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Sample records for restriction endonuclease implications

  1. Problem-Solving Test: Restriction Endonuclease Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2011-01-01

    The term "restriction endonuclease mapping" covers a number of related techniques used to identify specific restriction enzyme recognition sites on small DNA molecules. A method for restriction endonuclease mapping of a 1,000-basepair (bp)-long DNA molecule is described in the fictitious experiment of this test. The most important fact needed to…

  2. Biochemical analysis of the substrate specificity and sequence preference of endonuclease IV from bacteriophage T4, a dC-specific endonuclease implicated in restriction of dC-substituted T4 DNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Nobutaka; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    Endonuclease IV encoded by denB of bacteriophage T4 is implicated in restriction of deoxycytidine (dC)-containing DNA in the host Escherichia coli. The enzyme was synthesized with the use of a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system, given a lethal effect of its expression in E.coli cells, and was purified to homogeneity. The purified enzyme showed high activity with single-stranded (ss) DNA and denatured dC-substituted T4 genomic double-stranded (ds) DNA but exhibited no activity with dsDNA, ssRNA or denatured T4 genomic dsDNA containing glucosylated deoxyhydroxymethylcytidine. Characterization of Endo IV activity revealed that the enzyme catalyzed specific endonucleolytic cleavage of the 5′ phosphodiester bond of dC in ssDNA with an efficiency markedly dependent on the surrounding nucleotide sequence. The enzyme preferentially targeted 5′-dTdCdA-3′ but tolerated various combinations of individual nucleotides flanking this trinucleotide sequence. These results suggest that Endo IV preferentially recognizes short nucleotide sequences containing 5′-dTdCdA-3′, which likely accounts for the limited digestion of ssDNA by the enzyme and may be responsible in part for the indispensability of a deficiency in denB for stable synthesis of dC-substituted T4 genomic DNA. PMID:16971463

  3. Functional domains in Fok I restriction endonuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Li, L; Wu, L P; Chandrasegaran, S

    1992-01-01

    The PCR was used to alter transcriptional and translational signals surrounding the Flavobacterium okeanokoites restriction endonuclease (fokIR) gene, so as to achieve high expression in Escherichia coli. By changing the ribosome-binding site sequence preceding the fokIR gene to match the consensus E. coli signal and by placing a positive retroregulator stem-loop sequence downstream of the gene, Fok I yield was increased to 5-8% of total cellular protein. Fok I was purified to homogeneity with phosphocellulose, DEAE-Sephadex, and gel chromatography, yielding 50 mg of pure Fok I endonuclease per liter of culture medium. The recognition and cleavage domains of Fok I were analyzed by trypsin digestion. Fok I in the absence of a DNA substrate cleaves into a 58-kDa carboxyl-terminal and 8-kDa amino-terminal fragment. The 58-kDa fragment does not bind the DNA substrate. Fok I in the presence of a DNA substrate cleaves into a 41-kDa amino-terminal fragment and a 25-kDa carboxyl-terminal fragment. On further digestion, the 41-kDa fragment degrades into 30-kDa amino-terminal and 11-kDa carboxyl-terminal fragments. The cleaved fragments both bind DNA substrates, as does the 41-kDa fragment. Gel-mobility-shift assays indicate that all the protein contacts necessary for the sequence-specific recognition of DNA substrates are encoded within the 41-kDa fragment. Thus, the 41-kDa amino-terminal fragment constitutes the Fok I recognition domain. The 25-kDa fragment, purified by using a DEAE-Sephadex column, cleaves nonspecifically both methylated (pACYCfokIM) and nonmethylated (pTZ19R) DNA substrates in the presence of MgCl2. Thus, the 25-kDa carboxyl-terminal fragment constitutes the Fok I cleavage domain. Images PMID:1584761

  4. RNA aptamer inhibitors of a restriction endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón, Estefanía; Maher, L. James

    2015-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases (REases) recognize and cleave short palindromic DNA sequences, protecting bacterial cells against bacteriophage infection by attacking foreign DNA. We are interested in the potential of folded RNA to mimic DNA, a concept that might be applied to inhibition of DNA-binding proteins. As a model system, we sought RNA aptamers against the REases BamHI, PacI and KpnI using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). After 20 rounds of selection under different stringent conditions, we identified the 10 most enriched RNA aptamers for each REase. Aptamers were screened for binding and specificity, and assayed for REase inhibition. We obtained eight high-affinity (Kd ∼12-30 nM) selective competitive inhibitors (IC50 ∼20-150 nM) for KpnI. Predicted RNA secondary structures were confirmed by in-line attack assay and a 38-nt derivative of the best anti-KpnI aptamer was sufficient for inhibition. These competitive inhibitors presumably act as KpnI binding site analogs, but lack the primary consensus KpnI cleavage sequence and are not cleaved by KpnI, making their potential mode of DNA mimicry fascinating. Anti-REase RNA aptamers could have value in studies of REase mechanism and may give clues to a code for designing RNAs that competitively inhibit DNA binding proteins including transcription factors. PMID:26184872

  5. [New means of isolating restriction endonuclease preparations using organic solvents].

    PubMed

    Sokolov, N N; Votrin, I I; Fitsner, A B; Kirsanova, I D; Dedov, S S

    1980-01-01

    A new procedure is developed for isolation of highly purified preparations of restrictional endonoucleases Bam HI and Eco RI by means of fractionation with isopropyl alcohol. Restrictional endonuclease Bam HI, practically free of unspecific nucleases, was isolated after ultrasonic destruction of cells, precipitation of the restrictases with isopropanol and chromatography on DEAE cellulose. Additional chromatography on hydroxyapatite enabled to obtain the homogenous preparation of Bam HI restrictase, as shown by polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis. Other organic solvents (acetone, ethanol) might be also used for purification of the restrictional endonucleases. PMID:6256963

  6. The actions of restriction endonucleases on lampbrush chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Gould, D C; Callan, H G; Thomas, C A

    1976-07-01

    Lampbrush chromosomes from oocytes of Notophthalmus viridescens were dispersed in media containing restriction endonucleases isolated from Haemophilus and E. coli. These endonucleases cleave duplex DNAs at specific palindromic sequences of nucleotides, and several sensitive sites occur per micron of DNA. The overwhelming majority of the lateral loops of lampbrush chromosomes are extensively fragmented by these endonucleases, but an occasional pair of loops is refractory. A notable example of loops showing this refractory property are the giant loops on chromosome II in the presence of Hae. These loops, whose DNA-containing axes are several hundred micra long, are sensitive to other nucleases such as EcoB, endonuclease I and pancreatic DNase I; their refractory behavior towards Hae therefore indicates that the sequence sensitive to this particular endonuclease is systematically absent. This anomalous property can be comprehended if it be assumed that the axial DNA of the giant loops consists of tandem repeats of a sequence which happens not to include the sensitive site. PMID:987047

  7. The Ser176 of T4 endonuclease IV is crucial for the restricted and polarized dC-specific cleavage of single-stranded DNA implicated in restriction of dC-containing DNA in host Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Nobutaka; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Sakashita, Hidenori; Takahashi, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    Endonuclease (Endo) IV encoded by denB of bacteriophage T4 is an enzyme that cleaves single-stranded (ss) DNA in a dC-specific manner. Also the growth of dC-substituted T4 phage and host Escherichia coli cells is inhibited by denB expression presumably because of the inhibitory effect on replication of dC-containing DNA. Recently, we have demonstrated that an efficient cleavage by Endo IV occurs exclusively at the 5′-proximal dC (dC1) within a hexameric or an extended sequence consisting of dC residues at the 5′-proximal and the 3′-proximal positions (dCs tract), in which a third dC residue within the tract affects the polarized cleavage and cleavage rate. Here we isolate and characterize two denB mutants, denB(W88R) and denB(S176N). Both mutant alleles have lost the detrimental effect on the host cell. Endo IV(W88R) shows no enzymatic activity (<0.4% of that of wild-type Endo IV). On the other hand, Endo IV(S176N) retains cleavage activity (17.5% of that of wild-type Endo IV), but has lost the polarized and restricted cleavage of a dCs tract, indicating that the Ser176 residue of Endo IV is implicated in the polarized cleavage of a dCs tract which brings about a detrimental effect on the replication of dC-containing DNA. PMID:17913749

  8. A simple, general procedure for purifying restriction endonucleases.

    PubMed Central

    Bickle, T A; Pirrotta, V; Imber, R

    1977-01-01

    A simple, general method for purifying restriction endonucleases is described. The method employs precipitation of nucleic acids from crude extracts with polyethyleneimine followed by affinity chromatography on columns of heparin covalently linked to agarose. Most of the sixteen enzymes tested could be purified to a degree sufficient for DNA sequencing work by this method sometimes supplemented by at most one step of ion exchange chromatography. Images PMID:909783

  9. Restriction endonuclease inhibitor IPI* of bacteriophage T4

    PubMed Central

    Rifat, Dalin; Wright, Nathan T.; Varney, Kristen M.; Weber, David J.; Black, Lindsay W.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Phage T4 protects its DNA from the two gene encoded gmrS/gmrD (glucose modified hydroxymethylcytosine (gHMC) restriction endonuclease) (CT), of pathogenic E. coli CT596, by injecting several hundred copies of the 76 amino acid residue nuclease inhibitor, IPI*, into the infected host. Here, the three-dimensional solution structure of mature IPI* is reported as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques using 1290 experimental NOE and dipolar coupling constraints (∼17 constraints/residue). Close examination of this oblate-shaped protein structure reveals a novel fold consisting of two small β-sheets (β1: B1, B2; β2: B3-B5), flanked at the N- and C-termini by alpha helices (H1 & H2). Such a fold is very compact in shape, and allows ejection of IPI* through the narrow 30Å portal and tail tube apertures of the virion without unfolding. Structural and dynamic measurements identify an exposed hydrophobic knob that is a putative gmrS/gmrD binding site. A single gene from the uropathogenic E. coli UT189, which codes for a gmrS/gmrD-like fusion protein (∼90% identity to the heterodimeric CT enzyme) has evolved IPI* inhibitor immunity. Analysis of the gmrS/gmrD restriction endonuclease enzyme family and its IPI* family phage antagonists reveals an evolutionary pathway that has elaborated a surprisingly diverse and specifically fitted set of co-evolving attack and defense structures. PMID:18037438

  10. Selective microbial genomic DNA isolation using restriction endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Helen E; Liu, Guohong; Weston, Christopher Q; King, Paula; Pham, Long K; Waltz, Shannon; Helzer, Kimberly T; Day, Laura; Sphar, Dan; Yamamoto, Robert T; Forsyth, R Allyn

    2014-01-01

    To improve the metagenomic analysis of complex microbiomes, we have repurposed restriction endonucleases as methyl specific DNA binding proteins. As an example, we use DpnI immobilized on magnetic beads. The ten minute extraction technique allows specific binding of genomes containing the DpnI Gm6ATC motif common in the genomic DNA of many bacteria including γ-proteobacteria. Using synthetic genome mixtures, we demonstrate 80% recovery of Escherichia coli genomic DNA even when only femtogram quantities are spiked into 10 µg of human DNA background. Binding is very specific with less than 0.5% of human DNA bound. Next Generation Sequencing of input and enriched synthetic mixtures results in over 100-fold enrichment of target genomes relative to human and plant DNA. We also show comparable enrichment when sequencing complex microbiomes such as those from creek water and human saliva. The technique can be broadened to other restriction enzymes allowing for the selective enrichment of trace and unculturable organisms from complex microbiomes and the stratification of organisms according to restriction enzyme enrichment. PMID:25279840

  11. Peculiarities of Crystallization of the Restriction Endonuclease EcoRII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpove, Elizaveta; Pusey, M.arc L.

    1998-01-01

    Nucleases interfere with most standard molecular biology procedures. We have purified and crystallized the restriction endonuclease EcoRII, which belongs to the type II of restriction- modification enzyme, to study the protein crystallization process using a "non standard" macromolecule. A procedure for the purification of EcoRII was developed and 99% pure protein as determined by SDS PAGE electrophoresis obtained. Light scattering experiments were performed to assist in screening protein suitable crystallization conditions. The second virial coefficient was determined as a function of precipitating salt concentration, using sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, and sodium sulfate. Small (maximum size approximately 0.2 mm) well shaped crystals have been obtained. Larger poorly formed crystals (ca 0.5 mm) have also been obtained, but we have been unable to mount them for diff-raction analysis due to their extreme fragility. Crystallization experiments with PEG have shown that using this precipitant, the best crystals are obtained from slightly over-saturated solutions. Use of higher precipitant concentration leads to dendritic crystal formation. EcoRII is difficult to solubilize and meticulous attention must be paid to the presence of reducing agents.

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE 'SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA' NUCLEAR POLYHEDROSIS VIRUS GENOME BY RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASES AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restriction endonuclease analysis was used to differentiate between four strains of Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear polyhedrosis virus from different geographical areas. In addition, partial denaturation was performed, and a partial denaturation map was constructed for the Ohio str...

  13. Effect of site-specific modification on restriction endonucleases and DNA modification methyltransferases.

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, M; Nelson, M; Raschke, E

    1994-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases have site-specific interactions with DNA that can often be inhibited by site-specific DNA methylation and other site-specific DNA modifications. However, such inhibition cannot generally be predicted. The empirically acquired data on these effects are tabulated for over 320 restriction endonucleases. In addition, a table of known site-specific DNA modification methyltransferases and their specificities is presented along with EMBL database accession numbers for cloned genes. PMID:7937074

  14. Temporal dynamics of methyltransferase and restriction endonuclease accumulation in individual cells after introducing a restriction-modification system

    PubMed Central

    Morozova, Natalia; Sabantsev, Anton; Bogdanova, Ekaterina; Fedorova, Yana; Maikova, Anna; Vedyaykin, Alexey; Rodic, Andjela; Djordjevic, Marko; Khodorkovskii, Mikhail; Severinov, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Type II restriction-modification (R-M) systems encode a restriction endonuclease that cleaves DNA at specific sites, and a methyltransferase that modifies same sites protecting them from restriction endonuclease cleavage. Type II R-M systems benefit bacteria by protecting them from bacteriophages. Many type II R-M systems are plasmid-based and thus capable of horizontal transfer. Upon the entry of such plasmids into a naïve host with unmodified genomic recognition sites, methyltransferase should be synthesized first and given sufficient time to methylate recognition sites in the bacterial genome before the toxic restriction endonuclease activity appears. Here, we directly demonstrate a delay in restriction endonuclease synthesis after transformation of Escherichia coli cells with a plasmid carrying the Esp1396I type II R-M system, using single-cell microscopy. We further demonstrate that before the appearance of the Esp1396I restriction endonuclease the intracellular concentration of Esp1396I methyltransferase undergoes a sharp peak, which should allow rapid methylation of host genome recognition sites. A mathematical model that satisfactorily describes the observed dynamics of both Esp1396I enzymes is presented. The results reported here were obtained using a functional Esp1396I type II R-M system encoding both enzymes fused to fluorescent proteins. Similar approaches should be applicable to the studies of other R-M systems at single-cell level. PMID:26687717

  15. Restriction endonucleases for pulsed field mapping of bacterial genomes.

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, M; Jones, R; Patel, Y; Nelson, M

    1987-01-01

    Fundamental to many bacterial genome mapping strategies currently under development is the need to cleave the genome into a few large DNA fragments that can be resolved by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Identification of endonucleases that infrequently cut a genome is of key importance in this process. We show that the tetranucleotide CTAG is extremely rare in most bacterial genomes with G+C contents above 45%. As a consequence, most of the sixteen bacterial genomes we have tested are cleaved less than once every 100,000 base pairs by one or more endonucleases that have CTAG in their recognition sequences: Xba I (TCTAGA), Spe I (ACTAGT), Avr II (CCTAGG) and Nhe I (GCTAGC). Similarly, CCG and CGG are the rarest trinucleotides in many genomes with G+C content of less than 45%. Thus, Sma I (CCCGGG), Rsr II (CGGWCCG), Nae I (GCCGGC) and Sac II (CCGCGG) are often suitable endonucleases for producing fragments that average over 100,000 base pairs from such genomes. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis of the fragments that result from cleavage with endonucleases that cleave only a few times per genome should assist in the physical mapping of many prokaryotic genomes. Images PMID:2819819

  16. Comparison of genomes of malignant catarrhal fever-associated herpesviruses by restriction endonuclease analysis.

    PubMed

    Shih, L M; Zee, Y C; Castro, A E

    1989-01-01

    The restriction endonuclease DNA cleavage patterns of eight isolates of malignant catarrhal fever-associated herpesviruses were examined using the restriction endonucleases HindIII and EcoRI. The eight viruses could be assigned to two distinct groups. Virus isolates from a blue wildebeest, a sika deer and an ibex had restriction endonuclease DNA cleavage patterns that were in general similar to each other. The restriction pattern of these three viruses was distinct from the other five. Of these five, four were isolated from a greater kudu, a white tailed wildebeest, a white bearded wildebeest, and a cape hartebeest. The fifth isolate C500, was isolated from a domestic cow with malignant catarrhal fever. These five viruses had similar DNA cleavage patterns. PMID:2558629

  17. 'SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA' NUCLEAR POLYHEDROSIS VIRUS GENOME: PHYSICAL MAPS FOR RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASES BAMHI AND HINDIII

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical map for the genome of Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear polyhedrosis virus was constructed for restriction endonucleases BamHI and HindIII. The ordering of the restriction fragments was accomplished by cross-blot hybridization of BamHI, HindIII, and EcoRI fragments. The ...

  18. BspRI restriction endonuclease: cloning, expression in Escherichia coli and sequential cleavage mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Raskó, Tamás; Dér, András; Klement, Éva; Ślaska-Kiss, Krystyna; Pósfai, Eszter; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Marshak, Daniel R.; Roberts, Richard J.; Kiss, Antal

    2010-01-01

    The GGCC-specific restriction endonuclease BspRI is one of the few Type IIP restriction endonucleases, which were suggested to be a monomer. Amino acid sequence information obtained by Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis was used to clone the gene encoding BspRI. The bspRIR gene is located adjacently to the gene of the cognate modification methyltransferase and encodes a 304 aa protein. Expression of the bspRIR gene in Escherichia coli was dependent on the replacement of the native TTG initiation codon with an ATG codon, explaining previous failures in cloning the gene using functional selection. A plasmid containing a single BspRI recognition site was used to analyze kinetically nicking and second-strand cleavage under steady-state conditions. Cleavage of the supercoiled plasmid went through a relaxed intermediate indicating sequential hydrolysis of the two strands. Results of the kinetic analysis of the first- and second-strand cleavage are consistent with cutting the double-stranded substrate site in two independent binding events. A database search identified eight putative restriction-modification systems in which the predicted endonucleases as well as the methyltransferases share high sequence similarity with the corresponding protein of the BspRI system. BspRI and the related putative restriction endonucleases belong to the PD-(D/E)XK nuclease superfamily. PMID:20587501

  19. Type II restriction endonucleases cleave single-stranded DNAs in general.

    PubMed Central

    Nishigaki, K; Kaneko, Y; Wakuda, H; Husimi, Y; Tanaka, T

    1985-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases (13 out of 18 species used for the test) were certified to cleave single-stranded(ss)DNA. Such enzymes as AvaII, HaeII, DdeI, AluI, Sau3AI, AccII,TthHB8I and HapII were newly reported to cleave ssDNA. A model to account for the cleavage of ssDNA by restriction enzymes was proposed with supportive data. The essential part of the model was that restriction enzymes preferentially cleave transiently formed secondary structures (called canonical structures) in ssDNA composed of two recognition sequences with two fold rotational symmetry. This means that a restriction enzyme can cleave ssDNAs in general so far as the DNAs have the sequences of restriction sites for the enzyme, and that the rate of cleavage depends on the stabilities of canonical structures. Images PMID:2994012

  20. Structure and mutagenesis of the DNA modification-dependent restriction endonuclease AspBHI

    PubMed Central

    Horton, John R.; Nugent, Rebecca L.; Li, Andrew; Mabuchi, Megumu Yamada; Fomenkov, Alexey; Cohen-Karni, Devora; Griggs, Rose M.; Zhang, Xing; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Shuang-yong; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    The modification-dependent restriction endonuclease AspBHI recognizes 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in the double-strand DNA sequence context of (C/T)(C/G)(5mC)N(C/G) (N = any nucleotide) and cleaves the two strands a fixed distance (N12/N16) 3′ to the modified cytosine. We determined the crystal structure of the homo-tetrameric AspBHI. Each subunit of the protein comprises two domains: an N-terminal DNA-recognition domain and a C-terminal DNA cleavage domain. The N-terminal domain is structurally similar to the eukaryotic SET and RING-associated (SRA) domain, which is known to bind to a hemi-methylated CpG dinucleotide. The C-terminal domain is structurally similar to classic Type II restriction enzymes and contains the endonuclease catalytic-site motif of DX20EAK. To understand how specific amino acids affect AspBHI recognition preference, we generated a homology model of the AspBHI-DNA complex, and probed the importance of individual amino acids by mutagenesis. Ser41 and Arg42 are predicted to be located in the DNA minor groove 5′ to the modified cytosine. Substitution of Ser41 with alanine (S41A) and cysteine (S41C) resulted in mutants with altered cleavage activity. All 19 Arg42 variants resulted in loss of endonuclease activity. PMID:24604015

  1. Purification of Restriction Endonuclease EcoRII and its Co-Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpova, E. A.; Chen, L.; Meehan, E.; Pusey, M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Restriction endonuclease EcoRII (EcoRII) is a homodimeric DNA-binding protein. It belongs to the type II family of restriction-modification enzymes (subclass IIe). EcoRII recognizes the nucleotide sequence 5'-CCWGG (W=A or T) and cleaves the phosphodiester bond preceding the first cytosine. Methylation at C5 of the second cytosine inhibits cleavage. The enzyme has a unique ability to search for the presence of two substrate sites before cleavage. To the best of our knowledge no other subclass IIe restriction endonuclease has been crystallized yet, without or with a DNA-substrate. We have recently grown and characterized the crystals of this enzyme (1) Here we report on the result of co-crystallization experiments of EcoRII with an 11 b.p. oligonucleotide substrate. The dissociation constant (Kd) EcoRII: 11 b.p. was determined earlier (unpublished results). The needle-like crystals of oligonucleotide-EcoRII protein complex were obtained with this substrate by the technique of vapor diffusion hanging drops. The crystals obtained were washed and dissolved in an aliquot of 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH=7.5. Running a portion of this solution on the SDS-get indicated the presence of endonuclease in the solution. A UV-spectrophotometric test of a second portion confirmed the presence of DNA. We are now working on improvement of the DNA-EcoRII protein crystals. Results obtained from these and ongoing efforts will be reported.

  2. Restriction of a bacteriophage of Streptomyces albus G involving endonuclease SalI.

    PubMed Central

    Chater, K F; Wilde, L C

    1976-01-01

    The bacteriophage Pa16, isolated from soil on Streptomyces albus G, was restricted when transferred from an alternative host back to S. albus G. Extracted unmodified Pa16 deoxyribonucleic acid was cleaved at a single site by a cell-free extract of S. albus G. Fractions cleaving Pal6 deoxyribonucleic acid contained the endonuclease SalI first described by J. Arrand, P. Myers, and R. J. Roberts (unpublished data). A mutant of S. albus G was isolated which was defective in both restriction and modification of Pal6. This mutant lacked SalI activity. It is concluded that SalI is the agent of restriction of Pal6 by S. albus G. Images PMID:977549

  3. Atypical myxomatosis--virus isolation, experimental infection of rabbits and restriction endonuclease analysis of the isolate.

    PubMed

    Psikal, I; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Valícek, L; Bendová, J

    2003-08-01

    Atypical form of myxomatosis, which caused non-lethal and clinically mild disease in domestic rabbits 1 month after immunization with a commercially available vaccine MXT, is described. The isolated myxoma virus designated as Litovel 2 (Li-2) did not induce systemic disease following subcutaneous and intradermal applications in susceptible experimental rabbits but led to the immune response demonstrated by ELISA. No severe disease was induced in those Li-2 inoculated rabbits by challenge with the virulent strains Lausanne (Lu) or Sanar (SA), while the control animals showed nodular form of myxomatosis with lethal course of the illness. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of genomic DNA with KpnI and BamHI endonucleases was used for genetic characterization of the Li-2 isolate, the vaccine strain MXT and both virulent strains Lu and SA, respectively. In general, RFLP analysis has shown to be informative for inferring genetic relatedness between myxoma viruses. Based on restriction endonuclease DNA fragment size distribution, it was evident that the pathogenic strain SA is genetically related to the reference strain Lu and the isolate Li-2 is more related, but not identical, to the vaccination strain MXT. PMID:14628995

  4. Purification, crystallization, X-ray diffraction analysis and phasing of an engineered single-chain PvuII restriction endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Meramveliotaki, Chrysi; Kotsifaki, Dina; Androulaki, Maria; Hountas, Athanasios; Eliopoulos, Elias; Kokkinidis, Michael

    2007-10-01

    PvuII is the first type II restriction endonuclease to be converted from its wild-type homodimeric form into an enzymatically active single-chain variant. The enzyme was crystallized and phasing was successfully performed by molecular replacement. The restriction endonuclease PvuII from Proteus vulgaris has been converted from its wild-type homodimeric form into the enzymatically active single-chain variant scPvuII by tandemly joining the two subunits through the peptide linker Gly-Ser-Gly-Gly. scPvuII, which is suitable for the development of programmed restriction endonucleases for highly specific DNA cleavage, was purified and crystallized. The crystals diffract to a resolution of 2.35 Å and belong to space group P4{sub 2}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 101.92, c = 100.28 Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Phasing was successfully performed by molecular replacement.

  5. Real time kinetics of restriction endonuclease cleavage monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, S S; Eis, P S; Blumeyer, K; Fearon, K; Millar, D P

    1994-01-01

    The kinetics of PaeR7 endonuclease-catalysed cleavage reactions of fluorophor-labeled oligonucleotide substrates have been examined using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). A series of duplex substrates were synthesized with an internal CTCGAG PaeR7 recognition site and donor (fluorescein) and acceptor (rhodamine) dyes conjugated to the opposing 5' termini. The time-dependent increase in donor fluorescence resulting from restriction cleavage of these substrates was continuously monitored and the initial rate data was fitted to the Michaelis-Menten equation. The steady state kinetic parameters for these substrates were in agreement with the rate constants obtained from a gel electrophoresis-based fixed time point assay using radiolabeled substrates. The FRET method provides a rapid continuous assay as well as high sensitivity and reproducibility. These features should make the technique useful for the study of DNA-cleaving enzymes. Images PMID:8065930

  6. Preferential site-dependent cleavage by restriction endonuclease PstI.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, K; Bauer, W R

    1982-01-01

    The four identical recognition sites for the restriction endonuclease PstI in purified plasmid pSM1 DNA I are cleaved at markedly different rates. The order and relative frequencies of cleavage at these four PstI sites have been determined from the order of appearance of partial cleavage products and from an analysis of production of specific unit length linear molecules. The same pattern of preferential cleavage is also found when linear, nicked circular, or relaxed closed circular forms of the same plasmid DNa are used as substrates for PstI. Inspection of the nucleotide sequences immediately adjoining each of the PstI sites suggests that the presence of adjacent runs of G-C base pairs confers significant resistance to cleavage. Images PMID:6278444

  7. Enzymatic cleavage of type II restriction endonucleases on the 2'-O-methyl nucleotide and phosphorothioate substituted DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guojie; Li, Jun; Tong, Zhaoxue; Zhao, Bin; Mu, Runqing; Guan, Yifu

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nucleotide analogue substitution on the cleavage efficiencies of type II restriction endonucleases have been investigated. Six restriction endonucleases (EcoRV, SpeI, XbaI, XhoI, PstI and SphI) were investigated respectively regarding their cleavage when substrates were substituted by 2'-O-methyl nucleotide (2'-OMeN) and phosphorothioate (PS). Substitutions were made in the recognition sequence and the two nucleotides flanking the recognition sequence for each endonuclease. The endonuclease cleavage efficiencies were determined using FRET-based assay. Results demonstrated a position-dependent inhibitory effect of substitution on the cleavage efficiency for all the six endonucleases. In general, the 2'-OMeN substitutions had greater impact than the PS substitutions on the enzymatic activities. Nucleotides of optimal substitutions for protection against RE cleavage were identified. Experimental results and conclusions in this study facilitate our insight into the DNA-protein interactions and the enzymatic cleavage mechanism, particularly for those whose detailed structure information is not available. In addition, the information could benefit the development of bioengineering and synthetic biology. PMID:24260216

  8. Structure-guided sequence specificity engineering of the modification-dependent restriction endonuclease LpnPI

    PubMed Central

    Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Zagorskaitė, Evelina; Kauneckaitė, Kotryna; Tamulaitiene, Giedre; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic Set and Ring Associated (SRA) domains and structurally similar DNA recognition domains of prokaryotic cytosine modification-dependent restriction endonucleases recognize methylated, hydroxymethylated or glucosylated cytosine in various sequence contexts. Here, we report the apo-structure of the N-terminal SRA-like domain of the cytosine modification-dependent restriction enzyme LpnPI that recognizes modified cytosine in the 5′-C(mC)DG-3′ target sequence (where mC is 5-methylcytosine or 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and D = A/T/G). Structure-guided mutational analysis revealed LpnPI residues involved in base-specific interactions and demonstrated binding site plasticity that allowed limited target sequence degeneracy. Furthermore, modular exchange of the LpnPI specificity loops by structural equivalents of related enzymes AspBHI and SgrTI altered sequence specificity of LpnPI. Taken together, our results pave the way for specificity engineering of the cytosine modification-dependent restriction enzymes. PMID:26001968

  9. Distinct facilitated diffusion mechanisms by E. coli Type II restriction endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Adam J; Chin, Aaron T; Reich, Norbert O

    2014-11-18

    The passive search by proteins for particular DNA sequences involving nonspecific DNA is essential for gene regulation, DNA repair, phage defense, and diverse epigenetic processes. Distinct mechanisms contribute to these searches, and it remains unresolved as to which mechanism or blend of mechanisms best suits a particular protein and, more importantly, its biological role. To address this, we compare the translocation properties of two well-studied bacterial restriction endonucleases (ENases), EcoRI and EcoRV. These dimeric, magnesium-dependent enzymes hydrolyze related sites (EcoRI ENase, 5'-GAATTC-3'; EcoRV ENase, 5'-GATATC-3'), leaving overhangs and blunt DNA segments, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the extensive sliding by EcoRI ENase, involving sliding up to ∼600 bp prior to dissociating from the DNA, contrasts with a larger reliance on hopping mechanism(s) by EcoRV ENase. The mechanism displayed by EcoRI ENase results in a highly thorough search of DNA, whereas the EcoRV ENase mechanism results in an extended, yet less rigorous, interrogation of DNA sequence space. We describe how these mechanistic distinctions are complemented by other aspects of these endonucleases, such as the 10-fold higher in vivo concentrations of EcoRI ENase compared to that of EcoRV ENase. Further, we hypothesize that the highly diverse enzyme arsenal that bacteria employ against foreign DNA involves seemingly similar enzymes that rely on distinct but complementary search mechanisms. Our comparative approach reveals how different proteins utilize distinct site-locating strategies. PMID:25350874

  10. Restriction endonuclease analysis and ribotyping differentiate genital and nongenital strains of Bacteroides ureolyticus.

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, N; Eley, A

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-three clinical isolates from male nongonococcal urethritis and 28 isolates from soft tissue infections and ulcers were identified as Bacteroides ureolyticus by conventional bacteriological tests and were compared with five reference strains of the species. Whole-cell proteins from these clinical isolates and the reference strains were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The majority of the strains from the two sources could be divided into five different groups, named phenons I to V; phenons I to IV have been described previously by others, while phenon V has been described recently by us. Digestion of chromosomal DNA from 16 of the clinical isolates (including strains representative of each of the five SDS-PAGE phenons) and the five reference strains was attempted with restriction endonucleases EcoRI, PstI, SmaI, and HindIII. After electrophoresis in agarose gels, good digestion was observed with HindIII only, and 12 different banding patterns (restriction endonuclease analysis [REA] profiles) were obtained for the 19 strains digested; one nongonococcal urethritis isolate and one reference strain did not show any digestion. From the agarose gels, HindIII-digested fragments of DNA were transferred to nylon membranes by use of vacuum blotting and subjected to hybridization with 32P-labelled 16S-23S rRNA from Escherichia coli. The resultant pattern of bands (ribotypes), which depends on the restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the rRNA genes, was used as a measure of genomic variation within the species. In total, 13 different ribotypes were obtained for the 19 strains. For some strains, good correlation was achieved among the SDS-PAGE phenons, REA profiles, and ribotypes. However, for others, REA analysis and ribotyping were able to discriminate between strains which shared the same SDS-PAGE phenon. Interestingly, these two techniques of DNA characterization were able to differentiate between isolates

  11. Cleavage of synthetic substrates containing non-nucleotide inserts by restriction endonucleases. Change in the cleavage specificity of endonuclease SsoII.

    PubMed Central

    Kubareva, E A; Petrauskene, O V; Karyagina, A S; Tashlitsky, V N; Nikolskaya, I I; Gromova, E S

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of the interaction between restriction endonucleases recognizing CCNGG (SsoII and ScrFI) or CCA/TGG (MvaI and EcoRII) DNA sequences and a set of synthetic substrates containing 1,3-propanediol, 1,2-dideoxy-D-ribofuranose or 9-[1'-hydroxy-2'-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy] methylguanine (gIG) residues replacing either one of the central nucleosides or dG residues in the recognition site. The non-nucleotide inserts (except for gIG) introduced into the recognition site both increase the efficiency of SsoII and change its specificity. A cleavage at the noncanonical position takes place, in some cases in addition to the correct ones. Noncanonical hydrolysis by SsoII occurs at the phosphodiester bond adjacent to the point of modification towards the 5'-end. With the guanine base returned (the substrate with gIG), the correct cleavage position is restored. ScrFI specifically cleaves all the modified substrates. DNA duplexes with non-nucleotide inserts (except for the gIG-containing duplex) are resistant to hydrolysis by MvaI and EcoRII. Prompted by the data obtained we discuss the peculiarities of recognition by restriction endonucleases of 5-membered DNA sequences which have completely or partially degenerated central base pairs. It is suggested that SsoII forms a complex with DNA in an 'open' form. Images PMID:1408753

  12. Plasmid and restriction endonuclease patterns in Pasteurella multocida isolated from a swine pyramid.

    PubMed

    Rúbies, Xavier; Casal, Jordi; Pijoan, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and plasmid profile were used to study the epidemiology of Pasteurella multocida in a swine pyramid structure. The studied pyramid was comprised of a group of 12 swine farrow-to-finish farms related by unidirectional animal movement. P. multocida isolates were obtained from the lungs of 275 slaughtered pigs. Serotyping was performed by hyaluronidase sensitivity test and toxicity was investigated by the ELISA test. HpaII was used to cleave the P. multocida extracted DNA. REA patterns relationships were studied using the Sokal-Michener coefficients, and the dendrogram was built using the UPGMA system. The 218 P. multocida isolates obtained were distributed in 17 REA patterns. In 9 of the 12 farms studied only 2-3 REA patterns were detected, with one clearly predominant pattern. The 81 strains with plasmids were assigned to six plasmid profiles. REA and plasmid profiles proved to be good epidemiological tools for identifying different strains of P. multocida with the same phenotype. PMID:11731160

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of restriction endonuclease EcoRII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpova, E. A.; Meehan, E.; Pusey, M. L.; Chen, L.

    1999-01-01

    Crystals of the restriction endonuclease EcoRII have been obtained by the vapor-diffusion technique in the presence of ammonium sulfate or polyethylene glycol. The best crystals were grown with ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. Crystals with dimensions of up to 0.6 x 0. 6 x 0.6 mm have been observed. The crystals diffract to about 4.0 A resolution at a cryo-temperature of 100 K using a rotating-anode X-ray source and a Rigaku R-AXIS IV imaging-plate detector. The space group has been determined to be either I23 or I2(1)3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 160.3 A, alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees. The crystal asymmetric unit contains two protein molecules, and self-rotation function analysis shows a pseudo-twofold symmetry relating the two monomers. Attempts to improve the resolution of crystal diffraction and to search for heavy-atom derivatives are under way.

  14. How quantum entanglement in DNA synchronizes double-strand breakage by type II restriction endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Kurian, P; Dunston, G; Lindesay, J

    2016-02-21

    Macroscopic quantum effects in living systems have been studied widely in pursuit of fundamental explanations for biological energy transport and sensing. While it is known that type II endonucleases, the largest class of restriction enzymes, induce DNA double-strand breaks by attacking phosphodiester bonds, the mechanism by which simultaneous cutting is coordinated between the catalytic centers remains unclear. We propose a quantum mechanical model for collective electronic behavior in the DNA helix, where dipole-dipole oscillations are quantized through boundary conditions imposed by the enzyme. Zero-point modes of coherent oscillations would provide the energy required for double-strand breakage. Such quanta may be preserved in the presence of thermal noise by the enzyme's displacement of water surrounding the DNA recognition sequence. The enzyme thus serves as a decoherence shield. Palindromic mirror symmetry of the enzyme-DNA complex should conserve parity, because symmetric bond-breaking ceases when the symmetry of the complex is violated or when physiological parameters are perturbed from optima. Persistent correlations in DNA across longer spatial separations-a possible signature of quantum entanglement-may be explained by such a mechanism. PMID:26682627

  15. Increasing cleavage specificity and activity of restriction endonuclease KpnI

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Kommireddy; Nagamalleswari, Easa; Zahran, Mai; Imhof, Petra; Xu, Shuang-yong; Zhu, Zhenyu; Chan, Siu-Hong; Nagaraja, Valakunja

    2013-01-01

    Restriction enzyme KpnI is a HNH superfamily endonuclease requiring divalent metal ions for DNA cleavage but not for binding. The active site of KpnI can accommodate metal ions of different atomic radii for DNA cleavage. Although Mg2+ ion higher than 500 μM mediates promiscuous activity, Ca2+ suppresses the promiscuity and induces high cleavage fidelity. Here, we report that a conservative mutation of the metal-coordinating residue D148 to Glu results in the elimination of the Ca2+-mediated cleavage but imparting high cleavage fidelity with Mg2+. High cleavage fidelity of the mutant D148E is achieved through better discrimination of the target site at the binding and cleavage steps. Biochemical experiments and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the mutation inhibits Ca2+-mediated cleavage activity by altering the geometry of the Ca2+-bound HNH active site. Although the D148E mutant reduces the specific activity of the enzyme, we identified a suppressor mutation that increases the turnover rate to restore the specific activity of the high fidelity mutant to the wild-type level. Our results show that active site plasticity in coordinating different metal ions is related to KpnI promiscuous activity, and tinkering the metal ion coordination is a plausible way to reduce promiscuous activity of metalloenzymes. PMID:23963701

  16. Restriction endonuclease MvaI is a monomer that recognizes its target sequence asymmetrically

    PubMed Central

    Kaus-Drobek, Magdalena; Czapinska, Honorata; Sokołowska, Monika; Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Szczepanowski, Roman H.; Urbanke, Claus; Bochtler, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Restriction endonuclease MvaI recognizes the sequence CC/WGG (W stands for A or T, ‘/’ designates the cleavage site) and generates products with single nucleotide 5′-overhangs. The enzyme has been noted for its tolerance towards DNA modifications. Here, we report a biochemical characterization and crystal structures of MvaI in an apo-form and in a complex with target DNA at 1.5 Å resolution. Our results show that MvaI is a monomer and recognizes its pseudosymmetric target sequence asymmetrically. The enzyme consists of two lobes. The catalytic lobe anchors the active site residues Glu36, Asp50, Glu55 and Lys57 and contacts the bases from the minor grove side. The recognition lobe mediates all major grove interactions with the bases. The enzyme in the crystal is bound to the strand with T at the center of the recognition sequence. The crystal structure with calcium ions and DNA mimics the prereactive state. MvaI shows structural similarities to BcnI, which cleaves the related sequence CC/SGG and to MutH enzyme, which is a component of the DNA repair machinery, and nicks one DNA strand instead of making a double-strand break. PMID:17344322

  17. Purification, properties, and sequence specificity of SslI, a new type II restriction endonuclease from Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Benbadis, L; Garel, J R; Hartley, D L

    1991-01-01

    SslI, a type II restriction endonuclease, was purified from Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus strain BSN 45. SslI is an isoschizomer of BstNI. SslI activity was maximum at pH 8.8, 0 to 50 mM NaCl, 2 to 8 mM Mg2+, and 42 degrees C. Activity against phage DNA in vitro was demonstrated. Images PMID:1785940

  18. SgfI, a new type-II restriction endonuclease that recognizes the octanucleotide sequence 5'-GCGAT/CGC-3'.

    PubMed

    Kappelman, J R; Brady, M; Knoche, K; Murray, E; Schoenfeld, T; Williams, R; Vesselinova, N

    1995-07-01

    A new restriction endonuclease (ENase), SgfI, has been isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces sp. SgfI recognizes the 8-bp palindrome 5'-GCGATCGC-3' and cleaves double-stranded DNA after the T in this sequence, producing a two-base 3' overhang compatible with PvuI termini. SgfI is a rare-cutting ENase and should be useful for megabase mapping experiments. PMID:7628716

  19. Bifunctional TaqII restriction endonuclease: redefining the prototype DNA recognition site and establishing the Fidelity Index for partial cleaving

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The TaqII enzyme is a member of the Thermus sp. enzyme family that we propounded previously within Type IIS restriction endonucleases, containing related thermophilic bifunctional endonucleases-methyltransferases from various Thermus sp.: TaqII, Tth111II, TthHB27I, TspGWI, TspDTI and TsoI. These enzymes show significant nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarities, a rare phenomenon among restriction endonucleases, along with similarities in biochemical properties, molecular size, DNA recognition sequences and cleavage sites. They also feature some characteristics of Types I and III. Results Barker et al. reported the Type IIS/IIC restriction endonuclease TaqII as recognizing two distinct cognate site variants (5'-GACCGA-3' and 5'-CACCCA-3') while cleaving 11/9 nucleotides downstream. We used four independent methods, namely, shotgun cloning and sequencing, restriction pattern analysis, digestion of particular custom substrates and GeneScan analysis, to demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme recognizes only 5'-GACCGA-3' sites and cleaves 11/9 nucleotides downstream. We did not observe any 5'-CACCCA-3' cleavage under a variety of conditions and site arrangements tested. We also characterized the enzyme biochemically and established new digestion conditions optimal for practical enzyme applications. Finally, we developed and propose a new version of the Fidelity Index - the Fidelity Index for Partial Cleavage (FI-PC). Conclusions The DNA recognition sequence of the bifunctional prototype TaqII endonuclease-methyltransferase from Thermus aquaticus has been redefined as recognizing only 5'-GACCGA-3' cognate sites. The reaction conditions (pH and salt concentrations) were designed either to minimize (pH = 8.0 and 10 mM ammonium sulphate) or to enhance star activity (pH = 6.0 and no salt). Redefinition of the recognition site and reaction conditions makes this prototype endonuclease a useful tool for DNA manipulation; as yet, this enzyme has no practical

  20. Natural C-independent expression of restriction endonuclease in a C protein-associated restriction-modification system

    PubMed Central

    Rezulak, Monika; Borsuk, Izabela; Mruk, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Restriction–modification (R-M) systems are highly prevalent among bacteria and archaea, and appear to play crucial roles in modulating horizontal gene transfer and protection against phage. There is much to learn about these diverse enzymes systems, especially their regulation. Type II R-M systems specify two independent enzymes: a restriction endonuclease (REase) and protective DNA methyltransferase (MTase). Their activities need to be finely balanced in vivo. Some R-M systems rely on specialized transcription factors called C (controller) proteins. These proteins play a vital role in the temporal regulation of R-M gene expression, and function to indirectly modulate the horizontal transfer of their genes across the species. We report novel regulation of a C-responsive R-M system that involves a C protein of a poorly-studied structural class - C.Csp231I. Here, the C and REase genes share a bicistronic transcript, and some of the transcriptional auto-control features seen in other C-regulated R-M systems are conserved. However, separate tandem promoters drive most transcription of the REase gene, a distinctive property not seen in other tested C-linked R-M systems. Further, C protein only partially controls REase expression, yet plays a role in system stability and propagation. Consequently, high REase activity was observed after deletion of the entire C gene, and cells bearing the ΔC R-M system were outcompeted in mixed culture assays by those with the WT R-M system. Overall, our data reveal unexpected regulatory variation among R-M systems. PMID:26656489

  1. Comparison of arbitrarily primed PCR with restriction endonuclease and immunoblot analyses for typing Clostridium difficile isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Y J; Houston, S T; Gumerlock, P H; Mulligan, M E; Gerding, D N; Johnson, S; Fekety, F R; Silva, J

    1995-01-01

    Arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) was used to genotype 26 clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile previously analyzed by immunoblotting (IB) and 20 isolates typed by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) with HindIII. Two levels of differentiation were achieved with the AP-PCR approach by use of two different arbitrary primers. With the 19-mer arbitrary primer T-7 (first level of differentiation), a good correlation was found between IB and AP-PCR typing. Twenty isolates grouped into six IB types were separated into seven major AP-PCR types. These seven AP-PCR groups were further discriminated into 12 subtypes after genotyping with the arbitrary primer PG-05 (second level of differentiation). The remaining six isolates, all of different IB types, showed a unique and distinct DNA banding pattern with both of the arbitrary primers, T-7 and PG-05. Twenty isolates representing 20 REA types from 15 REA groups were resolved into 13 AP-PCR DNA profiles with the arbitrary primer T-7. A good correlation was found at this level of differentiation between the major REA groups, Y and M, and AP-PCR typing. While AP-PCR with this primer failed to differentiate isolates in REA groups J, G, R, and B, AP-PCR with PG-05 resolved these four isolates into four distinct AP-PCR types. In addition, one of three M strains and one of four Y strains displayed a slightly different DNA banding pattern by AP-PCR (with PG-05) from that of the other strains in the group. We conclude that AP-PCR is a rapid and sensitive method which not only complements other typing schemes but also may be a substitute and prove to be especially suited for immediate epidemiological tracking of nosocomial infections due to C. difficile. PMID:8586695

  2. EcoRI restriction endonuclease map of the composite R plasmid NR1.

    PubMed Central

    Tanak, N; Cramer, J H; Rownd, R H

    1976-01-01

    A physical map of the composite R plasmid NR1 has been constructed using specific cleavage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by the restriction endonuclease EcoR-. Digestion of composite NR1 DNA by EcoRI yields thirteen fragments. The six largest fragments (designated A to F) are from the resistance transfer factor component that harbors the tetracycline resistance genes (RTF-TC). The seven smallest fragments (designated G to M) are from the r-determinants component that harbors the chloramphenicol (CM), streptomycin-spectinomycin (SM/SP), and sulfonamide (SA) resistance genes. The largest fragment of several RTF-TC segregants of NR1 that have deleted the r-determinants component is 0.8 X 10(6) daltons larger than fragment A of composite NR1. Only a part of fragment H of the r-determinants component is amplified in transitioned NR1 DNA in Proteus mirabilis, which consists of multiple, tandem sequences of r-determinants attached to a single copy of the RTF-TC component. Both of these changes can be explained by the locations of the excision sites at the RTF-TC: r-determinants junctions that are involved in the dissociation and reassociation of the RTF-TC and r-determinants components. The thirteen fragments of composite NR1 DNA produced by EcoRI have been ordered using partial digestion techniques. The order of the fragments is: A-D-C-E-F-B-H-I-L-K-G-M-J. The approximate locations of the TC, CM, SM/SP, and SA resistance genes on the EcoRI map were determined by analyzing several deletion mutants of NR1. Images PMID:776943

  3. Structural basis for the substrate selectivity of PvuRts1I, a 5-hydroxymethylcytosine DNA restriction endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chen; Wang, Chengliang; Zang, Jianye

    2014-01-01

    5-Hydroxymethylation is a curious modification of cytosine that was discovered some decades ago, but its functional role in eukaryotes still awaits elucidation. 5-Hydroxymethyl­cytosine is an epigenetic marker that is crucial for multiple biological processes. The profile is altered under certain disease conditions such as cancer, Huntington’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Using the DNA-modification-dependent restriction endonuclease AbaSI coupled with sequencing (Aba-seq), the hydroxymethylome can be deciphered at the resolution of individual bases. The method is based on the enzymatic properties of AbaSI, a member of the PvuRts1I family of endonucleases. PvuRts1I is a modification-dependent endonuclease with high selectivity for 5-hydroxymethyl­cytosine over 5-methylcytosine and cytosine. In this study, the crystal structure of PvuRts1I was determined in order to understand and improve the substrate selectivity. A nuclease domain and an SRA-like domain are located at the N- and C-termini, respectively. Through comparison with other SRA-domain structures, the SRA-like domain was proposed to be the 5-hmC recognition module. Several mutants of PvuRts1I with enzymatic activity restricted to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine only were generated based on the structural analysis, and these enzyme variants are appropriate for separating the hydroxymethylome from the wider methylome. PMID:25195760

  4. Epigenetic Segregation of Microbial Genomes from Complex Samples Using Restriction Endonucleases HpaII and McrB

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guohong; Weston, Christopher Q.; Pham, Long K.; Waltz, Shannon; Barnes, Helen; King, Paula; Sphar, Dan; Yamamoto, Robert T.; Forsyth, R. Allyn

    2016-01-01

    We describe continuing work to develop restriction endonucleases as tools to enrich targeted genomes of interest from diverse populations. Two approaches were developed in parallel to segregate genomic DNA based on cytosine methylation. First, the methyl-sensitive endonuclease HpaII was used to bind non-CG methylated DNA. Second, a truncated fragment of McrB was used to bind CpG methylated DNA. Enrichment levels of microbial genomes can exceed 100-fold with HpaII allowing improved genomic detection and coverage of otherwise trace microbial genomes from sputum. Additionally, we observe interesting enrichment results that correlate with the methylation states not only of bacteria, but of fungi, viruses, a protist and plants. The methods presented here offer promise for testing biological samples for pathogens and global analysis of population methylomes. PMID:26727463

  5. Epigenetic Segregation of Microbial Genomes from Complex Samples Using Restriction Endonucleases HpaII and McrB.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guohong; Weston, Christopher Q; Pham, Long K; Waltz, Shannon; Barnes, Helen; King, Paula; Sphar, Dan; Yamamoto, Robert T; Forsyth, R Allyn

    2016-01-01

    We describe continuing work to develop restriction endonucleases as tools to enrich targeted genomes of interest from diverse populations. Two approaches were developed in parallel to segregate genomic DNA based on cytosine methylation. First, the methyl-sensitive endonuclease HpaII was used to bind non-CG methylated DNA. Second, a truncated fragment of McrB was used to bind CpG methylated DNA. Enrichment levels of microbial genomes can exceed 100-fold with HpaII allowing improved genomic detection and coverage of otherwise trace microbial genomes from sputum. Additionally, we observe interesting enrichment results that correlate with the methylation states not only of bacteria, but of fungi, viruses, a protist and plants. The methods presented here offer promise for testing biological samples for pathogens and global analysis of population methylomes. PMID:26727463

  6. A model of EcoRII restriction endonuclease action: the active complex is most likely formed by one protein subunit and one DNA recognition site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpova, E. A.; Kubareva, E. A.; Shabarova, Z. A.

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of interaction of restriction endonuclease EcoRII with DNA, we studied by native gel electrophoresis the binding of this endonuclease to a set of synthetic DNA-duplexes containing the modified or canonical recognition sequence 5'-d(CCA/TGG)-3'. All binding substrate or substrate analogues tested could be divided into two major groups: (i) duplexes that, at the interaction with endonuclease EcoRII, form two types of stable complexes on native gel in the absence of Mg2+ cofactor; (ii) duplexes that form only one type of complex, observed both in the presence and absence of Mg2+. Unlike the latter, duplexes under the first group can be hydrolyzed by endonuclease. Data obtained suggest that the active complex is most likely formed by one protein subunit and one DNA recognition sequence. A model of EcoRII endonuclease action is presented.

  7. Characterization of bovine herpesviruses isolated from six sheep and four goats by restriction endonuclease analysis and radioimmunoprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Whetstone, C A; Evermann, J F

    1988-06-01

    Viral DNA from 10 herpesviruses isolated from 6 sheep and 4 goats were examined by restriction endonuclease analysis with respect to their relatedness to one another; to bovine herpesvirus type 6 (BHV-6), also known as caprine herpesvirus; and to 2 strains of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis virus (IPVV). Viral proteins from the isolates were examined by radioimmunoprecipitation with anti-BHV-1/IBRV gnotobiotic calf (bovine) serum, anti-BHV-1/IBRV bovine hyperimmune serum, and anti-BHV-6 rabbit serum to evaluate their antigenic relatedness to each other. The goat isolates were obtained from animals with various disease conditions including respiratory tract disorders, vulvovaginitis, and wart-like lesions on the eyelid. The other isolates were from domestic sheep and came from aborted fetuses or from sheep with fatal pneumonia or proliferative lesions around lips and nose. All of the goats and 4 of the sheep from which the viral isolates were obtained had comingled with cattle. Purified DNA from each of the 10 field isolates and from BHV-1/IBRV, BHV-1/IPVV, and BHV-6 caprine herpesvirus was cleaved with restriction endonuclease Pst I. Five of 6 sheep isolates and 3 of 4 goat isolates yielded unique restriction patterns, ie, patterns that differed from each other by one or more bands. Sheep isolate DNA patterns were different from goat isolate patterns, and all restriction endonuclease analysis patterns were similar to the pattern for BHV-1/IBRV, but different from that for BHV-1/IPVV or for BHV-6.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2840840

  8. Frequent occurrence of recognition Site-like sequences in the restriction endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Biro, Jan C; Biro, Josephine MK

    2004-01-01

    Background There are two different theories about the development of the genetic code. Woese suggested that it was developed in connection with the amino acid repertoire, while Crick argued that any connection between codons and amino acids is only the result of an "accident". This question is fundamental to understand the nature of specific protein-nucleic acid interactions. Results The nature of specific protein-nucleic acid interaction between restriction endonucleases (RE) and their recognition sequences (RS) was studied by bioinformatics methods. It was found that the frequency of 5–6 residue long RS-like oligonucleotides is unexpectedly high in the nucleic acid sequence of the corresponding RE (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001 respectively, n = 7). There is an extensive conservation of these RS-like sequences in RE isoschizomers. A review of the seven available crystallographic studies showed that the amino acids coded by codons that are subsets of recognition sequences were often closely located to the RS itself and they were in many cases directly adjacent to the codon-like triplets in the RS. Fifty-five examples of this codon-amino acid co-localization are found and analyzed, which represents 41.5% of total 132 amino acids which are localized within 8 Å distance to the C1' atoms in the DNA. The average distance between the closest atoms in the codons and amino acids is 5.5 +/- 0.2 Å (mean +/- S.E.M, n = 55), while the distance between the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of the co-localized molecules is significantly shorter, (3.4 +/- 0.2 Å, p < 0.001, n = 15), when positively charged amino acids are involved. This is indicating that an interaction between the nucleic- and amino acids might occur. Conclusion We interpret these results in favor of Woese and suggest that the genetic code is "rational" and there is a stereospecific relationship between the codes and the amino acids. PMID:15113406

  9. Functional significance of protein assemblies predicted by the crystal structure of the restriction endonuclease BsaWI

    PubMed Central

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Rutkauskas, Marius; Zaremba, Mindaugas; Grazulis, Saulius; Tamulaitiene, Giedre; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2015-01-01

    Type II restriction endonuclease BsaWI recognizes a degenerated sequence 5′-W/CCGGW-3′ (W stands for A or T, ‘/’ denotes the cleavage site). It belongs to a large family of restriction enzymes that contain a conserved CCGG tetranucleotide in their target sites. These enzymes are arranged as dimers or tetramers, and require binding of one, two or three DNA targets for their optimal catalytic activity. Here, we present a crystal structure and biochemical characterization of the restriction endonuclease BsaWI. BsaWI is arranged as an ‘open’ configuration dimer and binds a single DNA copy through a minor groove contacts. In the crystal primary BsaWI dimers form an indefinite linear chain via the C-terminal domain contacts implying possible higher order aggregates. We show that in solution BsaWI protein exists in a dimer-tetramer-oligomer equilibrium, but in the presence of specific DNA forms a tetramer bound to two target sites. Site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic experiments show that BsaWI is active as a tetramer and requires two target sites for optimal activity. We propose BsaWI mechanism that shares common features both with dimeric Ecl18kI/SgrAI and bona fide tetrameric NgoMIV/SfiI enzymes. PMID:26240380

  10. Functional significance of protein assemblies predicted by the crystal structure of the restriction endonuclease BsaWI.

    PubMed

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Rutkauskas, Marius; Zaremba, Mindaugas; Grazulis, Saulius; Tamulaitiene, Giedre; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2015-09-18

    Type II restriction endonuclease BsaWI recognizes a degenerated sequence 5'-W/CCGGW-3' (W stands for A or T, '/' denotes the cleavage site). It belongs to a large family of restriction enzymes that contain a conserved CCGG tetranucleotide in their target sites. These enzymes are arranged as dimers or tetramers, and require binding of one, two or three DNA targets for their optimal catalytic activity. Here, we present a crystal structure and biochemical characterization of the restriction endonuclease BsaWI. BsaWI is arranged as an 'open' configuration dimer and binds a single DNA copy through a minor groove contacts. In the crystal primary BsaWI dimers form an indefinite linear chain via the C-terminal domain contacts implying possible higher order aggregates. We show that in solution BsaWI protein exists in a dimer-tetramer-oligomer equilibrium, but in the presence of specific DNA forms a tetramer bound to two target sites. Site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic experiments show that BsaWI is active as a tetramer and requires two target sites for optimal activity. We propose BsaWI mechanism that shares common features both with dimeric Ecl18kI/SgrAI and bona fide tetrameric NgoMIV/SfiI enzymes. PMID:26240380

  11. Widespread occurrence of the restriction endonuclease YenI, an isoschizomer of PstI, in Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O8.

    PubMed Central

    Miyahara, M; Maruyama, T; Wake, A; Mise, K

    1988-01-01

    The cold-active restriction endonuclease YenI, an isoschizomer of PstI, was found in 12 of 14 Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O8 strains of different origins, but not in other serotypes of Y. enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, or Yersinia pestis. In spite of the limited number of strains tested, the result suggests that the detection of YenI endonuclease or the gene might result in more rapid determination of the prominently pathogenic serotype of Y. enterocolitica. Images PMID:2833162

  12. RESTRICTION MAPS OF FIVE AUTOGRAPHA CALIFORNICA MNPV VARIANTS, TRICHOPLUSIA NI MNPV, AND GALLERIA MELLONELLA MNPV DNAS WITH ENDONUCLEASES SMAI, KPNI, BAMHI, SACI, XHOI, AND ECORI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The restriction sites of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) E2 DNA were mapped for the endonucleases SmaI, KpnK, BamHI, SacI, XhoI, and EcoRI. The restriction maps of four other AcMNPV variants, Trichoplusia ni (TnMNPV), and Galleria mellonella (GmMNPV) ge...

  13. Restriction endonuclease fingerprinting by SSCP (REF), an efficient method of screening for mutations in long contiguous segments of DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, O.; Sommer, S.S.

    1994-09-01

    Dideoxy fingerprinting is an efficient method of screening for the presence of mutations in short exons ({le}250 bp). Long contiguous segments can be screened by sequential ddF reactions. To screen long contiguous segments in a more rapid manner, REF has been developed. REF will be described in the context of a model system in exon H of the factor IX gene. A 1 kb segment is PCR amplified and digested with each of five groups of restriction endonucleases. The endonucleases are chosen such that, in each group, the average size of the fragments is about 150 bp. After digestion, the products are mixed, 5{prime} end-labeled with T4 polynucleotide kinase, boiled, and electrophoresed under nondenaturing conditions. Each lane screens 1 kb and contains 70 segments (7 fragments per digestion x 5 digestions x 2 strands). The matrices tested were 5.6% polyacrylamide (PA) and 7.5% GeneAmp{sup {trademark}} (GA) at temperatures of either 23{degrees}C (RT) or 8{degrees}C (LT). Point mutations resulted in the gain or loss of a restriction site in 21% of 24 test mutations. In addition, mutations could be detected if any of 5 restriction fragments with the same mutation (producing 10 denatured segments) displayed abnormal mobility (SSCP component). The average sensitivity per segment of the SSCP component for the 24 point mutations ranged from 49% for PA at RT to 68% with GA at LT. REF detected 96% of the mutations with PA at RT and 100% with GA at RT or LT. These latter two conditions detected 100% of a subsequent blinded sample that contained normal controls and 27 different mutations. A blinded analysis is in progress to determine the sensitivity of REF when the segment size is 2 kb.

  14. Measuring motion on DNA by the type I restriction endonuclease EcoR124I using triplex displacement

    PubMed Central

    Firman, Keith; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    The type I restriction enzyme EcoR124I cleaves DNA following extensive linear translocation dependent upon ATP hydrolysis. Using protein-directed displacement of a DNA triplex, we have determined the kinetics of one-dimensional motion without the necessity of measuring DNA or ATP hydrolysis. The triplex was pre-formed specifically on linear DNA, 4370 bp from an EcoR124I site, and then incubated with endonuclease. Upon ATP addition, a distinct lag phase was observed before the triplex-forming oligonucleotide was displaced with exponential kinetics. As the distance between type I and triplex sites was shortened, the lag time decreased whilst the displacement reaction remained exponential. This is indicative of processive DNA translocation followed by collision with the triplex and oligonucleotide displacement. A linear relationship between lag duration and inter-site distance gives a translocation velocity of 400 ± 32 bp/s at 20°C. Furthermore, the data can only be explained by bi-directional translocation. An endonuclease with only one of the two HsdR subunits responsible for motion could still catalyse translocation. The reaction is less processive, but can ‘reset’ in either direction whenever the DNA is released. PMID:10790375

  15. Comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the RsrI and EcoRI restriction endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, F H; Ballard, B T; Boyer, H W; Rosenberg, J M; Greene, P J

    1989-12-21

    The RsrI endonuclease, a type-II restriction endonuclease (ENase) found in Rhodobacter sphaeroides, is an isoschizomer of the EcoRI ENase. A clone containing an 11-kb BamHI fragment was isolated from an R. sphaeroides genomic DNA library by hybridization with synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes based on the N-terminal amino acid (aa) sequence of RsrI. Extracts of E. coli containing a subclone of the 11-kb fragment display RsrI activity. Nucleotide sequence analysis reveals an 831-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 277 aa. A 50% identity exists within a 266-aa overlap between the deduced aa sequences of RsrI and EcoRI. Regions of 75-100% aa sequence identity correspond to key structural and functional regions of EcoRI. The type-II ENases have many common properties, and a common origin might have been expected. Nevertheless, this is the first demonstration of aa sequence similarity between ENases produced by different organisms. PMID:2695392

  16. Ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensing for DNA using quantum dots combined with restriction endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Lou, Jing; Tu, Wenwen; Bao, Jianchun; Dai, Zhihui

    2015-01-21

    A universal and sensitive electrochemical biosensing platform for the detection and identification of DNA using CdSe quantum dots (CdSe QDs) as signal markers was designed. The detection mechanism was based on the specific recognition of MspI endonuclease combined with the signal amplification of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). MspI endonuclease could recognize its specific sequence in the double-strand DNA (dsDNA) and cleave the dsDNA fragments linked with CdSe QDs from the electrode. The remaining attached CdSe QDs can be easily read out by square-wave voltammetry using an electrodeposited bismuth (Bi) film-modified glass carbon electrode. The concentrations of target DNA could be simultaneously detected by the signal of metal markers. Using mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) DNA as a model, under the optimal conditions, the proposed biosensor could detect Mtb DNA down to 8.7 × 10(-15) M with a linear range of 5 orders of magnitude (from 1.0 × 10(-14) to 1.0 × 10(-9) M) and discriminate mismatched DNA with high selectivity. This strategy presented a universal and convenient biosensing platform for DNA assay, and its satisfactory performances make it a potential candidate for the early diagnosis of gene-related diseases. PMID:25408952

  17. A RecB-family nuclease motif in the Type I restriction endonuclease EcoR124I

    PubMed Central

    Šišáková, Eva; Stanley, Louise K.; Weiserová, Marie; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    The Type I restriction-modification enzyme EcoR124I is an ATP-dependent endonuclease that uses dsDNA translocation to locate and cleave distant non-specific DNA sites. Bioinformatic analysis of the HsdR subunits of EcoR124I and related Type I enzymes showed that in addition to the principal PD-(E/D)xK Motifs, I, II and III, a QxxxY motif is also present that is characteristic of RecB-family nucleases. The QxxxY motif resides immediately C-terminal to Motif III within a region of predicted α-helix. Using mutagenesis, we examined the role of the Q and Y residues in DNA binding, translocation and cleavage. Roles for the QxxxY motif in coordinating the catalytic residues or in stabilizing the nuclease domain on the DNA are discussed. PMID:18511464

  18. MmoSTI restriction endonuclease, isolated from Morganella morganii infecting a tropical moth, Actias selene, cleaving 5'-|CCNGG-3' sequences.

    PubMed

    Skowron, Marta A; Zebrowska, Joanna; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Skowron, Piotr M

    2016-02-01

    A type II restriction endonuclease, MmoSTI, from the pathogenic bacterium Morganella morganii infecting a tropical moth, Actias selene, has been detected and biochemically characterized, as a potential etiological differentiation factor. The described REase recognizes interrupted palindromes, i.e., 5'-CCNGG-3' sequences and cleaves DNA leaving 5-nucleotide (nt) long, single-stranded (ss), 5'-cohesive ends, which was determined by three complementary methods: (i) cleavage of custom and standard DNA substrates, (ii) run-off sequencing of cleavage products, and (iii) shotgun cloning and sequencing of bacteriophage lambda (λ) DNA digested with MmoSTI. MmoSTI, the first 5'-CCNGG-3' REase characterized from M. morganii, is a neoschizomer of ScrFI, which cleaves DNA leaving 1-nt long, ss, 5'-cohesive ends. It is a high-frequency cutter and can be isolated from easily cultured bacteria, thus it can potentially serve as a tool for DNA manipulations. PMID:26280518

  19. PCR- and restriction endonuclease-based detection of IDH1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jochen; Pusch, Stefan; Balss, Jörg; Capper, David; Mueller, Wolf; Christians, Arne; Hartmann, Christian; von Deimling, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    Hotspot mutations in codon 132 of the gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) have emerged as the most frequent DNA alteration in astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. These mutations have been shown to be of significant diagnostic and prognostic value. So far, assessment of IDH1 mutation relied on DNA sequencing techniques. We generated a set of primers suitable for endonuclease-based detection of hotspot mutations in codon 132 of IDH1. This primer set will allow determining these mutations without the need of DNA sequencing. One set of primer sets is designed to detect the presence or absence of IDH1 mutations in codon 132, while the other primer sets individually recognize the R132H, R132C, R132S, R132G and R132L mutations. PMID:19744125

  20. Molecular cloning of the three base restriction endonuclease R.CviJI from eukaryotic Chlorella virus IL-3A.

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, N; Mead, D A; McMaster, K; George, D; Van Etten, J L; Skowron, P M

    1996-01-01

    R.CviJI is unique among site-specific restriction endonucleases in that its activity can be modulated to recognize either a two or three base sequence. Normally R.CviJI cleaves RGCY sites between the G and C to leave blunt ends. In the presence of ATP R.CviJI* cleaves RGCN and YGCY sites, but not YGCR sites. The gene encoding R.CviJI was cloned from the eukaryotic Chlorella virus IL-3A and expressed in Escherichia coli. The primary E.coli cviJIR gene product is a 278 amino acid protein initiated from a GTG codon, rather than the expected 358 amino acid protein initiated from an in-frame upstream ATG codon. Interestingly, the 278 amino acid protein displays the normal restriction activity but not the R.CviJI* activity of the native enzyme. Nine restriction and modification proteins which recognize a central GC or CG sequence share short regions of identity with R.CviJI amino acids 144-235, suggesting that this region is the recognition and/or catalytic domain. PMID:8692682

  1. The study of responses to 'model' DNA breaks induced by restriction endonucleases in cells and cell-free systems: achievements and difficulties.

    PubMed

    Thacker, J

    1994-11-01

    The use of restriction endonucleases (RE) as a means of implicating DNA double-strand breaks (dsb) in cellular responses is reviewed. The introduction of RE into cells leads to many of the responses known to be characteristic of radiation damage--cell killing, chromosomal aberration, oncogenic transformation, gene mutation and amplification. Additionally, radiosensitive cell lines are hypersensitive to RE, including those from the human disorder ataxia-telangiectasia. However, quantitation of response and comparisons of the effectiveness of different RE are difficult, partly because of unknown activity and lifetime of RE in the cell. RE-induced dsb have also been used to reveal molecular mechanisms of repair and misrepair at specific sites in DNA. Dsb have been implicated in recombination processes including those leading to illegitimate rejoining (formation of deletions and rearrangements) at short sequence features in DNA. Also model dsb act as a signal to activate other cellular processes, which may influence or indirectly cause some responses, including cell death. In these signalling responses the detailed chemistry at the break site may not be very important, perhaps explaining why there is considerable overlap in responses to RE and to ionizing radiations. PMID:7983451

  2. Restriction endonuclease analysis of leukocyte mitochondrial DNA in Leber's optic atrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, I J; Miller, D H; Harding, A E

    1988-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that Leber's optic atrophy may be caused by mutation of the mitochondrial (mt) genome, restriction fragment length polymorphism in leukocyte mt DNA was studied in 16 patients with Leber's optic atrophy, 28 of their unaffected matrilineal relatives, and 35 normal control subjects. No differences in restriction fragment patterns were observed between affected and unaffected individuals in the same maternal line, and there was no evidence of major deletion of mt DNA in patients. This study provides no positive evidence of mitochondrial inheritance in Leber's optic atrophy but does not exclude it. PMID:2905730

  3. Demonstration of the Principles of Restriction Endonuclease Cleavage Reactions Using Thermostable Bfl I from "Anoxybacillus Flavithermus"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Prince; D'Souza, David R.; Bhandari, Deepali; Parashar, Vijay; Capalash, Neena

    2003-01-01

    Restriction enzymes are basic tools in recombinant DNA technology. To shape the molecular biology experiments, the students must know how to work with these molecular scissors. Here, we describe an integrated set of experiments, introduced in the "Advances in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology" postgraduate course, which covers the important…

  4. Two-step polymerase chain reactions and restriction endonuclease analyses detect and differentiate ompA DNA of Chlamydia spp.

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenboeck, B; Kousoulas, K G; Storz, J

    1992-01-01

    Specific and sensitive amplification of major outer membrane protein (MOMP) gene (ompA) DNA sequences of Chlamydia species with various MOMP genotypes was achieved by a two-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Degenerate, inosine-containing oligonucleotide primers homologous to the 5' and 3' ends of the translated regions of all chlamydial MOMP genes were used in a PCR to amplify a DNA fragment of approximately 1,120 bp. A portion of this DNA fragment was amplified in a second genus-specific reaction that yielded a DNA fragment of approximately 930 bp. A pair of degenerate oligonucleotide primers homologous to internal sequences of the primary DNA fragment was used in this PCR. This method detected three cognate chlamydial genomes in a background of 1 microgram of unrelated DNA. MOMP genes of 13 representative chlamydial MOMP genotypes of the species C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, and C. psittaci were amplified. In a secondary PCR, group-specific detection was achieved by the simultaneous use of one genus-specific primer and three primers derived from different fingerprint regions of three major groups of chlamydiae. This multiplex PCR differentiated the groups by the length of the amplified DNA fragments and detected the simultaneous presence of DNA sequences of the Chlamydia spp. with different MOMP genotypes. Further differentiation as ompA restriction fragment length polymorphism types among all chlamydial strains with the various MOMP genotypes analyzed here was achieved by restriction endonuclease analysis of the secondary PCR products. DNA sequences corresponding to the ompA restriction fragment length polymorphism type B577 of C. psittaci were detected in two of seven milk samples from cases of bovine mastitis. Images PMID:1349899

  5. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the ilvGEDA operon of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Driver, R P; Lawther, R P

    1985-06-01

    Four of the genes required for the biosynthesis of isoleucine and valine form the ilvGEDA operon in Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium. The structural relationship of these genes was examined in eight other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae by genomic Southern blot hybridization. These genes are contiguous in all the strains examined, and specific restriction sites appear to be highly conserved, indicating the possible functional importance of the DNA sequences of which they are part. PMID:2987189

  6. Epidemiological fingerprinting of Enterobacter cloacae by small-fragment restriction endonuclease analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic restriction fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Haertl, R; Bandlow, G

    1993-01-01

    A cluster of infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae was observed among preterm neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a pediatric hospital in Osnabrück, Germany. The presence of similar antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among the bacterial isolates prompted an investigation to determine whether a limited spread of a single strain existed. All 12 E. cloacae isolates from the NICU and 50 nonrelated strains were fingerprinted by small-fragment restriction endonuclease analysis (SF-REA) of EcoRI DNA digests. Selected isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of NotI- or XbaI-generated genomic restriction fragments. Epidemiologically unrelated strains were clearly discriminated by both methods. Results achieved by SF-REA and PFGE revealed that of the 12 isolates from the NICU, 11 belonged to the same genotypic cluster. Since all reagents and equipment for both techniques are commercially available, DNA fingerprinting by SF-REA or PFGE is proposed as a useful tool in the microbiology laboratory for investigating the epidemiological relatedness of E. cloacae strains of clinical and environmental origin. Images PMID:8093251

  7. An investigation of enzootic Glasser's disease in a specific-pathogen-free grower-finisher facility using restriction endonuclease analysis

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Nonie L.; Hurnik, Daniel; MacInnes, Janet I.

    1993-01-01

    Enzootic Glassers's disease was investigated to study the epidemiology of the disease strains on a farm where it presented a problem. Restriction endonuclease fingerprinting (REF) analysis technique was used, as all strains of Haemophilus parasuis are biochemically similar and many strains are biochemically untypable. After young weaned pigs were moved from farm A to farm B, Glasser's disease routinely occurred despite the use of antibiotics and a commercial bacterin. Isolates were taken from the nasal passages and from carcasses of clinically affected cases and subjected to REF analysis. Haemophilus parasuis was not isolated from any of the pigs on farm A, but it was isolated from 7/10 and 5/10 nasal swabs taken from farm B. Two H. parasuis strains isolated from clinical cases of Glasser's disease from farm B had an identical REF pattern, but were different from the nasal swabs and the H. parasuis strain contained in the bacterin. The subsequent use of a custom autogenous bacterin made from a clinical isolate of H. parasuis reduced the mortality rate on farm B. This investigation indicates that nasal isolates of H. parasuis are different than those causing clinical disease, and not all bacterin strains are cross protective for other strains. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17424269

  8. Modification-dependent restriction endonuclease, MspJI, flips 5-methylcytosine out of the DNA helix

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J. R.; Wang, H.; Mabuchi, M. Y.; Zhang, X.; Roberts, R. J.; Zheng, Y.; Wilson, G. G.; Cheng, X.

    2014-09-27

    MspJI belongs to a family of restriction enzymes that cleave DNA containing 5-methylcytosine (5mC) or 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). MspJI is specific for the sequence 5(h)mC-N-N-G or A and cleaves with some variability 9/13 nucleotides downstream. Earlier, we reported the crystal structure of MspJI without DNA and proposed how it might recognize this sequence and catalyze cleavage. Here we report its co-crystal structure with a 27-base pair oligonucleotide containing 5mC. This structure confirms that MspJI acts as a homotetramer and that the modified cytosine is flipped from the DNA helix into an SRA-like-binding pocket. We expected the structure to reveal two DNA molecules bound specifically to the tetramer and engaged with the enzyme's two DNA-cleavage sites. A coincidence of crystal packing precluded this organization, however. We found that each DNA molecule interacted with two adjacent tetramers, binding one specifically and the other non-specifically. The latter interaction, which prevented cleavage-site engagement, also involved base flipping and might represent the sequence-interrogation phase that precedes specific recognition. MspJI is unusual in that DNA molecules are recognized and cleaved by different subunits. Such interchange of function might explain how other complex multimeric restriction enzymes act.

  9. Modification-dependent restriction endonuclease, MspJI, flips 5-methylcytosine out of the DNA helix

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Horton, J. R.; Wang, H.; Mabuchi, M. Y.; Zhang, X.; Roberts, R. J.; Zheng, Y.; Wilson, G. G.; Cheng, X.

    2014-09-27

    MspJI belongs to a family of restriction enzymes that cleave DNA containing 5-methylcytosine (5mC) or 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). MspJI is specific for the sequence 5(h)mC-N-N-G or A and cleaves with some variability 9/13 nucleotides downstream. Earlier, we reported the crystal structure of MspJI without DNA and proposed how it might recognize this sequence and catalyze cleavage. Here we report its co-crystal structure with a 27-base pair oligonucleotide containing 5mC. This structure confirms that MspJI acts as a homotetramer and that the modified cytosine is flipped from the DNA helix into an SRA-like-binding pocket. We expected the structure to reveal two DNAmore » molecules bound specifically to the tetramer and engaged with the enzyme's two DNA-cleavage sites. A coincidence of crystal packing precluded this organization, however. We found that each DNA molecule interacted with two adjacent tetramers, binding one specifically and the other non-specifically. The latter interaction, which prevented cleavage-site engagement, also involved base flipping and might represent the sequence-interrogation phase that precedes specific recognition. MspJI is unusual in that DNA molecules are recognized and cleaved by different subunits. Such interchange of function might explain how other complex multimeric restriction enzymes act.« less

  10. Epidemiologic study of Taylorella equigenitalis strains by field inversion gel electrophoresis of genomic restriction endonuclease fragments.

    PubMed

    Bleumink-Pluym, N; ter Laak, E A; van der Zeijst, B A

    1990-09-01

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), a sexually transmitted bacterial disease, was first described in thoroughbred horses. It also occurs in nonthoroughbred horses, in which it produces isolated, apparently unrelated outbreaks. Thirty-two strains of Taylorella equigenitalis, the causative agent of CEM, from all over the world were characterized by field inversion gel electrophoresis of fragments of genomic DNA obtained by digestion with low-cleavage-frequency restriction enzymes. This resulted in a division into five clearly distinct groups. Strains from thoroughbred horses from all continents belonged to one group. Strains from nonthoroughbred horses from various countries were different from strains from thoroughbred horses; four groups could be determined. Two groups contained both streptomycin-resistant and streptomycin-susceptible strains. The data indicate that CEM in nonthoroughbreds did not originate from the thoroughbred population; also, the reverse was not demonstrated. Thus, extensive international transportation directives regarding the testing of nonthoroughbred horses for CEM may need reconsideration. PMID:2172296

  11. Multiplex, Rapid, and Sensitive Isothermal Detection of Nucleic-Acid Sequence by Endonuclease Restriction-Mediated Real-Time Multiple Cross Displacement Amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Dongxin; Luo, Lijuan; Li, Hua; Cao, Xiaolong; Liu, Kai; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    We have devised a novel isothermal amplification technology, termed endonuclease restriction-mediated real-time multiple cross displacement amplification (ET-MCDA), which facilitated multiplex, rapid, specific and sensitive detection of nucleic-acid sequences at a constant temperature. The ET-MCDA integrated multiple cross displacement amplification strategy, restriction endonuclease cleavage and real-time fluorescence detection technique. In the ET-MCDA system, the functional cross primer E-CP1 or E-CP2 was constructed by adding a short sequence at the 5' end of CP1 or CP2, respectively, and the new E-CP1 or E-CP2 primer was labeled at the 5' end with a fluorophore and in the middle with a dark quencher. The restriction endonuclease Nb.BsrDI specifically recognized the short sequence and digested the newly synthesized double-stranded terminal sequences (5' end short sequences and their complementary sequences), which released the quenching, resulting on a gain of fluorescence signal. Thus, the ET-MCDA allowed real-time detection of single or multiple targets in only a single reaction, and the positive results were observed in as short as 12 min, detecting down to 3.125 fg of genomic DNA per tube. Moreover, the analytical specificity and the practical application of the ET-MCDA were also successfully evaluated in this study. Here, we provided the details on the novel ET-MCDA technique and expounded the basic ET-MCDA amplification mechanism. PMID:27242766

  12. Genetic discrimination for three gynogenetic clones of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, based on restriction endonuclease analysis of Nd5-Nd6 region of mitochondrial DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Ye, Yuzhen; Wu, Qingjiang

    2005-03-01

    Three artificial gynogenetic clones of silver carp were produced for the analysis of restriction enzyme digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 region from mtDNA of the clones. It is revealed that all intraclonal individuals shared completely the same digestion patterns but among interclonal individuals did not. The three clones were mixed and cultured in a pond together for two years, and restriction endonuclease digestion patterns of ND5 ND6 were used as genetic markers to assess the growth performance of each clone.

  13. Engineered selective plant male sterility through pollen-specific expression of the EcoRI restriction endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Millwood, Reginald J; Moon, Hong S; Poovaiah, Charleson R; Muthukumar, Balasubramaniam; Rice, John Hollis; Abercrombie, Jason M; Abercrombie, Laura L; Green, William Derek; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2016-05-01

    Unintended gene flow from transgenic plants via pollen, seed and vegetative propagation is a regulatory concern because of potential admixture in food and crop systems, as well as hybridization and introgression to wild and weedy relatives. Bioconfinement of transgenic pollen would help address some of these concerns and enable transgenic plant production for several crops where gene flow is an issue. Here, we demonstrate the expression of the restriction endonuclease EcoRI under the control of the tomato pollen-specific LAT52 promoter is an effective method for generating selective male sterility in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Of nine transgenic events recovered, four events had very high bioconfinement with tightly controlled EcoRI expression in pollen and negligible-to-no expression other plant tissues. Transgenic plants had normal morphology wherein vegetative growth and reproductivity were similar to nontransgenic controls. In glasshouse experiments, transgenic lines were hand-crossed to both male-sterile and emasculated nontransgenic tobacco varieties. Progeny analysis of 16 000-40 000 seeds per transgenic line demonstrated five lines approached (>99.7%) or attained 100% bioconfinement for one or more generations. Bioconfinement was again demonstrated at or near 100% under field conditions where four transgenic lines were grown in close proximity to male-sterile tobacco, and 900-2100 seeds per male-sterile line were analysed for transgenes. Based upon these results, we conclude EcoRI-driven selective male sterility holds practical potential as a safe and reliable transgene bioconfinement strategy. Given the mechanism of male sterility, this method could be applicable to any plant species. PMID:26503160

  14. Inducible expression and cytogenetic effects of the EcoRI restriction endonuclease in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, W F; Fero, M L; Land, M C; Winegar, R A

    1988-01-01

    The cytogenetic endpoints sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosome aberrations are widely used as indicators of DNA damage induced by mutagenic carcinogens. Chromosome aberrations appear to result directly from DNA double-strand breaks, but the lesion(s) giving rise to SCE formation remains unknown. Most compounds that induce SCEs induce a spectrum of lesions in DNA. To investigate the role of double-strand breakage in SCE formation, we constructed a plasmid that gives rise to one specific lesion, a staggered-end ("cohesive") DNA double-strand break. This plasmid, designated pMENs, contains a selectable marker, neo, which is a bacterial gene for neomycin resistance, and the coding sequence for the bacterial restriction endonuclease EcoRI attached to the mouse metallothionein gene promoter. EcoRI recognizes G decreases AATTC sequences in DNA and makes DNA double-strand breaks with four nucleotides overhanging as staggered ends. Cells transfected with pMENS were resistant to the antibiotic G418 and contained an integrated copy of the EcoRI gene, detectable by DNA filter hybridization. The addition of the heavy metal CdSO4 resulted in the intracellular production of EcoRI, as measured by an anti-EcoRI antibody. Cytogenetic analysis after the addition of CdSO4 indicated a dramatic increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations but very little effect on SCE frequency. Although there was some intercellular heterogeneity, these results confirm that DNA double-strand breaks do result in chromosome aberrations but that these breaks are not sufficient to give rise to SCE formation. Images PMID:3054512

  15. Multiplex, Rapid, and Sensitive Isothermal Detection of Nucleic-Acid Sequence by Endonuclease Restriction-Mediated Real-Time Multiple Cross Displacement Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Dongxin; Luo, Lijuan; Li, Hua; Cao, Xiaolong; Liu, Kai; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    We have devised a novel isothermal amplification technology, termed endonuclease restriction-mediated real-time multiple cross displacement amplification (ET-MCDA), which facilitated multiplex, rapid, specific and sensitive detection of nucleic-acid sequences at a constant temperature. The ET-MCDA integrated multiple cross displacement amplification strategy, restriction endonuclease cleavage and real-time fluorescence detection technique. In the ET-MCDA system, the functional cross primer E-CP1 or E-CP2 was constructed by adding a short sequence at the 5′ end of CP1 or CP2, respectively, and the new E-CP1 or E-CP2 primer was labeled at the 5′ end with a fluorophore and in the middle with a dark quencher. The restriction endonuclease Nb.BsrDI specifically recognized the short sequence and digested the newly synthesized double-stranded terminal sequences (5′ end short sequences and their complementary sequences), which released the quenching, resulting on a gain of fluorescence signal. Thus, the ET-MCDA allowed real-time detection of single or multiple targets in only a single reaction, and the positive results were observed in as short as 12 min, detecting down to 3.125 fg of genomic DNA per tube. Moreover, the analytical specificity and the practical application of the ET-MCDA were also successfully evaluated in this study. Here, we provided the details on the novel ET-MCDA technique and expounded the basic ET-MCDA amplification mechanism. PMID:27242766

  16. A New Restriction Endonuclease-Based Method for Highly-Specific Detection of DNA Targets from Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maria W.; Ghindilis, Andrei L.; Seoudi, Ihab A.; Smith, Kenneth; Billharz, Rosalind; Simon, Holly M.

    2014-01-01

    PCR multiplexing has proven to be challenging, and thus has provided limited means for pathogen genotyping. We developed a new approach for analysis of PCR amplicons based on restriction endonuclease digestion. The first stage of the restriction enzyme assay is hybridization of a target DNA to immobilized complementary oligonucleotide probes that carry a molecular marker, horseradish peroxidase (HRP). At the second stage, a target-specific restriction enzyme is added, cleaving the target-probe duplex at the corresponding restriction site and releasing the HRP marker into solution, where it is quantified colorimetrically. The assay was tested for detection of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pathogen, using the mecA gene as a target. Calibration curves indicated that the limit of detection for both target oligonucleotide and PCR amplicon was approximately 1 nM. Sequences of target oligonucleotides were altered to demonstrate that (i) any mutation of the restriction site reduced the signal to zero; (ii) double and triple point mutations of sequences flanking the restriction site reduced restriction to 50–80% of the positive control; and (iii) a minimum of a 16-bp target-probe dsDNA hybrid was required for significant cleavage. Further experiments showed that the assay could detect the mecA amplicon from an unpurified PCR mixture with detection limits similar to those with standard fluorescence-based qPCR. Furthermore, addition of a large excess of heterologous genomic DNA did not affect amplicon detection. Specificity of the assay is very high because it involves two biorecognition steps. The proposed assay is low-cost and can be completed in less than 1 hour. Thus, we have demonstrated an efficient new approach for pathogen detection and amplicon genotyping in conjunction with various end-point and qPCR applications. The restriction enzyme assay may also be used for parallel analysis of multiple different amplicons from the same unpurified

  17. Identification of the Serratia endonuclease dimer: structural basis and implications for catalysis.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M. D.; Krause, K. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Serratia endonuclease is an extracellularly secreted enzyme capable of cleaving both single- and double-stranded forms of DNA and RNA. It is the first member of a large class of related and usually dimeric endonucleases for which a structure is known. Using X-ray crystallography, the structure of monomer of this enzyme was reported by us previously (Miller MD et al., 1994, Nature Struct Biol 1:461-468). We now confirm the dimeric nature of this enzyme through light-scattering experiments and identify the physiologic dimer interface through crystal packing analysis. This dimerization occurs through an isologous twofold interaction localized to the carboxy-terminal subdomain of the enzyme. The dimer is a prolate ellipsoid with dimensions 30 A x 35 A x 90 A. The dimer interface is flat and contains four salt links, several hydrogen bonds, and nonpolar interactions. Buried water is prominent in this interface and it includes an unusual "cubic" water cluster. The position of the two active sites in the dimer suggests that they can act independently in their cleavage of DNA, but have a geometrical advantage in attacking substrate relative to the monomer. PMID:8771193

  18. Comparative restriction endonuclease maps of proviral DNA of the primate type C simian sarcoma-associated virus and gibbon ape leukemia virus group.

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, C D; Wong-Staal, F; Reitz, M S

    1982-01-01

    Extrachromosomal DNA was purified from canine thymus cells acutely infected with different strains of infectious primate type C viruses of the woolly monkey (simian) sarcoma helper virus and gibbon ape leukemia virus group. All DNA preparations contained linear proviral molecules of 9.1 to 9.2 kilobases, at least some of which represent complete infectious proviral DNA. Cells infected with a replication-defective fibroblast-transforming sarcoma virus and its helper, a replication-competent nontransforming helper virus, also contained a 6.6- to 6.7-kilobase DNA. These proviral DNA molecules were digested with different restriction endonucleases, and the resultant fragments were oriented to the viral RNA by a combination of partial digestions, codigestion with more than one endonuclease, digestion of integrated proviral DNA, and hybridization with 3'- and 5'-specific viral probes. The 3'- and 5'-specific probes each hybridized to fragments from both ends of proviral DNA, indicating that, in common with those of other retroviruses, these proviruses contain a large terminal redundancy at both ends, each of which consists of sequences derived from both the 3' and 5' regions of the viral RNA. The proviral sequences are organized 3',5'-unique-3',5'. Four restriction enzymes (KpnI, SmaI, PstI, and SstI) recognized sites within the large terminal redundancies, and these sites were conserved within all the isolates tested. This suggests that both the 3' and 5' ends of the genomic RNA of these viruses are extremely closely related. In contrast, the restriction sites within the unique portion of the provirus were not strongly conserved within this group of viruses, even though they were related along most of their genomes. Whereas the 5' 60 to 70% of the RNA of these viruses was more closely related by liquid hybridization experiments than was the 3' 30 to 40%, restriction sites within this region were not preferentially conserved, suggesting that small sequence differences or

  19. Linear diffusion of the restriction endonuclease EcoRV on DNA is essential for the in vivo function of the enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Jeltsch, A; Wenz, C; Stahl, F; Pingoud, A

    1996-01-01

    Linear diffusion along DNA is a mechanism of enhancing the association rates of proteins to their specific recognition sites on DNA. It has been demonstrated for several proteins in vitro, but to date in no case in vivo. Here we show that the restriction endonuclease EcoRV slides along the DNA, scanning approximately 1000 bp in one binding event. This process is critically dependent on contacts between amino acid residues of the protein and the backbone of the DNA. The disruption of single hydrogen bonds and, in particular, the alteration of electrostatic interactions between amino acid side chains of the protein and phosphate groups of the DNA interfere with or abolish effective sliding. The efficiency of linear diffusion is dependent on salt concentration, having a maximum at 50 mM NaCl. These results suggest that a nonspecific and mobile binding mode capable of linear diffusion is dependent on a subtle balance of forces governing the interaction of the enzyme and the DNA. A strong correlation between the ability of EcoRV mutants to slide along the DNA in vitro and to protect Escherichia coli cells from phage infection demonstrates that linear diffusion occurs in vivo and is essential for effective phage restriction. Images PMID:8890184

  20. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and multilocus sequence typing reveal genetic relationships among Clostridium difficile isolates genotyped by restriction endonuclease analysis.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Jane W; O'Leary, Mary M; Shutt, Kathleen A; Sambol, Susan P; Johnson, Stuart; Gerding, Dale N; Harrison, Lee H

    2010-02-01

    Numbers of Clostridium difficile infections have increased worldwide in the past decade. While infection with C. difficile remains predominantly a health care-associated infection, there may also be an increased incidence of community-associated infections. C. difficile strains of public health significance continue to emerge, and reliable genotyping methods for epidemiological investigations and global surveillance of C. difficile are required. In this study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) were performed on a set of 157 spatially and temporally diverse C. difficile isolates that had been previously genotyped by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) to determine the concordance among these genotyping methods. In addition, sequence analysis of the tcdC genotype was performed to investigate the association of allelic variants with epidemic C. difficile isolates. Overall, the MLST and MLVA data were concordant with REA genotyping data. MLST was less discriminatory than either MLVA or REA, yet this method established C. difficile genetic lineage. MLVA was highly discriminatory and demonstrated relationships among the MLST genetic lineages and REA genotypes that were previously unrecognized. Several tcdC genotypes were specific to epidemic clones, highlighting the possible importance of toxin misregulation in C. difficile disease pathogenesis. This study demonstrates that a combination of MLST and MLVA may prove useful for the investigation and surveillance of emergent C. difficile clones of global public health concern. PMID:19955268

  1. A putative Type IIS restriction endonuclease GeoICI from Geobacillus sp.--A robust, thermostable alternative to mezophilic prototype BbvI.

    PubMed

    Zebrowska, Joanna; Zolnierkiewicz, Olga; Skowron, Marta A; Zylicz-Stachula, Agnieszka; Jezewska-Frackowiak, Joanna; Skowron, Piotr M

    2016-03-01

    Screening of extreme environments in search for novel microorganisms may lead to the discovery of robust enzymes with either new substrate specificities or thermostable equivalents of those already found in mesophiles, better suited for biotechnology applications. Isolates from Iceland geysers' biofilms, exposed to a broad range of temperatures, from ambient to close to water boiling point, were analysed for the presence of DNA-interacting proteins, including restriction endonucleases (REases). GeoICI, a member of atypical Type IIS REases, is the most thermostable isoschizomer of the prototype BbvI, recognizing/cleaving 5'-GCAGC(N8/12)-3'DNA sequences. As opposed to the unstable prototype, which cleaves DNA at 30°C, GeoICI is highly active at elevated temperatures, up to 73°C and over a very wide salt concentration range. Recognition/cleavage sites were determined by: (i) digestion of plasmid and bacteriophage lambda DNA (Λ); (ii) cleavage of custom PCR substrates, (iii) run-off sequencing of GeoICI cleavage products and (iv) shotgun cloning and sequencing of Λ DNA fragmented with GeoICI. Geobacillus sp. genomic DNA was PCR-screened for the presence of other specialized REases-MTases and as a result, another putative REase- MTase, GeoICII, related to the Thermus sp. family of bifunctional REases-methyltransferases (MTases) was detected. PMID:26949085

  2. Intrinsic Dynamics of Restriction Endonuclease EcoO109I Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations and X-Ray Scattering Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Sato, Mamoru; Ikeguchi, Mitsunori

    2009-01-01

    EcoO109I is a type II restriction endonuclease that functions as a dimer in solution. Upon DNA binding to the enzyme, the two subunits rotate counterclockwise relative to each other, as the two catalytic domains undergo structural changes to capture the cognate DNA. Using a 150-ns molecular dynamics simulation, we investigated the intrinsic dynamics of the DNA-free enzyme in solution to elucidate the relationship between enzyme dynamics and structural changes. The simulation revealed that the enzyme is considerably flexible, and thus exhibits large fluctuations in the radius of gyration. The small-angle x-ray scattering profile calculated from the simulation, including scattering from explicit hydration water, was in agreement with the experimentally observed profile. Principal component analysis revealed that the major dynamics were represented by the open-close and counterclockwise motions: the former is required for the enzyme to access DNA, whereas the latter corresponds to structural changes upon DNA binding. Furthermore, the intrinsic dynamics in the catalytic domains were consistent with motions capturing the cognate DNA. These results indicate that the structure of EcoO109I is intrinsically flexible in the direction of its functional movement, to facilitate effective structural changes for sequence-specific DNA recognition and processing. PMID:19348764

  3. Insights into the Origin of Clostridium botulinum Strains: Evolution of Distinct Restriction Endonuclease Sites in rrs (16S rRNA gene).

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Ashish; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Joshi, Jayadev; Shankar, Pratap; Kalia, Vipin Chandra

    2015-06-01

    Diversity analysis of Clostridium botulinum strains is complicated by high microheterogeneity caused by the presence of 9-22 copies of rrs (16S rRNA gene). The need is to mine genetic markers to identify very closely related strains. Multiple alignments of the nucleotide sequences of the 212 rrs of 13 C. botulinum strains revealed intra- and inter-genomic heterogeneity. Low intragenomic heterogeneity in rrs was evident in strains 230613, Alaska E43, Okra, Eklund 17B, Langeland, 657, Kyoto, BKT015925, and Loch Maree. The most heterogenous rrs sequences were those of C. botulinum strains ATCC 19397, Hall, H04402065, and ATCC 3502. In silico restriction mapping of these rrs sequences was observable with 137 type II Restriction endonucleases (REs). Nucleotide changes (NC) at these RE sites resulted in appearance of distinct and additional sites, and loss in certain others. De novo appearances of RE sites due to NC were recorded at different positions in rrs gene. A nucleotide transition A>G in rrs of C. botulinum Loch Maree and 657 resulted in the generation of 4 and 10 distinct RE sites, respectively. Transitions A>G, G>A, and T>C led to the loss of RE sites. A perusal of the entire NC and in silico RE mapping of rrs of C. botulinum strains provided insights into their evolution. Segregation of strains on the basis of RE digestion patterns of rrs was validated by the cladistic analysis involving six house keeping genes: dnaN, gyrB, metG, prfA, pyrG, and Rho. PMID:25805900

  4. Endonuclease Restriction-Mediated Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Novel Technique for Rapid, Sensitive and Quantitative Detection of Nucleic-Acid Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Li, Machao; Luo, Lijuan; Liu, Dongxin; Li, Hua; Cao, Xiaolong; Hu, Shoukui; Jin, Dong; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    The article reported a novel methodology for real-time PCR analysis of nucleic acids, termed endonuclease restriction-mediated real-time polymerase chain reaction (ET-PCR). Just like PCR, ET-PCR only required one pair of primers. A short sequence, which was recognized by restriction enzyme BstUI, was attached to the 5′ end of the forward (F) or reverse (R) PCR primer, and the new F or R primer was named EF or ER. EF/ER was labeled at the 5′ end with a reporter dye and in the middle with a quenching dye. BstUI cleaves the newly synthesized double-stranded terminal sequences (5′ end recognition sequences and their complementary sequences) during the extension phase, which separates the reporter molecule from the quenching dye, leading to a gain of fluorescence signal. This process is repeated in each amplification cycle and unaffected the exponential synthesis of the PCR amplification. ET-PCR allowed real-time analysis of single or multiple targets in a single vessel, and provided the reproducible quantitation of nucleic acids. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of ET-PCR were successfully evaluated, detecting down to 250 fg of genomic DNA per tube of target pathogen DNA examined, and the positive results were generated in a relatively short period. Moreover, the practical application of ET-PCR for simultaneous detection of multiple target pathogens was also demonstrated in artificially contaminated blood samples. In conclusion, due to the technique’s simplicity of design, reproducible data and low contamination risk, ET-PCR assay is an appealing alternative to conventional approaches currently used for real-time nucleic acid analysis. PMID:27468284

  5. Endonuclease Restriction-Mediated Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Novel Technique for Rapid, Sensitive and Quantitative Detection of Nucleic-Acid Sequence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Li, Machao; Luo, Lijuan; Liu, Dongxin; Li, Hua; Cao, Xiaolong; Hu, Shoukui; Jin, Dong; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    The article reported a novel methodology for real-time PCR analysis of nucleic acids, termed endonuclease restriction-mediated real-time polymerase chain reaction (ET-PCR). Just like PCR, ET-PCR only required one pair of primers. A short sequence, which was recognized by restriction enzyme BstUI, was attached to the 5' end of the forward (F) or reverse (R) PCR primer, and the new F or R primer was named EF or ER. EF/ER was labeled at the 5' end with a reporter dye and in the middle with a quenching dye. BstUI cleaves the newly synthesized double-stranded terminal sequences (5' end recognition sequences and their complementary sequences) during the extension phase, which separates the reporter molecule from the quenching dye, leading to a gain of fluorescence signal. This process is repeated in each amplification cycle and unaffected the exponential synthesis of the PCR amplification. ET-PCR allowed real-time analysis of single or multiple targets in a single vessel, and provided the reproducible quantitation of nucleic acids. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of ET-PCR were successfully evaluated, detecting down to 250 fg of genomic DNA per tube of target pathogen DNA examined, and the positive results were generated in a relatively short period. Moreover, the practical application of ET-PCR for simultaneous detection of multiple target pathogens was also demonstrated in artificially contaminated blood samples. In conclusion, due to the technique's simplicity of design, reproducible data and low contamination risk, ET-PCR assay is an appealing alternative to conventional approaches currently used for real-time nucleic acid analysis. PMID:27468284

  6. A spectroscopic method to determine the activity of the restriction endonuclease EcoRV that involves a single reaction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing; Quiñones, Edwin

    2016-03-15

    A one-step protocol is presented to determine the activity of EcoRV as a model of restriction enzymes. The protocol involved a molecular beacon as DNA substrate, with the target sequence recognized by EcoRV in the stem. EcoRV cleaved the stem forming two fragments, one of which contained the fluorophore and quencher, initially bound by 3 bp. This shorter fragment rapidly dissociated at 37 °C, causing an increase of fluorescence intensity that was used to gauge the reaction kinetics. The reaction can be described using the Michaelis-Menten mechanism, and the kinetic parameters obtained were compared with literature values involving other protocols. PMID:18489897

  7. Design implications of extremely restricted patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidyanathan, Kaushik; Liu, Renzhi; Liebmann, Lars; Lai, Kafai; Strojwas, Andzrej J.; Pileggi, Larry

    2014-07-01

    Escalating manufacturing cost and complexity is challenging the premise of affordable scaling. With lithography accounting for a large fraction of wafer costs, researchers are actively exploring several cost-effective alternative lithographic techniques, such as directed self-assembly, self-aligned multiple patterning, etc. However, most of the alternative lithographic techniques are restrictive, and it is important to understand the impact of such pattering restrictions on system-on-chip (SoC) design. To this end, we artificially restricted all layers in a 14 nm process to be pure gratings and observed that the pure gratings approach results in an inefficient SoC design with several process integration concerns. To come up with a technology definition that is mindful of designer requirements, it is essential to undertake a holistic design technology co-optimization (DTCO) considering several SoC design elements, such as standard cell logic, static random access memory bitcells, analog blocks, and physical synthesis. Our DTCO on the IBM 14 nm process with additional 10- and 7-nm node-like pattern restrictions leads us to converge on a set of critical pattern constructs that are required for an efficient and affordable SoC design.

  8. Comparison of restriction endonuclease analysis, ribotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for molecular differentiation of Clostridium difficile strains.

    PubMed Central

    Kristjánsson, M; Samore, M H; Gerding, D N; DeGirolami, P C; Bettin, K M; Karchmer, A W; Arbeit, R D

    1994-01-01

    A combined clinical and molecular epidemiologic analysis of 46 strains of Clostridium difficile, including 16 nosocomial isolates from one ward (outbreak ward) plus 17 other nosocomial isolates and 13 community-acquired isolates, was performed. HindIII digests of total cellular DNA were analyzed by restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and ribotyping; SmaI digests were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates were assigned to typing groups on the basis of the profiles detected; isolates with closely related profiles were assigned to subgroups. The 16 isolates from the outbreak ward were resolved by both REA and PFGE into five distinct groups; 13 isolates represented two REA groups and three PFGE groups and two isolates were resolved as distinct groups by both techniques. DNA obtained from one isolate was persistently partially degraded, precluding analysis by PFGE. Seventeen sporadic nosocomial isolates were resolved by REA and PFGE into comparable numbers of groups (i.e., nine groups) and subgroups (i.e., 15 and 14 subgroups, respectively), with two isolates not evaluable by PFGE. The 13 epidemiologically unrelated community-acquired isolates were assigned to 11 groups by REA and to 12 groups by PFGE. Overall, ribotyping identified only nine groups among the 46 isolates. We conclude that REA and PFGE have comparable discriminatory powers for epidemiologic typing of C. difficile isolates and that ribotyping is appreciably less discriminatory. For a few isolates, partial DNA degradation prevented analysis by PFGE but not by REA or ribotyping; the cause of the degradation is unknown. Images PMID:7989550

  9. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. by Multiple Endonuclease Restriction Real-Time Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Luo, Lijuan; Liu, Dongxin; Luo, Xia; Xu, Yanmei; Hu, Shoukui; Niu, Lina; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2015-01-01

    Shigella and Salmonella are frequently isolated from various food samples and can cause human gastroenteritis. Here, a novel multiple endonuclease restriction real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification technology (MERT-LAMP) were successfully established and validated for simultaneous detection of Shigella strains and Salmonella strains in only a single reaction. Two sets of MERT-LAMP primers for 2 kinds of pathogens were designed from ipaH gene of Shigella spp. and invA gene of Salmonella spp., respectively. Under the constant condition at 63°C, the positive results were yielded in as short as 12 min with the genomic DNA extracted from the 19 Shigella strains and 14 Salmonella strains, and the target pathogens present in a sample could be simultaneously identified based on distinct fluorescence curves in real-time format. Accordingly, the multiplex detection assay significantly reduced effort, materials and reagents used, and amplification and differentiation were conducted at the same time, obviating the use of postdetection procedures. The analytical sensitivity of MERT-LAMP was found to be 62.5 and 125 fg DNA/reaction with genomic templates of Shigella strains and Salmonella strains, which was consist with normal LAMP assay, and at least 10- and 100-fold more sensitive than that of qPCR and conventional PCR approaches. The limit of detection of MERT-LAMP for Shigella strains and Salmonella strains detection in artificially contaminated milk samples was 5.8 and 6.4 CFU per vessel. In conclusion, the MERT-LAMP methodology described here demonstrated a potential and valuable means for simultaneous screening of Shigella and Salmonella in a wide variety of samples. PMID:26697000

  10. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. by Multiple Endonuclease Restriction Real-Time Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Technique

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Luo, Lijuan; Liu, Dongxin; Luo, Xia; Xu, Yanmei; Hu, Shoukui; Niu, Lina; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2015-01-01

    Shigella and Salmonella are frequently isolated from various food samples and can cause human gastroenteritis. Here, a novel multiple endonuclease restriction real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification technology (MERT-LAMP) were successfully established and validated for simultaneous detection of Shigella strains and Salmonella strains in only a single reaction. Two sets of MERT-LAMP primers for 2 kinds of pathogens were designed from ipaH gene of Shigella spp. and invA gene of Salmonella spp., respectively. Under the constant condition at 63°C, the positive results were yielded in as short as 12 min with the genomic DNA extracted from the 19 Shigella strains and 14 Salmonella strains, and the target pathogens present in a sample could be simultaneously identified based on distinct fluorescence curves in real-time format. Accordingly, the multiplex detection assay significantly reduced effort, materials and reagents used, and amplification and differentiation were conducted at the same time, obviating the use of postdetection procedures. The analytical sensitivity of MERT-LAMP was found to be 62.5 and 125 fg DNA/reaction with genomic templates of Shigella strains and Salmonella strains, which was consist with normal LAMP assay, and at least 10- and 100-fold more sensitive than that of qPCR and conventional PCR approaches. The limit of detection of MERT-LAMP for Shigella strains and Salmonella strains detection in artificially contaminated milk samples was 5.8 and 6.4 CFU per vessel. In conclusion, the MERT-LAMP methodology described here demonstrated a potential and valuable means for simultaneous screening of Shigella and Salmonella in a wide variety of samples. PMID:26697000

  11. Catalytic domain of plasmid pAD1 relaxase TraX defines a group of relaxases related to restriction endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Francia, María Victoria; Clewell, Don B.; de la Cruz, Fernando; Moncalián, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Plasmid pAD1 is a 60-kb conjugative element commonly found in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis. The relaxase TraX and the primary origin of transfer oriT2 are located close to each other and have been shown to be essential for conjugation. The oriT2 site contains a large inverted repeat (where the nic site is located) adjacent to a series of short direct repeats. TraX does not show any of the typical relaxase sequence motifs but is the prototype of a unique family of relaxases (MOBC). The present study focuses on the genetic, biochemical, and structural analysis of TraX, whose 3D structure could be predicted by protein threading. The structure consists of two domains: (i) an N-terminal domain sharing the topology of the DNA binding domain of the MarR family of transcriptional regulators and (ii) a C-terminal catalytic domain related to the PD-(D/E)XK family of restriction endonucleases. Alignment of MOBC relaxase amino acid sequences pointed to several conserved polar amino acid residues (E28, D152, E170, E172, K176, R180, Y181, and Y203) that were mutated to alanine. Functional analysis of these mutants (in vivo DNA transfer and cleavage assays) revealed the importance of these residues for relaxase activity and suggests Y181 as a potential catalytic residue similarly to His-hydrophobe-His relaxases. We also show that TraX binds specifically to dsDNA containing the oriT2 direct repeat sequences, confirming their role in transfer specificity. The results provide insights into the catalytic mechanism of MOBC relaxases, which differs radically from that of His-hydrophobe-His relaxases. PMID:23904483

  12. Homing endonucleases: keeping the house in order.

    PubMed Central

    Belfort, M; Roberts, R J

    1997-01-01

    Homing endonucleases are rare-cutting enzymes encoded by introns and inteins. They have striking structural and functional properties that distinguish them from restriction enzymes. Nomenclature conventions analogous to those for restriction enzymes have been developed for the homing endonucleases. Recent progress in understanding the structure and function of the four families of homing enzymes is reviewed. Of particular interest are the first reported structures of homing endonucleases of the LAGLIDADG family. The exploitation of the homing enzymes in genome analysis and recombination research is also summarized. Finally, the evolution of homing endonucleases is considered, both at the structure-function level and in terms of their persistence in widely divergent biological systems. PMID:9254693

  13. Conserved Endonuclease Function of Hantavirus L Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Rothenberger, Sylvia; Torriani, Giulia; Johansson, Maria U; Kunz, Stefan; Engler, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses are important emerging pathogens belonging to the Bunyaviridae family. Like other segmented negative strand RNA viruses, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) also known as L protein of hantaviruses lacks an intrinsic "capping activity". Hantaviruses therefore employ a "cap snatching" strategy acquiring short 5' RNA sequences bearing 5'cap structures by endonucleolytic cleavage from host cell transcripts. The viral endonuclease activity implicated in cap snatching of hantaviruses has been mapped to the N-terminal domain of the L protein. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure-function analysis we confirm and extend these findings providing evidence for high conservation of the L endonuclease between Old and New World hantaviruses. Recombinant hantavirus L endonuclease showed catalytic activity and a defined cation preference shared by other viral endonucleases. Based on the previously reported remarkably high activity of hantavirus L endonuclease, we established a cell-based assay for the hantavirus endonuclase function. The robustness of the assay and its high-throughput compatible format makes it suitable for small molecule drug screens to identify novel inhibitors of hantavirus endonuclease. Based on the high degree of similarity to RdRp endonucleases, some candidate inhibitors may be broadly active against hantaviruses and other emerging human pathogenic Bunyaviruses. PMID:27144576

  14. Conserved Endonuclease Function of Hantavirus L Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberger, Sylvia; Torriani, Giulia; Johansson, Maria U.; Kunz, Stefan; Engler, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses are important emerging pathogens belonging to the Bunyaviridae family. Like other segmented negative strand RNA viruses, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) also known as L protein of hantaviruses lacks an intrinsic “capping activity”. Hantaviruses therefore employ a “cap snatching” strategy acquiring short 5′ RNA sequences bearing 5′cap structures by endonucleolytic cleavage from host cell transcripts. The viral endonuclease activity implicated in cap snatching of hantaviruses has been mapped to the N-terminal domain of the L protein. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure–function analysis we confirm and extend these findings providing evidence for high conservation of the L endonuclease between Old and New World hantaviruses. Recombinant hantavirus L endonuclease showed catalytic activity and a defined cation preference shared by other viral endonucleases. Based on the previously reported remarkably high activity of hantavirus L endonuclease, we established a cell-based assay for the hantavirus endonuclase function. The robustness of the assay and its high-throughput compatible format makes it suitable for small molecule drug screens to identify novel inhibitors of hantavirus endonuclease. Based on the high degree of similarity to RdRp endonucleases, some candidate inhibitors may be broadly active against hantaviruses and other emerging human pathogenic Bunyaviruses. PMID:27144576

  15. Nucleic acid renaturation and restriction endonuclease cleavage analyses show that the DNAs of a transforming and a nontransforming strain of Epstein-Barr virus share approximately 90% of their nucleotide sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, B; Summers, W C; Klein, G

    1976-01-01

    Viral DNA molecules were purified from a nontransforming and a transforming strain of Epstein-Barr virus. Each viral DNA was labeled in vitro and renatured in the presence of an excess of either one or the other unlabeled viral DNA. Both viral DNAs were also digested with the Eco R1 restriction endonuclease and subsequently labeled by using avian myeloblastosis virus DNA polymerase to repair either the EcoR1 nuclease-generated single-stranded ends of the DNAs or their single-stranded ends produced by a second digestion with exonuclease III after the first EcoR1 nuclease digestion. The results of these experiments support three general conclusions: (i) the DNAs of these two strains of Epstein-Barr virus share approximately 90% of their nucleotide sequences; (ii) both viral DNA populations are reasonably homogenous; and (iii) both DNAs contain repetitions or inverted repetitions of some of their nucleotide sequences. Images PMID:178907

  16. Physical map of polyoma viral DNA fragments produced by cleavage with a restriction enzyme from Haemophilus aegyptius, endonuclease R-HaeIII.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, J

    1975-01-01

    Digestion of polyoma viral DNA with a restriction enzyme from Haemophilus aegyptius generates at least 22 unique fragments. The fragments have been characterized with respect to size and physical order on the polyoma genome, and the 5' to 3' orientation of the (+) and (-) strands has been determined. A method for specific radiolabeling of adjacent fragments was employed to establish the fragment order. This technique may be useful for ordering the fragments produced by digestion of complex DNAs. Images PMID:163927

  17. Intron mobility in phage T4 is dependent upon a distinctive class of endonucleases and independent of DNA sequences encoding the intron core: mechanistic and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Pedersen, D; Quirk, S; Clyman, J; Belfort, M

    1990-01-01

    Although mobility of the phylogenetically widespread group I introns appears to be mechanistically similar, the phage T4 intron-encoded endonucleases that promote mobility of the td and sunY introns are different from their eukaryotic counterparts. Most notably, they cleave at a distance from the intron insertion sites. The td enzyme was shown to cleave 23-26 nt 5' and the sunY endonuclease 13-15 nt 3' to the intron insertion site to generate 3-nt or 2-nt 3'-OH extensions, respectively. The absolute coconversion of exon markers between the distant cleavage and insertion sites is consistent with the double-strand-break repair model for intron mobility. As a further critical test of the model we have demonstrated that the mobility event is independent of DNA sequences that encode the catalytic intron core structure. Thus, in derivatives in which the lacZ or kanR coding sequences replace the intron, these marker genes are efficiently inserted into intron-minus alleles when the cognate endonuclease is provided in trans. The process is therefore endonuclease-dependent, rather than dependent on the intron per se. These findings, which imply that the endonucleases rather than the introns themselves were the primordial mobile elements, are incorporated into a model for the evolution of mobile introns. Images PMID:2165250

  18. A Switch in the Mechanism of Communication between the Two DNA-Binding Sites in the SfiI Restriction Endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, Stuart R.W.; Milsom, Susan E.; Kovacheva, Yana S.; Sessions, Richard B.; Halford, Stephen E.

    2007-01-01

    While many Type II restriction enzymes are dimers with a single DNA-binding cleft between the subunits, SfiI is a tetramer of identical subunits. Two of its subunits (a dimeric unit) create one DNA-binding cleft, and the other two create a second cleft on the opposite side of the protein. The two clefts bind specific DNA cooperatively to give a complex of SfiI with two recognition sites. This complex is responsible for essentially all of the DNA-cleavage reactions by SfiI: virtually none is due to the complex with one site. The communication between the DNA-binding clefts was examined by disrupting one of the very few polar interactions in the otherwise hydrophobic interface between the dimeric units: a tyrosine hydroxyl was removed by mutation to phenylalanine. The mutant protein remained tetrameric in solution and could bind two DNA sites. But instead of being activated by binding two sites, like wild-type SfiI, it showed maximal activity when bound to a single site and had a lower activity when bound to two sites. This interaction across the dimer interface thus enforces in wild-type SfiI a cooperative transition between inactive and active states in both dimers, but without this interaction as in the mutant protein, a single dimer can undergo the transition to give a stable intermediate with one inactive dimer and one active dimer. PMID:17870087

  19. A simple and rapid method for HLA-DQA1 genotyping by digestion of PCR-amplified DNA with allele specific restriction endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Maeda, M; Murayama, N; Ishii, H; Uryu, N; Ota, M; Tsuji, K; Inoko, H

    1989-11-01

    The second exon of the HLA-DQA1 genes was selectively amplified from genomic DNAs of 72 HLA-homozygous B cell lines by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Amplified DNAs were digested with HaeIII, Ddel, ScrFI, FokI and RsaI, which recognize allelic sequence variations in the polymorphic segments of the DQA1 second exon, and then subjected to electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Eight different polymorphic patterns of restriction fragments were obtained, and seven were identical to patterns predicted from the known DNA sequences, correlating with each HLA-DQw type defined by serological typing. The remaining one pattern cannot be explained from the sequence data, suggesting the presence of a novel DQA1 allele at the nucleotide level. This PCR-RFLP method provides a simple and rapid technique for accurate definition of the HLA-DQ types at the nucleotide level, eliminating the need for radioisotope as well as allele specific oligonucleotide probes and can be extended and applied to HLA-DR, -Dw DP typing. PMID:2576477

  20. Creation of a data base for sequences of ribosomal nucleic acids and detection of conserved restriction endonucleases sites through computerized processing.

    PubMed Central

    Patarca, R; Dorta, B; Ramirez, J L

    1982-01-01

    As part of a project pertaining the organization of ribosomal genes in Kinetoplastidae, we have created a data base for published sequences of ribosomal nucleic acids, with information in Spanish. As a first step in their processing, we have written a computer program which introduces the new feature of determining the length of the fragments produced after single or multiple digestion with any of the known restriction enzymes. With this information we have detected conserved SAU 3A sites: (i) at the 5' end of the 5.8S rRNA and at the 3' end of the small subunit rRNA, both included in similar larger sequences; (ii) in the 5.8S rRNA of vertebrates (a second one), which is not present in lower eukaryotes, showing a clear evolutive divergence; and, (iii) at the 5' terminal of the small subunit rRNA, included in a larger conserved sequence. The possible biological importance of these sequences is discussed. PMID:6278402

  1. Endonuclease activity in lipocalins.

    PubMed Central

    Yusifov, T N; Abduragimov, A R; Gasymov, O K; Glasgow, B J

    2000-01-01

    Several lipocalins contain conserved amino acid sequences similar to the phosphodiester bond cleavage domain of sugar non-specific magnesium-dependent nucleases of the Serratia marcescens type. His-89 and Glu-127 of the S. marcescens endonuclease are believed to have a role in the active catalytic site by the attack of a water molecule at the phosphorus atom of the bridging phosphate. Tear lipocalin contains both amino acids in analogous regions, and is active as a nuclease. Two forms of beta-lactoglobulin contain only Glu-134 (analogous to Glu-127 of the Serratia nuclease) yet retain nuclease activity equal to or greater than that of tear lipocalin. However, retinol-binding protein lacks both of these motifs and shows no detectable activity. DNA-nicking activity is decreased by 80% in the mutant of tear lipocalin that replaces Glu-128 but is unchanged by mutations of His-84. The endonuclease activity of tear lipocalin is dependent on the bivalent cations Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) but is decreased at high concentrations of NaCl. These findings indicate that some lipocalins have non-specific endonuclease activity similar in characteristics to the Mg(2+)-dependent nucleases and related to the conserved sequence LEDFXR (where 'X' denotes 'any other residue'), in which the glutamic residue seems to be important for activity. PMID:10769187

  2. Endonuclease activity in lipocalins.

    PubMed

    Yusifov, T N; Abduragimov, A R; Gasymov, O K; Glasgow, B J

    2000-05-01

    Several lipocalins contain conserved amino acid sequences similar to the phosphodiester bond cleavage domain of sugar non-specific magnesium-dependent nucleases of the Serratia marcescens type. His-89 and Glu-127 of the S. marcescens endonuclease are believed to have a role in the active catalytic site by the attack of a water molecule at the phosphorus atom of the bridging phosphate. Tear lipocalin contains both amino acids in analogous regions, and is active as a nuclease. Two forms of beta-lactoglobulin contain only Glu-134 (analogous to Glu-127 of the Serratia nuclease) yet retain nuclease activity equal to or greater than that of tear lipocalin. However, retinol-binding protein lacks both of these motifs and shows no detectable activity. DNA-nicking activity is decreased by 80% in the mutant of tear lipocalin that replaces Glu-128 but is unchanged by mutations of His-84. The endonuclease activity of tear lipocalin is dependent on the bivalent cations Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) but is decreased at high concentrations of NaCl. These findings indicate that some lipocalins have non-specific endonuclease activity similar in characteristics to the Mg(2+)-dependent nucleases and related to the conserved sequence LEDFXR (where 'X' denotes 'any other residue'), in which the glutamic residue seems to be important for activity. PMID:10769187

  3. Sequence-specific DNA nicking endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuang-yong

    2015-08-01

    A group of small HNH nicking endonucleases (NEases) was discovered recently from phage or prophage genomes that nick double-stranded DNA sites ranging from 3 to 5 bp in the presence of Mg2+ or Mn2+. The cosN site of phage HK97 contains a gp74 nicking site AC↑CGC, which is similar to AC↑CGR (R=A/G) of N.ϕGamma encoded by Bacillus phage Gamma. A minimal nicking domain of 76 amino acid residues from N.ϕGamma could be fused to other DNA binding partners to generate chimeric NEases with new specificities. The biological roles of a few small HNH endonucleases (HNHE, gp74 of HK97, gp37 of ϕSLT, ϕ12 HNHE) have been demonstrated in phage and pathogenicity island DNA packaging. Another group of NEases with 3- to 7-bp specificities are either natural components of restriction systems or engineered from type IIS restriction endonucleases. A phage group I intron-encoded HNH homing endonucleases, I-PfoP3I was found to nick DNA sites of 14-16 bp. I-TslI encoded by T7-like ΦI appeared to nick DNA sites with a 9-bp core sequence. DNA nicking and labeling have been applied to optical mapping to aid genome sequence assembly and detection of large insertion/deletion mutations in genomic DNA of cancer cells. Nicking enzyme-mediated amplification reaction has been applied to rapid diagnostic testing of influenza A and B in clinical setting and for construction of DNA-based Boolean logic gates. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-ribonucleoprotein complex consisting of engineered Cas9 nickases in conjunction with tracerRNA:crRNA or a single-guide RNA have been successfully used in genome modifications. PMID:26352356

  4. Extracardiac medical and neuromuscular implications in restrictive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Stöllberger, Claudia; Finsterer, Josef

    2007-08-01

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCMP) is characterized by restrictive filling and reduced diastolic volume of either or both ventricles with normal or near-normal systolic function and wall thickness. It may occur idiopathically or as a cardiac manifestation of systemic diseases such as scleroderma, amyloidosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, cystinosis, sarcoidosis, lymphoma, Gaucher's disease, hemochromatosis, Fabry's disease, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, hypereosinophilic syndrome, carcinoid, Noonan's syndrome, reactive arthritis, or Werner's syndrome and various neuromuscular disorders. Whereas in idiopathic RCMP the therapeutic options are only treatment of cardiac congestion, in cases with an underlying disorder, a causal therapy may be available. Patients with RCMP should be investigated as soon as the cardiac diagnosis is established for extracardiac diseases to detect a possibly treatable cause of RCMP before the disease becomes intractable. These investigations include a diligent clinical history and examination, blood tests, and ophthalmologic, otologic, dermatologic, gastroenterologic, nephrologic, hematologic, and neurologic examinations. If extracardiac examinations do not reveal a plausible cause for RCMP, endomyocardial biopsy is indicated. PMID:17680617

  5. Endonuclease domain of non-LTR retrotransposons: loss-of-function mutants and modeling of the R2Bm endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraju, Aruna; Cortez, Jeremy D.; Reveal, Brad; Christensen, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-LTR retrotransposons are an important class of mobile elements that insert into host DNA by target-primed reverse transcription (TPRT). Non-LTR retrotransposons must bind to their mRNA, recognize and cleave their target DNA, and perform TPRT at the site of DNA cleavage. As DNA binding and cleavage are such central parts of the integration reaction, a better understanding of the endonuclease encoded by non-LTR retrotransposons is needed. This paper explores the R2 endonuclease domain from Bombyx mori using in vitro studies and in silico modeling. Mutations in conserved sequences located across the putative PD-(D/E)XK endonuclease domain reduced DNA cleavage, DNA binding and TPRT. A mutation at the beginning of the first α-helix of the modeled endonuclease obliterated DNA cleavage and greatly reduced DNA binding. It also reduced TPRT when tested on pre-cleaved DNA substrates. The catalytic K was located to a non-canonical position within the second α-helix. A mutation located after the fourth β-strand reduced DNA binding and cleavage. The motifs that showed impaired activity form an extensive basic region. The R2 biochemical and structural data are compared and contrasted with that of two other well characterized PD-(D/E)XK endonucleases, restriction endonucleases and archaeal Holliday junction resolvases. PMID:26961309

  6. Endonucleases induced TRAIL-insensitive apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Geel, Tessa M.; Meiss, Gregor; Gun, Bernardina T. van der; Kroesen, Bart Jan; Leij, Lou F. de; Zaremba, Mindaugas; Silanskas, Arunas; Kokkinidis, Michael; Ruiters, Marcel H.; McLaughlin, Pamela M.; Rots, Marianne G.

    2009-09-10

    TRAIL induced apoptosis of tumor cells is currently entering phase II clinical settings, despite the fact that not all tumor types are sensitive to TRAIL. TRAIL resistance in ovarian carcinomas can be caused by a blockade upstream of the caspase 3 signaling cascade. We explored the ability of restriction endonucleases to directly digest DNA in vivo, thereby circumventing the caspase cascade. For this purpose, we delivered enzymatically active endonucleases via the cationic amphiphilic lipid SAINT-18{sup Registered-Sign }:DOPE to both TRAIL-sensitive and insensitive ovarian carcinoma cells (OVCAR and SKOV-3, respectively). Functional nuclear localization after delivery of various endonucleases (BfiI, PvuII and NucA) was indicated by confocal microscopy and genomic cleavage analysis. For PvuII, analysis of mitochondrial damage demonstrated extensive apoptosis both in SKOV-3 and OVCAR. This study clearly demonstrates that cellular delivery of restriction endonucleases holds promise to serve as a novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of resistant ovarian carcinomas.

  7. Crystal structure of an avian influenza polymerase PA[subscript N] reveals an endonuclease active site

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Puwei; Bartlam, Mark; Lou, Zhiyong; Chen, Shoudeng; Zhou, Jie; He, Xiaojing; Lv, Zongyang; Ge, Ruowen; Li, Xuemei; Deng, Tao; Fodor, Ervin; Rao, Zihe; Liu, Yingfang

    2009-11-10

    The heterotrimeric influenza virus polymerase, containing the PA, PB1 and PB2 proteins, catalyses viral RNA replication and transcription in the nucleus of infected cells. PB1 holds the polymerase active site and reportedly harbours endonuclease activity, whereas PB2 is responsible for cap binding. The PA amino terminus is understood to be the major functional part of the PA protein and has been implicated in several roles, including endonuclease and protease activities as well as viral RNA/complementary RNA promoter binding. Here we report the 2.2 angstrom (A) crystal structure of the N-terminal 197 residues of PA, termed PA(N), from an avian influenza H5N1 virus. The PA(N) structure has an alpha/beta architecture and reveals a bound magnesium ion coordinated by a motif similar to the (P)DX(N)(D/E)XK motif characteristic of many endonucleases. Structural comparisons and mutagenesis analysis of the motif identified in PA(N) provide further evidence that PA(N) holds an endonuclease active site. Furthermore, functional analysis with in vivo ribonucleoprotein reconstitution and direct in vitro endonuclease assays strongly suggest that PA(N) holds the endonuclease active site and has critical roles in endonuclease activity of the influenza virus polymerase, rather than PB1. The high conservation of this endonuclease active site among influenza strains indicates that PA(N) is an important target for the design of new anti-influenza therapeutics.

  8. Molecular recognition in the minor groove of the DNA helix. Studies on the synthesis of oligonucleotides and polynucleotides containing 3-deaza-2'-deoxyadenosine. Interaction of the oligonucleotides with the restriction endonuclease EcoRV.

    PubMed Central

    Cosstick, R; Li, X; Tuli, D K; Williams, D M; Connolly, B A; Newman, P C

    1990-01-01

    An improved procedure for the preparation of 3-deaza-2'-deoxyadenosine (d3CA) is described which is suitable for the synthesis of gram quantities of this analogue. Using phosphoramidite chemistry d3CA has been incorporated into the Eco RV restiction endonuclease recognition sequence (underlined) present in the self-complementary dodecamer d(GACGATATCGTC). The modified oligonucleotides have been thoroughly characterised by nucleoside composition analysis, circular dichroism and thermal melting studies. Studies with Eco RV show that incorporation of d3CA into either the central or outer dA-dT base-pair results in a substantial reduction in the rate of cleavage. The two-step conversion of d3CA to 3-deaza-2'-deoxyadenosine-5'-O-triphosphate (d3CATP) via the 5'-O-tosylate is also described. d3CATP is not a substrate in the poly[d(AT)].poly[d(AT)] primed polymerisation for either E. coli DNA polymerase I or Micrococcus luteus DNA polymerase. In a more detailed kinetic analysis d3CATP was shown to be a competitive inhibitor of E. coli DNA polymerase I with respect to dATP. PMID:2395641

  9. Improved Genotyping Vaccine and Wild-Type Poliovirus Strains by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: Clinical Diagnostic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Georgopoulou, Amalia; Markoulatos, Panayotis; Spyrou, Niki; Vamvakopoulos, Nicholas C.

    2000-01-01

    The combination of preventive vaccination and diagnostic typing of viral isolates from patients with clinical poliomyelitis constitutes our main protective shield against polioviruses. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) adaptation of the reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR methodology has advanced diagnostic genotyping of polioviruses, although further improvements are definitely needed. We report here on an improved RFLP procedure for the genotyping of polioviruses. A highly conserved segment within the 5′ noncoding region of polioviruses was selected for RT-PCR amplification by the UC53-UG52 primer pair with the hope that it would be most resistant to the inescapable genetic alteration-drift experienced by the other segments of the viral genome. Complete inter- and intratypic genotyping of polioviruses by the present RFLP method was accomplished with a minimum set of four restriction endonucleases (HaeIII, DdeI, NcoI, and AvaI). To compensate for potential genetic drift within the recognition sites of HaeIII, DdeI, or NcoI in atypical clinical samples, the RFLP patterns generated with HpaII and StyI as replacements were analyzed. The specificity of the method was also successfully assessed by RFLP analysis of 55 reference nonpoliovirus enterovirus controls. The concerted implementation of these conditional protocols for diagnostic inter- and intratypic genotyping of polioviruses was evaluated with 21 clinical samples with absolute success. PMID:11101561

  10. Improved genotyping vaccine and wild-type poliovirus strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis: clinical diagnostic implications.

    PubMed

    Georgopoulou, A; Markoulatos, P; Spyrou, N; Vamvakopoulos, N C

    2000-12-01

    The combination of preventive vaccination and diagnostic typing of viral isolates from patients with clinical poliomyelitis constitutes our main protective shield against polioviruses. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) adaptation of the reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR methodology has advanced diagnostic genotyping of polioviruses, although further improvements are definitely needed. We report here on an improved RFLP procedure for the genotyping of polioviruses. A highly conserved segment within the 5' noncoding region of polioviruses was selected for RT-PCR amplification by the UC(53)-UG(52) primer pair with the hope that it would be most resistant to the inescapable genetic alteration-drift experienced by the other segments of the viral genome. Complete inter- and intratypic genotyping of polioviruses by the present RFLP method was accomplished with a minimum set of four restriction endonucleases (HaeIII, DdeI, NcoI, and AvaI). To compensate for potential genetic drift within the recognition sites of HaeIII, DdeI, or NcoI in atypical clinical samples, the RFLP patterns generated with HpaII and StyI as replacements were analyzed. The specificity of the method was also successfully assessed by RFLP analysis of 55 reference nonpoliovirus enterovirus controls. The concerted implementation of these conditional protocols for diagnostic inter- and intratypic genotyping of polioviruses was evaluated with 21 clinical samples with absolute success. PMID:11101561

  11. Sequence specificity of DNA cleavage by Micrococcus luteus. gamma. endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Hentosh, P.; Henner, W.D.; Reynolds, R.J.

    1985-04-01

    DNA fragments of defined sequence have been used to determine the sites of cleavage by ..gamma..-endonuclease activity in extracts prepared from Micrococcus luteus. End-labeled DNA restriction fragments of pBR322 DNA that had been irradiated under nitrogen in the presence of potassium iodide or t-butanol were treated with M. luteus ..gamma.. endonuclease and analyzed on irradiated DNA preferentially at the positions of cytosines and thymines. DNA cleavage occurred immediately to the 3' side of pyrimidines in irradiated DNA and resulted in fragments that terminate in a 5'-phosphoryl group. These studies indicate that both altered cytosines and thymines may be important DNA lesions requiring repair after exposure to ..gamma.. radiation.

  12. Highly restricted deletion of the SNORD116 region is implicated in Prader–Willi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bieth, Eric; Eddiry, Sanaa; Gaston, Véronique; Lorenzini, Françoise; Buffet, Alexandre; Conte Auriol, Françoise; Molinas, Catherine; Cailley, Dorothée; Rooryck, Caroline; Arveiler, Benoit; Cavaillé, Jérome; Salles, Jean Pierre; Tauber, Maïthé

    2015-01-01

    The SNORD116 locus lies in the 15q11-13 region of paternally expressed genes implicated in Prader–Willi Syndrome (PWS), a complex disease accompanied by obesity and severe neurobehavioural disturbances. Cases of PWS patients with a deletion encompassing the SNORD116 gene cluster, but preserving the expression of flanking genes, have been described. We report a 23-year-old woman who presented clinical criteria of PWS, including the behavioural and nutritional features, obesity, developmental delay and endocrine dysfunctions with hyperghrelinemia. We found a paternally transmitted highly restricted deletion of the SNORD116 gene cluster, the shortest described to date (118 kb). This deletion was also present in the father. This finding in a human case strongly supports the current hypothesis that lack of the paternal SNORD116 gene cluster has a determinant role in the pathogenesis of PWS. Moreover, targeted analysis of the SNORD116 gene cluster, complementary to SNRPN methylation analysis, should be carried out in subjects with a phenotype suggestive of PWS. PMID:24916642

  13. Comparison of seven techniques for typing international epidemic strains of Clostridium difficile: restriction endonuclease analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR-ribotyping, multilocus sequence typing, multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and surface layer protein A gene sequence typing.

    PubMed

    Killgore, George; Thompson, Angela; Johnson, Stuart; Brazier, Jon; Kuijper, Ed; Pepin, Jacques; Frost, Eric H; Savelkoul, Paul; Nicholson, Brad; van den Berg, Renate J; Kato, Haru; Sambol, Susan P; Zukowski, Walter; Woods, Christopher; Limbago, Brandi; Gerding, Dale N; McDonald, L Clifford

    2008-02-01

    Using 42 isolates contributed by laboratories in Canada, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States, we compared the results of analyses done with seven Clostridium difficile typing techniques: multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), surface layer protein A gene sequence typing (slpAST), PCR-ribotyping, restriction endonuclease analysis (REA), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We assessed the discriminating ability and typeability of each technique as well as the agreement among techniques in grouping isolates by allele profile A (AP-A) through AP-F, which are defined by toxinotype, the presence of the binary toxin gene, and deletion in the tcdC gene. We found that all isolates were typeable by all techniques and that discrimination index scores for the techniques tested ranged from 0.964 to 0.631 in the following order: MLVA, REA, PFGE, slpAST, PCR-ribotyping, MLST, and AFLP. All the techniques were able to distinguish the current epidemic strain of C. difficile (BI/027/NAP1) from other strains. All of the techniques showed multiple types for AP-A (toxinotype 0, binary toxin negative, and no tcdC gene deletion). REA, slpAST, MLST, and PCR-ribotyping all included AP-B (toxinotype III, binary toxin positive, and an 18-bp deletion in tcdC) in a single group that excluded other APs. PFGE, AFLP, and MLVA grouped two, one, and two different non-AP-B isolates, respectively, with their AP-B isolates. All techniques appear to be capable of detecting outbreak strains, but only REA and MLVA showed sufficient discrimination to distinguish strains from different outbreaks. PMID:18039796

  14. Endonuclease V cleaves at inosines in RNA.

    PubMed

    Vik, Erik Sebastian; Nawaz, Meh Sameen; Strøm Andersen, Pernille; Fladeby, Cathrine; Bjørås, Magnar; Dalhus, Bjørn; Alseth, Ingrun

    2013-01-01

    Endonuclease V orthologues are highly conserved proteins found in all kingdoms of life. While the prokaryotic enzymes are DNA repair proteins for removal of deaminated adenosine (inosine) from the genome, no clear role for the eukaryotic counterparts has hitherto been described. Here we report that human endonuclease V (ENDOV) and also Escherichia coli endonuclease V are highly active ribonucleases specific for inosine in RNA. Inosines are normal residues in certain RNAs introduced by specific deaminases. Adenosine-to-inosine editing is essential for proper function of these transcripts and defects are linked to various human disease. Here we show that human ENDOV cleaves an RNA substrate containing inosine in a position corresponding to a biologically important site for deamination in the Gabra-3 transcript of the GABA(A) neurotransmitter. Further, human ENDOV specifically incises transfer RNAs with inosine in the wobble position. This previously unknown RNA incision activity may suggest a role for endonuclease V in normal RNA metabolism. PMID:23912683

  15. Endonuclease V cleaves at inosines in RNA

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian Vik, Erik; Sameen Nawaz, Meh; Strøm Andersen, Pernille; Fladeby, Cathrine; Bjørås, Magnar; Dalhus, Bjørn; Alseth, Ingrun

    2013-01-01

    Endonuclease V orthologues are highly conserved proteins found in all kingdoms of life. While the prokaryotic enzymes are DNA repair proteins for removal of deaminated adenosine (inosine) from the genome, no clear role for the eukaryotic counterparts has hitherto been described. Here we report that human endonuclease V (ENDOV) and also Escherichia coli endonuclease V are highly active ribonucleases specific for inosine in RNA. Inosines are normal residues in certain RNAs introduced by specific deaminases. Adenosine-to-inosine editing is essential for proper function of these transcripts and defects are linked to various human disease. Here we show that human ENDOV cleaves an RNA substrate containing inosine in a position corresponding to a biologically important site for deamination in the Gabra-3 transcript of the GABAA neurotransmitter. Further, human ENDOV specifically incises transfer RNAs with inosine in the wobble position. This previously unknown RNA incision activity may suggest a role for endonuclease V in normal RNA metabolism. PMID:23912683

  16. State Funding Provisions and Least Restrictive Environment: Implications for Federal Policy. Brief No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Thomas B.

    This policy brief discusses how certain types of state funding provisions create fiscal incentives for more restrictive placements for students with disabilities. This most likely occurs when funding systems are tied to the location in which the services are provided and a more restrictive placement will generate more state aid in relation to…

  17. The Developmental Implications of Restrictive and Supportive Parenting across Neighborhoods and Ethnicities: Exceptions Are the Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearing, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The moderating effect of neighborhood crime and income on associations between parenting and child outcomes was estimated longitudinally for African-American (n=50), European-American (n= 59), and Latino-American (n=52) elementary school-age children. On average, restrictive parenting values were negatively associated with academic performance and…

  18. Factor Structure of the Restricted Academic Situation Scale: Implications for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karama, Sherif; Amor, Leila Ben; Grizenko, Natalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Lageix, Philippe; Baron, Chantal; Schwartz, George; Joober, Ridha

    2009-01-01

    Background: To study the factor structure of the Restricted Academic Situation Scale (RASS), a psychometric tool used to assess behavior in children with ADHD, 117 boys and 21 girls meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV") criteria for ADHD and aged between 6 and 12 years were recruited. Assessments were…

  19. Substrate generation for endonucleases of CRISPR/cas systems.

    PubMed

    Zoephel, Judith; Dwarakanath, Srivatsa; Richter, Hagen; Plagens, André; Randau, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of viruses and their prokaryotic hosts shaped the evolution of bacterial and archaeal life. Prokaryotes developed several strategies to evade viral attacks that include restriction modification, abortive infection and CRISPR/Cas systems. These adaptive immune systems found in many Bacteria and most Archaea consist of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) sequences and a number of CRISPR associated (Cas) genes (Fig. 1) (1-3). Different sets of Cas proteins and repeats define at least three major divergent types of CRISPR/Cas systems (4). The universal proteins Cas1 and Cas2 are proposed to be involved in the uptake of viral DNA that will generate a new spacer element between two repeats at the 5' terminus of an extending CRISPR cluster (5). The entire cluster is transcribed into a precursor-crRNA containing all spacer and repeat sequences and is subsequently processed by an enzyme of the diverse Cas6 family into smaller crRNAs (6-8). These crRNAs consist of the spacer sequence flanked by a 5' terminal (8 nucleotides) and a 3' terminal tag derived from the repeat sequence (9). A repeated infection of the virus can now be blocked as the new crRNA will be directed by a Cas protein complex (Cascade) to the viral DNA and identify it as such via base complementarity(10). Finally, for CRISPR/Cas type 1 systems, the nuclease Cas3 will destroy the detected invader DNA (11,12) . These processes define CRISPR/Cas as an adaptive immune system of prokaryotes and opened a fascinating research field for the study of the involved Cas proteins. The function of many Cas proteins is still elusive and the causes for the apparent diversity of the CRISPR/Cas systems remain to be illuminated. Potential activities of most Cas proteins were predicted via detailed computational analyses. A major fraction of Cas proteins are either shown or proposed to function as endonucleases (4). Here, we present methods to generate crRNAs and precursor-cRNAs for

  20. Regulation of Apoptotic Endonucleases by EndoG

    PubMed Central

    Zhdanov, Dmitry D.; Fahmi, Tariq; Wang, Xiaoying; Apostolov, Eugene O.; Sokolov, Nikolai N.; Javadov, Sabzali

    2015-01-01

    Cells contain several apoptotic endonucleases, which appear to act simultaneously before and after cell death by destroying the host cell DNA. It is largely unknown how the endonucleases are being induced and whether they can regulate each other. This study was performed to determine whether apoptotic mitochondrial endonuclease G (EndoG) can regulate expression of other apoptotic endonucleases. The study showed that overexpression of mature EndoG in kidney tubular epithelial NRK-52E cells can increase expression of caspase-activated DNase (CAD) and four endonucleases that belong to DNase I group including DNase I, DNase X, DNase IL2, and DNase γ, but not endonucleases of the DNase 2 group. The induction of DNase I-type endonucleases was associated with DNA degradation in promoter/exon 1 regions of the endonuclease genes. These results together with findings on colocalization of immunostained endonucleases and TUNEL suggest that DNA fragmentation after EndoG overexpression was caused by DNase I endonucleases and CAD in addition to EndoG itself. Overall, these data provide first evidence for the existence of the integral network of apoptotic endonucleases regulated by EndoG. PMID:25849439

  1. Syncytiotrophoblast Functions and Fetal Growth Restriction during Placental Malaria: Updates and Implication for Future Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Kidima, Winifrida B.

    2015-01-01

    Syncytiotrophoblast lines the intervillous space of the placenta and plays important roles in fetus growth throughout gestation. However, perturbations at the maternal-fetal interface during placental malaria may possibly alter the physiological functions of syncytiotrophoblast and therefore growth and development of the embryo in utero. An understanding of the influence of placental malaria on syncytiotrophoblast function is paramount in developing novel interventions for the control of placental pathology associated with placental malaria. In this review, we discuss how malaria changes syncytiotrophoblast function as evidenced from human, animal, and in vitro studies and, further, how dysregulation of syncytiotrophoblast function may impact fetal growth in utero. We also formulate a hypothesis, stemming from epidemiological observations, that nutrition may override pathogenesis of placental malaria-associated-fetal growth restriction. We therefore recommend studies on nutrition-based-interventional approaches for high placental malaria-risk women in endemic areas. More investigations on the role of nutrition on placental malaria pathogenesis are needed. PMID:26587536

  2. Human xeroderma pigmentosum group G gene encodes a DNA endonuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Habraken, Y; Sung, P; Prakash, L; Prakash, S

    1994-01-01

    Because of defective nucleotide excision repair of ultraviolet damaged DNA, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients suffer from a high incidence of skin cancers. Cell fusion studies have identified seven XP complementation groups, A to G. Previous studies have implicated the products of these seven XP genes in the recognition of ultraviolet-induced DNA damage and in incision of the damage-containing DNA strand. Here, we express the XPG-encoded protein in Sf9 insect cells and purify it to homogeneity. We demonstrate that XPG is a single-strand specific DNA endonuclease, thus identifying the catalytic role of the protein in nucleotide excision repair. We suggest that XPG nuclease acts on the single-stranded region created as a result of the combined action of the XPB helicase and XPD helicase at the DNA damage site. Images PMID:8078765

  3. Democracies restricting democratic rights: some classical sources and implications for ethics of biometrics.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Frank J

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Greek and 17th century English philosophy are not usually discussed along with the ethics of biometrics and data sharing. Academic ethics today, however, suffers from a lack of background in classical texts. We may discuss whether biometrics and data sharing are consistent with democracy, but if we do not know what democracy is, then we cannot know what actions are consistent with it. I shall discuss how and why democracies have restricted the rights of their citizens. I will give the most attention to two paradigms that have most influenced modern democratic thinking: 17th century English democracy and ancient Athens. I do not accept the dogma that the Athenians were obviously wrong to try and then to condemn Socrates. His death-loving doctrine could not but have weakened the will of the youth to work and fight for the good of Athens. I will try to understand the Athenians' point of view and their need to defend their security. At the end, I will apply these lessons to biometrics and data sharing for security reasons. PMID:21380481

  4. [Comparative characteristics of chromatin endonuclease fragments].

    PubMed

    Miul'berg, A A; Tishchenko, L I; Domkina, L K

    1977-05-01

    Soluble fragments of chromatin obtained by Ca, Mg-dependent endonuclease digest of rat liver nuclei, have been separated by gel chromatography on Sepharose 4B into three zones, containing oligomers, tetramers--dimers and monomers, respectively. The content of nonhistone proteins and particularly lysine-rich histones is decreased with a transition from theoligomers to monomers. The average protein/DNA ratio of the monomers is equal to 1.36 and that of histone/DNA ratio--to 0.82. The dependence of the degree of chromatin digest by endonuclease on its protein content and conditions of isolation and incubation of nuclei is discussed. The chromatin monomer formed appears to be made up of a nucleosome and short portions of spacer DNA bound to some part of histone HI and nonhistone proteins. PMID:889964

  5. Effects of laryngeal restriction on pharyngeal peristalsis and biomechanics: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Reza; Sanvanson, Patrick; Balasubramanian, Gokulakrishnan; Kern, Mark; Wuerl, Ashley; Hyngstrom, Allison

    2016-06-01

    To date, rehabilitative exercises aimed at strengthening the pharyngeal muscles have not been developed due to the inability to successfully overload and fatigue these muscles during their contraction, a necessary requirement for strength training. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that applying resistance against anterosuperior movement of the hyolaryngeal complex will overload the pharyngeal muscles and by repetitive swallowing will result in their fatigue manifested by a reduction in pharyngeal peristaltic amplitude. Studies were done in two groups. In group 1 studies 15 healthy subjects (age: 42 ± 14 yr, 11 females) were studied to determine whether imposing resistance to swallowing using a handmade device can affect the swallow-induced hyolaryngeal excursion and related upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening. In group 2, an additional 15 healthy subjects (age 56 ± 25 yr, 7 females) were studied to determine whether imposing resistance to the anterosuperior excursion of the hyolaryngeal complex induces fatigue manifested as reduction in pharyngeal contractile pressure during repeated swallowing. Analysis of the video recordings showed significant decrease in maximum deglutitive superior laryngeal excursion and UES opening diameter (P < 0.01) due to resistive load. Consecutive swallows against the resistive load showed significant decrease in pharyngeal contractile integral (PhCI) values (P < 0.01). Correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between PhCI and successive swallows, suggesting "fatigue" (P < 0.001). In conclusion, repeated swallows against a resistive load induced by restricting the anterosuperior excursion of the larynx safely induces fatigue in pharyngeal peristalsis and thus has the potential to strengthen the pharyngeal contractile function. PMID:27079611

  6. NFAT5 Is Up-Regulated by Hypoxia: Possible Implications in Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Dobierzewska, Aneta; Palominos, Macarena; Irarrazabal, Carlos E; Sanchez, Marianela; Lozano, Mauricio; Perez-Sepulveda, Alejandra; Monteiro, Lara J; Burmeister, Yara; Figueroa-Diesel, Horacio; Rice, Gregory E; Illanes, Sebastian E

    2015-07-01

    During gestation, low oxygen environment is a major determinant of early placentation process, while persistent placental hypoxia leads to pregnancy-related complications such as preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). PE affects 5%-8% of all pregnancies worldwide and is a cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. During placental development, persistent hypoxia due to poor trophoblast invasion and reduced uteroplacental perfusion leads to maternal endothelial dysfunction and clinical manifestation of PE. Here we hypothesized that nuclear factor of activated T cells-5 (NFAT5), a well-known osmosensitive renal factor and recently characterized hypoxia-inducible protein, is also activated in vivo in placentas of PE and IUGR complications as well as in the in vitro model of trophoblast hypoxia. In JAR cells, low oxygen tension (1% O2) induced NFAT5 mRNA and increased its nuclear abundance, peaking at 16 h. This increase did not occur in parallel with the earlier HIF1A induction. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis confirmed up-regulation of NFAT5 mRNA and NFAT5 nuclear content in human preeclamptic placentas and in rabbit placentas of an experimentally induced IUGR model, as compared with the control groups. In vitro lambda protein phosphatase (lambda PPase) treatment revealed that increased abundance of NFAT5 protein in nuclei of either JAR cells (16 h of hypoxia) or PE and IUGR placentas is at least partially due to NFAT5 phosphorylation. NFAT5 downstream targets aldose reductase (AR) and sodium-myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT; official symbol SLC5A3) were not significantly up-regulated either in JAR cells exposed to hypoxia or in placentas of PE- and IUGR-complicated pregnancies, suggesting that hypoxia-dependent activation of NFAT5 serves as a separate function to its tonicity-dependent stimulation. In conclusion, we propose that NFAT5 may serve as a novel marker of placental hypoxia and ischemia independently of HIF1A. PMID

  7. Muscle metaboreflex and cerebral blood flow regulation in humans: implications for exercise with blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Prodel, Eliza; Balanos, George M; Braz, Igor D; Nobrega, Antonio C L; Vianna, Lauro C; Fisher, James P

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effect of activating metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents (muscle metaboreflex) on cerebral blood flow and the potentially confounding influence of concomitant changes in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide. Eleven healthy males (25 ± 4 yr) performed submaximal leg cycling exercise on a semirecumbent cycle ergometer (heart rate: ∼120 beats/min), and assessments were made of the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2 ), internal carotid artery blood flow (ICAQ) and conductance (ICACVC), and middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCAvm) and conductance index (MCACVCi).The muscle metaboreflex was activated during cycling with leg blood flow restriction (BFR) or isolated with postexercise ischemia (PEI). In separate trials, PetCO2 was either permitted to fluctuate spontaneously (control trial) or was clamped at 1 mmHg above resting levels (PetCO2 clamp trial). In the control trial, leg cycling with BFR decreased PetCO2 (Δ-4.8 ± 0.9 mmHg vs. leg cycling exercise) secondary to hyperventilation, while ICAQ, ICACVC, and MCAvm were unchanged and MCACVCi decreased. However, in the PetCO2 clamp trial, leg cycling with BFR increased both MCAvm (Δ5.9 ± 1.4 cm/s) and ICAQ (Δ20.0 ± 7.8 ml/min) and attenuated the decrease in MCACVCi, while ICACVC was unchanged. In the control trial, PEI decreased PetCO2 (Δ-7.0 ± 1.3 mmHg vs. rest), MCAvm and MCACVCi, whereas ICAQ and ICACVC were unchanged. In contrast, in the PetCO2 clamp trial both ICAQ (Δ18.5 ± 11.9 ml/min) and MCAvm (Δ8.8 ± 2.0 cm/s) were elevated, while ICACVC and MCACVCi were unchanged. In conclusion, when hyperventilation-related decreases in PetCO2 are prevented the activation of metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferent fibers increases cerebral blood flow. PMID:26873971

  8. Origin of DNA replication in papovavirus chromatin is recognized by endogenous endonuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Waldeck, W; Föhring, B; Chowdhury, K; Gruss, P; Sauer, G

    1978-01-01

    Isolated simian virus 40 (SV40) and polyoma nucleoprotein complexes contain endonuclease that, under in vitro conditions, converts part (up to 30%) of the covalently closed superhelical DNA to full-length linear rods. The positions of the cleavage sites within the genomes of SV40 and polyoma were determined by digestion with various single-cut restriction endonucleases and subsequent agarose gel electrophoresis of the cleavage products. Both SV40 and polyoma covalently closed superhelical DNA were cleaved open at their respective origins of DNA replication (+/- 75 base pairs). The full-length linear DNA rods whose ends map adjacent to the origin of DNA replication could also be isolated by sodium dodecyl sulfate/phenol extraction both from SV40-infected permissive cells and from purified SV40 virions. These data reveal the presence of a unique structure of the papovavirus chromatin close to the initiation site of DNA replication. Images PMID:216004

  9. Massively parallel determination and modeling of endonuclease substrate specificity

    PubMed Central

    Thyme, Summer B.; Song, Yifan; Brunette, T. J.; Szeto, Mindy D.; Kusak, Lara; Bradley, Philip; Baker, David

    2014-01-01

    We describe the identification and characterization of novel homing endonucleases using genome database mining to identify putative target sites, followed by high throughput activity screening in a bacterial selection system. We characterized the substrate specificity and kinetics of these endonucleases by monitoring DNA cleavage events with deep sequencing. The endonuclease specificities revealed by these experiments can be partially recapitulated using 3D structure-based computational models. Analysis of these models together with genome sequence data provide insights into how alternative endonuclease specificities were generated during natural evolution. PMID:25389263

  10. Phenotypic variation amongst genotypically homogeneous Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates: implications for the investigation of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, T. G.; Saunders, N. A.; Haththotuwa, A.; Hallas, G.; Birtles, R. J.; Taylor, A. G.

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-nine isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, obtained from a site associated with an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease, were examined by monoclonal antibody subgrouping, restriction fragment length polymorphism typing, restriction endonuclease analysis and plasmid content. Nine distinct phenotypes were detected but at the genotypic level all strains were closely related. The data presented indicate that phenotypic variation of a single parent strain can occur within an environmental site. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the investigation of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1969803

  11. Functional Coupling of Duplex Translocation to DNA Cleavage in a Type I Restriction Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Csefalvay, Eva; Lapkouski, Mikalai; Guzanova, Alena; Csefalvay, Ladislav; Baikova, Tatsiana; Bialevich, Vitali; Shamayeva, Katsiaryna; Janscak, Pavel; Kuta Smatanova, Ivana; Panjikar, Santosh; Carey, Jannette; Weiserova, Marie; Ettrich, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Type I restriction-modification enzymes are multifunctional heteromeric complexes with DNA cleavage and ATP-dependent DNA translocation activities located on motor subunit HsdR. Functional coupling of DNA cleavage and translocation is a hallmark of the Type I restriction systems that is consistent with their proposed role in horizontal gene transfer. DNA cleavage occurs at nonspecific sites distant from the cognate recognition sequence, apparently triggered by stalled translocation. The X-ray crystal structure of the complete HsdR subunit from E. coli plasmid R124 suggested that the triggering mechanism involves interdomain contacts mediated by ATP. In the present work, in vivo and in vitro activity assays and crystal structures of three mutants of EcoR124I HsdR designed to probe this mechanism are reported. The results indicate that interdomain engagement via ATP is indeed responsible for signal transmission between the endonuclease and helicase domains of the motor subunit. A previously identified sequence motif that is shared by the RecB nucleases and some Type I endonucleases is implicated in signaling. PMID:26039067

  12. Site specific endonucleases for human genome mapping. Final report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Knoche, K.; Selman, S.; Hung, L.

    1994-06-01

    Current large scale genome mapping methodology suffers from a lack of tools for generating specific DNA fragments in the megabase size range. While technology such as pulsed field gel electrophoresis can resolve DNA fragments greater than 10 megabases in size, current methods for cleaving mammalian DNA using bacterial restriction enzymes are incapable of producing such fragments. Though several multidimensional approaches are underway to overcome this limitation, there currently is no single step procedure to generate specific DNA fragments in the 2-100 megabase size range. In order to overcome these limitations, we proposed to develop a family of site-specific endonucleases capable of generating DNA fragments in the 2-100 megabase size range in a single step. Additionally, we proposed to accomplish this by relaxing the specificity of a very-rare cutting intron-encoded endonucleases, I-Ppo I, and potentially using the process as a model for development of other enzymes. Our research has uncovered a great deal of information about intron-encoded endonucleases. We have found that I-Ppo I has a remarkable ability to tolerate degeneracy within its recognition sequence, and we have shown that the recognition sequence is larger than 15 base pairs. These findings suggest that a detailed study of the mechanism by which intron-encoded endonucleases recognize their target sequences should provide new sights into DNA-protein interactions; this had led to a continuation of the study of I-Ppo I in Dr. Raines` laboratory and we expect a more detailed understanding of the mechanism of I-Ppo I action to result.

  13. Mechanism of action of Micrococcus luteus. gamma. -endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, T.J.; Kow, Y.W.; Wallace, S.S.; Henner, W.D.

    1987-10-06

    Micrococcus luteus extracts contain ..gamma..-endonuclease, a Mg/sup 2 +/-independent endonuclease that cleaves ..gamma..-irradiated DNA. This enzyme has been purified approximately 1000-fold, and the purified enzyme was used to study its substrate specificity and mechanism of action. ..gamma..-Endonuclease cleaves DNA containing either thymine glycols, urea residues, or apurinic sites but not undamaged DNA or DNA containing reduced apurinic sites. The enzyme has both N-glycosylase activity that releases thymine glycol residues from OsO/sub 4/-treated DNA and an associated apurinic endonuclease activity. The location and nature of the cleavage site produced has been determined with DNA sequencing techniques. ..gamma..-Endonuclease cleaves DNA containing thymine glycols or apurinic sites immediately 3' to the damaged or missing base. Cleavage results in a 5'-phosphate terminus and a 3' baseless sugar residue. Cleavage sites can be converted to primers for DNA polymerase I by subsequent treatment with Escherichia coli exonuclease III. The mechanism of action of ..gamma..-endonuclease and its substrate specificity are very similar to those identified for E. coli endonuclease III.

  14. Endonuclease IV Is the major apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is important for protection against oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Puri, Rupangi Verma; Singh, Nisha; Gupta, Rakesh K; Tyagi, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    During the establishment of an infection, bacterial pathogens encounter oxidative stress resulting in the production of DNA lesions. Majority of these lesions are repaired by base excision repair (BER) pathway. Amongst these, abasic sites are the most frequent lesions in DNA. Class II apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases play a major role in BER of damaged DNA comprising of abasic sites. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a deadly pathogen, resides in the human macrophages and is continually subjected to oxidative assaults. We have characterized for the first time two AP endonucleases namely Endonuclease IV (End) and Exonuclease III (XthA) that perform distinct functions in M.tuberculosis. We demonstrate that M.tuberculosis End is a typical AP endonuclease while XthA is predominantly a 3'→5' exonuclease. The AP endonuclease activity of End and XthA was stimulated by Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) and displayed a preferential recognition for abasic site paired opposite to a cytosine residue in DNA. Moreover, End exhibited metal ion independent 3'→5' exonuclease activity while in the case of XthA this activity was metal ion dependent. We demonstrate that End is not only a more efficient AP endonuclease than XthA but it also represents the major AP endonuclease activity in M.tuberculosis and plays a crucial role in defense against oxidative stress. PMID:23936515

  15. Mapping Homing Endonuclease Cleavage Sites Using In Vitro Generated Protein

    PubMed Central

    Belfort, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the precise position of endonucleolytic cleavage sites is a fundamental experimental technique used to describe the function of a homing endonuclease. However, these proteins are often recalcitrant to cloning and over-expression in biological systems because of toxicity induced by spurious DNA cleavage events. In this chapter we outline the steps to successfully express a homing endonuclease in vitro and use this product in nucleotide-resolution cleavage assays. PMID:24510259

  16. Tear lipocalin is the major endonuclease in tears

    PubMed Central

    Yusifov, Taleh N.; Abduragimov, Adil R.; Narsinh, Kiran; Gasymov, Oktay K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Human endonucleases are integral to apoptosis in which unwanted or potentially harmful cells are eliminated. The rapid turnover of ocular surface epithelium and microbial colonization of the eyelids are continual sources of DNA in tears. Here, we determine the principal sources of endonuclease activity in tears. Methods Endonucleases in human tears were identified after Sephadex G100 gel filtration. DNA hydrolyzing activity was measured by the conversion pUC19 plasmid DNA to its circular form in agarose gels. Fractions with endonuclease activity were further isolated using a combination ConA-Sepharose DNA, oligo (dT) cellulose, and anion exchange chromatographies. The molecular weights of the DNA hydrolyzing proteins were estimated in zymograms and by calibration of size exclusion chromatography. DNase activities were characterized for activity at a variety of pH and ion concentrations as well as in the presence of inhibitors including NiCl2, ZnCl2, G-actin, and aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA). To determine the mode of hydrolysis, the cleaved ends of the DNA digested by tear DNases were analyzed by 3′ and 5′ end labeling using either terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase or polynucleotide kinase with or without pretreatment with alkaline phosphatase. Results Tear lipocalin (TL) accounts for over 75% of the DNA catalytic activity in tears while a second endonuclease, ~34 kDa, is responsible for less than 24% of the activity. Both are Mg2+ dependent enzyme endonucleases that are enhanced by Ca2+, active at physiologic pH, inhibited by aurintricarboxylic acid, and catalyze hydrolysis of DNA to produce 3′-OH/5′P ends. However, the two enzymes can be distinguished by the inhibitory effect of NiCl2 and the sizes of the cleaved DNA fragments. Conclusions Two magnesium dependent extracellular endonucleases were identified in tears that are different from other major human extracellular nucleases. TL is the principal endonuclease in human tear fluid. Tear

  17. Catalytic and non-catalytic roles of the CtIP endonuclease in double-strand break end resection

    PubMed Central

    Makharashvili, Nodar; Tubbs, Anthony T.; Yang, Soo-Hyun; Wang, Hailong; Barton, Olivia; Zhou, Yi; Deshpande, Rajashree A.; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Lobrich, Markus; Sleckman, Barry P.; Wu, Xiaohua; Paull, Tanya T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The CtIP protein is known to function in 5′ strand resection during homologous recombination similar to the budding yeast Sae2 protein, although its role in this process is unclear. Here we characterize recombinant human CtIP and find that it exhibits 5′ flap endonuclease activity on branched DNA structures, independent of the MRN complex. Phosphorylation of CtIP at known ATM-dependent sites and other sites is essential for its catalytic activity, although the S327 and T847 phosphorylation sites are dispensable. A catalytic mutant of CtIP that is deficient in endonuclease activity exhibits wild-type levels of homologous recombination at restriction enzyme-generated breaks but is deficient in processing topoisomerase adducts and radiation-induced breaks in human cells, suggesting that the nuclease activity of CtIP is specifically required for the removal of DNA adducts at sites of DNA breaks. PMID:24837676

  18. A response-restriction analysis of stereotypy in adolescents with mental retardation: implications for applied behavior analysis.

    PubMed Central

    McEntee, J E; Saunders, R R

    1997-01-01

    The behavior of 4 adolescents with severe or profound mental retardation was evaluated in the presence of four sets of materials during periods of unstructured leisure activity. Functional engagement with the materials, stereotypic engagement with the materials, stereotypy without interaction with the materials, and other aberrant behaviors were recorded. Across a series of experimental conditions, the number of sets of materials was reduced from four to one by eliminating the set most frequently manipulated in each preceeding condition. In the final condition, four sets of materials were again made available for manipulation. The procedures replicated Green and Striefel's (1988) response-restriction analysis of the activity preferences and play behaviors of children with autism. In general, the results of the present experiment replicate those of Green and Striefel in that reallocation of responding was idiosyncratic and unpredictable as sets of materials were removed. Nevertheless, the results provided insight into how responding might be reallocated if it were restricted through behavioral interventions rather than by restriction of access. Thus, the results are discussed with respect to how response-restriction analyses may be useful in identifying topographies of behavior that could be included in differential reinforcement contigencies that are designed to affect stereotypic behavior and in the selection and arrangement of environmental stimuli to minimize the presence of evokers of stereotypy. PMID:9316261

  19. Human Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengxia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1, also known as REF-1) was isolated based on its ability to cleave at AP sites in DNA or activate the DNA binding activity of certain transcription factors. We review herein topics related to this multi-functional DNA repair and stress-response protein. Recent Advances: APE1 displays homology to Escherichia coli exonuclease III and is a member of the divalent metal-dependent α/β fold-containing phosphoesterase superfamily of enzymes. APE1 has acquired distinct active site and loop elements that dictate substrate selectivity, and a unique N-terminus which at minimum imparts nuclear targeting and interaction specificity. Additional activities ascribed to APE1 include 3′–5′ exonuclease, 3′-repair diesterase, nucleotide incision repair, damaged or site-specific RNA cleavage, and multiple transcription regulatory roles. Critical Issues: APE1 is essential for mouse embryogenesis and contributes to cell viability in a genetic background-dependent manner. Haploinsufficient APE1+/− mice exhibit reduced survival, increased cancer formation, and cellular/tissue hyper-sensitivity to oxidative stress, supporting the notion that impaired APE1 function associates with disease susceptibility. Although abnormal APE1 expression/localization has been seen in cancer and neuropathologies, and impaired-function variants have been described, a causal link between an APE1 defect and human disease remains elusive. Future Directions: Ongoing efforts aim at delineating the biological role(s) of the different APE1 activities, as well as the regulatory mechanisms for its intra-cellular distribution and participation in diverse molecular pathways. The determination of whether APE1 defects contribute to human disease, particularly pathologies that involve oxidative stress, and whether APE1 small-molecule regulators have clinical utility, is central to future investigations. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 678–707

  20. Implication of phagosome-lysosome fusion in restriction of Mycobacterium avium growth in bone marrow macrophages from genetically resistant mice.

    PubMed Central

    de Chastellier, C; Fréhel, C; Offredo, C; Skamene, E

    1993-01-01

    The ability of the host to resist infection to a variety of intracellular pathogens, including mycobacteria, is strongly dependent upon the expression of the Bcg gene. Mouse strains which express the resistance phenotype (Bcgr) restrict bacterial growth, whereas susceptible strains (Bcgs) allow bacterial growth. Expression of the Bcg allele is known to influence the priming of host macrophages (M phi s) for bactericidal function. In the present work, bone marrow-derived M phi s from congenic BALB/c (Bcgs) and C.D2 (BALB/c.Bcgr) mice were infected with the virulent strain Mycobacterium avium TMC 724 to define the mechanism involved in growth restriction of M. avium. By combining CFU measurements and ultrastructural analyses, we show that growth of this bacterium is restricted in marrow M phi s from resistant mice. Using acid phosphatase as a lysosomal marker, we provide evidence that the hydrolytic activity of M phi s, as measured by the capacity of lysosomes to fuse with and transfer active hydrolytic enzymes to phagosomes in which M. avium resides, is an expression of the Bcg gene and that this phenomenon is a key antibacterial activity responsible for growth restriction of M. avium: (i) the percentage of phagosome-lysosome fusions was twice as high in Bcgr M phi s as in Bcgs M phi s, and (ii) the percentage of intact viable bacteria residing in acid phosphatase-negative phagosomes was twice as low in Bcgr M phi s as in the Bcgs counterparts. These differences are not due to a lower activity of the enzyme in Bcgr M phi s. The mechanism by which the Bcg gene exerts control over the phagolysosomal fusion is discussed. Images PMID:8359899

  1. PrrC-anticodon nuclease: functional organization of a prototypical bacterial restriction RNase

    PubMed Central

    Blanga-Kanfi, Shani; Amitsur, Michal; Azem, Abdussalam; Kaufmann, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    The tRNALys anticodon nuclease PrrC is associated in latent form with the type Ic DNA restriction endonuclease EcoprrI and activated by a phage T4-encoded inhibitor of EcoprrI. The activation also requires the hydrolysis of GTP and presence of dTTP and is inhibited by ATP. The N-proximal NTPase domain of PrrC has been implicated in relaying the activating signal to a C-proximal anticodon nuclease site by interacting with the requisite nucleotide cofactors [Amitsur et al. (2003) Mol. Microbiol., 50, 129–143]. Means described here to bypass PrrC's self-limiting translation and thermal instability allowed purifying an active mutant form of the protein, demonstrating its oligomeric structure and confirming its anticipated interactions with the nucleotide cofactors of the activation reaction. Mutagenesis and chemical rescue data shown implicate the C-proximal Arg320, Glu324 and, possibly, His356 in anticodon nuclease catalysis. This triad exists in all the known PrrC homologs but only some of them feature residues needed for tRNALys recognition by the Escherichia coli prototype. The differential conservation and consistent genetic linkage of the PrrC proteins with EcoprrI homologs portray them as a family of restriction RNases of diverse substrate specificities that are mobilized when an associated DNA restriction nuclease is compromised. PMID:16790566

  2. PrrC-anticodon nuclease: functional organization of a prototypical bacterial restriction RNase.

    PubMed

    Blanga-Kanfi, Shani; Amitsur, Michal; Azem, Abdussalam; Kaufmann, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    The tRNA(Lys) anticodon nuclease PrrC is associated in latent form with the type Ic DNA restriction endonuclease EcoprrI and activated by a phage T4-encoded inhibitor of EcoprrI. The activation also requires the hydrolysis of GTP and presence of dTTP and is inhibited by ATP. The N-proximal NTPase domain of PrrC has been implicated in relaying the activating signal to a C-proximal anticodon nuclease site by interacting with the requisite nucleotide cofactors [Amitsur et al. (2003) Mol. Microbiol., 50, 129-143]. Means described here to bypass PrrC's self-limiting translation and thermal instability allowed purifying an active mutant form of the protein, demonstrating its oligomeric structure and confirming its anticipated interactions with the nucleotide cofactors of the activation reaction. Mutagenesis and chemical rescue data shown implicate the C-proximal Arg320, Glu324 and, possibly, His356 in anticodon nuclease catalysis. This triad exists in all the known PrrC homologs but only some of them feature residues needed for tRNA(Lys) recognition by the Escherichia coli prototype. The differential conservation and consistent genetic linkage of the PrrC proteins with EcoprrI homologs portray them as a family of restriction RNases of diverse substrate specificities that are mobilized when an associated DNA restriction nuclease is compromised. PMID:16790566

  3. Identification of a mismatch-specific endonuclease in hyperthermophilic Archaea.

    PubMed

    Ishino, Sonoko; Nishi, Yuki; Oda, Soichiro; Uemori, Takashi; Sagara, Takehiro; Takatsu, Nariaki; Yamagami, Takeshi; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2016-04-20

    The common mismatch repair system processed by MutS and MutL and their homologs was identified in Bacteria and Eukarya. However, no evidence of a functional MutS/L homolog has been reported for archaeal organisms, and it is not known whether the mismatch repair system is conserved in Archaea. Here, we describe an endonuclease that cleaves double-stranded DNA containing a mismatched base pair, from the hyperthermophilic archaeonPyrococcus furiosus The corresponding gene revealed that the activity originates from PF0012, and we named this enzyme Endonuclease MS (EndoMS) as themismatch-specific Endonuclease. The sequence similarity suggested that EndoMS is the ortholog of NucS isolated fromPyrococcus abyssi, published previously. Biochemical characterizations of the EndoMS homolog fromThermococcus kodakarensisclearly showed that EndoMS specifically cleaves both strands of double-stranded DNA into 5'-protruding forms, with the mismatched base pair in the central position. EndoMS cleaves G/T, G/G, T/T, T/C and A/G mismatches, with a more preference for G/T, G/G and T/T, but has very little or no effect on C/C, A/C and A/A mismatches. The discovery of this endonuclease suggests the existence of a novel mismatch repair process, initiated by the double-strand break generated by the EndoMS endonuclease, in Archaea and some Bacteria. PMID:27001046

  4. Endonuclease IV of Escherichia coli is induced by paraquat

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, E.; Weiss, B.

    1987-05-01

    The addition of paraquat (methyl viologen) to a growing culture of Escherichia coli K-12 led within 1 hr to a 10- to 20-fold increase in the level of endonuclease IV, a DNase for apurinic/apyrimidinic sites. The induction was blocked by chloramphenicol. Increases of 3-fold or more were also seen with plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate. H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ produced no more than a 2-fold increase in endonuclease IV activity. The following agents had no significant effect: streptonigrin, nitrofurantoin, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, ..gamma.. rays, 260-nm UV radiation, methyl methanesulfonate, mitomycin C, and ascorbate. Paraquat, plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate are known to generate superoxide radical anions via redox cycling in vivo. A mutant lacking superoxide dismutase was unusually sensitive to induction by paraquat. In addition, endonuclease IV could be induced by merely growing the mutant in pure O/sub 2/. The levels of endonuclease IV in uninduced or paraquat-treated cells were unaffected by mutations of oxyR, a H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-inducible gene that governs an oxidative-stress regulon. The results indicate that endonuclease IV is an inducible DNA-repair enzyme and that its induction can be mediated via the production of superoxide radicals.

  5. Identification of a mismatch-specific endonuclease in hyperthermophilic Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Ishino, Sonoko; Nishi, Yuki; Oda, Soichiro; Uemori, Takashi; Sagara, Takehiro; Takatsu, Nariaki; Yamagami, Takeshi; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2016-01-01

    The common mismatch repair system processed by MutS and MutL and their homologs was identified in Bacteria and Eukarya. However, no evidence of a functional MutS/L homolog has been reported for archaeal organisms, and it is not known whether the mismatch repair system is conserved in Archaea. Here, we describe an endonuclease that cleaves double-stranded DNA containing a mismatched base pair, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The corresponding gene revealed that the activity originates from PF0012, and we named this enzyme Endonuclease MS (EndoMS) as the mismatch-specific Endonuclease. The sequence similarity suggested that EndoMS is the ortholog of NucS isolated from Pyrococcus abyssi, published previously. Biochemical characterizations of the EndoMS homolog from Thermococcus kodakarensis clearly showed that EndoMS specifically cleaves both strands of double-stranded DNA into 5′-protruding forms, with the mismatched base pair in the central position. EndoMS cleaves G/T, G/G, T/T, T/C and A/G mismatches, with a more preference for G/T, G/G and T/T, but has very little or no effect on C/C, A/C and A/A mismatches. The discovery of this endonuclease suggests the existence of a novel mismatch repair process, initiated by the double-strand break generated by the EndoMS endonuclease, in Archaea and some Bacteria. PMID:27001046

  6. Dynamic regulation of PGC-1α localization and turnover implicates mitochondrial adaptation in calorie restriction and the stress response

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rozalyn M; Barger, Jamie L; Edwards, Michael G; Braun, Kristina H; O’Connor, Clare E; Prolla, Tomas A; Weindruch, Richard

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that longevity and stress resistance are connected, but the mechanism is unclear. We report that mitochondria are regulated in response to oxidative stress and calorie restriction through a shared mechanism involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α). We demonstrate that PGC-1α subcellular distribution is regulated, and its transcriptional activity is promoted through SIRT1-dependent nuclear accumulation. In addition, the duration of PGC-1α activity is regulated by glycogen synthase kinase beta (GSK3β), which targets PGC-1α for intranuclear proteasomal degradation. This mechanism of regulation permits the rapidity and persistence of PGC-1α activation to be independently controlled. We provide evidence that this pathway of PGC-1α regulation occurs in vivo in mice, both in the oxidative stress response and with calorie restriction. Our data show how mitochondrial function may be adapted in response to external stimuli, and support the concept that such adaptation is critically involved in cellular survival and in lifespan extension by calorie restriction. PMID:18031569

  7. A computer assisted method for the determination of restriction enzyme recognifion sites.

    PubMed Central

    Gingeras, T R; MIlazzo, J P; Roberts, R J

    1978-01-01

    A computer program has been developed which aids in the determination of restriction enzyme recognition sequences. This is achieved by cleaving DNAs of known sequence with a restriction endonuclease and comparing the fragmentation pattern with a computer-generated set of patterns. The feasibility of this approach has been tested using fragmentation patterns of 0X174 DNA produced by enzymes of both known and unknown specificity. Recognition sequences are predicted for two restriction endonucleases (BbvI and SfaNI) using this method. In addition, recognition sequences are predicted for two other new enzymes (PvuI and MstI) using another computer-assisted method. Images PMID:724510

  8. Prognostic implications of left ventricular dilation in patients with nonischemic heart failure: interactions with restrictive filling pattern and mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Stefano; Temporelli, Pier L; Marsan, Nina A; Poppe, Katrina; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Dini, Frank L; Rossi, Andrea; Doughty, Robert N; Whalley, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether small left ventricular (LV) volumes increase the negative prognostic impact of a restrictive filling pattern (RFP) and that of mitral regurgitation (MR) in patients with nonischemic heart failure (HF). The Meta-analysis Research Group in Echocardiography (MeRGE) is a meta-analysis that collated individual patient data from several prospective echocardiography outcome studies. This analysis was restricted to 10 studies and 601 patients with nonischemic HF. The role of MR was tested in a subgroup of 252 patients. A total of 106 deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 32 months. At multivariate analysis, RFP (hazard ratio [HR], 4.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-11.23; P=.005) and New York Heart Association class III or IV (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.33-3.47; P=.001) were the independent predictors of poor prognosis, and there was no statistically significant interaction between LV dilation and RFP. Moderate/severe MR was associated with poorer outcome in the group of patients with normal volumes, whereas it was not a significant predictor of mortality in patients with any degree of LV dilation. In patients with nonischemic HF, RFP is the most important indicator of poor prognosis, irrespective of the degree of LV dilation. Normal LV volumes increase the negative prognostic impact of moderate to severe MR. PMID:22510230

  9. Caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R; Mitchell, Sharon E

    2011-06-01

    generalized shift from carbohydrate to fat metabolism. Four pathways have been implicated in mediating the CR effect. These are the insulin like growth factor (IGF-1)/insulin signaling pathway, the sirtuin pathway, the adenosine monophosphate (AMP) activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway. These different pathways may interact and may all play important roles mediating different aspects of the response. Exactly how they generate the health benefits remains open for debate, however CR results in reduced oxidative stress and enhanced autophagy, both of which could be essential components of the beneficial effects. Most data about the effects of CR in mammals comes from work on rodents. There is limited work on non-human primates that shows promising effects and one randomized controlled trial in humans where physiological markers of the CR response are consistent with the responses in mice and rats. There are also populations of humans voluntarily restricting themselves. Humans on long term restriction report similar negative side effects to those observed in animals - perpetual hunger, reduced body temperature leading to a feeling of being cold, and diminished libido. Considerable effort has been directed in recent years to find drugs that mimic the CR response. Promising candidates are those that intersect with the critical signaling pathways identified above and include biguanides such as metformin that target the insulin signaling pathway, stilbenes (e.g. resveratrol) that affect sirtuin activity and drugs such as rapamycin that interact with mTOR signaling. Whether it will ever be possible to find drugs that capture the health benefits of CR without the negative side-effects remains unclear. Moreover, even if such drugs are developed how the current licensing system for drug use in western societies would cope with them may be a further obstacle to their use. PMID:21840335

  10. Mapping site-specific endonuclease binding to DNA by direct imaging with AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, D.P.; Thundat, T.; Doktycz, M.J.; Kerper, P.S.; Warmack, R.J.; Modrich, P.; Isfort, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    Physical mapping of DNA can be accomplished by direct AFM imaging of site specific proteins bound to DNA molecules. Using Gln-111, a mutant of EcoRI endonuclease with a specific affinity for EcoRI sites 1,000 times greater than wild type enzyme but with cleavage rate constants reduced by a factor of 10{sup 4}, the authors demonstrate site-specific mapping by direct AFM imaging. Images are presented showing specific-site binding of Gln-111 to plasmids having either one (pBS{sup +}) or two (pMP{sup 32}) EcoRI sites. Identification of the Gln-111/DNA complex is greatly enhanced by biotinylation of the complex followed by reaction with streptavidin gold prior to imaging. Image enhancement coupled with improvements in the preparation techniques for imaging large DNA molecules, such as lambda DNA (47 kb), has the potential to contribute to direct AFM restriction mapping of cosmid-sized genomic DNAs.

  11. ENDONUCLEASE II OF E. coli, I. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION*

    PubMed Central

    Friedberg, Errol C.; Goldthwait, David A.

    1969-01-01

    The isolation and purification of a new endonuclease of E. coli is described. This enzyme degrades alkylated DNA as assayed by a technique that requires double-strand scission. The enzyme also makes a limited number of single-strand breaks in native nonalkylated DNA. PMID:4895219

  12. Anticonvulsant Effect of Time-Restricted Feeding in a Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure Model: Metabolic and Epigenetic Implications.

    PubMed

    Landgrave-Gómez, Jorge; Mercado-Gómez, Octavio Fabián; Vázquez-García, Mario; Rodríguez-Molina, Víctor; Córdova-Dávalos, Laura; Arriaga-Ávila, Virginia; Miranda-Martínez, Alfredo; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda

    2016-01-01

    A new generation of antiepileptic drugs has emerged; however, one-third of epilepsy patients do not properly respond to pharmacological treatments. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether time-restricted feeding (TRF) has an anticonvulsant effect and whether this restrictive diet promotes changes in energy metabolism and epigenetic modifications in a pilocarpine-induced seizure model. To resolve our hypothesis, one group of rats had free access to food and water ad libitum (AL) and a second group underwent a TRF schedule. We used the lithium-pilocarpine model to induce status epilepticus (SE), and behavioral seizure monitoring was analyzed. Additionally, an electroencephalography (EEG) recording was performed to verify the effect of TRF on cortical electrical activity after a pilocarpine injection. For biochemical analysis, animals were sacrificed 24 h after SE and hippocampal homogenates were used to evaluate the proteins related to metabolism and chromatin structure. Our results showed that TRF had an anticonvulsant effect as measured by the prolonged latency of forelimb clonus seizure, a decrease in the seizure severity score and fewer animals reaching SE. Additionally, the power of the late phase EEG recordings in the AL group was significantly higher than the TRF group. Moreover, we found that TRF is capable of inducing alterations in signaling pathways that regulate energy metabolism, including an increase in the phosphorylation of AMP dependent kinase (AMPK) and a decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt kinase. Furthermore, we found that TRF was able to significantly increase the beta hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) concentration, an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Finally, we found a significant decrease in HDAC activity as well as an increase in acetylation on histone 3 (H3) in hippocampal homogenates from the TRF group. These findings suggest that alterations in energy metabolism and the increase in β-HB mediated by TRF

  13. Anticonvulsant Effect of Time-Restricted Feeding in a Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure Model: Metabolic and Epigenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Landgrave-Gómez, Jorge; Mercado-Gómez, Octavio Fabián; Vázquez-García, Mario; Rodríguez-Molina, Víctor; Córdova-Dávalos, Laura; Arriaga-Ávila, Virginia; Miranda-Martínez, Alfredo; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda

    2016-01-01

    A new generation of antiepileptic drugs has emerged; however, one-third of epilepsy patients do not properly respond to pharmacological treatments. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether time-restricted feeding (TRF) has an anticonvulsant effect and whether this restrictive diet promotes changes in energy metabolism and epigenetic modifications in a pilocarpine-induced seizure model. To resolve our hypothesis, one group of rats had free access to food and water ad libitum (AL) and a second group underwent a TRF schedule. We used the lithium-pilocarpine model to induce status epilepticus (SE), and behavioral seizure monitoring was analyzed. Additionally, an electroencephalography (EEG) recording was performed to verify the effect of TRF on cortical electrical activity after a pilocarpine injection. For biochemical analysis, animals were sacrificed 24 h after SE and hippocampal homogenates were used to evaluate the proteins related to metabolism and chromatin structure. Our results showed that TRF had an anticonvulsant effect as measured by the prolonged latency of forelimb clonus seizure, a decrease in the seizure severity score and fewer animals reaching SE. Additionally, the power of the late phase EEG recordings in the AL group was significantly higher than the TRF group. Moreover, we found that TRF is capable of inducing alterations in signaling pathways that regulate energy metabolism, including an increase in the phosphorylation of AMP dependent kinase (AMPK) and a decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt kinase. Furthermore, we found that TRF was able to significantly increase the beta hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) concentration, an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Finally, we found a significant decrease in HDAC activity as well as an increase in acetylation on histone 3 (H3) in hippocampal homogenates from the TRF group. These findings suggest that alterations in energy metabolism and the increase in β-HB mediated by TRF

  14. Cloning, sequencing and expression of the Taq I restriction-modification system.

    PubMed Central

    Slatko, B E; Benner, J S; Jager-Quinton, T; Moran, L S; Simcox, T G; Van Cott, E M; Wilson, G G

    1987-01-01

    The Taq I modification and restriction genes (recognition sequence TCGA) have been cloned in E. coli and their DNA sequences have been determined. Both proteins were characterized and the N-terminal sequence of the endonuclease was determined. The genes have the same transcriptional orientation with the methylase gene 5' to the endonuclease gene. The methylase gene is 1089 bp in length (363 amino acids, 40,576 daltons); the endonuclease gene is 702 bp in length (234 amino acids, 27,523 daltons); they are separated by 132 bp. Both methylase and endonuclease activity can be detected in cell extracts. The clones fully modify the vector and chromosomal DNA but they fail to restrict infecting phage. Clones carrying only the restriction gene are viable even in the absence of modification. The restriction gene contains 7 Taq I sites; the modification gene contains none. This asymmetric distribution of sites could be important in the regulation of the expression of the endonuclease gene. Images PMID:2827113

  15. FoxO1 controls lysosomal acid lipase in adipocytes: implication of lipophagy during nutrient restriction and metformin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lettieri Barbato, D; Tatulli, G; Aquilano, K; Ciriolo, M R

    2013-01-01

    Finding new molecular pathways and strategies modulating lipolysis in adipocytes is an attractive goal of the current research. Indeed, it is becoming clear that several human age-related pathologies are caused by adipose tissue expansion and altered lipid metabolism. In the present work, we show that transcription factor forkhead homeobox type protein O1 (FoxO1) is upregulated by nutrient restriction (NR) in adipocytes and exerts the transcriptional control of lipid catabolism via the induction of lysosomal acid lipase (Lipa). An increased autophagy and colocalization of lipid droplets (LDs) with lysosomes was observed implying lipophagy in Lipa-mediated LDs degradation. Interestingly, we found that metformin (Metf), a biguanide drug commonly used to treat type-2 diabetes, exerts effects comparable to that of NR. Actually, it was able to elicit FoxO1-dependent Lipa induction as well as LDs degradation through lipophagy. Moreover, we demonstrate that, during NR or Metf treatment, free fatty acids released by Lipa are directed toward AMP-activated protein kinase-mediated mitochondrial oxidation, thus maintaining energetic homeostasis in adipocytes. In conclusion, our data show that lysosomal-mediated lipid catabolism is activated by NR in adipocytes and give further support to the use of Metf as a NR mimetic to combat age-related diseases associated with altered lipid metabolism. PMID:24136225

  16. Nucleotide sequence of the PaeR7 restriction/modification system and partial characterization of its protein products.

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, G; Roy, P H; Howard, K A; Benner, J S; Brooks, J E; Waters, A F; Gingeras, T R

    1985-01-01

    Bal31 deletion experiments on clones of the PaeR7 restriction-modification system from Pseudomonas aeruginosa demonstrate that it is arranged as an operon, with the methylase gene preceding the endonuclease gene. The DNA sequence of this operon agrees with in vitro transcription-translation assays which predict proteins of 532 amino acids, Mr = 59,260 daltons, and 246 amino acids, Mr = 27,280 daltons, coincident with the methylase and endonuclease genes, respectively. These predicted values coincide with the measured molecular weights of the purified, denatured PaeR7 endonuclease and methylase proteins. The first twenty amino acids from the amino-terminus of the purified endonuclease exactly match those predicted from the DNA sequence. Finally, potential regulatory mechanisms for the expression of phage restriction are described based on the properties of several PaeR7 subclones. Images PMID:3001639

  17. T Cells Detect Intracellular DNA but Fail to Induce Type I IFN Responses: Implications for Restriction of HIV Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kofod-Olsen, Emil; Holm, Christian K.; Melchjorsen, Jesper; Jensen, David G.; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jørgensen, Louise B.; Ostergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Larsen, Carsten S.; Paludan, Søren R.; Jakobsen, Martin R.; Mogensen, Trine H.

    2014-01-01

    HIV infects key cell types of the immune system, most notably macrophages and CD4+ T cells. Whereas macrophages represent an important viral reservoir, activated CD4+ T cells are the most permissive cell types supporting high levels of viral replication. In recent years, it has been appreciated that the innate immune system plays an important role in controlling HIV replication, e.g. via interferon (IFN)-inducible restriction factors. Moreover, innate immune responses are involved in driving chronic immune activation and the pathogenesis of progressive immunodeficiency. Several pattern recognition receptors detecting HIV have been reported, including Toll-like receptor 7 and Retinoic-inducible gene-I, which detects viral RNA. Here we report that human primary T cells fail to induce strong IFN responses, despite the fact that this cell type does express key molecules involved in DNA signaling pathways. We demonstrate that the DNA sensor IFI16 migrates to sites of foreign DNA localization in the cytoplasm and recruits the signaling molecules stimulator of IFN genes and Tank-binding kinase, but this does not result in expression of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes. Importantly, we show that cytosolic DNA fails to affect HIV replication. However, exogenous treatment of activated T cells with type I IFN has the capacity to induce expression of IFN-stimulated genes and suppress HIV replication. Our data suggest the existence of an impaired DNA signaling machinery in T cells, which may prevent this cell type from activating cell-autonomous anti-HIV responses. This phenomenon could contribute to the high permissiveness of CD4+ T cells for HIV-1. PMID:24404168

  18. Reprogramming homing endonuclease specificity through computational design and directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Thyme, Summer B; Boissel, Sandrine J S; Arshiya Quadri, S; Nolan, Tony; Baker, Dean A; Park, Rachel U; Kusak, Lara; Ashworth, Justin; Baker, David

    2014-02-01

    Homing endonucleases (HEs) can be used to induce targeted genome modification to reduce the fitness of pathogen vectors such as the malaria-transmitting Anopheles gambiae and to correct deleterious mutations in genetic diseases. We describe the creation of an extensive set of HE variants with novel DNA cleavage specificities using an integrated experimental and computational approach. Using computational modeling and an improved selection strategy, which optimizes specificity in addition to activity, we engineered an endonuclease to cleave in a gene associated with Anopheles sterility and another to cleave near a mutation that causes pyruvate kinase deficiency. In the course of this work we observed unanticipated context-dependence between bases which will need to be mechanistically understood for reprogramming of specificity to succeed more generally. PMID:24270794

  19. Computational redesign of endonuclease DNA binding and cleavage specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, Justin; Havranek, James J.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Sussman, Django; Monnat, Raymond J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Baker, David

    2006-06-01

    The reprogramming of DNA-binding specificity is an important challenge for computational protein design that tests current understanding of protein-DNA recognition, and has considerable practical relevance for biotechnology and medicine. Here we describe the computational redesign of the cleavage specificity of the intron-encoded homing endonuclease I-MsoI using a physically realistic atomic-level forcefield. Using an in silico screen, we identified single base-pair substitutions predicted to disrupt binding by the wild-type enzyme, and then optimized the identities and conformations of clusters of amino acids around each of these unfavourable substitutions using Monte Carlo sampling. A redesigned enzyme that was predicted to display altered target site specificity, while maintaining wild-type binding affinity, was experimentally characterized. The redesigned enzyme binds and cleaves the redesigned recognition site ~10,000 times more effectively than does the wild-type enzyme, with a level of target discrimination comparable to the original endonuclease. Determination of the structure of the redesigned nuclease-recognition site complex by X-ray crystallography confirms the accuracy of the computationally predicted interface. These results suggest that computational protein design methods can have an important role in the creation of novel highly specific endonucleases for gene therapy and other applications.

  20. Biochemical characterization of a thermostable HNH endonuclease from deep-sea thermophilic bacteriophage GVE2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Likui; Huang, Yanchao; Xu, Dandan; Yang, Lixiang; Qian, Kaicheng; Chang, Guozhu; Gong, Yong; Zhou, Xiaojian; Ma, Kesen

    2016-09-01

    His-Asn-His (HNH) proteins are a very common family of small nucleic acid-binding proteins that are generally associated with endonuclease activity and are found in all kingdoms of life. Although HNH endonucleases from mesophiles have been widely investigated, the biochemical functions of HNH endonucleases from thermophilic bacteriophages remain unknown. Here, we characterized the biochemical properties of a thermostable HNH endonuclease from deep-sea thermophilic bacteriophage GVE2. The recombinant GVE2 HNH endonuclease exhibited non-specific cleavage activity at high temperature. The optimal temperature of the GVE2 HNH endonuclease for cleaving DNA was 60-65 °C, and the enzyme retained its DNA cleavage activity even after heating at 100 °C for 30 min, suggesting the enzyme is a thermostable endonuclease. The GVE2 HNH endonuclease cleaved DNA over a wide pH spectrum, ranging from 5.5 to 9.0, and the optimal pH for the enzyme activity was 8.0-9.0. Furthermore, the GVE2 HNH endonuclease activity was dependent on a divalent metal ion. While the enzyme is inactive in the presence of Cu(2+), the GVE2 HNH endonuclease displayed cleavage activity of varied efficiency with Mn(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), and Ni(2+). The GVE2 HNH endonuclease activity was inhibited by NaCl. This study provides the basis for determining the role of this endonuclease in life cycle of the bacteriophage GVE2 and suggests the potential application of the enzyme in molecular biology and biotechnology. PMID:27131500

  1. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    restriction enzyme recognition sites within TTAGGG tandem telomeric repeats, therefore digestion of genomic DNA, not telomeric DNA, with a combination of 6 base restriction endonucleases reduces genomic DNA size to less than 800 bp. PMID:27500189

  2. Establishment and characterization of hamster cell lines transformed by restriction endonuclease fragments of adenovirus 5.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, D T; Branton, P E; Yee, S P; Bacchetti, S; Graham, F L

    1984-01-01

    We have established a library of hamster cells transformed by adenovirus 5 DNA fragments comprising all (XhoI-C, 0 to 16 map units) or only a part (HindIII-G, 0 to 7.8 map units) of early region 1 (E1: 0 to 11.2 map units). These lines have been analyzed in terms of content of viral DNA, expression of E1 antigens, and capacity to induce tumors in hamsters. All cells tested were found to express up to eight proteins encoded within E1A (0 to 4.5 map units) with apparent molecular weights between 52,000 (52K) and 25K. Both G and C fragment-transformed lines expressed a 19K antigen encoded within E1B (4.5 to 11.2 map units), whereas an E1B 58K protein was detected in C fragment-transformed, but not G-fragment-transformed, lines. No clear distinction could be drawn between cells transformed by HindIII-G and by XhoI-C in terms of morphology or tumorigenicity, suggesting that the E1B 58K antigen plays no major role in the maintenance of oncogenic transformation, although possible involvement of truncated forms of 58K cannot be ruled out. Sera were collected from tumor-bearing animals and examined for ability to immunoprecipitate proteins from infected cells. The relative avidity of sera for different proteins was characteristic of the cell line used for tumor induction, and the specificity generally reflected the array of viral proteins expressed by the corresponding transformed cells. However, one notable observation was that even though all transformed lines examined expressed antigens encoded by both the 1.1- and 0.9-kilobase mRNAs transcribed from E1A, tumor sera made against these lines only precipitated products of the 1.1-kilobase message. Thus, two families of E1A proteins, highly related in terms of primary amino acid sequence, appear to be immunologically quite distinct. Images PMID:6690708

  3. Sgp3 and Sgp4 Control Expression of Distinct and Restricted Sets of Xenotropic Retroviruses Encoding Serum gp70 Implicated in Murine Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Kihara, Maso; Leroy, Valérie; Baudino, Lucie; Evans, Leonard H.; Izui, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    The envelope glycoprotein gp70 of endogenous retroviruses implicated in murine lupus nephritis is secreted by hepatocytes and its expression is controlled by Sgp3 (serum gp70 production 3) and Sgp4 loci derived from lupusprone mice. Among three different endogenous retroviruses (ecotropic, xenotropic and polytropic), xenotropic viruses are considered to be the major source of serum gp70. Although the abundance of xenotropic viral gp70 RNA in livers was up-regulated by the presence of these two Sgp loci, it has not yet been clear whether Sgp3 and Sgp4 regulate the expression of a fraction or multiple xenotropic viruses present in mouse genome. To address this question, we determined the genetic origin of xenotropic viral sequences expressed in wildtype and two different Sgp congenic C57BL/6 mice. Among 14 xenotropic proviruses present in the C57BL/6 genome, only two proviruses (Xmv10 and Xmv14) were actively transcribed in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, Sgp3 enhanced the transcription of Xmv10 and induced the transcription of three additional xenotropic viruses (Xmv15, Xmv17 and Xmv18), while Sgp4 induced the expression of a different xenotropic virus (Xmv13). Notably, stimulation of TLR7 in Sgp3 congenic C57BL/6 mice led to a highly enhanced expression of potentially replication-competent Xmv18. These results indicated that Sgp3 and Sgp4 independently regulated the transcription of distinct and restricted sets of xenotropic viruses in trans, thereby promoting the production of nephritogenic gp70 autoantigens. Furthermore, the induced expression of potentially replication-competent xenotropic viruses by Sgp3 may contribute to the development of autoimmune responses against gp70 through the activation of TLR7. PMID:21982749

  4. Inquiry-Based Experiments for Large-Scale Introduction to PCR and Restriction Enzyme Digests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, Kelly E.; Watt, Terry J.

    2015-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease digest are important techniques that should be included in all Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory curriculums. These techniques are frequently taught at an advanced level, requiring many hours of student and faculty time. Here we present two inquiry-based experiments that are…

  5. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood returns from the body (diastole). When the disease progresses, the heart may not pump blood strongly. The abnormal heart function can affect the lungs, liver, and other body systems. Restrictive cardiomyopathy may affect either or both of the ...

  6. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood returns from the body (diastole). When the disease progresses, the heart may not pump blood strongly. The abnormal heart function can affect the lungs, liver, and other body systems. Restrictive cardiomyopathy may affect ...

  7. Direct observation of DNA threading in flap endonuclease complexes.

    PubMed

    AlMalki, Faizah A; Flemming, Claudia S; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Min; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E; Ceska, Tom; Rafferty, John B; Sayers, Jon R; Artymiuk, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity requires that branched nucleic acid molecules be accurately processed to produce double-helical DNA. Flap endonucleases are essential enzymes that trim such branched molecules generated by Okazaki-fragment synthesis during replication. Here, we report crystal structures of bacteriophage T5 flap endonuclease in complexes with intact DNA substrates and products, at resolutions of 1.9-2.2 Å. They reveal single-stranded DNA threading through a hole in the enzyme, which is enclosed by an inverted V-shaped helical arch straddling the active site. Residues lining the hole induce an unusual barb-like conformation in the DNA substrate, thereby juxtaposing the scissile phosphate and essential catalytic metal ions. A series of complexes and biochemical analyses show how the substrate's single-stranded branch approaches, threads through and finally emerges on the far side of the enzyme. Our studies suggest that substrate recognition involves an unusual 'fly-casting, thread, bend and barb' mechanism. PMID:27273516

  8. Fragment-Based Identification of Influenza Endonuclease Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Credille, Cy V; Chen, Yao; Cohen, Seth M

    2016-07-14

    The influenza virus is responsible for millions of cases of severe illness annually. Yearly variance in the effectiveness of vaccination, coupled with emerging drug resistance, necessitates the development of new drugs to treat influenza infections. One attractive target is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase PA subunit. Herein we report the development of inhibitors of influenza PA endonuclease derived from lead compounds identified from a metal-binding pharmacophore (MBP) library screen. Pyromeconic acid and derivatives thereof were found to be potent inhibitors of endonuclease. Guided by modeling and previously reported structural data, several sublibraries of molecules were elaborated from the MBP hits. Structure-activity relationships were established, and more potent molecules were designed and synthesized using fragment growth and fragment merging strategies. This approach ultimately resulted in the development of a lead compound with an IC50 value of 14 nM, which displayed an EC50 value of 2.1 μM against H1N1 influenza virus in MDCK cells. PMID:27291165

  9. Structural Characterization of the Catalytic Subunit of a Novel RNA Splicing Endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Kate; Hall, Michelle D.; Xu, Fangmin; Xue, Song; Li, Hong

    2010-07-13

    The RNA splicing endonuclease is responsible for recognition and excision of nuclear tRNA and all archaeal introns. Despite the conserved RNA cleavage chemistry and a similar enzyme assembly, currently known splicing endonuclease families have limited RNA specificity. Different from previously characterized splicing endonucleases in Archaea, the splicing endonuclease from archaeum Sulfolobus solfataricus was found to contain two different subunits and accept a broader range of substrates. Here, we report a crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of the S. solfataricus endonuclease at 3.1 {angstrom} resolution. The structure, together with analytical ultracentrifugation analysis, identifies the catalytic subunit as an inactive but stable homodimer, thus suggesting the possibility of two modes of functional assembly for the active enzyme.

  10. Recombinant plasmids for encoding restriction enzymes DpnI and DpnII of streptococcus pneumontae

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1990-01-01

    Chromosomal DNA cassettes containing genes encoding either the DpnI or DpnII restriction endonucleases from Streptococcus pneumoniae are cloned into a streptococcal vector, pLS101. Large amounts of the restriction enzymes are produced by cells containing the multicopy plasmids, pLS202 and pLS207, and their derivatives pLS201, pLS211, pLS217, pLS251 and pLS252.

  11. Recombinant plasmids for encoding restriction enzymes DpnI and DpnII of Streptococcus pneumontae

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, S.A.

    1990-10-02

    Chromosomal DNA cassettes containing genes encoding either the DpnI or DpnII restriction endonucleases from Streptococcus pneumoniae are cloned into a streptococcal vector, pLS101. Large amounts of the restriction enzymes are produced by cells containing the multicopy plasmids, pLS202 and pLS207, and their derivatives pLS201, pLS211, pLS217, pLS251 and pLS252. 9 figs.

  12. Restrictive vs. non-restrictive composition: a magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Leffel, Timothy; Lauter, Miriam; Westerlund, Masha; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the brain mechanisms underlying language processing has implicated the left anterior temporal lobe (LATL) as a central region for the composition of simple phrases. Because these studies typically present their critical stimuli without contextual information, the sensitivity of LATL responses to contextual factors is unknown. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we employed a simple question-answer paradigm to manipulate whether a prenominal adjective or determiner is interpreted restrictively, i.e., as limiting the set of entities under discussion. Our results show that the LATL is sensitive to restriction, with restrictive composition eliciting higher responses than non-restrictive composition. However, this effect was only observed when the restricting element was a determiner, adjectival stimuli showing the opposite pattern, which we hypothesise to be driven by the special pragmatic properties of non-restrictive adjectives. Overall, our results demonstrate a robust sensitivity of the LATL to high level contextual and potentially also pragmatic factors. PMID:25379512

  13. The isolation of strand-specific nicking endonucleases from a randomized SapI expression library

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, James C.; Zhu, Zhenyu; Xu, Shuang-yong

    2004-01-01

    The Type IIS restriction endonuclease SapI recognizes the DNA sequence 5′-GCTCTTC-3′ (top strand by convention) and cleaves downstream (N1/N4) indicating top- and bottom-strand spacing, respectively. The asymmetric nature of DNA recognition presented the possibility that one, if not two, nicking variants might be created from SapI. To explore this possibility, two parallel selection procedures were designed to isolate either top-strand nicking or bottom-strand nicking variants from a randomly mutated SapI expression library. These procedures take advantage of a SapI substrate site designed into the expression plasmid, which allows for in vitro selection of plasmid clones possessing a site-specific and strand-specific nick. A procedure designed to isolate bottom-strand nicking enzymes yielded Nb.SapI-1 containing a critical R420I substitution near the end of the protein. The top-strand procedure yielded several SapI variants with a distinct preference for top-strand cleavage. Mutations present within the selected clones were segregated to confirm a top-strand nicking phenotype for single variants Q240R, E250K, G271R or K273R. The nature of the amino acid substitutions found in the selected variants provides evidence that SapI may possess two active sites per monomer. This work presents a framework for establishing the mechanism of SapI DNA cleavage. PMID:15247348

  14. Structural Plasticity of PAM Recognition by Engineered Variants of the RNA-Guided Endonuclease Cas9.

    PubMed

    Anders, Carolin; Bargsten, Katja; Jinek, Martin

    2016-03-17

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) forms the core of a powerful genome editing technology. DNA cleavage by SpCas9 is dependent on the presence of a 5'-NGG-3' protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the target DNA, restricting the choice of targetable sequences. To address this limitation, artificial SpCas9 variants with altered PAM specificities have recently been developed. Here we report crystal structures of the VQR, EQR, and VRER SpCas9 variants bound to target DNAs containing their preferred PAM sequences. The structures reveal that the non-canonical PAMs are recognized by an induced fit mechanism. Besides mediating sequence-specific base recognition, the amino acid substitutions introduced in the SpCas9 variants facilitate conformational remodeling of the PAM region of the bound DNA. Guided by the structural data, we engineered a SpCas9 variant that specifically recognizes NAAG PAMs. Taken together, these studies inform further development of Cas9-based genome editing tools. PMID:26990992

  15. Hold your horSSEs: controlling structure-selective endonucleases MUS81 and Yen1/GEN1

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Miguel G.; Matos, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Repair of DNA lesions through homologous recombination promotes the establishment of stable chromosomal interactions. Multiple helicases, topoisomerases and structure-selective endonucleases (SSEs) act upon recombining joint molecules (JMs) to disengage chromosomal connections and safeguard chromosome segregation. Recent studies on two conserved SSEs – MUS81 and Yen1/GEN1– uncovered multiple layers of regulation that operate to carefully tailor JM-processing according to specific cellular needs. Temporal restriction of SSE function imposes a hierarchy in pathway usage that ensures efficient JM-processing while minimizing reciprocal exchanges between the recombining DNAs. Whereas a conserved strategy of fine-tuning SSE functions exists in different model systems, the precise molecular mechanisms to implement it appear to be significantly different. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the cellular switches that are in place to control MUS81 and Yen1/GEN1 functions. PMID:26284109

  16. Modeling of flap endonuclease interactions with DNA substrate.

    PubMed

    Allawi, Hatim T; Kaiser, Michael W; Onufriev, Alexey V; Ma, Wu-Po; Brogaard, Andrew E; Case, David A; Neri, Bruce P; Lyamichev, Victor I

    2003-05-01

    Structure-specific 5' nucleases play an important role in DNA replication and repair uniquely recognizing an overlap flap DNA substrate and processing it into a DNA nick. However, in the absence of a high-resolution structure of the enzyme/DNA complex, the mechanism underlying this recognition and substrate specificity, which is key to the enzyme's function, remains unclear. Here, we propose a three-dimensional model of the structure-specific 5' flap endonuclease from Pyrococcus furiosus in its complex with DNA. The model is based on the known X-ray structure of the enzyme and a variety of biochemical and molecular dynamics (MD) data utilized in the form of distance restraints between the enzyme and the DNA. Contacts between the 5' flap endonuclease and the sugar-phosphate backbone of the overlap flap substrate were identified using enzyme activity assays on substrates with methylphosphonate or 2'-O-methyl substitutions. The enzyme footprint extends two to four base-pairs upstream and eight to nine base-pairs downstream of the cleavage site, thus covering 10-13 base-pairs of duplex DNA. The footprint data are consistent with a model in which the substrate is bound in the DNA-binding groove such that the downstream duplex interacts with the helix-hairpin-helix motif of the enzyme. MD simulations to identify the substrate orientation in this model are consistent with the results of the enzyme activity assays on the methylphosphonate and 2'-O-methyl-modified substrates. To further refine the model, 5' flap endonuclease variants with alanine point substitutions at amino acid residues expected to contact phosphates in the substrate and one deletion mutant were tested in enzyme activity assays on the methylphosphonate-modified substrates. Changes in the enzyme footprint observed for two point mutants, R64A and R94A, and for the deletion mutant in the enzyme's beta(A)/beta(B) region, were interpreted as being the result of specific interactions in the enzyme/DNA complex

  17. Consequences of a restrictive syringe exchange policy on utilization patterns of a syringe exchange program in Baltimore, Maryland: Implications for HIV risk

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Susan G.; Patel, Shivani A.; Ramachandran, Daesha V.; Galai, Noya; Chaulk, Patrick; Serio-Chapman, Chris; Gindi, Renee M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Syringe distribution policies continue to be debated in many jurisdictions throughout the U.S. The Baltimore Needle and Syringe Exchange Program (NSP) operated under a 1-for-1 syringe exchange policy from its inception in 1994 through 1999, when it implemented a restrictive policy (2000–2004) that dictated less than 1-for-1 exchange for non-program syringes. Methods Data were derived from the Baltimore NSP, which prospectively collected data on all client visits. We examined the impact of this restrictive policy on program-level output measures (i.e., distributed:returned syringe ratio, client volume) before, during, and after the restrictive exchange policy. Through multiple logistic regression, we examined correlates of less than 1-for-1 exchange ratios at the client-level before and during the restrictive exchange policy periods. Results During the restrictive policy period, the average annual program-level ratio of total syringes distributed:returned dropped from 0.99 to 0.88, with a low point of 0.85 in 2000. There were substantial decreases in the average number of syringes distributed, syringes returned, the total number of clients, and new clients enrolling during the restrictive compared to the preceding period. During the restrictive period, 33,508 more syringes were returned to the needle exchange than were distributed. In the presence of other variables, correlates of less than 1-for-1 exchange ratio were being white, female, and less than 30 years old. Discussion With fewer clean syringes in circulation, restrictive policies could increase the risk of exposure to HIV among IDUs and the broader community. The study provides evidence to the potentially harmful effects of such policies. PMID:25919590

  18. Detection of treatment-resistant infectious HIV after genome-directed antiviral endonuclease therapy.

    PubMed

    De Silva Feelixge, Harshana S; Stone, Daniel; Pietz, Harlan L; Roychoudhury, Pavitra; Greninger, Alex L; Schiffer, Joshua T; Aubert, Martine; Jerome, Keith R

    2016-02-01

    Incurable chronic viral infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. One potential approach to cure persistent viral infections is via the use of targeted endonucleases. Nevertheless, a potential concern for endonuclease-based antiviral therapies is the emergence of treatment resistance. Here we detect for the first time an endonuclease-resistant infectious virus that is found with high frequency after antiviral endonuclease therapy. While testing the activity of HIV pol-specific zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) alone or in combination with three prime repair exonuclease 2 (Trex2), we identified a treatment-resistant and infectious mutant virus that was derived from a ZFN-mediated disruption of reverse transcriptase (RT). Although gene disruption of HIV protease, RT and integrase could inhibit viral replication, a chance single amino acid insertion within the thumb domain of RT produced a virus that could actively replicate. The endonuclease-resistant virus could replicate in primary CD4(+) T cells, but remained susceptible to treatment with antiretroviral RT inhibitors. When secondary ZFN-derived mutations were introduced into the mutant virus's RT or integrase domains, replication could be abolished. Our observations suggest that caution should be exercised during endonuclease-based antiviral therapies; however, combination endonuclease therapies may prevent the emergence of resistance. PMID:26718067

  19. Rapid screening of endonuclease target site preference using a modified bacterial two-plasmid selection.

    PubMed

    Wolfs, Jason M; Kleinstiver, Benjamin P; Edgell, David R

    2014-01-01

    Homing endonucleases and other site-specific endonucleases have potential applications in genome editing, yet efficient targeting requires a thorough understanding of DNA-sequence specificity. Here, we describe a modified two-plasmid genetic selection in Escherichia coli that allows rapid profiling of nucleotide substitutions within a target site of given endonucleases. The selection utilizes a toxic plasmid (pTox) that encodes a DNA gyrase toxin in addition to the endonuclease target site. Cleavage of the toxic plasmid by an endonuclease expressed from a second plasmid (pEndo) facilitates growth under selective conditions. The modified protocol utilizes competent cells harboring the endonuclease expression plasmid into which target site plasmids are transformed. Replica plating on nonselective and selective media plates identifies cleavable and non-cleavable targets. Thus, a library of randomized target sites, or many individual target sites, can be analyzed using a single transformation. Both cleavable and non-cleavable targets can be analyzed by DNA sequencing to gain information about nucleotide preference in the endonuclease's target site. PMID:24510263

  20. A ligation-independent cloning method using nicking DNA endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhang, Xin A; Luo, Qingming

    2010-11-01

    Using nicking DNA endonuclease (NiDE), we developed a novel technique to clone DNA fragments into plasmids. We created a NiDE cassette consisting of two inverted NiDE substrate sites sandwiching an asymmetric four-base sequence, and NiDE cleavage resulted in 14-base single-stranded termini at both ends of the vector and insert. This method can therefore be used as a ligation-independent cloning strategy to generate recombinant constructs rapidly. In addition, we designed and constructed a simple and specific vector from an Escherichia coli plasmid back-bone to complement this cloning method. By cloning cDNAs into this modified vector, we confirmed the predicted feasibility and applicability of this cloning method. PMID:21091446

  1. Mitochondrial endonuclease G mediates breakdown of paternal mitochondria upon fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qinghua; Li, Haimin; Li, Hanzeng; Nakagawa, Akihisa; Lin, Jason L J; Lee, Eui-Seung; Harry, Brian L; Skeen-Gaar, Riley Robert; Suehiro, Yuji; William, Donna; Mitani, Shohei; Yuan, Hanna S; Kang, Byung-Ho; Xue, Ding

    2016-07-22

    Mitochondria are inherited maternally in most animals, but the mechanisms of selective paternal mitochondrial elimination (PME) are unknown. While examining fertilization in Caenorhabditis elegans, we observed that paternal mitochondria rapidly lose their inner membrane integrity. CPS-6, a mitochondrial endonuclease G, serves as a paternal mitochondrial factor that is critical for PME. We found that CPS-6 relocates from the intermembrane space of paternal mitochondria to the matrix after fertilization to degrade mitochondrial DNA. It acts with maternal autophagy and proteasome machineries to promote PME. Loss of cps-6 delays breakdown of mitochondrial inner membranes, autophagosome enclosure of paternal mitochondria, and PME. Delayed removal of paternal mitochondria causes increased embryonic lethality, demonstrating that PME is important for normal animal development. Thus, CPS-6 functions as a paternal mitochondrial degradation factor during animal development. PMID:27338704

  2. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis protect against DNA damage but are dispensable for the growth of the pathogen in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Puri, Rupangi Verma; Reddy, P Vineel; Tyagi, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    In host cells, Mycobacterium tuberculosis encounters an array of reactive molecules capable of damaging its genome. Non-bulky DNA lesions are the most common damages produced on the exposure of the pathogen to reactive species and base excision repair (BER) pathway is involved in the repair of such damage. During BER, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease enzymes repair the abasic sites that are generated after spontaneous DNA base loss or by the action of DNA glycosylases, which if left unrepaired lead to inhibition of replication and transcription. However, the role of AP endonucleases in imparting protection against DNA damage and in the growth and pathogenesis of M.tuberculosis has not yet been elucidated. To demonstrate the biological significance of these enzymes in M.tuberculosis, it would be desirable to disrupt the relevant genes and evaluate the resulting mutants for their ability to grow in the host and cause disease. In this study, we have generated M.tuberculosis mutants of the base excision repair (BER) system, disrupted in either one (MtbΔend or MtbΔxthA) or both the AP endonucleases (MtbΔendΔxthA). We demonstrate that these genes are crucial for bacteria to withstand alkylation and oxidative stress in vitro. In addition, the mutant disrupted in both the AP endonucleases (MtbΔendΔxthA) exhibited a significant reduction in its ability to survive inside human macrophages. However, infection of guinea pigs with either MtbΔend or MtbΔxthA or MtbΔendΔxthA resulted in the similar bacillary load and pathological damage in the organs as observed in the case of infection with wild-type M.tuberculosis. The implications of these observations are discussed. PMID:24800740

  3. 5' End-independent RNase J1 endonuclease cleavage of Bacillus subtilis model RNA.

    PubMed

    Deikus, Gintaras; Bechhofer, David H

    2011-10-01

    Bacillus subtilis trp leader RNA is a small (140-nucleotide) RNA that results from attenuation of trp operon transcription upon binding of the regulatory TRAP complex. Previously, endonucleolytic cleavage by ribonuclease RNase J1 in a 3'-proximal, single-stranded region was shown to be critical for initiation of trp leader RNA decay. RNase J1 is a dual-specificity enzyme, with both 5' exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic activities. Here, we provide in vivo and in vitro evidence that RNase J1 accesses its internal target site on trp leader RNA in a 5' end-independent manner. This has important implications for the role of RNase J1 in RNA decay. We also tested the involvement in trp leader RNA decay of the more recently discovered endonuclease RNase Y. Half-lives of several trp leader RNA constructs, which were designed to probe pathways of endonucleolytic versus exonucleolytic decay, were measured in an RNase Y-deficient mutant. Remarkably, the half-lives of these constructs were indistinguishable from their half-lives in an RNase J1-deficient mutant. These results suggest that lowering RNase Y concentration may affect RNA decay indirectly via an effect on RNase J1, which is thought to exist with RNase Y in a degradosome complex. To generalize our findings with trp leader RNA to other RNAs, we show that the mechanism of trp leader RNA decay is not dependent on TRAP binding. PMID:21862575

  4. Isolation and characterization of two sequence-specific endonucleases from Anabaena variabilis.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, K; Hughes, S G; Brown, J S; Bruce, S A

    1976-01-01

    Two endonucleases, AvaI and AvaII, were isolated from Anabaena variabilis on the basis of their ability to make a limited number of breaks at specific points in bacteriophage lambda DNA. Neither enzyme has cofactor requirements beyond Mg2+. Endonuclease AvaI makes eight breaks in the phage lambda chromosome at which the 5'-terminal sequence is pPy-C-G-N. AvaII endonuclease cuts phage lambda DNA more extensively, yielding fragments with the 5'-terminal sequence G-T-C-N or G-A-C-N. Neither enzyme generates cohesive ends. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PLATE 4 PMID:11780

  5. Educating Students in Least Restrictive Environments: Instructional Preparation for Teachers. Series IV: Communication Skills. Series V: Legal, Philosophical and Social Issues: Implications for Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scofield, Faith, Ed.

    The instructional units are designed for use by preservice regular education teachers to cover educating handicapped students in the least restrictive envirionment. The first series of units deal with teacher's communication skills. Objectives and enabling activities are listed as well for awareness and attitudinal factors. The bulk of the…

  6. Follistatin-like 5 is expressed in restricted areas of the adult mouse brain: Implications for its function in the olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tomoyuki; Sakuma, Chie; Nagaoka, Atsuko; Yamagishi, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Shuichi; Nagase, Takahiro; Yaginuma, Hiroyuki

    2014-02-01

    Follistatin-like 5 (Fstl5), a member of the follistatin family of genes, encodes a secretory glycoprotein. Previous studies revealed that other members of this family including Fstl1 and Fstl3 play an essential role in development, homeostasis, and congenital disorders. However, the in vivo function of Fstl5 is poorly understood. To gain insight into the function of Fstl5 in the mouse central nervous system, we examined the Fstl5 expression pattern in the adult mouse brain. The results of in situ hybridization analysis showed a highly restricted pattern of Fstl5, namely, with localization in the olfactory system, hippocampal CA3 area and granular cell layer of the cerebellum. Restricted expression in the olfactory system suggests a possible role for Fstl5 in maintaining odor perception. PMID:24588779

  7. Crossreactive recognition of viral, self, and bacterial peptide ligands by human class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte clonotypes: Implications for molecular mimicry in autoimmune disease

    PubMed Central

    Misko, Ihor S.; Cross, Simone M.; Khanna, Rajiv; Elliott, Suzanne L.; Schmidt, Christopher; Pye, Stephanie J.; Silins, Sharon L.

    1999-01-01

    The immunodominant, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to the HLA-B8-restricted peptide, RAKFKQLL, located in the Epstein–Barr virus immediate-early antigen, BZLF1, is characterized by a diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Here, we show that this diversity can be partitioned on the basis of crossreactive cytotoxicity patterns involving the recognition of a self peptide—RSKFRQIV—located in a serine/threonine kinase and a bacterial peptide—RRKYKQII—located in Staphylococcus aureus replication initiation protein. Thus CTL clones that recognized the viral, self, and bacterial peptides expressed a highly restricted αβ TCR phenotype. The CTL clones that recognized viral and self peptides were more oligoclonal, whereas clones that strictly recognized the viral peptide displayed a diverse TCR profile. Interestingly, the self and bacterial peptides equally were substantially less effective than the cognate viral peptide in sensitizing target cell lysis, and also resulted only in a weak reactivation of memory CTLs in limiting dilution assays, whereas the cognate peptide was highly immunogenic. The described crossreactions show that human antiviral, CD8+ CTL responses can be shaped by peptide ligands derived from autoantigens and environmental bacterial antigens, thereby providing a firm structural basis for molecular mimicry involving class I-restricted CTLs in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. PMID:10051632

  8. Advantage of Being a Dimer for Serratia marcescens Endonuclease?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuanying; Krause, Kurt; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2009-01-01

    The monomer and dimer of the bacterium Serratia marcescens endonuclease (SMnase) are each catalytically active and the two subunits of the dimer function independently of each other. Nature however chooses the dimer form instead of the monomer. In order to explain this, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of both model built complexes of a subunit of SMnase and the dimer with DNA in aqueous solution. We estimated the electrostatic binding energy, analyzed the distribution and dynamics of water around the complexes, identified water clusters in the protein, and related dynamics of water to the protein's function. We find that the dimer form has an electrostatic advantage over the monomer to associate with DNA. Although Mg2+ remains hexa-coordinated during the simulation, the binding pathway of DNA to Mg2+ changes from inner-sphere binding in the monomer to outer-sphere in the dimer, which may be more energetically favorable. In addition, two water clusters in the active site of each monomer and in the dimer complex were identified and localized in two regions, named ‘stabilizing’ and ‘working’ region. Water in the ‘working’ region in the dimer complex has larger fluctuations than that in the monomer. PMID:19053714

  9. Effects of Dimerization of Serratia marcescens Endonuclease on Water Dynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chuanying; Beck, Brian W.; Krause, Kurt; Weksberg, Tiffany E.; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2007-02-15

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The dynamics and structure of Serratia marcescens endonuclease and its neighboring solvent are investigated by molecular dynamics (MD). Comparisons are made with structural and biochemical experiments. The dimer form is physiologic and functions more processively than the monomer. We previously found a channel formed by connected clusters of waters from the active site to the dimer interface. Here, we show that dimerization clearly changes correlations in the water structure and dynamics in the active site not seen in the monomer. Our results indicate that water at the active sites of the dimer is less affected compared with bulk solvent than in the monomer where it has much slower characteristic relaxation times. Given that water is a required participant in the reaction, this gives a clear advantage to dimerization in the absence of an apparent ability to use both active sites simultaneously.

  10. DNA repair by the cryptic endonuclease activity of Mu transposase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonyoung; Harshey, Rasika M

    2010-06-01

    Phage Mu transposes by two distinct pathways depending on the specific stage of its life cycle. A common strand transfer intermediate is resolved differentially in the two pathways. During lytic growth, the intermediate is resolved by replication of Mu initiated within the flanking target DNA; during integration of infecting Mu, it is resolved without replication, by removal and repair of DNA from a previous host that is still attached to the ends of the incoming Mu genome. We have discovered that the cryptic endonuclease activity reported for the isolated C-terminal domain of the transposase MuA [Wu Z, Chaconas G (1995) A novel DNA binding and nuclease activity in domain III of Mu transposase: Evidence for a catalytic region involved in donor cleavage. EMBO J 14:3835-3843], which is not observed in the full-length protein or in the assembled transpososome in vitro, is required in vivo for removal of the attached host DNA or "5'flap" after the infecting Mu genome has integrated into the E. coli chromosome. Efficient flap removal also requires the host protein ClpX, which is known to interact with the C-terminus of MuA to remodel the transpososome for replication. We hypothesize that ClpX constitutes part of a highly regulated mechanism that unmasks the cryptic nuclease activity of MuA specifically in the repair pathway. PMID:20167799

  11. Conformational Dynamics of DNA Repair by Escherichia coli Endonuclease III*

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Nikita A.; Kladova, Olga A.; Kuznetsova, Alexandra A.; Ishchenko, Alexander A.; Saparbaev, Murat K.; Zharkov, Dmitry O.; Fedorova, Olga S.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli endonuclease III (Endo III or Nth) is a DNA glycosylase with a broad substrate specificity for oxidized or reduced pyrimidine bases. Endo III possesses two types of activities: N-glycosylase (hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond) and AP lyase (elimination of the 3′-phosphate of the AP-site). We report a pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of structural rearrangements of the DNA substrates and uncleavable ligands during their interaction with Endo III. Oligonucleotide duplexes containing 5,6-dihydrouracil, a natural abasic site, its tetrahydrofuran analog, and undamaged duplexes carried fluorescent DNA base analogs 2-aminopurine and 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine as environment-sensitive reporter groups. The results suggest that Endo III induces several fast sequential conformational changes in DNA during binding, lesion recognition, and adjustment to a catalytically competent conformation. A comparison of two fluorophores allowed us to distinguish between the events occurring in the damaged and undamaged DNA strand. Combining our data with the available structures of Endo III, we conclude that this glycosylase uses a multistep mechanism of damage recognition, which likely involves Gln41 and Leu81 as DNA lesion sensors. PMID:25869130

  12. Flap Endonuclease 1 Limits Telomere Fragility on the Leading Strand*

    PubMed Central

    Teasley, Daniel C.; Parajuli, Shankar; Nguyen, Mai; Moore, Hayley R.; Alspach, Elise; Lock, Ying Jie; Honaker, Yuchi; Saharia, Abhishek; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Stewart, Sheila A.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of redundant replication and repair systems that ensure genome stability underscores the importance of faithful DNA replication. Nowhere is this complexity more evident than in challenging DNA templates, including highly repetitive or transcribed sequences. Here, we demonstrate that flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), a canonical lagging strand DNA replication protein, is required for normal, complete leading strand replication at telomeres. We find that the loss of FEN1 nuclease activity, but not DNA repair activities, results in leading strand-specific telomere fragility. Furthermore, we show that FEN1 depletion-induced telomere fragility is increased by RNA polymerase II inhibition and is rescued by ectopic RNase H1 expression. These data suggest that FEN1 limits leading strand-specific telomere fragility by processing RNA:DNA hybrid/flap intermediates that arise from co-directional collisions occurring between the replisome and RNA polymerase. Our data reveal the first molecular mechanism for leading strand-specific telomere fragility and the first known role for FEN1 in leading strand DNA replication. Because FEN1 mutations have been identified in human cancers, our findings raise the possibility that unresolved RNA:DNA hybrid structures contribute to the genomic instability associated with cancer. PMID:25922071

  13. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the genes coding for the Sau96I restriction and modification enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Szilák, L; Venetianer, P; Kiss, A

    1990-01-01

    The genes coding for the GGNCC specific Sau96I restriction and modification enzymes were cloned and expressed in E. coli. The DNA sequence predicts a 430 amino acid protein (Mr: 49,252) for the methyltransferase and a 261 amino acid protein (Mr: 30,486) for the endonuclease. No protein sequence similarity was detected between the Sau96I methyltransferase and endonuclease. The methyltransferase contains the sequence elements characteristic for m5C-methyltransferases. In addition to this, M.Sau96I shows similarity, also in the variable region, with one m5C-methyltransferase (M.SinI) which has closely related recognition specificity (GGA/TCC). M.Sau96I methylates the internal cytosine within the GGNCC recognition sequence. The Sau96I endonuclease appears to act as a monomer. Images PMID:2204026

  14. Structure of the endonuclease IV homologue from Thermotoga maritima in the presence of active-site divalent metal ions

    SciTech Connect

    Tomanicek, Stephen J.; Hughes, Ronny C.; Ng, Joseph D.; Coates, Leighton

    2010-10-05

    The most frequent lesion in DNA is at apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites resulting from DNA-base losses. These AP-site lesions can stall DNA replication and lead to genome instability if left unrepaired. The AP endonucleases are an important class of enzymes that are involved in the repair of AP-site intermediates during damage-general DNA base-excision repair pathways. These enzymes hydrolytically cleave the 5{prime}-phosphodiester bond at an AP site to generate a free 3{prime}-hydroxyl group and a 5{prime}-terminal sugar phosphate using their AP nuclease activity. Specifically, Thermotoga maritima endonuclease IV is a member of the second conserved AP endonuclease family that includes Escherichia coli endonuclease IV, which is the archetype of the AP endonuclease superfamily. In order to more fully characterize the AP endonuclease family of enzymes, two X-ray crystal structures of the T. maritima endonuclease IV homologue were determined in the presence of divalent metal ions bound in the active-site region. These structures of the T. maritima endonuclease IV homologue further revealed the use of the TIM-barrel fold and the trinuclear metal binding site as important highly conserved structural elements that are involved in DNA-binding and AP-site repair processes in the AP endonuclease superfamily.

  15. Structure of Type IIL Restriction-Modification Enzyme MmeI in Complex with DNA Has Implications for Engineering New Specificities

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Scott J.; Luyten, Yvette A.; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Roberts, Richard J.; Morgan, Richard D.; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2016-01-01

    The creation of restriction enzymes with programmable DNA-binding and -cleavage specificities has long been a goal of modern biology. The recently discovered Type IIL MmeI family of restriction-and-modification (RM) enzymes that possess a shared target recognition domain provides a framework for engineering such new specificities. However, a lack of structural information on Type IIL enzymes has limited the repertoire that can be rationally engineered. We report here a crystal structure of MmeI in complex with its DNA substrate and an S-adenosylmethionine analog (Sinefungin). The structure uncovers for the first time the interactions that underlie MmeI-DNA recognition and methylation (5’-TCCRAC-3’; R = purine) and provides a molecular basis for changing specificity at four of the six base pairs of the recognition sequence (5’-TCCRAC-3’). Surprisingly, the enzyme is resilient to specificity changes at the first position of the recognition sequence (5’-TCCRAC-3’). Collectively, the structure provides a basis for engineering further derivatives of MmeI and delineates which base pairs of the recognition sequence are more amenable to alterations than others. PMID:27082731

  16. Methionine restriction and lifespan control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Cheon; Kaya, Alaattin; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition is associated with longevity in various organisms. However, it has also been shown that reduced calorie intake is often ineffective in extending lifespan. Selecting optimal dietary regimens for DR studies is complicated, as the same regimen may lead to different outcomes depending on genotype and environmental factors. Recent studies suggested that interventions such as moderate protein restriction with/without adequate nutrition (e.g. particular amino acids or carbohydrates) may have additional beneficial effects mediated by certain metabolic and hormonal factors implicated in the biology of aging, regardless of total calorie intake. In particular, it was shown that restriction of a single amino acid, methionine, can mimic the effects of DR and extend lifespan in various model organisms. We discuss beneficial effects of methionine-restricted (MR) diet, the molecular pathways involved, and the use of this regimen in longevity interventions. PMID:26663138

  17. Cell-autonomous progeroid changes in conditional mouse models for repair endonuclease XPG deficiency

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Barnhoorn, Sander; Uittenboogaard, Lieneke M.; Jaarsma, Dick; Vermeij, Wilbert P.; Tresini, Maria; Weymaere, Michael; Menoni, Hervé; Brandt, Renata M. C.; de Waard, Monique C.; Botter, Sander M.; et al

    2014-10-09

    As part of the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) process, the endonuclease XPG is involved in repair of helix-distorting DNA lesions, but the protein has also been implicated in several other DNA repair systems, complicating genotype-phenotype relationship in XPG patients. Defects in XPG can cause either the cancer-prone condition xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) alone, or XP combined with the severe neurodevelopmental disorder Cockayne Syndrome (CS), or the infantile lethal cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS) syndrome, characterized by dramatic growth failure, progressive neurodevelopmental abnormalities and greatly reduced life expectancy. Here, we present a novel (conditional) Xpg-/- mouse model which—in a C57BL6/FVB F1 hybrid genetic background—displays manymore » progeroid features, including cessation of growth, loss of subcutaneous fat, kyphosis, osteoporosis, retinal photoreceptor loss, liver aging, extensive neurodegeneration, and a short lifespan of 4–5 months. We show that deletion of XPG specifically in the liver reproduces the progeroid features in the liver, yet abolishes the effect on growth or lifespan. In addition, specific XPG deletion in neurons and glia of the forebrain creates a progressive neurodegenerative phenotype that shows many characteristics of human XPG deficiency. Our findings therefore exclude that both the liver as well as the neurological phenotype are a secondary consequence of derailment in other cell types, organs or tissues (e.g. vascular abnormalities) and support a cell-autonomous origin caused by the DNA repair defect itself. In addition they allow the dissection of the complex aging process in tissue- and cell-type-specific components. Moreover, our data highlight the critical importance of genetic background in mouse aging studies, establish the Xpg-/- mouse as a valid model for the severe form of human XPG patients and segmental accelerated aging, and strengthen the link between DNA damage and aging.« less

  18. Endonuclease G is a novel determinant of cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    McDermott-Roe, Chris; Ye, Junmei; Ahmed, Rizwan; Sun, Xi-Ming; Serafín, Anna; Ware, James; Bottolo, Leonardo; Muckett, Phil; Cañas, Xavier; Zhang, Jisheng; Rowe, Glenn C.; Buchan, Rachel; Lu, Han; Braithwaite, Adam; Mancini, Massimiliano; Hauton, David; Martí, Ramon; García-Arumí, Elena; Hubner, Norbert; Jacob, Howard; Serikawa, Tadao; Zidek, Vaclav; Papousek, Frantisek; Kolar, Frantisek; Cardona, Maria; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; García-Dorado, David; Comella, Joan X; Felkin, Leanne E; Barton, Paul JR; Arany, Zoltan; Pravenec, Michal; Petretto, Enrico; Sanchis, Daniel; Cook, Stuart A.

    2011-01-01

    Left ventricular mass (LVM) is a highly heritable trait1 and an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality2. To date, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have not identified the genetic factors underlying LVM variation3 and the regulatory mechanisms for blood pressure (BP)-independent cardiac hypertrophy remain poorly understood4,5. Unbiased systems-genetics approaches in the rat6,7 now provide a powerful complementary tool to GWAS and we applied integrative genomics to dissect a highly replicated, BP-independent LVM locus on rat chromosome 3p. We identified endonuclease G (Endog), previously implicated in apoptosis8 but not hypertrophy, as the gene at the locus and demonstrated loss-of-function mutation in Endog associated with increased LVM and impaired cardiac function. Inhibition of Endog in cultured cardiomyocytes resulted in an increase in cell size and hypertrophic biomarkers in the absence of pro-hypertrophic stimulation. Genome-wide network analysis unexpectedly inferred ENDOG in fundamental mitochondrial processes unrelated to apoptosis. We showed direct regulation of ENDOG by ERRα and PGC1α, master regulators of mitochondrial and cardiac function9,10,11, interaction of ENDOG with the mitochondrial genome and ENDOG-mediated regulation of mitochondrial mass. At baseline, Endog deleted mouse heart had depleted mitochondria, mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was associated with enlarged and steatotic cardiomyocytes. Our studies establish further the link between mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS and heart disease and demonstrate a new role for Endog in maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:21979051

  19. Atomic structure of the DNA repair [4Fe-4S] enzyme endonuclease III.

    PubMed

    Kuo, C F; McRee, D E; Fisher, C L; O'Handley, S F; Cunningham, R P; Tainer, J A

    1992-10-16

    The crystal structure of the DNA repair enzyme endonuclease III, which recognizes and cleaves DNA at damaged bases, has been solved to 2.0 angstrom resolution with an R factor of 0.185. This iron-sulfur [4Fe-4S] enzyme is elongated and bilobal with a deep cleft separating two similarly sized domains: a novel, sequence-continuous, six-helix domain (residues 22 to 132) and a Greek-key, four-helix domain formed by the amino-terminal and three carboxyl-terminal helices (residues 1 to 21 and 133 to 211) together with the [4Fe-4S] cluster. The cluster is bound entirely within the carboxyl-terminal loop with a ligation pattern (Cys-X6-Cys-X2-Cys-X5-Cys) distinct from all other known [4Fe-4S] proteins. Sequence conservation and the positive electrostatic potential of conserved regions identify a surface suitable for binding duplex B-DNA across the long axis of the enzyme, matching a 46 angstrom length of protected DNA. The primary role of the [4Fe-4S] cluster appears to involve positioning conserved basic residues for interaction with the DNA phosphate backbone. The crystallographically identified inhibitor binding region, which recognizes the damaged base thymine glycol, is a seven-residue beta-hairpin (residues 113 to 119). Location and side chain orientation at the base of the inhibitor binding site implicate Glu112 in the N-glycosylase mechanism and Lys120 in the beta-elimination mechanism. Overall, the structure reveals an unusual fold and a new biological function for [4Fe-4S] clusters and provides a structural basis for studying recognition of damaged DNA and the N-glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic-lyase mechanisms. PMID:1411536

  20. Cell-Autonomous Progeroid Changes in Conditional Mouse Models for Repair Endonuclease XPG Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vermeij, Wilbert P.; Tresini, Maria; Weymaere, Michael; Menoni, Hervé; Brandt, Renata M. C.; de Waard, Monique C.; Botter, Sander M.; Sarker, Altaf H.; Jaspers, Nicolaas G. J.; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; van der Pluijm, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) process, the endonuclease XPG is involved in repair of helix-distorting DNA lesions, but the protein has also been implicated in several other DNA repair systems, complicating genotype-phenotype relationship in XPG patients. Defects in XPG can cause either the cancer-prone condition xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) alone, or XP combined with the severe neurodevelopmental disorder Cockayne Syndrome (CS), or the infantile lethal cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS) syndrome, characterized by dramatic growth failure, progressive neurodevelopmental abnormalities and greatly reduced life expectancy. Here, we present a novel (conditional) Xpg−/− mouse model which -in a C57BL6/FVB F1 hybrid genetic background- displays many progeroid features, including cessation of growth, loss of subcutaneous fat, kyphosis, osteoporosis, retinal photoreceptor loss, liver aging, extensive neurodegeneration, and a short lifespan of 4–5 months. We show that deletion of XPG specifically in the liver reproduces the progeroid features in the liver, yet abolishes the effect on growth or lifespan. In addition, specific XPG deletion in neurons and glia of the forebrain creates a progressive neurodegenerative phenotype that shows many characteristics of human XPG deficiency. Our findings therefore exclude that both the liver as well as the neurological phenotype are a secondary consequence of derailment in other cell types, organs or tissues (e.g. vascular abnormalities) and support a cell-autonomous origin caused by the DNA repair defect itself. In addition they allow the dissection of the complex aging process in tissue- and cell-type-specific components. Moreover, our data highlight the critical importance of genetic background in mouse aging studies, establish the Xpg−/− mouse as a valid model for the severe form of human XPG patients and segmental accelerated aging, and strengthen the link between DNA damage and aging. PMID:25299392

  1. Cell-autonomous progeroid changes in conditional mouse models for repair endonuclease XPG deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhoorn, Sander; Uittenboogaard, Lieneke M.; Jaarsma, Dick; Vermeij, Wilbert P.; Tresini, Maria; Weymaere, Michael; Menoni, Hervé; Brandt, Renata M. C.; de Waard, Monique C.; Botter, Sander M.; Sarker, Altaf H.; Jaspers, Nicolaas G. J.; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Niedernhofer, Laura J.

    2014-10-09

    As part of the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) process, the endonuclease XPG is involved in repair of helix-distorting DNA lesions, but the protein has also been implicated in several other DNA repair systems, complicating genotype-phenotype relationship in XPG patients. Defects in XPG can cause either the cancer-prone condition xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) alone, or XP combined with the severe neurodevelopmental disorder Cockayne Syndrome (CS), or the infantile lethal cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS) syndrome, characterized by dramatic growth failure, progressive neurodevelopmental abnormalities and greatly reduced life expectancy. Here, we present a novel (conditional) Xpg-/- mouse model which—in a C57BL6/FVB F1 hybrid genetic background—displays many progeroid features, including cessation of growth, loss of subcutaneous fat, kyphosis, osteoporosis, retinal photoreceptor loss, liver aging, extensive neurodegeneration, and a short lifespan of 4–5 months. We show that deletion of XPG specifically in the liver reproduces the progeroid features in the liver, yet abolishes the effect on growth or lifespan. In addition, specific XPG deletion in neurons and glia of the forebrain creates a progressive neurodegenerative phenotype that shows many characteristics of human XPG deficiency. Our findings therefore exclude that both the liver as well as the neurological phenotype are a secondary consequence of derailment in other cell types, organs or tissues (e.g. vascular abnormalities) and support a cell-autonomous origin caused by the DNA repair defect itself. In addition they allow the dissection of the complex aging process in tissue- and cell-type-specific components. Moreover, our data highlight the critical importance of genetic background in mouse aging studies, establish the Xpg-/- mouse as a valid model for the severe form of human XPG patients and segmental accelerated aging, and strengthen the link between DNA damage and aging.

  2. Gamma radiation increases endonuclease-dependent L1 retrotransposition in a cultured cell assay.

    PubMed

    Farkash, Evan A; Kao, Gary D; Horman, Shane R; Prak, Eline T Luning

    2006-01-01

    Long Interspersed Elements (LINE-1s, L1s) are the most active mobile elements in the human genome and account for a significant fraction of its mass. The propagation of L1 in the human genome requires disruption and repair of DNA at the site of integration. As Barbara McClintock first hypothesized, genotoxic stress may contribute to the mobilization of transposable elements, and conversely, element mobility may contribute to genotoxic stress. We tested the ability of genotoxic agents to increase L1 retrotransposition in a cultured cell assay. We observed that cells exposed to gamma radiation exhibited increased levels of L1 retrotransposition. The L1 retrotransposition frequency was proportional to the number of phosphorylated H2AX foci, an indicator of genotoxic stress. To explore the role of the L1 endonuclease in this context, endonuclease-deficient tagged L1 constructs were produced and tested for their activity in irradiated cells. The activity of the endonuclease-deficient L1 was very low in irradiated cells, suggesting that most L1 insertions in irradiated cells still use the L1 endonuclease. Consistent with this interpretation, DNA sequences that flank L1 insertions in irradiated cells harbored target site duplications. These results suggest that increased L1 retrotransposition in irradiated cells is endonuclease dependent. The mobilization of L1 in irradiated cells potentially contributes to genomic instability and could be a driving force for secondary mutations in patients undergoing radiation therapy. PMID:16507671

  3. Identification and characterization of influenza variants resistant to a viral endonuclease inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min-Suk; Kumar, Gyanendra; Shadrick, William R.; Zhou, Wei; Jeevan, Trushar; Li, Zhenmei; Slavish, P. Jake; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Webb, Thomas R.; Webby, Richard J.; White, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    The influenza endonuclease is an essential subdomain of the viral RNA polymerase. It processes host pre-mRNAs to serve as primers for viral mRNA and is an attractive target for antiinfluenza drug discovery. Compound L-742,001 is a prototypical endonuclease inhibitor, and we found that repeated passaging of influenza virus in the presence of this drug did not lead to the development of resistant mutant strains. Reduced sensitivity to L-742,001 could only be induced by creating point mutations via a random mutagenesis strategy. These mutations mapped to the endonuclease active site where they can directly impact inhibitor binding. Engineered viruses containing the mutations showed resistance to L-742,001 both in vitro and in vivo, with only a modest reduction in fitness. Introduction of the mutations into a second virus also increased its resistance to the inhibitor. Using the isolated wild-type and mutant endonuclease domains, we used kinetics, inhibitor binding and crystallography to characterize how the two most significant mutations elicit resistance to L-742,001. These studies lay the foundation for the development of a new class of influenza therapeutics with reduced potential for the development of clinical endonuclease inhibitor-resistant influenza strains. PMID:26976575

  4. Identification and characterization of influenza variants resistant to a viral endonuclease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Suk; Kumar, Gyanendra; Shadrick, William R; Zhou, Wei; Jeevan, Trushar; Li, Zhenmei; Slavish, P Jake; Fabrizio, Thomas P; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Webb, Thomas R; Webby, Richard J; White, Stephen W

    2016-03-29

    The influenza endonuclease is an essential subdomain of the viral RNA polymerase. It processes host pre-mRNAs to serve as primers for viral mRNA and is an attractive target for antiinfluenza drug discovery. Compound L-742,001 is a prototypical endonuclease inhibitor, and we found that repeated passaging of influenza virus in the presence of this drug did not lead to the development of resistant mutant strains. Reduced sensitivity to L-742,001 could only be induced by creating point mutations via a random mutagenesis strategy. These mutations mapped to the endonuclease active site where they can directly impact inhibitor binding. Engineered viruses containing the mutations showed resistance to L-742,001 both in vitro and in vivo, with only a modest reduction in fitness. Introduction of the mutations into a second virus also increased its resistance to the inhibitor. Using the isolated wild-type and mutant endonuclease domains, we used kinetics, inhibitor binding and crystallography to characterize how the two most significant mutations elicit resistance to L-742,001. These studies lay the foundation for the development of a new class of influenza therapeutics with reduced potential for the development of clinical endonuclease inhibitor-resistant influenza strains. PMID:26976575

  5. The legislative tenets of client's right to treatment in the least restrictive environment and freedom from harm: implications for community providers.

    PubMed

    Marty, D A; Chapin, R

    2000-12-01

    For over four decades, national legislation has supported efforts to move persons with severe and persistent mental illness out of restrictive hospital settings and into community based services. Within institutional walls, numerous duties of state have been established to help ensure humane and effective treatment. However, the legal protections afforded hospitalized residents have not appeared to follow these individuals into the community. This article analyzes relevant case law and attempts to establish similarities between the state hospital's duty to protect its residents and the responsibility of community mental health centers to do the same for the persons they serve. The authors argue that the client's right to freedom-from-harm must receive increased attention and community based service providers will have to enhance their capacity to deliver more effective risk management services if mental health reform is to become a successful social policy. PMID:11079183

  6. Insights into HLA restricted T cell responses in a novel mouse model of dengue virus infection point towards new implications for vaccine design1

    PubMed Central

    Weiskopf, Daniela; Yauch, Lauren E.; Angelo, Michael A.; John, Daisy V.; Greenbaum, Jason A.; Sidney, John; Kolla, Ravi V.; De Silva, Aruna D.; de Silva, Aravinda M.; Grey, Howard; Peters, Bjoern; Shresta, Sujan; Sette, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of dengue virus (DENV) infection has increased dramatically in the last few decades, and the lack of a vaccine has led to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. To date, a convenient murine system to study human T cell responses to DENV has not been available. Mice transgenic for human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are widely used to model human immune responses and it has been shown that mouse-passaged DENV is able to replicate to significant levels in IFN-α/βR−/− mice. To cover a wide range of HLA phenotypes, we backcrossed IFN-α/βR−/− mice with HLA A*0201, A*0101, A*1101, B*0702 and DRB1*0101 transgenic mice. A DENV proteome-wide screen identified a total of 42 epitopes across all HLA-transgenic IFN-α/βR−/− strains tested. In contrast only 8 of these elicited responses in the corresponding IFN-α/βR+/+ mice. We were able to identify T cell epitopes from 9 out of the 10 DENV proteins. However, the majority of responses were derived from the highly conserved nonstructural proteins NS3 and NS5. The relevance of this model is further demonstrated by the fact that most of the epitopes identified in our murine system are also recognized by PBMC from DENV exposed human donors, and a dominance of HLA B*0702 restricted responses has been detected in both systems. Our results provide new insights into HLA-restricted T cell responses against DENV, and we herein describe a novel murine model, which allows the investigation of T cell-mediated immune mechanisms relevant to vaccine design. PMID:21918184

  7. Evidence for Type III Restriction and Modification Systems in Mycoplasma pulmonis▿

    PubMed Central

    Dybvig, Kevin; Cao, Z.; French, C. Todd; Yu, Huilan

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma pulmonis possesses a cassette of genes that are predicted to code for type III restriction and modification (R-M) enzymes. Transposon disruption of a gene predicted to code for the endonuclease subunit of the enzyme resulted in loss of R-M activity. Genomic data indicate that the cassette was acquired by horizontal gene transfer and possibly located on a mobile element. PMID:17209015

  8. Rice PROTEIN l-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE isoforms differentially accumulate during seed maturation to restrict deleterious isoAsp and reactive oxygen species accumulation and are implicated in seed vigor and longevity.

    PubMed

    Petla, Bhanu Prakash; Kamble, Nitin Uttam; Kumar, Meenu; Verma, Pooja; Ghosh, Shraboni; Singh, Ajeet; Rao, Venkateswara; Salvi, Prafull; Kaur, Harmeet; Saxena, Saurabh Chandra; Majee, Manoj

    2016-07-01

    PROTEIN l-ISOASPARTYL O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT) is a protein-repairing enzyme involved in seed vigor and longevity. However, the regulation of PIMT isoforms during seed development and the mechanism of PIMT-mediated improvement of seed vigor and longevity are largely unknown. In this study in rice (Oryza sativa), we demonstrate the dynamics and correlation of isoaspartyl (isoAsp)-repairing demands and PIMT activity, and their implications, during seed development, germination and aging, through biochemical, molecular and genetic studies. Molecular and biochemical analyses revealed that rice possesses various biochemically active and inactive PIMT isoforms. Transcript and western blot analyses clearly showed the seed development stage and tissue-specific accumulation of active isoforms. Immunolocalization studies revealed distinct isoform expression in embryo and aleurone layers. Further analyses of transgenic lines for each OsPIMT isoform revealed a clear role in the restriction of deleterious isoAsp and age-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation to improve seed vigor and longevity. Collectively, our data suggest that a PIMT-mediated, protein repair mechanism is initiated during seed development in rice, with each isoform playing a distinct, yet coordinated, role. Our results also raise the intriguing possibility that PIMT repairs antioxidative enzymes and proteins which restrict ROS accumulation, lipid peroxidation, etc. in seed, particularly during aging, thus contributing to seed vigor and longevity. PMID:26987457

  9. Antibody to a human DNA repair protein allows for cloning of a Drosophila cDNA that encodes an apurinic endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M.R. ); Venugopal, S.; Harless, J.; Deutsch, W.A. . Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1989-03-01

    The cDNA of a Drosophila DNA repair gene, AP3, was cloned by screening an embryonic lambda gt11 expression library with an antibody that was originally prepared against a purified human apurinicapyrimidine (AP) endonuclease. The 1.2-kilobase (kb) AP3 cDNA mapped to a region on the third chromosome where a number of mutagen-sensitive alleles were located. The cDNA clone yielded an in vitro translation product of 35,000 daltons, in agreement with the predicted size of the translation product of the only open reading frame of AP3, and identical to the molecular size of an AP endonuclease activity recovered following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrymalide gel electrophoresis of Drosophilia extracts. The C-terminal portion of the predicted protein contained regions of presumptive DNA-binding domains, while the DNA sequence at the amino end of AP3 showed similarity to the Escherichia coli recA gene. AP3 is expressed as an abundant 1.3-kb mRNA that is detected throughout the life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster. Another 3.5-klb mRNA also hybridized to the AP3 cDNA, but species was restricted to the early stages of development.

  10. Ab initio DNA synthesis by Bst polymerase in the presence of nicking endonucleases Nt.AlwI, Nb.BbvCI, and Nb.BsmI.

    PubMed

    Antipova, Valeriya N; Zheleznaya, Lyudmila A; Zyrina, Nadezhda V

    2014-08-01

    In the absence of added DNA, thermophilic DNA polymerases synthesize double-stranded DNA from free dNTPs, which consist of numerous repetitive units (ab initio DNA synthesis). The addition of thermophilic restriction endonuclease (REase), or nicking endonuclease (NEase), effectively stimulates ab initio DNA synthesis and determines the nucleotide sequence of reaction products. We have found that NEases Nt.AlwI, Nb.BbvCI, and Nb.BsmI with non-palindromic recognition sites stimulate the synthesis of sequences organized mainly as palindromes. Moreover, the nucleotide sequence of the palindromes appeared to be dependent on NEase recognition/cleavage modes. Thus, the heterodimeric Nb.BbvCI stimulated the synthesis of palindromes composed of two recognition sites of this NEase, which were separated by AT-reach sequences or (A)n (T)m spacers. Palindromic DNA sequences obtained in the ab initio DNA synthesis with the monomeric NEases Nb.BsmI and Nt.AlwI contained, along with the sites of these NEases, randomly synthesized sequences consisted of blocks of short repeats. These findings could help investigation of the potential abilities of highly productive ab initio DNA synthesis for the creation of DNA molecules with desirable sequence. PMID:24965874

  11. N-acylhydrazone inhibitors of influenza virus PA endonuclease with versatile metal binding modes.

    PubMed

    Carcelli, Mauro; Rogolino, Dominga; Gatti, Anna; De Luca, Laura; Sechi, Mario; Kumar, Gyanendra; White, Stephen W; Stevaert, Annelies; Naesens, Lieve

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus PA endonuclease has recently emerged as an attractive target for the development of novel antiviral therapeutics. This is an enzyme with divalent metal ion(s) (Mg(2+) or Mn(2+)) in its catalytic site: chelation of these metal cofactors is an attractive strategy to inhibit enzymatic activity. Here we report the activity of a series of N-acylhydrazones in an enzymatic assay with PA-Nter endonuclease, as well as in cell-based influenza vRNP reconstitution and virus yield assays. Several N-acylhydrazones were found to have promising anti-influenza activity in the low micromolar concentration range and good selectivity. Computational docking studies are carried on to investigate the key features that determine inhibition of the endonuclease enzyme by N-acylhydrazones. Moreover, we here describe the crystal structure of PA-Nter in complex with one of the most active inhibitors, revealing its interactions within the protein's active site. PMID:27510745

  12. N-acylhydrazone inhibitors of influenza virus PA endonuclease with versatile metal binding modes

    PubMed Central

    Carcelli, Mauro; Rogolino, Dominga; Gatti, Anna; De Luca, Laura; Sechi, Mario; Kumar, Gyanendra; White, Stephen W.; Stevaert, Annelies; Naesens, Lieve

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus PA endonuclease has recently emerged as an attractive target for the development of novel antiviral therapeutics. This is an enzyme with divalent metal ion(s) (Mg2+ or Mn2+) in its catalytic site: chelation of these metal cofactors is an attractive strategy to inhibit enzymatic activity. Here we report the activity of a series of N-acylhydrazones in an enzymatic assay with PA-Nter endonuclease, as well as in cell-based influenza vRNP reconstitution and virus yield assays. Several N-acylhydrazones were found to have promising anti-influenza activity in the low micromolar concentration range and good selectivity. Computational docking studies are carried on to investigate the key features that determine inhibition of the endonuclease enzyme by N-acylhydrazones. Moreover, we here describe the crystal structure of PA-Nter in complex with one of the most active inhibitors, revealing its interactions within the protein’s active site. PMID:27510745

  13. The DNA repair endonuclease Mus81 facilitates fast DNA replication in the absence of exogenous damage

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Haiqing; Martin, Melvenia M.; Regairaz, Marie; Huang, Liang; You, Yang; Lin, Chi-Mei; Ryan, Michael; Kim, RyangGuk; Shimura, Tsutomu; Pommier, Yves; Aladjem, Mirit I.

    2015-01-01

    The Mus81 endonuclease resolves recombination intermediates and mediates cellular responses to exogenous replicative stress. Here, we show that Mus81 also regulates the rate of DNA replication during normal growth by promoting replication fork progression while reducing the frequency of replication initiation events. In the absence of Mus81 endonuclease activity, DNA synthesis is slowed and replication initiation events are more frequent. In addition, Mus81 deficient cells fail to recover from exposure to low doses of replication inhibitors and cell viability is dependent on the XPF endonuclease. Despite an increase in replication initiation frequency, cells lacking Mus81 use the same pool of replication origins as Mus81-expressing cells. Therefore, decelerated DNA replication in Mus81 deficient cells does not initiate from cryptic or latent origins not used during normal growth. These results indicate that Mus81 plays a key role in determining the rate of DNA replication without activating a novel group of replication origins. PMID:25879486

  14. The identification and optimization of a N-hydroxy urea series of flap endonuclease 1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tumey, L Nathan; Bom, David; Huck, Bayard; Gleason, Elizabeth; Wang, Jianmin; Silver, Daniel; Brunden, Kurt; Boozer, Sherry; Rundlett, Stephen; Sherf, Bruce; Murphy, Steven; Dent, Tom; Leventhal, Christina; Bailey, Andrew; Harrington, John; Bennani, Youssef L

    2005-01-17

    Flap endonuclease-1 (FEN1) is a key enzyme involved in base excision repair (BER), a primary pathway utilized by mammalian cells to repair DNA damage. Sensitization to DNA damaging agents is a potential method for the improvement of the therapeutic window of traditional chemotherapeutics. In this paper, we describe the identification and SAR of a series of low nanomolar FEN1 inhibitors. Over 1000-fold specificity was achieved against a related endonuclease, xeroderma pigmentosum G (XPG). Two compounds from this series significantly potentiate the action of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and temozolamide in a bladder cancer cell line (T24). To our knowledge, these are the most potent endonuclease inhibitors reported to date. PMID:15603939

  15. Mm19, a Mycoplasma meleagridis Major Surface Nuclease that Is Related to the RE_AlwI Superfamily of Endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Elhem; Ben Abdelmoumen Mardassi, Boutheina

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma meleagridis infection is widespread in turkeys, causing poor growth and feathering, airsacculitis, osteodystrophy, and reduction in hatchability. Like most mycoplasma species, M. meleagridis is characterized by its inability to synthesize purine and pyrimidine nucleotides de novo. Consistent with this intrinsic deficiency, we here report the cloning, expression, and characterization of a M. meleagridis gene sequence encoding a major surface nuclease, referred to as Mm19. Mm19 consists of a 1941- bp ORF encoding a 646-amino-acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 74,825 kDa. BLASTP analysis revealed a significant match with the catalytic/dimerization domain of type II restriction enzymes of the RE_AlwI superfamily. This finding is consistent with the genomic location of Mm19 sequence, which dispalys characteristics of a typical type II restriction-modification locus. Like intact M. meleagridis cells, the E. coli-expressed Mm19 fusion product was found to exhibit a nuclease activity against plasmid DNA, double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA, and RNA. The Mm19-associated nuclease activity was consistently enhanced with Mg2+ divalent cations, a hallmark of type II restriction enzymes. A rabbit hyperimmune antiserum raised against the bacterially expressed Mm19 strongly reacted with M. meleagridis intact cells and fully neutralized the surface-bound nuclease activity. Collectively, the results show that M. meleagridis expresses a strong surface-bound nuclease activity, which is the product of a single gene sequence that is related to the RE_AlwI superfamily of endonucleases. PMID:27010566

  16. Mm19, a Mycoplasma meleagridis Major Surface Nuclease that Is Related to the RE_AlwI Superfamily of Endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Elhem; Ben Abdelmoumen Mardassi, Boutheina

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma meleagridis infection is widespread in turkeys, causing poor growth and feathering, airsacculitis, osteodystrophy, and reduction in hatchability. Like most mycoplasma species, M. meleagridis is characterized by its inability to synthesize purine and pyrimidine nucleotides de novo. Consistent with this intrinsic deficiency, we here report the cloning, expression, and characterization of a M. meleagridis gene sequence encoding a major surface nuclease, referred to as Mm19. Mm19 consists of a 1941-bp ORF encoding a 646-amino-acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 74,825 kDa. BLASTP analysis revealed a significant match with the catalytic/dimerization domain of type II restriction enzymes of the RE_AlwI superfamily. This finding is consistent with the genomic location of Mm19 sequence, which dispalys characteristics of a typical type II restriction-modification locus. Like intact M. meleagridis cells, the E. coli-expressed Mm19 fusion product was found to exhibit a nuclease activity against plasmid DNA, double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA, and RNA. The Mm19-associated nuclease activity was consistently enhanced with Mg2+ divalent cations, a hallmark of type II restriction enzymes. A rabbit hyperimmune antiserum raised against the bacterially expressed Mm19 strongly reacted with M. meleagridis intact cells and fully neutralized the surface-bound nuclease activity. Collectively, the results show that M. meleagridis expresses a strong surface-bound nuclease activity, which is the product of a single gene sequence that is related to the RE_AlwI superfamily of endonucleases. PMID:27010566

  17. Regulatory circuit based on autogenous activation-repression: roles of C-boxes and spacer sequences in control of the PvuII restriction-modification system

    PubMed Central

    Mruk, Iwona; Rajesh, Preeti; Blumenthal, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Type II restriction-modification (R-M) systems comprise a restriction endonuclease (REase) and a protective methyltransferase (MTase). After R-M genes enter a new cell, MTase must appear before REase or the chromosome will be cleaved. PvuII and some other R-M systems achieve this delay by cotranscribing the REase gene with the gene for an autogenous transcription activator (the controlling or ‘C’ protein C.PvuII). This study reveals, through in vivo titration, that C.PvuII is not only an activator but also a repressor for its own gene. In other systems, this type of circuit can result in oscillatory behavior. Despite the use of identical, symmetrical C protein-binding sequences (C-boxes) in the left and right operators, C.PvuII showed higher in vitro affinity for OL than for OR, implicating the spacer sequences in this difference. Mutational analysis associated the repression with OR, which overlaps the promoter −35 hexamer but is otherwise dispensable for activation. A nonrepressing mutant exhibited poor establishment in new cells. Comparing promoter-operator regions from PvuII and 29 R-M systems controlled by C proteins revealed that the most-highly conserved sequence is the tetranucleotide spacer separating OL from OR. Any changes in that spacer reduced the stability of C.PvuII-operator complexes and abolished activation. PMID:17933763

  18. Regulatory circuit based on autogenous activation-repression: roles of C-boxes and spacer sequences in control of the PvuII restriction-modification system.

    PubMed

    Mruk, Iwona; Rajesh, Preeti; Blumenthal, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Type II restriction-modification (R-M) systems comprise a restriction endonuclease (REase) and a protective methyltransferase (MTase). After R-M genes enter a new cell, MTase must appear before REase or the chromosome will be cleaved. PvuII and some other R-M systems achieve this delay by cotranscribing the REase gene with the gene for an autogenous transcription activator (the controlling or 'C' protein C.PvuII). This study reveals, through in vivo titration, that C.PvuII is not only an activator but also a repressor for its own gene. In other systems, this type of circuit can result in oscillatory behavior. Despite the use of identical, symmetrical C protein-binding sequences (C-boxes) in the left and right operators, C.PvuII showed higher in vitro affinity for O(L) than for O(R), implicating the spacer sequences in this difference. Mutational analysis associated the repression with O(R), which overlaps the promoter -35 hexamer but is otherwise dispensable for activation. A nonrepressing mutant exhibited poor establishment in new cells. Comparing promoter-operator regions from PvuII and 29 R-M systems controlled by C proteins revealed that the most-highly conserved sequence is the tetranucleotide spacer separating O(L) from O(R). Any changes in that spacer reduced the stability of C.PvuII-operator complexes and abolished activation. PMID:17933763

  19. Gelatinases, endonuclease and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor during development and regression of swine luteal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Luciana Andrea; Turba, Maria Elena; Zannoni, Augusta; Bacci, Maria Laura; Forni, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Background The development and regression of corpus luteum (CL) is characterized by an intense angiogenesis and angioregression accompanied by luteal tissue and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is the main regulator of angiogenesis, promoting endothelial cell mitosis and differentiation. After the formation of neovascular tubes, the remodelling of ECM is essential for the correct development of CL, particularly by the action of specific class of proteolytic enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). During luteal regression, characterized by an apoptotic process and successively by an intense ECM and luteal degradation, the activation of Ca++/Mg++-dependent endonucleases and MMPs activity are required. The levels of expression and activity of VEGF, MMP-2 and -9, and Ca++/Mg++-dependent endonucleases throughout the oestrous cycle and at pregnancy were analyzed. Results Different patterns of VEGF, MMPs and Ca++/Mg++-dependent endonuclease were observed in swine CL during different luteal phases and at pregnancy. Immediately after ovulation, the highest levels of VEGF mRNA/protein and MMP-9 activity were detected. On days 5–14 after ovulation, VEGF expression and MMP-2 and -9 activities are at basal levels, while Ca++/Mg++-dependent endonuclease levels increased significantly in relation to day 1. Only at luteolysis (day 17), Ca++/Mg++-dependent endonuclease and MMP-2 spontaneous activity increased significantly. At pregnancy, high levels of MMP-9 and VEGF were observed. Conclusion Our findings, obtained from a precisely controlled in vivo model of CL development and regression, allow us to determine relationships among VEGF, MMPs and endonucleases during angiogenesis and angioregression. Thus, CL provides a very interesting model for studying factors involved in vascular remodelling. PMID:17137503

  20. [Effect of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and antifoaming agents on the endonuclease activity of Serratia marcescens].

    PubMed

    Serov, G D; Selina, A V

    1982-01-01

    The effect of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (sulfonol) and certain froth breakers on the activity of endonuclease was studied in the cultural broth of Serratia marcescens in order to find out whether sulfonol could be used for limiting the infection. Sulfonol was found to have no effect on the cultural growth; it increased the activity of endonuclease in the cultural broth, and the peak of the activity appeared earlier than in the control medium. Propanol B-400 was shown to be the best froth breaker. PMID:6292671

  1. Endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus which has activity toward ultraviolet-irradiated deoxyribonucleic acid: its action on transforming deoxyribonucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Setlow, R B; Setlow, J K; Carrier, W L

    1970-04-01

    An endonuclease purified from Micrococcus luteus makes single-strand breaks in ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated, native deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The purified endonuclease is able to reactivate UV-inactivated transforming DNA of Haemophilus influenzae, especially when the DNA is assayed on a UV-sensitive mutant of H. influenzae. After extensive endonuclease action, there is a loss of transforming DNA when assayed on both UV-sensitive and -resistant cells. The endonuclease does not affect unirradiated DNA. The results indicate that the endonuclease function is involved in the repair of biological damage resulting from UV irradiation and that the UV-sensitive mutant is deficient in this step. We interpret the data as indicating that the various steps in the repair of DNA must be well coordinated if repair is to be effective. PMID:4314478

  2. A single catalytic domain of the junction-resolving enzyme T7 endonuclease I is a non-specific nicking endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Chudi; Kumar, Sanjay

    2005-01-01

    A stable heterodimeric protein containing a single correctly folded catalytic domain (SCD) of T7 endonuclease I was produced by means of a trans-splicing intein system. As predicted by a model presented earlier, purified SCD protein acts a non-specific nicking endonuclease on normal linear DNA. The SCD retains some ability to recognize and cleave a deviated DNA double-helix near a nick or a strand-crossing site. Thus, we infer that the non-specific and nicked-site cleavage activities observed for the native T7 endonuclease I (as distinct from the resolution activity) are due to uncoordinated actions of the catalytic domains. The positively charged C-terminus of T7 Endo I is essential for the enzymatic activity of SCD, as it is for the native enzyme. We propose that the preference of the native enzyme for the resolution reaction is achieved by cooperativity in the binding of its two catalytic domains when presented with two of the arms across a four-way junction or cruciform structure. PMID:16264086

  3. Type III restriction-modification enzymes: a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Desirazu N.; Dryden, David T. F.; Bheemanaik, Shivakumara

    2014-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases interact with DNA at specific sites leading to cleavage of DNA. Bacterial DNA is protected from restriction endonuclease cleavage by modifying the DNA using a DNA methyltransferase. Based on their molecular structure, sequence recognition, cleavage position and cofactor requirements, restriction–modification (R–M) systems are classified into four groups. Type III R–M enzymes need to interact with two separate unmethylated DNA sequences in inversely repeated head-to-head orientations for efficient cleavage to occur at a defined location (25–27 bp downstream of one of the recognition sites). Like the Type I R–M enzymes, Type III R–M enzymes possess a sequence-specific ATPase activity for DNA cleavage. ATP hydrolysis is required for the long-distance communication between the sites before cleavage. Different models, based on 1D diffusion and/or 3D-DNA looping, exist to explain how the long-distance interaction between the two recognition sites takes place. Type III R–M systems are found in most sequenced bacteria. Genome sequencing of many pathogenic bacteria also shows the presence of a number of phase-variable Type III R–M systems, which play a role in virulence. A growing number of these enzymes are being subjected to biochemical and genetic studies, which, when combined with ongoing structural analyses, promise to provide details for mechanisms of DNA recognition and catalysis. PMID:23863841

  4. Regulation of Two Nested Proteins from Gene 49 (Recombination Endonuclease Vii) and of a λ Rexa-like Protein of Bacteriophage T4

    PubMed Central

    Barth, K. A.; Powell, D.; Trupin, M.; Mosig, G.

    1988-01-01

    Phage T4 gene 49, encoding recombination endonuclease VII, specifies, by initiation from an AUG and an internal GUG codon, two in-frame overlapping peptides (of 18 and 12 kD). The gene is transcribed early and late, albeit from different promoters. The sequence predicts that in long early transcripts, initiated far upstream of the coding sequence, the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of the first ribosome binding site can be sequestered in a hairpin and/or cleaved. These processes might reduce initiation from the first AUG and facilitate initiation of the 12-kD peptide from the internal GUG. The potential of this hairpin to participate in Y structures or cruciforms suggests possible autoregulation. Shorter, more stable late transcripts initiated from a late promoter immediately upstream of the first ribosome binding site cannot form this hairpin. More efficient translation of the longer 18-kD gene 49 peptide from these late transcripts accounts for the strong dependence of endonuclease VII activity on late gene expression. An ORF downstream from gene 49 can be translated from a motA-dependent transcript that starts inside gene 49 as well as from the gene 49 transcripts. Its initiation codon overlaps the stop codon of gene 49, suggesting some coupling of translation. The deduced protein resembles, among others, the RexA protein of phage λ. Possible implications for T4 recombination and for the interference of λ lysogens with T4 gene 49 and rII mutants are discussed. PMID:2974005

  5. PCNA and Msh2-Msh6 Activate an Mlh1-Pms1 Endonuclease Pathway Required for Exo1-independent Mismatch Repair

    PubMed Central

    Goellner, Eva M.; Smith, Catherine E.; Campbell, Christopher S.; Hombauer, Hans; Desai, Arshad; Putnam, Christopher D.; Kolodner, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Genetic evidence has implicated multiple pathways in eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR) downstream of mispair recognition and Mlh1-Pms1 recruitment, including Exonuclease 1 (Exo1) dependent and independent pathways. We identified 14 mutations in POL30, which encodes PCNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, specific to Exo1-independent MMR. The mutations identified affected amino acids at three distinct sites on the PCNA structure. Multiple mutant PCNA proteins had defects either in trimerization and Msh2-Msh6 binding or in activation of the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease that initiates excision during MMR. The latter class of mutations led to hyper-accumulation of repair intermediate Mlh1-Pms1 foci and were enhanced by an msh6 mutation that disrupted the Msh2-Msh6 interaction with PCNA. These results reveal a central role for PCNA in the Exo1-independent MMR pathway and suggest that Msh2-Msh6 localizes PCNA to repair sites after mispair recognition to activate the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease for initiating Exo1-dependent repair or for driving progressive excision in Exo1-independent repair. PMID:24981171

  6. Isolation and properties of the acid site-specific endonuclease from mature eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    SciTech Connect

    Sibirtsev, Yu.T.; Konechnyi, A.A.; Rasskazov, V.A.

    1986-01-10

    An acid site-specific endonuclease has been detected in mature sea urchin eggs and cells of embryos at early stages of differentiation. Fractionation with ammonium sulfate, followed by chromatography on columns with DEAE, phosphocellulose, and hydroxyapatite resulted in an 18,000-fold purification. The molecular weight of the enzyme was determined at approx. 29,000, the optimum pH 5.5. The activity of the enzyme does not depend on divalent metal ions, EDTA, ATP, and tRNA, but it is modulated to a substantial degree by NaCl. The maximum rate of cleavage of the DNA supercoil (form I) is observed at 100 mM NaCl. Increasing the NaCl concentration to 350 mM only slightly lowers the rate of cleavage of form I, yielding form II, but entirely suppresses the accumulation of form III. Restriction analysis of the products of enzymatic hydrolysis of Co1E1 and pBR322 DNA showed that at the early stages of hydrolysis the enzyme exhibits pronounced specificity for definite sites, the number of which is 12 for Co1 E1 DNA and 8 sites for pBR322 DNA.

  7. Deep reaching versus vertically restricted Quaternary normal faults: Implications on seismic potential assessment in tectonically active regions: Lessons from the middle Aterno valley fault system, central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcucci, E.; Gori, S.; Moro, M.; Fubelli, G.; Saroli, M.; Chiarabba, C.; Galadini, F.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the Middle Aterno Valley fault system (MAVF), a poorly investigated seismic gap in the central Apennines, adjacent to the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake epicentral area. Geological and paleoseismological analyses revealed that the MAVF evolved through hanging wall splay nucleation, its main segment moving at 0.23-0.34 mm/year since the Middle Pleistocene; the penultimate activation event occurred between 5388-5310 B.C. and 1934-1744 B.C., the last event after 2036-1768 B.C. and just before 1st-2nd century AD. These data define hard linkage (sensu Walsh and Watterson, 1991; Peacock et al., 2000; Walsh et al., 2003, and references therein) with the contiguous Subequana Valley fault segment, able to rupture in large magnitude earthquakes (up to 6.8), that did not rupture since about two millennia. By the joint analysis of geological observations and seismological data acquired during to the 2009 seismic sequence, we derive a picture of the complex structural framework of the area comprised between the MAVF, the Paganica fault (the 2009 earthquake causative fault) and the Gran Sasso Range. This sector is affected by a dense array of few-km long, closely and regularly spaced Quaternary normal fault strands, that are considered as branches of the MAVF northern segment. Our analysis reveals that these structures are downdip confined by a decollement represented by to the presently inactive thrust sheet above the Gran Sasso front limiting their seismogenic potential. Our study highlights the advantage of combining Quaternary geological field analysis with high resolution seismological data to fully unravel the structural setting of regions where subsequent tectonic phases took place and where structural interference plays a key role in influencing the seismotectonic context; this has also inevitably implications for accurately assessing seismic hazard of such structurally complex regions.

  8. Human Rad54 protein stimulates human Mus81–Eme1 endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Mazina, Olga M.; Mazin, Alexander V.

    2008-01-01

    Rad54, a key protein of homologous recombination, physically interacts with a DNA structure-specific endonuclease, Mus81–Eme1. Genetic data indicate that Mus81–Eme1 and Rad54 might function together in the repair of damaged DNA. In vitro, Rad54 promotes branch migration of Holliday junctions, whereas the Mus81–Eme1 complex resolves DNA junctions by endonucleolytic cleavage. Here, we show that human Rad54 stimulates Mus81–Eme1 endonuclease activity on various Holliday junction-like intermediates. This stimulation is the product of specific interactions between the human Rad54 (hRad54) and Mus81 proteins, considering that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad54 protein does not stimulate human Mus81–Eme1 endonuclease activity. Stimulation of Mus81–Eme1 cleavage activity depends on formation of specific Rad54 complexes on DNA substrates occurring in the presence of ATP and, to a smaller extent, of other nucleotide cofactors. Thus, our results demonstrate a functional link between the branch migration activity of hRad54 and the structure-specific endonuclease activity of hMus81–Eme1, suggesting that the Rad54 and Mus81–Eme1 proteins may cooperate in the processing of Holliday junction-like intermediates during homologous recombination or DNA repair. PMID:19017809

  9. T7 Endonuclease I Mediates Error Correction in Artificial Gene Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Ana Filipa; Guerreiro, Catarina I P D; Vincentelli, Renaud; Fontes, Carlos M G A

    2016-09-01

    Efficacy of de novo gene synthesis largely depends on the quality of overlapping oligonucleotides used as template for PCR assembly. The error rate associated with current gene synthesis protocols limits the efficient and accurate production of synthetic genes, both in the small and large scales. Here, we analysed the ability of different endonuclease enzymes, which specifically recognize and cleave DNA mismatches resulting from incorrect impairments between DNA strands, to remove mutations accumulated in synthetic genes. The gfp gene, which encodes the green fluorescent protein, was artificially synthesized using an integrated protocol including an enzymatic mismatch cleavage step (EMC) following gene assembly. Functional and sequence analysis of resulting artificial genes revealed that number of deletions, insertions and substitutions was strongly reduced when T7 endonuclease I was used for mutation removal. This method diminished mutation frequency by eightfold relative to gene synthesis not incorporating an error correction step. Overall, EMC using T7 endonuclease I improved the population of error-free synthetic genes, resulting in an error frequency of 0.43 errors per 1 kb. Taken together, data presented here reveal that incorporation of a mutation-removal step including T7 endonuclease I can effectively improve the fidelity of artificial gene synthesis. PMID:27334914

  10. Polyadenylation Factor CPSF-73 is the Pre-mRNA 3'-end-processing Endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Mandel,C.; Kaneko, S.; Zhang, H.; Gebauer, D.; Vethantham, V.; Manley, J.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Most eukaryotic messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) undergo extensive maturational processing, including cleavage and polyadenylation at the 3'-end. Despite the characterization of many proteins that are required for the cleavage reaction, the identity of the endonuclease is not known. Recent analyses indicated that the 73-kDa subunit of cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF-73) might be the endonuclease for this and related reactions, although no direct data confirmed this. Here we report the crystal structures of human CPSF-73 at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution, complexed with zinc ions and a sulphate that might mimic the phosphate group of the substrate, and the related yeast protein CPSF-100 (Ydh1) at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution. Both CPSF-73 and CPSF-100 contain two domains, a metallo-{beta}-lactamase domain and a novel -CASP (named for metallo-{beta}-lactamase, CPSF, Artemis, Snm1, Pso2) domain. The active site of CPSF-73, with two zinc ions, is located at the interface of the two domains. Purified recombinant CPSF-73 possesses RNA endonuclease activity, and mutations that disrupt zinc binding in the active site abolish this activity. Our studies provide the first direct experimental evidence that CPSF-73 is the pre-mRNA 3'-end-processing endonuclease.

  11. Purification and substrate specificity of a T4 phage intron-encoded endonuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, F K; Maley, F; Wang, A M; Pedersen-Lane, J; Maley, G

    1991-01-01

    The T4 phage td intron-encoded endonuclease (I-Tev I) cleaves the intron-deleted td gene (td delta I) 23 nucleotides upstream of the intron insertion site on the noncoding strand and 25 nucleotides upstream of this site on the coding strand, to generate a 2-base hydroxyl overhang in the 3' end of each DNA strand. I-Tev I-157, a truncated form in which slightly more than one third (88 residues) of the endonuclease is deleted, was purified to homogeneity and shown to possess endonuclease activity similar to that of I-TEV I, the full-length enzyme (245 residues). The minimal length of the td delta I gene that was cleaved by I-Tev I and I-Tev I-157 has been determined to be exactly 39 basepairs, from -27 (upstream in exon1) to +12 (downstream in exon2) relative to the intron insertion site. Similar to the full-length endonuclease, I-Tev I-157 cuts the intronless thymidylate synthase genes from such diverse organisms as Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus casei and the human. The position and nature of the in vitro endonucleolytic cut in these genes are homologous to those in td delta I. Point mutational analysis of the td delta I substrate based on the deduced consensus nucleotide sequence has revealed a very low degree of specificity on either side of the cleavage site, for both the full-length and truncated I-TEV I. Images PMID:1762916

  12. Efficient targeting of a SCID gene by an engineered single-chain homing endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Grizot, Sylvestre; Smith, Julianne; Daboussi, Fayza; Prieto, Jesús; Redondo, Pilar; Merino, Nekane; Villate, Maider; Thomas, Séverine; Lemaire, Laetitia; Montoya, Guillermo; Blanco, Francisco J.; Pâques, Frédéric; Duchateau, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Sequence-specific endonucleases recognizing long target sequences are emerging as powerful tools for genome engineering. These endonucleases could be used to correct deleterious mutations or to inactivate viruses, in a new approach to molecular medicine. However, such applications are highly demanding in terms of safety. Mutations in the human RAG1 gene cause severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Using the I-CreI dimeric LAGLIDADG meganuclease as a scaffold, we describe here the engineering of a series of endonucleases cleaving the human RAG1 gene, including obligate heterodimers and single-chain molecules. We show that a novel single-chain design, in which two different monomers are linked to form a single molecule, can induce high levels of recombination while safeguarding more effectively against potential genotoxicity. We provide here the first demonstration that an engineered meganuclease can induce targeted recombination at an endogenous locus in up to 6% of transfected human cells. These properties rank this new generation of endonucleases among the best molecular scissors available for genome surgery strategies, potentially avoiding the deleterious effects of previous gene therapy approaches. PMID:19584299

  13. Structural aspects of catalytic mechanisms of endonucleases and their binding to nucleic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Balaev, V. V.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Lashkov, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    Endonucleases (EC 3.1) are enzymes of the hydrolase class that catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage of deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids at any region of the polynucleotide chain. Endonucleases are widely used both in biotechnological processes and in veterinary medicine as antiviral agents. Medical applications of endonucleases in human cancer therapy hold promise. The results of X-ray diffraction studies of the spatial organization of endonucleases and their complexes and the mechanism of their action are analyzed and generalized. An analysis of the structural studies of this class of enzymes showed that the specific binding of enzymes to nucleic acids is characterized by interactions with nitrogen bases and the nucleotide backbone, whereas the nonspecific binding of enzymes is generally characterized by interactions only with the nucleic-acid backbone. It should be taken into account that the specificity can be modulated by metal ions and certain low-molecular-weight organic compounds. To test the hypotheses about specific and nonspecific nucleic-acid-binding proteins, it is necessary to perform additional studies of atomic-resolution three-dimensional structures of enzyme-nucleic-acid complexes by methods of structural biology.

  14. Structural aspects of catalytic mechanisms of endonucleases and their binding to nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Balaev, V. V.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Lashkov, A. A.

    2012-05-15

    Endonucleases (EC 3.1) are enzymes of the hydrolase class that catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage of deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids at any region of the polynucleotide chain. Endonucleases are widely used both in biotechnological processes and in veterinary medicine as antiviral agents. Medical applications of endonucleases in human cancer therapy hold promise. The results of X-ray diffraction studies of the spatial organization of endonucleases and their complexes and the mechanism of their action are analyzed and generalized. An analysis of the structural studies of this class of enzymes showed that the specific binding of enzymes to nucleic acids is characterized by interactions with nitrogen bases and the nucleotide backbone, whereas the nonspecific binding of enzymes is generally characterized by interactions only with the nucleic-acid backbone. It should be taken into account that the specificity can be modulated by metal ions and certain low-molecular-weight organic compounds. To test the hypotheses about specific and nonspecific nucleic-acid-binding proteins, it is necessary to perform additional studies of atomic-resolution three-dimensional structures of enzyme-nucleic-acid complexes by methods of structural biology.

  15. Molecular Recognition of DNA Damage Sites by Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonucleases

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, W. A.

    2005-07-28

    The DNA repair/redox factor AP endonuclease 1 (APE1) is a multifunctional protein which is known to to be essential for DNA repair activity in human cells. Structural/functional analyses of the APE activity is thus been an important research field to assess cellular defense mechanisms against ionizing radiation.

  16. DNA Apurinic-Apyrimidinic Site Binding And Excision By Endonuclease IV

    SciTech Connect

    Garcin, E.D.; Hosfield, D.J.; Desai, S.A.; Haas, B.J.; Bjoras, M.; Cunningham, R.P.; Tainer, J.A.

    2009-05-18

    Escherichia coli endonuclease IV is an archetype for an abasic or apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease superfamily crucial for DNA base excision repair. Here biochemical, mutational and crystallographic characterizations reveal a three-metal ion mechanism for damage binding and incision. The 1.10-{angstrom} resolution DNA-free and the 2.45-{angstrom} resolution DNA-substrate complex structures capture substrate stabilization by Arg37 and reveal a distorted Zn{sub 3}-ligand arrangement that reverts, after catalysis, to an ideal geometry suitable to hold rather than release cleaved DNA product. The 1.45-{angstrom} resolution DNA-product complex structure shows how Tyr72 caps the active site, tunes its dielectric environment and promotes catalysis by Glu261-activated hydroxide, bound to two Zn{sup 2+} ions throughout catalysis. These structural, mutagenesis and biochemical results suggest general requirements for abasic site removal in contrast to features specific to the distinct endonuclease IV alpha-beta triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel and APE1 four-layer alpha-beta folds of the apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease families.

  17. The major human AP endonuclease (Ape1) is involved in the nucleotide incision repair pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gros, Laurent; Ishchenko, Alexander A.; Ide, Hiroshi; Elder, Rhoderick H.; Saparbaev, Murat K.

    2004-01-01

    In nucleotide incision repair (NIR), an endonuclease nicks oxidatively damaged DNA in a DNA glycosylase-independent manner, providing the correct ends for DNA synthesis coupled to the repair of the remaining 5′-dangling modified nucleotide. This mechanistic feature is distinct from DNA glycosylase-mediated base excision repair. Here we report that Ape1, the major apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease in human cells, is the damage- specific endonuclease involved in NIR. We show that Ape1 incises DNA containing 5,6-dihydro-2′-deoxyuridine, 5,6-dihydrothymidine, 5-hydroxy-2′-deoxyuridine, alpha-2′-deoxyadenosine and alpha-thymidine adducts, generating 3′-hydroxyl and 5′-phosphate termini. The kinetic constants indicate that Ape1-catalysed NIR activity is highly efficient. The substrate specificity and protein conformation of Ape1 is modulated by MgCl2 concentrations, thus providing conditions under which NIR becomes a major activity in cell-free extracts. While the N-terminal region of Ape1 is not required for AP endonuclease function, we show that it regulates the NIR activity. The physiological relevance of the mammalian NIR pathway is discussed. PMID:14704345

  18. Efficient fdCas9 Synthetic Endonuclease with Improved Specificity for Precise Genome Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Aouida, Mustapha; Eid, Ayman; Ali, Zahir; Cradick, Thomas; Lee, Ciaran; Deshmukh, Harshavardhan; Atef, Ahmed; AbuSamra, Dina; Gadhoum, Samah Zeineb; Merzaban, Jasmeen; Bao, Gang; Mahfouz, Magdy

    2015-01-01

    The Cas9 endonuclease is used for genome editing applications in diverse eukaryotic species. A high frequency of off-target activity has been reported in many cell types, limiting its applications to genome engineering, especially in genomic medicine. Here, we generated a synthetic chimeric protein between the catalytic domain of the FokI endonuclease and the catalytically inactive Cas9 protein (fdCas9). A pair of guide RNAs (gRNAs) that bind to sense and antisense strands with a defined spacer sequence range can be used to form a catalytically active dimeric fdCas9 protein and generate double-strand breaks (DSBs) within the spacer sequence. Our data demonstrate an improved catalytic activity of the fdCas9 endonuclease, with a spacer range of 15–39 nucleotides, on surrogate reporters and genomic targets. Furthermore, we observed no detectable fdCas9 activity at known Cas9 off-target sites. Taken together, our data suggest that the fdCas9 endonuclease variant is a superior platform for genome editing applications in eukaryotic systems including mammalian cells. PMID:26225561

  19. The identification and optimization of 2,4-diketobutyric acids as flap endonuclease 1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tumey, L Nathan; Huck, Bayard; Gleason, Elizabeth; Wang, Jianmin; Silver, Daniel; Brunden, Kurt; Boozer, Sherry; Rundlett, Stephen; Sherf, Bruce; Murphy, Steven; Bailey, Andrew; Dent, Tom; Leventhal, Christina; Harrington, John; Bennani, Youssef L

    2004-10-01

    There have been several recent reports of chemopotentiation via inhibition of DNA repair processes. Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is a key enzyme involved in base excision repair (BER), a primary pathway utilized by mammalian cells to repair DNA damage. In this report, we describe the identification and SAR of a series of 2,4-diketobutyric acid FEN1 inhibitors. PMID:15341951

  20. Construction of an EcoRI restriction map of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and localization of selected genes.

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, R; Pirkl, E; Herrmann, R

    1992-01-01

    A restriction map of the genome of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a small human pathogenic bacterium, was constructed by means of an ordered cosmid library which spans the complete bacterial chromosome. The positions of 143 endonuclease EcoRI restriction fragments were determined and aligned with the physical map. In addition, restriction sites for the rare-cutting enzymes XhoI (25 sites), ApaI (13 sites), NotI (2 sites), and SfiI (2 sites) were included. The resulting map consists of 185 restriction sites, has a mean resolution of 4.4 kbp, and predicts a genome size of 809 kbp. In addition, several genes were identified and mapped to their respective genomic EcoRI restriction fragments. Images PMID:1429453

  1. Long range restriction analysis of the bovine casein genes.

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, L; Leone, P; Sgaramella, V

    1990-01-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to analyse the organization of the bovine alpha s1, alpha s2, beta and kappa casein genes. High molecular weight DNA was prepared from fibroblasts and lymphocytes embedded in agarose and was digested with the restriction endonucleases Clal, Sall, Smal, Xhol. The digestion products were separated by PFGE, transfered to nitrocellulose filters and hybridized to probes corresponding to the cDNAs of the four bovine casein genes. The casein genes were demonstrated to be physically linked within a region of 300 kb, represented by two adjacent Xhol fragments in fibroblasts and by a single fragment in lymphocytes. A restriction map of the casein locus was derived and the order of the genes was shown to be kappa, alpha s2, beta, alpha s1. Images PMID:2263448

  2. Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease/Redox Factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) Redox Function Negatively Regulates NRF2*

    PubMed Central

    Fishel, Melissa L.; Wu, Xue; Devlin, Cecilia M.; Logsdon, Derek P.; Jiang, Yanlin; Luo, Meihua; He, Ying; Yu, Zhangsheng; Tong, Yan; Lipking, Kelsey P.; Maitra, Anirban; Rajeshkumar, N. V.; Scandura, Glenda; Kelley, Mark R.; Ivan, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) (henceforth referred to as Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein that in addition to its base excision DNA repair activity exerts redox control of multiple transcription factors, including nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), STAT3, activator protein-1 (AP-1), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), and tumor protein 53 (p53). In recent years, Ref-1 has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in cancer, particularly in pancreatic ductal carcinoma. Although a significant amount of research has centered on Ref-1, no wide-ranging approach had been performed on the effects of Ref-1 inhibition and transcription factor activity perturbation. Starting with a broader approach, we identified a previously unsuspected effect on the nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2), a critical regulator of cellular defenses against oxidative stress. Based on genetic and small molecule inhibitor-based methodologies, we demonstrated that repression of Ref-1 potently activates NRF2 and its downstream targets in a dose-dependent fashion, and that the redox, rather than the DNA repair function of Ref-1 is critical for this effect. Intriguingly, our results also indicate that this pathway does not involve reactive oxygen species. The link between Ref-1 and NRF2 appears to be present in all cells tested in vitro, noncancerous and cancerous, including patient-derived tumor samples. In particular, we focused on understanding the implications of the novel interaction between these two pathways in primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumor cells and provide the first evidence that this mechanism has implications for overcoming the resistance against experimental drugs targeting Ref-1 activity, with clear translational implications. PMID:25492865

  3. A novel three-unit tRNA splicing endonuclease found in ultrasmall Archaea possesses broad substrate specificity

    PubMed Central

    Fujishima, Kosuke; Sugahara, Junichi; Miller, Christopher S.; Baker, Brett J.; Di Giulio, Massimo; Takesue, Kanako; Sato, Asako; Tomita, Masaru; Banfield, Jillian F.; Kanai, Akio

    2011-01-01

    tRNA splicing endonucleases, essential enzymes found in Archaea and Eukaryotes, are involved in the processing of pre-tRNA molecules. In Archaea, three types of splicing endonuclease [homotetrameric: α4, homodimeric: α2, and heterotetrameric: (αβ)2] have been identified, each representing different substrate specificity during the tRNA intron cleavage. Here, we discovered a fourth type of archaeal tRNA splicing endonuclease (ε2) in the genome of the acidophilic archaeon Candidatus Micrarchaeum acidiphilum, referred to as ARMAN-2 and its closely related species, ARMAN-1. The enzyme consists of two duplicated catalytic units and one structural unit encoded on a single gene, representing a novel three-unit architecture. Homodimeric formation was confirmed by cross-linking assay, and site-directed mutagenesis determined that the conserved L10-pocket interaction between catalytic and structural unit is necessary for the assembly. A tRNA splicing assay reveal that ε2 endonuclease cleaves both canonical and non-canonical bulge–helix–bulge motifs, similar to that of (αβ)2 endonuclease. Unlike other ARMAN and Euryarchaeota, tRNAs found in ARMAN-2 are highly disrupted by introns at various positions, which again resemble the properties of archaeal species with (αβ)2 endonuclease. Thus, the discovery of ε2 endonuclease in an archaeon deeply branched within Euryarchaeota represents a new example of the coevolution of tRNA and their processing enzymes. PMID:21880595

  4. Flying squirrel-associated Rickettsia prowazekii (epidemic typhus rickettsiae) characterized by a specific DNA fragment produced by restriction endonuclease digestion.

    PubMed

    Regnery, R L; Fu, Z Y; Spruill, C L

    1986-01-01

    The DNA from flying squirrel-associated Rickettsia prowazekii was characterized by using a specific DNA fragment produced by digestion with the enzyme BamHI. The DNA fragment was cloned into a plasmid vector and used to readily distinguish between available human- and flying squirrel-associated R. prowazekii DNAs derived from crude cytoplasmic extracts. PMID:3009528

  5. Restriction site detection in repetitive nuclear DNA sequences of Trypanosoma evansi for strain differentiation among different isolates.

    PubMed

    Shyma, K P; Gupta, S K; Gupta, J P; Singh, Ajit; Chaudhari, S S; Singh, Veer

    2016-09-01

    The differences or similarities among different isolates of Trypanosoma evansi through endonuclease profile was identified in the present study. The repetitive nuclear DNA of T. evansi isolated from infected cattle, buffalo and equine blood was initially amplified by PCR using specific primers. A panel of restriction enzymes, EcoRI, Eco91l, HindIII and PstI were for complete digestion of PCR products. Agarose gel electrophoresis of digested product did not show cleavage fragments and only single DNA band of the original size was visible in the ethidium bromide stained agarose gel. This indicated that the 227 bp PCR product from repetitive sequence had no site-specific cleavage sites for the REs used in this study. No heterogeneity in the repetitive nuclear DNA restriction endonuclease profile among the different isolates was recorded. PMID:27605842

  6. Structure of the C-Terminal Half of UvrC Reveals an RNase H Endonuclease Domain with an Argonaute-like Catalytic Triad

    SciTech Connect

    Karakas,E.; Truglio, J.; Croteau, D.; Rhau, B.; Wang, L.; Van Houten, B.; Kisker, C.

    2007-01-01

    Removal and repair of DNA damage by the nucleotide excision repair pathway requires two sequential incision reactions, which are achieved by the endonuclease UvrC in eubacteria. Here, we describe the crystal structure of the C-terminal half of UvrC, which contains the catalytic domain responsible for 5' incision and a helix-hairpin-helix-domain that is implicated in DNA binding. Surprisingly, the 5' catalytic domain shares structural homology with RNase H despite the lack of sequence homology and contains an uncommon DDH triad. The structure also reveals two highly conserved patches on the surface of the protein, which are not related to the active site. Mutations of residues in one of these patches led to the inability of the enzyme to bind DNA and severely compromised both incision reactions. Based on our results, we suggest a model of how UvrC forms a productive protein-DNA complex to excise the damage from DNA.

  7. Conserved structural chemistry for incision activity in structurally non-homologous apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 and endonuclease IV DNA repair enzymes.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Shin, David S.; Mol, Clifford D.; Izum, Tadahide; Arvai, Andrew S.; Mantha, Anil K.; Szczesny, Bartosz; Ivanov, Ivaylo N.; Hosfield, David J.; Maiti, Buddhadev; Pique, Mike E.; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Hitomi, Kenichi; Cunningham, Richard P.; Mitra, Sankar; Tainer, John A.

    2013-03-22

    Non-coding apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in DNA form spontaneously and as DNA base excision repair intermediates are the most common toxic and mutagenic in vivo DNA lesion. For repair, AP sites must be processed by 5' AP endonucleases in initial stages of base repair. Human APE1 and bacterial Nfo represent the two conserved 5' AP endonuclease families in the biosphere; they both recognize AP sites and incise the phosphodiester backbone 5' to the lesion, yet they lack similar structures and metal ion requirements. Here, we determined and analyzed crystal structures of a 2.4 ? resolution APE1-DNA product complex with Mg(2+) and a 0.92 Nfo with three metal ions. Structural and biochemical comparisons of these two evolutionarily distinct enzymes characterize key APE1 catalytic residues that are potentially functionally similar to Nfo active site components, as further tested and supported by computational analyses. We observe a magnesium-water cluster in the APE1 active site, with only Glu-96 forming the direct protein coordination to the Mg(2+). Despite differences in structure and metal requirements of APE1 and Nfo, comparison of their active site structures surprisingly reveals strong geometric conservation of the catalytic reaction, with APE1 catalytic side chains positioned analogously to Nfo metal positions, suggesting surprising functional equivalence between Nfo metal ions and APE1 residues. The finding that APE1 residues are positioned to substitute for Nfo metal ions is supported by the impact of mutations on activity. Collectively, the results illuminate the activities of residues, metal ions, and active site features for abasic site endonucleases.

  8. Characterization of DNA substrate specificities of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Abeldenov, Sailau; Talhaoui, Ibtissam; Zharkov, Dmitry O; Ishchenko, Alexander A; Ramanculov, Erlan; Saparbaev, Murat; Khassenov, Bekbolat

    2015-09-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases are key enzymes involved in the repair of abasic sites and DNA strand breaks. Pathogenic bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains two AP endonucleases: MtbXthA and MtbNfo members of the exonuclease III and endonuclease IV families, which are exemplified by Escherichia coli Xth and Nfo, respectively. It has been shown that both MtbXthA and MtbNfo contain AP endonuclease and 3'→5' exonuclease activities. However, it remains unclear whether these enzymes hold 3'-repair phosphodiesterase and nucleotide incision repair (NIR) activities. Here, we report that both mycobacterial enzymes have 3'-repair phosphodiesterase and 3'-phosphatase, and MtbNfo contains in addition a very weak NIR activity. Interestingly, depending on pH, both enzymes require different concentrations of divalent cations: 0.5mM MnCl2 at pH 7.6 and 10 mM at pH 6.5. MtbXthA requires a low ionic strength and 37 °C, while MtbNfo requires high ionic strength (200 mM KCl) and has a temperature optimum at 60 °C. Point mutation analysis showed that D180 and N182 in MtbXthA and H206 and E129 in MtbNfo are critical for enzymes activities. The steady-state kinetic parameters indicate that MtbXthA removes 3'-blocking sugar-phosphate and 3'-phosphate moieties at DNA strand breaks with an extremely high efficiency (kcat/KM=440 and 1280 μM(-1)∙min(-1), respectively), while MtbNfo exhibits much lower 3'-repair activities (kcat/KM=0.26 and 0.65 μM(-1)∙min(-1), respectively). Surprisingly, both MtbXthA and MtbNfo exhibited very weak AP site cleavage activities, with kinetic parameters 100- and 300-fold lower, respectively, as compared with the results reported previously. Expression of MtbXthA and MtbNfo reduced the sensitivity of AP endonuclease-deficient E. coli xth nfo strain to methylmethanesulfonate and H2O2 to various degrees. Taken together, these data establish the DNA substrate specificity of M. tuberculosis AP endonucleases and suggest their possible role

  9. The N-Terminal Domain of the Arenavirus L Protein Is an RNA Endonuclease Essential in mRNA Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Benjamin; Coutard, Bruno; Lelke, Michaela; Ferron, François; Kerber, Romy; Jamal, Saïd; Frangeul, Antoine; Baronti, Cécile; Charrel, Rémi; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Vonrhein, Clemens; Lescar, Julien; Bricogne, Gérard; Günther, Stephan; Canard, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Arenaviridae synthesize viral mRNAs using short capped primers presumably acquired from cellular transcripts by a ‘cap-snatching’ mechanism. Here, we report the crystal structure and functional characterization of the N-terminal 196 residues (NL1) of the L protein from the prototypic arenavirus: lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. The NL1 domain is able to bind and cleave RNA. The 2.13 Å resolution crystal structure of NL1 reveals a type II endonuclease α/β architecture similar to the N-terminal end of the influenza virus PA protein. Superimposition of both structures, mutagenesis and reverse genetics studies reveal a unique spatial arrangement of key active site residues related to the PD…(D/E)XK type II endonuclease signature sequence. We show that this endonuclease domain is conserved and active across the virus families Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae and Orthomyxoviridae and propose that the arenavirus NL1 domain is the Arenaviridae cap-snatching endonuclease. PMID:20862324

  10. Restricting retrotransposons: a review.

    PubMed

    Goodier, John L

    2016-01-01

    Retrotransposons have generated about 40 % of the human genome. This review examines the strategies the cell has evolved to coexist with these genomic "parasites", focussing on the non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons of humans and mice. Some of the restriction factors for retrotransposition, including the APOBECs, MOV10, RNASEL, SAMHD1, TREX1, and ZAP, also limit replication of retroviruses, including HIV, and are part of the intrinsic immune system of the cell. Many of these proteins act in the cytoplasm to degrade retroelement RNA or inhibit its translation. Some factors act in the nucleus and involve DNA repair enzymes or epigenetic processes of DNA methylation and histone modification. RISC and piRNA pathway proteins protect the germline. Retrotransposon control is relaxed in some cell types, such as neurons in the brain, stem cells, and in certain types of disease and cancer, with implications for human health and disease. This review also considers potential pitfalls in interpreting retrotransposon-related data, as well as issues to consider for future research. PMID:27525044

  11. Highlights of the DNA cutters: a short history of the restriction enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Loenen, Wil A. M.; Dryden, David T. F.; Raleigh, Elisabeth A.; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Murray, Noreen E.

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1950’s, ‘host-controlled variation in bacterial viruses’ was reported as a non-hereditary phenomenon: one cycle of viral growth on certain bacterial hosts affected the ability of progeny virus to grow on other hosts by either restricting or enlarging their host range. Unlike mutation, this change was reversible, and one cycle of growth in the previous host returned the virus to its original form. These simple observations heralded the discovery of the endonuclease and methyltransferase activities of what are now termed Type I, II, III and IV DNA restriction-modification systems. The Type II restriction enzymes (e.g. EcoRI) gave rise to recombinant DNA technology that has transformed molecular biology and medicine. This review traces the discovery of restriction enzymes and their continuing impact on molecular biology and medicine. PMID:24141096

  12. Design and analysis of site-specific single-strand nicking endonucleases for gene correction.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Michael J; Certo, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Single-strand nicking endonucleases ("nickases") have been shown to induce homology-mediated gene correction with reduced toxicity of DNA double-strand break-producing enzymes, and nickases have been engineered from both homing endonuclease and FokI-based scaffolds. We describe the strategies used to engineer these site-specific nickases as well as the in vitro methods used to confirm their activity and specificity. Additionally, we describe the Traffic Light Reporter system, which uses a flow cytometric assay to simultaneously detect both gene repair and mutagenic nonhomologous end-joining outcomes at a single targeted site in mammalian cells. With these methods, novel nickases can be designed and tested for use in gene correction with novel target sites. PMID:24557907

  13. Analysis of DNA structure and sequence requirements for Pseudomonas aeruginosa MutL endonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Correa, Elisa M E; De Tullio, Luisina; Vélez, Pablo S; Martina, Mariana A; Argaraña, Carlos E; Barra, José L

    2013-12-01

    The hallmark of the mismatch repair system in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms devoid of MutH is the presence of a MutL homologue with endonuclease activity. The aim of this study was to analyse whether different DNA structures affect Pseudomonas aeruginosa MutL (PaMutL) endonuclease activity and to determine if a specific nucleotide sequence is required for this activity. Our results showed that PaMutL was able to nick covalently closed circular plasmids but not linear DNA at high ionic strengths, while the activity on linear DNA was only found below 60 mM salt. In addition, single strand DNA, ss/ds DNA boundaries and negatively supercoiling degree were not required for PaMutL nicking activity. Finally, the analysis of the incision sites revealed that PaMutL, as well as Bacillus thuringiensis MutL homologue, did not show DNA sequence specificity. PMID:23969026

  14. Perpetuating the homing endonuclease life cycle: identification of mutations that modulate and change I-TevI cleavage preference

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Alexander C.; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Edgell, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Homing endonucleases are sequence-tolerant DNA endonucleases that act as mobile genetic elements. The ability of homing endonucleases to cleave substrates with multiple nucleotide substitutions suggests a high degree of adaptability in that changing or modulating cleavage preference would require relatively few amino acid substitutions. Here, using directed evolution experiments with the GIY-YIG homing endonuclease I-TevI that targets the thymidylate synthase gene of phage T4, we readily isolated variants that dramatically broadened I-TevI cleavage preference, as well as variants that fine-tuned cleavage preference. By combining substitutions, we observed an ∼10 000-fold improvement in cleavage on some substrates not cleaved by the wild-type enzyme, correlating with a decrease in readout of information content at the cleavage site. Strikingly, we were able to change the cleavage preference of I-TevI to that of the isoschizomer I-BmoI which targets a different cleavage site in the thymidylate synthase gene, recapitulating the evolution of cleavage preference in this family of homing endonucleases. Our results define a strategy to isolate GIY-YIG nuclease domains with distinct cleavage preferences, and provide insight into how homing endonucleases may escape a dead-end life cycle in a population of saturated target sites by promoting transposition to different target sites. PMID:27387281

  15. Karyopherin-Mediated Nuclear Import of the Homing Endonuclease VMA1-Derived Endonuclease Is Required for Self-Propagation of the Coding Region

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Yuri; Nogami, Satoru; Kumagai-Sano, Fumi; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2003-01-01

    VMA1-derived endonuclease (VDE), a site-specific endonuclease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enters the nucleus to generate a double-strand break in the VDE-negative allelic locus, mediating the self-propagating gene conversion called homing. Although VDE is excluded from the nucleus in mitotic cells, it relocalizes at premeiosis, becoming localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm in meiosis. The nuclear localization of VDE is induced by inactivation of TOR kinases, which constitute central regulators of cell differentiation in S. cerevisiae, and by nutrient depletion. A functional genomic approach revealed that at least two karyopherins, Srp1p and Kap142p, are required for the nuclear localization pattern. Genetic and physical interactions between Srp1p and VDE imply direct involvement of karyopherin-mediated nuclear transport in this process. Inactivation of TOR signaling or acquisition of an extra nuclear localization signal in the VDE coding region leads to artificial nuclear localization of VDE and thereby induces homing even during mitosis. These results serve as evidence that VDE utilizes the host systems of nutrient signal transduction and nucleocytoplasmic transport to ensure the propagation of its coding region. PMID:12588991

  16. Structure Determination and Biochemical Characterization of a Putative HNH Endonuclease from Geobacter metallireducens GS-15

    PubMed Central

    Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Gutjahr, Alice; Chan, Siu-Hong; Chen, Yang; Xiao, Rong; Acton, Thomas B.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Tong, Liang

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of a putative HNH endonuclease, Gmet_0936 protein from Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, has been determined at 2.6 Å resolution using single-wavelength anomalous dispersion method. The structure contains a two-stranded anti-parallel β-sheet that are surrounded by two helices on each face, and reveals a Zn ion bound in each monomer, coordinated by residues Cys38, Cys41, Cys73, and Cys76, which likely plays an important structural role in stabilizing the overall conformation. Structural homologs of Gmet_0936 include Hpy99I endonuclease, phage T4 endonuclease VII, and other HNH endonucleases, with these enzymes sharing 15–20% amino acid sequence identity. An overlay of Gmet_0936 and Hpy99I structures shows that most of the secondary structure elements, catalytic residues as well as the zinc binding site (zinc ribbon) are conserved. However, Gmet_0936 lacks the N-terminal domain of Hpy99I, which mediates DNA binding as well as dimerization. Purified Gmet_0936 forms dimers in solution and a dimer of the protein is observed in the crystal, but with a different mode of dimerization as compared to Hpy99I. Gmet_0936 and its N77H variant show a weak DNA binding activity in a DNA mobility shift assay and a weak Mn2+-dependent nicking activity on supercoiled plasmids in low pH buffers. The preferred substrate appears to be acid and heat-treated DNA with AP sites, suggesting Gmet_0936 may be a DNA repair enzyme. PMID:24039739

  17. Modulation of the DNA scanning activity of the Micrococcus luteus UV endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, R.W.; Lloyd, R.S. )

    1989-10-15

    Micrococcus luteus UV endonuclease incises DNA at the sites of ultraviolet (UV) light-induced pyrimidine dimers. The mechanism of incision has been previously shown to be a glycosylic bond cleavage at the 5'-pyrimidine of the dimer followed by an apyrimidine endonuclease activity which cleaves the phosphodiester backbone between the pyrimidines. The process by which M. luteus UV endonuclease locates pyrimidine dimers within a population of UV-irradiated plasmids was shown to occur, in vitro, by a processive or sliding mechanism on non-target DNA as opposed to a distributive or random hit mechanism. Form I plasmid DNA containing 25 dimers per molecule was incubated with M. luteus UV endonuclease in time course reactions. The three topological forms of plasmid DNA generated were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. When the enzyme encounters a pyrimidine dimer, it is significantly more likely to make only the glycosylase cleavage as opposed to making both the glycosylic and phosphodiester bond cleavages. Thus, plasmids are accumulated with many alkaline-labile sites relative to single-stranded breaks. In addition, reactions were performed at both pH 8.0 and pH 6.0, in the absence of NaCl, as well as 25,100, and 250 mM NaCl. The efficiency of the DNA scanning reaction was shown to be dependent on both the ionic strength and pH of the reaction. At low ionic strengths, the reaction was shown to proceed by a processive mechanism and shifted to a distributive mechanism as the ionic strength of the reaction increased. Processivity at pH 8.0 is shown to be more sensitive to increases in ionic strength than reactions performed at pH 6.0.

  18. A Ribonucleoprotein Complex Protects the Interleukin-6 mRNA from Degradation by Distinct Herpesviral Endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Mandy; Hutin, Stephanie; Marigold, Oliver; Li, Kathy H.; Burlingame, Al; Glaunsinger, Britt A.

    2015-01-01

    During lytic Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, the viral endonuclease SOX promotes widespread degradation of cytoplasmic messenger RNA (mRNA). However, select mRNAs escape SOX-induced cleavage and remain robustly expressed. Prominent among these is interleukin-6 (IL-6), a growth factor important for survival of KSHV infected B cells. IL-6 escape is notable because it contains a sequence within its 3’ untranslated region (UTR) that can confer protection when transferred to a SOX-targeted mRNA, and thus overrides the endonuclease targeting mechanism. Here, we pursued how this protective RNA element functions to maintain mRNA stability. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified a set of proteins that associate specifically with the protective element. Although multiple proteins contributed to the escape mechanism, depletion of nucleolin (NCL) most severely impacted protection. NCL was re-localized out of the nucleolus during lytic KSHV infection, and its presence in the cytoplasm was required for protection. After loading onto the IL-6 3’ UTR, NCL differentially bound to the translation initiation factor eIF4H. Disrupting this interaction, or depleting eIF4H, reinstated SOX targeting of the RNA, suggesting that interactions between proteins bound to distant regions of the mRNA are important for escape. Finally, we found that the IL-6 3’ UTR was also protected against mRNA degradation by the vhs endonuclease encoded by herpes simplex virus, despite the fact that its mechanism of mRNA targeting is distinct from SOX. These findings highlight how a multitude of RNA-protein interactions can impact endonuclease targeting, and identify new features underlying the regulation of the IL-6 mRNA. PMID:25965334

  19. A ribonucleoprotein complex protects the interleukin-6 mRNA from degradation by distinct herpesviral endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Muller, Mandy; Hutin, Stephanie; Marigold, Oliver; Li, Kathy H; Burlingame, Al; Glaunsinger, Britt A

    2015-05-01

    During lytic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, the viral endonuclease SOX promotes widespread degradation of cytoplasmic messenger RNA (mRNA). However, select mRNAs escape SOX-induced cleavage and remain robustly expressed. Prominent among these is interleukin-6 (IL-6), a growth factor important for survival of KSHV infected B cells. IL-6 escape is notable because it contains a sequence within its 3' untranslated region (UTR) that can confer protection when transferred to a SOX-targeted mRNA, and thus overrides the endonuclease targeting mechanism. Here, we pursued how this protective RNA element functions to maintain mRNA stability. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified a set of proteins that associate specifically with the protective element. Although multiple proteins contributed to the escape mechanism, depletion of nucleolin (NCL) most severely impacted protection. NCL was re-localized out of the nucleolus during lytic KSHV infection, and its presence in the cytoplasm was required for protection. After loading onto the IL-6 3' UTR, NCL differentially bound to the translation initiation factor eIF4H. Disrupting this interaction, or depleting eIF4H, reinstated SOX targeting of the RNA, suggesting that interactions between proteins bound to distant regions of the mRNA are important for escape. Finally, we found that the IL-6 3' UTR was also protected against mRNA degradation by the vhs endonuclease encoded by herpes simplex virus, despite the fact that its mechanism of mRNA targeting is distinct from SOX. These findings highlight how a multitude of RNA-protein interactions can impact endonuclease targeting, and identify new features underlying the regulation of the IL-6 mRNA. PMID:25965334

  20. Structure of the Endonuclease Domain of MutL: Unlicensed to Cut

    SciTech Connect

    Pillon, M.; Lorenowicz, J; Uckelmann, M; Klocko, A; Chung, Y; Modrich, P; Walker, G; Simmons, L; Friedhoff, P; Guarne, A

    2010-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair corrects errors that have escaped polymerase proofreading, increasing replication fidelity 100- to 1000-fold in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. The MutL protein plays a central role in mismatch repair by coordinating multiple protein-protein interactions that signal strand removal upon mismatch recognition by MutS. Here we report the crystal structure of the endonuclease domain of Bacillus subtilis MutL. The structure is organized in dimerization and regulatory subdomains connected by a helical lever spanning the conserved endonuclease motif. Additional conserved motifs cluster around the lever and define a Zn{sup 2+}-binding site that is critical for MutL function in vivo. The structure unveils a powerful inhibitory mechanism to prevent undesired nicking of newly replicated DNA and allows us to propose a model describing how the interaction with MutS and the processivity clamp could license the endonuclease activity of MutL. The structure also provides a molecular framework to propose and test additional roles of MutL in mismatch repair.

  1. Shade avoidance 6 encodes an Arabidopsis flap endonuclease required for maintenance of genome integrity and development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yijuan; Wen, Chunhong; Liu, Songbai; Zheng, Li; Shen, Binghui; Tao, Yi

    2016-02-18

    Flap endonuclease-1 (FEN1) belongs to the Rad2 family of structure-specific nucleases. It is required for several DNA metabolic pathways, including DNA replication and DNA damage repair. Here, we have identified a shade avoidance mutant, sav6, which reduces the mRNA splicing efficiency of SAV6. We have demonstrated that SAV6 is an FEN1 homologue that shows double-flap endonuclease and gap-dependent endonuclease activity, but lacks exonuclease activity. sav6 mutants are hypersensitive to DNA damage induced by ultraviolet (UV)-C radiation and reagents that induce double-stranded DNA breaks, but exhibit normal responses to chemicals that block DNA replication. Signalling components that respond to DNA damage are constitutively activated in sav6 mutants. These data indicate that SAV6 is required for DNA damage repair and the maintenance of genome integrity. Mutant sav6 plants also show reduced root apical meristem (RAM) size and defective quiescent centre (QC) development. The expression of SMR7, a cell cycle regulatory gene, and ERF115 and PSK5, regulators of QC division, is increased in sav6 mutants. Their constitutive induction is likely due to the elevated DNA damage responses in sav6 and may lead to defects in the development of the RAM and QC. Therefore, SAV6 assures proper root development through maintenance of genome integrity. PMID:26721386

  2. Shade avoidance 6 encodes an Arabidopsis flap endonuclease required for maintenance of genome integrity and development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yijuan; Wen, Chunhong; Liu, Songbai; Zheng, Li; Shen, Binghui; Tao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Flap endonuclease-1 (FEN1) belongs to the Rad2 family of structure-specific nucleases. It is required for several DNA metabolic pathways, including DNA replication and DNA damage repair. Here, we have identified a shade avoidance mutant, sav6, which reduces the mRNA splicing efficiency of SAV6. We have demonstrated that SAV6 is an FEN1 homologue that shows double-flap endonuclease and gap-dependent endonuclease activity, but lacks exonuclease activity. sav6 mutants are hypersensitive to DNA damage induced by ultraviolet (UV)-C radiation and reagents that induce double-stranded DNA breaks, but exhibit normal responses to chemicals that block DNA replication. Signalling components that respond to DNA damage are constitutively activated in sav6 mutants. These data indicate that SAV6 is required for DNA damage repair and the maintenance of genome integrity. Mutant sav6 plants also show reduced root apical meristem (RAM) size and defective quiescent centre (QC) development. The expression of SMR7, a cell cycle regulatory gene, and ERF115 and PSK5, regulators of QC division, is increased in sav6 mutants. Their constitutive induction is likely due to the elevated DNA damage responses in sav6 and may lead to defects in the development of the RAM and QC. Therefore, SAV6 assures proper root development through maintenance of genome integrity. PMID:26721386

  3. Investigation of the salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone scaffold for inhibition of influenza virus PA endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Rogolino, Dominga; Bacchi, Alessia; De Luca, Laura; Rispoli, Gabriele; Sechi, Mario; Stevaert, Annelies; Naesens, Lieve; Carcelli, Mauro

    2015-10-01

    The influenza virus PA endonuclease is an attractive target for the development of novel anti-influenza virus therapeutics, which are urgently needed because of the emergence of drug-resistant viral strains. Reported PA inhibitors are assumed to chelate the divalent metal ion(s) (Mg²⁺ or Mn²⁺) in the enzyme's catalytic site, which is located in the N-terminal part of PA (PA-Nter). In the present work, a series of salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit the PA-Nter catalytic activity. Compounds 1-6 have been evaluated against influenza virus, both in enzymatic assays with influenza virus PA-Nter and in virus yield assays in MDCK cells. In order to establish a structure-activity relationship, the hydrazone analogue of the most active thiosemicarbazone has also been evaluated. Since chelation may represent a mode of action of such class of molecules, we studied the interaction of two of them, one with and one without biological activity versus the PA enzyme, towards Mg²⁺, the ion that is probably involved in the endonuclease activity of the heterotrimeric influenza polymerase complex. The crystal structure of the magnesium complex of the o-vanillin thiosemicarbazone ligand 1 is also described. Moreover, docking studies of PA endonuclease with compounds 1 and 2 were performed, to further analyse the possible mechanism of action of this class of inhibitors. PMID:26323352

  4. Interaction of the intron-encoded mobility endonuclease I-PpoI with its target site.

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, E L; Vogt, V M

    1993-01-01

    Endonucleases encoded by mobile group I introns are highly specific DNases that induce a double-strand break near the site to which the intron moves. I-PpoI from the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum mediates the mobility of intron 3 (Pp LSU 3) in the extrachromosomal nuclear ribosomal DNA of this organism. We showed previously that cleavage by I-PpoI creates a four-base staggered cut near the point of intron insertion. We have now characterized several further properties of the endonuclease. As determined by deletion analysis, the minimal target site recognized by I-PopI was a sequence of 13 to 15 bp spanning the cleavage site. The purified protein behaved as a globular dimer in sedimentation and gel filtration. In gel mobility shift assays in the presence of EDTA, I-PpoI formed a stable and specific complex with DNA, dissociating with a half-life of 45 min. By footprinting and interference assays with methidiumpropyl-EDTA-iron(II), I-PpoI contacted a 22- to 24-bp stretch of DNA. The endonuclease protected most of the purines found in both the major and minor grooves of the DNA helix from modification by dimethyl sulfate (DMS). However, the reactivity to DMS was enhanced at some purines, suggesting that binding leads to a conformational change in the DNA. The pattern of DMS protection differed fundamentally in the two partially symmetrical halves of the recognition sequence. Images PMID:8246971

  5. Structural and Thermodymamic Basis for Enhanced DNA Binding by a Promiscuous Mutant EcoRI Endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Sapienza,P.; Rosenberg, J.; Jen-Jacobson, L.

    2007-01-01

    Promiscuous mutant EcoRI endonucleases bind to the canonical site GAATTC more tightly than does the wild-type endonuclease, yet cleave variant (EcoRI*) sites more rapidly than does wild-type. The crystal structure of the A138T promiscuous mutant homodimer in complex with a GAATTC site is nearly identical to that of the wild-type complex, except that the Thr138 side chains make packing interactions with bases in the 5'-flanking regions outside the recognition hexanucleotide while excluding two bound water molecules seen in the wild-type complex. Molecular dynamics simulations confirm exclusion of these waters. The structure and simulations suggest possible reasons why binding of the A138T protein to the GAATTC site has S more favorable and H less favorable than for wild-type endonuclease binding. The interactions of Thr138 with flanking bases may permit A138T, unlike wild-type enzyme, to form complexes with EcoRI* sites that structurally resemble the specific wild-type complex with GAATTC.

  6. A novel endonuclease that may be responsible for damaged DNA base repair in Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Miyako; Ishino, Sonoko; Yamagami, Takeshi; Egashira, Yuriko; Kiyonari, Shinichi; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2015-01-01

    DNA is constantly damaged by endogenous and environmental influences. Deaminated adenine (hypoxanthine) tends to pair with cytosine and leads to the A:T→G:C transition mutation during DNA replication. Endonuclease V (EndoV) hydrolyzes the second phosphodiester bond 3′ from deoxyinosine in the DNA strand, and was considered to be responsible for hypoxanthine excision repair. However, the downstream pathway after EndoV cleavage remained unclear. The activity to cleave the phosphodiester bond 5′ from deoxyinosine was detected in a Pyrococcus furiosus cell extract. The protein encoded by PF1551, obtained from the mass spectrometry analysis of the purified fraction, exhibited the corresponding cleavage activity. A putative homolog from Thermococcus kodakarensis (TK0887) showed the same activity. Further biochemical analyses revealed that the purified PF1551 and TK0887 proteins recognize uracil, xanthine and the AP site, in addition to hypoxanthine. We named this endonuclease Endonuclease Q (EndoQ), as it may be involved in damaged base repair in the Thermococcals of Archaea. PMID:25694513

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a Thermostable Endonuclease IV from Thermotoga maritima

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, Leighton; Tomanicek, Stephen J; Hughes, Ronny C; NG, Joseph D; Demarse, Neil A

    2009-01-01

    The DNA repair enzyme Endonuclease IV from the thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga Maritima MSB8 (reference sequence: NC_000853) has been expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized for X ray analysis. Thermotoga maritima Endonuclease IV is a 287 amino acid protein with 32% sequence identity to the Escherichia coli Endonuclease IV. The protein was purified to homogeneity and was crystallized using the sitting drop vapor diffusion method. The protein crystallized in the space group P61, with a composition of one biological molecule in the asymmetric unit corresponding to a Mathew s coefficient of 2.39 and a 47% solvent fraction. The unit cell parameters for the crystals are a = 123.23 , b = 123.23 , c = 35.34 , = = 90 , = 120 . Microseeding and further optimization yielded crystals with an X ray diffraction limit of 2.4 . A single 70 data set was collected and processed resulting in an overall Rmerge and completeness of 9.5% and 99.3% respectively.

  8. Real-time quantitative nicking endonuclease-mediated isothermal amplification with small molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Wang, Chenguang; Zhu, Pengyu; Guo, Tianxiao; Xu, Yuancong; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2016-04-21

    Techniques of isothermal amplification have recently made great strides, and have generated significant interest in the field of point-of-care detection. Nicking endonuclease-mediated isothermal amplification (NEMA) is an example of simple isothermal technology. In this paper, a real-time quantitative nicking endonuclease-mediated isothermal amplification with small molecular beacons (SMB-NEMA) of improved specificity and sensitivity is described. First, we optimized the prohibition of de novo synthesis by choosing Nt·BstNBI endonuclease. Second, the whole genome was successfully amplified with Nt·BstNBI (6 U), betaine (1 M) and trehalose (60 mM) for the first time. Third, we achieved 10 pg sensitivity for the first time after adding a small molecular beacon that spontaneously undergoes a conformational change when hybridizing to target, and the practical test validated the assay's application. The small molecular beacon has a similar melting temperature to the reaction temperature, but is approximately 10 bp shorter than the length of a traditional molecular beacon. A new threshold regulation was also established for isothermal conditions. Finally, we established a thermodynamic model for designing small molecular beacons. This multistate model is more correct than the traditional algorithm. This theoretical and practical basis will help us to monitor SMB-NEMA in a quantitative way. In summary, our SMB-NEMA method allows the simple, specific and sensitive assessment of isothermal DNA quantification. PMID:27027375

  9. Mutations Affecting the Trna-Splicing Endonuclease Activity of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Winey, M.; Culbertson, M. R.

    1988-01-01

    Two unlinked mutations that alter the enzyme activity of tRNA-splicing endonuclease have been identified in yeast. The sen1-1 mutation, which maps on chromosome 12, causes temperature-sensitive growth, reduced in vitro endonuclease activity, and in vivo accumulation of unspliced pre-tRNAs. The sen2-1 mutation does not confer a detectable growth defect, but causes a temperature-dependent reduction of in vitro endonuclease activity. Pre-tRNAs do not accumulate in sen2-1 strains. The in vitro enzyme activities of sen1-1 and sen2-1 complement in extracts from a heterozygous diploid, but fail to complement in mixed extracts from separate sen1-1 and sen2-1 haploid strains. These results suggest a direct role for SEN gene products in the enzymatic removal of introns from tRNA that is distinct from the role of other products known to affect tRNA splicing. PMID:3284787

  10. The phosphate clamp: sequence selective nucleic acid binding profiles and conformational induction of endonuclease inhibition by cationic Triplatin complexes

    PubMed Central

    Prisecaru, Andreea; Molphy, Zara; Kipping, Ralph G.; Peterson, Erica J.; Qu, Yun; Kellett, Andrew; Farrell, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    The substitution-inert polynuclear platinum(II) complex (PPC) series, [{trans-Pt(NH3)2(NH2(CH2)nNH3)}2-μ-(trans-Pt(NH3)2(NH2(CH2)nNH2)2}](NO3)8, where n = 5 (AH78P), 6 (AH78 TriplatinNC) and 7 (AH78H), are potent non-covalent DNA binding agents where nucleic acid recognition is achieved through use of the ‘phosphate clamp' where the square-planar tetra-am(m)ine Pt(II) coordination units all form bidentate N–O–N complexes through hydrogen bonding with phosphate oxygens. The modular nature of PPC–DNA interactions results in high affinity for calf thymus DNA (Kapp ∼5 × 107 M−1). The phosphate clamp–DNA interactions result in condensation of superhelical and B-DNA, displacement of intercalated ethidium bromide and facilitate cooperative binding of Hoechst 33258 at the minor groove. The effect of linker chain length on DNA conformational changes was examined and the pentane-bridged complex, AH78P, was optimal for condensing DNA with results in the nanomolar region. Analysis of binding affinity and conformational changes for sequence-specific oligonucleotides by ITC, dialysis, ICP-MS, CD and 2D-1H NMR experiments indicate that two limiting modes of phosphate clamp binding can be distinguished through their conformational changes and strongly suggest that DNA condensation is driven by minor-groove spanning. Triplatin-DNA binding prevents endonuclease activity by type II restriction enzymes BamHI, EcoRI and SalI, and inhibition was confirmed through the development of an on-chip microfluidic protocol. PMID:25414347

  11. The BsaHI restriction-modification system: Cloning, sequencing and analysis of conserved motifs

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Robert K; Roberts, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Background Restriction and modification enzymes typically recognise short DNA sequences of between two and eight bases in length. Understanding the mechanism of this recognition represents a significant challenge that we begin to address for the BsaHI restriction-modification system, which recognises the six base sequence GRCGYC. Results The DNA sequences of the genes for the BsaHI methyltransferase, bsaHIM, and restriction endonuclease, bsaHIR, have been determined (GenBank accession #EU386360), cloned and expressed in E. coli. Both the restriction endonuclease and methyltransferase enzymes share significant similarity with a group of 6 other enzymes comprising the restriction-modification systems HgiDI and HgiGI and the putative HindVP, NlaCORFDP, NpuORFC228P and SplZORFNP restriction-modification systems. A sequence alignment of these homologues shows that their amino acid sequences are largely conserved and highlights several motifs of interest. We target one such conserved motif, reading SPERRFD, at the C-terminal end of the bsaHIR gene. A mutational analysis of these amino acids indicates that the motif is crucial for enzymatic activity. Sequence alignment of the methyltransferase gene reveals a short motif within the target recognition domain that is conserved among enzymes recognising the same sequences. Thus, this motif may be used as a diagnostic tool to define the recognition sequences of the cytosine C5 methyltransferases. Conclusion We have cloned and sequenced the BsaHI restriction and modification enzymes. We have identified a region of the R. BsaHI enzyme that is crucial for its activity. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of the BsaHI methyltransferase enzyme led us to propose two new motifs that can be used in the diagnosis of the recognition sequence of the cytosine C5-methyltransferases. PMID:18479503

  12. Redox regulation of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 activity in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats during spontaneous hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Karmahapatra, Soumendra Krishna; Saha, Tapas; Adhikari, Sanjay; Woodrick, Jordan; Roy, Rabindra

    2014-03-01

    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat is an animal model for Wilson's disease. This animal is genetically predisposed to copper accumulation in the liver, increased oxidative stress, accumulation of DNA damage, and the spontaneous development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, this animal model is useful for studying the relationship of endogenous DNA damage to spontaneous carcinogenesis. In this study, we have investigated the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1)-mediated excision repair of endogenous DNA damage, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP)-sites, which is highly mutagenic and implicated in human cancer. We found that the activity was reduced in the liver extracts from the acute hepatitis period of LEC rats as compared with extracts from the age-matched Long-Evans Agouti rats. The acute hepatitis period had also a heightened oxidative stress condition as assessed by an increase in oxidized glutathione level and loss of enzyme activity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a key redox-sensitive protein in cells. Interestingly, the activity reduction was not due to changes in protein expression but apparently by reversible protein oxidation as the addition of reducing agents to extracts of the liver from acute hepatitis period reactivated APE1 activity and thus, confirmed the oxidation-mediated loss of APE1 activity under increased oxidative stress. These findings show for the first time in an animal model that the repair mechanism of AP-sites is impaired by increased oxidative stress in acute hepatitis via redox regulation which contributed to the increased accumulation of mutagenic AP-sites in liver DNA. PMID:24337968

  13. CHIP has a protective role against oxidative stress-induced cell death through specific regulation of endonuclease G.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Seo, T W; Yi, J H; Shin, K S; Yoo, S J

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in carcinogenesis, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases. The E3 ligase C terminus of Hsc-70 interacting protein (CHIP) has a protective role against various stresses by targeting damaged proteins for proteasomal degradation, and thus maintains protein quality control. However, the detailed mechanism by which CHIP protects cells from oxidative stress has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that depletion of CHIP led to elevated Endonuclease G (EndoG) levels and enhanced cell death upon oxidative stress. In contrast, CHIP overexpression reduced EndoG levels, and resulted in reduced or no oxidative stress-induced cell death in cancer cells and primary rat cortical neurons. Under normal conditions Hsp70 mediated the interaction between EndoG and CHIP, downregulating EndoG levels in a Hsp70/proteasome-dependent manner. However, under oxidative stress Hsp70 no longer interacted with EndoG, and the stabilized EndoG translocated to the nucleus and degraded chromosomal DNA. Our data suggest that regulation of the level of EndoG by CHIP in normal conditions may determine the sensitivity to cell death upon oxidative stress. Indeed, injection of H2O2 into the rat brain markedly increased cell death in aged mice compared with young mice, which correlated with elevated levels of EndoG and concurrent downregulation of CHIP in aged mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a novel protective mechanism of CHIP against oxidative stress through regulation of EndoG, and provide an opportunity to modulate oxidative stress-induced cell death in cancer and aging. PMID:23764847

  14. Bacterial CRISPR/Cas DNA endonucleases: A revolutionary technology that could dramatically impact viral research and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Edward M.; Cullen, Bryan R.

    2015-05-15

    CRISPR/Cas systems mediate bacterial adaptive immune responses that evolved to protect bacteria from bacteriophage and other horizontally transmitted genetic elements. Several CRISPR/Cas systems exist but the simplest variant, referred to as Type II, has a single effector DNA endonuclease, called Cas9, which is guided to its viral DNA target by two small RNAs, the crRNA and the tracrRNA. Initial efforts to adapt the CRISPR/Cas system for DNA editing in mammalian cells, which focused on the Cas9 protein from Streptococcus pyogenes (Spy), demonstrated that Spy Cas9 can be directed to DNA targets in mammalian cells by tracrRNA:crRNA fusion transcripts called single guide RNAs (sgRNA). Upon binding, Cas9 induces DNA cleavage leading to mutagenesis as a result of error prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Recently, the Spy Cas9 system has been adapted for high throughput screening of genes in human cells for their relevance to a particular phenotype and, more generally, for the targeted inactivation of specific genes, in cell lines and in vivo in a number of model organisms. The latter aim seems likely to be greatly enhanced by the recent development of Cas9 proteins from bacterial species such as Neisseria meningitidis and Staphyloccus aureus that are small enough to be expressed using adeno-associated (AAV)-based vectors that can be readily prepared at very high titers. The evolving Cas9-based DNA editing systems therefore appear likely to not only impact virology by allowing researchers to screen for human genes that affect the replication of pathogenic human viruses of all types but also to derive clonal human cell lines that lack individual gene products that either facilitate or restrict viral replication. Moreover, high titer AAV-based vectors offer the possibility of directly targeting DNA viruses that infect discrete sites in the human body, such as herpes simplex virus and hepatitis B virus, with the hope that the entire population of viral DNA genomes

  15. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms distinguish Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis isolates from different geographical locations.

    PubMed Central

    Zuerner, R L; Ellis, W A; Bolin, C A; Montgomery, J M

    1993-01-01

    Genetic variability among Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis isolates representing several geographical regions was determined by restriction endonuclease analysis. Five previously unidentified EcoRI digestion patterns and one previously unidentified HhaI digestion pattern were seen with the various isolates. The copy number and genomic distribution of an L. borgpetersenii insertion sequence (IS1533) was determined. Hardjo-bovis isolate 033 (the type strain for hardjo-bovis) contained 40 well dispersed copies of IS1533. IS1533 probes were used to compare hardjo-bovis isolates by DNA blot hybridization analysis. Use of these probes showed the presence of additional genetic heterogeneity among hardjo-bovis isolates, which restriction endonuclease analysis did not show. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis of DNAs from several isolates suggested that some polymorphisms arose by genomic rearrangements. All hardjo-bovis isolates were categorized into 14 distinct groups on the basis of common hybridization and endonuclease digestion patterns. Most of these groups were isolated from distinct geographical regions, suggesting that several different clonal populations of hardjo-bovis exist. Images PMID:7681437

  16. Human SLX4 is a Holliday junction resolvase subunit that binds multiple DNA repair/recombination endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Fekairi, Samira; Scaglione, Sarah; Chahwan, Charly; Taylor, Ewan R; Tissier, Agnès; Coulon, Stéphane; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Ruse, Cristian; Yates, John R; Russell, Paul; Fuchs, Robert P; McGowan, Clare H; Gaillard, Pierre-Henri L

    2009-07-10

    Structure-specific endonucleases resolve DNA secondary structures generated during DNA repair and recombination. The yeast 5' flap endonuclease Slx1-Slx4 has received particular attention with the finding that Slx4 has Slx1-independent key functions in genome maintenance. Although Slx1 is a highly conserved protein in eukaryotes, no orthologs of Slx4 were reported other than in fungi. Here we report the identification of Slx4 orthologs in metazoa, including fly MUS312, essential for meiotic recombination, and human BTBD12, an ATM/ATR checkpoint kinase substrate. Human SLX1-SLX4 displays robust Holliday junction resolvase activity in addition to 5' flap endonuclease activity. Depletion of SLX1 and SLX4 results in 53BP1 foci accumulation and H2AX phosphorylation as well as cellular hypersensitivity to MMS. Furthermore, we show that SLX4 binds the XPF(ERCC4) and MUS81 subunits of the XPF-ERCC1 and MUS81-EME1 endonucleases and is required for DNA interstrand crosslink repair. We propose that SLX4 acts as a docking platform for multiple structure-specific endonucleases. PMID:19596236

  17. Interferon, double-stranded RNA, and RNA degradation: activation of an endonuclease by (2'-5')An.

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, E; Ghosh, N; Samanta, H; Lengyel, P

    1979-01-01

    Among the mediators of interferon action are one enzyme that is activated by double-stranded RNA to convert ATP to (2'-5')An and a second enzyme, an endonuclease, that is activated by (2'-5')An to cleave single-stranded RNA. The binding of (2'-5')An to the endonuclease (partially purified from mouse Ehrlich ascites tumor cells) is revealed by its retention on nitrocellulose filters. This can serve as the basis for an assay of the enzyme. Activation of the enzyme is reversible and is lost upon removal of (2'-5')An:gel filtration of activated endonuclease on Sephacryl S-200 results in an inactive enzyme. The enzyme can be activated again, however, by addition of (2'-5')An. The elution volume of the nonactivated endonuclease from Sephadex G-200 indicates that its molecular weight is 185,000, unusually large for a nuclease. The elution volume of the maximally activated endonuclease from Sephadex G-200 equilibrated with (2'-5')An is not detectably different from that of enzyme that had not been previously activated that was passed through Sephadex G-200 not equilibrated with (2'-5')An. This indicates that the activation does not result in a large change in the size or conformation of the enzyme. Images PMID:291897

  18. The heteromeric Nanoarchaeum equitans splicing endonuclease cleaves noncanonical bulge–helix–bulge motifs of joined tRNA halves

    PubMed Central

    Randau, Lennart; Calvin, Kate; Hall, Michelle; Yuan, Jing; Podar, Mircea; Li, Hong; Söll, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    Among the tRNA population of the archaeal parasite Nanoarchaeum equitans are five species assembled from separate 5′ and 3′ tRNA halves and four species derived from tRNA precursors containing introns. In both groups an intervening sequence element must be removed during tRNA maturation. A bulge–helix–bulge (BHB) motif is the hallmark structure required by the archaeal splicing endonuclease for recognition and excision of all introns. BHB motifs are recognizable at the joining sites of all five noncontinuous tRNA species, although deviations from the canonical BHB motif are clearly present in at least two of them. Here, we show that the N. equitans splicing endonuclease cleaves tRNA precursors containing normal introns, as well as all five noncontinuous precursor tRNAs, at the predicted splice sites, indicating the enzyme's dual role in the removal of tRNA introns and processing of tRNA halves to be joined in trans. The cleavage activity on a set of synthetic canonical and noncanonical BHB constructs showed that the N. equitans splicing endonuclease accepts a broader range of substrates than the homodimeric Archaeoglobus fulgidus enzyme. In contrast to the A. fulgidus endonuclease, the N. equitans splicing enzyme possesses two different subunits. This heteromeric endonuclease type, found in N. equitans, in all Crenarchaeota, and in Methanopyrus kandleri, is able to act on the noncanonical tRNA introns present only in these organisms, which suggests coevolution of enzyme and substrate. PMID:16330750

  19. Diversity analysis of magnetotactic bacteria in Lake Miyun, northern China, by restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Li, Jinhua; Schüler, Dirk; Jogler, Christian; Pan, Yongxin

    2009-08-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) synthesize intracellular nano-scale crystals of magnetite or greigite within magnetosomes. MTB are ubiquitous in limnic and marine environments. In order to understand the diversity of MTB better, sediment samples were examined from Lake Miyun near Beijing by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). First, in silico analysis was used to evaluate the effectiveness of 12 sets of restriction endonucleases for distinguishing MTB sequences retrieved from the GenBank database. It was found that the tested restriction endonucleases had different power in the ability to differentiate the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of MTB. Specifically, of the 12 sets of enzymes, MspI plus RsaI was found to be the most effective for correctly differentiating the OTUs of selected MTB sequences and it could detect 16 OTUs with appropriate OTUmin and OTUmax values (96.7% and 97.7%, respectively). The MspI plus RsaI RFLP analysis was then utilized to investigate the diversity of MTB in Lake Miyun sediment and it identified 8 OTUs (74.5% of the whole library) as MTB. Among these, 5 were affiliated to Alphaproteobacteria, while the rest belonged to the Nitrospira phylum. Interestingly, OTUs C, D and I displayed 91.8-98.4% similarity to "Magnetobacterium bavaricum". Together, these results demonstrated that the MspI plus RsaI RFLP analysis was useful for studying the diversity and change in community composition of uncultivated MTB from environmental samples. PMID:19168303

  20. Methionine restriction and life-span control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Cheon; Kaya, Alaattin; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition is associated with longevity in various organisms. However, it has also been shown that reduced calorie intake is often ineffective in extending life span. Selecting optimal dietary regimens for DR studies is complicated, as the same regimen may lead to different outcomes depending on genotype and environmental factors. Recent studies suggested that interventions such as moderate protein restriction with or without adequate nutrition (e.g., particular amino acids or carbohydrates) may have additional beneficial effects mediated by certain metabolic and hormonal factors implicated in the biology of aging, regardless of total calorie intake. In particular, it was shown that restriction of a single amino acid, methionine, can mimic the effects of DR and extend life span in various model organisms. We discuss the beneficial effects of a methionine-restricted diet, the molecular pathways involved, and the use of this regimen in longevity interventions. PMID:26663138

  1. Activation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mlh1-Pms1 Endonuclease in a Reconstituted Mismatch Repair System.

    PubMed

    Smith, Catherine E; Bowen, Nikki; Graham, William J; Goellner, Eva M; Srivatsan, Anjana; Kolodner, Richard D

    2015-08-28

    Previous studies reported the reconstitution of an Mlh1-Pms1-independent 5' nick-directed mismatch repair (MMR) reaction using Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins. Here we describe the reconstitution of a mispair-dependent Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease activation reaction requiring Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and replication factor C (RFC) and a reconstituted Mlh1-Pms1-dependent 3' nick-directed MMR reaction requiring Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), replication protein A (RPA), RFC, PCNA, and DNA polymerase δ. Both reactions required Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) for optimal activity. The MMR reaction also required two reaction stages in which the first stage required incubation of Mlh1-Pms1 with substrate DNA, with or without Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), PCNA, and RFC but did not require nicking of the substrate, followed by a second stage in which other proteins were added. Analysis of different mutant proteins demonstrated that both reactions required a functional Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease active site, as well as mispair recognition and Mlh1-Pms1 recruitment by Msh2-Msh6 but not sliding clamp formation. Mutant Mlh1-Pms1 and PCNA proteins that were defective for Exo1-independent but not Exo1-dependent MMR in vivo were partially defective in the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease and MMR reactions, suggesting that both reactions reflect the activation of Mlh1-Pms1 seen in Exo1-independent MMR in vivo. The availability of this reconstituted MMR reaction should now make it possible to better study both Exo1-independent and Exo1-dependent MMR. PMID:26170454

  2. Flow Cytometric Assays for Interrogating LAGLIDADG Homing Endonuclease DNA-Binding and Cleavage Properties

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Sarah K.; Lambert, Abigail R.; Scharenberg, Andrew M.; Jarjour, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    A fast, easy, and scalable method to assess the properties of site-specific nucleases is crucial to understanding their in cellulo behavior in genome engineering or population-level gene drive applications. Here we describe an analytical platform that enables high-throughput, semiquantitative interrogation of the DNA-binding and catalytic properties of LAGLIDADG homing endonucleases (LHEs). Using this platform, natural or engineered LHEs are expressed on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast where they can be rapidly evaluated against synthetic DNA target sequences using flow cytometry. PMID:23423888

  3. A protein restriction-dependent sulfur code for longevity.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hong Seok; Longo, Valter D

    2015-01-15

    The restriction of proteins has recently emerged as the most important factor for the beneficial effects of calorie restriction. Hine et al. now provide strong evidence for the role of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas in the protective effects of calorie and protein restriction against ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) but also implicate H2S in longevity extension in model organisms. PMID:25594171

  4. Identification of potential influenza virus endonuclease inhibitors through virtual screening based on the 3D-QSAR model.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Lee, C; Chong, Y

    2009-01-01

    Influenza endonucleases have appeared as an attractive target of antiviral therapy for influenza infection. With the purpose of designing a novel antiviral agent with enhanced biological activities against influenza endonuclease, a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) model was generated based on 34 influenza endonuclease inhibitors. The comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) with a steric, electrostatic and hydrophobic (SEH) model showed the best correlative and predictive capability (q(2) = 0.763, r(2) = 0.969 and F = 174.785), which provided a pharmacophore composed of the electronegative moiety as well as the bulky hydrophobic group. The CoMSIA model was used as a pharmacophore query in the UNITY search of the ChemDiv compound library to give virtual active compounds. The 3D-QSAR model was then used to predict the activity of the selected compounds, which identified three compounds as the most likely inhibitor candidates. PMID:19343586

  5. A new label-free and turn-on strategy for endonuclease detection using a DNA-silver nanocluster probe.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xue; Kong, Xiang-Juan; Zhu, Zi-Mao; Chen, Ting-Ting; Chu, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Endonuclease plays a vital role in a variety of biological processes and the assay of endonuclease activity and inhibitors is of high importance in the fields ranging from biotechnology to pharmacology. Howerer, traditional techniques usually suffer from time intensive, laborious, and cost-expensive. This work aims to develop a facile and sensitive method for endonuclease activity assay by making use of the fluorescence enhancement effect when DNA-silver nanoclusters (DNA-Ag NCs) are in proximity to guanine-rich DNA sequences. The system mainly consists of block DNA (B-DNA), G-DNA and Ag-DNA. B-DNA serves as the substrate of the endonuclease (S1 nuclease as the model enzyme). G-DNA, which is predesigned entirely complementary to B strand, contains a guanine-rich overhang sequence and hybridization part at the 5'-end. Ag-DNA involves a sequence for Ag NCs synthesis and a sequence complementary to the hybridization part of the G-DNA. In the "off" state, B-DNA plays the role as a blocker that inhibit the proximity between Ag NCs and guanine-rich DNA sequences, resulting in a low fluorescence readout. However, if S1 nuclease is introduced into the system, B-DNA was cleaved into mono- or short-oligonucleotides fragments, which could not hybridize with G-DNA. As a result, the subsequent addition of DNA-Ag NCs could bring guanine-rich DNA sequences close to the Ag NCs, accompanied by a significant fluorescence enhancement. Therefore, endonuclease activity could be successfully quantified by monitoring the variation in fluorescence intensity. In addition, this approach can also be applied for inhibitor screening of endonuclease. This label-free and turn-on fluorescent assays employing the mechanism proposed here for the detection of nuclease and inhibitors turn out to be sensitive, selective, and convenient. PMID:25281081

  6. Comparison of the cleavage of pyrimidine dimers by the bacteriophage T4 and Micrococcus luteus uv-specific endonucleases

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.K.; Haseltine, W.A.

    1980-12-25

    A comparison was made of the activity of the uv-specific endonucleases of bacteriophage T4 (T4 endonuclease V) and of Micrococcus luteus on ultraviolet light-irradiated DNA substrates of defined sequence. The two enzyms cleave DNA at the site of pyrimidine dimers with the same frequency. The products of the cleavage reaction are the same. The pyrimidine dimer DNA-glycosylase activity of both enzymes is more active on double-stranded DNA than it is on single-stranded DNA.

  7. Permeabilization of ultraviolet-irradiated chinese hamster cells with polyethylene glycol and introduction of ultraviolet endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus

    SciTech Connect

    Yarosh, D.B.; Setlow, R.B.

    1981-03-01

    Chinese hamster V-79 cells were made permeable by treatment with polyethylene glycol and then incubated with a Micrococcus luteus extract containing ultraviolet-specific endonuclease activity. This treatment introduced nicks in irradiated, but not in unirradiated, deoxyribonucleic acid. The nicks remained open for at least 3 h; there was no loss of endonuclease-sensitive sites, and no excision of dimers as measured by chromatography was detected. In addition, there was no increase in ultraviolet resistance in treated cells. This suggests that the absence of a significant amount of excision repair in rodent cells is due to the lack of both incision and excision capacity.

  8. Functional complementation of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis AP endonuclease gene (lamap) in Escherichia coli mutant strains challenged with DNA damage agents

    PubMed Central

    Verissimo-Villela, Erika; Kitahara-Oliveira, Milene Yoko; dos Reis, Ana Beatriz de Bragança; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Bello, Alexandre Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    During its life cycle Leishmania spp. face several stress conditions that can cause DNA damages. Base Excision Repair plays an important role in DNA maintenance and it is one of the most conserved mechanisms in all living organisms. DNA repair in trypanosomatids has been reported only for Old World Leishmania species. Here the AP endonuclease from Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli mutants defective on the DNA repair machinery, that were submitted to different stress conditions, showing ability to survive in comparison to the triple null mutant parental strain BW535. Phylogenetic and multiple sequence analyses also confirmed that LAMAP belongs to the AP endonuclease class of proteins. PMID:27223868

  9. Connections between RNA splicing and DNA intron mobility in yeast mitochondria: RNA maturase and DNA endonuclease switching experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Goguel, V; Delahodde, A; Jacq, C

    1992-01-01

    The intron-encoded proteins bI4 RNA maturase and aI4 DNA endonuclease can be faithfully expressed in yeast cytoplasm from engineered forms of their mitochondrial coding sequences. In this work we studied the relationships between these two activities associated with two homologous intron-encoded proteins: the bI4 RNA maturase encoded in the fourth intron of the cytochrome b gene and the aI4 DNA endonuclease (I-SceII) encoded in the fourth intron of the gene coding for the subunit I of cytochrome oxidase. Taking advantage of both the high recombinogenic properties of yeast and the similarities between the two genes, we constructed in vivo a family of hybrid genes carrying parts of both RNA maturase and DNA endonuclease coding sequences. The presence of a sequence coding for a mitochondrial targeting peptide upstream from these hybrid genes allowed us to study the properties of their translation products within the mitochondria in vivo. We thus could analyze the ability of the recombinant proteins to complement RNA maturase deficiencies in different strains. Many combinations of the two parental intronic sequences were found in the recombinants. Their structural and functional analysis revealed the following features. (i) The N-terminal half of the bI4 RNA maturase could be replaced in total by its equivalent from the aI4 DNA endonuclease without affecting the RNA maturase activity. In contrast, replacing the C-terminal half of the bI4 RNA maturase with its equivalent from the aI4 DNA endonuclease led to a very weak RNA maturase activity, indicating that this region is more differentiated and linked to the maturase activity. (ii) None of the hybrid proteins carrying an RNA maturase activity kept the DNA endonuclease activity, suggesting that the latter requires the integrity of the aI4 protein. These observations are interesting because the aI4 DNA endonuclease is known to promote the propagation, at the DNA level, of the aI4 intron, whereas the bI4 RNA maturase

  10. The complex between a four-way DNA junction and T7 endonuclease I

    PubMed Central

    Déclais, Anne-Cécile; Fogg, Jonathan M.; Freeman, Alasdair D.J.; Coste, Franck; Hadden, Jonathan M.; Phillips, Simon E.V.; Lilley, David M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The junction-resolving enzyme endonuclease I is selective for the structure of the DNA four-way (Holliday) junction. The enzyme binds to a four-way junction in two possible orientations, with a 4:1 ratio, opening the DNA structure at the centre and changing the global structure into a 90° cross of approximately coaxial helices. The nuclease cleaves the continuous strands of the junction in each orientation. Binding leads to pronounced regions of protection of the DNA against hydroxyl radical attack. Using all this information together with the known structure of the enzyme and the structure of the BglI–DNA complex, we have constructed a model of the complex of endonuclease I and a DNA junction. This shows how the enzyme is selective for the structure of a four-way junction, such that both continuous strands can be accommodated into the two active sites so that a productive resolution event is possible. PMID:12628932

  11. In vitro Inactivation of Latent HSV by Targeted Mutagenesis Using an HSV-specific Homing Endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Martine; Boyle, Nicole M; Stone, Daniel; Stensland, Laurence; Huang, Meei-Li; Magaret, Amalia S; Galetto, Roman; Rawlings, David J; Scharenberg, Andrew M; Jerome, Keith R

    2014-01-01

    Following acute infection, herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes latency in sensory neurons, from which it can reactivate and cause recurrent disease. Available antiviral therapies do not affect latent viral genomes; therefore, they do not prevent reactivation following therapy cessation. One possible curative approach involves the introduction of DNA double strand breaks in latent HSV genomes by rare-cutting endonucleases, leading to mutagenesis of essential viral genes. We tested this approach in an in vitro HSV latency model using the engineered homing endonuclease (HE) HSV1m5, which recognizes a sequence in the HSV-1 gene UL19, encoding the virion protein VP5. Coexpression of the 3'-exonuclease Trex2 with HEs increased HE-mediated mutagenesis frequencies up to sixfold. Following HSV1m5/Trex2 delivery with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, the target site was mutated in latent HSV genomes with no detectable cell toxicity. Importantly, HSV production by latently infected cells after reactivation was decreased after HSV1m5/Trex2 exposure. Exposure to histone deacetylase inhibitors prior to HSV1m5/Trex2 treatment increased mutagenesis frequencies of latent HSV genomes another two- to fivefold, suggesting that chromatin modification may be a useful adjunct to gene-targeting approaches. These results support the continuing development of HEs and other nucleases (ZFNs, TALENs, CRISPRs) for cure of chronic viral infections.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2014) 3, e1; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.75; published online 4 February 2014. PMID:24496438

  12. Key Players in I-DmoI Endonuclease Catalysis Revealed from Structure and Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Molina, Rafael; Besker, Neva; Marcaida, Maria Jose; Montoya, Guillermo; Prieto, Jesús; D'Abramo, Marco

    2016-05-20

    Homing endonucleases, such as I-DmoI, specifically recognize and cleave long DNA target sequences (∼20 bp) and are potentially powerful tools for genome manipulation. However, inefficient and off-target DNA cleavage seriously limits specific editing in complex genomes. One approach to overcome these limitations is to unambiguously identify the key structural players involved in catalysis. Here, we report the E117A I-DmoI mutant crystal structure at 2.2 Å resolution that, together with the wt and Q42A/K120M constructs, is combined with computational approaches to shed light on protein cleavage activity. The cleavage mechanism was related both to key structural effects, such as the position of water molecules and ions participating in the cleavage reaction, and to dynamical effects related to protein behavior. In particular, we found that the protein perturbation pattern significantly changes between cleaved and noncleaved DNA strands when the ions and water molecules are correctly positioned for the nucleophilic attack that initiates the cleavage reaction, in line with experimental enzymatic activity. The proposed approach paves the way for an effective, general, and reliable procedure to analyze the enzymatic activity of endonucleases from a very limited data set, i.e., structure and dynamics. PMID:26909878

  13. Wuho Is a New Member in Maintaining Genome Stability through its Interaction with Flap Endonuclease 1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, I-Cheng; Chen, Betty Chamay; Shuai, Hung-Hsun; Chien, Fan-Ching; Chen, Peilin; Hsieh, Tao-shih

    2016-01-01

    Replication forks are vulnerable to wayward nuclease activities. We report here our discovery of a new member in guarding genome stability at replication forks. We previously isolated a Drosophila mutation, wuho (wh, no progeny), characterized by a severe fertility defect and affecting expression of a protein (WH) in a family of conserved proteins with multiple WD40 repeats. Knockdown of WH by siRNA in Drosophila, mouse, and human cultured cells results in DNA damage with strand breaks and apoptosis through ATM/Chk2/p53 signaling pathway. Mice with mWh knockout are early embryonic lethal and display DNA damage. We identify that the flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is one of the interacting proteins. Fluorescence microscopy showed the localization of WH at the site of nascent DNA synthesis along with other replication proteins, including FEN1 and PCNA. We show that WH is able to modulate FEN1’s endonucleolytic activities depending on the substrate DNA structure. The stimulatory or inhibitory effects of WH on FEN1’s flap versus gap endonuclease activities are consistent with the proposed WH’s functions in protecting the integrity of replication fork. These results suggest that wh is a new member of the guardians of genome stability because it regulates FEN1’s potential DNA cleavage threat near the site of replication. PMID:26751069

  14. In vitro Inactivation of Latent HSV by Targeted Mutagenesis Using an HSV-specific Homing Endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Martine; Boyle, Nicole M; Stone, Daniel; Stensland, Laurence; Huang, Meei-Li; Magaret, Amalia S; Galetto, Roman; Rawlings, David J; Scharenberg, Andrew M; Jerome, Keith R

    2014-01-01

    Following acute infection, herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes latency in sensory neurons, from which it can reactivate and cause recurrent disease. Available antiviral therapies do not affect latent viral genomes; therefore, they do not prevent reactivation following therapy cessation. One possible curative approach involves the introduction of DNA double strand breaks in latent HSV genomes by rare-cutting endonucleases, leading to mutagenesis of essential viral genes. We tested this approach in an in vitro HSV latency model using the engineered homing endonuclease (HE) HSV1m5, which recognizes a sequence in the HSV-1 gene UL19, encoding the virion protein VP5. Coexpression of the 3′-exonuclease Trex2 with HEs increased HE-mediated mutagenesis frequencies up to sixfold. Following HSV1m5/Trex2 delivery with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, the target site was mutated in latent HSV genomes with no detectable cell toxicity. Importantly, HSV production by latently infected cells after reactivation was decreased after HSV1m5/Trex2 exposure. Exposure to histone deacetylase inhibitors prior to HSV1m5/Trex2 treatment increased mutagenesis frequencies of latent HSV genomes another two- to fivefold, suggesting that chromatin modification may be a useful adjunct to gene-targeting approaches. These results support the continuing development of HEs and other nucleases (ZFNs, TALENs, CRISPRs) for cure of chronic viral infections. PMID:24496438

  15. Identification of individual herbal drugs in tea mixtures using restriction analysis of ITS DNA and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Slanc, P; Ravnikar, M; Strukelj, B

    2006-11-01

    We have studied a sedative tea made of Valerianae radix (Valeriana officinalis L.), Lupuli strobuli (Humulus lupulus L.), Melissae folium (Melissa officinalis L.) and Menthae piperitae folium (Mentha piperita L.). In order to identify the constituent drugs a method was established involving amplification of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA on the basis of restriction analysis and real-time PCR. ITS regions of individual drugs were amplified and sequenced. Restriction analysis was performed with selected restriction endonucleases Nae I, PshA I and Xcm I. Real-time PCR was carried out, using primers specifically designed for each individual herbal drug. Real-time PCR proved to be a method for identifying individual herbal drugs in a tea mixture with a single DNA extraction in a single PCR run, since its limit of detection is lower than that for restriction analysis. PMID:17152982

  16. Bacterial CRISPR/Cas DNA endonucleases: A revolutionary technology that could dramatically impact viral research and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Edward M.; Cullen, Bryan R.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas systems mediate bacterial adaptive immune responses that evolved to protect bacteria from bacteriophage and other horizontally transmitted genetic elements. Several CRISPR/Cas systems exist but the simplest variant, referred to as Type II, has a single effector DNA endonuclease, called Cas9, which is guided to its viral DNA target by two small RNAs, the crRNA and the tracrRNA. Initial efforts to adapt the CRISPR/Cas system for DNA editing in mammalian cells, which focused on the Cas9 protein from Streptococcus pyogenes (Spy), demonstrated that Spy Cas9 can be directed to DNA targets in mammalian cells by tracrRNA:crRNA fusion transcripts called single guide RNAs (sgRNA). Upon binding, Cas9 induces DNA cleavage leading to mutagenesis as a result of error prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Recently, the Spy Cas9 system has been adapted for high throughput screening of genes in human cells for their relevance to a particular phenotype and, more generally, for the targeted inactivation of specific genes, in cell lines and in vivo in a number of model organisms. The latter aim seems likely to be greatly enhanced by the recent development of Cas9 proteins from bacterial species such as Neisseria meningitidis and Staphyloccus aureus that are small enough to be expressed using adeno-associated (AAV)-based vectors that can be readily prepared at very high titers. The evolving Cas9-based DNA editing systems therefore appear likely to not only impact virology by allowing researchers to screen for human genes that affect the replication of pathogenic human viruses of all types but also to derive clonal human cell lines that lack individual gene products that either facilitate or restrict viral replication. Moreover, high titer AAV-based vectors offer the possibility of directly targeting DNA viruses that infect discrete sites in the human body, such as herpes simplex virus and hepatitis B virus, with the hope that the entire population of viral DNA genomes

  17. Bacterial CRISPR/Cas DNA endonucleases: A revolutionary technology that could dramatically impact viral research and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Edward M; Cullen, Bryan R

    2015-05-01

    CRISPR/Cas systems mediate bacterial adaptive immune responses that evolved to protect bacteria from bacteriophage and other horizontally transmitted genetic elements. Several CRISPR/Cas systems exist but the simplest variant, referred to as Type II, has a single effector DNA endonuclease, called Cas9, which is guided to its viral DNA target by two small RNAs, the crRNA and the tracrRNA. Initial efforts to adapt the CRISPR/Cas system for DNA editing in mammalian cells, which focused on the Cas9 protein from Streptococcus pyogenes (Spy), demonstrated that Spy Cas9 can be directed to DNA targets in mammalian cells by tracrRNA:crRNA fusion transcripts called single guide RNAs (sgRNA). Upon binding, Cas9 induces DNA cleavage leading to mutagenesis as a result of error prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Recently, the Spy Cas9 system has been adapted for high throughput screening of genes in human cells for their relevance to a particular phenotype and, more generally, for the targeted inactivation of specific genes, in cell lines and in vivo in a number of model organisms. The latter aim seems likely to be greatly enhanced by the recent development of Cas9 proteins from bacterial species such as Neisseria meningitidis and Staphyloccus aureus that are small enough to be expressed using adeno-associated (AAV)-based vectors that can be readily prepared at very high titers. The evolving Cas9-based DNA editing systems therefore appear likely to not only impact virology by allowing researchers to screen for human genes that affect the replication of pathogenic human viruses of all types but also to derive clonal human cell lines that lack individual gene products that either facilitate or restrict viral replication. Moreover, high titer AAV-based vectors offer the possibility of directly targeting DNA viruses that infect discrete sites in the human body, such as herpes simplex virus and hepatitis B virus, with the hope that the entire population of viral DNA genomes

  18. Label-free electrochemical detection of methyltransferase activity and inhibitor screening based on endonuclease HpaII and the deposition of polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linqun; Wei, Min; Gao, Chunyan; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yuanjian; Liu, Songqin

    2015-11-15

    Detection of DNA methylation and methyltransferase (MTase) activity are important in determining human cancer because aberrant methylation was linked to cancer initiation and progression. In this work, we proposed an electrochemical method for sensitive detection of DNA methylation and MTase activity based on methylation sensitive restriction endonuclease HpaII and the deposition of polyaniline (PANI) catalyzed by HRP-mimicking DNAzyme. In the presence of methylated DNA, HRP-mimicking DNAzyme catalyzed the polymerization of aniline on the dsDNA template, producing huge DPV current. In the presence of non-methylated DNA, dsDNA are cleaved and digested by HpaII and exonuclease III, as a result, no PANI are deposited. This method can be used to determine DNA methylation at the site of CpG. It exhibits a wide linear response toward M.SssI MTase activity in the range of 0.5-0.6 U mL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.12 U mL(-1). G-rich DNA forms HRP mimicking DNAzyme, which avoids complex labeling procedures and is robust. The method is simple, reliable, sensitive and specific, which has been successfully applied in human serum samples and been used to screen the inhibitors. Thus, the proposed method may be a potential and powerful tool for clinical diagnosis and drug development in the future. PMID:26070170

  19. Beyond tRNA cleavage: novel essential function for yeast tRNA splicing endonuclease unrelated to tRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Dhungel, Nripesh; Hopper, Anita K.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-tRNA splicing is an essential process in all eukaryotes. In yeast and vertebrates, the enzyme catalyzing intron removal from pre-tRNA is a heterotetrameric complex (splicing endonuclease [SEN] complex). Although the SEN complex is conserved, the subcellular location where pre-tRNA splicing occurs is not. In yeast, the SEN complex is located at the cytoplasmic surface of mitochondria, whereas in vertebrates, pre-tRNA splicing is nuclear. We engineered yeast to mimic the vertebrate cell biology and demonstrate that all three steps of pre-tRNA splicing, as well as tRNA nuclear export and aminoacylation, occur efficiently when the SEN complex is nuclear. However, nuclear pre-tRNA splicing fails to complement growth defects of cells with defective mitochondrial-located splicing, suggesting that the yeast SEN complex surprisingly serves a novel and essential function in the cytoplasm that is unrelated to tRNA splicing. The novel function requires all four SEN complex subunits and the catalytic core. A subset of pre-rRNAs accumulates when the SEN complex is restricted to the nucleus, indicating that the SEN complex moonlights in rRNA processing. Thus, findings suggest that selection for the subcellular distribution of the SEN complex may reside not in its canonical, but rather in a novel, activity. PMID:22391451

  20. Beyond tRNA cleavage: novel essential function for yeast tRNA splicing endonuclease unrelated to tRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Dhungel, Nripesh; Hopper, Anita K

    2012-03-01

    Pre-tRNA splicing is an essential process in all eukaryotes. In yeast and vertebrates, the enzyme catalyzing intron removal from pre-tRNA is a heterotetrameric complex (splicing endonuclease [SEN] complex). Although the SEN complex is conserved, the subcellular location where pre-tRNA splicing occurs is not. In yeast, the SEN complex is located at the cytoplasmic surface of mitochondria, whereas in vertebrates, pre-tRNA splicing is nuclear. We engineered yeast to mimic the vertebrate cell biology and demonstrate that all three steps of pre-tRNA splicing, as well as tRNA nuclear export and aminoacylation, occur efficiently when the SEN complex is nuclear. However, nuclear pre-tRNA splicing fails to complement growth defects of cells with defective mitochondrial-located splicing, suggesting that the yeast SEN complex surprisingly serves a novel and essential function in the cytoplasm that is unrelated to tRNA splicing. The novel function requires all four SEN complex subunits and the catalytic core. A subset of pre-rRNAs accumulates when the SEN complex is restricted to the nucleus, indicating that the SEN complex moonlights in rRNA processing. Thus, findings suggest that selection for the subcellular distribution of the SEN complex may reside not in its canonical, but rather in a novel, activity. PMID:22391451

  1. A novel small-molecule inhibitor of influenza A virus acts by suppressing PA endonuclease activity of the viral polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shuofeng; Chu, Hin; Singh, Kailash; Zhao, Hanjun; Zhang, Ke; Kao, Richard Y. T.; Chow, Billy K. C.; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza A virus comprises conserved and independently-folded subdomains with defined functionalities. The N-terminal domain of the PA subunit (PAN) harbors the endonuclease function so that it can serve as a desired target for drug discovery. To identify a class of anti-influenza inhibitors that impedes PAN endonuclease activity, a screening approach that integrated the fluorescence resonance energy transfer based endonuclease inhibitory assay with the DNA gel-based endonuclease inhibitory assay was conducted, followed by the evaluation of antiviral efficacies and potential cytotoxicity of the primary hits in vitro and in vivo. A small-molecule compound ANA-0 was identified as a potent inhibitor against the replication of multiple subtypes of influenza A virus, including H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7, H7N9 and H9N2, in cell cultures. Combinational treatment of zanamivir and ANA-0 exerted synergistic anti-influenza effect in vitro. Intranasal administration of ANA-0 protected mice from lethal challenge and reduced lung viral loads in H1N1 virus infected BALB/c mice. In summary, ANA-0 shows potential to be developed to novel anti-influenza agents. PMID:26956222

  2. A newly discovered Bordetella species carries a transcriptionally active CRISPR-Cas with a small Cas9 endonuclease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cas9 endonuclease of the Type II-a clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), of Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) has been adapted as a widely used tool for genome editing and genome engineering. Herein, we describe a gene encoding a novel Cas9 ortholog (BpsuCas9) and th...

  3. Assistant DNA recycling with nicking endonuclease and molecular beacon for signal amplification using a target-complementary arched structure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fenglei; Lei, Jianping; Ju, Huangxian

    2013-05-11

    A simple and universal method for ultrasensitive "signal on" detection of DNA was developed with a target-complementary arched structure to release assistant DNA, which was recycled with nicking endonuclease to amplify the detectable fluorescent signal of molecular beacons. PMID:23563493

  4. Lucanthone and its derivative hycanthone inhibit apurinic endonuclease-1 (APE1) by direct protein binding

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, M.; Naidu, M.; Agarwal, R.; Pena, L.A.; Cunha, L.; Mezei, M.; Shen, M.; Wilson, D.M.; Liu, Y.; Sanchez, Z.; Chaudhary, P.; Wilson, S.H.; Waring, M.J.

    2011-09-15

    Lucanthone and hycanthone are thioxanthenone DNA intercalators used in the 1980s as antitumor agents. Lucanthone is in Phase I clinical trial, whereas hycanthone was pulled out of Phase II trials. Their potential mechanism of action includes DNA intercalation, inhibition of nucleic acid biosyntheses, and inhibition of enzymes like topoisomerases and the dual function base excision repair enzyme apurinic endonuclease 1 (APE1). Lucanthone inhibits the endonuclease activity of APE1, without affecting its redox activity. Our goal was to decipher the precise mechanism of APE1 inhibition as a prerequisite towards development of improved therapeutics that can counteract higher APE1 activity often seen in tumors. The IC{sub 50} values for inhibition of APE1 incision of depurinated plasmid DNA by lucanthone and hycanthone were 5 {mu}M and 80 nM, respectively. The K{sub D} values (affinity constants) for APE1, as determined by BIACORE binding studies, were 89 nM for lucanthone/10 nM for hycanthone. APE1 structures reveal a hydrophobic pocket where hydrophobic small molecules like thioxanthenones can bind, and our modeling studies confirmed such docking. Circular dichroism spectra uncovered change in the helical structure of APE1 in the presence of lucanthone/hycanthone, and notably, this effect was decreased (Phe266Ala or Phe266Cys or Trp280Leu) or abolished (Phe266Ala/Trp280Ala) when hydrophobic site mutants were employed. Reduced inhibition by lucanthone of the diminished endonuclease activity of hydrophobic mutant proteins (as compared to wild type APE1) supports that binding of lucanthone to the hydrophobic pocket dictates APE1 inhibition. The DNA binding capacity of APE1 was marginally inhibited by lucanthone, and not at all by hycanthone, supporting our hypothesis that thioxanthenones inhibit APE1, predominantly, by direct interaction. Finally, lucanthone-induced degradation was drastically reduced in the presence of short and long lived free radical scavengers, e

  5. Evolution of I-SceI Homing Endonucleases with Increased DNA Recognition Site Specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Rakesh; Ho, Kwok Ki; Tenney, Kristen; Chen, Jui-Hui; Golden, Barbara L.; Gimble, Frederick S.

    2013-09-18

    Elucidating how homing endonucleases undergo changes in recognition site specificity will facilitate efforts to engineer proteins for gene therapy applications. I-SceI is a monomeric homing endonuclease that recognizes and cleaves within an 18-bp target. It tolerates limited degeneracy in its target sequence, including substitution of a C:G{sub +4} base pair for the wild-type A:T{sub +4} base pair. Libraries encoding randomized amino acids at I-SceI residue positions that contact or are proximal to A:T{sub +4} were used in conjunction with a bacterial one-hybrid system to select I-SceI derivatives that bind to recognition sites containing either the A:T{sub +4} or the C:G{sub +4} base pairs. As expected, isolates encoding wild-type residues at the randomized positions were selected using either target sequence. All I-SceI proteins isolated using the C:G{sub +4} recognition site included small side-chain substitutions at G100 and either contained (K86R/G100T, K86R/G100S and K86R/G100C) or lacked (G100A, G100T) a K86R substitution. Interestingly, the binding affinities of the selected variants for the wild-type A:T{sub +4} target are 4- to 11-fold lower than that of wild-type I-SceI, whereas those for the C:G{sub +4} target are similar. The increased specificity of the mutant proteins is also evident in binding experiments in vivo. These differences in binding affinities account for the observed -36-fold difference in target preference between the K86R/G100T and wild-type proteins in DNA cleavage assays. An X-ray crystal structure of the K86R/G100T mutant protein bound to a DNA duplex containing the C:G{sub +4} substitution suggests how sequence specificity of a homing enzyme can increase. This biochemical and structural analysis defines one pathway by which site specificity is augmented for a homing endonuclease.

  6. Atomic Structure and Biochemical Characterization of an RNA Endonuclease in the N Terminus of Andes Virus L Protein.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, Yaiza; Reguera, Juan; Busch, Carola; Witte, Gregor; Sánchez-Ramos, Oliberto; Betzel, Christian; Cusack, Stephen; Günther, Stephan; Reindl, Sophia

    2016-06-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) is a human-pathogenic hantavirus. Hantaviruses presumably initiate their mRNA synthesis by using cap structures derived from host cell mRNAs, a mechanism called cap-snatching. A signature for a cap-snatching endonuclease is present in the N terminus of hantavirus L proteins. In this study, we aimed to solve the atomic structure of the ANDV endonuclease and characterize its biochemical features. However, the wild-type protein was refractory to expression in Escherichia coli, presumably due to toxic enzyme activity. To circumvent this problem, we introduced attenuating mutations in the domain that were previously shown to enhance L protein expression in mammalian cells. Using this approach, 13 mutant proteins encompassing ANDV L protein residues 1-200 were successfully expressed and purified. Protein stability and nuclease activity of the mutants was analyzed and the crystal structure of one mutant was solved to a resolution of 2.4 Å. Shape in solution was determined by small angle X-ray scattering. The ANDV endonuclease showed structural similarities to related enzymes of orthobunya-, arena-, and orthomyxoviruses, but also differences such as elongated shape and positively charged patches surrounding the active site. The enzyme was dependent on manganese, which is bound to the active site, most efficiently cleaved single-stranded RNA substrates, did not cleave DNA, and could be inhibited by known endonuclease inhibitors. The atomic structure in conjunction with stability and activity data for the 13 mutant enzymes facilitated inference of structure-function relationships in the protein. In conclusion, we solved the structure of a hantavirus cap-snatching endonuclease, elucidated its catalytic properties, and present a highly active mutant form, which allows for inhibitor screening. PMID:27300328

  7. Atomic Structure and Biochemical Characterization of an RNA Endonuclease in the N Terminus of Andes Virus L Protein

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-García, Yaiza; Reguera, Juan; Busch, Carola; Witte, Gregor; Sánchez-Ramos, Oliberto; Betzel, Christian; Cusack, Stephen; Günther, Stephan; Reindl, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) is a human-pathogenic hantavirus. Hantaviruses presumably initiate their mRNA synthesis by using cap structures derived from host cell mRNAs, a mechanism called cap-snatching. A signature for a cap-snatching endonuclease is present in the N terminus of hantavirus L proteins. In this study, we aimed to solve the atomic structure of the ANDV endonuclease and characterize its biochemical features. However, the wild-type protein was refractory to expression in Escherichia coli, presumably due to toxic enzyme activity. To circumvent this problem, we introduced attenuating mutations in the domain that were previously shown to enhance L protein expression in mammalian cells. Using this approach, 13 mutant proteins encompassing ANDV L protein residues 1–200 were successfully expressed and purified. Protein stability and nuclease activity of the mutants was analyzed and the crystal structure of one mutant was solved to a resolution of 2.4 Å. Shape in solution was determined by small angle X-ray scattering. The ANDV endonuclease showed structural similarities to related enzymes of orthobunya-, arena-, and orthomyxoviruses, but also differences such as elongated shape and positively charged patches surrounding the active site. The enzyme was dependent on manganese, which is bound to the active site, most efficiently cleaved single-stranded RNA substrates, did not cleave DNA, and could be inhibited by known endonuclease inhibitors. The atomic structure in conjunction with stability and activity data for the 13 mutant enzymes facilitated inference of structure–function relationships in the protein. In conclusion, we solved the structure of a hantavirus cap-snatching endonuclease, elucidated its catalytic properties, and present a highly active mutant form, which allows for inhibitor screening. PMID:27300328

  8. Structural and Mechanistic Analysis of the Slx1-Slx4 Endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Vineet; Wyatt, Haley D.M.; Komorowska, Weronika; Szczepanowski, Roman H.; de Sanctis, Daniele; Gorecka, Karolina M.; West, Stephen C.; Nowotny, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Summary The SLX1-SLX4 endonuclease required for homologous recombination and DNA repair in eukaryotic cells cleaves a variety of branched DNA structures. The nuclease subunit SLX1 is activated by association with a scaffolding protein SLX4. At the present time, little is known about the structure of SLX1-SLX4 or its mechanism of action. Here, we report the structural insights into SLX1-SLX4 by detailing the crystal structure of Candida glabrata (Cg) Slx1 alone and in combination with the C-terminal region of Slx4. The structure of Slx1 reveals a compact arrangement of the GIY-YIG nuclease and RING domains, which is reinforced by a long α helix. Slx1 forms a stable homodimer that blocks its active site. Slx1-Slx4 interaction is mutually exclusive with Slx1 homodimerization, suggesting a mechanism for Slx1 activation by Slx4. PMID:25753413

  9. Cohesion Establishment Factors Stimulate Endonuclease Activity of hFen1 Independently and Cooperatively.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Byoung Chul; Cho, Sayeon; Park, Sung Goo

    2015-10-01

    Human Fen1 protein (hFen1) plays an important role in Okazaki fragment processing by cleaving the flap structure at the junction between single-stranded (ss) DNA and doublestranded (ds) DNA, an intermediate formed during Okazaki fragment processing, resulting in ligatable nicked dsDNA. It was reported that hChlR1, a member of the cohesion establishment factor family, stimulates hFen1 nuclease activity regardless of its ATPase activity. In this study, we found that cohesion establishment factors cooperatively stimulate endonuclease activity of hFen1 in in vivo mimic condition, including replication protein-A-coated DNA and high salt. Our findings are helpful to explain how a DNA replication machinery larger than the cohesion complex goes through the cohesin ring structure on DNA during S phase in the cell cycle. PMID:26032365

  10. The basic N-terminal domain of TRF2 limits recombination endonuclease action at human telomeres.

    PubMed

    Saint-Léger, Adélaïde; Koelblen, Melanie; Civitelli, Livia; Bah, Amadou; Djerbi, Nadir; Giraud-Panis, Marie-Josèphe; Londoño-Vallejo, Arturo; Ascenzioni, Fiorentina; Gilson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The stability of mammalian telomeres depends upon TRF2, which prevents inappropriate repair and checkpoint activation. By using a plasmid integration assay in yeasts carrying humanized telomeres, we demonstrated that TRF2 possesses the intrinsic property to both stimulate initial homologous recombination events and to prevent their resolution via its basic N-terminal domain. In human cells, we further showed that this TRF2 domain prevents telomere shortening mediated by the resolvase-associated protein SLX4 as well as GEN1 and MUS81, 2 different types of endonucleases with resolvase activities. We propose that various types of resolvase activities are kept in check by the basic N-terminal domain of TRF2 in order to favor an accurate repair of the stalled forks that occur during telomere replication. PMID:25483196

  11. Digital detection of endonuclease mediated gene disruption in the HIV provirus.

    PubMed

    Sedlak, Ruth Hall; Liang, Shu; Niyonzima, Nixon; De Silva Feelixge, Harshana S; Roychoudhury, Pavitra; Greninger, Alexander L; Weber, Nicholas D; Boissel, Sandrine; Scharenberg, Andrew M; Cheng, Anqi; Magaret, Amalia; Bumgarner, Roger; Stone, Daniel; Jerome, Keith R

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing by designer nucleases is a rapidly evolving technology utilized in a highly diverse set of research fields. Among all fields, the T7 endonuclease mismatch cleavage assay, or Surveyor assay, is the most commonly used tool to assess genomic editing by designer nucleases. This assay, while relatively easy to perform, provides only a semi-quantitative measure of mutation efficiency that lacks sensitivity and accuracy. We demonstrate a simple droplet digital PCR assay that quickly quantitates a range of indel mutations with detection as low as 0.02% mutant in a wild type background and precision (≤6%CV) and accuracy superior to either mismatch cleavage assay or clonal sequencing when compared to next-generation sequencing. The precision and simplicity of this assay will facilitate comparison of gene editing approaches and their optimization, accelerating progress in this rapidly-moving field. PMID:26829887

  12. Digital detection of endonuclease mediated gene disruption in the HIV provirus

    PubMed Central

    Sedlak, Ruth Hall; Liang, Shu; Niyonzima, Nixon; De Silva Feelixge, Harshana S.; Roychoudhury, Pavitra; Greninger, Alexander L.; Weber, Nicholas D.; Boissel, Sandrine; Scharenberg, Andrew M.; Cheng, Anqi; Magaret, Amalia; Bumgarner, Roger; Stone, Daniel; Jerome, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing by designer nucleases is a rapidly evolving technology utilized in a highly diverse set of research fields. Among all fields, the T7 endonuclease mismatch cleavage assay, or Surveyor assay, is the most commonly used tool to assess genomic editing by designer nucleases. This assay, while relatively easy to perform, provides only a semi-quantitative measure of mutation efficiency that lacks sensitivity and accuracy. We demonstrate a simple droplet digital PCR assay that quickly quantitates a range of indel mutations with detection as low as 0.02% mutant in a wild type background and precision (≤6%CV) and accuracy superior to either mismatch cleavage assay or clonal sequencing when compared to next-generation sequencing. The precision and simplicity of this assay will facilitate comparison of gene editing approaches and their optimization, accelerating progress in this rapidly-moving field. PMID:26829887

  13. Alternative nucleophilic substrates for the endonuclease activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase

    SciTech Connect

    Ealy, Julie B.; Sudol, Malgorzata; Krzeminski, Jacek; Amin, Shantu; Katzman, Michael

    2012-11-10

    Retroviral integrase can use water or some small alcohols as the attacking nucleophile to nick DNA. To characterize the range of compounds that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase can accommodate for its endonuclease activities, we tested 45 potential electron donors (having varied size and number or spacing of nucleophilic groups) as substrates during site-specific nicking at viral DNA ends and during nonspecific nicking reactions. We found that integrase used 22 of the 45 compounds to nick DNA, but not all active compounds were used for both activities. In particular, 13 compounds were used for site-specific and nonspecific nicking, 5 only for site-specific nicking, and 4 only for nonspecific nicking; 23 other compounds were not used for either activity. Thus, integrase can accommodate a large number of nucleophilic substrates but has selective requirements for its different activities, underscoring its dynamic properties and providing new information for modeling and understanding integrase.

  14. Action of a mammalian AP-endonuclease on DNAs of defined sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Haukanes, B I; Helland, D E; Kleppe, K

    1989-01-01

    An apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) specific endonuclease from mouse plasmacytoma cells (line MPC-11), was observed to cleave apurinic sites in oligonucleotides 9, 11, 12, 39 and 40 nucleotides in length. However, the enzyme failed to cleave AP-sites in two oligonucleotides 7 nucleotides in length. The maximum rates of digestion observed on these short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) fragments were approximately 1/30 of the rates observed on double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). In studies using the Maxam-Gilbert DNA sequencing analysis, apurinic sites in purine-rich regions were preferentially cleaved in dsDNA but not in ssDNA, indicating that the enzyme has a sequence preference on dsDNA. These results suggest that some sites on DNA might be more efficiently repaired than others. Images PMID:2466239

  15. Homing endonuclease target determination using SELEX adapted for yeast surface display.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, Kyle; Scharenberg, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the target sequence of a DNA-binding protein is vital in obtaining fundamental characteristics of the protein and evaluating properties of the protein-DNA interaction. For example, novel homing endonucleases cannot be proven to be functional until a predicted target site is tested. Unfortunately, target site prediction is not always easy, or even possible, depending on the amount of sequence data available. Here we describe a modification of SELEX using yeast surface display that can quickly and inexpensively resolve DNA-binding targets in high throughput for proteins without any prior assumptions or knowledge regarding the target site. This protocol is easily integrated into the yeast surface display pipeline and is leveraged by the expansive number of existing tools for both SELEX and yeast surface display. PMID:24510268

  16. nfi, the gene for endonuclease V in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, G; Ding, Y; Weiss, B

    1997-01-01

    Endonuclease V is specific for single-stranded DNA or for duplex DNA that contains uracil or that is damaged by a variety of agents (B. Demple and S. Linn, J. Biol. Chem. 257:2848-2855, 1982). Thus, it may be a versatile DNA repair enzyme. The protein was purified to apparent homogeneity, and from its N-terminal sequence, its gene, nfi, was identified. nfi is immediately downstream of hemE, at kb 4208 (90.4 min) on the current chromosomal map of Escherichia coli K-12. This region was cloned, and plasmid insertion and deletion mutants were used to study its molecular organization. Although nfi is the third of four closely spaced, codirectional genes, it is expressed independently. PMID:8990280

  17. Breaking and joining single-stranded DNA: the HUH endonuclease superfamily.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Michael; de la Cruz, Fernando; Dyda, Fred; Hickman, Alison B; Moncalian, Gabriel; Ton-Hoang, Bao

    2013-08-01

    HUH endonucleases are numerous and widespread in all three domains of life. The major function of these enzymes is processing a range of mobile genetic elements by catalysing cleavage and rejoining of single-stranded DNA using an active-site Tyr residue to make a transient 5'-phosphotyrosine bond with the DNA substrate. These enzymes have a key role in rolling-circle replication of plasmids and bacteriophages, in plasmid transfer, in the replication of several eukaryotic viruses and in various types of transposition. They have also been appropriated for cellular processes such as intron homing and the processing of bacterial repeated extragenic palindromes. Here, we provide an overview of these fascinating enzymes and their functions, using well-characterized examples of Rep proteins, relaxases and transposases, and we explore the molecular mechanisms used in their diverse activities. PMID:23832240

  18. Structural characterization of MepB from Staphylococcus aureus reveals homology to endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Agah, Sayeh; Poulos, Sandra; Banchs, Christian; Faham, Salem

    2014-01-01

    The MepRAB operon in Staphylococcus aureus has been identified to play a role in drug resistance. Although the functions of MepA and MepR are known, little information is available on the function of MepB. Here we report the X-ray structure of MepB to 2.1 Å revealing its structural similarity to the PD-(D/E)XK family of endonucleases. We further show that MepB binds DNA and RNA, with a higher affinity towards RNA and single stranded DNA than towards double stranded DNA. Notably, the PD-(D/E)XK catalytic active site residues are not conserved in MepB. MepB's association with a drug resistance operon suggests that it plays a role in responding to antimicrobials. This role is likely carried out through MepB's interactions with nucleic acids. PMID:24501097

  19. Roles of Two Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Extracellular Endonucleases ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gödeke, Julia; Heun, Magnus; Bubendorfer, Sebastian; Paul, Kristina; Thormann, Kai M.

    2011-01-01

    The dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is capable of using extracellular DNA (eDNA) as the sole source of carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen. In addition, we recently demonstrated that S. oneidensis MR-1 requires eDNA as a structural component during all stages of biofilm formation. In this study, we characterize the roles of two Shewanella extracellular endonucleases, ExeS and ExeM. While ExeS is likely secreted into the medium, ExeM is predicted to remain associated with the cell envelope. Both exeM and exeS are highly expressed under phosphate-limited conditions. Mutants lacking exeS and/or exeM exhibit decreased eDNA degradation; however, the capability of S. oneidensis MR-1 to use DNA as the sole source of phosphorus is only affected in mutants lacking exeM. Neither of the two endonucleases alleviates toxic effects of increased eDNA concentrations. The deletion of exeM and/or exeS significantly affects biofilm formation of S. oneidensis MR-1 under static conditions, and expression of exeM and exeS drastically increases during static biofilm formation. Under hydrodynamic conditions, a deletion of exeM leads to altered biofilms that consist of densely packed structures which are covered by a thick layer of eDNA. Based on these results, we hypothesize that a major role of ExeS and, in particular, ExeM of S. oneidensis MR-1, is to degrade eDNA as a matrix component during biofilm formation to improve nutrient supply and to enable detachment. PMID:21705528

  20. Ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of microRNA with star trigon structure and endonuclease mediated signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Miao, Peng; Wang, Bidou; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Jing; Tang, Yuguo

    2015-01-15

    MicroRNAs play important roles in gene regulation. They can be used as effective biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of diseases like cancers. Due to their intrinsic properties of short length, low abundance and sequence homology among family members, it is difficult to realize sensitive and selective detection with economical use of time and cost. Herein, we report an ultrasensitive electrochemical method for microRNA analysis employing two oligonucleotides and one endonuclease. Generally, a glassy carbon electrode is first covered with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) mediated by poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). Then, thiolated capture probe (CP) with methylene blue (MB) labeled at 5' end is modified on the pretreated electrode. Hybridization occurs among target microRNA, CP and auxiliary probe (AP), forming a star trigon structure on the electrode surface. Subsequently, endonuclease recognizes and cleaves CP on CP/AP duplex, releasing microRNA and AP back to the solution. The two regenerated elements can then form another star trigon with other CP molecules, initiating cycles of CP cleavage and MB departure. Significant decrease of electrochemical signals is thus observed, which can be used to reflect the concentration of microRNA. This proposed method has a linear response to microRNA in a wide range from 100 aM to 1 nM and the sensitivity of attomolar level can be achieved. Moreover, it has high selectivity against single-base mismatch sequences and can be used directly in serum samples. Therefore, this method shows great feasibility for the detection of microRNA and may have potential applications in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:25127470

  1. A Novel Endonuclease Inhibitor Exhibits Broad-Spectrum Anti-Influenza Virus Activity In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeremy C; Marathe, Bindumadhav M; Lerner, Christian; Kreis, Lukas; Gasser, Rodolfo; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Najera, Isabel; Govorkova, Elena A

    2016-09-01

    Antiviral drugs are important in preventing and controlling influenza, particularly when vaccines are ineffective or unavailable. A single class of antiviral drugs, the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), is recommended for treating influenza. The limited therapeutic options and the potential risk of antiviral resistance are driving the search for additional small-molecule inhibitors that act on influenza virus proteins. The acid polymerase (PA) of influenza viruses is a promising target for new antivirals because of its essential role in initiating virus transcription. Here, we characterized a novel compound, RO-7, identified as a putative PA endonuclease inhibitor. RO-7 was effective when added before the cessation of genome replication, reduced polymerase activity in cell-free systems, and decreased relative amounts of viral mRNA and genomic RNA during influenza virus infection. RO-7 specifically inhibited the ability of the PA endonuclease domain to cleave a nucleic acid substrate. RO-7 also inhibited influenza A viruses (seasonal and 2009 pandemic H1N1 and seasonal H3N2) and B viruses (Yamagata and Victoria lineages), zoonotic viruses (H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2), and NAI-resistant variants in plaque reduction, yield reduction, and cell viability assays in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells with nanomolar to submicromolar 50% effective concentrations (EC50s), low toxicity, and favorable selective indices. RO-7 also inhibited influenza virus replication in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Overall, RO-7 exhibits broad-spectrum activity against influenza A and B viruses in multiple in vitro assays, supporting its further characterization and development as a potential antiviral agent for treating influenza. PMID:27381402

  2. Structural and functional characterization of two unusual endonuclease III enzymes from Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Sarre, Aili; Ökvist, Mats; Klar, Tobias; Hall, David R; Smalås, Arne O; McSweeney, Sean; Timmins, Joanna; Moe, Elin

    2015-08-01

    While most bacteria possess a single gene encoding the bifunctional DNA glycosylase Endonuclease III (EndoIII) in their genomes, Deinococcus radiodurans possesses three: DR2438 (DrEndoIII1), DR0289 (DrEndoIII2) and DR0982 (DrEndoIII3). Here we have determined the crystal structures of DrEndoIII1 and an N-terminally truncated form of DrEndoIII3 (DrEndoIII3Δ76). We have also generated a homology model of DrEndoIII2 and measured activity of the three enzymes. All three structures consist of two all α-helical domains, one of which exhibits a [4Fe-4S] cluster and the other a HhH-motif, separated by a DNA binding cleft, similar to previously determined structures of endonuclease III from Escherichia coli and Geobacillus stearothermophilus. However, both DrEndoIII1 and DrEndoIII3 possess an extended HhH motif with extra helical features and an altered electrostatic surface potential. In addition, the DNA binding cleft of DrEndoIII3 seems to be less accessible for DNA interactions, while in DrEndoIII1 it seems to be more open. Analysis of the enzyme activities shows that DrEndoIII2 is most similar to the previously studied enzymes, while DrEndoIII1 seems to be more distant with a weaker activity towards substrate DNA containing either thymine glycol or an abasic site. DrEndoIII3 is the most distantly related enzyme and displays no detectable activity towards these substrates even though the suggested catalytic residues are conserved. Based on a comparative structural analysis, we suggest that the altered surface potential, shape of the substrate-binding pockets and specific amino acid substitutions close to the active site and in the DNA interacting loops may underlie the unexpected differences in activity. PMID:26172070

  3. Identification of specific restriction fragments associated with a membrane subparticle from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, M G; Bennett, M F; Burdett, I D

    1983-01-01

    When lysates of Bacillus subtilis were treated with restriction endonucleases EcoRI or HindIII, almost all of the DNA was released from the major plasma membrane fraction that was sedimentable at low speed. However, a very small part of the released DNA, when centrifuged at high speed, appeared to be bound to small membrane fragments. On agarose gels, this material, prepared with either enzyme, contained only a small number of restriction fragments, and the DNA in the sample hybridized with 11 to 12 EcoRI or HindIII fragments of chromosomal DNA. This DNA was used after nick-translation to screen Charon 4A clone banks for phages containing membrane-bound fragments. One of these was studied in detail. Only a part (about 5 kilobases) of the region present in this clone is important in binding the DNA to the membrane subparticle. Images PMID:6304013

  4. Inquiry-based experiments for large-scale introduction to PCR and restriction enzyme digests.

    PubMed

    Johanson, Kelly E; Watt, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease digest are important techniques that should be included in all Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory curriculums. These techniques are frequently taught at an advanced level, requiring many hours of student and faculty time. Here we present two inquiry-based experiments that are designed for introductory laboratory courses and combine both techniques. In both approaches, students must determine the identity of an unknown DNA sequence, either a gene sequence or a primer sequence, based on a combination of PCR product size and restriction digest pattern. The experimental design is flexible, and can be adapted based on available instructor preparation time and resources, and both approaches can accommodate large numbers of students. We implemented these experiments in our courses with a combined total of 584 students and have an 85% success rate. Overall, students demonstrated an increase in their understanding of the experimental topics, ability to interpret the resulting data, and proficiency in general laboratory skills. PMID:26503481

  5. Mobility of a restriction-modification system revealed by its genetic contexts in three hosts.

    PubMed

    Naderer, Marc; Brust, Jessica R; Knowle, Dieter; Blumenthal, Robert M

    2002-05-01

    The flow of genes among prokaryotes plays a fundamental role in shaping bacterial evolution, and restriction-modification systems can modulate this flow. However, relatively little is known about the distribution and movement of restriction-modification systems themselves. We have isolated and characterized the genes for restriction-modification systems from two species of Salmonella, S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A and S. enterica serovar Bareilly. Both systems are closely related to the PvuII restriction-modification system and share its target specificity. In the case of S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A, the restriction endonuclease is inactive, apparently due to a mutation in the subunit interface region. Unlike the chromosomally located Salmonella systems, the PvuII system is plasmid borne. We have completed the sequence characterization of the PvuII plasmid pPvu1, originally from Proteus vulgaris, making this the first completely sequenced plasmid from the genus Proteus. Despite the pronounced similarity of the three restriction-modification systems, the flanking sequences in Proteus and Salmonella are completely different. The SptAI and SbaI genes lie between an equivalent pair of bacteriophage P4-related open reading frames, one of which is a putative integrase gene, while the PvuII genes are adjacent to a mob operon and a XerCD recombination (cer) site. PMID:11948154

  6. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms associated with substance P gene

    SciTech Connect

    de Miguel, C.; Bonner, T.; Detera-Wadleigh, S.

    1987-05-01

    Substance P (SP) is an important neuropepetide detected in a variety of locations in the central nervous system. Variations in SP content or SP receptors in psychiatric disorders have been described. Using SP clones as probes the authors have found three restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the SP gene. The RFLPs are generated by digestion of genomic DNA with the MspI, and RsaI and NcoI restriction endonucleases. The MspI RFLP is detected by two genomic clones mapping to the 5' end of the gene while the RsaI and NcoI rFLPs are both detected by two genomic clones on the 3' end and also by a full-length cDNA clone of the gene. All three RFLPs are characterized by two alleles. For the MspI RFLP the frequency of both alleles is similar, for the Rsa I and NcoI RFLP one of the alleles is significantly more abundant than the other. These RFLPs are now being used to determine whether any of the alleles correlate with either schizophrenia or affective disorder.

  7. Controlling the enzymatic activity of a restriction enzyme by light

    PubMed Central

    Schierling, Benno; Noël, Ann-Josée; Wende, Wolfgang; Hien, Le Thi; Volkov, Eugeny; Kubareva, Elena; Oretskaya, Tatiana; Kokkinidis, Michael; Römpp, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard; Pingoud, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    For many applications it would be desirable to be able to control the activity of proteins by using an external signal. In the present study, we have explored the possibility of modulating the activity of a restriction enzyme with light. By cross-linking two suitably located cysteine residues with a bifunctional azobenzene derivative, which can adopt a cis- or trans-configuration when illuminated by UV or blue light, respectively, enzymatic activity can be controlled in a reversible manner. To determine which residues when cross-linked show the largest “photoswitch effect,” i.e., difference in activity when illuminated with UV vs. blue light, > 30 variants of a single-chain version of the restriction endonuclease PvuII were produced, modified with azobenzene, and tested for DNA cleavage activity. In general, introducing single cross-links in the enzyme leads to only small effects, whereas with multiple cross-links and additional mutations larger effects are observed. Some of the modified variants, which carry the cross-links close to the catalytic center, can be modulated in their DNA cleavage activity by a factor of up to 16 by illumination with UV (azobenzene in cis) and blue light (azobenzene in trans), respectively. The change in activity is achieved in seconds, is fully reversible, and, in the case analyzed, is due to a change in V max rather than K m. PMID:20080559

  8. Miles In Trail (MIT) Restrictions: A Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Green, Steven; Roherty, Tom; Aston, John

    2003-01-01

    Miles-in-trail restrictions are issued to meet the airport and/or airspace capacity. The purpose of this paper is to review the currently practiced miles-in-trail operations for traffic flow management at a typical en route Air Traffic Control Center. The paper describes roles and considerations of both traffic management coordinators and the controllers in planning, coordination, execution, and monitoring of miles-in-trail restrictions. The paper addresses the type of decisions that traffic management coordinators must make and the different information required to plan and monitor miles-in-trail restrictions. The implications of miles-in-trail restrictions on controller workload are also addressed. Using the Cleveland center as an example, the paper also identified some challenging traffic situations that required miles-in-trail restrictions on a regular basis. The paper is expected to benefit the research and development community as it provides the current challenges in traffic flow management and strengths and weakness of miles-in-trail operations.

  9. Neuroaesthetics: range and restrictions.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2013-04-01

    Bullot & Reber (B&R) should be commended for highlighting tensions between scientific aesthetics and art history. The question of how each tradition can learn from the other is timely. While I am sympathetic to their views, their diagnosis of the problem appears exaggerated and their solution partial. They underestimate the reach of scientific aesthetics while failing to identify its inherent restrictions. PMID:23507092

  10. Differentiation of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the Cause of American Foulbrood of Honeybees, by Using PCR and Restriction Fragment Analysis of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Alippi, Adriana M.; López, Ana Claudia; Aguilar, O. Mario

    2002-01-01

    A rapid procedure for the identification of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood (AFB) disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.), based on PCR and restriction fragment analysis of the 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) is described. Eighty-six bacterial strains belonging to 39 species of the genera Paenibacillus, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, and Virgibacillus were characterized. Amplified rDNA was digested with seven restriction endonucleases. The combined data from restriction analysis enabled us to distinguish 35 profiles. Cluster analysis revealed that P. larvae subsp. larvae and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens formed a group with about 90% similarity; however, the P. larvae subsp. larvae restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern produced by endonuclease HaeIII was found to be unique and distinguishable among other closely related bacteria. This pattern was associated with DNA extracted directly from honeybee brood samples showing positive AFB clinical signs that yielded the restriction profile characteristic of P. larvae subsp. larvae, while no amplification product was obtained from healthy larvae. The method described here is particularly useful because of the short time required to carry it out and because it allows the differentiation of P. larvae subsp. larvae-infected larvae from all other species found in apiarian sources. PMID:12089057

  11. Using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) Analysis to Assess Microbial Community Structure in Compost Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiquia, Sonia M.

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified genes is a widely used fingerprinting technique in composting systems. This analysis is based on the restriction endonuclease digestion of fluorescently end-labeled PCR products. The digested product is mixed with a DNA size standard, itself labeled with a distinct fluorescent dye, and the fragments are then separated by capillary or gel electrophoresis using an automated sequencer. Upon analysis, only the terminal end-labeled restriction fragments are detected. An electropherogram is produced, which shows a profile of compost microbial community as a series of peaks of varying height. This technique has also been effectively used in the exploration of complex microbial environments and in the study of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryal populations in natural habitats.

  12. In silico analysis of MHC-I restricted epitopes of Chikungunya virus proteins: Implication in understanding anti-CHIKV CD8(+) T cell response and advancement of epitope based immunotherapy for CHIKV infection.

    PubMed

    Pratheek, B M; Suryawanshi, Amol R; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus, responsible for acute febrile infection. The high morbidity and socio-economic loss associated with the recent CHIKV epidemics worldwide have raised a great public health concern and emphasize the need to study the immunological basis of CHIKV infection to control the disease. MHC-I restricted CD8(+) T cell response represent one of the major anti-viral immune responses. Accordingly, it is essential to have a detailed understanding towards CHIKV specific MHC-I restricted immunogenic epitopes for anti-viral CD8(+) CTL immunogenicity. In the present study, a computational approach was used to predict the conserved MHC-I epitopes for mouse haplotypes (H2-Db and H2-Dd) and some alleles of the major HLA-I supertypes (HLA-A2, -A3, -A24, -B7, -B15) of all CHIKV proteins. Further, an in-depth computational analysis was carried out to validate the selected epitopes for their nature of conservation in different global CHIKV isolates to assess their binding affinities to the appropriate site of respective MHC-I molecules and to predict anti-CHIKV CD8(+) CTL immunogenicity. Our analyses resulted in fifteen highly conserved epitopes for H2-Db and H2-Dd and fifty epitopes for different HLA-I supertypes. Out of these, the MHC-I epitopes VLLPNVHTL and MTPERVTRL were found to have highest predictable CTL immunogenicities and least binding energies for H2-Db and H2-Dd, whereas, for HLA-I, the epitope FLTLFVNTL was with the highest population coverage, CTL immunogenicity and least binding energy. Hence, our study has identified MHC-I restricted epitopes that may help in the advancement of MHC-I restricted epitope based anti-CHIKV immune responses against this infection and this will be useful towards the development of epitope based anti-CHIKV immunotherapy in the future. However, further experimental investigations for cross validation and evaluation are warranted to establish the ability of epitopes to induce CD8(+) T cell

  13. License restrictions at Barnwell

    SciTech Connect

    Autry, V.R.

    1991-12-31

    The State of South Carolina was delegated the authority by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the receipt, possession, use and disposal of radioactive material as an Agreement State. Since 1970, the state has been the principal regulatory authority for the Barnwell Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. The radioactive material license issued authorizing the receipt and disposal of low-level waste contains numerous restrictions to ensure environmental protection and compliance with shallow land disposal performance criteria. Low-level waste has evolved from minimally contaminated items to complex waste streams containing high concentrations of radionuclides and processing chemicals which necessitated these restrictions. Additionally, some waste with their specific radionuclides and concentration levels, many classified as low-level radioactive waste, are not appropriate for shallow land disposal unless additional precautions are taken. This paper will represent a number of these restrictions, the rationale for them, and how they are being dealt with at the Barnwell disposal facility.

  14. Rapid restriction mapping of cosmids by sequence-specific triple-helix-mediated affinity capture

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Huamin; Francisco, T.; Smith, L.M.; Guilfoyle, R.A.

    1996-01-15

    A simple and rapid strategy for restriction mapping based on sequence-specific triple-helix affinity capture (TAC) was developed. The strategy was applied to the analysis of cosmid clones by the construction of a new cosmid vector, ScosTriplex-II, containing two different triple-helix-forming sequences flanking the cloning site of the original SuperCos-1 cosmid vector. For restriction mapping, the recombinant cosmid DNA is digested with NotI restriction enzyme or with one of four intron-encoded endonucleases for excision of intact inserts followed by controlled partial digestion with a mapping enzyme used in conjunction with the corresponding methyltransferase. The partial digestion products are combined with biotinylated triple-helix-forming oligonucleotides to form a triple-helical complex. The triple-helix complexes are immobilized on streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, washed, and eluted with pH 9 buffer solution. The fragments are separated and directly sized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Bidirectional maps are obtained simultaneously by binding to the two different triple-helix-forming oligonucleotides. No probe labeling, gel drying, blotting to membranes, hybridization, or autoradiography is necessary. Also, TAC conditions that permit gel-free isolation of the terminal restriction fragments from cosmid inserts were found. These advantages afforded by ScosTriplex-II should facilitate the automation of cosmid restriction site fingerprinting needed for large-scale mapping and sequencing projects. 24 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Mutagenicity Assessment of Organophosphates using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay

    PubMed Central

    Bhinder, Preety; Chaudhry, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In this study we have evaluated the mutagenicity of organophosphate pesticides acephate, chlorpyrifos, and profenofos using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay with the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus taken as an experimental model. Materials and Methods: Second instar larvae were treated with LC20 of each pesticide for 24 h and mutations induced in the sequence of mitochondrial COII gene (690bp) were studied from restriction patterns generated with AluI, PacI, and PsiI restriction endonucleases. Results: Variations in the number and size of digested fragments were recorded from treated individuals compared with controls showing that the restriction enzymes created a cut at different locations. In addition, sequences of COII gene from control and treated individuals were also used to confirm the RFLP patterns. From the sequence alignment data, it was found that mutations caused the destruction and generation of restriction sites in the gene sequence of treated individuals. Conclusion: This study indicates that all the three pesticides had potential to induce mutations in the normal sequence of COII gene and also advocates the use of PCR-RFLP assay as an efficient, rapid, and sensitive technique to detect mutagenicity of pesticides. PMID:24403735

  16. Modelling the spatial spread of a homing endonuclease gene in a mosquito population

    PubMed Central

    North, Ace; Burt, Austin; Godfray, H Charles J; Buckley, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Summary Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) exist naturally in many single-celled organisms and can show extremely strong genetic drive allowing them to spread through populations into which they are introduced. They are being investigated as tools to manipulate the populations of important vectors of human disease, in particular the mosquitoes that transmit malaria. Before HEGs can be deployed, it is important to study their spatial spread in order to design efficient release strategies.A spatially explicit model is developed to study the spread of a HEG through a landscape whose structure is defined by the distribution of mosquito breeding and feeding sites. The model is motivated by the biology of the major vectors of malaria in Africa. The conditions for spread, fixation and loss of two major types of HEG are explored in different landscapes.In landscapes where mosquito resources are abundant, the conditions for spread are well approximated by a mean-field model. Where a HEG imposes a genetic load, it can cause population extinction, though spatial models more often predict population suppression.In certain types of landscapes where mosquito resources are rare, an introduced HEG may be prevented from moving between local mosquito populations and so a simple release strategy is unlikely to be effective, yet if the HEG succeeds in spreading population extinction is a feasible outcome. Increasing the number of release sites at the expense of releasing fewer mosquitoes per site reduces the probability that a HEG will fail.Synthesis and applications. The model presented asks for the first time how the spatial structure of mosquito populations will influence the effectiveness of a technology that is being rapidly developed for vector control. If homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) are to be used in this way, we have qualified the importance of accounting for landscape characteristics in both the execution and the expectation of their application. The next stage is to use

  17. Cross-Protection of Influenza A Virus Infection by a DNA Aptamer Targeting the PA Endonuclease Domain

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shuofeng; Zhang, Naru; Singh, Kailash; Shuai, Huiping; Chu, Hin; Zhou, Jie; Chow, Billy K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid residues in the N-terminal of the PA subunit (PAN) of the influenza A virus polymerase play critical roles in endonuclease activity, protein stability, and viral RNA (vRNA) promoter binding. In addition, PAN is highly conserved among different subtypes of influenza virus, which suggests PAN to be a desired target in the development of anti-influenza agents. We selected DNA aptamers targeting the intact PA protein or the PAN domain of an H5N1 virus strain using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). The binding affinities of selected aptamers were measured, followed by an evaluation of in vitro endonuclease inhibitory activity. Next, the antiviral effects of enriched aptamers against influenza A virus infections were examined. A total of three aptamers targeting PA and six aptamers targeting PAN were selected. Our data demonstrated that all three PA-selected aptamers neither inhibited endonuclease activity nor exhibited antiviral efficacy, whereas four of the six PAN-selected aptamers inhibited both endonuclease activity and H5N1 virus infection. Among the four effective aptamers, one exhibited cross-protection against infections of H1N1, H5N1, H7N7, and H7N9 influenza viruses, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of around 10 nM. Notably, this aptamer was identified at the 5th round but disappeared after the 10th round of selection, suggesting that the identification and evaluation of aptamers at early rounds of selection may be highly helpful for screening effective aptamers. Overall, our study provides novel insights for screening and developing effective aptamers for use as anti-influenza drugs. PMID:25918143

  18. Structural Features and Functional Dependency on β-Clamp Define Distinct Subfamilies of Bacterial Mismatch Repair Endonuclease MutL.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Kenji; Baba, Seiki; Kumasaka, Takashi; Yano, Takato

    2016-08-12

    In early reactions of DNA mismatch repair, MutS recognizes mismatched bases and activates MutL endonuclease to incise the error-containing strand of the duplex. DNA sliding clamp is responsible for directing the MutL-dependent nicking to the newly synthesized/error-containing strand. In Bacillus subtilis MutL, the β-clamp-interacting motif (β motif) of the C-terminal domain (CTD) is essential for both in vitro direct interaction with β-clamp and in vivo repair activity. A large cluster of negatively charged residues on the B. subtilis MutL CTD prevents nonspecific DNA binding until β clamp interaction neutralizes the negative charge. We found that there are some bacterial phyla whose MutL endonucleases lack the β motif. For example, the region corresponding to the β motif is completely missing in Aquifex aeolicus MutL, and critical amino acid residues in the β motif are not conserved in Thermus thermophilus MutL. We then revealed the 1.35 Å-resolution crystal structure of A. aeolicus MutL CTD, which lacks the β motif but retains the metal-binding site for the endonuclease activity. Importantly, there was no negatively charged cluster on its surface. It was confirmed that CTDs of β motif-lacking MutLs, A. aeolicus MutL and T. thermophilus MutL, efficiently incise DNA even in the absence of β-clamp and that β-clamp shows no detectable enhancing effect on their activity. In contrast, CTD of Streptococcus mutans, a β motif-containing MutL, required β-clamp for the digestion of DNA. We propose that MutL endonucleases are divided into three subfamilies on the basis of their structural features and dependence on β-clamp. PMID:27369079

  19. Two Distinctive Binding Modes of Endonuclease Inhibitors to the N-Terminal Region of Influenza Virus Polymerase Acidic Subunit.

    PubMed

    Fudo, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Norio; Nukaga, Michiyoshi; Odagiri, Takato; Tashiro, Masato; Hoshino, Tyuji

    2016-05-10

    Influenza viruses are global threat to humans, and the development of new antiviral agents are still demanded to prepare for pandemics and to overcome the emerging resistance to the current drugs. Influenza polymerase acidic protein N-terminal domain (PAN) has endonuclease activity and is one of the appropriate targets for novel antiviral agents. First, we performed X-ray cocrystal analysis on the complex structures of PAN with two endonuclease inhibitors. The protein crystallization and the inhibitor soaking were done at pH 5.8. The binding modes of the two inhibitors were different from a common binding mode previously reported for the other influenza virus endonuclease inhibitors. We additionally clarified the complex structures of PAN with the same two endonuclease inhibitors at pH 7.0. In one of the crystal structures, an additional inhibitor molecule, which chelated to the two metal ions in the active site, was observed. On the basis of the crystal structures at pH 7.0, we carried out 100 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for both of the complexes. The analysis of simulation results suggested that the binding mode of each inhibitor to PAN was stable in spite of the partial deviation of the simulation structure from the crystal one. Furthermore, crystal structure analysis and MD simulation were performed for PAN in complex with an inhibitor, which was already reported to have a high compound potency for comparison. The findings on the presence of multiple binding sites at around the PAN substrate-binding pocket will provide a hint for enhancing the binding affinity of inhibitors. PMID:27088785

  20. The PIN domain endonuclease Utp24 cleaves pre-ribosomal RNA at two coupled sites in yeast and humans.

    PubMed

    Wells, Graeme R; Weichmann, Franziska; Colvin, David; Sloan, Katherine E; Kudla, Grzegorz; Tollervey, David; Watkins, Nicholas J; Schneider, Claudia

    2016-06-20

    During ribosomal RNA (rRNA) maturation, cleavages at defined sites separate the mature rRNAs from spacer regions, but the identities of several enzymes required for 18S rRNA release remain unknown. PilT N-terminus (PIN) domain proteins are frequently endonucleases and the PIN domain protein Utp24 is essential for early cleavages at three pre-rRNA sites in yeast (A0, A1 and A2) and humans (A0, 1 and 2a). In yeast, A1 is cleaved prior to A2 and both cleavages require base-pairing by the U3 snoRNA to the central pseudoknot elements of the 18S rRNA. We found that yeast Utp24 UV-crosslinked in vivo to U3 and the pseudoknot, placing Utp24 close to cleavage at site A1. Yeast and human Utp24 proteins exhibited in vitro endonuclease activity on an RNA substrate containing yeast site A2. Moreover, an intact PIN domain in human UTP24 was required for accurate cleavages at sites 1 and 2a in vivo, whereas mutation of another potential site 2a endonuclease, RCL1, did not affect 18S production. We propose that Utp24 cleaves sites A1/1 and A2/2a in yeast and human cells. PMID:27034467

  1. Cas5d processes pre-crRNA and is a member of a larger family of CRISPR RNA endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Garside, Erin L.; Schellenberg, Matthew J.; Gesner, Emily M.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Sauder, J. Michael; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Mehta, Garima; MacMillan, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Small RNAs derived from clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci in bacteria and archaea are involved in an adaptable and heritable gene-silencing pathway. Resistance to invasive genetic material is conferred by the incorporation of short DNA sequences derived from this material into the genome as CRISPR spacer elements separated by short repeat sequences. Processing of long primary transcripts (pre-crRNAs) containing these repeats by a CRISPR-associated (Cas) RNA endonuclease generates the mature effector RNAs that target foreign nucleic acid for degradation. Here we describe functional studies of a Cas5d ortholog, and high-resolution structural studies of a second Cas5d family member, demonstrating that Cas5d is a sequence-specific RNA endonuclease that cleaves CRISPR repeats and is thus responsible for processing of pre-crRNA. Analysis of the structural homology of Cas5d with the previously characterized Cse3 protein allows us to model the interaction of Cas5d with its RNA substrate and conclude that it is a member of a larger family of CRISPR RNA endonucleases. PMID:23006625

  2. The PIN domain endonuclease Utp24 cleaves pre-ribosomal RNA at two coupled sites in yeast and humans

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Graeme R.; Weichmann, Franziska; Colvin, David; Sloan, Katherine E.; Kudla, Grzegorz; Tollervey, David; Watkins, Nicholas J.; Schneider, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    During ribosomal RNA (rRNA) maturation, cleavages at defined sites separate the mature rRNAs from spacer regions, but the identities of several enzymes required for 18S rRNA release remain unknown. PilT N-terminus (PIN) domain proteins are frequently endonucleases and the PIN domain protein Utp24 is essential for early cleavages at three pre-rRNA sites in yeast (A0, A1 and A2) and humans (A0, 1 and 2a). In yeast, A1 is cleaved prior to A2 and both cleavages require base-pairing by the U3 snoRNA to the central pseudoknot elements of the 18S rRNA. We found that yeast Utp24 UV-crosslinked in vivo to U3 and the pseudoknot, placing Utp24 close to cleavage at site A1. Yeast and human Utp24 proteins exhibited in vitro endonuclease activity on an RNA substrate containing yeast site A2. Moreover, an intact PIN domain in human UTP24 was required for accurate cleavages at sites 1 and 2a in vivo, whereas mutation of another potential site 2a endonuclease, RCL1, did not affect 18S production. We propose that Utp24 cleaves sites A1/1 and A2/2a in yeast and human cells. PMID:27034467

  3. Gene expression in the DpnI and DpnII restriction enzyme systems of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, S.A.; Sabelnikov, A.G.; Chen, Jau-Der; Greenberg, B.

    1992-12-31

    Although a number of bacterial species are naturally transformable, that is, their cells are able to take up external DNA in substantial amounts and integrate it into the chromosome without artificial manipulation of the cell surface, Streptococcus pneumoniae, the first species in which this phenomenon was detected, remains a prototype of such transformation. Cells of S. pneumonias also contain potent restriction endonucleases able to severely restrict DNA introduced during viral infection. Our current understanding of the genetic basis of the complementary DpnI and DpnII restriction systems and of the biochemistry of their component enzymes are briefly reviewed. The manner in which these enzymes impinge on the transfer of chromosomal genes and of plasmeds will be examined in detail. It will be seen that far from acting against foreign DNA in general, the restriction systems seem to be designed to exclude only infecting viral DNA The presence of complementary restriction systems in different cells of S. pneumonias enhances their effectiveness in blocking viral infection and promoting species survival. This enhanced effectiveness requires the expression of alternative restriction systems. Therefore, the ability of the cells to transfer the restriction enzyme genes and to regulate their expression are important for survival of the species.

  4. Mutations in ERCC4, encoding the DNA-repair endonuclease XPF, cause Fanconi anemia.

    PubMed

    Bogliolo, Massimo; Schuster, Beatrice; Stoepker, Chantal; Derkunt, Burak; Su, Yan; Raams, Anja; Trujillo, Juan P; Minguillón, Jordi; Ramírez, María J; Pujol, Roser; Casado, José A; Baños, Rocío; Rio, Paula; Knies, Kerstin; Zúñiga, Sheila; Benítez, Javier; Bueren, Juan A; Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; Schärer, Orlando D; de Winter, Johan P; Schindler, Detlev; Surrallés, Jordi

    2013-05-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genomic instability disorder characterized by progressive bone marrow failure and predisposition to cancer. FA-associated gene products are involved in the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Fifteen FA-associated genes have been identified, but the genetic basis in some individuals still remains unresolved. Here, we used whole-exome and Sanger sequencing on DNA of unclassified FA individuals and discovered biallelic germline mutations in ERCC4 (XPF), a structure-specific nuclease-encoding gene previously connected to xeroderma pigmentosum and segmental XFE progeroid syndrome. Genetic reversion and wild-type ERCC4 cDNA complemented the phenotype of the FA cell lines, providing genetic evidence that mutations in ERCC4 cause this FA subtype. Further biochemical and functional analysis demonstrated that the identified FA-causing ERCC4 mutations strongly disrupt the function of XPF in DNA ICL repair without severely compromising nucleotide excision repair. Our data show that depending on the type of ERCC4 mutation and the resulting balance between both DNA repair activities, individuals present with one of the three clinically distinct disorders, highlighting the multifunctional nature of the XPF endonuclease in genome stability and human disease. PMID:23623386

  5. The sliding clamp tethers the endonuclease domain of MutL to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Pillon, Monica C.; Babu, Vignesh M. P.; Randall, Justin R.; Cai, Jiudou; Simmons, Lyle A.; Sutton, Mark D.; Guarné, Alba

    2015-01-01

    The sliding clamp enhances polymerase processivity and coordinates DNA replication with other critical DNA processing events including translesion synthesis, Okazaki fragment maturation and DNA repair. The relative binding affinity of the sliding clamp for its partners determines how these processes are orchestrated and is essential to ensure the correct processing of newly replicated DNA. However, while stable clamp interactions have been extensively studied; dynamic interactions mediated by the sliding clamp remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the interaction between the bacterial sliding clamp (β-clamp) and one of its weak-binding partners, the DNA mismatch repair protein MutL. Disruption of this interaction causes a mild mutator phenotype in Escherichia coli, but completely abrogates mismatch repair activity in Bacillus subtilis. We stabilize the MutL-β interaction by engineering two cysteine residues at variable positions of the interface. Using disulfide bridge crosslinking, we have stabilized the E. coli and B. subtilis MutL-β complexes and have characterized their structures using small angle X-ray scattering. We find that the MutL-β interaction greatly stimulates the endonuclease activity of B. subtilis MutL and supports this activity even in the absence of the N-terminal region of the protein. PMID:26384423

  6. Suppression of oxidative phosphorylation in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells deficient in apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Suganya, Rangaswamy; Chakraborty, Anirban; Miriyala, Sumitra; Hazra, Tapas K.; Izumi, Tadahide

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (APE1) is an essential DNA repair/gene regulatory protein. Decrease of APE1 in cells by inducible shRNA knockdown or by conditional gene knockout caused apoptosis. Here we succeeded in establishing a unique mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) line expressing APE1 at a level far lower than those achieved with shRNA knockdown. The cells, named MEFla (MEFlowAPE1), were hypersensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and showed little activity for repairing AP-sites and MMS induced DNA damage. While these results were consistent with the essential role of APE1 in repair of AP sites, the MEFla cells grew normally and the basal activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases in MEFla was lower than that in the wild-type MEF (MEFwt), indicating the low DNA damage stress in MEFla under the normal growth condition. Oxidative phosphorylation activity in MEFla was lower than in MEFwt, while the glycolysis rates in MEFla were higher than in MEFwt. In addition, we observed decreased intracellular oxidative stress in MEFla. These results suggest that cells with low APE1 reversibly suppress mitochondrial respiration and thereby reduce DNA damage stress and increases the cell viability. PMID:25645679

  7. Role of Endonuclease G in Exogenous DNA Stability in HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Misic, V; El-Mogy, M; Haj-Ahmad, Y

    2016-02-01

    Endonuclease G (EndoG) is a well-conserved mitochondrial-nuclear nuclease with dual lethal and vital roles in the cell. The aim of our study was to examine whether EndoG exerts its nuclease activity on exogenous DNA substrates such as plasmid DNA (pDNA), considering their importance in gene therapy applications. The effects of EndoG knockdown on pDNA stability and levels of encoded reporter gene expression were evaluated in the cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. Transfection of pDNA vectors encoding short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) reduced levels of EndoG mRNA in HeLa cells. In physiological circumstances, EndoG knockdown did not have an effect on the stability of pDNA or the levels of encoded transgene expression as measured over a four-day time course. However, when endogenous expression of EndoG was induced by an extrinsic stimulus, targeting of EndoG by shRNA improved the perceived stability and transgene expression of pDNA vectors. Therefore, EndoG is not a mediator of exogenous DNA clearance, but in non-physiological circumstances, it may nonspecifically cleave intracellular DNA regardless of its origin. These findings make it unlikely that targeting of EndoG is a viable strategy for improving the duration and level of transgene expression from nonviral DNA vectors in gene therapy efforts. PMID:27260396

  8. The sliding clamp tethers the endonuclease domain of MutL to DNA.

    PubMed

    Pillon, Monica C; Babu, Vignesh M P; Randall, Justin R; Cai, Jiudou; Simmons, Lyle A; Sutton, Mark D; Guarné, Alba

    2015-12-15

    The sliding clamp enhances polymerase processivity and coordinates DNA replication with other critical DNA processing events including translesion synthesis, Okazaki fragment maturation and DNA repair. The relative binding affinity of the sliding clamp for its partners determines how these processes are orchestrated and is essential to ensure the correct processing of newly replicated DNA. However, while stable clamp interactions have been extensively studied; dynamic interactions mediated by the sliding clamp remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the interaction between the bacterial sliding clamp (β-clamp) and one of its weak-binding partners, the DNA mismatch repair protein MutL. Disruption of this interaction causes a mild mutator phenotype in Escherichia coli, but completely abrogates mismatch repair activity in Bacillus subtilis. We stabilize the MutL-β interaction by engineering two cysteine residues at variable positions of the interface. Using disulfide bridge crosslinking, we have stabilized the E. coli and B. subtilis MutL-β complexes and have characterized their structures using small angle X-ray scattering. We find that the MutL-β interaction greatly stimulates the endonuclease activity of B. subtilis MutL and supports this activity even in the absence of the N-terminal region of the protein. PMID:26384423

  9. Novel fluorescent genome editing reporters for monitoring DNA repair pathway utilization at endonuclease-induced breaks.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Ryan; Gwiazda, Kamila S; Humbert, Olivier; Mandt, Tyler; Pangallo, Joey; Brault, Michelle; Khan, Iram; Maizels, Nancy; Rawlings, David J; Scharenberg, Andrew M; Certo, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    The creation of a DNA break at a specific locus by a designer endonuclease can be harnessed to edit a genome. However, DNA breaks may engage one of several competing repair pathways that lead to distinct types of genomic alterations. Therefore, understanding the contribution of different repair pathways following the introduction of a targeted DNA break is essential to further advance the safety and efficiency of nuclease-induced genome modification. To gain insight into the role of different DNA repair pathways in resolving nuclease-induced DNA breaks into genome editing outcomes, we previously developed a fluorescent-based reporter system, designated the Traffic Light Reporter, which provides a readout of gene targeting and gene disruption downstream of a targeted DNA double-strand break. Here we describe two related but novel reporters that extend this technology: one that allows monitoring of the transcriptional activity at the reporter locus, and thus can be applied to interrogate break resolution at active and repressed loci; and a second that reads out single-strand annealing in addition to gene targeting and gene disruption. Application of these reporters to assess repair pathway usage in several common gene editing contexts confirms the importance that chromatin status and initiation of end resection have on the resolution of nuclease-induced breaks. PMID:24121685

  10. Identification of endonuclease domain-containing 1 gene in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Zhe-Zhe; Zhao, Bei-Bei; Koiwai, Keiichiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro

    2016-03-01

    The mRNA level of the endonuclease domain-containing 1 gene (Jf_ENDOD1) in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus kidney was significantly increased after injection of formalin-killed bacteria cells (FKC) in the previous microarray study. ENDOD1 is a member of the DNA/RNA non-specific nucleases family, and its role in fish immunity has not been reported. The open reading frame of Jf_ENDOD1 cDNA was 912 bp, encoding 303 amino acids. The first 27 amino acids were predicted to be a signal peptide and the mature Jf_ENDOD1 was calculated as 32 kDa. The amino acid sequence of Jf_ENDOD1 showed 76% identity to that of large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea. Transcripts of Jf_ENDOD1 were marginally detected in all sampled tissues from healthy fish, while they were significantly detected in brain, kidney, spleen and intestine at 6 h post FKC injection. Jf_ENDOD1 recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli showed DNase activity. Furthermore, to evaluate the DNase activities in vivo, total proteins from Japanese flounder kidney and spleen were extracted at 12, 24 and 72 h post Edwardsiella tarda FKC injection. The DNase activity of extracted protein was higher in treated fish than in untreated fish. Since the mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated after the FKC treatment, Jf_ENDOD1 might be responsible for the activities. PMID:26784919

  11. P1 Ref Endonuclease: A Molecular Mechanism for Phage-Enhanced Antibiotic Lethality.

    PubMed

    Ronayne, Erin A; Wan, Y C Serena; Boudreau, Beth A; Landick, Robert; Cox, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Ref is an HNH superfamily endonuclease that only cleaves DNA to which RecA protein is bound. The enigmatic physiological function of this unusual enzyme is defined here. Lysogenization by bacteriophage P1 renders E. coli more sensitive to the DNA-damaging antibiotic ciprofloxacin, an example of a phenomenon termed phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS). The complementary effect of phage P1 is uniquely traced to the P1-encoded gene ref. Ref is a P1 function that amplifies the lytic cycle under conditions when the bacterial SOS response is induced due to DNA damage. The effect of Ref is multifaceted. DNA binding by Ref interferes with normal DNA metabolism, and the nuclease activity of Ref enhances genome degradation. Ref also inhibits cell division independently of the SOS response. Ref gene expression is toxic to E. coli in the absence of other P1 functions, both alone and in combination with antibiotics. The RecA proteins of human pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus serve as cofactors for Ref-mediated DNA cleavage. Ref is especially toxic during the bacterial SOS response and the limited growth of stationary phase cultures, targeting aspects of bacterial physiology that are closely associated with the development of bacterial pathogen persistence. PMID:26765929

  12. Thermodynamics of Damaged DNA Binding and Catalysis by Human AP Endonuclease 1.

    PubMed

    Miroshnikova, A D; Kuznetsova, A A; Kuznetsov, N A; Fedorova, O S

    2016-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases play an important role in DNA repair and initiation of AP site elimination. One of the most topical problems in the field of DNA repair is to understand the mechanism of the enzymatic process involving the human enzyme APE1 that provides recognition of AP sites and efficient cleavage of the 5'-phosphodiester bond. In this study, a thermodynamic analysis of the interaction between APE1 and a DNA substrate containing a stable AP site analog lacking the C1' hydroxyl group (F site) was performed. Based on stopped-flow kinetic data at different temperatures, the steps of DNA binding, catalysis, and DNA product release were characterized. The changes in the standard Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of sequential specific steps of the repair process were determined. The thermodynamic analysis of the data suggests that the initial step of the DNA substrate binding includes formation of non-specific contacts between the enzyme binding surface and DNA, as well as insertion of the amino acid residues Arg177 and Met270 into the duplex, which results in the removal of "crystalline" water molecules from DNA grooves. The second binding step involves the F site flipping-out process and formation of specific contacts between the enzyme active site and the everted 5'-phosphate-2'-deoxyribose residue. It was shown that non-specific interactions between the binding surfaces of the enzyme and DNA provide the main contribution into the thermodynamic parameters of the DNA product release step. PMID:27099790

  13. Human AP Endonuclease 1: A Potential Marker for the Prediction of Environmental Carcinogenesis Risk

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Sung; Kim, Hye Lim; Kim, Yeo Jin; Weon, Jong-Il; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Chung, Hai Won; Seo, Young Rok

    2014-01-01

    Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) functions mainly in DNA repair as an enzyme removing AP sites and in redox signaling as a coactivator of various transcription factors. Based on these multifunctions of APE1 within cells, numerous studies have reported that the alteration of APE1 could be a crucial factor in development of human diseases such as cancer and neurodegeneration. In fact, the study on the combination of an individual's genetic make-up with environmental factors (gene-environment interaction) is of great importance to understand the development of diseases, especially lethal diseases including cancer. Recent reports have suggested that the human carcinogenic risk following exposure to environmental toxicants is affected by APE1 alterations in terms of gene-environment interactions. In this review, we initially outline the critical APE1 functions in the various intracellular mechanisms including DNA repair and redox regulation and its roles in human diseases. Several findings demonstrate that the change in expression and activity as well as genetic variability of APE1 caused by environmental chemical (e.g., heavy metals and cigarette smoke) and physical carcinogens (ultraviolet and ionizing radiation) is likely associated with various cancers. These enable us to ultimately suggest APE1 as a vital marker for the prediction of environmental carcinogenesis risk. PMID:25243052

  14. DNA interrogation by the CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Samuel H.; Redding, Sy; Jinek, Martin; Greene, Eric C.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR-associated enzyme Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that uses RNA:DNA base-pairing to target foreign DNA in bacteria. Cas9:guide RNA complexes are also effective genome engineering agents in animals and plants. Here we use single-molecule and bulk biochemical experiments to determine how Cas9:RNA interrogates DNA to find specific cleavage sites. We show that both binding and cleavage of DNA by Cas9:RNA require recognition of a short trinucleotide protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Non-target DNA binding affinity scales with PAM density, and sequences fully complementary to the guide RNA but lacking a nearby PAM are ignored by Cas9:RNA. DNA strand separation and RNA:DNA heteroduplex formation initiate at the PAM and proceed directionally towards the distal end of the target sequence. Furthermore, PAM interactions trigger Cas9 catalytic activity. These results reveal how Cas9 employs PAM recognition to quickly identify potential target sites while scanning large DNA molecules, and to regulate dsDNA scission. PMID:24476820

  15. Characterization and genetic mapping of a mutation affecting apurinic endonuclease activity in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Tam, J E; Pattee, P A

    1986-01-01

    Protoplast fusion between the Rec- mutant RN981 (L. Wyman, R. V. Goering, and R. P. Novick, Genetics 76:681-702, 1974) of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325 and a Rec+ NCTC 8325 derivative yielded Rec+ recombinants that exhibited the increased sensitivity to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine characteristic of RN981. Transformation analyses identified a specific mutation, designated ngr-374, that was responsible not only for N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine sensitivity, but also sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, nitrous acid, and UV irradiation. However, ngr-374-carrying recombinants showed no significant increase in their sensitivity to mitomycin C or 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide and were unaffected in recombination proficiency. In vitro assays showed that ngr-374-carrying strains had lower apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activities than the wild type. The chromosomal locus occupied by ngr-374 was shown to exist in the gene order omega(Chr::Tn551)40-ngr-374-thrB106. PMID:2430940

  16. Comparative Structural and Functional Analysis of Bunyavirus and Arenavirus Cap-Snatching Endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Reguera, Juan; Gerlach, Piotr; Rosenthal, Maria; Gaudon, Stephanie; Coscia, Francesca; Günther, Stephan; Cusack, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Segmented negative strand RNA viruses of the arena-, bunya- and orthomyxovirus families uniquely carry out viral mRNA transcription by the cap-snatching mechanism. This involves cleavage of host mRNAs close to their capped 5′ end by an endonuclease (EN) domain located in the N-terminal region of the viral polymerase. We present the structure of the cap-snatching EN of Hantaan virus, a bunyavirus belonging to hantavirus genus. Hantaan EN has an active site configuration, including a metal co-ordinating histidine, and nuclease activity similar to the previously reported La Crosse virus and Influenza virus ENs (orthobunyavirus and orthomyxovirus respectively), but is more active in cleaving a double stranded RNA substrate. In contrast, Lassa arenavirus EN has only acidic metal co-ordinating residues. We present three high resolution structures of Lassa virus EN with different bound ion configurations and show in comparative biophysical and biochemical experiments with Hantaan, La Crosse and influenza ENs that the isolated Lassa EN is essentially inactive. The results are discussed in the light of EN activation mechanisms revealed by recent structures of full-length influenza virus polymerase. PMID:27304209

  17. Comparative Structural and Functional Analysis of Bunyavirus and Arenavirus Cap-Snatching Endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Reguera, Juan; Gerlach, Piotr; Rosenthal, Maria; Gaudon, Stephanie; Coscia, Francesca; Günther, Stephan; Cusack, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Segmented negative strand RNA viruses of the arena-, bunya- and orthomyxovirus families uniquely carry out viral mRNA transcription by the cap-snatching mechanism. This involves cleavage of host mRNAs close to their capped 5' end by an endonuclease (EN) domain located in the N-terminal region of the viral polymerase. We present the structure of the cap-snatching EN of Hantaan virus, a bunyavirus belonging to hantavirus genus. Hantaan EN has an active site configuration, including a metal co-ordinating histidine, and nuclease activity similar to the previously reported La Crosse virus and Influenza virus ENs (orthobunyavirus and orthomyxovirus respectively), but is more active in cleaving a double stranded RNA substrate. In contrast, Lassa arenavirus EN has only acidic metal co-ordinating residues. We present three high resolution structures of Lassa virus EN with different bound ion configurations and show in comparative biophysical and biochemical experiments with Hantaan, La Crosse and influenza ENs that the isolated Lassa EN is essentially inactive. The results are discussed in the light of EN activation mechanisms revealed by recent structures of full-length influenza virus polymerase. PMID:27304209

  18. AP endonucleases process 5-methylcytosine excision intermediates during active DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyoon; Jang, Hosung; Shin, Hosub; Choi, Woo Lee; Mok, Young Geun; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a primary epigenetic modification regulating gene expression and chromatin structure in many eukaryotes. Plants have a unique DNA demethylation system in that 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is directly removed by DNA demethylases, such as DME/ROS1 family proteins, but little is known about the downstream events. During 5mC excision, DME produces 3′-phosphor-α, β-unsaturated aldehyde and 3′-phosphate by successive β- and δ-eliminations, respectively. The kinetic studies revealed that these 3′-blocking lesions persist for a significant amount of time and at least two different enzyme activities are required to immediately process them. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis AP endonucleases APE1L, APE2 and ARP have distinct functions to process such harmful lesions to allow nucleotide extension. DME expression is toxic to E. coli due to excessive 5mC excision, but expression of APE1L or ARP significantly reduces DME-induced cytotoxicity. Finally, we propose a model of base excision repair and DNA demethylation pathway unique to plants. PMID:25228464

  19. Characterization of a UV endonuclease gene from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and its bacterial homolog.

    PubMed Central

    Takao, M; Yonemasu, R; Yamamoto, K; Yasui, A

    1996-01-01

    From the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a cDNA fragment was isolated, which confers UV resistance on repair deficient Escherichia coli host cells. The cloned cDNA encodes a protein of 68,815 Da, which has a 36.6% identity of amino acid sequence with the previously identified 74 kDa UV endonuclease of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Analysis of several truncated gene constructs shows that only the C-terminal two thirds region, which has 54% identity of amino acid sequence with the C-terminal region of the Neurospora homolog, is necessary for complementing activity of UV-sensitivity in the E. coli host cells. Purified recombinant protein from E. coli host cells incises both UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts at the sites immediately 5' to the DNA damage in the same fashion as the Neurospora protein. Furthermore, a bacterial homologous sequence was isolated from Bacillus subtilis and shows a similar complementing activity of UV sensitivity in E. coli host cells, indicating a wide distribution of this alternative excision repair mechanism in life. PMID:8614629

  20. Crystal structure of E. coli endonuclease V, an essential enzyme for deamination repair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhemin; Jia, Qian; Zhou, Chun; Xie, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Endonuclease V (EndoV) is a ubiquitous protein present in all three kingdoms of life, responsible for the specific cleavages at the second phosphodiester bond 3' to inosine. E. coli EndoV (EcEndoV) is the first member discovered in the EndoV family. It is a small protein with a compact gene organization, yet with a wide spectrum of substrate specificities. However, the structural basis of its substrate recognition is not well understood. In this study, we determined the 2.4 Å crystal structure of EcEndoV. The enzyme preserves the general 'RNase H-like motif' structure. Two subunits are almost fully resolved in the asymmetric unit, but they are not related by any 2-fold axes. Rather, they establish "head-to-shoulder" contacts with loose interactions between each other. Mutational studies show that mutations that disrupt the association mode of the two subunits also decrease the cleavage efficiencies of the enzyme. Further biochemical studies suggest that EcEndoV is able to bind to single-stranded, undamaged DNA substrates without sequence specificity, and forms two types of complexes in a metal-independent manner, which may explain the wide spectrum of substrate specificities of EcEndoV. PMID:26244280

  1. RecA-dependent programmable endonuclease Ref cleaves DNA in two distinct steps

    PubMed Central

    Ronayne, Erin A.; Cox, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The bacteriophage P1 recombination enhancement function (Ref) protein is a RecA-dependent programmable endonuclease. Ref targets displacement loops formed when an oligonucleotide is bound by a RecA filament and invades homologous double-stranded DNA sequences. Mechanistic details of this reaction have been explored, revealing that (i) Ref is nickase, cleaving the two target strands of a displacement loop sequentially, (ii) the two strands are cleaved in a prescribed order, with the paired strand cut first and (iii) the two cleavage events have different requirements. Cutting the paired strand is rapid, does not require RecA-mediated ATP hydrolysis and is promoted even by Ref active site variant H153A. The displaced strand is cleaved much more slowly, requires RecA-mediated ATP hydrolysis and does not occur with Ref H153A. The two cleavage events are also affected differently by solution conditions. We postulate that the second cleavage (displaced strand) is limited by some activity of RecA protein. PMID:24371286

  2. An AP endonuclease functions in active DNA demethylation and gene imprinting in Arabidopsis [corrected].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Córdoba-Cañero, Dolores; Qian, Weiqiang; Zhu, Xiaohong; Tang, Kai; Zhang, Huiming; Ariza, Rafael R; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Active DNA demethylation in plants occurs through base excision repair, beginning with removal of methylated cytosine by the ROS1/DME subfamily of 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases. Active DNA demethylation in animals requires the DNA glycosylase TDG or MBD4, which functions after oxidation or deamination of 5-methylcytosine, respectively. However, little is known about the steps following DNA glycosylase action in the active DNA demethylation pathways in plants and animals. We show here that the Arabidopsis APE1L protein has apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activities and functions downstream of ROS1 and DME. APE1L and ROS1 interact in vitro and co-localize in vivo. Whole genome bisulfite sequencing of ape1l mutant plants revealed widespread alterations in DNA methylation. We show that the ape1l/zdp double mutant displays embryonic lethality. Notably, the ape1l+/-zdp-/- mutant shows a maternal-effect lethality phenotype. APE1L and the DNA phosphatase ZDP are required for FWA and MEA gene imprinting in the endosperm and are important for seed development. Thus, APE1L is a new component of the active DNA demethylation pathway and, together with ZDP, regulates gene imprinting in Arabidopsis. PMID:25569774

  3. DNA interrogation by the CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Samuel H.; Redding, Sy; Jinek, Martin; Greene, Eric C.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-03-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated enzyme Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that uses RNA-DNA base-pairing to target foreign DNA in bacteria. Cas9-guide RNA complexes are also effective genome engineering agents in animals and plants. Here we use single-molecule and bulk biochemical experiments to determine how Cas9-RNA interrogates DNA to find specific cleavage sites. We show that both binding and cleavage of DNA by Cas9-RNA require recognition of a short trinucleotide protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Non-target DNA binding affinity scales with PAM density, and sequences fully complementary to the guide RNA but lacking a nearby PAM are ignored by Cas9-RNA. Competition assays provide evidence that DNA strand separation and RNA-DNA heteroduplex formation initiate at the PAM and proceed directionally towards the distal end of the target sequence. Furthermore, PAM interactions trigger Cas9 catalytic activity. These results reveal how Cas9 uses PAM recognition to quickly identify potential target sites while scanning large DNA molecules, and to regulate scission of double-stranded DNA.

  4. Engineering domain fusion chimeras from I-OnuI family LAGLIDADG homing endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Abigail R.; Kuhar, Ryan; Jarjour, Jordan; Kulshina, Nadia; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Danaher, Patrick; Gano, Jacob; Baker, David; Stoddard, Barry L.; Scharenberg, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Although engineered LAGLIDADG homing endonucleases (LHEs) are finding increasing applications in biotechnology, their generation remains a challenging, industrial-scale process. As new single-chain LAGLIDADG nuclease scaffolds are identified, however, an alternative paradigm is emerging: identification of an LHE scaffold whose native cleavage site is a close match to a desired target sequence, followed by small-scale engineering to modestly refine recognition specificity. The application of this paradigm could be accelerated if methods were available for fusing N- and C-terminal domains from newly identified LHEs into chimeric enzymes with hybrid cleavage sites. Here we have analyzed the structural requirements for fusion of domains extracted from six single-chain I-OnuI family LHEs, spanning 40–70% amino acid identity. Our analyses demonstrate that both the LAGLIDADG helical interface residues and the linker peptide composition have important effects on the stability and activity of chimeric enzymes. Using a simple domain fusion method in which linker peptide residues predicted to contact their respective domains are retained, and in which limited variation is introduced into the LAGLIDADG helix and nearby interface residues, catalytically active enzymes were recoverable for ∼70% of domain chimeras. This method will be useful for creating large numbers of chimeric LHEs for genome engineering applications. PMID:22684507

  5. P1 Ref Endonuclease: A Molecular Mechanism for Phage-Enhanced Antibiotic Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Ronayne, Erin A.; Wan, Y. C. Serena; Boudreau, Beth A.; Landick, Robert; Cox, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Ref is an HNH superfamily endonuclease that only cleaves DNA to which RecA protein is bound. The enigmatic physiological function of this unusual enzyme is defined here. Lysogenization by bacteriophage P1 renders E. coli more sensitive to the DNA-damaging antibiotic ciprofloxacin, an example of a phenomenon termed phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS). The complementary effect of phage P1 is uniquely traced to the P1-encoded gene ref. Ref is a P1 function that amplifies the lytic cycle under conditions when the bacterial SOS response is induced due to DNA damage. The effect of Ref is multifaceted. DNA binding by Ref interferes with normal DNA metabolism, and the nuclease activity of Ref enhances genome degradation. Ref also inhibits cell division independently of the SOS response. Ref gene expression is toxic to E. coli in the absence of other P1 functions, both alone and in combination with antibiotics. The RecA proteins of human pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus serve as cofactors for Ref-mediated DNA cleavage. Ref is especially toxic during the bacterial SOS response and the limited growth of stationary phase cultures, targeting aspects of bacterial physiology that are closely associated with the development of bacterial pathogen persistence. PMID:26765929

  6. Mitochondrial Targeted Endonuclease III DNA Repair Enzyme Protects against Ventilator Induced Lung Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Masahiro; Mouner, Marc; Chouteau, Joshua M; Gorodnya, Olena M; Ruchko, Mykhaylo V; Wilson, Glenn L; Gillespie, Mark N; Parker, James C

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial targeted DNA repair enzyme, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, was previously reported to protect against mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). In the present study we determined whether mitochondrial targeted endonuclease III (EndoIII) which cleaves oxidized pyrimidines rather than purines from damaged DNA would also protect the lung. Minimal injury from 1 h ventilation at 40 cmH2O peak inflation pressure (PIP) was reversed by EndoIII pretreatment. Moderate lung injury due to ventilation for 2 h at 40 cmH2O PIP produced a 25-fold increase in total extravascular albumin space, a 60% increase in W/D weight ratio, and marked increases in MIP-2 and IL-6. Oxidative mtDNA damage and decreases in the total tissue glutathione (GSH) and the GSH/GSSH ratio also occurred. All of these indices of injury were attenuated by mitochondrial targeted EndoIII. Massive lung injury caused by 2 h ventilation at 50 cmH2O PIP was not attenuated by EndoIII pretreatment, but all untreated mice died prior to completing the two hour ventilation protocol, whereas all EndoIII-treated mice lived for the duration of ventilation. Thus, mitochondrial targeted DNA repair enzymes were protective against mild and moderate lung damage and they enhanced survival in the most severely injured group. PMID:25153040

  7. Translocation-coupled DNA cleavage by the Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes.

    PubMed

    Chand, Mahesh K; Nirwan, Neha; Diffin, Fiona M; van Aelst, Kara; Kulkarni, Manasi; Pernstich, Christian; Szczelkun, Mark D; Saikrishnan, Kayarat

    2015-11-01

    Production of endonucleolytic double-strand DNA breaks requires separate strand cleavage events. Although catalytic mechanisms for simple, dimeric endonucleases are known, there are many complex nuclease machines that are poorly understood. Here we studied the single polypeptide Type ISP restriction-modification (RM) enzymes, which cleave random DNA between distant target sites when two enzymes collide after convergent ATP-driven translocation. We report the 2.7-Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of a Type ISP enzyme-DNA complex, revealing that both the helicase-like ATPase and nuclease are located upstream of the direction of translocation, an observation inconsistent with simple nuclease-domain dimerization. Using single-molecule and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that each ATPase remodels its DNA-protein complex and translocates along DNA without looping it, leading to a collision complex in which the nuclease domains are distal. Sequencing of the products of single cleavage events suggests a previously undescribed endonuclease model, where multiple, stochastic strand-nicking events combine to produce DNA scission. PMID:26389736

  8. Translocation-coupled DNA cleavage by the Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Mahesh Kumar; Nirwan, Neha; Diffin, Fiona M.; van Aelst, Kara; Kulkarni, Manasi; Pernstich, Christian; Szczelkun, Mark D.; Saikrishnan, Kayarat

    2015-01-01

    Endonucleolytic double-strand DNA break production requires separate strand cleavage events. Although catalytic mechanisms for simple dimeric endonucleases are available, there are many complex nuclease machines which are poorly understood in comparison. Here we studied the single polypeptide Type ISP restriction-modification (RM) enzymes, which cleave random DNA between distant target sites when two enzymes collide following convergent ATP-driven translocation. We report the 2.7 Angstroms resolution X-ray crystal structure of a Type ISP enzyme-DNA complex, revealing that both the helicase-like ATPase and nuclease are unexpectedly located upstream of the direction of translocation, inconsistent with simple nuclease domain-dimerization. Using single-molecule and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that each ATPase remodels its DNA-protein complex and translocates along DNA without looping it, leading to a collision complex where the nuclease domains are distal. Sequencing of single cleavage events suggests a previously undescribed endonuclease model, where multiple, stochastic strand nicking events combine to produce DNA scission. PMID:26389736

  9. Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging.

    PubMed

    Santos, Júlia; Leitão-Correia, Fernanda; Sousa, Maria João; Leão, Cecília

    2016-01-01

    Dietary regimens that favour reduced calorie intake delay aging and age-associated diseases. New evidences revealed that nutritional balance of dietary components without food restriction increases lifespan. Particular nutrients as several nitrogen sources, proteins, amino acid, and ammonium are implicated in life and healthspan regulation in different model organisms from yeast to mammals. Aging and dietary restriction interact through partially overlapping mechanisms in the activation of the conserved nutrient-signalling pathways, mainly the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS) and the Target Of Rapamycin (TOR). The specific nutrients of dietary regimens, their balance, and how they interact with different genes and pathways are currently being uncovered. Taking into account that dietary regimes can largely influence overall human health and changes in risk factors such as cholesterol level and blood pressure, these new findings are of great importance to fully comprehend the interplay between diet and humans health. PMID:26682004

  10. Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Leitão-Correia, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Dietary regimens that favour reduced calorie intake delay aging and age-associated diseases. New evidences revealed that nutritional balance of dietary components without food restriction increases lifespan. Particular nutrients as several nitrogen sources, proteins, amino acid, and ammonium are implicated in life and healthspan regulation in different model organisms from yeast to mammals. Aging and dietary restriction interact through partially overlapping mechanisms in the activation of the conserved nutrient-signalling pathways, mainly the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS) and the Target Of Rapamycin (TOR). The specific nutrients of dietary regimens, their balance, and how they interact with different genes and pathways are currently being uncovered. Taking into account that dietary regimes can largely influence overall human health and changes in risk factors such as cholesterol level and blood pressure, these new findings are of great importance to fully comprehend the interplay between diet and humans health. PMID:26682004

  11. APOBECs and Virus Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Reuben S.; Dudley, Jaquelin P.

    2015-01-01

    The APOBEC family of single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminases comprises a formidable arm of the vertebrate innate immune system. Pre-vertebrates express a single APOBEC, whereas some mammals produce as many as eleven enzymes. The APOBEC3 subfamily displays both copy number variation and polymorphisms, consistent with ongoing pathogenic pressures. These enzymes restrict the replication of many DNA-based parasites, such as exogenous viruses and endogenous transposable elements. APOBEC1 and activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) have specialized functions in RNA editing and antibody gene diversification, respectively, whereas APOBEC2 and APOBEC4 appear to have different functions. Nevertheless, the APOBEC family protects against both periodic viral zoonoses as well as exogenous and endogenous parasite replication. This review highlights viral pathogens that are restricted by APOBEC enzymes, but manage to escape through unique mechanisms. The sensitivity of viruses that lack counterdefense measures highlights the need to develop APOBEC-enabling small molecules as a new class of anti-viral drugs. PMID:25818029

  12. Range Restriction and Attenuation Corrections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Michael D.; Mendoza, Jorge L.

    The present paper reviews the techniques commonly used to correct an observed correlation coefficient for the simultaneous influence of attenuation and range restriction effects. It is noted that the procedure which is currently in use may be somewhat biased because it treats range restriction and attenuation as independent restrictive influences.…

  13. Expression and purification of the modification-dependent restriction enzyme BisI and its homologous enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuang-yong; Klein, Pernelle; Degtyarev, Sergey Kh.; Roberts, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The methylation-dependent restriction endonuclease (REase) BisI (Gm5C ↓ NGC) is found in Bacillus subtilis T30. We expressed and purified the BisI endonuclease and 34 BisI homologs identified in bacterial genomes. 23 of these BisI homologs are active based on digestion of m5C-modified substrates. Two major specificities were found among these BisI family enzymes: Group I enzymes cut GCNGC containing two to four m5C in the two strands, or hemi-methylated sites containing two m5C in one strand; Group II enzymes only cut GCNGC sites containing three to four m5C, while one enzyme requires all four cytosines to be modified for cleavage. Another homolog, Esp638I cleaves GCS ↓ SGC (relaxed specificity RCN ↓ NGY, containing at least four m5C). Two BisI homologs show degenerate specificity cleaving unmodified DNA. Many homologs are small proteins ranging from 150 to 190 amino acid (aa) residues, but some homologs associated with mobile genetic elements are larger and contain an extra C-terminal domain. More than 156 BisI homologs are found in >60 bacterial genera, indicating that these enzymes are widespread in bacteria. They may play an important biological function in restricting pre-modified phage DNA. PMID:27353146

  14. Characterization of unrelated strains of Staphylococcus schleiferi by using ribosomal DNA fingerprinting, DNA restriction patterns, and plasmid profiles.

    PubMed Central

    Grattard, F; Etienne, J; Pozzetto, B; Tardy, F; Gaudin, O G; Fleurette, J

    1993-01-01

    The molecular characteristics of 31 unrelated strains of Staphylococcus schleiferi isolated from 13 hospitals between 1973 and 1991 were determined by ribosomal DNA fingerprinting by using a digoxigenin-labeled DNA probe, genomic DNA restriction patterns, and plasmid profiles. Only six strains harbored one or two plasmids. DNA restriction analysis, which was carried out with five endonucleases (EcoRI, HindIII, PstI, PvuII, and ClaI), did not allow us to discriminate between isolates. Ribotyping with HindIII, ClaI, or EcoRI enzymes generated six, seven, and nine distinct patterns, respectively. With the combination ClaI-EcoRI, 13 ribotypes were obtained among the 31 strains, suggesting a relative heterogeneity within the species. Moreover, all strains shared two or three common bands, according to the endonuclease used, which were relatively specific for S. schleiferi in comparison with the ribosomal banding patterns described for other coagulase-negative staphylococci. These results illustrate that ribotyping can be used for the epidemiological investigation of S. schleiferi isolates and possibly for taxonomic analysis in this species. Images PMID:8385149

  15. Type II restriction endonucleases—a historical perspective and more

    PubMed Central

    Pingoud, Alfred; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Wende, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    This article continues the series of Surveys and Summaries on restriction endonucleases (REases) begun this year in Nucleic Acids Research. Here we discuss ‘Type II’ REases, the kind used for DNA analysis and cloning. We focus on their biochemistry: what they are, what they do, and how they do it. Type II REases are produced by prokaryotes to combat bacteriophages. With extreme accuracy, each recognizes a particular sequence in double-stranded DNA and cleaves at a fixed position within or nearby. The discoveries of these enzymes in the 1970s, and of the uses to which they could be put, have since impacted every corner of the life sciences. They became the enabling tools of molecular biology, genetics and biotechnology, and made analysis at the most fundamental levels routine. Hundreds of different REases have been discovered and are available commercially. Their genes have been cloned, sequenced and overexpressed. Most have been characterized to some extent, but few have been studied in depth. Here, we describe the original discoveries in this field, and the properties of the first Type II REases investigated. We discuss the mechanisms of sequence recognition and catalysis, and the varied oligomeric modes in which Type II REases act. We describe the surprising heterogeneity revealed by comparisons of their sequences and structures. PMID:24878924

  16. Stochastic induction of persister cells by HipA through (p)ppGpp-mediated activation of mRNA endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Elsa; Roghanian, Mohammad; Gerdes, Kenn; Maisonneuve, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    The model organism Escherichia coli codes for at least 11 type II toxin–antitoxin (TA) modules, all implicated in bacterial persistence (multidrug tolerance). Ten of these encode messenger RNA endonucleases (mRNases) inhibiting translation by catalytic degradation of mRNA, and the 11th module, hipBA, encodes HipA (high persister protein A) kinase, which inhibits glutamyl tRNA synthetase (GltX). In turn, inhibition of GltX inhibits translation and induces the stringent response and persistence. Previously, we presented strong support for a model proposing (p)ppGpp (guanosine tetra and penta-phosphate) as the master regulator of persistence. Stochastic variation of [(p)ppGpp] in single cells induced TA-encoded mRNases via a pathway involving polyphosphate and Lon protease. Polyphosphate activated Lon to degrade all known type II antitoxins of E. coli. In turn, the activated mRNases induced persistence and multidrug tolerance. However, even though it was known that activation of HipA stimulated (p)ppGpp synthesis, our model did not explain how hipBA induced persistence. Here we show that, in support of and consistent with our initial model, HipA-induced persistence depends not only on (p)ppGpp but also on the 10 mRNase-encoding TA modules, Lon protease, and polyphosphate. Importantly, observations with single cells convincingly show that the high level of (p)ppGpp caused by activation of HipA does not induce persistence in the absence of TA-encoded mRNases. Thus, slow growth per se does not induce persistence in the absence of TA-encoded toxins, placing these genes as central effectors of bacterial persistence. PMID:25848049

  17. DNA and Protein Requirements for Substrate Conformational Changes Necessary for Human Flap Endonuclease-1-catalyzed Reaction*

    PubMed Central

    Algasaier, Sana I.; Exell, Jack C.; Bennet, Ian A.; Thompson, Mark J.; Gotham, Victoria J. B.; Shaw, Steven J.; Craggs, Timothy D.; Finger, L. David; Grasby, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    Human flap endonuclease-1 (hFEN1) catalyzes the essential removal of single-stranded flaps arising at DNA junctions during replication and repair processes. hFEN1 biological function must be precisely controlled, and consequently, the protein relies on a combination of protein and substrate conformational changes as a prerequisite for reaction. These include substrate bending at the duplex-duplex junction and transfer of unpaired reacting duplex end into the active site. When present, 5′-flaps are thought to thread under the helical cap, limiting reaction to flaps with free 5′-termini in vivo. Here we monitored DNA bending by FRET and DNA unpairing using 2-aminopurine exciton pair CD to determine the DNA and protein requirements for these substrate conformational changes. Binding of DNA to hFEN1 in a bent conformation occurred independently of 5′-flap accommodation and did not require active site metal ions or the presence of conserved active site residues. More stringent requirements exist for transfer of the substrate to the active site. Placement of the scissile phosphate diester in the active site required the presence of divalent metal ions, a free 5′-flap (if present), a Watson-Crick base pair at the terminus of the reacting duplex, and the intact secondary structure of the enzyme helical cap. Optimal positioning of the scissile phosphate additionally required active site conserved residues Tyr40, Asp181, and Arg100 and a reacting duplex 5′-phosphate. These studies suggest a FEN1 reaction mechanism where junctions are bound and 5′-flaps are threaded (when present), and finally the substrate is transferred onto active site metals initiating cleavage. PMID:26884332

  18. Evolution of the redox function in mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, M M; Luo, M; Gaur, R K; Delaplane, S; Li, X; Kelley, M R

    2008-08-25

    Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (hApe1) encodes two important functional activities: an essential base excision repair (BER) activity and a redox activity that regulates expression of a number of genes through reduction of their transcription factors, AP-1, NFkappaB, HIF-1alpha, CREB, p53 and others. The BER function is highly conserved from prokaryotes (E. coli exonuclease III) to humans (hApe1). Here, we provide evidence supporting a redox function unique to mammalian Apes. An evolutionary analysis of Ape sequences reveals that, of the 7 Cys residues, Cys 93, 99, 208, 296, and 310 are conserved in both mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrate Apes, while Cys 65 is unique to mammalian Apes. In the zebrafish Ape (zApe), selected as the vertebrate sequence most distant from human, the residue equivalent to Cys 65 is Thr 58. The wild-type zApe enzyme was tested for redox activity in both in vitro EMSA and transactivation assays and found to be inactive, similar to C65A hApe1. Substitution of Thr 58 with Cys in zApe, however, resulted in a redox active enzyme, suggesting that a Cys residue in this position is indeed critical for redox function. In order to further probe differences between redox active and inactive enzymes, we have determined the crystal structures of vertebrate redox inactive enzymes, the C65A human Ape1 enzyme and the zApe enzyme at 1.9 and 2.3A, respectively. Our results provide new insights on the redox function and highlight a dramatic gain-of-function activity for Ape1 in mammals not found in non-mammalian vertebrates or lower organisms. PMID:18579163

  19. Coordination of MYH DNA glycosylase and APE1 endonuclease activities via physical interactions.

    PubMed

    Luncsford, Paz J; Manvilla, Brittney A; Patterson, Dimeka N; Malik, Shuja S; Jin, Jin; Hwang, Bor-Jang; Gunther, Randall; Kalvakolanu, Snigdha; Lipinski, Leonora J; Yuan, Weirong; Lu, Wuyuan; Drohat, Alexander C; Lu, A-Lien; Toth, Eric A

    2013-12-01

    MutY homologue (MYH) is a DNA glycosylase which excises adenine paired with the oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG, or G(o)) during base excision repair (BER). Base excision by MYH results in an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site in the DNA where the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone remains intact. A key feature of MYH activity is its physical interaction and coordination with AP endonuclease I (APE1), which subsequently nicks DNA 5' to the AP site. Because AP sites are mutagenic and cytotoxic, they must be processed by APE1 immediately after the action of MYH glycosylase. Our recent reports show that the interdomain connector (IDC) of human MYH (hMYH) maintains interactions with hAPE1 and the human checkpoint clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex. In this study, we used NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments to determine hMYH-binding site on hAPE1. Chemical shift perturbations indicate that the hMYH IDC peptide binds to the DNA-binding site of hAPE1 and an additional site which is distal to the APE1 DNA-binding interface. In these two binding sites, N212 and Q137 of hAPE1 are key mediators of the MYH/APE1 interaction. Intriguingly, despite the fact that hHus1 and hAPE1 both interact with the MYH IDC, hHus1 does not compete with hAPE1 for binding to hMYH. Rather, hHus1 stabilizes the hMYH/hAPE1 complex both in vitro and in cells. This is consistent with a common theme in BER, namely that the assembly of protein-DNA complexes enhances repair by efficiently coordinating multiple enzymatic steps while simultaneously minimizing the release of harmful repair intermediates. PMID:24209961

  20. Development of a nicking endonuclease-assisted method for the purification of minicircles.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cláudia P A; Šimčíková, Michaela; Brito, Liliana; Monteiro, Gabriel A; Prazeres, Duarte Miguel F

    2016-04-22

    Minicircle (MC) DNA vectors are able to generate a high-level transgene expression in vivo, which is superior to the one afforded by conventional plasmids. MC vectors are produced by replicating a parental plasmid (PP) and promoting its recombination in Escherichia coli. This generates a MC with the expression cassette, and a miniplasmid (MP) with the replication segment. Unfortunately, wider use of MC vectors is hampered by difficulties in isolating the target MCs from their MP counterpart. In this proof-of-concept study, a reproducible process is described to improve the purification of supercoiled (sc) MCs that combines an in vitro enzymatic relaxation of sc MP impurities with topoisomer separation and RNA clearance by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) step. At the early stage of vector design, a site for the nicking endonuclease Nb.BbvCI was strategically placed in the MP part of the PP backbone. A process was then established that involves E. coli culture and recombination of PPs into target MC, cell harvesting and alkaline lysis, precipitation with isopropanol and ammonium sulfate and diafiltration/concentration by microfiltration. Next, an in vitro digestion step was carried out with Nb.BbvCI to nick of one of the strands of the MPs and of non-recombined PPs by Nb.BbvCI. As a result, sc MPs and non-recombined PPs were converted into the corresponding open circular (oc) forms whereas sc MCs remain unaffected. Finally, sc MC was isolated from oc DNA molecules (oc MPs, oc MC) and RNA by performing HIC with a phenyl-Sepharose column using a series of elution steps with decreasing ammonium sulfate concentrations. On the basis of agarose gel electrophoresis analysis, the sc MC-containing fractions were determined to be virtually free from nucleic acid impurities. PMID:27016116

  1. Thermodynamics of Damaged DNA Binding and Catalysis by Human AP Endonuclease 1

    PubMed Central

    Miroshnikova, A. D.; Kuznetsova, A. A.; Kuznetsov, N. A.; Fedorova, O. S.

    2016-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases play an important role in DNA repair and initiation of AP site elimination. One of the most topical problems in the field of DNA repair is to understand the mechanism of the enzymatic process involving the human enzyme APE1 that provides recognition of AP sites and efficient cleavage of the 5’-phosphodiester bond. In this study, a thermodynamic analysis of the interaction between APE1 and a DNA substrate containing a stable AP site analog lacking the C1’ hydroxyl group (F site) was performed. Based on stopped-flow kinetic data at different temperatures, the steps of DNA binding, catalysis, and DNA product release were characterized. The changes in the standard Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of sequential specific steps of the repair process were determined. The thermodynamic analysis of the data suggests that the initial step of the DNA substrate binding includes formation of non-specific contacts between the enzyme binding surface and DNA, as well as insertion of the amino acid residues Arg177 and Met270 into the duplex, which results in the removal of “crystalline” water molecules from DNA grooves. The second binding step involves the F site flipping-out process and formation of specific contacts between the enzyme active site and the everted 5’-phosphate-2’-deoxyribose residue. It was shown that non-specific interactions between the binding surfaces of the enzyme and DNA provide the main contribution into the thermodynamic parameters of the DNA product release step. PMID:27099790

  2. Induction of apurinic endonuclease 1 overexpression by endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Chen, Pin-Shern; Li, Ren-Hao; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou; Su, Ih-Jen; Hung, Jui-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with poor prognosis due to resistance to conventional chemotherapy and limited efficacy of radiotherapy. Previous studies have noted the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress or apurinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) expression in many tumors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) and APE1 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we investigate the expression of APE1 during ER stress in HepG2 and Huh-7 cell lines. Tunicamycin or brefeldin A, two ER stress inducers, increased APE1 and GRP78, an ER stress marker, expression in HepG2 and Huh-7 cells. Induction of APE1 expression was observed through transcription level in response to ER stress. APE1 nuclear localization during ER stress was determined using immunofluorescence assays in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, expression of Hepatitis B virus pre-S2∆ large mutant surface protein (pre-S2∆), an ER stress-induced protein, also increased GRP78 and APE1 expression in the normal hepatocyte NeHepLxHT cell line. Similarly, tumor samples showed higher expression of APE1 in ER stress-correlated liver cancer tissue in vivo. Our results demonstrate that ER stress and HBV pre-S2∆ increased APE1 expression, which may play an important role in resistance to chemotherapeutic agents or tumor development. Therefore, these data provide an important chemotherapeutic strategy in ER stress and HBV pre-S2∆-associated tumors. PMID:25026174

  3. Coordination of MYH DNA glycosylase and APE1 endonuclease activities via physical interactions

    PubMed Central

    Luncsford, Paz J.; Manvilla, Brittney A.; Patterson, Dimeka N.; Malik, Shuja S.; Jin, Jin; Hwang, Bor-Jang; Gunther, Randall; Kalvakolanu, Snigdha; Lipinski, Leonora J.; Yuan, Weirong; Lu, Wuyuan; Drohat, Alexander C.; Lu-Chang, A-Lien; Toth, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    MutY homologue (MYH) is a DNA glycosylase which excises adenine paired with the oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG, or G°) during base excision repair (BER). Base excision by MYH results in an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site in the DNA where the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone remains intact. A key feature of MYH activity is its physical interaction and coordination with AP endonuclease I (APE1), which subsequently nicks DNA 5' to the AP site. Because AP sites are mutagenic and cytotoxic, they must be processed by APE1 immediately after the action of MYH glycosylase. Our recent reports show that the interdomain connector (IDC) of human MYH (hMYH) maintains interactions with hAPE1 and the human checkpoint clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex. In this study, we used NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments to determine hMYH-binding site on hAPE1. Chemical shift perturbations indicate that the hMYH IDC peptide binds to the DNA-binding site of hAPE1 and an additional site which is distal to the APE1 DNA-binding interface. In these two binding sites, N212 and Q137 of hAPE1 are key mediators of the MYH/APE1 interaction. Intriguingly, despite the fact that hHus1 and hAPE1 both interact with the MYH IDC, hHus1 does not compete with hAPE1 for binding to hMYH. Rather, hHus1 stabilizes the hMYH/hAPE1 complex both in vitro and in cells. This is consistent with a common theme in BER, namely that the assembly of protein-DNA complexes enhances repair by efficiently coordinating multiple enzymatic steps while simultaneously minimizing the release of harmful repair intermediates. PMID:24209961

  4. Structure and function of the abasic site specificity pocket of an AP endonuclease from Archaeoglobus fulgidus.

    PubMed

    Schmiedel, Ramona; Kuettner, E Bartholomeus; Keim, Antje; Sträter, Norbert; Greiner-Stöffele, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    The major AP endonuclease in Escherichia coli Exonuclease III (ExoIII) is frequently used in gene technology due to its strong exonucleolytic activity. A thermostabilized variant of ExoIII or a homologous enzyme from thermophilic organisms could be most useful for further applications. For this purpose we characterized a nuclease from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus (Af_Exo), which shares 33% overall sequence identity and 55% similarity to ExoIII. The gene coding for this thermostable enzyme was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified protein shows a strong Mg(2+)-dependent nicking activity at AP-sites, nicking of undamaged double-stranded (ds) DNA and a weak exonucleolytic activity. A V217G variant of the enzyme was crystallized with decamer ds-DNA molecule, and the three-dimensional structure was determined to 1.7A resolution. Besides our goal to find or produce a thermostable exonuclease, the structural and catalytic data of Af_Exo and a series of mutant proteins, based on the crystal structure, provide new insight into the mechanism of abasic site recognition and repair. Each of the hydrophobic residues Phe 200, Trp 215 and Val 217, forming a binding pocket for the abasic deoxyribose in Af_Exo, were mutated to glycine or serine. By expanding the size of the binding pocket the unspecific endonucleolytic activity is increased. Thus, size and flexibility of the mostly hydrophobic binding pocket have a significant influence on AP-site specificity. We suggest that its tight fitting to the flipped-out deoxyribose allows for a preferred competent binding of abasic sites. In a larger or more flexible pocket however, intact nucleotides more easily bind in a catalytically competent conformation, resulting in loss of specificity. Moreover, with mutations of Phe 200 and Trp 215 we induced a strong exonucleolytic activity on undamaged DNA. PMID:19015049

  5. AP endonuclease knockdown enhances methyl methanesulfonate hypersensitivity of DNA polymerase β knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Ryohei; Umetsu, Makio; Yamamoto, Mizuki; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Takenaka, Shigeo; Ide, Hiroshi; Kubo, Kihei

    2015-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (Apex) is required for base excision repair (BER), which is the major mechanism of repair for small DNA lesions such as alkylated bases. Apex incises the DNA strand at an AP site to leave 3′-OH and 5′-deoxyribose phosphate (5′-dRp) termini. DNA polymerase β (PolB) plays a dominant role in single nucleotide (Sn-) BER by incorporating a nucleotide and removing 5′-dRp. Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced damage is repaired by Sn-BER, and thus mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in PolB show significantly increased sensitivity to MMS. However, the survival curve for PolB-knockout MEFs (PolBKOs) has a shoulder, and increased sensitivity is only apparent at relatively high MMS concentrations. In this study, we prepared Apex-knockdown/PolB-knockout MEFs (AKDBKOs) to examine whether BER is related to the apparent resistance of PolBKOs at low MMS concentrations. The viability of PolBKOs immediately after MMS treatment was significantly lower than that of wild-type MEFs, but there was essentially no effect of Apex-knockdown on cell viability in the presence or absence of PolB. In contrast, relative counts of MEFs after repair were decreased by Apex knockdown. Parental PolBKOs showed especially high sensitivity at >1.5 mM MMS, suggesting that PolBKOs have another repair mechanism in addition to PolB-dependent Sn-BER, and that the back-up mechanism is unable to repair damage induced by high MMS concentrations. Interestingly, AKDBKOs were hypersensitive to MMS in a relative cell growth assay, suggesting that MMS-induced damage in PolB-knockout MEFs is repaired by Apex-dependent repair mechanisms, presumably including long-patch BER. PMID:25724755

  6. Proteasomal Degradation of TRIM5α during Retrovirus Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Rold, Christopher James; Aiken, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The host protein TRIM5α inhibits retroviral infection at an early post-penetration stage by targeting the incoming viral capsid. While the detailed mechanism of restriction remains unclear, recent studies have implicated the activity of cellular proteasomes in the restriction of retroviral reverse transcription imposed by TRIM5α. Here, we show that TRIM5α is rapidly degraded upon encounter of a restriction-susceptible retroviral core. Inoculation of TRIM5α-expressing human 293T cells with a saturating level of HIV-1 particles resulted in accelerated degradation of the HIV-1-restrictive rhesus macaque TRIM5α protein but not the nonrestrictive human TRIM5α protein. Exposure of cells to HIV-1 also destabilized the owl monkey restriction factor TRIMCyp; this was prevented by addition of the inhibitor cyclosporin A and was not observed with an HIV-1 virus containing a mutation in the capsid protein that relieves restriction by TRIMCyp IVHIV. Likewise, human TRIM5α was rapidly degraded upon encounter of the restriction-sensitive N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV) but not the unrestricted B-MLV. Pretreatment of cells with proteasome inhibitors prevented the HIV-1-induced loss of both rhesus macaque TRIM5α and TRIMCyp proteins. We also detected degradation of endogenous TRIM5α in rhesus macaque cells following HIV-1 infection. We conclude that engagement of a restriction-sensitive retrovirus core results in TRIM5α degradation by a proteasome-dependent mechanism. PMID:18497858

  7. Expression of the ctenophore Brain Factor 1 forkhead gene ortholog (ctenoBF-1) mRNA is restricted to the presumptive mouth and feeding apparatus: implications for axial organization in the Metazoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Atsuko; Martindale, Mark Q.

    2002-01-01

    Ctenophores are thoroughly modern animals whose ancestors are derived from a separate evolutionary branch than that of other eumetazoans. Their major longitudinal body axis is the oral-aboral axis. An apical sense organ, called the apical organ, is located at the aboral pole and contains a highly innervated statocyst and photodetecting cells. The apical organ integrates sensory information and controls the locomotory apparatus of ctenophores, the eight longitudinal rows of ctene/comb plates. In an effort to understand the developmental and evolutionary organization of axial properties of ctenophores we have isolated a forkhead gene from the Brain Factor 1 (BF-1) family. This gene, ctenoBF-1, is the first full-length nuclear gene reported from ctenophores. This makes ctenophores the most basal metazoan (to date) known to express definitive forkhead class transcription factors. Orthologs of BF-1 in vertebrates, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans are expressed in anterior neural structures. Surprisingly, in situ hybridizations with ctenoBF-1 antisense riboprobes show that this gene is not expressed in the apical organ of ctenophores. CtenoBF-1 is expressed prior to first cleavage. Transcripts become localized to the aboral pole by the 8-cell stage and are inherited by ectodermal micromeres generated from this region at the 16- and 32-cell stages. Expression in subsets of these cells persists and is seen around the edge of the blastopore (presumptive mouth) and in distinct ectodermal regions along the tentacular poles. Following gastrulation, stomodeal expression begins to fade and intense staining becomes restricted to two distinct domains in each tentacular feeding apparatus. We suggest that the apical organ is not homologous to the brain of bilaterians but that the oral pole of ctenophores corresponds to the anterior pole of bilaterian animals.

  8. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhan; Longo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction. PMID:26918181

  9. Synthesis of decadeoxyribonucleotides containing N6-methyladenine, N4-methylcytosine, and 5-methylcytosine: recognition and cleavage by restriction endonucleases (nucleosides and nucleotides part 74).

    PubMed Central

    Ono, A; Ueda, T

    1987-01-01

    The naturally-occurring modified bases, N6-methyladenine, N4-methylcytosine, and 5-methylcytosine were chemically introduced in place of the adenine or cytosine in the decadeoxyribonucleotides containing recognition sequences of Bgl II, Sau 3AI, Mbo I and Mfl I. The modified oligomers bind to the enzymes but the rates of cleavage by the enzymes are variable. Images PMID:3029671

  10. Quantification of DNA by Agarose Gel Electrophoresis and Analysis of the Topoisomers of Plasmid and M13 DNA Following Treatment with a Restriction Endonuclease or DNA Topoisomerase I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, John W.; Stowell, Kathryn M.

    2005-01-01

    A two-session laboratory exercise for advanced undergraduate students in biochemistry and molecular biology is described. The first session introduces students to DNA quantification by ultraviolet absorbance and agarose gel electrophoresis followed by ethidium bromide staining. The second session involves treatment of various topological forms of…

  11. Selection of Enzymes for Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Fungal Internally Transcribed Spacer Sequences▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Pablo; Manjón, Jose L.

    2009-01-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) profiling of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA of unknown fungal communities is currently unsupported by a broad-range enzyme-choosing rationale. An in silico study of terminal fragment size distribution was therefore performed following virtual digestion (by use of a set of commercially available 135 type IIP restriction endonucleases) of all published fungal ITS sequences putatively annealing to primers ITS1 and ITS4. Different diversity measurements were used to rank primer-enzyme pairs according to the richness and evenness that they showed. Top-performing pairs were hierarchically clustered to test for data dependency. The enzyme set composed of MaeII, BfaI, and BstNI returned much better results than randomly chosen enzyme sets in computer simulations and is therefore recommended for in vitro TRFLP profiling of fungal ITSs. PMID:19465521

  12. Phenyl Substituted 4-Hydroxypyridazin-3(2H)-ones and 5-Hydroxypyrimidin-4(3H)-ones: Inhibitors of Influenza A Endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza outbreaks remain a major human health problem. Inhibition of the endonuclease activity of influenza RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is attractive for the development of new agents for the treatment of influenza infection. Our earlier studies identified a series of 5- and 6-phenyl substituted 3-hydroxypyridin-2(1H)-ones that were effective inhibitors of influenza endonuclease. These agents identified as bimetal chelating ligands binding to the active site of the enzyme. In the present study, several aza analogues of these phenyl substituted 3-hydroxypyridin-2(1H)-one compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit the endonuclease activity. In contrast to the 4-aza analogue of 6-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-hydroxypyridin-2(1H)-one, the 5-aza analogue (5-hydroxy-2-(4-fluorophenyl)pyrimidin-4(3H)-one) did exhibit significant activity as an endonuclease inhibitor. The 6-aza analogue of 5-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-hydroxypyridin-2(1H)-one (6-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-hydroxypyridazin-3(2H)-one) also retained modest activity as an inhibitor. Several varied 6-phenyl-4-hydroxypyridazin-3(2H)-ones and 2-phenyl-5-hydroxypyrimidin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized and evaluated as endonuclease inhibitors. The SAR observed for these aza analogues are consistent with those previously observed with various phenyl substituted 3-hydroxypyridin-2(1H)-ones. PMID:25225968

  13. Evolutionary dynamics of the mS952 intron: a novel mitochondrial group II intron encoding a LAGLIDADG homing endonuclease gene.

    PubMed

    Mullineux, Sahra-Taylor; Willows, Karla; Hausner, Georg

    2011-06-01

    Examination of the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA (rns) gene of five species of the fungal genus Leptographium revealed that the gene has been invaded at least once at position 952 by a group II intron encoding a LAGLIDADG homing endonuclease gene. Phylogenetic analyses of the intron and homing endonuclease sequences indicated that each element in Leptographium species forms a single clade and is closely related to the group II intron/homing endonuclease gene composite element previously reported at position 952 of the mitochondrial rns gene of Cordyceps species and of Cryphonectria parasitica. The results of an intron survey of the mt rns gene of Leptographium species superimposed onto the phylogenetic analysis of the host organisms suggest that the composite element was transmitted vertically in Leptographium lundbergii. However, its stochastic distribution among strains of L. wingfieldii, L. terebrantis, and L. truncatum suggests that it has been horizontally transmitted by lateral gene transfer among these species, although the random presence of the intron may reflect multiple random loss events. A model is proposed describing the initial invasion of the group II intron in the rns gene of L. lundbergii by a LAGLIDADG homing endonuclease gene and subsequent evolution of this gene to recognize a novel DNA target site, which may now promote the mobility of the intron and homing endonuclease gene as a composite element. PMID:21479820

  14. Dominant Mutations in S. cerevisiae PMS1 Identify the Mlh1-Pms1 Endonuclease Active Site and an Exonuclease 1-Independent Mismatch Repair Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Catherine E.; Mendillo, Marc L.; Bowen, Nikki; Hombauer, Hans; Campbell, Christopher S.; Desai, Arshad; Putnam, Christopher D.; Kolodner, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolypsis colorectal cancer or HNPCC) is a common cancer predisposition syndrome. Predisposition to cancer in this syndrome results from increased accumulation of mutations due to defective mismatch repair (MMR) caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2/scPMS1. To better understand the function of Mlh1-Pms1 in MMR, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify six pms1 mutations (pms1-G683E, pms1-C817R, pms1-C848S, pms1-H850R, pms1-H703A and pms1-E707A) that were weakly dominant in wild-type cells, which surprisingly caused a strong MMR defect when present on low copy plasmids in an exo1Δ mutant. Molecular modeling showed these mutations caused amino acid substitutions in the metal coordination pocket of the Pms1 endonuclease active site and biochemical studies showed that they inactivated the endonuclease activity. This model of Mlh1-Pms1 suggested that the Mlh1-FERC motif contributes to the endonuclease active site. Consistent with this, the mlh1-E767stp mutation caused both MMR and endonuclease defects similar to those caused by the dominant pms1 mutations whereas mutations affecting the predicted metal coordinating residue Mlh1-C769 had no effect. These studies establish that the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease is required for MMR in a previously uncharacterized Exo1-independent MMR pathway. PMID:24204293

  15. Single substitution in bacteriophage T4 RNase H alters the ratio between its exo- and endonuclease activities.

    PubMed

    Kholod, Natalia; Sivogrivov, Dmitry; Latypov, Oleg; Mayorov, Sergey; Kuznitsyn, Rafail; Kajava, Andrey V; Shlyapnikov, Mikhail; Granovsky, Igor

    2015-11-01

    The article describes substitutions in bacteriophage T4 RNase H which provide so called das-effect. Phage T4 DNA arrest suppression (das) mutations have been described to be capable of partially suppressing the phage DNA arrest phenotype caused by a dysfunction in genes 46 and/or 47 (also known as Mre11/Rad50 complex). Genetic mapping of das13 (one of the das mutations) has shown it to be in the region of the rnh gene encoding RNase H. Here we report that Das13 mutant of RNase H has substitutions of valine 43 and leucine 242 with isoleucines. To investigate the influence of these mutations on RNase H nuclease properties we have designed a novel in vitro assay that allows us to separate and quantify exo- or endonuclease activities of flap endonuclease. The nuclease assay in vitro showed that V43I substitution increased the ratio between exonuclease/endonuclease activities of RNase H whereas L242I substitution did not affect the nuclease activity of RNase H in vitro. However, both mutations were necessary for the full das effect in vivo. Molecular modelling of the nuclease structure suggests that V43I substitution may lead to disposition of H4 helix, responsible for the interaction with the first base pairs of 5'end of branched DNA. These structural changes may affect unwinding of the first base pairs of gapped or nicked DNA generating a short flap and therefore may stabilize the DNA-enzyme complex. L242I substitution did not affect the structure of RNase H and its role in providing das-effect remains unclear. PMID:26432500

  16. Dietary restrictions and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, R W; Turturro, A

    1997-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) alters a significant environmental factor in carcinogenesis, dietary intake, thus inhibiting both spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis. Potential mechanisms for the inhibition of spontaneous cancer may include the effects of DR to do the following: decrease body weight, which decreases cellular proliferation and increases apoptosis in a number of organs that increase and decrease with body size; decrease body temperature, thereby lowering the amount of endogenous DNA damage temperature generates; decrease oxidative damage, by increasing antioxidant damage defense systems; decrease, generally, cellular proliferation; and protect the fidelity of the genome by decreasing DNA damage, increasing DNA repair, and preventing aberrant gene expression. Potential mechanisms for reducing induced tumor incidence include lowering agent activation, changing agent disposition, decreasing the adducts most associated with agent toxicity, and inhibiting tumor progression through mechanisms similar to those that can effect spontaneous tumorigenesis. As a method to control a major source of environmental cancer, and as the major modulator of the agent induction of this disease, understanding how DR works may significantly contribute to the efforts to explain how diet impacts on development of cancer in the United States, and may suggest methods to reduce the adverse impacts of other environmental agents on the disease. PMID:9255593

  17. Overcoming restriction as a barrier to DNA transformation in Caldicellulosiruptor species results in efficient marker replacement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thermophilic microorganisms have special advantages for the conversion of plant biomass to fuels and chemicals. Members of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor are the most thermophilic cellulolytic bacteria known. They have the ability to grow on a variety of non-pretreated biomass substrates at or near ~80°C and hold promise for converting biomass to bioproducts in a single step. As for all such relatively uncharacterized organisms with desirable traits, the ability to genetically manipulate them is a prerequisite for making them useful. Metabolic engineering of pathways for product synthesis is relatively simple compared to engineering the ability to utilize non-pretreated biomass. Results Here we report the construction of a deletion of cbeI (Cbes2438), which encodes a restriction endonuclease that is as a major barrier to DNA transformation of C. bescii. This is the first example of a targeted chromosomal deletion generated by homologous recombination in this genus and the resulting mutant, JWCB018 (ΔpyrFA ΔcbeI), is readily transformed by DNA isolated from E. coli without in vitro methylation. PCR amplification and sequencing suggested that this deletion left the adjacent methyltransferase (Cbes2437) intact. This was confirmed by the fact that DNA isolated from JWCB018 was protected from digestion by CbeI and HaeIII. Plasmid DNA isolated from C. hydrothermalis transformants were readily transformed into C. bescii. Digestion analysis of chromosomal DNA isolated from seven Caldicellulosiruptor species by using nine different restriction endonucleases was also performed to identify the functional restriction-modification activities in this genus. Conclusion Deletion of the cbeI gene removes a substantial barrier to routine DNA transformation and chromosomal modification of C. bescii. This will facilitate the functional analyses of genes as well as metabolic engineering for the production of biofuels and bioproducts from biomass. An analysis of

  18. Improving prediction of binge episodes by modelling chronicity of dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Millicent; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Broadbent, Jaclyn

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates the influences of chronicity of, and time lag between, dietary restriction and binge outcome for predicting binge episode onset. Sixty-two women aged 18 to 40 years old completed an online survey at random intervals seven times daily for a 7-day period. Participants self-reported engagement in dietary restriction and/or binging, and temptation to binge. Consecutive instances of reported dietary restriction better predicted subsequent binges than single instances. As the time lag between the first report of dietary restriction and binge onset increased, a clear linear trend emerged, such that the value of restriction for predicting binges increased with the number of consecutive assessments in which they reported dietary restriction. A similar pattern was found when predicting temptation to binge. Present findings suggest that duration of restriction is a crucial determinant of binge onset. These findings have implications for clinical practice by highlighting the time course from dietary restriction to binging. PMID:25113897

  19. A rapid and efficient method for cloning genes of type II restriction-modification systems by use of a killer plasmid.

    PubMed

    Mruk, Iwona; Kaczorowski, Tadeusz

    2007-07-01

    We present a method for cloning restriction-modification (R-M) systems that is based on the use of a lethal plasmid (pKILLER). The plasmid carries a functional gene for a restriction endonuclease having the same DNA specificity as the R-M system of interest. The first step is the standard preparation of a representative, plasmid-borne genomic library. Then this library is transformed with the killer plasmid. The only surviving bacteria are those which carry the gene specifying a protective DNA methyltransferase. Conceptually, this in vivo selection approach resembles earlier methods in which a plasmid library was selected in vitro by digestion with a suitable restriction endonuclease, but it is much more efficient than those methods. The new method was successfully used to clone two R-M systems, BstZ1II from Bacillus stearothermophilus 14P and Csp231I from Citrobacter sp. strain RFL231, both isospecific to the prototype HindIII R-M system. PMID:17468281

  20. Activation of an Mg2+-dependent DNA endonuclease of avian myeloblastosis virus alpha beta DNA polymerase by in vitro proteolytic cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Grandgenett, D P; Golomb, M; Vora, A C

    1980-01-01

    Partial chymotryptic digestion of purified avian myeloblastosis virus alpha beta DNA polymerase resulted in the activation of a Mg2+-dependent DNA endonuclease activity. Incubation of the polymerase-protease mixture in the presence of super-coiled DNA and Mg2+ permitted detection of the cleaved polymerase fragment possessing DNA nicking activity. Protease digestion conditions were established permitting selective cleavage of beta to alpha, which contained DNA polymerase and RNase H activity and to a family of polypeptides ranging in size from 30,000 to 34,000 daltons. These latter beta-unique fragments were purified by polyuridylate-Sepharose 4B chromatography and were shown to contain both DNA binding and DNA endonuclease activities. We have demonstrated that this group of polymerase fragments derived by chymotryptic digestion of alpha beta DNA polymerase is similar to the in vivo-isolated avian myeloblastosis virus p32pol in size, sequence, and DNA endonuclease activity. Images PMID:6154149

  1. Distinct catalytic activity and in vivo roles of the ExoIII and EndoIV AP endonucleases from Sulfolobus islandicus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhou; Huang, Qihong; Ni, Jinfeng; Shen, Yulong

    2016-09-01

    AP endonuclease cleaves the phosphodiester bond 5'- to the AP (apurinic or apyrimidinic) sites and is one of the major enzymes involved in base excision repair. So far, the properties of several archaeal AP endonuclease homologues have been characterized in vitro, but little is known about their functions in vivo. Herein, we report on the biochemical and genetic analysis of two AP endonucleases, SisExoIII and SisEndoIV, from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A. Both SisExoIII and SisEndoIV exhibit AP endonuclease activity, but neither of them has 3'-5' exonuclease activity. SisExoIII and SisEndoIV have similar K M values on the substrate containing an AP site, but the latter cleaves the AP substrate at a dramatically higher catalytic rate than the former. Unlike other AP endonucleases identified in archaea, SisExoIII and SisEndoIV do not exhibit any cleavage activity on DNA having oxidative damage (8-oxo-dG) or uracil. Genetic analysis revealed that neither gene is essential for cell viability, and the growth of ∆SiRe_2666 (endoIV), ∆SiRe_0100 (exoIII), and ∆SiRe_0100∆SiRe_2666 is not affected under normal growth conditions. However, ∆SiRe_2666 exhibits higher sensitivity to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) than ∆SiRe_0100. Over-expression of SiRe_0100 can partially complement the sensitivity of ∆SiRe_2666 to MMS, suggesting a backup role of SisExoIII in AP site processing in vivo. Intriguingly, over-expression of SisEndoIV renders the strain more sensitive to MMS than the control. Taken together, we conclude that SisEndoIV, but not SisExoIII, is the main AP endonuclease that participates directly in base excision repair in S. islandicus. PMID:27457080

  2. Germline variations of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APEX1) detected in female breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Kashif; Mahjabeen, Ishrat; Sabir, Maimoona; Baig, Ruqia Mehmood; Zafeer, Maryam; Faheem, Muhammad; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APEX1) is a multifunctional protein which plays a central role in the BER pathway. APEX1 gene being highly polymorphic in cancer patients and has been indicated to have a contributive role in Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site accumulation in DNA and consequently an increased risk of cancer development. In this case-control study, all exons of the APEX1 gene and its exon/intron boundaries were amplified in 530 breast cancer patients and 395 matched healthy controls and then analyzed by single-stranded conformational polymorphism followed by sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed fourteen heterozygous mutations, seven 5'UTR, one 3 'UTR, two intronic and four missense. Among identified mutations one 5'UTR (rs41561214), one 3'UTR (rs17112002) and one missense mutation (Ser129Arg, Mahjabeen et al., 2013) had already been reported while the remaining eleven mutations. Six novel mutations (g.20923366T>G, g.20923435G>A, g.20923462G>A, g.20923516G>A, 20923539G>A, g.20923529C>T) were observed in 5'UTR region, two (g.20923585T>G, g.20923589T>G) in intron1 and three missense (Glu101Lys, Ala121Pro, Ser123Trp) in exon 4. Frequencues of 5'UTR mutations; g.20923366T>G, g.20923435G>A and 3'UTR (rs17112002) werecalculated as 0.13, 0.1 and 0.1 respectively. Whereas, the frequency of missense mutations Glu101Lys, Ser123Trp and Ser129Arg was calculated as 0.05. A significant association was observed between APEX1 mutations and increased breast cancer by ~9 fold (OR=8.68, 95%CI=2.64 to 28.5) with g.20923435G>A (5'UTR) , ~13 fold (OR= 12.6, 95%CI=3.01 to 53.0) with g.20923539G>A (5'UTR) and~5 fold increase with three missense mutations [Glu101Lys (OR=4.82, 95%CI=1.97 to 11.80), Ser123Trp (OR=4.62, 95%CI=1.7 to 12.19), Ser129Arg (OR=4.86, 95%CI=1.43 to 16.53)]. The incidence of observed mutations was found higher in patients with family history and with early menopause. In conclusion, our study demonstrates a significant association between germ line

  3. Affinity of single- or double-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing a thymine photodimer for T4 endonuclease V.

    PubMed

    Inaoka, T; Ishida, M; Ohtsuka, E

    1989-02-15

    A gene for T4 endonuclease V was constructed by joining chemically synthesized oligodeoxyribonucleotides and expressed efficiently in Escherichia coli under the control of the E. coli tryptophan promoter. Overproduced T4 endonuclease V, which can cleave thymine photodimers as well as the corresponding phosphodiester linkage of DNA, was used to investigate the precise mode of the reaction with single- or double-stranded synthetic DNA fragments containing a thymine photodimer. The substrates, three oligodeoxyribonucleotides, d(GCGGTTGGCG) (10-mer), d(CGAAGGTTGGAAGC) (14-mer), and d(CACGAAGGTTGGAAGCAC) (18-mer), were prepared by UV irradiation of the nascent oligonucleotides. These single-stranded oligonucleotides were cleaved by the enzyme with a concentration 100 times higher than that required for the corresponding duplexes. The Km values for the TT duplex (14- and 18-mer) were found to be on the order of 10(-8) M. Dissociation constants for the 14- and 18-mer duplexes were measured by a binding assay on a nitrocellulose filter and found to be 10(-9). PMID:2914925

  4. Progressive engineering of a homing endonuclease genome editing reagent for the murine X-linked immunodeficiency locus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yupeng; Khan, Iram F; Boissel, Sandrine; Jarjour, Jordan; Pangallo, Joseph; Thyme, Summer; Baker, David; Scharenberg, Andrew M; Rawlings, David J

    2014-06-01

    LAGLIDADG homing endonucleases (LHEs) are compact endonucleases with 20-22 bp recognition sites, and thus are ideal scaffolds for engineering site-specific DNA cleavage enzymes for genome editing applications. Here, we describe a general approach to LHE engineering that combines rational design with directed evolution, using a yeast surface display high-throughput cleavage selection. This approach was employed to alter the binding and cleavage specificity of the I-Anil LHE to recognize a mutation in the mouse Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) gene causative for mouse X-linked immunodeficiency (XID)-a model of human X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). The required re-targeting of I-AniI involved progressive resculpting of the DNA contact interface to accommodate nine base differences from the native cleavage sequence. The enzyme emerging from the progressive engineering process was specific for the XID mutant allele versus the wild-type (WT) allele, and exhibited activity equivalent to WT I-AniI in vitro and in cellulo reporter assays. Fusion of the enzyme to a site-specific DNA binding domain of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) resulted in a further enhancement of gene editing efficiency. These results illustrate the potential of LHE enzymes as specific and efficient tools for therapeutic genome engineering. PMID:24682825

  5. Recruitment of the Nucleotide Excision Repair Endonuclease XPG to Sites of UV-Induced DNA Damage Depends on Functional TFIIH▿

    PubMed Central

    Zotter, Angelika; Luijsterburg, Martijn S.; Warmerdam, Daniël O.; Ibrahim, Shehu; Nigg, Alex; van Cappellen, Wiggert A.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; van Driel, Roel; Vermeulen, Wim; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.

    2006-01-01

    The structure-specific endonuclease XPG is an indispensable core protein of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) machinery. XPG cleaves the DNA strand at the 3′ side of the DNA damage. XPG binding stabilizes the NER preincision complex and is essential for the 5′ incision by the ERCC1/XPF endonuclease. We have studied the dynamic role of XPG in its different cellular functions in living cells. We have created mammalian cell lines that lack functional endogenous XPG and stably express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-tagged XPG. Life cell imaging shows that in undamaged cells XPG-eGFP is uniformly distributed throughout the cell nucleus, diffuses freely, and is not stably associated with other nuclear proteins. XPG is recruited to UV-damaged DNA with a half-life of 200 s and is bound for 4 min in NER complexes. Recruitment requires functional TFIIH, although some TFIIH mutants allow slow XPG recruitment. Remarkably, binding of XPG to damaged DNA does not require the DDB2 protein, which is thought to enhance damage recognition by NER factor XPC. Together, our data present a comprehensive view of the in vivo behavior of a protein that is involved in a complex chromatin-associated process. PMID:17000769

  6. A Mismatch EndoNuclease Array-Based Methodology (MENA) for Identifying Known SNPs or Novel Point Mutations.

    PubMed

    Comeron, Josep M; Reed, Jordan; Christie, Matthew; Jacobs, Julia S; Dierdorff, Jason; Eberl, Daniel F; Manak, J Robert

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and rapid identification or confirmation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), point mutations and other human genomic variation facilitates understanding the genetic basis of disease. We have developed a new methodology (called MENA (Mismatch EndoNuclease Array)) pairing DNA mismatch endonuclease enzymology with tiling microarray hybridization in order to genotype both known point mutations (such as SNPs) as well as identify previously undiscovered point mutations and small indels. We show that our assay can rapidly genotype known SNPs in a human genomic DNA sample with 99% accuracy, in addition to identifying novel point mutations and small indels with a false discovery rate as low as 10%. Our technology provides a platform for a variety of applications, including: (1) genotyping known SNPs as well as confirming newly discovered SNPs from whole genome sequencing analyses; (2) identifying novel point mutations and indels in any genomic region from any organism for which genome sequence information is available; and (3) screening panels of genes associated with particular diseases and disorders in patient samples to identify causative mutations. As a proof of principle for using MENA to discover novel mutations, we report identification of a novel allele of the beethoven (btv) gene in Drosophila, which encodes a ciliary cytoplasmic dynein motor protein important for auditory mechanosensation. PMID:27600073

  7. NMR characterization of the interaction of the endonuclease domain of MutL with divalent metal ions and ATP.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Ryota; Kim, Ju Yaen; Suetake, Isao; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Takai, Tomoyo; Kamiya, Narutoshi; Takano, Yu; Mishima, Yuichi; Tajima, Shoji; Goto, Yuji; Fukui, Kenji; Lee, Young-Ho

    2014-01-01

    MutL is a multi-domain protein comprising an N-terminal ATPase domain (NTD) and C-terminal dimerization domain (CTD), connected with flexible linker regions, that plays a key role in DNA mismatch repair. To expand understanding of the regulation mechanism underlying MutL endonuclease activity, our NMR-based study investigated interactions between the CTD of MutL, derived from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus (aqMutL-CTD), and putative binding molecules. Chemical shift perturbation analysis with the model structure of aqMutL-CTD and circular dichroism results revealed that tight Zn(2+) binding increased thermal stability without changing secondary structures to function at high temperatures. Peak intensity analysis exploiting the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement effect indicated the binding site for Mn(2+), which shared binding sites for Zn(2+). The coexistence of these two metal ions appears to be important for the function of MutL. Chemical shift perturbation analysis revealed a novel ATP binding site in aqMutL-CTD. A docking simulation incorporating the chemical shift perturbation data provided a putative scheme for the intermolecular interactions between aqMutL-CTD and ATP. We proposed a simple and understandable mechanical model for the regulation of MutL endonuclease activity in MMR based on the relative concentrations of ATP and CTD through ATP binding-regulated interdomain interactions between CTD and NTD. PMID:24901533

  8. NMR Characterization of the Interaction of the Endonuclease Domain of MutL with Divalent Metal Ions and ATP

    PubMed Central

    Mizushima, Ryota; Kim, Ju Yaen; Suetake, Isao; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Takai, Tomoyo; Kamiya, Narutoshi; Takano, Yu; Mishima, Yuichi; Tajima, Shoji; Goto, Yuji; Fukui, Kenji; Lee, Young-Ho

    2014-01-01

    MutL is a multi-domain protein comprising an N-terminal ATPase domain (NTD) and C-terminal dimerization domain (CTD), connected with flexible linker regions, that plays a key role in DNA mismatch repair. To expand understanding of the regulation mechanism underlying MutL endonuclease activity, our NMR-based study investigated interactions between the CTD of MutL, derived from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus (aqMutL-CTD), and putative binding molecules. Chemical shift perturbation analysis with the model structure of aqMutL-CTD and circular dichroism results revealed that tight Zn2+ binding increased thermal stability without changing secondary structures to function at high temperatures. Peak intensity analysis exploiting the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement effect indicated the binding site for Mn2+, which shared binding sites for Zn2+. The coexistence of these two metal ions appears to be important for the function of MutL. Chemical shift perturbation analysis revealed a novel ATP binding site in aqMutL-CTD. A docking simulation incorporating the chemical shift perturbation data provided a putative scheme for the intermolecular interactions between aqMutL-CTD and ATP. We proposed a simple and understandable mechanical model for the regulation of MutL endonuclease activity in MMR based on the relative concentrations of ATP and CTD through ATP binding-regulated interdomain interactions between CTD and NTD. PMID:24901533

  9. Characterization of Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 gp19, a single-strand specific endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew F; Prangishvili, David; Jack, William E

    2011-09-01

    The hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) encodes a 25-kDa protein (SIRV2gp19) annotated as a hypothetical protein with sequence homology to the RecB nuclease superfamily. Even though SIRV2gp19 homologs are conserved throughout the rudivirus family and presumably play a role in the viral life cycle, SIRV2gp19 has not been functionally characterized. To define the minimal requirements for activity, SIRV2gp19 was purified and tested under varying conditions. SIRV2gp19 is a single-strand specific endonuclease that requires Mg(2+) for activity and is inactive on double-stranded DNA. A conserved aspartic acid in RecB nuclease superfamily Motif II (D89) is also essential for SIRV2gp19 activity and mutation to alanine (D89A) abolishes activity. Therefore, the SIRV2gp19 cleavage mechanism is similar to previously described RecB nucleases. Finally, SIRV2gp19 single-stranded DNA endonuclease activity could play a role in host chromosome degradation during SIRV2 lytic infection. PMID:21667093

  10. A Mismatch EndoNuclease Array-Based Methodology (MENA) for Identifying Known SNPs or Novel Point Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Comeron, Josep M.; Reed, Jordan; Christie, Matthew; Jacobs, Julia S.; Dierdorff, Jason; Eberl, Daniel F.; Manak, J. Robert

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and rapid identification or confirmation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), point mutations and other human genomic variation facilitates understanding the genetic basis of disease. We have developed a new methodology (called MENA (Mismatch EndoNuclease Array)) pairing DNA mismatch endonuclease enzymology with tiling microarray hybridization in order to genotype both known point mutations (such as SNPs) as well as identify previously undiscovered point mutations and small indels. We show that our assay can rapidly genotype known SNPs in a human genomic DNA sample with 99% accuracy, in addition to identifying novel point mutations and small indels with a false discovery rate as low as 10%. Our technology provides a platform for a variety of applications, including: (1) genotyping known SNPs as well as confirming newly discovered SNPs from whole genome sequencing analyses; (2) identifying novel point mutations and indels in any genomic region from any organism for which genome sequence information is available; and (3) screening panels of genes associated with particular diseases and disorders in patient samples to identify causative mutations. As a proof of principle for using MENA to discover novel mutations, we report identification of a novel allele of the beethoven (btv) gene in Drosophila, which encodes a ciliary cytoplasmic dynein motor protein important for auditory mechanosensation. PMID:27600073

  11. Genetic and biochemical analysis of an endonuclease encoded by the IncN plasmid pKM101.

    PubMed Central

    Pohlman, R F; Liu, F; Wang, L; Moré, M I; Winans, S C

    1993-01-01

    The IncN plasmid pKM101 nuc gene encodes a periplasmically localized endonuclease. DNA sequence analysis indicates that this gene encodes a hydrophilic protein of about 19.5 kDa containing a hydrophobic signal sequence. nuc is homologous to a partially sequenced open reading frame adjacent to the sog gene of the plasmid CollB-P9, a plasmid known to encode an endonuclease similar to that of pKM101. A partially sequenced tra gene directly upstream of nuc is homologous to the virB11 gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We have partially purified the pKM101 nuclease by osmotic shock and cation exchange chromatography, and used this enzyme preparation to sequence the protein's amino terminus. The first 13 amino acids of the mature protein match amino acids 23 to 35 of the predicted sequence, indicating that the protein is proteolytically processed to a molecular mass of approximately 17 kDa, probably during export to the periplasmic space. The enzyme was able to attack many sites along an end labelled duplex DNA substrate, but showed clearly preferred cleavage sites, and may cleave preferentially at purine-rich regions. Images PMID:8177732

  12. Restriction enzyme mapping of ribosomal DNA can distinguish between fasciolid (liver fluke) species.

    PubMed

    Blair, D; McManus, D P

    1989-10-01

    Recognition sites for nine different restriction endonucleases were mapped on rDNA genes of fasciolid species. Southern blots of digested DNA from individual worms were probed sequentially with three different probes derived from rDNA of Schistosoma mansoni and known to span between them the entire rDNA repeat unit in that species. Eighteen recognition sites were mapped for Fasciola hepatica, and seventeen for Fasciola gigantica and Fascioloides magna. Each fasciolid species had no more than two unique recognition sites, the remainder being common to one or both of the other two species. No intraspecific variation in restriction sites was noted in F. hepatica (individuals from 11 samples studied; hosts were sheep, cattle and laboratory animals; geographical origins. Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, U.K., Hungary and Spain), or in F. gigantica (two samples; Indonesia and Malaysia). Only one sample of F. magna was available. One specimen of Fasciola sp. from Japan (specific identity regarded in the literature as uncertain) yielded a restriction map identical to that of F. gigantica. Almost all recognition sites occurred in or near the putative rRNA coding regions. The non-transcribed spacer region had few or no cut sites despite the fact that this region is up to about one half of the entire repeat unit in length. Length heterogeneity was noted in the non-transcribed spacer, even within individual worms. PMID:2552311

  13. From Agrobacterium to viral vectors: genome modification of plant cells by rare cutting restriction enzymes.

    PubMed

    Marton, Ira; Honig, Arik; Omid, Ayelet; De Costa, Noam; Marhevka, Elena; Cohen, Barry; Zuker, Amir; Vainstein, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and biotechnologists require methods to accurately modify the genome of higher eukaryotic cells. Such modifications include, but are not limited to, site-specific mutagenesis, site-specific insertion of foreign DNA, and replacement and deletion of native sequences. Accurate genome modifications in plant species have been rather limited, with only a handful of plant species and genes being modified through the use of early genome-editing techniques. The development of rare-cutting restriction enzymes as a tool for the induction of site-specific genomic double-strand breaks and their introduction as a reliable tool for genome modification in animals, animal cells and human cell lines have paved the way for the adaptation of rare-cutting restriction enzymes to genome editing in plant cells. Indeed, the number of plant species and genes which have been successfully edited using zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and engineered homing endonucleases is on the rise. In our review, we discuss the basics of rare-cutting restriction enzyme-mediated genome-editing technology with an emphasis on its application in plant species. PMID:24166446

  14. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism authentication of raw meats from game birds.

    PubMed

    Rojas, María; González, Isabel; Fajardo, Violeta; Martín, Irene; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis has been applied to the identification of meats from quail (Coturnix coturnix), pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), woodpigeon (Columba palumbus), and song thrush (Turdus philomelos). PCR amplification was performed using a set of primers flanking a conserved region of approximately 720 base pairs (bp) from the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Restriction site analysis based on sequence data from this DNA fragment permitted the selection of AluI and BfaI endonucleases for species identification. The restriction profiles obtained when amplicons were digested with the chosen enzymes allowed the unequivocal identification of all game bird species analyzed. However, the use of the PCR-RFLP technique described is limited to raw meat authentication. It is not suitable for cooked products because thermal treatment strongly accelerates DNA degradation leading to difficulties in amplifying the 720 bp fragment. PMID:19202803

  15. Discovery of natural nicking endonucleases Nb.BsrDI and Nb.BtsI and engineering of top-strand nicking variants from BsrDI and BtsI.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuang-Yong; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Penghua; Chan, Siu-Hong; Samuelson, James C; Xiao, Jianping; Ingalls, Debra; Wilson, Geoffrey G

    2007-01-01

    BsrDI and BtsI restriction endonucleases recognize and cleave double-strand DNA at the sequences GCAATG (2/0) and GCAGTG (2/0), respectively. We have purified and partially characterized these two enzymes, and analyzed the genes that encode them. BsrDI and BtsI are unusual in two respects: each cleaves DNA as a heterodimer of one large subunit (B subunit) and one small subunit (A subunit); and, in the absence of their small subunits, the large subunits behave as sequence-specific DNA nicking enzymes and only nick the bottom strand of the sequences at these respective positions: GCAATG (-/0) and GCAGTG (-/0). We refer to the single subunit, the bottom-strand nicking forms as 'hemidimers'. Amino acid sequence comparisons reveal that BsrDI and BtsI belong to a family of restriction enzymes that possess two catalytic sites: a canonical PD-X(n)-EXK and a second non-canonical PD-X(n)-E-X12-QR. Interestingly, the other family members, which include BsrI (ACTGG 1/-1) and BsmI/Mva1269I (GAATGC 1/-1) are single polypeptide chains, i.e. monomers, rather than heterodimers. In BsrDI and BtsI, the two catalytic sites are found in two separate subunits. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the canonical catalytic site located at the N-terminus of the large subunit is responsible for the bottom-strand cleavage, whereas the non-canonical catalytic site located in the small subunit is responsible for hydrolysis of the top strand. Top-strand specific nicking variants, Nt.BsrDI and Nt.BtsI, were successfully engineered by combining the catalytic-deficient B subunit with wild-type A subunit. PMID:17586812

  16. Molecular analysis of plasmid DNA repair within ultraviolet-irradiated Escherichia coli. I. T4 endonuclease V-initiated excision repair

    SciTech Connect

    Gruskin, E.A.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1988-09-05

    The process by which DNA-interactive proteins locate specific sequences or target sites on cellular DNA within Escherichia coli is a poorly understood phenomenon. In this study, we present the first direct in vivo analysis of the interaction of a DNA repair enzyme, T4 endonuclease V, and its substrate, pyrimidine dimer-containing plasmid DNA, within UV-irradiated E. coli. A pyrimidine dimer represents a small target site within large domains of DNA. There are two possible paradigms by which endonuclease V could locate these small target sites: a processive mechanism in which the enzyme scans DNA for dimer sites or a distributive process in which dimers are located by random three-dimensional diffusion. In order to discriminate between these two possibilities in E. coli, an in vivo DNA repair assay was developed to study the kinetics of plasmid DNA repair and the dimer frequency (i.e. the number of dimer sites on a given plasmid molecule) in plasmid DNA as a function of time during repair. Our results demonstrate that the overall process of plasmid DNA repair initiated by T4 endonuclease V (expressed from a recombinant plasmid within repair-deficient E. coli) occurs by a processive mechanism. Furthermore, by reducing the temperature of the repair incubation, the endonuclease V-catalyzed incision step has been effectively decoupled from the subsequent steps including repair patch synthesis, ligation, and supercoiling. By this manipulation, it was determined that the overall processive mechanism is composed of two phases: a rapid processive endonuclease V-catalyzed incision reaction, followed by a slower processive mechanism, the ultimate product of which is the dimer-free supercoiled plasmid molecule.

  17. A label-free DNA-templated silver nanocluster probe for fluorescence on-off detection of endonuclease activity and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yunxia; Zhang, Yaodong; Lu, Lu; Cai, Yanan

    2014-01-15

    Endonuclease cleavage of DNA plays an important role in biological and medicinal chemistry. This study aimed to develop a reliable and sensitive method for nuclease activity assay by combining the high specificity of DNA cleavage reactions with ultrahigh fluorescence turn-on abilities of guanine-rich (G-rich) DNA sequences in proximity to silver nanoclusters (Ag NCs). The DNA-templated Ag NC (DNA-Ag NC) probe with endonuclease recognition sequence consists of NC and a G-rich probe. The NC probe was designed by adding Ag NC nucleation sequence at the 5'-end. The G-rich probe is the complementary DNA sequence modified by adding a G-rich overhang sequence at the 3'-end. Thus, the fluorescence of DNA-Ag NC probe was activated because of DNA hybridization. When these DNA-Ag NC probes were exposed to the targeted endonucleases, specific DNA cleavages occurred, and pieces of G-rich DNA fragments separated from Ag NCs, resulting in fluorescence turn-off. The endonuclease activity was quantified by monitoring the change in the fluorescence intensity. Detection was demonstrated by assaying EcoRI activity. Under optimized conditions, the fluorescence reduction efficiency was linear with the EcoRI concentration in the range of 5.0×10(-4) U μL(-1) to 3.0×10(-3) U μL(-1), with a detection limit of 3.5×10(-4) U μL(-1), which is much better than or at least comparable with that in previous reports. The potential application of the proposed method for screening endonuclease inhibitors was also demonstrated. The presented assay protocol proved to be convenient, effective, sensitive, and easy in preparing the fluorescent probe. PMID:24001584

  18. Selective inhibition by methoxyamine of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity associated with pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylases from Micrococcus luteus and bacteriophage T4

    SciTech Connect

    Liuzzi, M.; Weinfeld, M.; Paterson, M.C.

    1987-06-16

    The UV endonucleases from Micrococcus luteus and bacteriophage T4 possess two catalytic activities specific for the site of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated DNA: a DNA glycosylase that cleaves the 5'-glycosyl bond of the dimerized pyrimidines and an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease that thereupon incises the phosphodiester bond 3' to the resulting apyrimidinic site. The authors have explored the potential use of methoxyamine, a chemical that reacts at neutral pH with AP sites in DNA, as a selective inhibitor of the AP endonuclease activities residing in the M. luteus and T4 enzymes. The presence of 50 mM methoxyamine during incubation of UV-treated, (/sup 3/H)thymine-labeled poly(dA) x poly(dT) with either enzyme preparation was found to protect completely the irradiated copolymer from endonucleolytic attack at dimer sites, as assayed by yield of acid-soluble radioactivity. In contrast, the dimer-DNA glycosylase activity of each enzyme remained fully functional, as monitored retrospectively by release of free thymine after either photochemical-(5 kJ/m/sup 2/, 254 nm) or photoenzymic- (Escherichia coli photolyase plus visible light) induced reversal of pyrimidine dimers in the UV-damaged substrate. The data demonstrate that the inhibition of the strand-incision reaction arises because of chemical modification of the AP sites and is not due to inactivation of the enzyme by methoxyamine. The results, combined with earlier findings for 5'-acting AP endonucleases, strongly suggest that methoxyamine is a highly specific inhibitor of virtually all AP endonucleases, irrespective of their modes of action, and may therefore prove useful in a wide variety of DNA repair studies.

  19. Lys98 Substitution in Human AP Endonuclease 1 Affects the Kinetic Mechanism of Enzyme Action in Base Excision and Nucleotide Incision Repair Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Timofeyeva, Nadezhda A.; Koval, Vladimir V.; Ishchenko, Alexander A.; Saparbaev, Murat K.; Fedorova, Olga S.

    2011-01-01

    Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is a key enzyme in the base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide incision repair (NIR) pathways. We recently analyzed the conformational dynamics and kinetic mechanism of wild-type (wt) protein, in a stopped-flow fluorescence study. In this study, we investigated the mutant enzyme APE1K98A using the same approach. Lys98 was known to hydrogen bond to the carboxyl group of Asp70, a residue implicated in binding the divalent metal ion. Our data suggested that the conformational selection and induced fit occur during the enzyme action. We expanded upon the evidence that APE1 can pre-exist in two conformations. The isomerization of an enzyme-product complex in the BER process and the additional isomerization stage of enzyme-substrate complex in the NIR process were established for APE1K98A. These stages had not been registered for the wtAPE1. We found that the K98A substitution resulted in a 12-fold reduction of catalytic constant of 5′-phosphodiester bond hydrolysis in (3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methyl phosphate (F, tetrahydrofuran) containing substrate, and in 200-fold reduction in 5,6-dihydrouridine (DHU) containing substrate. Thus, the K98A substitution influenced NIR more than BER. We demonstrated that the K98A mutation influenced the formation of primary unspecific enzyme-substrate complex in a complicated manner, depending on the Mg2+ concentration and pH. This mutation obstructed the induced fit of enzyme in the complex with undamaged DNA and F-containing DNA and appreciably decreased the stability of primary complex upon interaction of enzyme with DNA, containing the natural apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site. Furthermore, it significantly delayed the activation of the less active form of enzyme during NIR and slowed down the conformational conversion of the complex of enzyme with the cleavage product of DHU-substrate. Our data revealed that APE1 uses the same active site to catalyze the cleavage of DHU- and

  20. Calorie restriction and methionine restriction in control of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production by the transsulfuration pathway.

    PubMed

    Hine, Christopher; Mitchell, James R

    2015-08-01

    H2S is a gas easily identified by its distinctive odor. Although environmental exposure to H2S has been viewed alternately as therapeutic or toxic through the centuries, H2S has recently regained recognition for its numerous beneficial biological effects. Most experiments documenting such benefits, including improved glucose tolerance, increased stress resistance, and even lifespan extension, are based on exposure of experimental organisms to exogenous sources of H2S. However, appreciation is growing for the importance of H2S produced endogenously by the evolutionary conserved transsulfuration pathway (TSP) in health and longevity. Recent data implicate H2S produced by the TSP in pleiotropic benefits of dietary restriction (DR), or reduced nutrient/energy intake without malnutrition. DR, best known as the most reliable way to extend lifespan in a wide range of experimental organisms, includes various regimens aimed at either reducing overall calorie intake (calorie restriction, intermittent/every-other-day fasting) or reducing particular nutrients such as protein or the essential amino acid, methionine (methionine restriction), with overlapping functional benefits on stress resistance, metabolic fitness and lifespan. Here we will review the small but growing body of literature linking the TSP to the functional benefits of DR in part through the production of endogenous H2S, with an emphasis on regulation of the TSP and H2S production by diet and mechanisms of beneficial H2S action. PMID:25523462

  1. Calorie restriction and methionine restriction in control of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production by the transsulfuration pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hine, Christopher; Mitchell, James R.

    2015-01-01

    H2S is a gas easily identified by its distinctive odor. Although environmental exposure to H2S has been viewed alternately as therapeutic or toxic through the centuries, H2S has recently regained recognition for its numerous beneficial biological effects. Most experiments documenting such benefits, including improved glucose tolerance, increased stress resistance, and even lifespan extension, are based on exposure of experimental organisms to exogenous sources of H2S. However, appreciation is growing for the importance of H2S produced endogenously by the evolutionary conserved transsulfuration pathway (TSP) in health and longevity. Recent data implicate H2S produced by the TSP in pleiotropic benefits of dietary restriction (DR), or reduced nutrient/energy intake without malnutrition. DR, best known as the most reliable way to extend lifespan in a wide range of experimental organisms, includes various regimens aimed at either reducing overall calorie intake (calorie restriction, intermittent/ every-other-day fasting) or reducing particular nutrients such as protein or the essential amino acid, methionine (methionine restriction), with overlapping functional benefits on stress resistance, metabolic fitness and lifespan. Here we will review the small but growing body of literature linking the TSP to the functional benefits of DR in part through the production of endogenous H2S, with an emphasis on regulation of the TSP and H2S production by diet and mechanisms of beneficial H2S action. PMID:25523462

  2. Conditional knockouts generated by engineered CRISPR-Cas9 endonuclease reveal the roles of coronin in C. elegans neural development.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhongfu; Zhang, Xianliang; Chai, Yongping; Zhu, Zhiwen; Yi, Peishan; Feng, Guoxin; Li, Wei; Ou, Guangshuo

    2014-09-01

    Conditional gene knockout animals are valuable tools for studying the mechanisms underlying cell and developmental biology. We developed a conditional knockout strategy by spatiotemporally manipulating the expression of an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease, CRISPR-Cas9, in Caenorhabditis elegans somatic cell lineages. We showed that this somatic CRISPR-Cas9 technology provides a quick and efficient approach to generate conditional knockouts in various cell types at different developmental stages. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this method outperforms our recently developed somatic TALEN technique and enables the one-step generation of multiple conditional knockouts. By combining these techniques with live-cell imaging, we showed that an essential embryonic gene, Coronin, which is associated with human neurobehavioral dysfunction, regulates actin organization and cell morphology during C. elegans postembryonic neuroblast migration and neuritogenesis. We propose that the somatic CRISPR-Cas9 platform is uniquely suited for conditional gene editing-based biomedical research. PMID:25155554

  3. Engineering and Flow-Cytometric Analysis of Chimeric LAGLIDADG Homing Endonucleases from Homologous I-OnuI-Family Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Sarah K.; Scharenberg, Andrew M.; Lambert, Abigail R.

    2014-01-01

    LAGLIDADG homing endonucleases (LHEs) are valuable tools for genome engineering, and our ability to alter LHE target site specificity is rapidly evolving. However, widespread use of these enzymes is limited due to the small number of available engineering scaffolds, each requiring extensive redesign to target widely varying DNA sequences. Here, we describe a technique for the chimerization of homologous I-OnuI family LHEs. Chimerization greatly expands the pool of unique starting scaffolds, thereby enabling more effective and efficient LHE redesign. I-OnuI family enzymes are divided into N- and C-terminal halves based on sequence alignments, and then combinatorially rejoined with a hybrid linker. The resulting chimeric enzymes are expressed on the surface of yeast where stability, DNA binding affinity, and cleavage activity can be assayed by flow cytometry. PMID:24510269

  4. [Is it reality that the endonuclease that cleaves pre-mRNA on polyadenylation has not been discovered?].

    PubMed

    Zarudnaia, M I; Govorun, D N

    2001-01-01

    Specific cleavage of transcript by a complex of multisubunit proteins is the first stage of polyadenylation of eukaryotic pre-mRNAs. The main participant of this reaction--endonuclease--is not discovered yet. However it is known that proteins CPSF-30 (mammalian) and Yth 1p (yeast) are homologues of the drosofila protein clipper (CLP), which displays endoribonucleolytic activity. In the N-terminal region all three proteins contain five copies of CCCH zinc finger motif that are associated with nucleolytic activity in the case of CLP. Literature data on the three above-mentioned proteins has been analysed. The results of these works do not contradict the hypothesis that exactly CPSF-30 and its homologues are the actual nucleases that cleave pre-mRNA in the process of polyadenylation. PMID:12035497

  5. Restricted f (R ) gravity and its cosmological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaichian, M.; Ghalee, A.; KlusoÅ, J.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the f (R ) theory of gravity with broken diffeomorphism due to the change of the coefficient in front of the total divergence term in the (3 +1 ) decomposition of the scalar curvature. We perform the canonical analysis of this theory and show that its consistent form, i.e. with no unphysical degrees of freedom, is equivalent to the low-energy limit of the nonprojectable f (R ) Hořava-Lifshitz theory of gravity. We also analyze its cosmological solutions and show that the de Sitter solution can be obtained also in the case of this broken symmetry. The consequences of the proposed theory on the asymptotic solutions of a few specific models in the cosmological context are also presented.

  6. The DNA repair endonuclease XPG interacts directly and functionally with the WRN helicase defective in Werner syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Trego, Kelly S.; Chernikova, Sophia B.; Davalos, Albert R.; Perry, J. Jefferson P.; Finger, L. David; Ng, Cliff; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Yannone, Steven M.; Tainer, John A.; Campisi, Judith; Cooper, Priscilla K.

    2011-04-20

    XPG is a structure-specific endonuclease required for nucleotide excision repair (NER). XPG incision defects result in the cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum, whereas truncating mutations of XPG cause the severe postnatal progeroid developmental disorder Cockayne syndrome. We show that XPG interacts directly with WRN protein, which is defective in the premature aging disorder Werner syndrome, and that the two proteins undergo similar sub-nuclear redistribution in S-phase and co-localize in nuclear foci. The co-localization was observed in mid- to late-S-phase, when WRN moves from nucleoli to nuclear foci that have been shown to contain protein markers of both stalled replication forks and telomeric proteins. We mapped the interaction between XPG and WRN to the C-terminal domains of each and show that interaction with the C-terminal domain of XPG strongly stimulates WRN helicase activity. WRN also possesses a competing DNA single-strand annealing activity that, combined with unwinding, has been shown to coordinate regression of model replication forks to form Holliday junction/chicken foot intermediate structures. We tested whether XPG stimulated WRN annealing activity and found that XPG itself has intrinsic strand annealing activity that requires the unstructured R- and C-terminal domains, but not the conserved catalytic core or endonuclease activity. Annealing by XPG is cooperative, rather than additive, with WRN annealing. Taken together, our results suggest a novel function for XPG in S-phase that is at least in part carried out coordinately with WRN, and which may contribute to the severity of the phenotypes that occur upon loss of XPG.

  7. 48 CFR 225.7003-2 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Other Statutory Restrictions on Foreign Acquisition 225.7003-2 Restrictions. The following restrictions...) Missile or space systems. (3) Ships. (4) Tank or automotive items. (5) Weapon systems. (6) Ammunition....

  8. 48 CFR 225.7003-2 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Other Statutory Restrictions on Foreign Acquisition 225.7003-2 Restrictions. The following restrictions...) Missile or space systems. (3) Ships. (4) Tank or automotive items. (5) Weapon systems. (6) Ammunition....

  9. 48 CFR 225.7003-2 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Statutory Restrictions on Foreign Acquisition 225.7003-2 Restrictions. The following restrictions...) Missile or space systems. (3) Ships. (4) Tank or automotive items. (5) Weapon systems. (6) Ammunition....

  10. 48 CFR 225.7003-2 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Other Statutory Restrictions on Foreign Acquisition 225.7003-2 Restrictions. The following restrictions...) Missile or space systems. (3) Ships. (4) Tank or automotive items. (5) Weapon systems. (6) Ammunition....

  11. 48 CFR 225.7003-2 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Other Statutory Restrictions on Foreign Acquisition 225.7003-2 Restrictions. The following restrictions...) Missile or space systems. (3) Ships. (4) Tank or automotive items. (5) Weapon systems. (6) Ammunition....

  12. Asymmetric DNA recognition by the OkrAI endonuclease, an isoschizomer of BamHI

    SciTech Connect

    Vanamee, Éva Scheuring; Viadiu, Hector; Chan, Siu-Hong; Ummat, Ajay; Hartline, Adrian M.; Xu, Shuang-yong; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2011-11-18

    Restriction enzymes share little or no sequence homology with the exception of isoschizomers, or enzymes that recognize and cleave the same DNA sequence. We present here the structure of a BamHI isoschizomer, OkrAI, bound to the same DNA sequence (TATGGATCCATA) as that cocrystallized with BamHI. We show that OkrAI is a more minimal version of BamHI, lacking not only the N- and C-terminal helices but also an internal 310 helix and containing {beta}-strands that are shorter than those in BamHI. Despite these structural differences, OkrAI recognizes the DNA in a remarkably similar manner to BamHI, including asymmetric contacts via C-terminal 'arms' that appear to 'compete' for the minor groove. However, the arms are shorter than in BamHI. We observe similar DNA-binding affinities between OkrAI and BamHI but OkrAI has higher star activity (at 37 C) compared to BamHI. Together, the OkrAI and BamHI structures offer a rare opportunity to compare two restriction enzymes that work on exactly the same DNA substrate.

  13. Random Tagging Genotyping by Sequencing (rtGBS), an Unbiased Approach to Locate Restriction Enzyme Sites across the Target Genome

    PubMed Central

    Hilario, Elena; Barron, Lorna; Deng, Cecilia H.; Datson, Paul M.; Davy, Marcus W.; Storey, Roy D.

    2015-01-01

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is a restriction enzyme based targeted approach developed to reduce the genome complexity and discover genetic markers when a priori sequence information is unavailable. Sufficient coverage at each locus is essential to distinguish heterozygous from homozygous sites accurately. The number of GBS samples able to be pooled in one sequencing lane is limited by the number of restriction sites present in the genome and the read depth required at each site per sample for accurate calling of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci bias was observed using a slight modification of the Elshire et al. method: some restriction enzyme sites were represented in higher proportions while others were poorly represented or absent. This bias could be due to the quality of genomic DNA, the endonuclease and ligase reaction efficiency, the distance between restriction sites, the preferential amplification of small library restriction fragments, or bias towards cluster formation of small amplicons during the sequencing process. To overcome these issues, we have developed a GBS method based on randomly tagging genomic DNA (rtGBS). By randomly landing on the genome, we can, with less bias, find restriction sites that are far apart, and undetected by the standard GBS (stdGBS) method. The study comprises two types of biological replicates: six different kiwifruit plants and two independent DNA extractions per plant; and three types of technical replicates: four samples of each DNA extraction, stdGBS vs. rtGBS methods, and two independent library amplifications, each sequenced in separate lanes. A statistically significant unbiased distribution of restriction fragment size by rtGBS showed that this method targeted 49% (39,145) of BamH I sites shared with the reference genome, compared to only 14% (11,513) by stdGBS. PMID:26633193

  14. Identification of raw and heat-processed meats from game bird species by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the mitochondrial D-loop region.

    PubMed

    Rojas, M; González, I; Fajardo, V; Martín, I; Hernández, P E; García, T; Martín, R

    2009-03-01

    Polymerase chain reaction-RFLP analysis has been applied to the identification of meats from quail (Coturnix coturnix), pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa), chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), and woodpigeon (Columba palumbus). Polymerase chain reaction amplification was carried out using a set of primers flanking a conserved region of approximately 310 bp from the mitochondrial D-loop region. Restriction site analysis based on sequence data from this DNA fragment permitted the selection of HinfI, MboII, and Hpy188III endonucleases for species identification. The restriction profiles obtained when amplicons were digested with the chosen enzymes allowed the unequivocal identification of all game bird species analyzed. Consistent results were obtained with both raw and heat-processed meats. PMID:19211540

  15. Fermentation and recovery of the EcoRl restriction enzyme with a genetically modified Escherichia coli strain

    SciTech Connect

    Botterman, J.H.; DeBuyser, D.R.; Spriet, J.A.; Vansteenkiste, G.C.; Zabeau, M.

    1985-09-01

    The fermentation and recovery of the EcoRl restriction endonuclease with a genetically modified Escherichia coli strain is investigated. Vast amounts of product could be obtained after cultivation in a 20-L computer-coupled pilot fermentor and purification of the recovered wet cells. It was found that in the end the product is at least inhibitory and probably lethal to the cells (the lethality has been proven with genetic experiments) so that optimum yield requires an optimized choice for the time instant of induction. Growth after induction and product formation require substantial amounts of oxyge, which must be supplied if a high population level is to be achieved. pH control may alleviate the burden of high oxygen supply. Quantitative assessment after the different purification stages indicate that approximately 15% active enzyme can be obtained from the total amount produced.

  16. Electrochemical biosensor modified with dsDNA monolayer for restriction enzyme activity determination.

    PubMed

    Zajda, Joanna; Górski, Łukasz; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2016-06-01

    A simple and cost effective method for the determination of restriction endonuclease activity is presented. dsDNA immobilized at a gold electrode surface is used as the enzymatic substrate, and an external cationic redox probe is employed in voltammetric measurements for analytical signal generation. The assessment of enzyme activity is based on a decrease of a current signal derived from reduction of methylene blue which is present in the sample solution. For this reason, the covalent attachment of the label molecule is not required which significantly reduces costs of the analysis and simplifies the entire determination procedure. The influence of buffer components on utilized dsDNA/MCH monolayer stability and integrity is also verified. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that due to pinhole formation during enzyme activity measurement the presence of any surfactants should be avoided. Additionally, it is shown that the sensitivity of the electrochemical biosensor can be tuned by changing the restriction site location along the DNA length. Under optimal conditions the proposed biosensor exhibits a linear response toward PvuII activity within a range from 0.25 to 1.50 U/μL. PMID:26859430

  17. Characterization of Xanthomonas campestris Pathovars by rRNA Gene Restriction Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, Yvette; Verdier, Valérie; Guesdon, Jean-Luc; Chevrier, Danièle; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Decoux, Guy; Lemattre, Monique

    1993-01-01

    Genomic DNA of 191 strains of the family Pseudomonadaceae, including 187 strains of the genus Xanthomonas, was cleaved by EcoRI endonuclease. After hybridization of Southern transfer blots with 2-acetylamino-fluorene-labelled Escherichia coli 16+23S rRNA probe, 27 different patterns were obtained. The strains are clearly distinguishable at the genus, species, and pathovar levels. The variability of the rRNA gene restriction patterns was determined for four pathovars of Xanthomonas campestris species. The 16 strains of X. campestris pv. begoniae analyzed gave only one pattern. The variability of rRNA gene restriction patterns of X. campestris pv. manihotis strains could be related to ecotypes. In contrast, the variability of patterns observed for X. campestris pv. malvacearum was not correlated with pathogenicity or with the geographical origins of the strains. The highest degree of variability of DNA fingerprints was observed within X. campestris pv. dieffenbachiae, which is pathogenic to several hosts of the Araceae family. In this case, variability was related to both host plant and pathogenicity. Images PMID:16348894

  18. Organization and sequence of the SalI restriction-modification system.

    PubMed

    Rodicio, M R; Quinton-Jager, T; Moran, L S; Slatko, B E; Wilson, G G

    1994-12-30

    The organization and nucleotide (nt) sequences were determined for the genes encoding the SalI restriction and modification (R-M) system (recognition sequence 5'-GTCGAC-3') from Streptomyces albus G. The system comprises two genes, salIR, coding for the restriction endonuclease (ENase, R.SalI; probably 315 amino acids (aa), a predicted M(r) of 35,305; product, G'TCGAC) and salIM, coding for the methyltransferase (MTase, M.SalI; probably 587 aa, a predicted M(r) of 64,943; product, GTCGm6AC). The genes are adjacent, they have the same orientation, and they occur in the order salIR then salIM. R.SalI contains a putative magnesium-binding motif similar to those at the active sites of R.EcoRI and R.EcoRV, but otherwise it bears little aa sequence similarity to other ENases. M.SalI is a member of the m6A gamma class of MTases. In aa sequence it resembles M.AccI, another m6A gamma-MTase whose recognition sequence includes the SalI recognition sequence as a subset. PMID:7828868

  19. Restriction-Modification systems interplay causes avoidance of GATC site in prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Ershova, Anna; Rusinov, Ivan; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Spirin, Sergey; Karyagina, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Palindromes are frequently underrepresented in prokaryotic genomes. Palindromic 5[Formula: see text]-GATC-3[Formula: see text] site is a recognition site of different Restriction-Modification (R-M) systems, as well as solitary methyltransferase Dam. Classical GATC-specific R-M systems methylate GATC and cleave unmethylated GATC. On the contrary, methyl-directed Type II restriction endonucleases cleave methylated GATC. Methylation of GATC by Dam methyltransferase is involved in the regulation of different cellular processes. The diversity of functions of GATC-recognizing proteins makes GATC sequence a good model for studying the reasons of palindrome avoidance in prokaryotic genomes. In this work, the influence of R-M systems and solitary proteins on the GATC site avoidance is described by a mathematical model. GATC avoidance is strongly associated with the presence of alternate (methyl-directed or classical Type II R-M system) genes in different strains of the same species, as we have shown for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Eubacterium rectale, and Moraxella catarrhalis. We hypothesize that GATC avoidance can result from a DNA exchange between strains with different methylation status of GATC site within the process of natural transformation. If this hypothesis is correct, the GATC avoidance is a sign of a DNA exchange between bacteria with different methylation status in a mixed population. PMID:26972562

  20. Genotyping of the fish rhabdovirus, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, by restriction fragment length polymorphisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Winton, James R.; Lorenzen, Niels

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a standardized molecular assay that used limited resources and equipment for routine genotyping of isolates of the fish rhabdovirus, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Computer generated restriction maps, based on 62 unique full-length (1524 nt) sequences of the VHSV glycoprotein (G) gene, were used to predict restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns that were subsequently grouped and compared with a phylogenetic analysis of the G-gene sequences of the same set of isolates. Digestion of PCR amplicons from the full-lengthG-gene by a set of three restriction enzymes was predicted to accurately enable the assignment of the VHSV isolates into the four major genotypes discovered to date. Further sub-typing of the isolates into the recently described sub-lineages of genotype I was possible by applying three additional enzymes. Experimental evaluation of the method consisted of three steps: (i) RT-PCR amplification of the G-gene of VHSV isolates using purified viral RNA as template, (ii) digestion of the PCR products with a panel of restriction endonucleases and (iii) interpretation of the resulting RFLP profiles. The RFLP analysis was shown to approximate the level of genetic discrimination obtained by other, more labour-intensive, molecular techniques such as the ribonuclease protection assay or sequence analysis. In addition, 37 previously uncharacterised isolates from diverse sources were assigned to specific genotypes. While the assay was able to distinguish between marine and continental isolates of VHSV, the differences did not correlate with the pathogenicity of the isolates.

  1. Alphavirus Restriction by IFITM Proteins.

    PubMed

    Weston, Stuart; Czieso, Stephanie; White, Ian J; Smith, Sarah E; Wash, Rachael S; Diaz-Soria, Carmen; Kellam, Paul; Marsh, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are broad-spectrum antiviral factors. In cell culture the entry of many enveloped viruses, including orthomyxo-, flavi-, and filoviruses, is inhibited by IFITMs, though the mechanism(s) involved remain unclear and may vary between viruses. We demonstrate that Sindbis and Semliki Forest virus (SFV), which both use endocytosis and acid-induced membrane fusion in early endosomes to infect cells, are restricted by the early endosomal IFITM3. The late endosomal IFITM2 is less restrictive and the plasma membrane IFITM1 does not inhibit normal infection by either virus. IFITM3 inhibits release of the SFV capsid into the cytosol, without inhibiting binding, internalization, trafficking to endosomes or low pH-induced conformational changes in the envelope glycoprotein. Infection by SFV fusion at the cell surface was inhibited by IFITM1, but was equally inhibited by IFITM3. Furthermore, an IFITM3 mutant (Y20A) that is localized to the plasma membrane inhibited infection by cell surface fusion more potently than IFITM1. Together, these results indicate that IFITMs, in particular IFITM3, can restrict alphavirus infection by inhibiting viral fusion with cellular membranes. That IFITM3 can restrict SFV infection by fusion at the cell surface equivalently to IFITM1 suggests that IFITM3 has greater antiviral potency against SFV. PMID:27219333

  2. Generalized Pump-restriction Theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Sinitsyn, Nikolai A; Chernyak, Vladimir Y

    2008-01-01

    We formulate conditions under which periodic modulations of parameters on a finite graph with stochastic transitions among its nodes do not lead to overall pump currents through any given link. Our theorem unifies previously known results with the new ones and provides a universal approach to explore futher restrictions on stochastic pump effect in non-adiabatically driven systems with detailed balance.

  3. Restricted Diffusion in Biophysical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Robert L.; Chang, David B.; Young, Allan C.; Martin, Carroll J.; Ancker-Johnson, Betsy

    1974-01-01

    The pulsed-gradient spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSENMR) technique was used to measure restricted diffusion of water in three types of animal tissue: human blood plasma and red cells; rat and rabbit heart; rat and rabbit liver. Characteristic lengths (L) for restriction of diffusion are estimated from dependence on the measuring time. Limitations on the range of observable restrictive lengths (1.5-15 μm) are discussed. The decrease in diffusivity due to 1 μm alumina powder (volume fraction = 0.18) in glycerin/water mixtures agrees with the Wang theory assuming spherical particles and no hydration. The characteristic length (L ≃ 4 μm) is larger than the particle size (1 μm) or separation (1.8 μm). Comparison of the diffusivities in tissues at short diffusion times with the Wang theory indicates some bound or trapped water. For packed red blood cells, a restriction (L ≃ 2.3 μm) was attributed tothe red cell membrane. A permeability p ≃ 0.014 cm/s may be estimated from the decrease in diffusivity. Average values of diffusivity ratio in heart were: 0.36 ± 0.02 for rat; and 0.26 ± 0.03 for rabbit; and in liver: 0.25 ± 0.01 for rat; 0.25 ± .04 for 10-day old rabbit; and 0.195 ± 0.03 for 2-yr old rabbit. A restriction (L ≃ 2.7 μm) in rat liver probably results from the mitochondria. PMID:4823458

  4. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  5. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  6. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  7. 14 CFR 1203.305 - Restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Restricted data. 1203.305 Section 1203.305... Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.305 Restricted data. Restricted Data or Formerly Restricted Data is so classified when originated, as required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as...

  8. 14 CFR 1203.305 - Restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restricted data. 1203.305 Section 1203.305... Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.305 Restricted data. Restricted Data or Formerly Restricted Data is so classified when originated, as required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as...

  9. 14 CFR 1203.305 - Restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restricted data. 1203.305 Section 1203.305... Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.305 Restricted data. Restricted Data or Formerly Restricted Data is so classified when originated, as required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as...

  10. 14 CFR 1203.305 - Restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted data. 1203.305 Section 1203.305... Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.305 Restricted data. Restricted Data or Formerly Restricted Data is so classified when originated, as required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as...

  11. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts...

  12. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  13. The Use of Mitochondria-Targeted Endonucleases to Manipulate mtDNA

    PubMed Central

    Bacman, Sandra R.; Williams, Sion L.; Pinto, Milena; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2014-01-01

    For more than a decade, mitochondria-targeted nucleases have been used to promote double-strand breaks in the mitochondrial genome. This was done in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) homoplasmic systems, where all mtDNA molecules can be affected, to create models of mitochondrial deficiencies. Alternatively, they were also used in a heteroplasmic model, where only a subset of the mtDNA molecules were substrates for cleavage. The latter approach showed that mitochondrial-targeted nucleases can reduce mtDNA haplotype loads in affected tissues, with clear implications for the treatment of patients with mitochondrial diseases. In the last few years, designer nucleases, such as ZFN and TALEN, have been adapted to cleave mtDNA, greatly expanding the potential therapeutic use. This chapter describes the techniques and approaches used to test these designer enzymes. PMID:25416366

  14. The resurgence of selective contracting restrictions.

    PubMed

    Marsteller, J A; Bovbjerg, R R; Nichols, L M; Verrilli, D K

    1997-10-01

    As managed care has spread, so has legislation to force plans to contract with any willing provider (AWP) and give patients freedom of choice (FOC). Managed care organizations' selective networks and provider integration reduce patient access to providers, along with provider access to paying patients, so many providers have lobbied for AWP-FOC laws. In opposition are managed care organizations (MCOs), which want full freedom to contract selectively to control prices and utilization. This article comprehensively describes laws in all fifty-one jurisdictions, classifies their relative strength, and assesses the implications of the laws. Most are relatively weak forms and all are limited in application by ERISA and the federal HMO Act. The article also uses an associative multivariate analysis to relate the selective contracting environments to HMO penetration rates, rural population, physician density, and other variables. States with weak laws also have higher HMO penetration and higher physician density, but smaller rural populations. We conclude that the strongest laws overly restrict the management of care, to the likely detriment of cost control. But where market power is rapidly concentrating, not restricting selective contracting could diminish long-term competition and patient access to care. In the face of uncertainty about the impact of these laws, an intermediate approach may be better than all or nothing. States should consider mandating that plans offer point-of-service options, for a separate premium. This option expands patient choice of plans at the time of enrollment and of providers at the time of care, yet maintains plans' ability to control core providers. PMID:9394244

  15. Delta-elimination by T4 endonuclease V at a thymine dimer site requires a secondary binding event and amino acid Glu-23.

    PubMed

    Latham, K A; Lloyd, R S

    1995-07-11

    Endonuclease V from bacteriophage T4 is a well characterized enzyme that initiates the repair of ultraviolet light induced pyrimidine dimers. Scission of the phosphodiester backbone between the pyrimidines within a dimer, or 3' to an abasic (AP) site, occurs by a beta-elimination mechanism. In addition, high concentrations of endonuclease V have been reported to catalyze the cleavage of the C5'-O-P bond in a reaction referred to as delta-elimination. To better understand the enzymology of endonuclease V, the delta-elimination reaction of the enzyme has been investigated using an oligonucleotide containing a site-specific cis-syn cyclobutane thymine dimer. The slower kinetics of the delta-elimination reaction compared to beta-elimination and the ability of unlabeled dimer-containing DNA to compete more efficiently for delta-elimination than beta-elimination indicate that delta-elimination most likely occurs during a separate enzyme encounter with the incised DNA. Previous studies have shown that both the alpha-amino group of the N-terminus and the acidic residue Glu-23 are necessary for the N-glycosylase and AP lyase activities of endonuclease V. Experiments with T2P, E23Q, and E23D mutants, which are defective in pyrimidine dimer-specific nicking, demonstrated that delta-elimination requires Glu-23, but not the primary amine at the N-terminus. In fact, the T2P mutant was much more efficient at promoting delta-elimination than the wild-type enzyme. Besides lending further proof that delta-elimination requires a second encounter between enzyme and DNA, this result may reflect an enhanced binding of the T2P mutant to dimer-containing DNA. PMID:7612620

  16. Characterization of I-Ppo, an intron-encoded endonuclease that mediates homing of a group I intron in the ribosomal DNA of Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed Central

    Muscarella, D E; Ellison, E L; Ruoff, B M; Vogt, V M

    1990-01-01

    A novel and only recently recognized class of enzymes is composed of the site-specific endonucleases encoded by some group I introns. We have characterized several aspects of I-Ppo, the endonuclease that mediates the mobility of intron 3 in the ribosomal DNA of Physarum polycephalum. This intron is unique among mobile group I introns in that it is located in nuclear DNA. We found that I-Ppo is encoded by an open reading frame in the 5' half of intron 3, upstream of the sequences required for self-splicing of group I introns. Either of two AUG initiation codons could start this reading frame, one near the beginning of the intron and the other in the upstream exon, leading to predicted polypeptides of 138 and 160 amino acid residues. The longer polypeptide was the major form translated in vitro in a reticulocyte extract. From nuclease assays of proteins synthesized in vitro with partially deleted DNAs, we conclude that both polypeptides possess endonuclease activity. We also have expressed I-Ppo in Escherichia coli, using a bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase expression system. The longer polypeptide also was the predominant form made in this system. It showed enzymatic activity in bacteria in vivo, as demonstrated by the cleavage of a plasmid carrying the target site. Like several other intron-encoded endonucleases, I-Ppo makes a four-base staggered cut in its ribosomal DNA target sequence, very near the site where intron 3 becomes integrated in crosses of intron 3-containing and intron 3-lacking Physarum strains. Images PMID:2355911

  17. Critical determinants for substrate recognition and catalysis in the M. tuberculosis class II AP-endonuclease/3'-5' exonuclease III.

    PubMed

    Khanam, Taran; Shukla, Ankita; Rai, Niyati; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2015-05-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis AP-endonuclease/3'-5' exodeoxyribonuclease (MtbXthA) is an important player in DNA base excision repair (BER). We demonstrate that the enzyme has robust apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease activity, 3'-5' exonuclease, phosphatase, and phosphodiesterase activities. The enzyme functions as an AP-endonuclease at high ionic environments, while the 3'-5'-exonuclease activity is predominant at low ionic environments. Our molecular modelling and mutational experiments show that E57 and D251 are critical for catalysis. Although nicked DNA and gapped DNA are fair substrates of MtbXthA, the gap-size did not affect the excision activity and furthermore, a substrate with a recessed 3'-end is preferred. To understand the determinants of abasic-site recognition, we examined the possible roles of (i) the base opposite the abasic site, (ii) the abasic ribose ring itself, (iii) local distortions in the AP-site, and (iv) conserved residues located near the active site. Our experiments demonstrate that the first three determinants do not play a role in MtbXthA, and in fact the enzyme exhibits robust endonucleolytic activity against single-stranded AP DNA also. Regarding the fourth determinant, it is known that the catalytic-site of AP endonucleases is surrounded by conserved aromatic residues and intriguingly, the exact residues that are directly involved in abasic site recognition vary with the individual proteins. We therefore, used a combination of mutational analysis, kinetic assays, and structure-based modelling, to identify that Y237, supported by Y137, mediates the formation of the MtbXthA-AP-DNA complex and AP-site incision. PMID:25748880

  18. Mutational Analysis of the Binding Pockets of the Diketo Acid Inhibitor L-742,001 in the Influenza Virus PA Endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Stevaert, Annelies; Dallocchio, Roberto; Dessì, Alessandro; Pala, Nicolino; Rogolino, Dominga; Sechi, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The influenza virus PA endonuclease, which cleaves capped host pre-mRNAs to initiate synthesis of viral mRNA, is a prime target for antiviral therapy. The diketo acid compound L-742,001 was previously identified as a potent inhibitor of the influenza virus endonuclease reaction, but information on its precise binding mode to PA or potential resistance profile is limited. Computer-assisted docking of L-742,001 into the crystal structure of inhibitor-free N-terminal PA (PA-Nter) indicated a binding orientation distinct from that seen in a recent crystallographic study with L-742,001-bound PA-Nter (R. M. DuBois et al., PLoS Pathog. 8:e1002830, 2012). A comprehensive mutational analysis was performed to determine which amino acid changes within the catalytic center of PA or its surrounding hydrophobic pockets alter the antiviral sensitivity to L-742,001 in cell culture. Marked (up to 20-fold) resistance to L-742,001 was observed for the H41A, I120T, and G81F/V/T mutant forms of PA. Two- to 3-fold resistance was seen for the T20A, L42T, and V122T mutants, and the R124Q and Y130A mutants were 3-fold more sensitive to L-742,001. Several mutations situated at noncatalytic sites in PA had no or only marginal impact on the enzymatic functionality of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes reconstituted in cell culture, consistent with the less conserved nature of these PA residues. Our data provide relevant insights into the binding mode of L-742,001 in the PA endonuclease active site. In addition, we predict some potential resistance sites that should be taken into account during optimization of PA endonuclease inhibitors toward tight binding in any of the hydrophobic pockets surrounding the catalytic center of the enzyme. PMID:23824822

  19. Mutational analysis of the binding pockets of the diketo acid inhibitor L-742,001 in the influenza virus PA endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Stevaert, Annelies; Dallocchio, Roberto; Dessì, Alessandro; Pala, Nicolino; Rogolino, Dominga; Sechi, Mario; Naesens, Lieve

    2013-10-01

    The influenza virus PA endonuclease, which cleaves capped host pre-mRNAs to initiate synthesis of viral mRNA, is a prime target for antiviral therapy. The diketo acid compound L-742,001 was previously identified as a potent inhibitor of the influenza virus endonuclease reaction, but information on its precise binding mode to PA or potential resistance profile is limited. Computer-assisted docking of L-742,001 into the crystal structure of inhibitor-free N-terminal PA (PA-Nter) indicated a binding orientation distinct from that seen in a recent crystallographic study with L-742,001-bound PA-Nter (R. M. DuBois et al., PLoS Pathog. 8:e1002830, 2012). A comprehensive mutational analysis was performed to determine which amino acid changes within the catalytic center of PA or its surrounding hydrophobic pockets alter the antiviral sensitivity to L-742,001 in cell culture. Marked (up to 20-fold) resistance to L-742,001 was observed for the H41A, I120T, and G81F/V/T mutant forms of PA. Two- to 3-fold resistance was seen for the T20A, L42T, and V122T mutants, and the R124Q and Y130A mutants were 3-fold more sensitive to L-742,001. Several mutations situated at noncatalytic sites in PA had no or only marginal impact on the enzymatic functionality of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes reconstituted in cell culture, consistent with the less conserved nature of these PA residues. Our data provide relevant insights into the binding mode of L-742,001 in the PA endonuclease active site. In addition, we predict some potential resistance sites that should be taken into account during optimization of PA endonuclease inhibitors toward tight binding in any of the hydrophobic pockets surrounding the catalytic center of the enzyme. PMID:23824822

  20. Requirement for End-Joining and Checkpoint Functions, but Not RAD52-Mediated Recombination, after EcoRI Endonuclease Cleavage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, L. Kevin; Kirchner, Jakob M.; Resnick, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    RAD52 and RAD9 are required for the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by physical and chemical DNA-damaging agents in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of EcoRI endonuclease expression in vivo revealed that, in contrast to DSBs containing damaged or modified termini, chromosomal DSBs retaining complementary ends could be repaired in rad52 mutants and in G1-phase Rad+ cells. Continuous EcoRI-induced scission of chromosomal DNA blocked the growth of rad52 mutants, with most cells arrested in G2 phase. Surprisingly, rad52 mutants were not more sensitive to EcoRI-induced cell killing than wild-type strains. In contrast, endonuclease expression was lethal in cells deficient in Ku-mediated end joining. Checkpoint-defective rad9 mutants did not arrest cell cycling and lost viability rapidly when EcoRI was expressed. Synthesis of the endonuclease produced extensive breakage of nuclear DNA and stimulated interchromosomal recombination. These results and those of additional experiments indicate that cohesive ended DSBs in chromosomal DNA can be accurately repaired by RAD52-mediated recombination and by recombination-independent complementary end joining in yeast cells. PMID:9528760

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of I-PpoI: a nuclear, intron-encoded homing endonuclease from Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed Central

    Flick, K. E.; McHugh, D.; Heath, J. D.; Stephens, K. M.; Monnat, R. J.; Stoddard, B. L.

    1997-01-01

    The homing endonuclease I-PpoI is encoded by an optional third intron, Pp LSU 3, found in nuclear, extrachromosomal copies of the Physarum polycephalum 26S rRNA gene. This endonuclease promotes the lateral transfer or "homing" of its encoding intron by recognizing and cleaving a partially symmetric, 15 bp homing site in 26S rDNA alleles that lack the Pp LSU 3 intron. The open reading frame encoding I-PpoI has been subcloned, and the endonuclease has been overproduced in E. coli. Purified recombinant I-PpoI has been co-crystallized with a 21 bp homing site DNA duplex. The crystals belong to space group P3(1)21, with unit cell dimensions a = b = 114 A, c = 89 A. The results of initial X-ray diffraction experiments indicate that the asymmetric unit contains an enzyme homodimer and one duplex DNA molecule, and that the unit cell has a specific volume of 3.4 A3/dalton. These experiments also provide strong evidence that I-PpoI contains several bound zinc ions as part of its structure. PMID:9416623

  2. Identification of three core regions essential for protein splicing of the yeast Vma1 protozyme. A random mutagenesis study of the entire Vma1-derived endonuclease sequence.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, M; Nogami, S; Satow, Y; Ohya, Y; Anraku, Y

    1997-06-20

    The translation product of the VMA1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes protein splicing, in which the intervening region is autocatalytically excised and the franking regions are ligated. The splicing reaction is catalyzed essentially by the in-frame insert, VMA1-derived endonuclease (VDE), which is a site-specific endonuclease to mediate gene homing. Previous mutational analysis of the splicing reaction has been concentrated extensively upon the splice junctions. However, it still remains unknown which amino acid residues are crucial for the splicing reaction within the entire region of VDE and its neighboring elements. In this work, a polymerase chain reaction-based random mutagenesis strategy was used to identify such residues throughout the overall intervening sequence of the VMA1 gene. Splicing-defective mutant proteins were initially screened using a bacterial expression system and then analyzed further in yeast cells. Mutations were mapped at the N- and C-terminal splice junctions and around the N-terminal one-third of VDE. We identified four potent mutants that yielded aberrant products with molecular masses of 200, 90, and 80 kDa. We suggest that the conserved His362, newly identified as the essential residue for the splicing reaction, contributes to the first cleavage at the N-terminal junction, whereas His736 assists the second cleavage by Asn cyclization at the C-terminal junction. Mutations in these regions did not appear to destroy the endonuclease activity of VDE. PMID:9188457

  3. Trans-complementation by human apurinic endonuclease (Ape) of hypersensitivity to DNA damage and spontaneous mutator phenotype in apn1-yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D M; Bennett, R A; Marquis, J C; Ansari, P; Demple, B

    1995-01-01

    Abasic (AP) sites in DNA are potentially lethal and mutagenic. 'Class II' AP endonucleases initiate the repair of these and other DNA lesions. In yeast, the predominant enzyme of this type is Apn1, and its elimination sensitizes the cells to killing by simple alkylating agents or oxidants, and raises the rate of spontaneous mutation. We investigated the ability of the major human class II AP endonuclease, Ape, which is structurally unrelated to Apn1, to replace the yeast enzyme in vivo. Confocal immunomicroscopy studies indicate that approximately 25% of the Ape expressed in yeast is present in the nucleus. High-level Ape expression corresponding to approximately 7000 molecules per nucleus, equal to the normal Apn1 copy number, restored resistance to methyl methanesulfonate to near wild-type levels in Apn1-deficient (apn1-) yeast. Ape expression in apn1- yeast provided little protection against H2O2 challenges, consistent with the weak 3'-repair diesterase activity of the human enzyme. Ape expression at approximately 2000 molecules per nucleus reduced the spontaneous mutation rate of apn1- yeast to that seen for wild-type cells. Because Ape has a powerful AP endonuclease but weak 3'-diesterase activity, these findings indicate that endogenously generated AP sites can drive spontaneous mutagenesis. Images PMID:8559661

  4. Fractionated Radiation Exposure of Rat Spinal Cords Leads to Latent Neuro-Inflammation in Brain, Cognitive Deficits, and Alterations in Apurinic Endonuclease 1

    PubMed Central

    Suresh Kumar, M. A.; Peluso, Michael; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Dhawan, Jasbeer; Beheshti, Afshin; Manickam, Krishnan; Thapar, Upasna; Pena, Louis; Natarajan, Mohan; Hlatky, Lynn; Demple, Bruce; Naidu, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes degeneration of myelin, the insulating sheaths of neuronal axons, leading to neurological impairment. As radiation research on the central nervous system has predominantly focused on neurons, with few studies addressing the role of glial cells, we have focused our present research on identifying the latent effects of single/ fractionated -low dose of low/ high energy radiation on the role of base excision repair protein Apurinic Endonuclease-1, in the rat spinal cords oligodendrocyte progenitor cells’ differentiation. Apurinic endonuclease-1 is predominantly upregulated in response to oxidative stress by low- energy radiation, and previous studies show significant induction of Apurinic Endonuclease-1 in neurons and astrocytes. Our studies show for the first time, that fractionation of protons cause latent damage to spinal cord architecture while fractionation of HZE (28Si) induce increase in APE1 with single dose, which then decreased with fractionation. The oligodendrocyte progenitor cells differentiation was skewed with increase in immature oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, which likely cause the observed decrease in white matter, increased neuro-inflammation, together leading to the observed significant cognitive defects. PMID:26208353

  5. Overcoming Communication Restrictions in Collectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian K.

    2004-01-01

    Many large distributed system are characterized by having a large number of components (eg., agents, neurons) whose actions and interactions determine a %orld utility which rates the performance of the overall system. Such collectives are often subject to communication restrictions, making it difficult for components which try to optimize their own private utilities, to take actions that also help optimize the world utility. In this article we address that coordination problem and derive four utility functions which present different compromises between how aligned a component s private utility is with the world utility and how readily that component can determine the actions that optimize its utility. The results show that the utility functions specifically derived to operate under communication restrictions outperform both traditional methods and previous collective-based methods by up to 75%.

  6. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view.

  7. The beneficial effects of dietary restriction: reduced oxidative damage and enhanced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wachsman, J T

    1996-02-19

    There is compelling evidence for the central role of oxidative damage in the aging process and for the participation of reactive oxygen species in tumor initiation and promotion. Caloric restriction (CR) or energy restriction retards age-associated increases in mitochondrial free-radical production and reduces the accumulation of oxidatively damaged cell components. CR has also been shown to slow down age-related declines in various repair capabilities, including some types of DNA repair. It is proposed that inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport and/or uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation (rotenone, amytal, amiodarone, valinomycin, etc.), when used at extremely low doses, could mimic the effects of CR in model systems. The objective is to lower mitochondrial free-radical production by decreasing the fraction of electron carriers in the reduced state. In addition to a variety of other effects, CR has been shown to increase the rate of apoptosis, particularly in preneoplastic cells, and in general, to promote elevated levels of free glucocorticoids (GCs). GCs are known to induce tissue-specific apoptosis and to upregulate gap-junction-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC). Tumor promoters like phorbol esters have the opposite effect, in that they inhibit both the process of apoptosis and GJIC. The enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is thought to play a central role in apoptosis, in a manner that has been highly conserved in evolution. There is good evidence that the apoptosis-associated Ca/Mg-dependent DNA endonuclease is maintained in a latent form by being poly (ADP-ribosylated). Apoptosis would require the removal of this polymer from the endonuclease, and, most likely, its removal from topoisomerase II and histone H1 as well. The role of poly (ADP-ribose) in apoptosis, carcinogenesis, and aging could be studied by the use of modulators of PARP activity (3-aminobenzamide, 3-nitrosobenzamide, 1% ethanol, etc.), inhibitors of poly ADP

  8. Identification of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans strains based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, K; Wakai, S; Sugio, T

    2001-01-01

    The 16S rDNA sequences from ten strains of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were amplified by PCR. The products were compared by performing restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with restriction endonucleases Alu I, Hap II, Hha I, and Hae III. The RFLP patterns revealed that T. ferrooxidans could be distinguished from other iron- or sulphur-oxidizing bacteria such as T. thiooxidans NB1-3, T. caldus GO-1, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and the marine iron-oxidizing bacterium strain KU2-11. The RFLP patterns obtained with Alu I, Hap II, and Hae III were the same for nine strains of T. ferrooxidans except for strain ATCC 13661. The RFLP patterns for strains NASF-1 and ATCC 13661 with Hha I were distinct from those for other T. ferrooxidans strains. The 16S rDNA sequence of T. ferrooxidans NASF-1 possessed an additional restriction site for Hha I. These results show that iron-oxidizing bacteria isolated from natural environments were rapidly identified as T. ferrooxidans by the method combining RFLP analysis with physiological analysis. PMID:11414499

  9. Separation of Three Species of Ditylenchus and Some Host Races of D. dipsaci by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Wendt, K R; Vrain, T C; Webster, J M

    1993-12-01

    This study examined the ribosomal cistron of Ditylenchus destructor, D. myceliophagus and seven host races of D. dipsaci from different geographic locations. The three species showed restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the ribosomal cistron, the 18S rDNA gene, and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Southern blot analysis with a 7.5-kb ribosomal cistron probe differentiated the five host races of D. dipsaci examined. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the ITS, followed by digestion with some restriction endonucleases (but not others), produced restriction fragments diagnostic of the giant race. Because the PCR product from D. myceliophagus and the host races of D. dipsaci was about 900 base pairs and the ITS size in D. destructor populations was 1,200 base pairs, mixtures of populations could be detected by PCR amplification. ITS fragments differentiated between D. dipsaci and Aphelenchoides rhyntium in mixed populations. This study establishes the feasibility of differentiation of the host races of D. dipsaci by probing Southern blots with the whole ribosomal cistron. PMID:19279809

  10. Separation of Three Species of Ditylenchus and Some Host Races of D. dipsaci by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Karen R.; Vrain, Thierry C.; Webster, John M.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the ribosomal cistron of Ditylenchus destructor, D. myceliophagus and seven host races of D. dipsaci from different geographic locations. The three species showed restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the ribosomal cistron, the 18S rDNA gene, and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Southern blot analysis with a 7.5-kb ribosomal cistron probe differentiated the five host races of D. dipsaci examined. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the ITS, followed by digestion with some restriction endonucleases (but not others), produced restriction fragments diagnostic of the giant race. Because the PCR product from D. myceliophagus and the host races of D. dipsaci was about 900 base pairs and the ITS size in D. destructor populations was 1,200 base pairs, mixtures of populations could be detected by PCR amplification. ITS fragments differentiated between D. dipsaci and Aphelenchoides rhyntium in mixed populations. This study establishes the feasibility of differentiation of the host races of D. dipsaci by probing Southern blots with the whole ribosomal cistron. PMID:19279809

  11. Phase variation of a Type IIG restriction-modification enzyme alters site-specific methylation patterns and gene expression in Campylobacter jejuni strain NCTC11168.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Awais; Brathwaite, Kelly J; Aidley, Jack; Connerton, Phillippa L; Cummings, Nicola J; Parkhill, Julian; Connerton, Ian; Bayliss, Christopher D

    2016-06-01

    Phase-variable restriction-modification systems are a feature of a diverse range of bacterial species. Stochastic, reversible switches in expression of the methyltransferase produces variation in methylation of specific sequences. Phase-variable methylation by both Type I and Type III methyltransferases is associated with altered gene expression and phenotypic variation. One phase-variable gene of Campylobacter jejuni encodes a homologue of an unusual Type IIG restriction-modification system in which the endonuclease and methyltransferase are encoded by a single gene. Using both inhibition of restriction and PacBio-derived methylome analyses of mutants and phase-variants, the cj0031c allele in C. jejuni strain NCTC11168 was demonstrated to specifically methylate adenine in 5'CCCGA and 5'CCTGA sequences. Alterations in the levels of specific transcripts were detected using RNA-Seq in phase-variants and mutants of cj0031c but these changes did not correlate with observed differences in phenotypic behaviour. Alterations in restriction of phage growth were also associated with phase variation (PV) of cj0031c and correlated with presence of sites in the genomes of these phages. We conclude that PV of a Type IIG restriction-modification system causes changes in site-specific methylation patterns and gene expression patterns that may indirectly change adaptive traits. PMID:26786317

  12. Phase variation of a Type IIG restriction-modification enzyme alters site-specific methylation patterns and gene expression in Campylobacter jejuni strain NCTC11168

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Awais; Brathwaite, Kelly J.; Aidley, Jack; Connerton, Phillippa L.; Cummings, Nicola J.; Parkhill, Julian; Connerton, Ian; Bayliss, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Phase-variable restriction-modification systems are a feature of a diverse range of bacterial species. Stochastic, reversible switches in expression of the methyltransferase produces variation in methylation of specific sequences. Phase-variable methylation by both Type I and Type III methyltransferases is associated with altered gene expression and phenotypic variation. One phase-variable gene of Campylobacter jejuni encodes a homologue of an unusual Type IIG restriction-modification system in which the endonuclease and methyltransferase are encoded by a single gene. Using both inhibition of restriction and PacBio-derived methylome analyses of mutants and phase-variants, the cj0031c allele in C. jejuni strain NCTC11168 was demonstrated to specifically methylate adenine in 5′CCCGA and 5′CCTGA sequences. Alterations in the levels of specific transcripts were detected using RNA-Seq in phase-variants and mutants of cj0031c but these changes did not correlate with observed differences in phenotypic behaviour. Alterations in restriction of phage growth were also associated with phase variation (PV) of cj0031c and correlated with presence of sites in the genomes of these phages. We conclude that PV of a Type IIG restriction-modification system causes changes in site-specific methylation patterns and gene expression patterns that may indirectly change adaptive traits. PMID:26786317

  13. The Structural Basis for mRNA Recognition and Cleavage by the Ribosome-Dependent Endonuclease RelE

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Cajetan; Gao, Yong-Gui; Andersen, Kasper R.; Dunham, Christine M.; Kelley, Ann C.; Hentschel, Jendrik; Gerdes, Kenn; Ramakrishnan, V.; Brodersen, Ditlev E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Translational control is widely used to adjust gene expression levels. During the stringent response in bacteria, mRNA is degraded on the ribosome by the ribosome-dependent endonuclease, RelE. The molecular basis for recognition of the ribosome and mRNA by RelE and the mechanism of cleavage are unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of E. coli RelE in isolation (2.5 Å) and bound to programmed Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosomes before (3.3 Å) and after (3.6 Å) cleavage. RelE occupies the A site and causes cleavage of mRNA after the second nucleotide of the codon by reorienting and activating the mRNA for 2′-OH-induced hydrolysis. Stacking of A site codon bases with conserved residues in RelE and 16S rRNA explains the requirement for the ribosome in catalysis and the subtle sequence specificity of the reaction. These structures provide detailed insight into the translational regulation on the bacterial ribosome by mRNA cleavage. PMID:20005802

  14. Endonuclease IV cleaves apurinic/apyrimidinic sites in single-stranded DNA and its application for biosensing.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Juan; Wu, Shuang; Cen, Yao; Chen, Ting-Ting; Yu, Ru-Qin; Chu, Xia

    2016-07-21

    Endonuclease IV (Endo IV), as a DNA repairing enzyme, plays a crucial role in repairing damaged DNA comprising abasic sites to maintain genomic integrity. The cleaving capability of Endo IV to apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP) in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was demonstrated. It was found that Endo IV has considerably high cleaving activity to AP sites in ssDNA compared with that in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The unique feature of Endo IV in cleaving AP sites in ssDNA was further applied to construct a novel dual signal amplified sensing system for highly sensitive enzyme and protein detection by a combination of exonuclease III (Exo III)-aided cyclic amplification reaction and a rolling circle replication (RCR) technique, which showed a good sensing performance with a detection limit of 0.008 U mL(-1) for Endo IV and 2.5 pM for streptavidin. In addition, the developed method had considerably high specificity for Endo IV and streptavidin over other potential interferences. The developed strategy indeed provides a novel platform for protein and enzyme assays and may find a broad spectrum of applications in bioanalysis, disease diagnosis, and drug development. PMID:27186607

  15. The DNA Structure-Specific Endonuclease MUS81 Mediates DNA Sensor STING-Dependent Host Rejection of Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ho, Samantha S W; Zhang, Wendy Y L; Tan, Nikki Yi Jie; Khatoo, Muznah; Suter, Manuel A; Tripathi, Shubhita; Cheung, Florence S G; Lim, Weng Khong; Tan, Puay Hoon; Ngeow, Joanne; Gasser, Stephan

    2016-05-17

    Self-DNA is present in the cytosol of many cancer cells and can promote effective immune rejection of tumor cells, but the mechanisms leading to the presence of cytosolic DNA are unknown. Here, we report that the cleavage of genomic DNA by DNA structure-specific endonuclease MUS81 and PARP-dependent DNA repair pathways leads to the accumulation of cytosolic DNA in prostate cancer cells. The number of nuclear MUS81 foci and the amount of cytosolic dsDNA increased in tandem from hyperplasia to clinical stage II prostate cancers and decreased at stage III. Cytosolic DNA generated by MUS81 stimulated DNA sensor STING-dependent type I interferon (IFN) expression and promoted phagocytic and T cell responses, resulting in type I and II IFN-mediated rejection of prostate tumor cells via mechanisms that partly depended on macrophages. Our results demonstrate that the tumor suppressor MUS81 alerts the immune system to the presence of transformed host cells. PMID:27178469

  16. Mutagenesis identifies the critical amino acid residues of human endonuclease G involved in catalysis, magnesium coordination, and substrate specificity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shih-Lu; Li, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Jaw-Chyun; Chen, Yi-Jin; Lin, Ching-Ting; Ho, Tin-Yun; Hsiang, Chien-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Background Endonuclease G (EndoG), a member of DNA/RNA nonspecific ββα-Me-finger nucleases, is involved in apoptosis and normal cellular proliferation. In this study, we analyzed the critical amino acid residues of EndoG and proposed the catalytic mechanism of EndoG. Methods To identify the critical amino acid residues of human EndoG, we replaced the conserved histidine, asparagine, and arginine residues with alanine. The catalytic efficacies of Escherichia coli-expressed EndoG variants were further analyzed by kinetic studies. Results Diethyl pyrocarbonate modification assay revealed that histidine residues were involved in EndoG activity. His-141, Asn-163, and Asn-172 in the H-N-H motif of EndoG were critical for catalysis and substrate specificity. H141A mutant required a higher magnesium concentration to achieve its activity, suggesting the unique role of His-141 in both catalysis and magnesium coordination. Furthermore, an additional catalytic residue (Asn-251) and an additional metal ion binding site (Glu-271) of human EndoG were identified. Conclusion Based on the mutational analysis and homology modeling, we proposed that human EndoG shared a similar catalytic mechanism with nuclease A from Anabaena. PMID:19272175

  17. Crystal structure and MD simulation of mouse EndoV reveal wedge motif plasticity in this inosine-specific endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Meh Sameen; Vik, Erik Sebastian; Ronander, Mia Elise; Solvoll, Anne Marthe; Blicher, Pernille; Bjørås, Magnar; Alseth, Ingrun; Dalhus, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Endonuclease V (EndoV) is an enzyme with specificity for deaminated adenosine (inosine) in nucleic acids. EndoV from Escherichia coli (EcEndoV) acts both on inosines in DNA and RNA, whereas the human homolog cleaves only at inosines in RNA. Inosines in DNA are mutagenic and the role of EndoV in DNA repair is well established. In contrast, the biological function of EndoV in RNA processing is largely unexplored. Here we have characterized a second mammalian EndoV homolog, mouse EndoV (mEndoV), and show that mEndoV shares the same RNA selectivity as human EndoV (hEndoV). Mouse EndoV cleaves the same inosine-containing substrates as hEndoV, but with reduced efficiencies. The crystal structure of mEndoV reveals a conformation different from the hEndoV and prokaryotic EndoV structures, particularly for the conserved tyrosine in the wedge motif, suggesting that this strand separating element has some flexibility. Molecular dynamics simulations of mouse and human EndoV reveal alternative conformations for the invariant tyrosine. The configuration of the active site, on the other hand, is very similar between the prokaryotic and mammalian versions of EndoV. PMID:27108838

  18. Effects of mono- and divalent metal ions on DNA binding and catalysis of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1.

    PubMed

    Miroshnikova, Anastasia D; Kuznetsova, Alexandra A; Vorobjev, Yuri N; Kuznetsov, Nikita A; Fedorova, Olga S

    2016-05-26

    Here, we used stopped-flow fluorescence techniques to conduct a comparative kinetic analysis of the conformational transitions in human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) and in DNA containing an abasic site in the course of their interaction. Effects of monovalent (K(+)) and divalent (Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Ni(2+)) metal ions on DNA binding and catalytic stages were studied. It was shown that the first step of substrate binding (corresponding to formation of a primary enzyme-substrate complex) does not depend on the concentration (0.05-5.0 mM) or the nature of divalent metal ions. In contrast, the initial DNA binding efficiency significantly decreased at a high concentration (5-250 mM) of monovalent K(+) ions, indicating the involvement of electrostatic interactions in this stage. It was also shown that Cu(2+) ions abrogated the DNA binding ability of APE1, possibly, due to a strong interaction with DNA bases and the sugar-phosphate backbone. In the case of Ca(2+) ions, the catalytic activity of APE1 was lost completely with retention of binding potential. Thus, the enzymatic activity of APE1 is increased in the order Zn(2+) < Ni(2+) < Mn(2+) < Mg(2+). Circular dichroism spectra and calculation of the contact area between APE1 and DNA reveal that Mg(2+) ions stabilize the protein structure and the enzyme-substrate complex. PMID:27063150

  19. In vivo characterization of the homing endonuclease within the polB gene in the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed

    Naor, Adit; Lazary, Rona; Barzel, Adi; Papke, R Thane; Gophna, Uri

    2011-01-01

    Inteins are parasitic genetic elements, analogous to introns that excise themselves at the protein level by self-splicing, allowing the formation of functional non-disrupted proteins. Many inteins contain a homing endonuclease (HEN) gene, and rely on its activity for horizontal propagation. In the halophilic archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, the gene encoding DNA polymerase B (polB) contains an intein with an annotated but uncharacterized HEN. Here we examine the activity of the polB HEN in vivo, within its natural archaeal host. We show that this HEN is highly active, and able to insert the intein into both a chromosomal target and an extra-chromosomal plasmid target, by gene conversion. We also demonstrate that the frequency of its incorporation depends on the length of the flanking homologous sequences around the target site, reflecting its dependence on the homologous recombination machinery. Although several evolutionary models predict that the presence of an intein involves a change in the fitness of the host organism, our results show that a strain deleted for the intein sequence shows no significant changes in growth rate compared to the wild type. PMID:21283796

  20. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 regulates angiogenesis in a transforming growth factor β-dependent manner in human osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xuan; Shan, Jinlu; Dai, Nan; Zhong, Zhaoyang; Qing, Yi; Yang, Yuxing; Zhang, Shiheng; Li, Chongyi; Sui, Jiangdong; Ren, Tao; Li, Mengxia; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis and has been reported to be inversely correlated with overall survival of osteosarcoma patients. It has been shown that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), a dually functional protein possessing both base excision repair and redox activities, is involved in tumor angiogenesis, although these mechanisms are not fully understood. Our previous study showed that the expression of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) was significantly reduced in APE1-deficient osteosarcoma cells. Transforming growth factor β promotes cancer metastasis through various mechanisms including immunosuppression, angiogenesis, and invasion. In the current study, we initially revealed that APE1, TGFβ, and microvessel density (MVD) have pairwise correlation in osteosarcoma tissue samples, whereas TGFβ, tumor size, and MVD were inversely related to the prognosis of the cohort. We found that knocking down APE1 in osteosarcoma cells resulted in TGFβ downregulation. In addition, APE1-siRNA led to suppression of angiogenesis in vitro based on HUVECs in Transwell and Matrigel tube formation assays. Reduced secretory protein level of TGFβ of culture medium also resulted in decreased phosphorylation of Smad3 of HUVECs. In a mouse xenograft model, siRNA-mediated silencing of APE1 downregulated TGFβ expression, tumor size, and MVD. Collectively, the current evidence indicates that APE1 regulates angiogenesis in osteosarcoma by controlling the TGFβ pathway, suggesting a novel target for anti-angiogenesis therapy in human osteosarcoma. PMID:26250694

  1. Crystal structure and MD simulation of mouse EndoV reveal wedge motif plasticity in this inosine-specific endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Meh Sameen; Vik, Erik Sebastian; Ronander, Mia Elise; Solvoll, Anne Marthe; Blicher, Pernille; Bjørås, Magnar; Alseth, Ingrun; Dalhus, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Endonuclease V (EndoV) is an enzyme with specificity for deaminated adenosine (inosine) in nucleic acids. EndoV from Escherichia coli (EcEndoV) acts both on inosines in DNA and RNA, whereas the human homolog cleaves only at inosines in RNA. Inosines in DNA are mutagenic and the role of EndoV in DNA repair is well established. In contrast, the biological function of EndoV in RNA processing is largely unexplored. Here we have characterized a second mammalian EndoV homolog, mouse EndoV (mEndoV), and show that mEndoV shares the same RNA selectivity as human EndoV (hEndoV). Mouse EndoV cleaves the same inosine-containing substrates as hEndoV, but with reduced efficiencies. The crystal structure of mEndoV reveals a conformation different from the hEndoV and prokaryotic EndoV structures, particularly for the conserved tyrosine in the wedge motif, suggesting that this strand separating element has some flexibility. Molecular dynamics simulations of mouse and human EndoV reveal alternative conformations for the invariant tyrosine. The configuration of the active site, on the other hand, is very similar between the prokaryotic and mammalian versions of EndoV. PMID:27108838

  2. Purification and characterization of an endonuclease specific for apurinic sites in DNA from a permanently established mouse plasmacytoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Nes, I F

    1980-01-01

    An endonuclease specific for apurinic sites in double stranded DNA has been purified 373-fold from the nuclei of mouse plasmacytoma cells (line MPC-11). The enzyme is free of any detectable amounts of aspecific nucleases. The enzyme does not act on methylated or OsO4-treated DNA. However, high doses of UV-light and gamma-rays render the DNA slightly susceptible to endonucleolytic attack, which is believed to be due to depurination of depyrimidination caused by the treatment. The molecular weight of the enzyme is determined to be 28,000 and its apparent Km of the purified enzyme is calculated to be 2.7 nM apurinic sites. The activity is not absolutely dependent upon the presence of Mg2+ in the assay mixture although metal chelating agents such as sodium citrate and EDTA abolish the activity completely. The nuclease was stimulated by moderate concentrations of potassium chloride optimizing at 50 mM, and higher concentrations inhibiting the activity. The pH optimun for the reaction was 9.5. PMID:6253941

  3. Lundep, a Sand Fly Salivary Endonuclease Increases Leishmania Parasite Survival in Neutrophils and Inhibits XIIa Contact Activation in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, Andrezza C.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Debrabant, Alain; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Calvo, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are the host's first line of defense against infections, and their extracellular traps (NET) were recently shown to kill Leishmania parasites. Here we report a NET-destroying molecule (Lundep) from the salivary glands of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Previous analysis of the sialotranscriptome of Lu. longipalpis showed the potential presence of an endonuclease. Indeed, not only was the cloned cDNA (Lundep) shown to encode a highly active ss- and dsDNAse, but also the same activity was demonstrated to be secreted by salivary glands of female Lu. longipalpis. Lundep hydrolyzes both ss- and dsDNA with little sequence specificity with a calculated DNase activity of 300000 Kunitz units per mg of protein. Disruption of PMA (phorbol 12 myristate 13 acetate)- or parasite-induced NETs by treatment with recombinant Lundep or salivary gland homogenates increases parasite survival in neutrophils. Furthermore, co-injection of recombinant Lundep with metacyclic promastigotes significantly exacerbates Leishmania infection in mice when compared with PBS alone or inactive (mutagenized) Lundep. We hypothesize that Lundep helps the parasite to establish an infection by allowing it to escape from the leishmanicidal activity of NETs early after inoculation. Lundep may also assist blood meal intake by lowering the local viscosity caused by the release of host DNA and as an anticoagulant by inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. PMID:24516388

  4. Structure and specificity of the RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 during DNA interrogation, target binding and cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Josephs, Eric A.; Kocak, D. Dewran; Fitzgibbon, Christopher J.; McMenemy, Joshua; Gersbach, Charles A.; Marszalek, Piotr E.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9 cuts DNA at variable target sites designated by a Cas9-bound RNA molecule. Cas9's ability to be directed by single ‘guide RNA’ molecules to target nearly any sequence has been recently exploited for a number of emerging biological and medical applications. Therefore, understanding the nature of Cas9's off-target activity is of paramount importance for its practical use. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we directly resolve individual Cas9 and nuclease-inactive dCas9 proteins as they bind along engineered DNA substrates. High-resolution imaging allows us to determine their relative propensities to bind with different guide RNA variants to targeted or off-target sequences. Mapping the structural properties of Cas9 and dCas9 to their respective binding sites reveals a progressive conformational transformation at DNA sites with increasing sequence similarity to its target. With kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations, these results provide evidence of a ‘conformational gating’ mechanism driven by the interactions between the guide RNA and the 14th–17th nucleotide region of the targeted DNA, the stabilities of which we find correlate significantly with reported off-target cleavage rates. KMC simulations also reveal potential methodologies to engineer guide RNA sequences with improved specificity by considering the invasion of guide RNAs into targeted DNA duplex. PMID:26384421

  5. Context dependence between subdomains in the DNA binding interface of the I-CreI homing endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Grizot, Sylvestre; Duclert, Aymeric; Thomas, Séverine; Duchateau, Philippe; Pâques, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Homing endonucleases (HE) have emerged as precise tools for achieving gene targeting events. Redesigned HEs with tailored specificities can be used to cleave new sequences, thereby considerably expanding the number of targetable genes and loci. With HEs, as well as with other protein scaffolds, context dependence of DNA/protein interaction patterns remains one of the major limitations for rational engineering of new DNA binders. Previous studies have shown strong crosstalk between different residues and regions of the DNA binding interface. To investigate this phenomenon, we systematically combined mutations from three groups of amino acids in the DNA binding regions of the I-CreI HE. Our results confirm that important crosstalk occurs throughout this interface in I-CreI. Detailed analysis of success rates identified a nearest-neighbour effect, with a more pronounced level of dependence between adjacent regions. Taken together, these data suggest that combinatorial engineering does not necessarily require the identification of separable functional or structural regions, and that groups of amino acids provide acceptable building blocks that can be assembled, overcoming the context dependency of the DNA binding interface. Furthermore, the present work describes a sequential method to engineer tailored HEs, wherein three contiguous regions are individually mutated and assembled to create HEs with engineered specificity. PMID:21482539

  6. Shape-selective recognition of DNA abasic sites by metallohelices: inhibition of human AP endonuclease 1

    PubMed Central

    Malina, Jaroslav; Scott, Peter; Brabec, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Loss of a base in DNA leading to creation of an abasic (AP) site leaving a deoxyribose residue in the strand, is a frequent lesion that may occur spontaneously or under the action of various physical and chemical agents. Progress in the understanding of the chemistry and enzymology of abasic DNA largely relies upon the study of AP sites in synthetic duplexes. We report here on interactions of diastereomerically pure metallo–helical ‘flexicate’ complexes, bimetallic triple-stranded ferro-helicates [Fe2(NN-NN)3]4+ incorporating the common NN–NN bis(bidentate) helicand, with short DNA duplexes containing AP sites in different sequence contexts. The results show that the flexicates bind to AP sites in DNA duplexes in a shape-selective manner. They preferentially bind to AP sites flanked by purines on both sides and their binding is enhanced when a pyrimidine is placed in opposite orientation to the lesion. Notably, the Λ-enantiomer binds to all tested AP sites with higher affinity than the Δ-enantiomer. In addition, the binding of the flexicates to AP sites inhibits the activity of human AP endonuclease 1, which is as a valid anticancer drug target. Hence, this finding indicates the potential of utilizing well-defined metallo–helical complexes for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25940617

  7. Structure-specific DNA endonuclease Mus81/Eme1 generates DNA damage caused by Chk1 inactivation.

    PubMed

    Forment, Josep V; Blasius, Melanie; Guerini, Ilaria; Jackson, Stephen P

    2011-01-01

    The DNA-damage checkpoint kinase Chk1 is essential in higher eukaryotes due to its role in maintaining genome stability in proliferating cells. CHK1 gene deletion is embryonically lethal, and Chk1 inhibition in replicating cells causes cell-cycle defects that eventually lead to perturbed replication and replication-fork collapse, thus generating endogenous DNA damage. What is the cause of replication-fork collapse when Chk1 is inactivated, however, remains poorly understood. Here, we show that generation of DNA double-strand breaks at replication forks when Chk1 activity is compromised relies on the DNA endonuclease complex Mus81/Eme1. Importantly, we show that Mus81/Eme1-dependent DNA damage--rather than a global increase in replication-fork stalling--is the cause of incomplete replication in Chk1-deficient cells. Consequently, Mus81/Eme1 depletion alleviates the S-phase progression defects associated with Chk1 deficiency, thereby increasing cell survival. Chk1-mediated protection of replication forks from Mus81/Eme1 even under otherwise unchallenged conditions is therefore vital to prevent uncontrolled fork collapse and ensure proper S-phase progression in human cells. PMID:21858151

  8. Autosomal-Recessive Mutations in the tRNA Splicing Endonuclease Subunit TSEN15 Cause Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia and Progressive Microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Breuss, Martin W; Sultan, Tipu; James, Kiely N; Rosti, Rasim O; Scott, Eric; Musaev, Damir; Furia, Bansri; Reis, André; Sticht, Heinrich; Al-Owain, Mohammed; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Reuter, Miriam S; Abou Jamra, Rami; Trotta, Christopher R; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2016-07-01

    The tRNA splicing endonuclease is a highly evolutionarily conserved protein complex, involved in the cleavage of intron-containing tRNAs. In human it consists of the catalytic subunits TSEN2 and TSEN34, as well as the non-catalytic TSEN54 and TSEN15. Recessive mutations in the corresponding genes of the first three are known to cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) types 2A-C, 4, and 5. Here, we report three homozygous TSEN15 variants that cause a milder version of PCH2. The affected individuals showed progressive microcephaly, delayed developmental milestones, intellectual disability, and, in two out of four cases, epilepsy. None, however, displayed the central visual failure seen in PCH case subjects where other subunits of the TSEN are mutated, and only one was affected by the extensive motor defects that are typical in other forms of PCH2. The three amino acid substitutions impacted the protein level of TSEN15 and the stoichiometry of the interacting subunits in different ways, but all resulted in an almost complete loss of in vitro tRNA cleavage activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that mutations in any known subunit of the TSEN complex can cause PCH and progressive microcephaly, emphasizing the importance of its function during brain development. PMID:27392077

  9. Using Group II Introns for Attenuating the In Vitro and In Vivo Expression of a Homing Endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Tuhin Kumar; Hausner, Georg

    2016-01-01

    In Chaetomium thermophilum (DSM 1495) within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) small ribosomal subunit (rns) gene a group IIA1 intron interrupts an open reading frame (ORF) encoded within a group I intron (mS1247). This arrangement offers the opportunity to examine if the nested group II intron could be utilized as a regulatory element for the expression of the homing endonuclease (HEase). Constructs were generated where the codon-optimized ORF was interrupted with either the native group IIA1 intron or a group IIB type intron. This study showed that the expression of the HEase (in vivo) in Escherichia coli can be regulated by manipulating the splicing efficiency of the HEase ORF-embedded group II introns. Exogenous magnesium chloride (MgCl2) stimulated the expression of a functional HEase but the addition of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) to growth media antagonized the expression of HEase activity. Ultimately the ability to attenuate HEase activity might be useful in precision genome engineering, minimizing off target activities, or where pathways have to be altered during a specific growth phase. PMID:26909494

  10. High mobility of flap endonuclease 1 and DNA polymerase eta associated with replication foci in mammalian S-phase nucleus.

    PubMed

    Solovjeva, Lioudmila; Svetlova, Maria; Sasina, Lioudmila; Tanaka, Kyoji; Saijo, Masafumi; Nazarov, Igor; Bradbury, Morton; Tomilin, Nikolai

    2005-05-01

    Originally detected in fixed cells, DNA replication foci (RFi) were later visualized in living cells by using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and DNA ligase I. It was shown using fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching (FRAP) assay that focal GFP-PCNA slowly exchanged, suggesting the existence of a stable replication holocomplex. Here, we used the FRAP assay to study the dynamics of the GFP-tagged PCNA-binding proteins: Flap endonuclease 1 (Fen1) and DNA polymerase eta (Pol eta). We also used the GFP-Cockayne syndrome group A (CSA) protein, which does associate with transcription foci after DNA damage. In normal cells, GFP-Pol eta and GFP-Fen1 are mobile with residence times at RFi (t(m)) approximately 2 and approximately 0.8 s, respectively. GFP-CSA is also mobile but does not concentrate at discrete foci. After methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) damage, the mobile fraction of focal GFP-Fen1 decreased and t(m) increased, but it then recovered. The mobilities of focal GFP-Pol eta and GFP-PCNA did not change after MMS. The mobility of GFP-CSA did not change after UV-irradiation. These data indicate that the normal replication complex contains at least two mobile subunits. The decrease of the mobile fraction of focal GFP-Fen1 after DNA damage suggests that Fen1 exchange depends on the rate of movement of replication forks. PMID:15758026

  11. Crystal structure and MD simulation of mouse EndoV reveal wedge motif plasticity in this inosine-specific endonuclease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, Meh Sameen; Vik, Erik Sebastian; Ronander, Mia Elise; Solvoll, Anne Marthe; Blicher, Pernille; Bjørås, Magnar; Alseth, Ingrun; Dalhus, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    Endonuclease V (EndoV) is an enzyme with specificity for deaminated adenosine (inosine) in nucleic acids. EndoV from Escherichia coli (EcEndoV) acts both on inosines in DNA and RNA, whereas the human homolog cleaves only at inosines in RNA. Inosines in DNA are mutagenic and the role of EndoV in DNA repair is well established. In contrast, the biological function of EndoV in RNA processing is largely unexplored. Here we have characterized a second mammalian EndoV homolog, mouse EndoV (mEndoV), and show that mEndoV shares the same RNA selectivity as human EndoV (hEndoV). Mouse EndoV cleaves the same inosine-containing substrates as hEndoV, but with reduced efficiencies. The crystal structure of mEndoV reveals a conformation different from the hEndoV and prokaryotic EndoV structures, particularly for the conserved tyrosine in the wedge motif, suggesting that this strand separating element has some flexibility. Molecular dynamics simulations of mouse and human EndoV reveal alternative conformations for the invariant tyrosine. The configuration of the active site, on the other hand, is very similar between the prokaryotic and mammalian versions of EndoV.

  12. Blood flow-restricted exercise in space

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity results in chronic physiological adaptations including skeletal muscle atrophy, cardiovascular deconditioning, and bone demineralization. To attenuate the negative consequences of weightlessness during spaceflight missions, crewmembers perform moderate- to high-load resistance exercise in conjunction with aerobic (cycle and treadmill) exercise. Recent evidence from ground-based studies suggests that low-load blood flow-restricted (BFR) resistance exercise training can increase skeletal muscle size, strength, and endurance when performed in a variety of ambulatory populations. This training methodology couples a remarkably low exercise training load (approximately 20%–50% one repetition maximum (1RM)) with an inflated external cuff (width, ranging between approximately 30–90 mm; pressure, ranging between approximately 100–250 mmHg) that is placed around the exercising limb. BFR aerobic (walking and cycling) exercise training methods have also recently emerged in an attempt to enhance cardiovascular endurance and functional task performance while incorporating minimal exercise intensity. Although both forms of BFR exercise training have direct implications for individuals with sarcopenia and dynapenia, the application of BFR exercise training during exposure to microgravity to prevent deconditioning remains controversial. The aim of this review is to present an overview of BFR exercise training and discuss the potential usefulness of this method as an adjunct exercise countermeasure during prolonged spaceflight. The work will specifically emphasize ambulatory BFR exercise training adaptations, mechanisms, and safety and will provide directions for future research. PMID:23849078

  13. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kurjak, Asim; Predojevic, Maja; Stanojevic, Milan; Kadic, Aida Salihagic-; Miskovic, Berivoj; Badreldeen, Ahmed; Talic, Amira; Zaputovic, Sanja; Honemeyer, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can be described as condition in which fetus fails to reach his potential growth. It is common diagnosis in obstetrics, and carries an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Moreover, IUGR has lifelong implications on health, especially on neurological outcome. There is a need for additional neurological assessment during monitoring of fetal well-being, in order to better predict antenatally which fetuses are at risk for adverse neurological outcome. Studies have revealed that the behavior of the fetus reflects the maturational processes of the central nervous system (CNS). Hence, ultrasound investigation of the fetal behavior can give us insight into the integrity and functioning of the fetal CNS. Furthermore, investigations carried out using modern method, four-dimensional (4D) sonography, have produced invaluable details of fetal behavior and its development, opening the door to a better understanding of the prenatal functional development of the CNS. Based on previous observations and several years of investigation, our reaserch group has proposed a new scoring system for the assessment of fetal neurological status by 4D sonography named Kurjak antenatal neurodevelopmental test (KANET). The value of KANET in distinguishing fetal brain and neurodevelopmental alterations due to the early brain impairment in utero is yet to be assessed in large population studies. However, preliminary results are very encouraging. PMID:25473145

  14. [Identification of SHV-type extended spectrum beta-lactamase genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and insertion site restriction-PCR].

    PubMed

    Kalai Blagui, S; Achour, W; Abdeladhim, A; Ben Hassen, A

    2009-07-01

    We propose a simple and rapid method to discriminate SHV-type extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes in P. aeruginosa based on PCR techniques (PCR-RFLP and RSI-PCR). We studied 22 producing ESBL P. aeruginosa strains isolated from seven immunocompromised patients (19 isolates) and from environmental swabs (three isolates) at the Bone Marrow Transplantation Center of Tunis. Screening PCR with primer pairs designed to detect gene encoding TEM, SHV, OXA group I, OXA group II, OXA-18 and PER-1 ESBL was positive for bla(OXA18) and bla(SHV) genes in all isolates. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis using SpeI endonuclease defined five genotypic groups. For at least one isolate corresponding to each genotype observed, restriction of PCR products by DdeI and BsrI revealed the same restriction pattern that the bla(SHV-1) negative control; in the same way, RSI-PCR products digestion by NruI, thus excluding 35, 238 and 240 mutations characterizing reported ESBL in P. aeruginosa (SHV-2a, SHV5 et SHV12), and suggesting that studied bla(SHV) genes were not ESBL ones. Genomic DNA hybridization by southern blot with probe consisting in bla(SHV-1) gene was positive in these isolates. Sequencing the full-length open reading frame revealed nucleotide sequence of the bla(SHV-1). PCR-RFLP and RSI-PCR results were then confirmed. This approach is effective for screening P. aeruginosa for ESBL genes carriage in epidemiological studies and for detecting new variants. PMID:18838231

  15. Restricted Transport in Small Pores

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John L.; Quinn, John A.

    1974-01-01

    The basic hydrodynamic equations governing transport in submicron pores are reexamined. Conditions necessary for a simplified, one-dimensional treatment of the diffusion/convection process are established. Steric restrictions and Brownian motion are incorporated directly into the resulting model. Currently available fluid mechanical results are used to evaluate an upper limit on hindered diffusion; this limit is valid for small particle-to-pore ratios. Extensions of the analysis are shown to depend on numerical solutions of the related hydrodynamic problem, that of asymmetrical particle motion in a bounded fluid. PMID:4813157

  16. 9 CFR 78.20 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.20 General restrictions. Bison may not be...

  17. 9 CFR 78.5 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.5 General restrictions. Cattle may not be...

  18. 9 CFR 78.20 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.20 General restrictions. Bison may not be...

  19. 9 CFR 78.5 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.5 General restrictions. Cattle may not be...

  20. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ... they eat. Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ...