Vdo increase, rehabilitation of anatomy and function and aesthetic restoration of anterior teeth. Case report

    PubMed Central

    GARGARI, M.; CERUSO, F.M.; PRETE, V.; PUJIA, A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Prosthetic-restorative approach for the restoration of tooth wear. Case report Objective This article presents a case report of combined prosthetic-adhesive rehabilitation in a patient with a generalized tooth wear. Methods A combined treatment adhesive - prosthetic was proposed to a male patient of 65 years old having a clinically significant tooth wear, with dentine exposure and with a reduction in clinical crown height. The erosive/abrasive worn dentition have been reconstructed with direct resin composite restorations on the posterior teeth and with zirconia crown on the anterior teeth. Results Direct composite restorations have a number of distinct advantages. These restorations have proved durable and aesthetic, protect tooth structure and posterior occlusal contact is predictably re-established. Conclusions. A combinations of direct and indirect restorations, based on the new vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO), can help to reestablish anatomy and function. PMID:23285409

  5. Surgical crown lengthening: a periodontal and restorative interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Parwani, Simran R; Parwani, Rajkumar N

    2014-01-01

    Surgical crown lengthening helps to provide an adequate retention form for proper tooth preparation, thus enabling dentists to create esthetically pleasing and healthy restorations. Long-term stability requires accurate diagnosis and development of a comprehensive treatment plan in each case. This sequence of events stresses the importance of communication between the restorative dentist and the periodontist. This article presents 2 cases that involve surgical crown lengthening (including mucoperiosteal flap and ostectomy) for the restoration of teeth. PMID:25369395

  6. Techniques of Fabrication of Provisional Restoration: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Regish, K. M.; Sharma, Deeksha; Prithviraj, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    A properly fabricated provisional restoration is important in achieving a successful indirect restoration. The importance of provisional restorations as an integral part of fixed prosthodontic treatment is evident from the abundance of the literature pertaining to their importance regarding margin fidelity, function, occlusion, and esthetics. There are a variety of techniques available to suit the individual needs of the clinician and of the clinical situation, from a single unit to a complete-arch provisional fixed prostheses. PMID:22013441

  7. Preservation and Restoration of Authenticity in Sound Recordings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Walter L.

    1972-01-01

    This review of the state of the art of preservation and restoration of authenticity in sound recordings discusses both historical problems against the background of the development of phonography and certain aspects of the current use of audio technology. (13 references) (Author/SJ)

  8. The development and treatment of periprosthetic leakage after prosthetic voice restoration: a literature review and personal experience. Part II: conservative and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Kai J

    2015-03-01

    In the past 30 years, the use of voice prostheses has become the gold standard for voice rehabilitation after total laryngectomy. The placement of a voice prosthesis is a simple procedure that is associated with only a minor increase in operating time and a low rate of complications. Most problems with voice prostheses are minor and can be easily managed. Enlargement of the tracheo-oesophageal fistula, however, can be a severe complication. Approximately 25 % of all patients with voice prostheses develop periprosthetic leakage with aspiration within 1-4 years after the placement of a voice prosthesis. Depending on the severity of fistula enlargement, treatment ranges from conservative approaches to maximally invasive procedures. In some cases, however, these measures prove unsuccessful. The causes of treatment failure and fistula enlargement are not yet fully understood. Apart from a discussion of treatment options, an algorithm for the management of this complication is presented on the basis of the literature and the experience that we have accumulated at our institution during the past 20 years in the treatment of 232 laryngectomised patients. PMID:25404115

  9. American Art Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educational Standards Approved Art Therapy Master’s Programs Professional Development Job Board ...Read more Approved Art Therapy Master’s ... Public Policy Insurance Reimbursement Licensure Public Policy Professional Development Annual Conference Approved Art Therapy Master's Programs Awards & ...

  10. National ART Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... ART and Birth Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology National Summary Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... live-birth rate? [PDF - 1.37MB] Section 2: ART Cycles using fresh nondonor eggs or embryos What ...

  11. Teaching Art with Art: Grotesque Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a type of visual art called grotesque art and includes four different examples of grotesque art: (1) the painting "Head of Medusa" by Peter Paul Rubens; (2) Rangda, the widow witch from Bali (Indonesia); (3) totem poles; and (4) grotesque sculptures from the Cathedral of Notre Dame (Paris, France). (CMK)

  12. Art as Activism, Activism as Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufour, Kirsten

    2002-01-01

    How can information and critique be introduced into an art project? What can art do? How can it position itself in society today? Since art is able to situate itself in new ways in different social and geographic setting, posing and investigating questions through its particular mode of meaning production, it is always trying to invent new forms…

  13. Keeping the Arts Alive: Fine Arts Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrence E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    When budgets are tightened, the school library media specialists and/or the arts programs are often considered expendable. No Child Left Behind legislation means increasing academic time for core subjects, which translates into cutting time for arts education. As money becomes tight, frills are cut (i.e., the arts). Schools don't seem able to fill…

  14. Arts Impact: Lessons from ArtsBridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimshon-Santo, Amy R.

    2010-01-01

    Arts Impact summarizes lessons learned at the ArtsBridge Program. It is informed by in-depth participant observation, logic modeling, and quantitative evaluation of program impact on K-12 students in inner city schools and arts students at the University of California Los Angeles over a two year period. The case study frames its analysis through a…

  15. Fatigue of restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Baran, G; Boberick, K; McCool, J

    2001-01-01

    Failure due to fatigue manifests itself in dental prostheses and restorations as wear, fractured margins, delaminated coatings, and bulk fracture. Mechanisms responsible for fatigue-induced failure depend on material ductility: Brittle materials are susceptible to catastrophic failure, while ductile materials utilize their plasticity to reduce stress concentrations at the crack tip. Because of the expense associated with the replacement of failed restorations, there is a strong desire on the part of basic scientists and clinicians to evaluate the resistance of materials to fatigue in laboratory tests. Test variables include fatigue-loading mode and test environment, such as soaking in water. The outcome variable is typically fracture strength, and these data typically fit the Weibull distribution. Analysis of fatigue data permits predictive inferences to be made concerning the survival of structures fabricated from restorative materials under specified loading conditions. Although many dental-restorative materials are routinely evaluated, only limited use has been made of fatigue data collected in vitro: Wear of materials and the survival of porcelain restorations has been modeled by both fracture mechanics and probabilistic approaches. A need still exists for a clinical failure database and for the development of valid test methods for the evaluation of composite materials. PMID:11603506

  16. Restoring the prairie

    SciTech Connect

    Mlot, C.

    1990-12-01

    The US DOE at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois, prairie restoration is taking place in order to conserve the rich topsoil. This is the largest of many prairie restoration experiments. Big bluestem grass (Andropogon gerardi), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), and buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides) are the main initial grasses grown. After their growth reaches enough biomass to sustain a fire, other prairie plants such as purple prairie clover and dropseed grass appear. The goal of this is to provide a generous refuge for disappearing native plants and animals, a site for scientific research, and a storehouse of genes adapted to a region that produces much of the worlds food. Plans for restoring the marsh and oak savanna, also native to the Fermilab site are also in the works.

  17. Earthquake funding restored

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    Funding levels for the U.S. Geological Survey's part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program for FY92 have been restored by the House and a Senate subcommittee. The president's budget request for FY92 was only $37.3 million, lower than the $54.5 million authorized by Congress for FY91. Earlier this year the House agreed on restoring $10 million to the program. Some AGU members have been trying to see the full $17.2 million difference restored. It is reported that the Senate will agree to give $15 million to the program.When Congress reconvenes in September the full Senate will vote on the Department of Interior and Related Agencies appropriations bill (HR2686). After that, the bill will go to a joint conference committee, where differences between the House and Senate will be resolved before the bill is passed along to the president.

  18. An update on glass fiber dental restorative composites: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Samad; Azam, Maria Tahir; Khan, Maria; Mian, Salman Aziz; Ur Rehman, Ihtesham

    2015-02-01

    Dentistry is a much developed field in the last few decades. New techniques have changed the conventional treatment methods as applications of new dental materials give better outcomes. The current century has suddenly forced on dentistry, a new paradigm regarding expected standards for state-of-the-art patient care. Within the field of restorative dentistry, the incredible advances in dental materials research have led to the current availability of esthetic adhesive restorations. The chemistry and structure of the resins and the nature of the glass fiber reinforced systems in dental composites are reviewed in relation to their influence and properties including mechanical, physical, thermal, biocompatibility, technique sensitivity, mode and rate of failure of restorations on clinical application. It is clear that a deeper understanding of the structure of the polymeric matrix and resin-based dental composite is required. As a result of ongoing research in the area of glass fiber reinforced composites and with the development and advancement of these composites, the future prospects of resin-based composite are encouraging. PMID:25492169

  19. Restorative Justice: New Horizons in Juvenile Offender Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryals, John S. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Treatment strategies of the juvenile justice system focus singularly on rehabilitation of offenders, and victims and communities are excluded from the rehabilitative process. Restorative justice views victims and communities as essential components in rehabilitative efforts. In this article, the principles and practices of restorative justice,…

  20. Restorative Practices as a Tool for Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, John; Mirsky, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Restorative practices focus on repairing the harm to relationships rather than piling on more punishment for violations. Originally popularized in formal conferences between a victim and offender in the justice system, restorative practices have been extended to educational and treatment settings. This article describes how the adversarial climate…

  1. Complete Restoration of Refractory Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis by Prolonged Treatment with a Pentoxifylline-Tocopherol-Clodronate Combination (PENTOCLO): A Phase II Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Delanian, Sylvie; Chatel, Cecile; Porcher, Raphael; Depondt, Joel; Lefaix, Jean-Louis

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a nonhealing wound of the bone that is difficult to manage. Combined treatment with pentoxifylline and vitamin E reduces radiation-induced fibrosis and ORN with a good prognosis. We previously showed that the combination of pentoxifylline and vitamin E with clodronate (PENTOCLO) is useful in healing sternocostal and some mandibular ORN. Is PENTOCLO effective in ORN of poor prognosis? Methods: 54 eligible patients previously irradiated for head and neck cancer (among 72 treated) a mean 5 years previously received exteriorized refractory mandibular ORN for 1.4 {+-} 1.8 years, mainly after local surgery and hyperbaric oxygen had been ineffective. The mean length of exposed bone (D) was 17 {+-} 8 mm as primary endpoint, and the mean Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic evaluation of injury (SOMA) score was 16 {+-} 4. Between August 2000 and August 2008, all patients were given daily oral PENTOCLO: 800 mg pentoxifylline, 1,000 IU vitamin E, and 1,600 mg clodronate 5 days per week alternating with 20 mg prednisone and 1,000 mg ciprofloxacin 2 days per week. The duration of treatment was related to consolidated healing. Results: Prolonged treatment (16 {+-} 9 months) was safe and well tolerated. All patients improved, with an exponential progressive-(f[t] = a.exp(-b.t)-and significant (p < 0.0001) reduction of exposed bone (D), respectively (months): D{sub 2} -42%, D{sub 4} -62%, D{sub 6} -77%, D{sub 12} -92%, and D{sub 18} -96%, combined with iterative spontaneous sequestrectomies in 36 patients. All patients experienced complete recovery in a median of 9 months. Clinical improvement was measured in terms of discontinuation of analgesics, new fracture, closed skin fistulae, and delayed radiologic improvement: SOMA{sub 6} -64%, SOMA{sub 12} -89%, and SOMA{sub 30} -96%. Conclusion: Long-term PENTOCLO treatment is effective, safe, and curative for refractory ORN and induces mucosal and bone healing with significant symptom

  2. Altered Regulation of Akt Signaling with Murine Cerebral Malaria, Effects on Long-Term Neuro-Cognitive Function, Restoration with Lithium Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Fernando Pereira; Collado, J. Elias; Macias, Rolando; Reznik, Sandra E.; Davies, Peter; Spray, David Conover; Tanowitz, Herbert Bernard; Weiss, Louis Martin; Desruisseaux, Mahalia Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Neurological and cognitive impairment persist in more than 20% of cerebral malaria (CM) patients long after successful anti-parasitic treatment. We recently reported that long term memory and motor coordination deficits are also present in our experimental cerebral malaria model (ECM). We also documented, in a murine model, a lack of obvious pathology or inflammation after parasite elimination, suggesting that the long-term negative neurological outcomes result from potentially reversible biochemical and physiological changes in brains of ECM mice, subsequent to acute ischemic and inflammatory processes. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that acute ECM results in significantly reduced activation of protein kinase B (PKB or Akt) leading to decreased Akt phosphorylation and inhibition of the glycogen kinase synthase (GSK3β) in the brains of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) compared to uninfected controls and to mice infected with the non-neurotrophic P. berghei NK65 (PbN). Though Akt activation improved to control levels after chloroquine treatment in PbA-infected mice, the addition of lithium chloride, a compound which inhibits GSK3β activity and stimulates Akt activation, induced a modest, but significant activation of Akt in the brains of infected mice when compared to uninfected controls treated with chloroquine with and without lithium. In addition, lithium significantly reversed the long-term spatial and visual memory impairment as well as the motor coordination deficits which persisted after successful anti-parasitic treatment. GSK3β inhibition was significantly increased after chloroquine treatment, both in lithium and non-lithium treated PbA-infected mice. These data indicate that acute ECM is associated with abnormalities in cell survival pathways that result in neuronal damage. Regulation of Akt/GSK3β with lithium reduces neuronal degeneration and may have neuroprotective effects in ECM. Aberrant regulation of Akt/GSK3β signaling

  3. Restoration of Shoulder Function.

    PubMed

    Boe, Chelsea C; Elhassan, Bassem T

    2016-08-01

    Restoration of shoulder function in patients with brachial plexus injury can be challenging. Initial reported efforts were focused on stabilizing the shoulder, improving inferior subluxation and restoring abduction and flexion of the joint. Recent advancements and improved understanding of coordinated shoulder motion and the biomechanical properties of the muscles around the shoulder applicable to tendon transfer have expanded available surgical options to improve shoulder function, specifically external rotation. Despite the advances in reconstructive options, brachial plexus injury remains a serious problem that requires complex surgical solutions, prolonged recovery, and acceptance of functional loss. PMID:27387074

  4. Presurgical implant-site assessment and restoratively driven digital planning.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Michael D

    2014-07-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography imaging and 3-dimensional (3D) computer software allows for greatly enhanced visualization of bone, critical anatomy, and restorative plans. These systems allow clinicians to digitally process 3D images and restorative templates, facilitating dental implant planning. This article highlights the use of contemporary methods of digital assessment combined with traditional restorative philosophies to allow the clinician to plan implant positions based on "crown-down" clinical requirements. This approach permits clinicians to have more control over the implant treatment plan by creating ideal, virtual restorations and managing implant positions based on the virtual plan with simplified, cost-effective techniques. PMID:24993924

  5. Current opinions concerning the restoration of endodontically treated teeth: basic principles

    PubMed Central

    VȦrlan, C; VȦrlan, V; Bodnar, D; Suciu, I

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this general article is to present a survey of the current knowledge about the clinical approach of restoring endodontically treated teeth. The best way to restore teeth after root canal treatment has long been and still is a controversial subject of debate to this day. The clinical approach of restoring endodontically treated teeth needs taking into consideration several issues: aims of coronal restoration, criteria for establishing the various modalities of coronal restoration, clinical solutions of restoring teeth after endodontic treatment, guidelines regarding restorative materials and techniques, possibilities and limits of restoration using direct adhesive materials and techniques. The aims of coronal restoration of endodontically treated teeth are generally considered to be the following ones: to prevent recontamination of the root canal system and / or periapical space, to replace missing hard dental tissues and to restore coronal morphology and functions, to provide the necessary strength for the restoration/tooth complex in order to withstand functional stress and prevent crown and/or root fracture. The criteria for establishing the modalities of coronal restoration for endodontically treated teeth are: amount and quality of remaining hard dental tissues, topography and coronal morphology of the tooth, functional occlusal forces that the restoration/tooth complex has to withstand, restoring requirements in order to include the treated tooth in a comprehensive oral rehabilitation treatment plan, esthetic requirements. PMID:20108535

  6. Spotlight on Arts Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    In this annual edition selected cultural arts organizations from across the state are featured, with a specific focus on how these organizations have aided local school systems as they implemented the arts education component of North Carolina's Basic Education Program. The following arts organizations are featured: Winston-Salem Arts Council;…

  7. The Language of Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winarski, Diana L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes activities of kindergarten through grade-four students in an art classroom that emphasizes expression of creative process along with the product. Explores interconnections between art, thinking, and writing as expressed by a former language arts teacher who transfers her knowledge of language, words, and creative expression to art. (BAC)

  8. Art Mini-Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Charlotte

    1976-01-01

    The idea of an open art studio or art mini-course to serve a need above and beyond the regularly scheduled art classes is important and necessary to a school program that is designed to meet the needs of the general intellectual and cultural growth of the child. Describes the art mini-course introduced at the Willow Ridge School in Tonawanda, New…

  9. Cultural Arts Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistone, Kathleen A.

    The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and…

  10. Children as Art Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2011-01-01

    A goal of art learning is always independence, for everyone to become their own art teacher. Teaching for artistic independence can never start too early. As art teachers, children acquire confidence in their art, and in coming to school as artists. Children should be considered artists in residence and visiting artists in schools. It makes sense…

  11. Art Therapy Verses Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giacco, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…

  12. Folk Arts in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Phillips, Jr., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This serial issue contains a special section with five articles all on the subject of "Folk Arts in Education": (1) "Folk Arts-in-Education Programs in New York State" (Kathleen Mundell); (2) "The Cultural Heritage Project: Presenting Traditional Arts in a Suburban Setting" (Kathleen Mundell); (3) "Folk Arts in Newark Valley: An Upstate New York…

  13. Art and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shusterman, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Since the nineteenth century's interest in "art for art's sake," many thinkers have argued that art would supplant traditional religion as the spiritual locus of the increasingly secular society of Western modernity. If art can capture the sort of spirituality, idealism, and expressive community of traditional religions but without being ensnared…

  14. K-12 Art Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furney, Trudy; And Others

    The development of students in various art fields is the focus of this K-12 art curriculum guide. The philosophy of the art program and the roles of administrator, teacher, and parent are outlined. The underlying school community relationships, and the objective, goals, and purposes of art education are described. Phases of child development in…

  15. Cultivating Demand for the Arts: Arts Learning, Arts Engagement, and State Arts Policy. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakaras, Laura; Lowell, Julia F.

    2008-01-01

    The findings summarized in this report are intended to shed light on what it means to cultivate demand for the arts, why it is necessary and important to cultivate this demand, and what state arts agencies (SAAs) and other arts and education policymakers can do to help. The research considered only the benchmark arts central to public policy:…

  16. Winter Art Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokela, Timo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the Department of Art Education at the University of Lapland in Finland has developed winter art as a method of environmental and community-based art education. I will focus on the Snow Show Winter Art Education Project, a training project funded by the European Union and the State Provincial Office…

  17. Induction of adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells into functional astrocyte-like cells: potential for restorative treatment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bahat-Stroomza, Merav; Barhum, Yael; Levy, Yossef S; Karpov, Olga; Bulvik, Shlomo; Melamed, Eldad; Offen, Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with its motor phenomena due mostly to loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra. Pharmacological treatments aimed to increase the deficient dopaminergic neurotransmission are effective in ameliorating the cardinal symptoms, but none of these therapies is curative. It has been suggested that treatment with neurotrophic factors (NTFs) might protect and prevent death of the surviving dopaminergic neurons and induce proliferation of their axonal nerve terminals with reinnervations of the deafferented striatum. However, long-term delivery of such proteins into the CNS is problematic. We therefore aimed to differentiate ex vivo human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells into astrocyte-like cells, capable of generating NTFs for future transplantation into basal ganglia of PD patients. Indeed, mesenchymal stromal cells treated with our novel astrocyte differentiation medium, present astrocyte-like morphology and express the astrocyte markers S100beta, glutamine synthetase and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Moreover, these astrocyte-like cells produce and secrete significant amounts of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor as indicated by messenger RNA, real-time polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, and Western blot analyses. Such NTF-producing cells transplanted into the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, a model of PD, produced a progressive reduction in the apomorphine-induced contralateral rotations as well as behavioral improvement in rotor-rod and the "sunflower seeds" eating motor tests. Histological assessments revealed that the engrafted cells survived and expressed astrocyte and human markers and acted to regenerate the damaged dopaminergic nerve terminal system. Findings indicate that our novel procedure to induce NTF-producing astrocyte-like cells derived from human bone marrow stromal cells

  18. Inevitability of Balance Restoration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged imbalance between input and output of any element in a living organism is incompatible with life. The duration of imbalance varies, but eventually balance is achieved. This rule applies to any quantifiable element in a compartment of finite capacity. Transient discrepancies occur regularly, but given sufficient time, balance is always achieved, because permanent imbalance is impossible, and the mechanism for eventual restoration of balance is foolproof. The kidney is a central player for balance restoration of fluid and electrolytes, but the smartness of the kidney is not the reason for perfect balance. The kidney merely accelerates the process. The most crucial element of the control system is that discrepancy between intake and output inevitably leads to a change in total content of the element in the system, and uncorrected balance has a cumulative effect on the overall content of the element. In a living organism, the speed of restoration of balance depends on the permissible duration of imbalance without death or severe disability. The three main factors that influence the speed of balance restoration are: magnitude of flux, basal store, and capacity for additional storage. For most electrolytes, total capacity is such that a substantial discrepancy is not possible for more than a week or two. Most control mechanisms correct abnormality partially. The infinite gain control mechanism is unique in that abnormality is completely corrected upon completion of compensation. PMID:21468193

  19. BALTIMORE STREAM RESTORATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    26 Feb 2003



    Approach - We will employ a 4-tiered research approach to investigate restoration effects on hydrology and stream water quality: 1) monitoring ground water and surface water, 2) quantifying denitrification activity, 3) measuring carbon supply and rete...

  20. Restoration of face images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Restoration techniques are applied to degraded face samples. The techniques considered are those of Wiener Filtering, Lucy Richardson deconvolution, Blind deconvolution and Constrained least squares filtering (CLSF). Images degraded by low blur, high blur and low blur with noise are experimented with and the results are expounded.

  1. Restoration of face images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Aparna

    2011-12-01

    Restoration techniques are applied to degraded face samples. The techniques considered are those of Wiener Filtering, Lucy Richardson deconvolution, Blind deconvolution and Constrained least squares filtering (CLSF). Images degraded by low blur, high blur and low blur with noise are experimented with and the results are expounded.

  2. ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION AND RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    To carry out this mission, GLNPO established its Ecological Protection and Restoration Team (the E Team), consisting of a staff plus extended team members from EPA Regions 2, 3, and 5, other federal and state agencies, and non-governmental organizations. GLNPO expect...

  3. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  4. Model for Coastal Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Judd, Chaeli

    2007-07-27

    Successful restoration of wetland habitats depends on both our understanding of our system and our ability to characterize it. By developing a conceptual model, looking at different spatial scales and integrating diverse data streams: GIS datasets and NASA products, we were able to develop a dynamic model for site prioritization based on both qualitative and quantitative relationships found in the coastal environment.

  5. 14. EAST ELEVATION, COTTAGE. EXTERIOR NEARLY RESTORED. INTERIOR UNDERGOING RESTORATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. EAST ELEVATION, COTTAGE. EXTERIOR NEARLY RESTORED. INTERIOR UNDERGOING RESTORATION. EUCALYPTUS TREE PLANTED BY GERTRUDE KEIL PLANNED FOR REMOVAL. - Gold Ridge Farm, 7777 Bodega Avenue, Sebastopol, Sonoma County, CA

  6. Restoration of adipose function in obese glucose-tolerant men following pioglitazone treatment is associated with CCAAT enhancer-binding protein β up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lesley A; Crowe, Paul; Kankara, Chenchi; McPeake, Jennifer; McCance, David R; Young, Ian S; Trimble, Elisabeth R; McGinty, Ann

    2012-08-01

    Obese AT (adipose tissue) exhibits increased macrophage number. Pro-inflammatory CD16+ peripheral monocyte numbers are also reported to increase with obesity. The present study was undertaken to simultaneously investigate obesity-associated changes in CD16+ monocytes and ATMs (AT macrophages). In addition, a pilot randomized placebo controlled trial using the PPAR (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor) agonists, pioglitazone and fenofibrate was performed to determine their effects on CD14+/CD16+ monocytes, ATM and cardiometabolic and adipose dysfunction indices. Obese glucose-tolerant men (n=28) were randomized to placebo, pioglitazone (30 mg/day) and fenofibrate (160 mg/day) for 12 weeks. A blood sample was taken to assess levels of serum inflammatory markers and circulating CD14+/CD16+ monocyte levels via flow cytometry. A subcutaneous AT biopsy was performed to determine adipocyte cell surface and ATM number, the latter was determined via assessment of CD68 expression by IHC (immunohistochemistry) and real-time PCR. Subcutaneous AT mRNA expression of CEBPβ (CCAAT enhancer-binding protein β), SREBP1c (sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein 1c), PPARγ2, IRS-1 (insulin receptor substrate-1), GLUT4 (glucose transporter type 4) and TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) were also assessed. Comparisons were made between obese and lean controls (n=16) at baseline, and pre- and post-PPAR agonist treatment. Obese individuals had significantly increased adipocyte cell surface, percentage CD14+/CD16+ monocyte numbers and ATM number (all P=0.0001). Additionally, serum TNF-α levels were significantly elevated (P=0.017) and adiponectin levels reduced (total: P=0.0001; high: P=0.022) with obesity. ATM number and percentage of CD14+/CD16+ monocytes correlated significantly (P=0.05). Pioglitazone improved adiponectin levels significantly (P=0.0001), and resulted in the further significant enlargement of adipocytes (P=0.05), without effect on the percentage CD14+/CD16

  7. ARTS BETA testing report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccune, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    The advanced real time system (ARTS) was tested utilizing existing commercial system hardware and software which has been operating under advanced operating system (AOS) for several years in a multitasking, multiprocessing, and multiple computer environment. Experiences with ARTS in terms of compatibility with AOS, ease of transmission between AOS and ARTS, and functional areas of ARTS which were tested are discussed. Relative and absolute performance of ARTS versus AOS as measured in the system environment are also presented.

  8. Holography: science and art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Pierre M.

    1998-09-01

    Art and science are separated by a very large distance nowadays. Long ago, e.g. in Renaissance, or even earlier, in classic Greece and Rome, or still earlier in Egypt or Mesopotamia, arts and sciences were united. Today they seem to go separate paths: science for the industry, arts for the gallery. Holography is an exception: no art without science, but also no science without art.

  9. Art Therapy and Autism: Overview and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Work with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a growing area of significant interest for many art therapists. The purpose of this viewpoint is to outline the current impediments to the expansion of this specialty as well as to highlight the unique treatment advantages of art therapy from the author's perspectives as an…

  10. Art Therapy as an Intervention for Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Melinda J.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the art therapy treatment of a 6-yearold boy diagnosed with autism without mental retardation. Children create art and draw because it is rooted in the need to relate to their world (Horovitz, Lewis, & Luca, 1967). However, children with autism have difficulty relating (Green & Luce, 1996). This case study explores the value…

  11. Long-term deterioration of composite resin and amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Smales, R J

    1991-01-01

    Previous long-term longitudinal studies of two different methods of placing an auto-cured conventional anterior composite resin, and of a low- and a high-copper amalgam alloy, had shown similar restoration survivals despite the different resin treatment methods used or the types of amalgam alloy placed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess several clinical factors or characteristics of these restorations that were believed to affect the survival of the restorative materials. The 950 composite resin and the 1042 amalgam restorations examined were placed by many operators in numerous patients attending a dental hospital. The composite resin restorations were placed using unetched- and etched-enamel-bonding treatment methods, and the amalgam restorations were polished after insertion. Clinical ratings supplemented by color transparencies were used for the assessment of four factors for the resin, and four factors for the amalgam restoration. Significant deterioration differences were found for several of the clinical factors assessed for both the two different composite resin treatment methods, and for the two different amalgam alloys, which were not directly related to the restoration survivals. PMID:1840079

  12. Common Prosthetic Implant Complications in Fixed Restorations.

    PubMed

    Link-Bindo, Elyce E; Soltys, James; Donatelli, David; Cavanaugh, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Many clinicians consider implants to be one of the most important innovations in dental care. Even so, over the past 40 years of implant dentistry, complications have been a constant struggle for restorative dentists, surgeons, and patients alike. Implant-related problems can be particularly challenging and frustrating, especially given that an implant is thought to be a "lifetime" solution expected to yield minimal difficulties. This, however, is not necessarily the case with prosthetic restorations. With innovations in implant technology continuing to rapidly advance, maintaining knowledge of all the latest developments can be challenging for clinicians. The purpose of this article is to provide a basic understanding of the treatment, management, and prevention of common prosthetic and technical implant complications seen in the office of a restorative dentist. PMID:27548395

  13. Restoration of Noncarious Cervical Lesions: When, Why, and How

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Cesar dos Reis; Gonzalez, Mariana Rodrigues; Prado, Natália Aráujo Silva; de Miranda, Marianna Sorozini Ferreira; Macêdo, Mariana de Andrade; Fernandes, Bárbara Monteiro Pessôa

    2012-01-01

    At this time, restoration of noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs) is a common occurrence in clinics nowadays. Some reasons for this are the growth of the elderly population, a smaller rate of tooth loss, and possibly the increase of some etiologic factors. These factors include inadequate brushing techniques in gingival recession cases, corrosive food and drink consumption, and occlusal stress concentrating factors (occlusal interferences, premature contacts, habits of bruxism, and clenching). Unfortunately, Class V restorations also represent one of the less durable types of restorations and have a high index of loss of retention, marginal excess, and secondary caries. Some causes for these problems include difficulties in isolation, insertion, contouring, and finishing and polishing procedures. This work aims to help dentists in choosing the best treatment strategy, which necessarily involves steps of problem identification, diagnosis, etiological factor removal or treatment, and, if necessary, restoration. Finally, appropriate restorative techniques are suggested for each situation. PMID:22216032

  14. Current status of zirconia restoration.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsumura, Hideo; Ban, Seiji; Kobayashi, Taira

    2013-10-01

    currently one of the most reliable bonding systems for zirconia. Adhesive treatments could be applied to luting the restorations and fabricating hybrid-structured FDPs. Full-contour zirconia FDPs caused concern about the wear of antagonist enamel, because the hardness of Y-TZP was over double that of porcelain. However, this review demonstrates that highly polished zirconia yielded lower antagonist wear compared with porcelains. Polishing of zirconia is possible, but glazing is not recommended for the surface finish of zirconia. Clinical data since 2010 are included in this review. The zirconia frameworks rarely got damaged in many cases and complications often occurred in the veneering ceramic materials. Further clinical studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are required to investigate the possible influencing factors of technical failures. PMID:24140561

  15. Postischemic fish oil treatment restores long-term retrograde memory and dendritic density: An analysis of the time window of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Bacarin, Cristiano Correia; Godinho, Jaqueline; de Oliveira, Rúbia Maria Weffort; Matsushita, Makoto; Gohara, Aline Kirie; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Lima, Jéssica de Carvalho; Previdelli, Isolde Santos; Melo, Silvana Regina; Ribeiro, Matheus Henrique Dal Molin; Milani, Humberto

    2016-09-15

    We reported that fish oil (FO) prevented the loss of spatial memory caused by transient, global cerebral ischemia (TGCI), provided the treatment covered the first days prior to and after ischemia. Continuing these studies, trained rats were subjected to TGCI, and FO was administered for 10days, with a time window of efficacy (TWE) of 4, 8 or 12h post-ischemia. Retrograde memory was assessed up to 43days after TGCI. In another experiment, ischemic rats received FO with a 4- or 12-h TWE, and dendritic density was assessed in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The brain lipid profile was evaluated in sham-operated and ischemic rats that were treated with FO or vehicle with a 4-h TWE. Ischemia-induced retrograde amnesia was prevented by FO administration that was initiated with either a 4- or 8-h TWE. Fish oil was ineffective after a 12-h TWE. Independent of the TWE, FO did not prevent ischemic neuronal death. In the hippocampus, but not cerebral cortex, TGCI-induced dendritic loss was prevented by FO with a 4-h TWE but not 12-h TWE. The level of docosahexaenoic acid almost doubled in the hippocampus in ischemic, FO-treated rats (4-h TWE). The data indicate that (i) the anti-amnesic effect of FO can be observed with a TWE of up to 8h, (ii) the stimulation of dendritic neuroplasticity may have contributed to this effect, and (iii) DHA in FO may be the main active constituent in FO that mediates the cognitive and neuroplasticity effects on TGCI. PMID:27235715

  16. Restoration of Polyamine Metabolic Patterns in In Vivo and In Vitro Model of Ischemic Stroke following Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Tae Hwan; Phukan, Geetika; Shim, Jeom Soon; Nguyen, Duc-Toan; Kim, Yongman; Oh-Lee, Justin D.; Lee, Hyeon-Seong; Paik, Man Jeong; Lee, Gwang

    2016-01-01

    We investigated changes in PA levels by the treatment of human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) in ischemic stroke in rat brain model and in cultured neuronal SH-SY5Y cells exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). In ischemic rat model, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) was performed for 2 h, followed by intravenous transplantation of hBM-MSCs or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) the day following MCAo. Metabolic profiling analysis of PAs was examined in brains from three groups: control rats, PBS-treated MCAo rats (MCAo), and hBM-MSCs-treated MCAo rats (MCAo + hBM-MSCs). In ischemic cell model, SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to OGD for 24 h, treated with hBM-MSCs (OGD + hBM-MSCs) prior to continued aerobic incubation, and then samples were collected after coculture for 72 h. In the in vivo MCAo ischemic model, levels of some PAs in brain samples of the MCAo and MCAo + hBM-MSCs groups were significantly different from those of the control group. In particular, putrescine, cadaverine, and spermidine in brain tissues of the MCAo + hBM-MSCs group were significantly reduced in comparison to those in the MCAo group. In the in vitro OGD system, N1-acetylspermidine, spermidine, N1-acetylspermine, and spermine in cells of the OGD + hBM-MSCs group were significantly reduced compared to those of OGD group. PMID:27413379

  17. HPTN 071 (PopART): Rationale and design of a cluster-randomised trial of the population impact of an HIV combination prevention intervention including universal testing and treatment – a study protocol for a cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective interventions to reduce HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa are urgently needed. Mathematical modelling and the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 trial results suggest that universal HIV testing combined with immediate antiretroviral treatment (ART) should substantially reduce incidence and may eliminate HIV as a public health problem. We describe the rationale and design of a trial to evaluate this hypothesis. Methods/Design A rigorously-designed trial of universal testing and treatment (UTT) interventions is needed because: i) it is unknown whether these interventions can be delivered to scale with adequate uptake; ii) there are many uncertainties in the models such that the population-level impact of these interventions is unknown; and ii) there are potential adverse effects including sexual risk disinhibition, HIV-related stigma, over-burdening of health systems, poor adherence, toxicity, and drug resistance. In the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial, 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa (total population 1.2 m) will be randomly allocated to three arms. Arm A will receive the full PopART combination HIV prevention package including annual home-based HIV testing, promotion of medical male circumcision for HIV-negative men, and offer of immediate ART for those testing HIV-positive; Arm B will receive the full package except that ART initiation will follow current national guidelines; Arm C will receive standard of care. A Population Cohort of 2,500 adults will be randomly selected in each community and followed for 3 years to measure the primary outcome of HIV incidence. Based on model projections, the trial will be well-powered to detect predicted effects on HIV incidence and secondary outcomes. Discussion Trial results, combined with modelling and cost data, will provide short-term and long-term estimates of cost-effectiveness of UTT interventions. Importantly, the three-arm design will enable assessment of how much could be achieved by

  18. RESTORE: an exploratory trial of an online intervention to enhance self-efficacy to manage problems associated with cancer-related fatigue following primary cancer treatment: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are over 25 million people worldwide living with or beyond cancer and this number is increasing. Cancer survivors face a range of problems following primary treatment. One of the most frequently reported and distressing symptoms experienced by cancer survivors is fatigue. There is growing support for survivors who are experiencing problems after cancer treatment to engage in supported self-management. To date there is some evidence of effective interventions to manage fatigue in this population; however, to our knowledge there are no online resources that draw on this information to support self-management of fatigue. This paper describes the protocol for an exploratory randomized controlled trial of an online intervention to support self-management of cancer-related fatigue after primary cancer treatment. Methods/design This is a parallel-group two-armed (1:1) exploratory randomized controlled trial including 125 cancer survivors experiencing fatigue (scoring ≥4 on a unidimensional 11-point numeric rating scale for fatigue intensity) within five years of primary treatment completion with curative intent. Participants will be recruited from 13 NHS Trusts across the UK and randomized to either the online intervention (RESTORE), or a leaflet comparator (Macmillan Cancer Backup, Coping with Fatigue). The primary outcome is a change in Perceived Self-Efficacy for Fatigue Self-Management (as measured by the Perceived Self-Efficacy for Fatigue Self-Management Instrument). Secondary outcomes include impact on perception and experience of fatigue (measured by the Brief Fatigue Inventory), and quality of life (measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - General and the Personal Wellbeing Index). Outcome measures will be collected at baseline, 6 weeks (completion of intervention), and 3 months. Process evaluation (including telephone interviews with recruiting staff and participants) will determine acceptability of the intervention and trial

  19. Particle accelerators unravel Art and Archaeology issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Many analytical techniques are applied to get a better insight on art works and archaeological artefacts and to contribute to their conservation and restoration. Because of the precious and sometimes unique character of these items, non-destructive and non-sampling techniques are preferred. From this standpoint, the analysis with ion beams produced by accelerators (IBA), featuring good analytical performance and non-destructiveness, constitutes one of the best choices. Ion beams analysis techniques (IBA) introduced in 1957 have been constantly adapted to address art and archaeology questions; today the performances obtained directly on the object placed in the atmosphere rival with those achieved in vacuum. Since 20 years, AGLAE, the IBA facility of the Centre for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France located in the Louvre museum has contributed to this progress. The cornerstone of this development is a versatile external nuclear microprobe implementing PIXE, PIGE, RBS, NRA and ERDA methods for rapid expertises of art works and more extensive research works in art history, archaeology and conservation science. After an introduction of the physical principles of IBA, a virtual tour of this unique facility will be provided. The benefit of its use will be illustrated through two case studies, the first one dealing with the determination by PIXE of the provenance of painted works of the Spanish master Murillo and the second one with the authentication study using NRA of a mysterious archaeological rock crystal skull.

  20. Digital restoration of multichannel images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galatsanos, Nikolas P.; Chin, Roland T.

    1989-01-01

    The Wiener solution of a multichannel restoration scheme is presented. Using matrix diagonalization and block-Toeplitz to block-circulant approximation, the inversion of the multichannel, linear space-invariant imaging system becomes feasible by utilizing a fast iterative matrix inversion procedure. The restoration uses both the within-channel (spatial) and between-channel (spectral) correlation; hence, the restored result is a better estimate than that produced by independent channel restoration. Simulations are also presented.

  1. Electronic decision protocols for ART patient triaging to expand access to HIV treatment in South Africa: A cross sectional study for development and validation

    PubMed Central

    MITCHELL, Marc; HEDT, Bethany L.; ESHUN-WILSON, Ingrid; FRASER, Hamish; JOHN, Melanie-Anne; MENEZES, Colin; GROBUSCH, Martin P.; JACKSON, Jonathan; TALJAARD, Jantjie; LESH, Neal

    2012-01-01

    Background The shortage of doctors and nurses, along with future expansion into rural clinics, will require that the majority of clinic visits by HIV infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are managed by non-doctors. The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate a screening protocol to determine which patients needed a full clinical assessment and which patients were stable enough to receive their medications without a doctor’s consultation. For this study, we developed an electronic, handheld tool to guide non-physician counselors through screening questions. Methods Patients visiting two ART clinics in South Africa for routine follow-up visits between March 2007 – April 2008 were included in our study. Each patient was screened by non-physician counselors using the handheld device and then received a full clinical assessment. Clinicians’ report on whether full clinical assessment had been necessary was used as the gold standard for determining “required referral”. Observations were randomly divided into two datasets – 989 for developing a referral protocol and 200 for validating protocol performance. Results A third of patients had at least one physical complaint, and 16% had five or more physical complaints. 38% of patients required referral for full clinical assessment. We identify a subset of questions which are 87% sensitive and 47% specific for recommended patient referral. Conclusions The final screening protocol is highly sensitive and could reduce burden on ART clinicians by 30%. The uptake and acceptance of the handheld tool to support implementation of the protocol was high. Further examination of the data reveals several important questions to include in future referral algorithms to improve sensitivity and specificity. Based on these results, we identify a refined algorithm to explore in future evaluations. PMID:22178295

  2. Performing arts medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ostwald, P F; Baron, B C; Byl, N M; Wilson, F R

    1994-01-01

    Arts medicine has come of age, resulting from 3 important developments over the past decade: improved methods of diagnosis and treatment, an awareness that artists suffer from special problems related to their occupation and lifestyle, and the establishment of health programs emphasizing an interdisciplinary approach to these patients. We focus on the patterns of illness afflicting performing artists, specifically dancers, singers, actors, and instrumental musicians, and explain some of the things a health care team can do in treating these patients. The conditions governing these patients' lives--early exposure to high expectations of excellence, incessant demands for perfection, long periods of intense practicing, fierce competition, high levels of anxiety associated with performance, and uncertain careers--need to be understood. Levels of disease and disability are remarkably high, but artists often ignore symptoms. We discuss the musculoskeletal, neurologic, vocal, psychological, and other syndromes found among performers and some of the difficulties in treating them. The prevention of injury, conservative management, collaboration with teachers, and a psychotherapeutic approach are desirable. Arts medicine programs for professional consultation exist in several major cities of the United States and abroad. Although research is needed regarding the effectiveness of health care services for performing artists, the scientific literature devoted to this field is growing. PMID:8128702

  3. [Predictive models for ART].

    PubMed

    Arvis, P; Guivarc'h-Levêque, A; Varlan, E; Colella, C; Lehert, P

    2013-02-01

    A predictive model is a mathematical expression estimating the probability of pregnancy, by combining predictive variables, or indicators. Its development requires three successive phases: formulation of the model, its validation--internal then external--and the impact study. Its performance is assessed by its discrimination and its calibration. Numerous models were proposed, for spontaneous pregnancies, IUI and IVF, but with rather poor results, and their external validation was seldom carried out and was mainly inconclusive. The impact study-consisting in ascertaining whether their use improves medical practice--was exceptionally done. The ideal ART predictive model is a "Center specific" model, helping physicians to choose between abstention, IUI and IVF, by providing a reliable cumulative rate of pregnancy for each option. This tool would allow to rationalize the practices, by avoiding premature, late, or hopeless treatments. The model would also allow to compare the performances between ART Centers based on objective criteria. Today the best solution is to adjust the existing models to one's own practice, by considering models validated with variables describing the treated population, whilst adjusting the calculation to the Center's performances. PMID:23182786

  4. Atraumatic surgical extrusion to improve tooth restorability: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Robert D; Addison, Owen; Tomson, Phillip L; Krastl, Gabriel; Dietrich, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    This clinical report describes the use of an "atraumatic" vertical extraction system to facilitate the restorative treatment of a tooth that would otherwise be considered unrestorable because of subgingival caries. Minimally invasive surgical root extrusion was undertaken using the Benex extraction system, which can provide controlled tooth extrusion with minimal deformation of the bone socket. A carious endodontically treated mandibular premolar was extruded to provide routine restorative treatment and endodontic retreatment. PMID:26803176

  5. Prairie Restoration for Wisconsin Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Molly Fifield; Greenler, Robin McC.

    This packet is composed of several resources for teachers interested in prairie ecology and restoration. "A Guide to Restoration from Site Analysis to Management" focuses on the Prairie/Oak Savanna communities of Wisconsin and takes teachers through the planning and design process for a restoration project on school grounds including site…

  6. Adaptive wiener image restoration kernel

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Ding

    2007-06-05

    A method and device for restoration of electro-optical image data using an adaptive Wiener filter begins with constructing imaging system Optical Transfer Function, and the Fourier Transformations of the noise and the image. A spatial representation of the imaged object is restored by spatial convolution of the image using a Wiener restoration kernel.

  7. Restoration of longitudinal images.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Frieden, B R

    1988-01-15

    In this paper, a method of restoring longitudinal images is developed. By using the transfer function for longitudinal objects, and inverse filtering, a longitudinal image may be restored. The Fourier theory and sampling theorems for transverse images cannot be used directly in the longitudinal case. A modification and reasonable approximation are introduced. We have numerically established a necessary relationship between just-resolved longitudinal separation (after inverse filtering), noise level, and the taking conditions of object distance and lens diameter. An empirical formula is also found to well-fit the computed results. This formula may be of use for designing optical systems which are to image longitudinal details, such as in robotics or microscopy. PMID:20523607

  8. [Blood in art, art in blood].

    PubMed

    Danic, B; Lefrère, J-J

    2010-12-01

    In the different forms of art developed by Humanity over the centuries, artists have at times chosen themes from the world of medicine or health, such as blood donation or transfusion. In order to illustrate this, we have looked at three artistic domains: painting, movies and body art. PMID:21051264

  9. CyberArts: Exploring Art and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda, Ed.

    This book takes the position that CyberArts(TM) is the new frontier in creativity, where the worlds of science and art meet. Computer technologies, visual design, music and sound, education and entertainment merge to form the new artistic territory of interactive multimedia. This diverse collection of essays, articles, and commentaries…

  10. Focus on Fine Arts: Visual Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Don L.

    Basic arts education must give students the essence of their civilization, the civilizations that contributed to it, and the more distant civilizations that enriched world civilizations as a whole. All students are potentially capable of experiencing and analyzing the fundamental qualitativeness of art; therefore, it is realistic to propose…

  11. ArtStreet: Joining Community Through Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm-Bottos, Janis

    1995-01-01

    ArtStreet is a group of artists, art therapists, and interested community members who collaborate to create an atmosphere in which homeless artists can create and sell their works. Artists from the community share their expertise in various media, and the project is funded by various local and national foundations. (JPS)

  12. Neolithic Art and the Art History Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson, Muriel

    1991-01-01

    Addresses issues that might be raised in the study of art history from a critical theory perspective. Suggests that, in view of contemporary environmental and social concerns, Neolithic art would be of particular interest to students as would the possibility of having a society in which neither sex was dominant. (KM)

  13. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  14. Restoration of Elbow Flexion.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Bryan J; Lewis, Daniel R

    2016-08-01

    Active elbow flexion is required to position the hand in space, and loss of this function is debilitating. Nerve transfers or nerve grafts to restore elbow flexion may be options when the target muscle is viable, but in delayed reconstruction when the biceps and brachialis are atrophied or damaged, muscle transfer options should be considered. Muscle transfer options are discussed with attention to the advantages and disadvantages of each transfer option. PMID:27387075

  15. 76 FR 75558 - Environmental Impact Statement for Restoration of the Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoias, Yosemite...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... National Park Service Environmental Impact Statement for Restoration of the Mariposa Grove of Giant... Service (NPS) is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Restoration of the Mariposa... with goals outlined in the GMP. Grove restoration treatment plans will be informed by existing...

  16. The Role of Response Art in the Case of an Adolescent Survivor of Developmental Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rebecca Beers

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the art therapist's engagement in responsive art making as an effective approach in working with an adolescent survivor of developmental trauma. Through a case study illustration, the art therapist's response art was effective in two main areas. First, in-session response art helped facilitate treatment goals in accordance…

  17. Restoration of the eyebrows by hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gho, Coen; Neumann, Martino

    2014-04-01

    Partial loss of the eyebrows can be the result of epilation, scars, and inflammatory diseases. Facial hair and eyebrows play a major role in our mimetic expression and interaction. Therefore, facial hair restoration of the eyebrows can improve the appearance and psychological well-being of patients. We report the use of partial longitudinal follicular unit transplantation (PLFUT) to restore eyebrows. A total of 10 patients (age between 18 and 59 years; mean, 39 years) have been treated with PLFUT to restore the eyebrows. The grafts were harvested from the occipital area of the scalp. Suitable grafts were impregnated with a preservative solution and implanted into the eyebrows areas. Hair growth in the donor area as well as the eyebrows was observed before treatment and at intervals of 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year after treatment. Evaluation of the donor area reveals no visible scars with almost all hair follicles in the donor site reproducing hairs after 1 year. All treated patients were satisfied or very satisfied with their cosmetic results. PLFUT is a reliable, patient friendly method suitable for hair restoration of eyebrows in healthy persons as well as in burn scar tissue. PMID:24810133

  18. Marginal bacterial leakage and pulp reactions in Class II composite resin restorations in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lundin, S A; Norén, J G; Warfvinge, J

    1990-01-01

    The presence of stainable bacteria under restorations and pulp reactions in 36 teeth restored in vivo with a modified Class II composite resin restoration with two different dentine treatment techniques were studied on three separate follow-up occasions (1-3, 7-10 and 28-32 days). Half of the cavities showed stainable bacteria at the cavity margins and bottoms. Teeth restored with method A (Gluma/Occlusin) showed significantly fewer restorations with stainable bacteria then teeth restored with method B (Life/Occlusin) (p less than 0.05). Significantly more restorations with detectable bacteria were found after 28-32 days and restorative method B (p less than 0.05). There were no differences in occurrence and grade of pulp inflammation for the different dentine treatment techniques and time periods. PMID:2124006

  19. Virtual restoration: detection and removal of craquelure in digitized image of old paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirripa Spagnolo, G.

    2011-06-01

    Digital treatment of images has been widely used in many different fields, including astrophysical, medical, geographical and military research. In the last years, digital elaboration of the images has also been used in the field of the Cultural Heritage conservation. Many paintings, especially old ones, suffer from breaks in substrate, paint, or varnish. These patterns are usually called cracks or craquelure and can be caused by aging, drying, and mechanical factors. The appearance of cracks on paintings deteriorates the perceived image quality. However, one can use digital image processing techniques to detect and eliminate the cracks on digitized paintings. Such a "virtual" restoration can provide clues to art historians, museum curators and the general public on how the painting would look like in its initial state, i.e., without the cracks. An integrated methodology for the detection and removal of cracks on digitized paintings is presented in this paper.

  20. ‘Dented’ and ‘Resuscitated’ masculinities: The impact of HIV diagnosis and/or enrolment on antiretroviral treatment on masculine identities in rural eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Godfrey E.; Wight, Daniel; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is limited research on the impact of HIV or its treatment on men's identity construction and gender roles in sub-Saharan Africa. Based on in-depth research with 26 men in rural Uganda, this article discusses men's vulnerabilities and shifting gender relations and sense of masculinity resulting from HIV infection or enrolment on treatment in eastern Uganda. The findings suggest two broad categories of masculinity: respectable and reputational. HIV infection and illness dented masculinity as men lost authority within the domestic sphere. A weakened provider role and over-reliance on wives and children undermined masculinity as family head, and social sanctioning of their sexual activity, undermined conventional masculine identities predicted on reputation. However, treatment led to a more reflexive approach to demonstrating masculinity, increased attentiveness to health and restored hope to father children free of HIV, resuscitating respectable masculinities. The balance between eroded and restored masculinity varied between men by their treatment history, age, family composition and state of health. HIV support agencies need to pay attention to the way HIV and antiretroviral treatment (ART) influence men's perception of their masculinity and support them to overcome the anxieties about dented or eroded masculinity, while building on the positive ways in which treatment restores masculinity to support men's adherence to HIV treatment. In particular, there is a need to support men's engagement in productive activities that bring income so that men can regain their provider roles following ART and restore their respectability in both the public and the domestic sphere. PMID:25444303

  1. 'Dented' and 'resuscitated' masculinities: the impact of HIV diagnosis and/or enrolment on antiretroviral treatment on masculine identities in rural eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Siu, Godfrey E; Wight, Daniel; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    There is limited research on the impact of HIV or its treatment on men's identity construction and gender roles in sub-Saharan Africa. Based on in-depth research with 26 men in rural Uganda, this article discusses men's vulnerabilities and shifting gender relations and sense of masculinity resulting from HIV infection or enrolment on treatment in eastern Uganda. The findings suggest two broad categories of masculinity: respectable and reputational. HIV infection and illness dented masculinity as men lost authority within the domestic sphere. A weakened provider role and over-reliance on wives and children undermined masculinity as family head, and social sanctioning of their sexual activity, undermined conventional masculine identities predicted on reputation. However, treatment led to a more reflexive approach to demonstrating masculinity, increased attentiveness to health and restored hope to father children free of HIV, resuscitating respectable masculinities. The balance between eroded and restored masculinity varied between men by their treatment history, age, family composition and state of health. HIV support agencies need to pay attention to the way HIV and antiretroviral treatment (ART) influence men's perception of their masculinity and support them to overcome the anxieties about dented or eroded masculinity, while building on the positive ways in which treatment restores masculinity to support men's adherence to HIV treatment. In particular, there is a need to support men's engagement in productive activities that bring income so that men can regain their provider roles following ART and restore their respectability in both the public and the domestic sphere. PMID:25444303

  2. The Art of Appearance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Seonaid; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how students can examine artists' use of clothing to express ideas about cultural values, lifestyle, and design. Features four, culturally different, artworks from the Art Institute of Chicago. Outlines instructional methods for discussion, creative writing, and art production. (KM)

  3. Filling cavities or restoring teeth?

    PubMed

    Versluis, Antheunis; Versluis-Tantbirojn, Daranee

    2011-01-01

    Teeth seldom fracture under normal functional loading. This indicates that the natural tooth design is optimized for the distribution of regular masticatory forces by means of its properties and structure. When a tooth is restored with an intracoronal restoration, however, the incidence of tooth fracture increases. Since remaining tissues do not change, the restorative actions apparently alter the original stress distributions. In this study, the effect of different restoration types (unbonded amalgam and bonded composite restorations) were compared with the original stress conditions of the intact tooth, using finite element analysis. It was shown that an unbonded amalgam restoration did not restore the original stress conditions but led to much higher stresses in the buccal and lingual enamel and to higher tensile stresses in the cavity floor. The unbonded amalgam thus filled the cavity but did not restore the tooth. In contrast, a bonded composite restoration restored the original stress pattern in the tooth if there was no polymerization shrinkage. Polymerization shrinkage causes residual tensile stresses in the dentin around the cavity and in the buccal and lingual enamel. Residual tensile stresses in the buccal and lingual enamel are momentary compensated by compressive stress components during occlusal loading. It was concluded that bonding and elimination of residual stresses are prerequisites for restoring the original tooth integrity. PMID:21748978

  4. Image restoration, uncertainty, and information.

    PubMed

    Yu, F T

    1969-01-01

    Some of the physical interpretations about image restoration are discussed. From the theory of information the unrealizability of an inverse filter can be explained by degradation of information, which is due to distortion on the recorded image. The image restoration is a time and space problem, which can be recognized from the theory of relativity (the problem of image restoration is related to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics). A detailed discussion of the relationship between information and energy is given. Two general results may be stated: (1) the restoration of the image from the distorted signal is possible only if it satisfies the detectability condition. However, the restored image, at the best, can only approach to the maximum allowable time criterion. (2) The restoration of an image by superimposing the distorted signal (due to smearing) is a physically unrealizable method. However, this restoration procedure may be achieved by the expenditure of an infinite amount of energy. PMID:20072171

  5. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Mei, May L; Cheung, Chloe; Nalliah, Romesh P

    2013-01-01

    The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED) and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. PMID:24019754

  6. Art and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamal, Pauline Dove

    Art has always adapted technological advances to its own uses. In the last 15 years, art has turned to color photocopiers, computers, mimeograph machines, and thermofax copiers. With this in mind, Central Piedmont Community College began offering a course in 1982 called "Art and Technology" which focused on the application of office machines to…

  7. Art and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Suesi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the author offers lesson plan ideas that are designed to guide teachers of art and science to encourage their students to see connections between art images and physics principles. The four works of art discussed are examples that can be linked visually and conceptually to physics properties in mathematics, space, energy, and light.…

  8. The Art of Running

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jill Harris

    2007-01-01

    Every year, the Parent-Teacher Association of Ferndale Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia sponsors a fun road race for the students, teachers, families, and community. This annual event has inspired the author to develop the Running and Art project to show off her students' art and squeeze in a little art history, too. In this article, the…

  9. Art as Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Peter

    Western society sees art as beautiful, well crafted objects; and art education derives almost its entire theory and practice from this concept. However, this is only one function of the creative process and art educators need to reconsider the fullness and depth of the usage of that process and provide an alternative mission and practice of art…

  10. Social Action Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores intersections among art, action, and community. It describes sociopolitical aspects of the author's art therapy work with survivors of repressive regimes living in Brazil, China, and Denmark and considers ways that unique historical and social processes influenced her conceptualization and practice of social action art therapy.

  11. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  12. Arts throughout the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manner, Jane Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes how curriculum integration can help art enhance learning during times when the arts may be considered dispensable and removed from education, presenting examples of how classroom teachers have examined art as a link to expanded understanding of history, science, math, reading, current events, geography, cultural studies, emotions,…

  13. Design for Visual Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeries, Larry

    Experiences suggested within this visual arts packet provide high school students with awareness of visual expression in graphic design, product design, architecture, and crafts. The unit may be used in whole or in part and includes information about art careers and art-related jobs found in major occupational fields. Specific lesson topics…

  14. Art Meets Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohs, C. Renee

    2007-01-01

    Numerous connections between the visual arts and sciences are evident if we choose to look for them. In February 2006, students and faculty from the Art and Geol/Geog departments at NW Missouri State University put together an exhibit at a local art gallery featuring works that were born out of science, inspired by science, or exploring the…

  15. Women Art Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Enid, Ed.; Stankiewicz, Mary Ann, Ed.

    This collection of papers on women art educators reveals the variety of roles played by those women, from anonymous art teachers to leaders in their profession. "Mary Rouse: A Remembrance" (G. Hubbard) is a personal perspective on Rouse, the development of her career, and her considerable impact in the field of art education. "The Search for Mrs.…

  16. A Work of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    During the 2002-03 fiscal crisis in Massachusetts, Gov. Mitt Romney proposed sweeping changes for public colleges in the state. Among them was a proposal to privatize three highly specialized colleges, including the Massachusetts College of Art and Design (MassArt), the nation's only independent public college of art and design. The rationale was…

  17. Art and Montessori.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joy

    1982-01-01

    Designed for Montessori teachers with little background in the plastic arts, this discussion points out that, while the Montessori program has many features that support creative development, presently, no art curriculum exists. The article indicates the limitations of Maria Montessori's ideas and attitudes about the role of art in the education…

  18. Arts Opportunity Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The increasing focus on arts education during the past few years has brought much-needed attention to the benefits it affords to students of all ages. Past research has proved time and again that the arts support teaching and learning in numerous ways, and recommendations abound that schools should find ways to integrate the arts in classrooms.…

  19. Art's Educational Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores critically the nature of art's value in education and argues in favor of both intrinsic and instrumental value. Form and expression, while being out of favor in some contemporary circles, are re-claimed as appropriate features of art. Concepts and forms in art as elsewhere serve to structure impressions and experience and…

  20. Teaching with Public Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argiro, Carol

    2004-01-01

    "Public art" is a broad term that refers to art in public spaces and includes architecture, landscape, and urban design. Public art makes public spaces more beautiful, encourages us to pause and interact with our environment, or reminds us of important people and events. Just as often, public sculptures become such a part of our everyday…

  1. The Art of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the argument that when viewed as mutually supportive processes of inquiry, art and research have the potential to put the agency of educational change well within reach of artists and art teachers. As researchers well schooled in studio practices of many kinds, artists and art teachers understand that, as we…

  2. Windows to Art Excitement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley; Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that aimed to bring more attention to an art program. Explains that the students created themed murals on the windows of the art classroom, such as a "Jungle,""Ocean,""Masterpiece Paintings," and "Rainforest Tree Frogs." Discusses how the murals were created. (CMK)

  3. Art and the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond. Div. of Humanities and Secondary Administration.

    The contributions of art experiences to special education are discussed and guidelines for integrating art into the curriculum are provided. Art is seen to have potential for developing handicapped children's self expression, independence, sensory stimulation and motivation, perception discrimination, skill development, and career and personal…

  4. Creative Art for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Merle B.

    The book presents a creative art program for preschool children that utilizes art as a vehicle to develop many desirable behaviors -- social, emotional, and intellectual. A total of 45 art activities are described, organized under the headings "Exploration--Seeing and Feeling" (including seeing and feeling different textures, and seeing repeating…

  5. Research Explains Modern Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eickhorst, William S.

    1985-01-01

    This tongue-in-cheek article calls for the critical reexamination of the history of modern art. The author believes that modern art is neither an extension of the Renaissance aesthetic nor a collective by-product of artists possessed of creative genius. Creators of modern art were actually representational artists suffering from visual stuttering.…

  6. "I like Art Because..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leishear, Christina Chiddo

    2012-01-01

    There is a lot of creative energy between students and their art materials. In this lesson, the author discusses materials an artist may use to create a work of art--paint, a paintbrush, a palette, crayons, markers, pastels, and so on. Each student sketched a picture of themselves holding some tools that can be used in art. The objectives of this…

  7. Transpersonal Art Therapy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Michael; Farrelly-Hansen, Mimi; Marek, Bernie; Swan-Foster, Nora; Wallingford, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the task of training future art therapists through a unique branch of transpersonal psychology referred to as "contemplative education." Discusses contemplative practices, such as meditation, and their relationship to creating art. Offers a definition of transpersonal art therapy as well as a literature review. (Contains 80 references.)…

  8. Windows into Art Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    An editorial by Kit Grauer introduces this collection of articles which establish that there is no such thing as a simple definition of art education even within one culture, and that people's views can be reflected by art educators across the world. The first article, "A Window on Three Singapore Art Classrooms" (Jane Chia; John Matthews; Paul…

  9. Basic Skills: Visual Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    A curriculum guide for the visual arts is presented. The goal of elementary and middle school education in the four arts disciplines is the development of basic understanding and skills by every student. In secondary education the aim is to continue a sequential curriculum for those students who study the arts. This document is intended as a guide…

  10. Multimedia, Curriculum, & Public Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Glen

    2004-01-01

    As an illustration of meaningful exploration of public art, Coutts provides a tour of a multimedia curriculum project based on art works in Glasgow, Scotland. He explores the potential of multimedia to engage students and teachers in a debate about public art for students at the interface of primary and secondary schools. Scanning the City, a…

  11. From soil in art towards Soil Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, C.; Landa, E. R.; Toland, A.; Wessolek, G.

    2015-02-01

    The range of art forms and genres dealing with soil is wide and diverse, spanning many centuries and artistic traditions, from prehistoric painting and ceramics to early Renaissance works in Western literature, poetry, paintings, and sculpture, to recent developments in cinema, architecture and contemporary art. Case studies focused on painting, installation, and cinema are presented with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, with, or featuring soil or soil conservation issues, created by artists, and occasionally scientists, educators or collaborative efforts thereof.

  12. Using Restorative Practices in Group Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Mary; Johnson, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Providing a safe environment for youth placed out of their home is essential to the success of at-risk youth. An environment that also offers the opportunity to empower the youth to partner in his or her own healing and help others in the environment clearly builds on the strengths inherent in youth. Transferring these strengths and reconnecting…

  13. Complications in hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2013-11-01

    Hair restoration requires a high level of specialized skill on the part of both the surgeon and the assistant team. Recipient-site problems can manifest from either surgeon or assistant error. The surgeon can create an unnatural hairline due to lack of knowledge of natural hair-loss patterns or badly executed recipient sites. He must also be cognizant of how hairs naturally are angled on the scalp to re-create a pattern that appears natural when making recipient sites. Assistants can also greatly contribute to the success or failure of surgery in their task of graft dissection and graft placement. PMID:24200385

  14. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

  15. Percutaneous left ventricular restoration.

    PubMed

    Ige, Mobolaji; Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Attizzani, Guilherme; Costa, Marco; Oliveira, Guilherme H

    2015-04-01

    The ventricular partitioning device known as Parachute is the first and only percutaneously implantable device aimed at restoration of normal left ventricular geometry in humans. Since its conception, this technology has undergone extensive animal and human testing, with proved feasibility and safety, and is currently being studied in a pivotal randomized clinical trial. This article discusses ventricular remodeling and therapies attempted in the past, details the components of the ventricular partitioning device, describes the implanting technique, and reviews the most current experience of this device in humans. PMID:25834974

  16. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993; Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers, thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin. Adult pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River. In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River. To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2001.

  17. The Clam Trail: Blending Science Education, Public Art, and Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muscio, Cara; Flimlin, Gef; Bushnell, Rick

    2011-01-01

    The Barnegat Bay Shellfish Restoration's Clam Trail is an award-winning scavenger hunt that combines science education, public art, and tourism. This family adventure has participants seeking out giant painted fiberglass clams, upweller clam nurseries, and points of interest in search of science facts to record on their forms. Upon returning these…

  18. The Art Classroom as Art Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr-Johnson, Virginia; Brockmyer, James J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests ways of turning the art room into a microenvironment of sensory intensification--a place where a student steps into a new world of color, sound, and smell that delights the eye and inspires the imagination. (Author/SJL)

  19. Management of hypodontia: restorative considerations. Part III.

    PubMed

    Forgie, Andrew H; Thind, Bikram S; Larmour, Colin J; Mossey, Peter A; Stirrups, David R

    2005-06-01

    This paper, the third in the series, initially details the role of the restorative dentist in treating patients with hypodontia. (See Quintessence Int 2005;36:263-270 and 345-353 for the first two papers.) A range of treatment options, including implants, adhesive techniques, and removable prostheses, are covered. The investigators have detailed the clinical indications, and noted their relative advantages and disadvantages. PMID:15954249

  20. Utilizing Prestructured Art Elements in Brief Group Art Therapy with Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Randy M.

    1999-01-01

    A decrease in the average stay in mental health programs has changed the delivery of art therapy services. Article presents strategies for utilizing six prestructured art elements (magazine pictures, magazine words, photocopied images, cut and torn paper, traced shapes, and partial drawings) as a means of addressing these trends. Treatment sources…

  1. Amelogenesis imperfecta - lifelong management. Restorative management of the adult patient.

    PubMed

    Patel, M; McDonnell, S T; Iram, S; Chan, M F W-Y

    2013-11-01

    The biggest challenge restorative dentists face in rehabilitating patients with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is trying to restore aesthetics, function and occlusal stability while keeping the treatment as conservative as possible. The goals of treatment should be to prolong the life of the patient's own teeth and avoid or delay the need for extractions and subsequent replacement with conventional fixed, removable or implant retained prostheses. In order to achieve these goals a stepwise approach to treatment planning is required starting with the most conservative but aesthetically acceptable treatment. This article discusses the management of AI and presents the various treatment options available for restoring the adult patient who presents to the dentist with AI. PMID:24201615

  2. Art and epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Ladino, Lady Diana; Hunter, Gary; Téllez-Zenteno, José Francisco

    2013-10-01

    The impact of health and disease has led many artists to depict these themes for thousands of years. Specifically, epilepsy has been the subject of many famous works, likely because of the dramatic and misunderstood nature of the clinical presentation. It often evokes religious and even mythical processes. Epilepsy surgical treatment has revolutionized the care of selected patients and is a relatively recent advance. Epilepsy surgery has been depicted in very few artistic works. The first portrait showing a potential surgical treatment for patients with epilepsy was painted in the 12th century. During the Renaissance, Bosch famously provided artistic commentary on traditional beliefs in "The stone of madness". Several of these works demonstrate a surgeon extracting a stone from a patient's head, at one time believed to be the source of all "folly", including epileptic seizures, psychosis, intellectual disability, depression, and a variety of other illnesses. There are some contemporary art pieces including themes around epilepsy surgery, all of them depicting ancient Inca Empire procedures such as trepanning. This article reviews the most relevant artistic works related with epilepsy surgery and also its historical context at the time the work was produced. We also present a painting from the Mexican artist Eduardo Urbano Merino that represents the patient's journey through refractory epilepsy, investigations, and ultimately recovery. Through this work, the artist intends to communicate hope and reassurance to patients going through this difficult process. PMID:23933914

  3. The Return of the Body: Performance Art and Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gaye Leigh

    1999-01-01

    Explains that performance art incorporates different artistic forms, emphasizes the process of art over the product, and blurs the line between life and art. Discusses the history of performance art, highlights the Performance Art, Culture, and Pedagogy Symposium, and provides examples of how to use performance art in the classroom. (CMK)

  4. Folk Art as Communal Culture and Art Proper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delacruz, Elizabeth Manley

    1999-01-01

    Defines folk art and explores the ascent of folk art in the United States, focusing on (1) the fascination of mainstream artists with indigenous and intuitive art and (2) the growing interest of collectors in folk and outsider art. Reflects on folk art and art education. (CMK)

  5. Art-Based Learning Strategies in Art Therapy Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaver, Sarah P.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods research study examined the use of art-based teaching methods in master's level art therapy graduate education in North America. A survey of program directors yielded information regarding in which courses and how frequently art-based methods (individual in-class art making, dyad or group art making, student art projects as…

  6. Art in Story: Teaching Art History to Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saccardi, Marianne

    Integrated art history and language arts activities are presented in this curriculum guide. The art history content is chronologically organized by units: (1) "Art of the Ancient World"; (2) "Arts of the East and Africa"; (3) "Art of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance"; (4) "Five European Masters"; (5) "Impressionism and Post-Impressionism"; (6)…

  7. New School Art Styles: The Project of Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gude, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Art projects are appropriate building blocks for visual art curriculum because good art projects encode complex aesthetic strategies, giving students tools to investigate and make meaning. Art made in schools will inevitably be some form of "school art," defined by Arthur Efland in "The School Art Style: a Functional Analysis,"…

  8. Evaluating visual and auditory contributions to the cognitive restoration effect

    PubMed Central

    Emfield, Adam G.; Neider, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that certain real-world environments can have a restorative effect on an individual, as expressed in changes in cognitive performance and mood. Much of this research builds on Attention Restoration Theory (ART), which suggests that environments that have certain characteristics induce cognitive restoration via variations in attentional demands. Specifically, natural environments that require little top-down processing have a positive effect on cognitive performance, while city-like environments show no effect. We characterized the cognitive restoration effect further by examining (1) whether natural visual stimuli, such as blue spaces, were more likely to provide a restorative effect over urban visual stimuli, (2) if increasing immersion with environment-related sound produces a similar or superior effect, (3) if this effect extends to other cognitive tasks, such as the functional field of view (FFOV), and (4) if we could better understand this effect by providing controls beyond previous works. We had 202 participants complete a cognitive task battery, consisting of a reverse digit span task, the attention network task, and the FFOV task prior to and immediately after a restoration period. In the restoration period, participants were assigned to one of seven conditions in which they listened to natural or urban sounds, watched images of natural or urban environments, or a combination of both. Additionally, some participants were in a control group with exposure to neither picture nor sound. While we found some indication of practice effects, there were no differential effects of restoration observed in any of our cognitive tasks, regardless of condition. We did, however, find evidence that our nature images and sounds were more relaxing than their urban counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that acute exposure to relaxing pictorial and auditory stimulus is insufficient to induce improvements in cognitive performance. PMID:24926279

  9. Reparative dentistry or restorative dentistry?

    PubMed

    Small, Bruce W

    2008-01-01

    The real definition of restorative dentistry is found in the heart and hands of each individual restorative dentist. His or her training, continuing dental education, mentors, needs (financial and emotional), and style of practice all help to develop a philosophy of dental practice that affects daily restorative decisions. Depending on the factors described above, the decision to repair a tooth or change the environment and restore the tooth to a different shape, size, or color also may change. In recent years, patients' esthetic desires have become more of a factor than they were in previous decades. There are no exact written-tn-stone definitions of restorative dentistry, since the answers are operator-dependent and can vary. This column is meant to be food for thought and perhaps inspire discussion when dentists assemble for meetings or study clubs with the goal of delivering longer-lasting dentistry through a restorative dental practice. PMID:18348367

  10. A multistaged automatic restoration of noisy microscopy cell images.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinwei; Hu, Jiankun; Jia, Xiuping

    2015-01-01

    Automated cell segmentation for microscopy cell images has recently become an initial step for further image analysis in cell biology. However, microscopy cell images are easily degraded by noise during the readout procedure via optical-electronic imaging systems. Such noise degradations result in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and poor image quality for cell identification. In order to improve SNR for subsequent segmentation and image-based quantitative analysis, the commonly used state-of-art restoration techniques are applied but few of them are suitable for corrupted microscopy cell images. In this paper, we propose a multistaged method based on a novel integration of trend surface analysis, quantile-quantile plot, bootstrapping, and the Gaussian spatial kernel for the restoration of noisy microscopy cell images. We show this multistaged approach achieves higher performance compared with other state-of-art restoration techniques in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio and structure similarity in synthetic noise experiments. This paper also reports an experiment on real noisy microscopy data which demonstrated the advantages of the proposed restoration method for improving segmentation performance. PMID:25291801

  11. [Multi-source data acquisition technology in the restoration of the complete denture restoration].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Weiwei; Wang, Yong; Pan, Shaoxia; Sun, Yuchun

    2016-02-01

    In complete-denture restoration of edentulous jaws, the following information is needed: functional impression of edentulous jaws, jaw relationship and facial fullness, parameters of individual mandibular movement, etc. Traditional clinical methods in obtaining these data, which depend greatly on practitioners' clinical experience and skills, are subjective, complicated and low efficient. With the development of the digital restoration of edentulous jaws, a variety of equipment for three-dimensional scan have been applied in acquiring three-dimensional source data concerning the needed information, which greatly simplifies the process of data obtaining, reduces the dependence on operational skills and subjective experience, improves efficiency and efficacy of diagnosis and treatment, and standardizes the restoration process. PMID:26926199

  12. Restorative material and other tooth-specific variables associated with the decision to repair or replace defective restorations: findings from The Dental PBRN

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Valeria V.; Riley, Joseph L.; Worley, Donald C.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Using data from dentists participating in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN), the study had 2 main objectives: (1) to identify and quantify the types of restorative materials in the existing failed restorations; and (2) to identify and quantify the materials used to repair or replace those failed restorations. Methods This cross-sectional study used a consecutive patient/restoration recruitment design. Practitioner-investigators recorded data on consecutive restorations in permanent teeth that needed repair or replacement. Data included the primary reason for repair or replacement, tooth surface(s) involved, restorative materials used, and patient demographics. Results Data for 9,875 restorations were collected from 7,502 patients in 197 practices for which 75% of restorations were replaced and 25% repaired. Most of the restorations that were either repaired or replaced were amalgam (56%) for which most (56%) of the material used was direct tooth-colored. The restorative material was 5 times more likely to be changed when the original restoration was amalgam (OR=5.2, p<.001). The likelihood of changing an amalgam restoration differed as a function of the tooth type (OR=3.0, p<.001), arch (OR=6.6, p<.001); and number of surfaces in the original restoration (OR=12.2, p<.001). Conclusion The probability of changing from amalgam to another restorative material differed with several characteristics of the original restoration. The change was most likely to take place when (1) the treatment was a replacement; (2) the tooth was not a molar; (3) the tooth was in the maxillary arch; and (4) the original restoration involved a single surface. PMID:22342563

  13. The decision to repair or replace a defective restoration is affected by who placed the original restoration: findings from the National Dental PBRN

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Valeria V; Riley, Joseph; Geraldeli, Saulo; Williams, O. Dale; Spoto, Joseph C; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate how restoration characteristics are associated with the decision to repair or replace an existing restoration. The following hypotheses were studied: Dentists who placed the original restoration are more likely to repair instead of replace restorations (H1) that are in molar teeth; (H2) that are in the upper arch; (H3) that have amalgam restorative material; (H4) if a fracture is not the primary reason for the defect; and (H5) when the restoration comprises more than one surface. Methods This cross-sectional study used a consecutive patient/restoration recruitment design. 194 dentists members of a dental practice-based research network recorded data on restorations in permanent teeth that needed repair or replacement. Results For 6,623 of the 8,770 defective restorations in 6,643 patients, the treatment was provided by the dentist who had not placed the original restoration (75%). The 2-way interaction revealed that dentists who had placed the original restoration often chose to repair when the defective restoration was in a molar, relative to premolar or anterior teeth (OR = 2.2, p < .001); and chose to replace when the restoration had amalgam (OR = 0.5, p < .001), and when it was a fracture compared to another reason (OR = 0.8, p = 001). Conclusion Most dentists are not conservative when they revisit a restoration that they originally placed regardless of type of failure, number of surfaces or material used. However, dentists who had placed the original restoration were significantly more likely to repair it when the defective restoration was in a molar tooth. PMID:25223822

  14. The role of HIV testing, counselling, and treatment in coping with HIV/AIDS in Uganda: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Nyanzi-Wakholi, Barbara; Lara, Antonieta Medina; Watera, Christine; Munderi, Paula; Gilks, Charles; Grosskurth, Heiner

    2009-07-01

    HIV/AIDS has had a devastating impact at individual, household and community levels. This qualitative research investigates the role of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) and treatment in enabling HIV-positive Ugandans to cope with this disease. Twelve predetermined focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted; six with men and six with women. Half of the men and women's groups were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and half were not. An FGD was held with the health care providers administering ART. Testing for HIV was perceived as soliciting a death warrant. Participants affirmed that the incentive for testing was the possibility of accessing free ART. They described experiencing gender-variant stigma and depression on confirming their HIV status and commended the role of counselling in supporting them to adopt positive living. For those receiving ART, counselling reinforced treatment adherence. The findings also revealed gender differences in treatment adherence strategies. ART was described to reduce disease symptoms and restore physical health allowing them to resume their daily activities. Additionally, ART was preferred over traditional herbal treatment because it had clear dosages, expiry dates and was scientifically manufactured. Those that were not receiving ART bore myths and misconceptions about the effectiveness and side effects of ART, delaying the decision to seek treatment. Stigma and the attached concern of HIV/AIDS-related swift death, is a major barrier for VCT. Based on this study's findings, ensuring the provision of quality assured and gender conscious VCT and ART delivery services will enhance positive living and enforce compliance to ART programmes. PMID:20024747

  15. Longevity of Posterior Composite Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Opdam, N.J.M.; van de Sande, F.H.; Bronkhorst, E.; Cenci, M.S.; Bottenberg, P.; Pallesen, U.; Gaengler, P.; Lindberg, A.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; van Dijken, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis, based on individual participant data from several studies, was to investigate the influence of patient-, materials-, and tooth-related variables on the survival of posterior resin composite restorations. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a search resulting in 12 longitudinal studies of direct posterior resin composite restorations with at least 5 years’ follow-up. Original datasets were still available, including placement/failure/censoring of restorations, restored surfaces, materials used, reasons for clinical failure, and caries-risk status. A database including all restorations was constructed, and a multivariate Cox regression method was used to analyze variables of interest [patient (age; gender; caries-risk status), jaw (upper; lower), number of restored surfaces, resin composite and adhesive materials, and use of glass-ionomer cement as base/liner (present or absent)]. The hazard ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals were determined, and annual failure rates were calculated for subgroups. Of all restorations, 2,816 (2,585 Class II and 231 Class I) were included in the analysis, of which 569 failed during the observation period. Main reasons for failure were caries and fracture. The regression analyses showed a significantly higher risk of failure for restorations in high-caries-risk individuals and those with a higher number of restored surfaces. PMID:25048250

  16. Demographic, criminogenic, and psychiatric factors that predict competency restoration.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Lori H; Gianesini, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has investigated the characteristics of competent and incompetent defendants and restorable and nonrestorable defendants. However, less is known about the influence of current treatment variables and other systemic factors on restorability. In the present study, we sought to examine the impact of demographic, criminogenic, historical clinical, and current treatment variables on the restorability and length of stay (LOS) of incompetent defendants. We reviewed the records of 71 male patients who had been court ordered for competency restoration and subsequently discharged from a maximum-security forensic hospital. Results indicated that nonrestorable patients had more prior hospitalizations, incarcerations, and episodes of incompetence, had lower level charges, were diagnosed with a psychotic and cognitive disorder, were prescribed more medications, and had lower global assessment of functioning (GAF) scores. Nonrestorable patients were hospitalized nearly twice as long as those eventually found competent, and patients with lower IQs and lower GAFs and who spent more days on special observations had longer LOS. PMID:21908744

  17. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P.; Wike, L.D. |; Dietsch, B.M. |

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  18. Conservative approaches for the management of failed resin-based posterior restorations: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nahsan, Flavia Pardo Salata; Oliveira, Gabriela Ulian; Medina-Valdivia, Juan Rommel; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Wang, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Composite resin restorations have been shown to be functionally reliable and esthetically acceptable to patients, primarily due to improvements in their chemicophysical characteristics. Nevertheless, clinical limitations, such as marginal discoloration, disadaptation, and microleakage, are observed in some patients with these restorations. The choice of treatment pursued to repair such restorations depends primarily on the analysis of the compromised restoration with regard to these aforementioned imperfections. The most common procedures invoked to treat compromised restorations include resurfacing, repairing the restoration with or without the use of surface sealants, and completely replacing the compromised restoration. This case report describes the proper implementation of a simple technique, known as composite resin posterior restoration, that yields a satisfactory outcome for patients who have been characterized with these clinical limitations. PMID:22025995

  19. Conservation and Preservation of Humanities Research Collections. Essays on Treatment and Care of Rare Books, Manuscripts, Photography, and Art on Paper and Canvas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliphant, Dave, Ed.

    The 10 essays in this collection describe conservation and preservation projects conducted at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas at Austin. Eight of the 10 essays, each of which is written by a member of the Center's staff, address conservation treatments and issues. Two essays deal with preserving materials by…

  20. Role of provisional restorations in endodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Jambai Sampathkumar; Suresh Kumar, Beri Narasimiah; Shyamala, Palaniyandi Vadivel

    2013-01-01

    Root-canal treatment can be carried out in single visit in vital, non-infected teeth, eliminating the need for dressing and provisionalization. Many clinical cases with infected canals require dressing with antibacterial medicaments in a multivisit treatment in which effective provisionalization for different periods of time becomes mandatory. Successful root-canal treatment requires effective mechanical and chemical debridement, elimination of bacteria and pulp tissue remnants and proper canal shaping to facilitate effective obturation. Lack of satisfactory temporary restorations during endodontic therapy ranked second amongst the contributing factors in continuing pain after the commencement of treatment. This review aims to provide an overview of the materials used for provisionalization during and immediately after endodontic treatment. PMID:23946564