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Sample records for retail poultry products

  1. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection Service will make publicly available the names and locations of retail consignees of recalled meat...

  2. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection Service will make publicly available the names and locations of retail consignees of recalled meat...

  3. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection Service will make publicly available the names and locations of retail consignees of recalled meat...

  4. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection Service will make publicly available the names and locations of retail consignees of recalled meat...

  5. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection Service will make publicly available the names and locations of retail consignees of recalled meat...

  6. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria (ExPEC) exist as commensals in the human intestines and can infect extraintestinal sites and cause septicemia. The transfer of ExPEC from poultry to humans and the role of poultry meat as a source of ExPEC in human disease have been discussed previously. The aim of the present study was to provide insight into the properties of ExPEC in poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market with special attention to their prevalence, virulence and phylogenetic profiles. Furthermore, the isolates were screened for possible ESBL producers and their resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. Methods The presence of ExPEC in 219 marinated and non-marinated raw poultry meat products from retail shops has been analyzed. One E. coli strain per product was analyzed further for phylogenetic groups and possession of ten virulence genes associated with ExPEC bacteria (kpsMT K1, ibeA, astA, iss, irp2, papC, iucD, tsh, vat and cva/cv) using PCR methods. The E. coli strains were also screened phenotypically for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and the susceptibility of 48 potential ExPEC isolates for nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was tested. Results E. coli was isolated from 207 (94.5%) of 219 poultry meat products. The most common phylogenetic groups were D (50.7%), A (37.7%), and B2 (7.7%). Based on virulence factor gene PCR, 23.2% of the strains were classified as ExPEC. Two ExPEC strains (1%) belonged to [O1] B2 svg+ (specific for virulent subgroup) group, which has been implicated in multiple forms of ExPEC disease. None of the ExPEC strains was resistant to ciprofloxacin or cephalosporins. One isolate (2.1%) showed resistance to nalidixic acid. Conclusions Potential ExPEC bacteria were found in 22% of marinated and non-marinated poultry meat products on the Finnish retail market and 0.9% were contaminated with E. coli [O1] B2 svg+ group. Marinades did not have an effect on

  7. Prevalence of Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria on retail organic and kosher poultry products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Organic and kosher poultry are raised and processed using specific guidelines in specialized facilities. Compared to conventionally processed poultry, consumers often perceive these alternatively processed products safer and of higher quality. Purpose: The incidence of three bacterial ...

  8. The occurrence of Listeria monocytogens in retail ready-to-eat meat and poultry products related to the levels of Acetate and Lactate in the products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a psychrotrophic foodborne pathogen that has been isolated from ready-to-eat meat and poultry products (RTE meats). The purpose of this study was to quantify lactate and acetate levels in retail RTE meats that had been tested in a previous study for the presence of L. mono...

  9. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States... Newcastle disease (END), supplement their meat supply by the importation of fresh (chilled or...

  10. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States... Newcastle disease (END), supplement their meat supply by the importation of fresh (chilled or...

  11. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States... Newcastle disease (END), supplement their meat supply by the importation of fresh (chilled or...

  12. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States... Newcastle disease (END), supplement their meat supply by the importation of fresh (chilled or...

  13. Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination of poultry meat from a processing plant and retail markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeyanju, Gladys Taiwo; Ishola, Olayinka

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli are the two most important food-borne pathogens of public health interest incriminated in poultry meat worldwide. This study is to access their levels in frozen poultry meat obtained in Ibadan, Oyo State and compare those obtained from a commercial Nigerian-registered poultry company having a broiler-processing plant, Sayed Farms Ltd(R), with that obtained from retail stores. These retail stores source their products as illegal imports from neighboring Benin Republic or Togo because of a ban imposed by Government policy in Nigeria since July 2002 (USDA, GAIN report #NI2025:1-6, 2002). Microbiological Standards and Guidelines by USDA (National Agricultural library) (USDA 2011) and NCCLS guidelines (from Global Salm-Surv, 2003) were used during the research work. The study was approved by the Ethical Research Review Board (ERRB, Research Management Office 2011), University of Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and fifty-two (152) frozen poultry meat samples comprising ninety-nine retail poultry (53 chicken and 46 turkey) and 53 chicken from the processing plant were accessed. ISO Standards catalogue 07.100.30 (2011) was used in accessing the levels of Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae counts and Aerobic plate count. ISO 6579: 2002 was used for Salmonella isolation and ISO-16654:2001 for Escherichia coli isolation. There was a higher level of Aerobic plate counts and Enterobacteriaceae counts in frozen retail poultry meat than from the processing plant. Salmonella contamination from the ninety-nine poultry samples (53 chicken and 46 turkey) obtained from retail markets was at 33% [chicken 32.1% (17/53) and turkey 34.8% (16/46)] while Escherichia coli at 43.4% [chicken 47.2% (25/53) and turkey 39.1% (18/46)]. From the processing plant, twelve (12) Salmonella isolates were obtained and prevalence rate calculated as 22.6% while three (3) Escherichia coli isolates at 5.7% was obtained. Antibiotic sensitivity for

  14. Characterization of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from retail poultry meats from Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mueen; Toufeer, Mehdi; Narvaez Bravo, Claudia; Lai, Vita; Rempel, Heidi; Manges, Amee; Diarra, Moussa Sory

    2014-05-01

    Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) have the potential to spread through fecal waste resulting in the contamination of both farm workers and retail poultry meat in the processing plants or environment. The objective of this study was to characterize ExPEC from retail poultry meats purchased from Alberta, Canada and to compare them with 12 human ExPEC representatives from major ExPEC lineages. Fifty-four virulence genes were screened by a set of multiplex PCRs in 700 E. coli from retail poultry meat samples. ExPEC was defined as the detection of at least two of the following virulence genes: papA/papC, sfa, kpsMT II and iutA. Genetic relationships between isolates were determined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifty-nine (8.4%) of the 700 poultry meat isolates were identified as ExPEC and were equally distributed among the phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D. Isolates of phylogenetic group A possessed up to 12 virulence genes compared to 24 and 18 genes in phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. E. coli identified as ExPEC and recovered from poultry harbored as many virulence genes as those of human isolates. In addition to the iutA gene, siderophore-related iroN and fyuA were detected in combination with other virulence genes including those genes encoding for adhesion, protectin and toxin while the fimH, ompT, traT, uidA and vat were commonly detected in poultry ExPEC. The hemF, iss and cvaC genes were found in 40% of poultry ExPEC. All human ExPEC isolates harbored concnf (cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 altering cytoskeleton and causing necrosis) and hlyD (hemolysin transport) genes which were not found in poultry ExPEC. PFGE analysis showed that a few poultry ExPEC isolates clustered with human ExPEC isolates at 55-70% similarity level. Comparing ExPEC isolated from retail poultry meats provides insight into their virulence potential and suggests that poultry associated ExPEC may be important for retail meat safety

  15. Salmonella on Raw Poultry in Retail Markets in Guatemala: Levels, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Serovar Distribution.

    PubMed

    Jarquin, Claudia; Alvarez, Danilo; Morales, Oneida; Morales, Ana Judith; López, Beatriz; Donado, Pilar; Valencia, Maria F; Arévalo, Alejandra; Muñoz, Fredy; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P; Alali, Walid Q

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella numbers on retail raw chicken carcasses in Guatemala and to phenotypically characterize the isolates (serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility). In total, 300 chicken carcasses were collected from seven departments in Guatemala. Salmonella numbers were determined using the most-probable-number method following the U. S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service protocol. In total, 103 isolates were obtained, all of which were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, whereas 46 isolates were serotyped. Overall, Salmonella prevalence and mean number (mean log most probable number per carcass) was 34.3% and 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 2.1 to 2.5), respectively. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence were found by storage condition (refrigerated or ambient temperature), market type (wet markets, supermarkets, and independent poultry stores), chicken production system (integrated or nonintegrated production company), and chicken skin color (white or yellow). Chickens produced by integrated companies had lower Salmonella numbers (P < 0.05) than nonintegrated companies, and white-skin carcasses had lower numbers (P < 0.05) than yellow-skin carcasses. Among 13 different Salmonella serovars identified, Paratyphi B (34.8%) was most prevalent, followed by Heidelberg (16.3%) and Derby (11.6%). Of all the Salmonella isolates, 59.2% were resistant to one to three antibiotics and 13.6% to four or more antibiotics. Among all the serovars obtained, Salmonella Paratyphi B and Heidelberg were the most resistant to the antibiotics tested. Salmonella levels and antibiotic resistant profiles among isolates from raw poultry at the retail market level were high relative to other reports from North and South America. These data can be used by Guatemalan stakeholders to develop risk assessment models and support further research opportunities to control transmission of Salmonella spp. and

  16. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  17. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  18. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  19. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  20. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  1. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain. PMID:27341034

  2. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain. PMID:27341034

  3. Veterinary involvement in poultry production.

    PubMed

    Parker, Daniel

    2016-01-16

    The worldwide poultry sector is expected to grow substantially over the next few decades, as the world looks to feed a rapidly expanding population. In a further article in Veterinary Record's series looking at the state of different sectors of the veterinary profession, Daniel Parker looks at veterinary involvement in the poultry sector. PMID:26769809

  4. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. (a) Nutrition labeling must be provided for all poultry products intended...

  5. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. (a) Nutrition labeling must be provided for all poultry products intended...

  6. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be provided for all poultry products...

  7. Co-selection may explain high rates of ciprofloxacin non-susceptible Escherichia coli from retail poultry reared without prior fluoroquinolone exposure.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Paul Robert; Rogers, Benjamin A; Sidjabat, Hanna E; Gibson, Justine S; Inglis, Timothy J J

    2013-11-01

    Australia has never permitted fluoroquinolone use in food-producing animals. We examined local retail poultry for contamination with fluoroquinolone non-susceptible Escherichia coli, then explored the hypothesis that their presence may be due to co-selection of resistance determinants. Between August and November 2010, samples from 30 locally produced, uncooked retail poultry carcasses from four different processing centres underwent selective enrichment culture for ciprofloxacin non-susceptible E. coli. Their chromosomal- and plasmid-mediated resistance determinants were characterized, and phylogenetic analysis and transformation experiments were performed. Unexpectedly, we found nine (30 %) of our small collection of poultry samples carried fluoroquinolone non-susceptible E. coli of which nearly half possessed aac(6')-Ib-cr, a novel plasmid-mediated gene encoding an aminoglycoside acetylating enzyme that also confers fluoroquinolone resistance. All nine isolates were co-resistant to amoxicillin, gentamicin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole--all antibiotic classes that are registered for use in poultry reared for food production within Australia. Their unique phylogenetic relatedness suggested clonal dissemination driven by non-fluoroquinolone selective pressures. aac(6')-Ib-cr was successfully transformed and selected for using non-fluoroquinolone antibiotic pressure. Vertical and perhaps horizontal co-selection may be contributing to the emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in poultry and could play a similar role in the human setting. This suggests that preservation of the usefulness of fluoroquinolones may require more than just restriction of their use in isolation from other interventions. PMID:24136884

  8. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry breakfast strips. 381.150 Section 381.150... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Entry of Articles Into Official Establishments;...

  9. Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Karre, Liz; Lopez, Keyla; Getty, Kelly J K

    2013-06-01

    In response to recent claims that synthetic antioxidants have the potential to cause toxicological effects and consumers' increased interest in purchasing natural products, the meat and poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants. Due to their high phenolic compound content, fruits and other plant materials provide a good alternative to conventional antioxidants. Plum, grape seed extract, cranberry, pomegranate, bearberry, pine bark extract, rosemary, oregano, and other spices functions as antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Pomegranate, pine bark extract, cinnamon, and cloves have exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than some synthetic options. Plum products, grape seed extract, pine bark extract, rosemary, and some spices all have been shown to affect the color of finished meat or poultry products; however, in some products such as pork sausage or uncured meats, an increase in red color may be desired. When selecting a natural antioxidant, sensory and quality impact on the product should be considered to achieve desired traits. PMID:23501254

  10. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  11. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  12. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  13. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  14. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  15. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. in Oklahoma Conventional and Organic Retail Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter is one of the most important foodborne pathogens that cause bacterial gastroenteritis.This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in conventional and organic retail poultry samples purchased from grocery stores in Tulsa, Oklahoma.One hundred and fifty six chilled retail chicken samples (85 conventional and 71 organic) and 65 chilled retail conventional turkey samples were collected in this study. The prevalence of Campylobacter in the conventional chicken samples 32/85 (38%) was higher than in the organic ones 21/71 (30%). The prevalence of Campylobacter in the conventional turkey samples was 11/65 (17%). Of the 53 positive chicken samples, 42 were C. jejuni, 8 were C. coli and three isolates were contaminated with both species. Of the 11 positive turkey samples, 8 contained C. jejuni and 3 harbored C. coli isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility of one hundred and forty nine recovered Campylobacter isolates (130 chickens and 19 turkeys) towards sixteen antimicrobials was determined. The majority of the recovered turkey isolates (13/19) showed resistance to more than 7 antimicrobials while most of the recovered chicken ones (82/130) were resistant to 5 to 7 antimicrobials. Multidrug resistance was not limited to isolates from conventional sources but was also available in isolates of an organic background and was generally lower in C. jejuni isolates when compared to the C. coli ones. PMID:25408778

  16. Molecular characterization of Salmonella paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Byrne, Barbara A; Hume, Michael; León, Maribel; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Enriqué; Vives Flores, Martha J; Clavijo, Viviana; Holguin, Ángela; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan J; Castellanos, Ricardo; Tafur, McAllister; Smith, Woutrina A

    2015-04-01

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are pathogens of public health importance that are frequently isolated from poultry. As a step toward implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance, this study characterized molecular patterns of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from poultry farms, fecal samples, and retail chicken meat using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relationship among isolates and to determine potential geographically predominant genotypes. Based on PFGE analysis, both serovars exhibited high heterogeneity: the chromosomal DNA fingerprints of 82 Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ isolates revealed 42 PFGE patterns, whereas the 21 isolates of Salmonella Heidelberg revealed 10 patterns. Similar genotypes of both serovars were demonstrated to be present on farms and in retail outlets. For Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+, closely genetically related strains were found among isolates coming from different farms and different integrated poultry companies within two departments (Santander and Cundinamarca) and also from farms located in the two geographically distant departments. For Salmonella Heidelberg, there were fewer farms with genetically related isolates than for Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+. A possible dissemination of similar genotypes of both serovars along the poultry production chain is hypothesized, and some facilitating factors existing in Colombia are reviewed. PMID:25836408

  17. Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Viruses in Chickens in Retail Poultry Shops, Pakistan, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Angot, Angélique; Rashid, Hamad B.; Cattoli, Giovanni; Hussain, Manzoor; Trovò, Giulia; Drago, Alessandra; Valastro, Viviana; Thrusfield, Michael; Welburn, Sue; Eisler, Mark C.; Capua, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of influenza viruses collected during December 2009–February 2010 from chickens in live poultry retail shops in Lahore, Pakistan, showed influenza A(H9N2) lineage polymerase and nonstructural genes generate through inter- and intrasubtypic reassortments. Many amino acid signatures observed were characteristic of human isolates; hence, their circulation could enhance inter- or intrasubtypic reassortment. PMID:25811830

  18. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for...

  19. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for...

  20. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for...

  1. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for...

  2. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for...

  3. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 82165, Dec. 29, 2010. (a)...

  4. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers §...

  5. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned...

  6. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers §...

  7. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned...

  8. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned...

  9. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers §...

  10. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned...

  11. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers §...

  12. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned...

  13. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers §...

  14. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain...

  15. Strategies to control Salmonella and Campylobacter in raw poultry products.

    PubMed

    White, P L; Baker, A R; James, W O

    1997-08-01

    Foodborne illness is a major public health concern. The largest number of foodborne illness cases attributed to poultry and poultry products are caused by paratyphoid serotypes of Salmonella and by Campylobacter jejuni. The effective prevention of foodborne disease requires an understanding that contamination can be introduced into foods at numerous points along the food chain. Since multiple entry points exist for foodborne pathogens, multifaceted intervention approaches are required to successfully control contamination of poultry during the various phases of the growth period and processing procedure of broiler chickens. Strategies during the grow-out period (the period during which day-old chicks are raised to six- to seven-week-old broiler chickens) include sanitation, biosecurity, vaccine and drug therapy, and biological control procedures, such as those aimed at preventing colonisation. There are also many critical control points identified in the processing plant which reduce contamination. These include temperature controls (washer and product), chemical interventions, water replacements and counter-flow technology in the scalder and chiller, and equipment maintenance. Transportation and food handling at retail outlets and by the consumer (i.e., storage at the proper temperature and adequate cooking) are the final critical control points in the farm-to-table continuum. It is important to apply risk reduction strategies throughout the food chain. These include: easing the development and implementation of voluntary animal production 'best management practices', implementing in-plant hazard analysis and critical control point systems, developing effective transportation and refrigeration standards, working to facilitate adoption of the model Food Code in all States and providing educational materials and support for public health activities nationwide. PMID:9501366

  16. The Establishment of the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS): A Pilot Project on Poultry Farms, Slaughterhouses and Retail Market.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, P; Castellanos, R; León, M; Arevalo, A; Clavijo, V; Bernal, J; León, D; Tafur, M A; Byrne, B A; Smith, W A; Perez-Gutierrez, E

    2015-04-01

    The development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria (AMR) is currently one of the world's most pressing public health problems. The use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals has resulted in AMR which has narrowed the potential use of antibiotics for the treatment of infections in humans. To monitor AMR and to develop control measures, some countries, such as the USA, Canada and Denmark, have established national integrated surveillance systems (FDA, , CIPARS, 2007, DANMAP,2002). The components of these programs monitor changes in susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobial agents of selected zoonotic pathogens and commensal organisms recovered from animals, retail meats and humans. The rapid development of Colombia's animal production industry has raised food safety issues including the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The Colombian Integrated Surveillance Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (COIPARS) was established as a pilot project to monitor AMR on poultry farms, slaughter houses and retail markets. PMID:25903494

  17. Record of Some Chemical Residues in Poultry Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadelman, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    How pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals might get into poultry meat or eggs is reviewed. Several case studies where chemicals were found in poultry products are discussed. It can be concluded that the poultry industry is striving and generally succeeding in producing safe and nutritious meat and eggs. (Author/EB)

  18. The effects of retail concentration on retail dairy product prices in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hovhannisyan, V; Bozic, M

    2016-06-01

    This study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between grocery retail concentration and retail dairy product prices in the United States. The analysis was performed based on a unique data set on store-level retail prices provided by the Information Resources Inc. Further, alternative measures of retail concentration were considered, which included revenue and store selling space-based Herfindahl-Hirschman Index that were computed based on a Nielsen TDLinx data set on store characteristics. Results from a reduced-form empirical framework estimated via panel data techniques indicated that grocery retail concentration had a positive statistically significant effect on retail dairy product prices in the analyzed locations during the analyzed period of time. Specifically, a 10% increase in concentration was found to lead to a 0.46% rise in retail dairy product prices. This central result was robust to the way in which retail concentration was measured and was consistent with broader empirical evidence in the literature on retail market power. PMID:27060827

  19. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... United States in accordance with 9 CFR 381.196. (b) If processed, the poultry meat or other poultry... accompanying the poultry meat or other poultry products (required by 9 CFR 381.197) includes statements... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  20. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... United States in accordance with 9 CFR 381.196. (b) If processed, the poultry meat or other poultry... accompanying the poultry meat or other poultry products (required by 9 CFR 381.197) includes statements... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  1. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States in accordance with 9 CFR 381.196. (b) If processed, the poultry meat or other poultry... accompanying the poultry meat or other poultry products (required by 9 CFR 381.197) includes statements... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  2. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... United States in accordance with 9 CFR 381.196. (b) If processed, the poultry meat or other poultry... accompanying the poultry meat or other poultry products (required by 9 CFR 381.197) includes statements... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  3. Studies on the drug resistance profile of Enterococcus faecium distributed from poultry retailers to hospitals.

    PubMed

    Limayem, Alya; Donofrio, Robert Scott; Zhang, Chao; Haller, Edward; Johnson, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    The multidrug resistant Enterococcus faecium (MEF) strains originating from farm animals are proliferating at a substantial pace to impact downstream food chains and could reach hospitals. This study was conducted to elucidate the drug susceptibility profile of MEF strains collected from poultry products in Ann Arbor, MI area and clinical settings from Michigan State Lab and Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) in Florida. Presumptive positive Enterococcus isolates at species level were identified by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis. The antibiotic susceptibility profile for both poultry and clinical strains was determined by the Thermo Scientific's Sensititre conform to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) and validated via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods. Out of 50 poultry samples (Turkey: n = 30; Chicken: n = 20), 36 samples were positive for Enterococcus species from which 20.83% were identified as E. faecium. All the E. faecium isolates were multidrug resistant and displayed resistance to the last alternative drug, quinupristin/dalfopristin (QD) used to treat vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE) in hospitals. Results indicate the presence of MEF strains in food animals and clinical settings that are also resistant to QD. PMID:26357893

  4. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition... was delayed until Mar. 1, 2012, at 76 FR 76890, Dec. 9, 2011. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be...

  5. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products. 70.13 Section 70.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading...

  6. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products. 70.13 Section 70.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading...

  7. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products. 70.13 Section 70.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading...

  8. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products. 70.13 Section 70.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading...

  9. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products. 70.13 Section 70.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading...

  10. Control strategies against Campylobacter at the poultry production level: biosecurity measures, feed additives and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Meunier, M; Guyard-Nicodème, M; Dory, D; Chemaly, M

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union, and ranks second in the United States only behind salmonellosis. In Europe, there are about nine million cases of campylobacteriosis every year, making the disease a major public health issue. Human cases are mainly caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The main source of contamination is handling or consumption of poultry meat. Poultry constitutes the main reservoir of Campylobacter, substantial quantities of which are found in the intestines following rapid, intense colonization. Reducing Campylobacter levels in the poultry chain would decrease the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. As primary production is a crucial step in Campylobacter poultry contamination, controlling the infection at this level could impact the following links along the food chain (slaughter, retail and consumption). This review describes the control strategies implemented during the past few decades in primary poultry production, including the most recent studies. In fact, the implementation of biosecurity and hygiene measures is described, as well as the immune strategy with passive immunization and vaccination trials and the nutritional strategy with the administration of organic and fatty acids, essential oil and plant-derived compound, probiotics, bacteriocins and bacteriophages. PMID:26541243

  11. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exemption from definition of âpoultry productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain...

  12. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption from definition of âpoultry productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain...

  13. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exemption from definition of âpoultry productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain...

  14. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exemption from definition of âpoultry productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain...

  15. Analysis of process water use in poultry meat production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry processing facilities use large quantities of water for chiller unit operations. The chiller is critical for temperature reduction to inhibit microbial growth and preserve product quality and safety. Process water quality can also influence product safety when bacteria present on poultry sk...

  16. Prevalence, concentrations, and antibiotic sensitivities of Salmonella serovars in poultry from retail establishments in Seattle, Washington.

    PubMed

    Mazengia, E; Samadpour, M; Hill, H W; Greeson, K; Tenney, K; Liao, G; Huang, X; Meschke, J S

    2014-06-01

    Poultry have been identified as one of the major sources of salmonellosis, with estimates ranging from 10 to 22% of total cases. Despite several advances in the industry and new performance standards, the incidence of salmonellosis in the population has not declined over the last 15 years. Salmonella is pervasive in a wide variety of foods, and thus, estimating its burden resulting from specific food categories has been challenging and plagued with uncertainty due to critical data gaps. The objective of this study was to conduct a year-long market survey (1,322 samples) to help bridge the data gaps on the contamination rates and levels of Salmonella on raw poultry by product type (i.e., breast, thighs, drums, wings, and split breast) and production method (conventional versus organic). The isolates recovered were serotyped and tested for antibiotic sensitivities. A PCR method was utilized for initial screening of samples after an overnight enrichment in tryptic soy broth. Three-tube most-probable-number (MPN) assays and anti-Salmonella immunomagnetic separation methods were utilized to determine the levels of Salmonella and aid with the recovery of Salmonella species, respectively. Eleven percent of the samples were positive for Salmonella. Significant differences in percent positive rates by product type included up to a 4-fold difference in percent positive rates between establishments, ranging from 7 to 31%. Of the samples positive for Salmonella species, 94% had <30 MPN/100 g. Production methods identified as organic or as not using antibiotics had significantly higher rates of recovery of Salmonella. On the other hand, all of the Salmonella isolates that were resistant to two or more antibiotics originated from conventional processing establishments where antibiotics were utilized. In addition, a significant proportion of isolates from conventionally processed products were serotypes clinically relevant to humans. PMID:24853509

  17. 9 CFR 381.201 - Means of conveyance and equipment used in handling poultry products offered for entry to be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in handling poultry products offered for entry to be maintained in sanitary condition. 381.201... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products §...

  18. 9 CFR 381.201 - Means of conveyance and equipment used in handling poultry products offered for entry to be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in handling poultry products offered for entry to be maintained in sanitary condition. 381.201... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products §...

  19. 9 CFR 381.201 - Means of conveyance and equipment used in handling poultry products offered for entry to be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in handling poultry products offered for entry to be maintained in sanitary condition. 381.201... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products §...

  20. 9 CFR 381.201 - Means of conveyance and equipment used in handling poultry products offered for entry to be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in handling poultry products offered for entry to be maintained in sanitary condition. 381.201... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products §...

  1. 9 CFR 381.201 - Means of conveyance and equipment used in handling poultry products offered for entry to be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in handling poultry products offered for entry to be maintained in sanitary condition. 381.201... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products §...

  2. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... other poultry products to the United States in accordance with 9 CFR 381.196. (b) If processed, the... certificate accompanying the poultry meat or other poultry products (required by 9 CFR 381.197) includes... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND...

  3. Bioflims in the poultry production and processing environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter conveys the importance of biofilm study in the environment of the poultry production and processing industires. Implications for food safety and security are established for sites of occurrences and causes of biofilm formation in poultry environments. Regulations and testing methods th...

  4. Detection of Bacillus cereus on selected retail chicken products.

    PubMed

    Smith, D P; Berrang, M E; Feldner, P W; Phillips, R W; Meinersmann, R J

    2004-08-01

    Samples from five chicken meat products, obtained at retail stores, were evaluated for the presence of Bacillus cereus. The products tested were as follows: breaded, fully cooked, frozen nuggets (NUGGETS); breaded, fully cooked, frozen tenders (TENDERS); fully cooked, frozen, white-meat fajita-style strips (STRIPS); raw, refrigerated, boneless, skinless, marinated breast fillets (FILLETS); and raw, refrigerated, cut-up, tray-pack bone-in parts (PARTS), either split breasts or thighs. Four packages of each item were obtained on three different days (n = 60). Frozen and refrigerated products were held overnight in their respective environments as appropriate; then packages were opened aseptically, and a total of 25 g of tissue was excised from multiple pieces within a package. The 25-g samples were enriched in 225 ml of Trypticase soy-polymixin broth for 18 to 24 h at 30 degrees C and then plated on mannitol-egg yolk-polymixin agar and incubated for 18 to 24 h at 30 degrees C. Colonies characteristic of B. cereus were chosen and replated for isolation on mannitol-egg yolk-polymixin agar. Suspect colonies were confirmed as Bacillus spp. by Gram stain, hemolysis on blood agar, and a biochemical test strip. Isolates were further confirmed as B. cereus using Bacteriological Analytical Manual procedures, including tests for motility, rhizoid growth, hemolysis, and protein toxin crystal production. B. cereus was detected in 27 of 60 total samples. By product, the prevalence levels were as follows: NUGGETS, 11 of 12 positive; TENDERS, 8 of 12 positive; STRIPS, 6 of 12 positive; FILLETS, 0 of 12 positive; and PARTS, 2 of 12 positive. Isolates were tested by PCR for presence of the toxin-encoding genes bceT, nheABC, hblACD, and cytK. Results indicate that B. cereus organisms were present on four of the five retail poultry products tested in this study, with the highest rates reported for the three fully cooked items, especially the two breaded products. All strains isolated

  5. Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is increasing among clinical Campylobacter cases and is common among isolates from other sources, specifically retail poultry - a major source of human infection. In this study the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates from a UK-wide survey of Campylobacter in retail poultry in 2001 and 2004–5 was investigated. The occurrence of phenotypes resistant to tetracycline, quinolones (ciprofloxacin and naladixic acid), erythromycin, chloramphenicol and aminoglycosides was quantified. This was compared with a phylogeny for these isolates based upon Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) to investigate the pattern of antimicrobial resistance acquisition. Results Antimicrobial resistance was present in all lineage clusters, but statistical testing showed a non-random distribution. Erythromycin resistance was associated with Campylobacter coli. For all antimicrobials tested, resistant isolates were distributed among relatively distant lineages indicative of widespread acquisition. There was also evidence of clustering of resistance phenotypes within lineages; indicative of local expansion of resistant strains. Conclusions These results are consistent with the widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among chicken associated Campylobacter isolates, either through mutation or horizontal gene transfer, and the expansion of these lineages as a proportion of the population. As Campylobacter are not known to multiply outside of the host and long-term carriage in humans is extremely infrequent in industrialized countries, the most likely location for the proliferation of resistant lineages is in farmed chickens. PMID:23855904

  6. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... poultry products required to be labeled. 381.115 Section 381.115 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.115 Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required...

  7. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry products required to be labeled. 381.115 Section 381.115 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.115 Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required...

  8. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... poultry products required to be labeled. 381.115 Section 381.115 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.115 Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required...

  9. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry products required to be labeled. 381.115 Section 381.115 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.115 Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required...

  10. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... poultry products required to be labeled. 381.115 Section 381.115 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.115 Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required...

  11. Salmonella prevalence in poultry varies greatly in emerging markets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry meat continues to be a significant source for human salmonellosis worldwide. Retail establishments serve as an end point sale for raw and processed poultry products. Food safety surveillance systems for raw poultry have been carried out mainly at the processing plants. That being said, it is...

  12. Toward retail product recognition on grocery shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varol, Gül; Kuzu, Rıdvan S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of retail product recognition on grocery shelf images. We present a technique for accomplishing this task with a low time complexity. We decompose the problem into detection and recognition. The former is achieved by a generic product detection module which is trained on a specific class of products (e.g. tobacco packages). Cascade object detection framework of Viola and Jones [1] is used for this purpose. We further make use of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to recognize the brand inside each detected region. We extract both shape and color information; and apply feature-level fusion from two separate descriptors computed with the bag of words approach. Furthermore, we introduce a dataset (available on request) that we have collected for similar research purposes. Results are presented on this dataset of more than 5,000 images consisting of 10 tobacco brands. We show that satisfactory detection and classification can be achieved on devices with cheap computational power. Potential applications of the proposed approach include planogram compliance control, inventory management and assisting visually impaired people during shopping.

  13. Impact of avian influenza on village poultry production globally.

    PubMed

    Alders, Robyn; Awuni, Joseph Adongo; Bagnol, Brigitte; Farrell, Penny; de Haan, Nicolene

    2014-01-01

    Village poultry and their owners were frequently implicated in disease transmission in the early days of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 pandemic. With improved understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, it was recognized that village poultry raised under extensive conditions pose less of a threat than intensively raised poultry of homogeneous genetic stock with poor biosecurity. This paper provides an overview of village poultry production and the multiple ways that the HPAI H5N1 pandemic has impacted on village poultry, their owners, and the traders whose livelihoods are intimately linked to these birds. It reviews impact in terms of gender and cultural issues; food security; village poultry value chains; approaches to biosecurity; marketing; poultry disease prevention and control; compensation; genetic diversity; poultry as part of livelihood strategies; and effective communication. It concludes on a positive note that there is growing awareness amongst animal health providers of the importance of facilitating culturally sensitive dialogue to develop HPAI prevention and control options. PMID:24136383

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Multiantibiotic-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Strains (2865, 2868, and 2871) Isolated from Poultry at Retail Outlets in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Amy Huei Teen; Lee, Sui Mae

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a frequent cause of human bacterial gastrointestinal foodborne disease worldwide. Antibiotic resistance in this species is of public health concern. The draft genome sequences of three multiantibiotic-resistant C. jejuni strains (2865, 2868, and 2871) isolated from poultry at retail outlets in Malaysia are presented here. PMID:27151799

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Multiantibiotic-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Strains (2865, 2868, and 2871) Isolated from Poultry at Retail Outlets in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Teh, Amy Huei Teen; Lee, Sui Mae; Dykes, Gary A

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a frequent cause of human bacterial gastrointestinal foodborne disease worldwide. Antibiotic resistance in this species is of public health concern. The draft genome sequences of three multiantibiotic-resistant C. jejuni strains (2865, 2868, and 2871) isolated from poultry at retail outlets in Malaysia are presented here. PMID:27151799

  16. Botanical alternatives to antibiotics for use in organic poultry production.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; D'Souza, Doris; Biswas, Debrabrata; Hanning, Irene

    2015-06-01

    The development of antibiotic resistant pathogens has resulted from the use of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics delivered in poultry feed. Furthermore, there are a number of consumer concerns regarding the use of antibiotics in food animals including residue contamination of poultry products and antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. These issues have resulted in recommendations to reduce the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock in the United States. Unlike conventional production, organic systems are not permitted to use antibiotics. Thus, both conventional and organic poultry production need alternative methods to improve growth and performance of poultry. Herbs, spices, and various other plant extracts are being evaluated as alternatives to antibiotics and some do have growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health-related benefits. This review aims to provide an overview of herbs, spices, and plant extracts, currently defined as phytobiotics as potential feed additives. PMID:25743421

  17. Microbiological Spoilage of Meat and Poultry Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerveny, John; Meyer, Joseph D.; Hall, Paul A.

    Humankind has consumed animal protein since the dawn of its existence. The archaeological record shows evidence of animal protein consumption as early as 12,500 BC (Mann, 2005). Raw meat and poultry are highly perishable commodities subject to various types of spoilage depending on handling and storage conditions. Because of this high potential for spoilage, the historical record reveals that early civilizations used techniques such as salting, smoking, and drying to preserve meat (Mack, 2001; Bailey, 1986). Today, more than ever, because of the globalization of the food supply, and increasing demands from exacting consumers, the control of meat and poultry spoilage is essential.

  18. Small Business Apparel Retailing in Jamaica: An Exploratory Investigation into Product Development Processes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Leslie, Natalie; Gaskill, LuAnn R.

    2006-01-01

    While the process and practices of retail product development in developed countries have been documented, a void exists in descriptive analysis regarding retail product development in an international setting. The primary purpose of this study was to explore small business apparel retailing, and specifically the retail product development process…

  19. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  20. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  1. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  2. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  3. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  4. 9 CFR 381.205 - Labeling of immediate containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... poultry products offered for entry. 381.205 Section 381.205 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  5. 9 CFR 381.169 - Ready-to-cook poultry products to which solutions are added.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry products to... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  6. 9 CFR 381.187 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of poultry products. 381.187 Section 381.187 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  7. 9 CFR 381.408 - Labeling of poultry products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of poultry products with... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  8. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  9. 9 CFR 381.148 - Processing and handling requirements for frozen poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for frozen poultry products. 381.148 Section 381.148 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  10. 9 CFR 381.206 - Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... poultry products offered for entry. 381.206 Section 381.206 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  11. 9 CFR 381.408 - Labeling of poultry products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of poultry products with... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  12. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  13. 9 CFR 381.408 - Labeling of poultry products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of poultry products with... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  14. 9 CFR 381.169 - Ready-to-cook poultry products to which solutions are added.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry products to... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  15. 9 CFR 381.408 - Labeling of poultry products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of poultry products with... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  16. 9 CFR 381.206 - Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry products offered for entry. 381.206 Section 381.206 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  17. 9 CFR 381.148 - Processing and handling requirements for frozen poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for frozen poultry products. 381.148 Section 381.148 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  18. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  19. 9 CFR 381.205 - Labeling of immediate containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry products offered for entry. 381.205 Section 381.205 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  20. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  1. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  2. 9 CFR 381.148 - Processing and handling requirements for frozen poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for frozen poultry products. 381.148 Section 381.148 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  3. 9 CFR 381.187 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of poultry products. 381.187 Section 381.187 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  4. 9 CFR 381.169 - Ready-to-cook poultry products to which solutions are added.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry products to... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  5. 9 CFR 381.408 - Labeling of poultry products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of poultry products with... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  6. 9 CFR 381.206 - Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... poultry products offered for entry. 381.206 Section 381.206 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  7. 9 CFR 381.205 - Labeling of immediate containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... poultry products offered for entry. 381.205 Section 381.205 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  8. 9 CFR 381.206 - Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry products offered for entry. 381.206 Section 381.206 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  9. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  10. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  11. 9 CFR 381.206 - Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... poultry products offered for entry. 381.206 Section 381.206 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  12. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  13. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  14. 9 CFR 381.205 - Labeling of immediate containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... poultry products offered for entry. 381.205 Section 381.205 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  15. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  16. 9 CFR 381.205 - Labeling of immediate containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry products offered for entry. 381.205 Section 381.205 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  17. 9 CFR 381.148 - Processing and handling requirements for frozen poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for frozen poultry products. 381.148 Section 381.148 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  18. 9 CFR 381.187 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of poultry products. 381.187 Section 381.187 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  19. 9 CFR 381.148 - Processing and handling requirements for frozen poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for frozen poultry products. 381.148 Section 381.148 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  20. How can we improve the environmental sustainability of poultry production?

    PubMed

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-01

    The review presents results of recent life cycle assessment studies aiming to quantify and improve the environmental performance of UK poultry production systems, including broiler meat, egg and turkey meat production. Although poultry production has been found to be relatively environmentally friendly compared with the production of other livestock commodities, it still contributes to environmental impacts, such as global warming, eutrophication and acidification. Amongst different sub-processes, feed production and transport contributes about 70 % to the global warming potential of poultry systems, whereas manure management contributes about 40-60 % to their eutrophication potential and acidification potential, respectively. All these impacts can be reduced by improving the feed efficiency, either by changing the birds through genetic selection or by making the feed more digestible (e.g. by using additives such as enzymes). However, although genetic selection has the potential to reduce the resources needed for broiler production (including feed consumption), the changing need of certain feed ingredients, most notably protein sources as a result of changes in bird requirements may limit the benefits of this strategy. The use of alternative feed ingredients, such as locally grown protein crops and agricultural by-products, as a replacement of South American grown soya, can potentially also lead to improvements in several environmental impact categories, as long as such feeding strategies have no negative effect on bird performance. Other management options, such as improving poultry housing and new strategies for manure management have also the potential to further improve the environmental sustainability of the poultry industries in Europe. PMID:26935025

  1. Child Nutrition Labeling for Meat and Poultry Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Cheryl; And Others

    Prepared for food manufacturers, this publication contains instructions for calculating the contribution that a meat or poultry product makes toward the meal pattern requirements of child nutrition programs. It also contains instructions on how to apply for and obtain the approval for a label containing a child nutrition statement. These…

  2. Women and family poultry production in rural Africa.

    PubMed

    Gueye, E H

    2000-02-01

    Poultry production has existed for many generations in Africa, and almost every village household keeps chickens. The rural family poultry (RFP) are generally raised in free-range and/or backyard systems, which are traditional extensive husbandry systems. The development of an intensive poultry production has been the goal of the African government over the years. Despite efforts aiming for such goal, RFP is still very important in African countries that are both poor and net importers of food. It is a valuable asset because it can contribute significantly in alleviating poverty, securing food supply, and promoting gender equality. In view of this, interventions to improve RFP production systems should take into account the sociocultural issues, specifically gender-based aspects. It is noted that such interventions might, in addition to food security and poverty alleviation, also serve to promote gender equality. RFP development programs should be more women-friendly in order to facilitate women's participation, as RFP production in the region is generally a woman's business. Moreover, efforts to empower village women has to be envisaged cautiously as there is a serious risk of men taking over once the poultry sector becomes more profitable. PMID:12295964

  3. 76 FR 81360 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ..., ``Cooperative Inspection Programs; Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products'' (76 FR 24714). The final... Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... small State-inspected establishments will be eligible to ship meat and poultry products in...

  4. Probiotics as Natural Solutions to Enteric Pathogens with Organic Production Implications in Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic poultry production has unique challenges; the lack of consistently effective treatments for enteric diseases can adversely influence bird health and the wholesomeness of poultry products. Drugs are not permitted in organic poultry production and mortality is often higher than conventional p...

  5. Isolation, Virulence, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) Strains from Oklahoma Retail Poultry Meats

    PubMed Central

    Abdalrahman, Lubna S.; Stanley, Adriana; Wells, Harrington; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one the top five pathogens causing domestically acquired foodborne illness in the U.S. Only a few studies are available related to the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in the U.S. retail poultry industry. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA) in retail chicken and turkey meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their antimicrobial resistance and possession of toxin genes. A total of 167 (114 chicken and 53 turkey) retail poultry samples were used in this study. The chicken samples included 61 organic samples while the rest of the poultry samples were conventional. The overall prevalence of S. aureus was 57/106 (53.8%) in the conventional poultry samples and 25/61 (41%) in the organic ones. Prevalence in the turkey samples (64.2%) was higher than in the chicken ones (42.1%). Prevalence of S. aureus did not vary much between conventional (43.4%) and organic chicken samples (41%). Two chicken samples 2/114 (1.8%) were positive for MRSA. PFGE identified the two MRSA isolates as belonging to PFGE type USA300 (from conventional chicken) and USA 500 (from organic chicken) which are community acquired CA-MRSA suggesting a human based source of contamination. MLST and spa typing also supported this conclusion. A total of 168 Staphylococcus aureus isolates (101 chicken isolates and 67 turkey isolates) were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was higher in the turkey isolates compared to the chicken ones and the percentage of resistance to most of the antimicrobials tested was also higher among the turkey isolates. The hemolysin hla and hld genes, enterotoxins seg and sei, and leucocidins lukE-lukD were more prevalent in the chicken isolates. The PVL gene lukS-lukF was detected only in chicken isolates including the MRSA ones. In conclusion, S. aureus is

  6. Nutrient flows for poultry production in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    De Boer, I J; Van Der Togt, P L; Grossman, M; Kwakkel, R P

    2000-02-01

    Government targets for ammonia emission and for N and P loss per hectare (ha) of agricultural land were used to assess carrying capacity for poultry production in The Netherlands with data from 1990. In addition, the effect of alternative management strategies on carrying capacity was determined. Ammonia emission from poultry production in 1990 [20.5 gigagrams (Gg) N] exceeded the target for 2000 (i.e., 6.9 Gg N). Targets defined for 2000 and 2010 (i.e., 4.6 Gg N) can be achieved, however, without reducing poultry numbers, assuming national introduction of measurements studied. Measures that reduced ammonia emission directly, i.e., introduction of low-emission housing or manure application techniques, were most effective. In 1990, N and P losses equalled 215 kg/ha for N and 31 kg/ha for P. The N loss was slightly lower than the target for 2000 (219 kg N/ha) but exceeded the target for 2010 (144 kg N/ha). Reduction of application of artificial N fertilizer, however, reduced N loss effectively from 215 to 22 kg/ha. National P loss in 1990 exceeded the target for 2000 (15.3 kg P/ha). Reduction of application of artificial P fertilizer reduced P loss most effectively from 31 to 14 kg/ha. To achieve the target for 2010 (8.7 kg P/ha), additional reduction in P excretion by poultry is required. This reduction can be achieved by use of phytase in layer and broiler feed and by use of a coarse Ca source in layer feed. Unlike pig production, carrying capacity for poultry production in The Netherlands is not limited by governmental targets for acidification, eutrophication, or drinking water contamination. PMID:10735744

  7. Eugenol wash and chitosan based coating reduces Campylobacter jejuni counts on poultry products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter, a leading cause of foodborne illness globally in humans, is strongly associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Unfortunately, current strategies to reduce Campylobacter counts in poultry have had limited success. Our study investigated the efficacy of eugenol ...

  8. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  9. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products §...

  10. 9 CFR 381.196 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of poultry products into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... importation of poultry products into the United States. 381.196 Section 381.196 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.196 Eligibility of foreign countries for...

  11. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  12. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products §...

  13. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products §...

  14. 9 CFR 381.196 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of poultry products into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... importation of poultry products into the United States. 381.196 Section 381.196 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.196 Eligibility of foreign countries for...

  15. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products §...

  16. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  17. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  18. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  19. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products §...

  20. 9 CFR 381.196 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of poultry products into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... importation of poultry products into the United States. 381.196 Section 381.196 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.196 Eligibility of foreign countries for...

  1. 9 CFR 381.196 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of poultry products into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... importation of poultry products into the United States. 381.196 Section 381.196 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.196 Eligibility of foreign countries for...

  2. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... all cases, ingredients must be listed on the product label in the ingredients statement in order by weight, ... acid pyrophosphate, or orthophosphates, declared as "phosphates" on labels. PROPYL GALLATE - used as an antioxidant to prevent rancidity in products such as rendered fats or pork sausage. It ...

  3. Speciation of volatile organic compounds from poultry production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; Li, Hong; Burns, Robert; Xin, Hongwei; Hatfield, Jerry

    2010-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from poultry production are leading source of air quality problems. However, little is known about the speciation and levels of VOCs from poultry production. The objective of this study was the speciation of VOCs from a poultry facility using evacuated canisters and sorbent tubes. Samples were taken during active poultry production cycle and between production cycles. Levels of VOCs were highest in areas with birds and the compounds in those areas had a higher percentage of polar compounds (89%) compared to aliphatic hydrocarbons (2.2%). In areas without birds, levels of VOCs were 1/3 those with birds present and compounds had a higher total percentage of aliphatic hydrocarbons (25%). Of the VOCs quantified in this study, no single sampling method was capable of quantifying more than 55% of compounds and in several sections of the building each sampling method quantified less than 50% of the quantifiable VOCs. Key classes of chemicals quantified using evacuated canisters included both alcohols and ketones, while sorbent tube samples included volatile fatty acids and ketones. The top five compounds made up close to 70% of VOCs and included: 1) acetic acid (830.1 μg m -3); 2) 2,3-butanedione (680.6 μg m -3); 3) methanol (195.8 μg m -3); 4) acetone (104.6 μg m -3); and 5) ethanol (101.9 μg m -3). Location variations for top five compounds averaged 49.5% in each section of the building and averaged 87% for the entire building.

  4. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on retail raw poultry in six provinces and two National cities in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Yang, Baowei; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Zengfeng; Meng, Xiaofeng; Xi, Meili; Wang, Xin; Xia, Xiaodong; Shi, Xianming; Wang, Dapeng; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-04-01

    One hundred and twenty six Salmonella Enteritidis isolates recovered from 1152 retail raw poultries were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility test, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), presence of quinolone resistance (Qnr) associated genes, Class I integron, extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) encoding genes, and mutations in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of GyrA and ParC. Resistance was most frequently found to nalidixic acid (88.1%), followed by to tetracycline (65.9%), sulfisoxazole (65.1%), and ampicillin (61.9%), and a less extent to cefoxitin (8.7%), gatifloxacin (8.7%), levofloxacin (7.9%), ceftriaxone (7.1%), and ceftiofur (6.3%). One hundred and twenty three (98.4%) isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 93 (74.4%) to at least four antibiotics. aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrB, qnrA and qnrS genes were detected in 15 (11.9%), 11 (8.7%), 6 (4.8%) and 1 (0.8%) isolates, respectively. Amino acid substitutions of Ser83Tyr, Asp87Asn, Asp87Tyr, Asp87Gly and Ser83Phe/Asp87Asn were detected in QRDR of GyrA, Arg80Ser was the unique mutation in ParC. Eight isolates were detected with amino acid substitution both in GyrA and ParC. Three isolates carried Class I integron that harboring dfrA17-aadA5, dhfR1-aadA1, and dfrA1, respectively. Five isolates were detected carrying bla(TEM)-bla(ACC) (n = 1), bla(TEM) (n = 1), bla(TEM)-bla(OxA) (n = 3), respectively. Genetic diversities (D = 0.9255) were found among isolates based on PFGE analysis. PMID:25475269

  5. 9 CFR 381.107 - Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to certain countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of poultry products for export to certain countries. 381.107 Section 381.107 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... Procedures § 381.107 Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to...

  6. 9 CFR 381.107 - Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to certain countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of poultry products for export to certain countries. 381.107 Section 381.107 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... Procedures § 381.107 Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to...

  7. 9 CFR 381.107 - Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to certain countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of poultry products for export to certain countries. 381.107 Section 381.107 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... Procedures § 381.107 Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to...

  8. 9 CFR 381.107 - Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to certain countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of poultry products for export to certain countries. 381.107 Section 381.107 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... Procedures § 381.107 Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to...

  9. 9 CFR 381.107 - Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to certain countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of poultry products for export to certain countries. 381.107 Section 381.107 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... Procedures § 381.107 Special procedures as to certification of poultry products for export to...

  10. 9 CFR 381.401 - Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products. 381.401 Section 381.401 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.401 Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products....

  11. 9 CFR 381.401 - Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products. 381.401 Section 381.401 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.401 Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products....

  12. 9 CFR 381.401 - Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products. 381.401 Section 381.401 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.401 Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products....

  13. 9 CFR 381.401 - Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products. 381.401 Section 381.401 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.401 Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped poultry products....

  14. Product differentiation, competition and prices in the retail gasoline industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuszak, Mark David

    This thesis presents a series of studies of the retail gasoline industry using data from Hawaii. This first chapter examines a number of pricing patterns in the data and finds evidence that gasoline stations set prices which are consistent with a number of forms of price discrimination. The second chapter analyzes various patterns of cross-sectional, cross-market and intertemporal variation in the data to investigate their suitability for use in structural econometric estimation. The remainder of the dissertation consists of specification and estimation of a structural model of supply and demand for retail gasoline products sold at individual gasoline stations. This detailed micro-level analysis permits examination of a number of important issues in the industry, most notably the importance of spatial differentiation in the industry. The third chapter estimates the model and computes new equilibria under a number of asymmetric taxation regimes in order to examine the impact of such tax policies on producer and consumer welfare as well as tax revenue. The fourth chapter examines whether there is any evidence of tacitly collusive behavior in the Hawaiian retail gasoline industry and concludes that, in fact, conduct is fairly competitive in this industry and market.

  15. 9 CFR 381.444 - Identification of major cuts of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... poultry products are: Whole chicken (without neck and giblets), chicken breast, chicken wing, chicken drumstick, chicken thigh, whole turkey (without necks and giblets; separate nutrient panels for white...

  16. 9 CFR 381.444 - Identification of major cuts of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry products are: Whole chicken (without neck and giblets), chicken breast, chicken wing, chicken drumstick, chicken thigh, whole turkey (without necks and giblets; separate nutrient panels for white...

  17. 9 CFR 381.444 - Identification of major cuts of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... poultry products are: Whole chicken (without neck and giblets), chicken breast, chicken wing, chicken drumstick, chicken thigh, whole turkey (without necks and giblets; separate nutrient panels for white...

  18. 9 CFR 381.444 - Identification of major cuts of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry products are: Whole chicken (without neck and giblets), chicken breast, chicken wing, chicken drumstick, chicken thigh, whole turkey (without necks and giblets; separate nutrient panels for white...

  19. 9 CFR 381.444 - Identification of major cuts of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... poultry products are: Whole chicken (without neck and giblets), chicken breast, chicken wing, chicken drumstick, chicken thigh, whole turkey (without necks and giblets; separate nutrient panels for white...

  20. Campylobacteriosis: the role of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Skarp, C P A; Hänninen, M-L; Rautelin, H I K

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of human infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the main bacterial agents of gastrointestinal disease, has been increasing worldwide. Here, we review the role of poultry as a source and reservoir for Campylobacter. Contamination and subsequent colonization of broiler flocks at the farm level often lead to transmission of Campylobacter along the poultry production chain and contamination of poultry meat at retail. Yet Campylobacter prevalence in poultry, as well as the contamination level of poultry products, vary greatly between different countries so there are differences in the intervention strategies that need to be applied. Temporal patterns in poultry do not always coincide with those found in human infections. Studies in rural and urban areas have revealed differences in Campylobacter infections attributed to poultry, as poultry seems to be the predominant reservoir in urban, but not necessarily in rural, settings. Furthermore, foreign travel is considered a major risk factor in acquiring the disease, especially for individuals living in the northern European countries. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing Campylobacter colonization in poultry and focused at the farm level have been successful in reducing the number of Campylobacter cases in several countries. Increasing farm biosecurity and education of consumers are likely to limit the risk of infection. Overall, poultry is an important reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis, although the contribution of other sources, reservoirs and transmission warrants more research. PMID:26686808

  1. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives.

    PubMed

    Diarra, Moussa S; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2600 regulated chicken producers who have access to several antibiotics approved as feed additives for poultry. Feed recipes and mixtures vary greatly geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While some reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens) have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno-stimulatory activities. PMID:24987390

  2. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Diarra, Moussa S.; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2600 regulated chicken producers who have access to several antibiotics approved as feed additives for poultry. Feed recipes and mixtures vary greatly geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While some reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens) have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno-stimulatory activities. PMID:24987390

  3. 76 FR 24713 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products,'' 74 FR 47648). FSIS held two public meetings by teleconference on October 27, 2009, and November 4, 2009, to solicit comments on the proposed regulations (74 FR 54493). The..., and 381 Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Product; Final...

  4. Introduction to Poultry Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 31, Number 3 [and] Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Katherine

    This packet contains both teacher and student materials for a unit on poultry production in vocational agriculture courses and covers the following lessons: (1) overview of the poultry industry; (2) selection and evaluation; (3) production; (4) reproduction; (5) health issues; and (6) processing and marketing. The lessons include the following…

  5. Preharvest Salmonella Detection for Evaluation of Fresh Ground Poultry Product Contamination.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nicholas P; Evans, Robert D; Regalado, Jason; Sullivan, Joseph F; Dutta, Vikrant; Elvinger, Francois; Pierson, F William

    2015-07-01

    Salmonella is an important economic and public health concern for the poultry industry. Fresh ground product has been linked with multiple salmonellosis outbreaks in humans. Exposure can be controlled by proper handling and preparation by consumers; however, the industry desires to minimize carriage levels in the final product. A substantial obstacle in reducing product contamination stems from limitations in diagnostic methodologies. Detection of Salmonella contamination currently requires extended incubation periods, and by the time test results are available, the fresh product has reached retail shelves. The goal of this study was to develop a preharvest diagnostic protocol for the evaluation of ground product contamination. The turkey processing plant where this research was conducted had previously established Salmonella screening (BAX system) of ground product, thus providing an opportunity for preharvest sample comparison. Drag swabs were collected from live-haul trailers entering the processing plant over a 12-month period. The swabs were added to modified buffered peptone water and incubated at 40°C. After incubation for 6 h or overnight, samples were tested for the presence of Salmonella with the DNAble assay and related to ground turkey samples from corresponding lots. The linear relationship for the percentage of Salmonella-positive live-haul trailers was significant for both the 6-h (slope = 1.02, R(2) = 0.96, and P < 0.0001) and overnight (slope = 0.35, R(2) = 0.93, and P = 0.0015) incubations, with the percentage of Salmonella-positive ground turkey samples. These data indicate that preharvest screening provides a meaningful evaluation of product contamination. Additionally, the 6-h incubation protocol is rapid enough to allow for product mitigation and could potentially aid in the reduction of future salmonellosis outbreaks. PMID:26197276

  6. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  7. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  8. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  9. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  10. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  11. 9 CFR 381.202 - Poultry products offered for entry; reporting of findings to customs; handling of articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  12. 9 CFR 381.200 - Poultry products offered for entry, retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  13. 9 CFR 381.200 - Poultry products offered for entry, retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  14. 9 CFR 381.200 - Poultry products offered for entry, retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  15. 9 CFR 381.202 - Poultry products offered for entry; reporting of findings to customs; handling of articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  16. 9 CFR 381.202 - Poultry products offered for entry; reporting of findings to customs; handling of articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  17. 9 CFR 381.202 - Poultry products offered for entry; reporting of findings to customs; handling of articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  18. 9 CFR 381.202 - Poultry products offered for entry; reporting of findings to customs; handling of articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  19. 9 CFR 381.200 - Poultry products offered for entry, retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  20. 9 CFR 381.200 - Poultry products offered for entry, retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  1. 77 FR 42016 - Product Change-Every Door Direct Mail-Retail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Product Change--Every Door Direct Mail--Retail AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal... Door Direct Mail--Retail to the market-dominant product list within the Mail Classification...

  2. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  3. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  4. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  5. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  6. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  7. Bio-Product Recovery from Lignocellulosic Materials Derived from Poultry Manure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Pascale; Li, Caijian

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the hydrolysis of lignocellulose extracted from poultry manure for the purpose of investigating low-cost feedstocks for ethanol production while providing an alternative solid waste management strategy for agricultural livestock manures. Poultry manure underwent various pretreatments to enhance subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis…

  8. Extent of Utilizing Electrical Equipment in Poultry Production in Ebonyi State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogba, E. I.; Ogbu, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the extent of utilizing electrical equipment in poultry production in the rural areas of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted for the study. Three research questions guided the study. The population for the study was 46 respondents comprising 16 Extension agents and 30 Poultry farmers.…

  9. Repeated Poultry Litter Application Builds Cotton Soil Productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a bulky mix of mainly chicken manure and bedding materials. It is generated in huge amounts on a continuous basis in the Mid South and southeastern US. This necessitates yearly application to crops as a way of managing the constant supply. Manures including poultry litter applied ...

  10. 9 CFR 95.30 - Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI... THE UNITED STATES § 95.30 Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or...) Products or byproducts, including feathers, birds' nests, and bird trophies, of poultry, game birds,...

  11. 9 CFR 95.30 - Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI... THE UNITED STATES § 95.30 Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or...) Products or byproducts, including feathers, birds' nests, and bird trophies, of poultry, game birds,...

  12. Population Dynamics of Salmonella enterica Serotypes in Commercial Egg and Poultry Production

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Steven L.; Nayak, Rajesh; Hanning, Irene B.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Han, Jing; Ricke, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Fresh and processed poultry have been frequently implicated in cases of human salmonellosis. Furthermore, increased consumption of meat and poultry has increased the potential for exposure to Salmonella enterica. While advances have been made in reducing the prevalence and frequency of Salmonella contamination in processed poultry, there is mounting pressure on commercial growers to prevent and/or eliminate these human pathogens in preharvest production facilities. Several factors contribute to Salmonella colonization in commercial poultry, including the serovar and the infectious dose. In the early 1900s, Salmonella enterica serovars Pullorum and Gallinarum caused widespread diseases in poultry, but vaccination and other voluntary programs helped eradicate pullorum disease and fowl typhoid from commercial flocks. However, the niche created by the eradication of these serovars was likely filled by S. Enteritidis, which proliferated in the bird populations. While this pathogen remains a significant problem in commercial egg and poultry production, its prevalence among poultry has been declining since the 1990s. Coinciding with the decrease of S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg and S. Kentucky have emerged as the predominant serovars in commercial broilers. In this review, we have highlighted bacterial genetic and host-related factors that may contribute to such shifts in Salmonella populations in commercial poultry and intervention strategies that could limit their colonization. PMID:21571882

  13. Adrenergic and noradrenergic regulation of poultry behavior and production.

    PubMed

    Dennis, R L

    2016-07-01

    Norepinephrine and epinephrine (noradrenaline and adrenaline) are integral in maintaining behavioral and physiological homeostasis during both aversive and rewarding events. They regulate the response to stressful stimuli through direct activation of adrenergic receptors in the central and sympathetic nervous systems, hormonal activity and through the interaction of the brain, gut, and microbiome. The multiple functions of these catecholamines work synergistically to prepare an individual for a "fight or flight" response. However, hyper-reactivity of this system can lead to increased fearfulness and aggression, decreased health and productivity, and a reduction in overall well-being. Behaviors, such as aggression and certain fear-related behaviors, are a serious problem in the poultry industry that can lead to injury and cannibalism. For decades, catecholamines have been used as a measure of stress in animals. However, few studies have specifically targeted the adrenergic systems as means to reduce behaviors that are damaging or maladapted to their rearing environments and improve animal well-being. This article attempts to address our current understanding of specific, adrenergic-regulated behaviors that impact chicken well-being and production. PMID:27345328

  14. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in different poultry production systems.

    PubMed

    Permin, A; Bisgaard, M; Frandsen, F; Pearman, M; Kold, J; Nansen, P

    1999-09-01

    A cross-sectional prevalence study of gastrointestinal helminths in Danish poultry production systems was conducted on 268 adult chickens selected at random from 16 farms in Denmark from October 1994 to October 1995. The trachea and the gastrointestinal tract of each bird was examined for the presence of helminths. In the free-range/organic systems the following helminths were found: Ascaridia galli (63.8%), Heterakis gallinarum (72.5%), Capillaria obsignata (53.6%), Capillaria anatis (31.9%) and Capillaria caudinflata (1.5%). In the deep-litter systems: A. galli (41.9%), H. gallinarum (19.4%) and C. obsignata (51.6%). In the battery cages: A. galli (5%) and Raillietina cesticillus or Choanotaenia infundibulum (3.3%). Exact identification of the cestodes was not possible because of missing scolexices. In the broiler/parent system: C. obsignata (1.6%), and finally for the backyard system: A. galli (37.5%) H. gallinarum (68.8%), C. obsignata (50.0%), C. anatis (56.3%) and C. caudinflata (6.3%). The results confirm the higher risk of helminth infections in free-range and backyard systems but prevalence may also be high in deep litter systems. PMID:10579399

  15. Use of plant-derived antimicrobials for improving the safety of poultry products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni are the two major foodborne pathogens transmitted through poultry products. Chickens are the reservoir hosts of these pathogens, with their intestinal colonization being the most significant factor causing contamination of meat and eggs. Effective pre-...

  16. 9 CFR 95.30 - Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI... UNITED STATES § 95.30 Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other..., including feathers, birds' nests, and bird trophies, of poultry, game birds, or other birds may be...

  17. 9 CFR 95.30 - Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI... UNITED STATES § 95.30 Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other..., including feathers, birds' nests, and bird trophies, of poultry, game birds, or other birds may be...

  18. 9 CFR 95.30 - Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI... UNITED STATES § 95.30 Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other..., including feathers, birds' nests, and bird trophies, of poultry, game birds, or other birds may be...

  19. Evaluating retailer behavior in preventing youth access to harmful legal products a feasibility test.

    PubMed

    Courser, Matthew W; Holder, Harold D; Collins, David; Johnson, Knowlton; Ogilvie, Kristen A

    2009-10-01

    This article reports results from a feasibility study of a community effort to reduce the availability of legal products that youth can use to get high. The study evaluated the potential of youth purchase attempts to detect actual changes in retail availability of harmful legal products. These results were triangulated with self-reports from retailers about their own policies and practices. Before the intervention, less than half of retailers reported using any of six possible strategies identified as ways to reduce youth access to harmful products, and less than 8% of baseline youth attempts to purchase potentially harmful legal products were refused or questioned. After the low-dosage intervention, retailers reported increased use of three strategies and a statistically significant increase in the percentage of purchase attempts that were either questioned or refused by retail clerks. These findings (a) demonstrate the potential feasibility of retailer-focused environmental strategies and (b) support continued use of youth purchase attempts as a measure of actual retailer behavior. PMID:18660467

  20. Evaluating Retailer Behavior in Preventing Youth Access to Harmful Legal Products: A Feasibility Test*

    PubMed Central

    Courser, Matthew W.; Holder, Harold D.; Collins, David; Johnson, Knowlton; Ogilvie, Kristen A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results from a feasibility study of a community effort to reduce the availability of legal products that youth can use to get “high”. The study evaluated the potential of youth purchase attempts to detect actual changes in retail availability of harmful legal products. These results were triangulated with self-reports from retailers themselves about their own policies and practices. Before the intervention less than half of retailers reported using any of six possible strategies identified as ways to reduce youth access to harmful products and less than 7% of baseline youth attempts to purchase potentially harmful legal products were refused or questioned. After the low dosage intervention, retailers reported increased use of three strategies and a statistically significant increase in the percentage of purchase attempts that were either questioned or refused by retail clerks. These findings (1) demonstrate the potential feasibility of retailer focused environmental strategies and (2) support continued use of youth purchase attempts as a measure of actual retailer behavior. PMID:18660467

  1. Characterization of backyard poultry production systems and disease risk in the central zone of Chile.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-West, C; Rojas, H; Pinto, J; Orozco, J; Hervé-Claude, L P; Urcelay, S

    2012-08-01

    Backyard poultry production systems (BPS) are an important and widespread form of poultry production. There is a common perception that biosecurity standards in BPS are generally poor and BPS are usually associated with animal diseases and zoonoses. In this study BPS were identified in the vicinity of six wetlands, having these a higher risk of presenting and introducing avian diseases such as HPAI and Newcastle disease, as defined by the national veterinary services, in to Chile's main poultry production area. BPS were characterized through a field questionnaire and the main areas covered by the survey were BPS structure, biosecurity and value chain. The BPS identified in this study share most characteristics on biosecurity, poultry management and product commercialization, but it was possible to identify a certain degree of variation within and among the study sites. BPS in Chile are similar to those in other regions, with a relatively small flock size (average 37 birds), a low level of biosecurity measures and lack of poultry disease management. Management findings include that most farmers used mixed/partial confinement, with low or no biosecurity and disease control measures in place. Eggs were the main output and were used mainly for home consumption or sale at local markets. Sick birds' treatment with drugs approved for other species or for human use could represent a risk to human health, owing to the possible presence of drug residues in poultry products. Despite the different structures of the poultry sector worldwide, BPS can play a major role in disease maintenance and spread because its management conditions characteristics and the lack of animal health services adapted to these production systems. This should be an alert message to the veterinary authorities to improve coverage of veterinary assistance and surveillance activities in backyard poultry production. PMID:21752410

  2. Evaluation of safe food-handling instructions on raw meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Angulo, F J; Altekruse, S F

    2000-10-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of people become ill, thousands of people die, and substantial economic costs are incurred from foodborne diseases. As a measure to prevent foodborne diseases, since July 1994, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has required that safe food-handling labels be placed on retail packages of raw or partially cooked meat and poultry products. Through selected states' Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) interviews, survey data were collected to determine the proportion of adults aware of the label and adults who reported changing their raw meat-handling practices because of the label. Fifty-one percent of the 14,262 respondents reported that they had seen the label. Of these, 79% remembered reading the label, and 37% of persons who reported that they had seen and read the label reported changing their raw meat preparation methods because of the label. Women were more likely than men to have read the label, as were persons who are at least 30 years of age compared to younger adults (P < 0.05). Both label awareness and risky food-handling behaviors increased with education and income, suggesting that safe food-handling labels have limited influence on consumer practices. Our results also suggest that the labels might be more effective in discouraging cross-contamination than in promoting thorough cooking practices. We suggest that the label is only one component among many food safety education programs that are needed to inform consumers about proper food-handling and preparation practices and to motivate persons who have risky food-handling and preparation behaviors to change these behaviors. PMID:11041129

  3. Survey of Mexican retail stores for US beef product.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Leidenz, Nelson; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; Maldonado-Siman, Ema; Valdéz, Alejandra; Belk, Keith E

    2014-02-01

    Retail packages (N=1004) containing fresh US beef in display cases in five cities across three regions of Mexico were surveyed for cut types, cutting styles, fat thickness measurements, marbling scores, and USDA Quality Grades to gain an overview of fresh US beef in Mexican retail markets. Data were analyzed to generate frequency distributions and examine the effect of city, geographical region, store chain, and socio-economic status of the targeted clientele on type, cutting style, fat measures and quality of beef cuts of US origin. Top round, bottom round and knuckle were the most common cut types. Milanesa-type slice and "bistec" (steak for grilling) were the predominant cutting styles. Over 95% of the retail cuts were trimmed to 3.2mm or less of external fat. Most cuts were USDA Select (74.5%) and USDA Choice (24.5%). External fat thickness and marbling score differed among cities and store chains (P<0.01). PMID:24200564

  4. Genetic evaluation of retail product percentage in Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Crews, D H; Enns, R M; Rumph, J M; Pollak, E J

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters required for genetic evaluation of retail product percentage (RPP) in Simmental cattle. Carcass weight (HCW), subcutaneous fat thickness (FAT), longissimus muscle area (REA) and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (KPH) records were available to compute RPP on steers (n = 5171) and heifers (n = 1400) from the American Simmental Association database; animals were sired by 561 Simmental bulls and out of 5886 crossbred dams. Genetic parameters were estimated using residual maximal likelihood and a four trait animal model for the components of RPP including fixed harvest contemporary group effects, random animal genetic effects, and a linear covariate for age at harvest. Heritability estimates were 0.51 +/- 0.05, 0.36 +/- 0.05, 0.46 +/- 0.05, and 0.18 +/- 0.05 for HCW, FAT, REA and KPH respectively. Non-zero genetic correlations were estimated between HCW and REA (rg = 0.51 +/- 0.06) and between REA and FAT (rg = -0.43 +/- 0.08), but other genetic correlation estimates among the component traits were low. As a linear function of its components, heritability and genetic correlations involving RPP were estimated using index methods. The heritability estimate for RPP was 0.41, and genetic correlations were -0.17, -0.83, 0.67, and 0.01 with HCW, FAT, REA and KPH respectively. Therefore, RPP was strongly associated with muscle and fat deposition, but essentially independent of carcass weight and internal body cavity fat. Genetic evaluation of RPP would be straightforward using multiple trait index methods and genetic regression, although the inclusion of KPH would be of marginal value. PMID:18254821

  5. A summary of ammonia emission factors and quality criteria for commercial poultry production in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, David; Cowherd, Savannah; Van Heyst, Bill

    2015-08-01

    Efforts to quantify emissions of ammonia to the atmosphere from poultry housing in North America have been underway for the past two decades. In order to accurately estimate emissions from facilities in each poultry sector, emission factors used to derive the average must be of sufficiently high quality. However, it has become evident that current methods are inadequate and emission factors do not accurately reflect North American poultry production. Using an initial screening, based on measurement methods for ammonia and ventilation rates as well as study duration, a collection of studies have been identified that report the highest quality emission factors currently available. Each study was rated for data quality and then an average emission factor was developed for each sector of poultry production and rated based its ability to represent that sector. The laying hen sector, using deep pit manure storage, received a C (average) emission factor quality rating, which is the highest of all the poultry sectors evaluated. Laying hen with manure belts, broiler chicken, and turkey sectors received quality ratings considered to be below average or poor. This study highlights the need for additional research that needs to be conducted in order to accurately quantify ammonia releases from housing in most poultry sectors in North America.

  6. Corn production in no-till and conventional tillage with poultry litter: a 5-yr data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn production in the Southeast is erratic due to intermittent droughts and hot weather during the growing season. Increasing demand for corn to satisfy expanding poultry and livestock enterprises as well as biofuels production has resulted in more producers considering corn production. Our recent...

  7. In-package pasteurization of ready-to-eat meat and poultry product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products are generally thermal processed to eliminate any foodborne pathogens in the final products. However, additional p processing steps follow the thermal process may recontaminate the products with pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escheri...

  8. 76 FR 44855 - Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is proposing to amend its regulations to establish a common or usual name for raw meat and poultry products that do not meet standard of identity regulations and to which solutions have been added. Products with added solutions are sometimes referred to as ``enhanced products.'' The Agency is proposing that the common or usual name for such......

  9. Poultry food products--a source of avian influenza virus transmission to humans?

    PubMed

    Harder, T C; Buda, S; Hengel, H; Beer, M; Mettenleiter, T C

    2016-02-01

    Global human mobility and intercontinental connectivity, expansion of livestock production and encroachment of wildlife habitats by invasive agricultural land use contribute to shape the complexity of influenza epidemiology. The OneHealth approach integrates these and further elements into considerations to improve disease control and prevention. Food of animal origin for human consumption is another integral aspect; if produced from infected livestock such items may act as vehicles of spread of animal pathogens, and, in case of zoonotic agents, as a potential human health hazard. Notifiable zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIV) have become entrenched in poultry populations in several Asian and northern African countries since 2003. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV (e.g. H5N1) cause extensive poultry mortality and severe economic losses. HPAIV and low pathogenic AIV (e.g. H7N9) with zoonotic propensities pose risks for human health. More than 1500 human cases of AIV infection have been reported, mainly from regions with endemically infected poultry. Intense human exposure to AIV-infected poultry, e.g. during rearing, slaughtering or processing of poultry, is a major risk factor for acquiring AIV infection. In contrast, human infections through consumption of AIV-contaminated food have not been substantiated. Heating poultry products according to kitchen standards (core temperatures ≥70°C, ≥10 s) rapidly inactivates AIV infectivity and renders fully cooked products safe. Nevertheless, concerted efforts must ensure that poultry products potentially contaminated with zoonotic AIV do not reach the food chain. Stringent and sustained OneHealth measures are required to better control and eventually eradicate, HPAIV from endemic regions. PMID:26686812

  10. Axone, an ethnic probiotic containing food, reduces age of sexual maturity and increases poultry production.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoj Raj; Singh, R K

    2014-06-01

    Axone (Akhuni) is a homemade synbiotic (Nagamese fermented soybean product) served as side dish in North Eastern India. In this study, effects of Axone feeding on growth, weight gain, sexual maturity and egg production on Vanaraja birds (a strain of poultry bird developed at PDP Hyderabad for villages and backyard poultry) were evaluated. Axone incorporation in commercial poultry feed at the rate of 5% (W/W) significantly improved growth rate (weight gain) both in male (p 0.001) and female (p 0.05) chicks, reduced age by 13 days at first egg laying (p 0.01), increased egg production (p ≤ 0.001) and improved egg weight (p ≤ 0.01). Microbiological analysis of Axone sample revealed that the major bacteria in Axone samples were Bacillus coagulans, well known for their probiotic value. PMID:24801640

  11. Rice production systems and avian influenza: Interactions between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.

  12. Organic poultry: Developing natural solutions for reducing pathogens and improving production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic poultry production is one of the fastest growing segments of organic agriculture (20% increase/year since the establishment of the National Organic Program). Although most management practices in organic production are designed to promote bird health and prevent disease, lack of consistentl...

  13. Molecular Characterization of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci from Hospitalized Patients and Poultry Products in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van den Braak, Nicole; van Belkum, Alex; van Keulen, Marrit; Vliegenthart, John; Verbrugh, Henri A.; Endtz, Hubert P.

    1998-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) pose an emerging health risk, but little is known about the precise epidemiology of the genes coding for vancomycin resistance. To determine whether the bacterial flora of consumer poultry serves as a gene reservoir, the level of contamination of poultry products with VRE was determined. VRE were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and transposon structure mapping was done by PCR. The vanX-vanY intergenic regions of several strains were further analyzed by sequencing. A total of 242 of 305 (79%) poultry products were found to be contaminated with VRE. Of these VRE, 142 (59%) were high-level-vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains (VREF). PFGE revealed extensive VREF heterogeneity. Two genotypes were found nationwide on multiple occasions: type A (22 of 142 VREF [15%]) and type B (14 of 142 VREF [10%]). No PFGE-deduced genetic overlap was found when VREF from humans were compared with VREF from poultry. Two vanA transposon types were identified among poultry strains. In 59 of 142 (42%) of the poultry VREF, the size of the intergenic region between vanX and vanY was ∼1,300 bp. This transposon type was not found in human VREF. In contrast, all human strains and 83 of 142 (58%) of the poultry VREF contained an intergenic region 543 bp in size. Sequencing of this 543-bp intergenic vanX-vanY region demonstrated full sequence conservation. Though preliminary, these data suggest that dissemination of the resistance genes carried on transposable elements may be of greater importance than clonal dissemination of resistant strains. This observation is important for developing strategies to control the spread of glycopeptide resistance. PMID:9650938

  14. 9 CFR 381.445 - Nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw poultry products that are not ground or chopped...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of single... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.445 Nutrition... § 381.401. (a)(1) Nutrition information on the major cuts of single-ingredient, raw poultry...

  15. 9 CFR 381.445 - Nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw poultry products that are not ground or chopped...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of single... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.445 Nutrition... § 381.401. (a)(1) Nutrition information on the major cuts of single-ingredient, raw poultry...

  16. The numbers game: Campylobacter survival in poultry products through the pH effects of polyphosphate additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter species are responsible for the largest number of food-borne gastrointestinal bacterial infections in the developed world. Poultry products are a primary pathway for the introduction of Campylobacter into the food supply. Undercooked poultry products and the cross-contamination of ot...

  17. Evaluating Retailer Behavior in Preventing Youth Access to Harmful Legal Products: A Feasibility Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courser, Matthew W.; Holder, Harold D.; Collins, David; Johnson, Knowlton; Ogilvie, Kristen A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports results from a feasibility study of a community effort to reduce the availability of legal products that youth can use to get high. The study evaluated the potential of youth purchase attempts to detect actual changes in retail availability of harmful legal products. These results were triangulated with self-reports from…

  18. Reducing phosphorus runoff and improving poultry production with alum.

    PubMed

    Moore, P A; Daniel, T C; Edwards, D R

    1999-05-01

    This is a review paper on the effects of aluminum sulfate (alum) on ammonia volatilization and P runoff from poultry litter. Initially, laboratory studies were conducted that showed P solubility could be reduced in poultry litter with Al, Ca, and Fe amendments, indicating that these amendments may reduce P runoff. These results were confirmed in small plot studies in which alum applications to litter were shown to decrease P concentrations in runoff by as much as 87%, while improving tall fescue yields. Leaf tissue analyses indicated that the yield improvements were due to increased N availability, which we hypothesized was due to reduced NH3 volatilization. This result was confirmed in laboratory studies that showed that alum was one of the most effective (and cost-effective) compounds for reducing NH3 volatilization. Field trials conducted at commercial broiler farms in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency showed that alum additions to poultry litter lowered litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout, which resulted in less NH3 volatilization and lower atmospheric NH3. Ammonia volatilization rates were reduced by 97% for the first 4 wk of the growout. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were heavier than the controls (1.73 vs 1.66 kg) and had lower mortality (3.9 vs 4.2%) and better feed efficiency (1.98 vs 2.04). Electricity and propane use were lower for alum-treated houses. As a result of these economic benefits to the integrator and grower, the benefit:cost ratio of alum addition was 1.96. Phosphorus concentrations in runoff from small watersheds were 75% lower from alum-treated litter than normal litter over a 3-yr period. Long-term small plot studies on alum use have shown that alum-treated litter results in lower soil test P levels than normal litter and does not increase Al availability in soils or uptake by plants. PMID:10228965

  19. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term. PMID:27228611

  20. Levels of biogenic amines in retail market fermented meat products.

    PubMed

    Papavergou, Ekaterini J; Savvaidis, Ioannis N; Ambrosiadis, Ioannis A

    2012-12-15

    The qualitative and quantitative profile of biogenic amines (BA) in 50 samples of dry fermented sausages sold in Greek retail markets were determined by HPLC. Putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine spermidine, spermine were analysed by UV detection after pre-column derivatization with benzoyl chloride, whereas tyramine and histamine were analysed by fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA). With the exception of spermidine and spermine a wide variation of BA levels was observed among the samples. Of the BA examined, tyramine, putrescine, histamine and cadaverine showed high concentrations ranging from: 0 to 510 mg/kg (median: 197.7 mg/kg), 0 to 505 mg/kg (median: 96.5mg/kg), 0 to 515 mg/kg (median: 7.0mg/kg) and 0 to 690 mg/kg (median: 3.6 mg/kg), respectively. The histamine content of 28% of the samples exceeded the toxicity limit of 100mg/kg set for histamine in some fish species. Levels of tryptamine and β-phenyl-ethylamine never exceeded 50 and 29 mg/kg, respectively. Results of the present study suggest that the amounts of BA in dry fermented sausages, sold in Greek retail markets, may pose a potential health risk for sensitive individuals or for those undergoing classical monoamine oxidase inhibiting (MAOI) drug therapy. PMID:22980868

  1. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat... for certain meat, poultry, and egg products through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). ACE is... INFORMATION: I. Background The Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the...

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in the area of intensive poultry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. from different environmental compartments including litter from two farms, 12 surface and 28 groundwater sites in an area of intensive poultry production and litter application. The enumerated isolates (n=250) were tested ...

  3. Assessing the performance of Clostridium perfringens cooling models for cooked, uncured meat and poultry products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat-resistant spores of C. perfringens may germinate and multiply in cooked meat and poultry products if the rate and extent of cooling does not occur in a timely manner. Therefore, six cooling models (PMP 7.0 broth model; PMIP Uncured Beef, Chicken, and Pork Models; Smith-Schaffner (version 3); a...

  4. Use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the analysis of poultry products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy is evaluated as a potential method to characterize a wide range of poultry product quality and safety characteristics. In one part of this study, breast meat quality indices, including pH and water holding capacity, were treated as dependent variables for correla...

  5. Poultry Production for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. Volume 19, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timko, Joseph J.; Stewart, Bob R.

    This unit is designed to aid teachers in lesson planning in the secondary agricultural education curriculum in Missouri. Intended to be taught to ninth-grade students of vocational agriculture, the unit contains six lessons for developing competencies needed in poultry production. The lessons are as follows: (1) the importance of the poultry…

  6. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork and poultry products during chilling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of C. perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in ten commercially prepared acidified beef, pork and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted using organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commer...

  7. Converting poultry litter to activated carbon: optimal carbonization conditions and product sorption for benzene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingxin; Song, Weiping

    2011-12-01

    To promote utilization of poultry litter as a source material for manufacturing low-cost activated carbon (AC) that can be used in wastewater treatment, this study investigated optimal production conditions and water-borne organic sorption potential of poultry litter-based AC. Pelletized broiler litter was carbonized at different temperatures for varied time periods and activated with steam at a range of flow rate and time. The AC products were examined for quality characteristics using standard methods and for organic sorption potentials using batch benzene sorption techniques. The study shows that the yield and quality of litter AC varied with production conditions. The optimal production conditions for poultry litter-based AC were carbonization at 700 degrees C for 45 min followed by activation with 2.5 ml min(-1) steam for another 45 min. The resulting AC possessed an iodine number of 454 mg g(-1) and a specific surface area of 403 m2 g(-1). It sorbed benzene in water following sigmoidal kinetic and isothermal patterns. The sorption capacity for benzene was 23.70 mg g(-1), lower than that of top-class commercial AC. The results, together with other reported research findings, suggest that poultry litter is a reasonable feedstock for low-cost AC applicable to pre-treat wastewater contaminated by organic pollutants and heavy metals. PMID:22439566

  8. Edible Apple Film Wraps Containing Plant Antimicrobials Inactivate Foodborne Pathogens on Meat and Poultry Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of an effort to discover new ways to improve microbial food safety, we evaluated apple-based edible films containing plant antimicrobial compounds for their activity against pathogenic foodborne bacteria on meat and poultry products. Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7 (107 CFU/...

  9. Poultry manure application time impact on corn grain production in a crider silt loam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the growing interest in poultry litter (PL) use as nutrient sources, whether fall versus spring application timing is consequential to production, is pertinent. This study investigated the effects of fall and spring application of two rates of PL (9.0 Mg-ha-1 and 18.0 Mg-ha-1) and a 19-19-19 (...

  10. Aflatoxins in retail food products in Bursa, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Günsen, Ugur; Büyükyörük, Ilhan

    2002-10-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in 25 cacao hazelnut cream and 15 dried apricot samples and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in 130 cheese samples (35 full fatty Turkish white cheeses, 35 fresh kashars, 25 old kashars, 20 Gravyer cheeses and 15 cream cheeses) randomly collected from traditional retail markets with insufFicient chilling facilities in Bursa, Turkey, were determined by ELISA. Mean AFB1 and AFM1 in the cacao hazelnut cream, dried apricot and cheese were 1,076.5 +/- 194.4 ng/kg, 1,441.3 +/- 331.9 ng/kg and 142.2 +/- 18.7 ng/kg, respectively; 15.45% of the cheese samples exceeded the Turkish AFM1 tolerance limit of 250 ng/kg. PMID:12361114

  11. Evaluation of poultry by-product meal in commercial diets for hybrid striped bass in pond production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of replacing fishmeal with petfood grade poultry by-product meal (PBM-PFG) on an ideal protein basis in commercial diets for hybrid striped bass (HSB) was evaluated in ponds under commercial production conditions. A typical commercial diet (GEN) for HSB was formulated to contain 40% pr...

  12. Food Safety Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitudes of Vendors of Poultry Products Sold at Pennsylvania Farmers' Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheinberg, Joshua; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2013-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was developed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of poultry vendors at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania, on food safety, regulation, and poultry production. Vendors were administered a 32-question paper survey, in person, during market hours. The results revealed critical vendor practices and identified important…

  13. 9 CFR 381.196 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of poultry products into the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... countries, covered by foreign poultry inspection certificates of the country of origin as required by § 381... Administrator that the system of poultry inspection maintained by any foreign country, with respect to establishments preparing products in such country for export to the United States, insures compliance of...

  14. The Effect of Implicit and Explicit Rules on Customer Greeting and Productivity in a Retail Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca A.; Houmanfar, Ramona; Smith, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of presenting organizational information through implicit and explicit rules on sales-related target behaviors in a retail setting. Results indicated that when organizational information was presented in a specific form, productivity was increased and maintained longer than when presented in…

  15. Poultry production: a model for developing interactive Internet-based distance education.

    PubMed

    Emmert, J L; Shortridge, A M; Sexton, S L

    2003-05-01

    Over the last several decades, many poultry science programs have merged with other departments, but the poultry industry has undergone tremendous expansion worldwide, leading to a growing instructional void with regard to poultry production information. The objective of this project was to address the demand for information by developing two Web-based poultry production courses that cover management of broilers, turkeys, breeders, and layers. The Internet was chosen as the platform because it is asynchronous and may be accessed from any connected site around the world. To be effective, web-based courseware must be theoretically grounded and interactive, but university-level web-based distance education courses often fail to meet these standards. During courseware development, the impact of instructional techniques and technologies on interactivity and learning outcomes was explored. A content expert, an instructional designer, and a graphic artist carefully reviewed a variety of instructional techniques to increase interactivity. Concept mapping was chosen because it has been shown to be a superior learning tool for enhancing the exchange of ideas and knowledge between instructors, students, and content. A unique instructional interface was established that includes threaded e-mail discussion, thought questions, animation, hypertext, rollover interactions, video clips, and concept mapping exercises. Results indicate that the integration of concept mapping into web-based learning environments successfully increased interactivity and learning outcomes. PMID:12762393

  16. Integration of a linear accelerator into a production line of mechanically deboned separated poultry meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat, Theo; Volle, Christophe

    2000-03-01

    Linear accelerators, commonly called Linacs, are being used for different industrial processes. This kind of machine produces high power electron beams and can treat many products with a high throughput. The main application of a Linac is the sterilization of medical disposable devices, polymerization and decontamination of food products. Salmonella commonly contaminates poultry. Thanks to E-beam treatment, it eradicates the pathogen quickly and permits the use of meat that should have been thrown away because of its infection. The world's first Linac dedicated to treat mechanically deboned poultry meat is located in Brittany at the Société des Protéines Industrielles. It is a Thomson CSF Linac product, the CIRCE II, with an energy of 10 MeV and a power of 10 kW. This Linac has been used for more than 8 years, and its technology is fully proven.

  17. Vaccination of chickens against coccidiosis ameliorates drug resistance in commercial poultry production

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, H. David; Jeffers, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance is a problem wherever livestock are raised under intensive conditions and drugs are used to combat parasitic infections. This is particularly true for the anticoccidial agents used for the prevention of coccidiosis caused by protozoa of the apicomplexan genus Eimeria in poultry. Resistance has been documented for all the dozen or so drugs approved for use in chickens and varying levels of resistance is present for those currently employed. A possible solution may be the introduction of drug-sensitive parasites into the houses where poultry are raised so that they may replace such drug-resistant organisms. This can be achieved by utilizing live vaccines that contain strains of Eimeria that were isolated before most anticoccidial compounds were introduced. Such strains are inherently drug-sensitive. Practical proposals to achieve this objective involve the alternation of vaccination with medication (known as rotation programs) in successive flocks reared in the same poultry house. A proposal for a yearly broiler production cycle involving chemotherapy and vaccination is presented. There are few, if any, examples in veterinary parasitology where it has proved possible to restore sensitivity to drugs used to control a widespread parasite. Further research is necessary to ascertain whether this can result in sustainable and long-term control of Eimeria infections in poultry. PMID:25516830

  18. Vaccination of chickens against coccidiosis ameliorates drug resistance in commercial poultry production.

    PubMed

    Chapman, H David; Jeffers, Thomas K

    2014-12-01

    Drug resistance is a problem wherever livestock are raised under intensive conditions and drugs are used to combat parasitic infections. This is particularly true for the anticoccidial agents used for the prevention of coccidiosis caused by protozoa of the apicomplexan genus Eimeria in poultry. Resistance has been documented for all the dozen or so drugs approved for use in chickens and varying levels of resistance is present for those currently employed. A possible solution may be the introduction of drug-sensitive parasites into the houses where poultry are raised so that they may replace such drug-resistant organisms. This can be achieved by utilizing live vaccines that contain strains of Eimeria that were isolated before most anticoccidial compounds were introduced. Such strains are inherently drug-sensitive. Practical proposals to achieve this objective involve the alternation of vaccination with medication (known as rotation programs) in successive flocks reared in the same poultry house. A proposal for a yearly broiler production cycle involving chemotherapy and vaccination is presented. There are few, if any, examples in veterinary parasitology where it has proved possible to restore sensitivity to drugs used to control a widespread parasite. Further research is necessary to ascertain whether this can result in sustainable and long-term control of Eimeria infections in poultry. PMID:25516830

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in an area of intensive poultry production.

    PubMed

    Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B; Hiott, Lari M; Chambers, Patricia A

    2013-03-01

    Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented. PMID:23481592

  20. 75 FR 82147 - Nutrition Labeling of Single-Ingredient Products and Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... nutrition labeling of meat and poultry products on April 2, 1991 (56 FR 13564), a proposed rule on November... found that significant participation in the voluntary nutrition labeling program did not exist (66 FR... nutrition facts panels and 25 percent did not (74 FR 67741). Because about 95 percent of grinders are...

  1. 76 FR 76890 - Nutrition Labeling of Single-Ingredient Products and Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... published at 75 FR 82148, December 29, 2010, is delayed until March 1, 2012. The effective date of the correction to the rule published at 75 FR 82148, December 29, 2010, is March 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... Register (75 FR 82148) that, among other things, amended the Federal meat and poultry products...

  2. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for the production of... Inspection and Other Reinspections; Processing Requirements § 381.150 Requirements for the production of... equivalent probability that no viable Salmonella organisms remain in the finished product, as well as...

  3. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for the production of... Inspection and Other Reinspections; Processing Requirements § 381.150 Requirements for the production of... equivalent probability that no viable Salmonella organisms remain in the finished product, as well as...

  4. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for the production of... Inspection and Other Reinspections; Processing Requirements § 381.150 Requirements for the production of... equivalent probability that no viable Salmonella organisms remain in the finished product, as well as...

  5. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for the production of... Inspection and Other Reinspections; Processing Requirements § 381.150 Requirements for the production of... equivalent probability that no viable Salmonella organisms remain in the finished product, as well as...

  6. ANCILLARY SCIENTISTS SYMPOSIUM: GENETIC TECHNOLOGY APPLIED TO POULTRY PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although classical genetics has significantly contributed to animal agriculture such as the gain in animal productivity, breeding efficiency, and selection of desirable biological traits, the advances in molecular genetics, including DNA cloning, sequencing, genotyping, and DNA microarray technology...

  7. Molecular characterization of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are human pathogens frequently isolated from poultry. As a step towards implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance (COIPARS), this study characterized molecular patt...

  8. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica strains isolated from Brazilian poultry production.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Samara P; Drescher, Guilherme; Barth, Valdir C; Ferreira, Carlos A S; Oliveira, Sílvia D

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance profiles and presence of resistance determinants and integrons were evaluated in Salmonella enterica strains from Brazilian poultry. The analysis of 203 isolates showed that those from the poultry environment (88 isolates) were significantly more resistant to antimicrobials than isolates from other sources, particularly those isolated from poultry by-product meal (106 isolates). Thirty-seven isolates were resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes. Class 1 integrons were detected in 26 isolates, and the analysis of the variable region between the 5' conserved segment (CS) and 3' CS of each class 1 integron-positive isolate showed that 13 contained a typical 3' CS and 14 contained an atypical 3' CS. One Salmonella Senftenberg isolate harbored two class 1 integrons, showing both typical and atypical 3' CSs. The highest percentage of resistance was found to sulfonamides, and sul genes were detected in the majority of the resistant isolates. Aminoglycoside resistance was detected in 50 isolates, and aadA and aadB were present in 28 and 32 isolates, respectively. In addition, strA and strB were detected in 78.1 and 65.6% isolates resistant to streptomycin, respectively. Twenty-one isolates presented reduced susceptibility to β-lactams and harbored bla(TEM), bla(CMY), and/or bla(CTX-M). Forty isolates showed reduced susceptibility to tetracycline, and most presented tet genes. These results highlight the importance of the environment as a reservoir of resistant Salmonella, which may enable the persistence of resistance determinants in the poultry production chain, contributing, therefore, to the debate regarding the impacts that antimicrobial use in animal production may exert in human health. PMID:26337044

  9. Assessing the Performance of Clostridium perfringens Cooling Models for Cooked, Uncured Meat and Poultry Products.

    PubMed

    Mohr, T B; Juneja, V K; Thippareddi, H H; Schaffner, D W; Bronstein, P A; Silverman, M; Cook, L V

    2015-08-01

    Heat-resistant spores of Clostridium perfringens may germinate and multiply in cooked meat and poultry products when the rate and extent of cooling does not occur in a timely manner. Therefore, six cooling models (PMP 7.0 broth model; PMIP uncured beef, chicken, and pork models; Smith-Schaffner version 3; and UK IFR ComBase Perfringens Predictor) were evaluated for relative performance in predicting growth of C. perfringens under dynamic temperature conditions encountered during cooling of cooked, uncured meat and poultry products. The predicted growth responses from the models were extensively compared with those observed in food. Data from 188 time-temperature cooling profiles (176 for single-rate exponential cooling and 12 for dual-rate exponential cooling) were collected from 17 independent sources (16 peer-reviewed publications and one report) for model evaluation. Data were obtained for a variety of cooked products, including meat and poultry slurries, ground meat and poultry products with and without added ingredients (e.g., potato starch, sodium triphosphate, and potassium tetrapyrophosphate), and processed products such as ham and roast beef. Performance of the models was evaluated using three sets of criteria, and accuracy was defined within a 1- to 2-log range. The percentages of accurate, fail-safe, or fail-dangerous predictions for each cooling model differed depending on which criterion was used to evaluate the data set. Nevertheless, the combined percentages of accurate and fail-safe predictions based on the three performance criteria were 34.66 to 42.61% for the PMP 7.0 beef broth model, 100% for the PMIP cooling models for uncured beef, uncured pork and uncured chicken, 80.11 to 93.18% for the Smith-Schaffner cooling model, and 74.43 to 85.23% for the UK IFR ComBase Perfringens Predictor model during single-rate exponential chilling. Except for the PMP 7.0 broth model, the other five cooling models (PMIP, Smith-Schaffner, and UK IFR ComBase) are

  10. Genetic Relationships of Carcass Traits with Retail Cut Productivity of Hanwoo Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Daeyoung; Lee, Jeongkoo; Won, Seunggun; Lee, Chaeyoung; Kim, Jongbok

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate genetic correlation between carcass grading and retail productivity traits and to estimate the correlated response on retail productivity traits through selection for carcass grading traits in order to assess the efficacy of indirect selection. Genetic parameters were estimated with the data from 4240 Hanwoo steers using mixed models, and phenotypes included carcass weight (CWT), back fat thickness (BFT), eye muscle area (EMA), marbling (MAR), and estimated lean yield percentage (ELP) as the carcass grading traits, and weight and portion of retail cuts (RCW and RCP), trimmed fats (TFW and TFP) and trimmed bones (TBW and TBP) as the lean productivity traits. The CWT had positive genetic correlations with RCW (0.95) and TFW (0.73), but its genetic correlation with RCP was negligible (0.02). The BFT was negatively correlated with RCP (−0.63), but positively correlated with TFW and TFP (0.77 and 0.70). Genetic correlations of MAR with TFW and TFP were low. Among the carcass grading traits, only EMA was positively correlated with both RCW (0.60) and RCP (0.72). The EMA had a relatively strong negative genetic correlation with TFW (−0.64). The genetic correlation coefficients of ELP with RCP, TFW, and TFP were 0.76, −0.90, and −0.82, respectively. These correlation coefficients suggested that the ELP and EMA might be favorable traits in regulating lean productivity of carcass. PMID:25178288

  11. Poultry litter and switchgrass blending for biochar production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochars for both soil improvement and bioenergy applications are affected by the choice of both the parent feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. As such, controlling these two variables may yield an ideal product with engineered properties—“A Designer Biochar.” The potential for a designer biochar c...

  12. Comparing Occupational Health and Safety Management System Programming with Injury Rates in Poultry Production.

    PubMed

    Autenrieth, Daniel A; Brazile, William J; Douphrate, David I; Román-Muñiz, Ivette N; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Effective methods to reduce work-related injuries and illnesses in animal production agriculture are sorely needed. One approach that may be helpful for agriculture producers is the adoption of occupational health and safety management systems. In this replication study, the authors compared the injury rates on 32 poultry growing operations with the level of occupational health and safety management system programming at each farm. Overall correlations between injury rates and programming level were determined, as were correlations between individual management system subcomponents to ascertain which parts might be the most useful for poultry producers. It was found that, in general, higher levels of occupational health and safety management system programming were associated with lower rates of workplace injuries and illnesses, and that Management Leadership was the system subcomponent with the strongest correlation. The strength and significance of the observed associations were greater on poultry farms with more complete management system assessments. These findings are similar to those from a previous study of the dairy production industry, suggesting that occupational health and safety management systems may hold promise as a comprehensive way for producers to improve occupational health and safety performance. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of such systems to reduce farm work injuries and illnesses. These results are timely given the increasing focus on occupational safety and health management systems. PMID:27409413

  13. High pressure inactivation of relevant target microorganisms in poultry meat products and the evaluation of pressure-induced protein denaturation of marinated poultry under different high pressure treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidgall, Johanna; Hertel, Christian; Bindrich, Ute; Heinz, Volker; Toepfl, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the possibility of extending shelf life of marinated poultry meat products by high pressure processing was evaluated. Relevant spoilage and pathogenic strains were selected and used as target microorganisms (MOs) for challenge experiments. Meat and brine were inoculated with MOs and treated at 450 MPa, 4 °C for 3 min. The results of inactivation show a decreasing pressure tolerance in the series Lactobacillus > Arcobacter > Carnobacterium > Bacillus cereus > Brochothrix thermosphacta > Listeria monocytogenes. Leuconostoc gelidum exhibited the highest pressure tolerance in meat. A protective effect of poultry meat was found for L. sakei and L. gelidum. In parallel, the influence of different marinade formulations (pH, carbonates, citrates) on protein structure changes during a pressure treatment was investigated. Addition of sodium carbonate shows a protection against denaturation of myofibrillar proteins and provides a maximum water-holding capacity. Caustic marinades allowed a higher retention of product characteristics than low-pH marinades.

  14. Incidence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in a poultry processing environment and in poultry products and their rapid confirmation by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, L M; Gilmour, A

    1994-01-01

    The incidence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in a poultry processing plant and in raw and cooked poultry products was determined over a 6-month period. Within the raw and cooked poultry processing environments, 46% (36 of 79) and 29% (51 of 173) of the samples contained Listeria spp. while 26% (21 of 79) and 15% (27 of 173) contained L. monocytogenes, respectively. Various sites within the processing environment were found to be consistently positive for L. monocytogenes throughout the entire sampling period. Of the raw and cooked products tested, 91% (53 of 58) and 8% (8 of 96) were found to contain Listeria spp. while 59% (34 of 58) and 0% (0 of 96) contained L. monocytogenes, respectively. Although L. monocytogenes was not detected in the cooked products examined, the presence of other Listeria spp. highlights the potential which exists for postprocessing contamination. Multiplex PCR proved to be a convenient and time-saving technique for rapid confirmation of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in a single reaction. Images PMID:7811096

  15. An overview of poultry industry in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    HUSSAIN, J.; RABBANI, I.; ASLAM, S.; AHMAD, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    The poultry sector is an important and vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan with a significant contribution to the national GDP (1.3%). Commercial poultry production in Pakistan started in the 1960’s and has been providing a significant portion of daily proteins to the Pakistani population ever since. During its evolution the industry enjoyed promotional policies of the Government, but has faced several challenges such as disease outbreaks and retail price fluctuations. Despite its important role in the country’s economy, not a single scientific study is available on its evolutionary history. The data available in this regard are scattered and lack reliability. This review is an effort to encompass the history of the overall growth of the poultry industry in Pakistan, its present status (2012 statistics) and future directions and challenges. This article may serve as the basic source of information on Pakistan’s poultry industry achievements. It will also guide poultry experts and policy makers for developing strategic planning for further growth of the industry. PMID:26696690

  16. Effects of poultry manure, compost, and biochar amendments on soil nitrogen dynamics in maize production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Dell, C. J.; Sims, T.

    2013-12-01

    Intensification of animal agriculture has profound impacts on the global and local biogeochemistry of nitrogen (N), resulting in consequences to environmental and human health. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, intensive agriculture is the primary contributor to N pollution, with animal manure comprising more than half of N from agriculture. Management interventions may play an important role in mitigating reactive N pollution in the Bay watershed. The objective of our research was to test management strategies that maximize benefits of poultry manure as an agricultural resource while minimizing it as a source of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and ground and surface waters. We conducted field experiments in two agricultural regions of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Georgetown, Delaware and State College, Pennsylvania) to explore the effects of poultry manure amendments on gaseous N losses and soil N transformations. Treatments were applied at rates needed to meet the plant N demand at each site and included unfertilized controls, fertilizer N (urea), and raw, composted, or and biocharred poultry manure. The fate of the N from all sources was followed throughout the growing season. Global greenhouse gases emitted from soil (nitrous oxide [N2O] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) and regional air pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx] and ammonia [NH3]) were measured. Gas measurements were coupled with data on treatment effects on temperature, moisture, and concentrations of nitrate (NO3¬-) and ammonium (NH4+) in surface soils (0-10 cm). Soil NO3- and NH4+ were also measured approximately monthly in the soil profile (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, 50-70, and 70-100 cm) as an index of leaching potential. Plant N uptake and grain production were also quantified to quantify crop N use efficiency and compare measured N losses for each N source. Our results suggest that the form of poultry manure amendments can affect the magnitude of reactive N losses to the environment.

  17. Production, Characterization and Antioxidant Potential of Protease from Streptomyces sp. MAB18 Using Poultry Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Poultry waste is an abundant renewable source for the recovery of several value-added metabolites with potential industrial applications. This study describes the production of protease on poultry waste, with the subsequent use of the same poultry waste for the extraction of antioxidants. An extracellular protease-producing strain was isolated from Cuddalore coast, India, and identified as Streptomyces sp. MAB18. Its protease was purified 17.13-fold with 21.62% yield with a specific activity of 2398.36 U/mg and the molecular weight was estimated as 43 kDa. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 8–10 and temperature 50–60°C and it was most stable up to pH 12 and 6–12% of NaCl concentration. The enzyme activity was reduced when treated with Hg2+, Pb2+, and SDS and stimulated by Fe2+, Mg2+, Triton X-100, DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide), sodium sulphite, and β-mercaptoethanol. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of protease were evaluated using in vitro antioxidant assays, such as DPPH radical-scavenging activity, O2 scavenging activity, NO scavenging activity, Fe2+ chelating activity, and reducing power. The enzyme showed important antioxidant potential with an IC50 value of 78 ± 0.28 mg/mL. Results of the present study indicate that the poultry waste-derived protease may be useful as supplementary protein and antioxidant in the animal feed formulations. PMID:23991418

  18. Antimicrobial effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on survivability and recovery of Campylobacter jejuni on poultry products.

    PubMed

    Davis, M A; Conner, D E

    2007-04-01

    Three types of poultry products representing differences in skin coverage were tested to determine the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to inhibit growth of Campylobacter jejuni. Processed ready-to-cook poultry carcasses were obtained from the Poultry Research Unit at Auburn University and were not subjected to any treatment to reduce or eliminate the native microflora on the carcasses. Carcasses were cut into wing sections (drumette, flat, tip), split breast pieces (with and without bone), and boneless, skinless breast pieces. Equal numbers of the 3 product types were subjected to 1 of 6 treatments: 1) uninoculated, 2) C. jejuni only, 3) P. aeruginosa type 1 only, 4) P. aeruginosa type 2 only, 5) C. jejuni + P. aeruginosa type 1, or 6) C. jejuni + P. aeruginosa type 2. Products were inoculated at 10(4) to 10(5) cfu. Postinoculation, equal numbers of product type were also subjected to the following: 1) aerobic or vacuum packaging, 2) storage temperature of 4 or 10 degrees C, and 3) storage of 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 d. Products were sampled after storage duration to determine the population of C. jejuni and P. aeruginosa. Individual pieces were rinsed with 50 mL of buffered peptone water. The recovered rinse was used to make appropriate dilutions and spiral plated onto Campy-Cefex and Pseudomonas P agars. Campy-Cefex plates were incubated microaerophilically at 42 degrees C for 48 h, whereas Pseudomonas P plates were incubated aerobically at 37 degrees C for 24 to 48 h. Random suspect colonies on Campy-Cefex plates were confirmed by cell morphology when viewed under microscopic examination. Suspect colonies on Pseudomonas P plates produced a blue color in the medium indicative of glycerol reduction. At both 4 and 10 degrees C, neither type of P. aeruginosa inhibited the growth or survival of C. jejuni compared to plates that were inoculated with C. jejuni only. PMID:17369550

  19. Evaluation of egg production after adoption of biosecurity strategies by backyard poultry farmers in West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, I.; Joardar, S. N.; Ganguli, D.; Das, P. K.; Sarkar, U.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: On the basis of identified source of major bacterial infections at four agro-climatic zones in West Bengal the cost-effective biosecurity strategy was formulated for backyard poultry farmers. The aim of the present study was to assess the adoption. So, the study was aimed to detect the adoption level of the formulated biosecurity strategy to mitigate the Salmonella and Escherichia coliweek post-hatch period chicks were contamination level in the sources and its correlation with egg production in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared querying regarding the biosecurity measures presently followed by the farmers, if any and egg production of their birds. Subsequent to the interview the formulated biosecurity strategy was conveyed. After 3 months, the interview with the same questionnaire was conducted to the same farmers to detect their adoption level. Results: The change in practices were noted in certain parameters which differs significantly (p<0.01 or p<0.05). As a consequence, the average egg production/flock was increased in 3 months after adoption of the strategy (618.2±37.77/flock) in comparison to last 3 months average before adoption of the strategy (495.3±30.00/flock) which also differs significantly (p<0.01). Conclusion: The present study detected the implementation of the biosecurity strategy in backyard poultry farming in West Bengal can substantially benefit the farmers in terms of increased egg production. PMID:27047068

  20. 9 CFR 381.145 - Poultry products and other articles entering or at official establishments; examination and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry products and other articles entering or at official establishments; examination and other requirements. 381.145 Section 381.145 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT...

  1. 9 CFR 381.145 - Poultry products and other articles entering or at official establishments; examination and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry products and other articles entering or at official establishments; examination and other requirements. 381.145 Section 381.145 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT...

  2. 9 CFR 381.145 - Poultry products and other articles entering or at official establishments; examination and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry products and other articles entering or at official establishments; examination and other requirements. 381.145 Section 381.145 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT...

  3. Restrictions on the reimbursement policy with regard to retail marketing of medicinal products in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    On January 1, 2012, the law of 12 May 2011 on the reimbursement of medicines, food products of special nutritional purpose and medicinal products, intended to tighten up the reimbursement system, came into force in Poland. The new legislative act has significantly altered the previous principles of retail marketing of products subject to publicly financed reimbursement. First of all, the prices of reimbursed products have been unified through the introduction of fixed margins and prices and a ban--completely unknown until now--on using free market sales practices. These regulations are intended to lead to the abolition of price competition and its replacement with competition as to the quality of services provided by pharmacies. At the same time, entities engaged in retail marketing of medicinal products have been imposed a number of new obligations and highly repressive penalties for failure to fulfill them. The paper analyzes the legislative changes and points out the consequences, both those which can already be seen and the predictable ones. The assumed priority and criterion of evaluation of the reimbursement policy in question is its impact on the functioning of pharmacies which, according to the premises of Polish pharmaceutical law, should play the role of public health protection institutions. PMID:23614291

  4. Effect of poultry by-product meal on pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure and ascites in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Richard J.; Caston, Linda J.; Mirsalimi, S. Medhi; Leeson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that poultry by-product meal would produce a thermogenic response (an increased requirement for oxygen) resulting in an increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular failure and ascites in commercial broiler chickens. Four treatment groups, each with three replicates of 40 chicks, were fed a commercial broiler starter to day 21, grower to day 35, and the following experimental diets after day 35: group 1, commercial chicken broiler finisher; group 2, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry by-product meal added to replace part of the soyabean meal; group 3, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry fat added to replace the animal-vegetable (AV) fat; group 4, commercial chicken broiler finisher with both poultry by-product meal and poultry fat added to replace soyabean meal and AV fat. On day 35, pen temperature was reduced to 15°C, and on day 42 to 12°C. Mortality from ascites between days 35 and 56 was 11(9%) in group 2, 5(4%) in group 4 and 3(2.5%) in groups 1 and 3 The incidence of pulmonary hypertension, as measured by an increased right ventricle: total ventricle (RV:TV) ratio (RV:TV > 0.249) at processing on day 57, was higher in the groups receiving poultry by-product and poultry fat: 27(22.5%) in group 2, 26(21.7%) in group 3, and 20(16.7%) in group 4 compared to that of the controls 12(10%). PMID:17424018

  5. Riding in shopping carts and exposure to raw meat and poultry products: prevalence of, and factors associated with, this risk factor for salmonella and campylobacter infection in children younger than 3 years.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Mary E; Mahon, Barbara E; Zansky, Shelley M; Hurd, Sharon; Scallan, Elaine

    2010-06-01

    Riding in a shopping cart next to raw meat or poultry is a risk factor for Salmonella and Campylobacter infections in infants. To describe the frequency of, and factors associated with, this behavior, we surveyed parents of children aged younger than 3 years in Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network sites. We defined exposure as answering yes to one of a series of questions asking if packages of raw meat or poultry were near a child in a shopping cart, or if a child was in the cart basket at the same time as was raw meat or poultry. Among 1,273 respondents, 767 (60%) reported that their children visited a grocery store in the past week and rode in shopping carts. Among these children, 103 (13%) were exposed to raw products. Children who rode in the baskets were more likely to be exposed than were those who rode only in the seats (odds ratio [OR], 17.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.0 to 28.9). In a multivariate model, riding in the basket (OR, 15.5; 95% CI, 9.2 to 26.1), income less than $55,000 (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.1), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.5) were associated with exposure. Our study shows that children can be exposed to raw meat and poultry products while riding in shopping carts. Parents should separate children from raw products and place children in the seats rather than in the baskets of the cart. Retailer use of leak-proof packaging, customer placement of product in a plastic bag and on the rack underneath the cart, use of hand sanitizers and wipes, and consumer education may also be helpful. PMID:20537266

  6. Detection of Campylobacter on the Outer Surface of Retail Broiler Chicken Meat Packages and on product within

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare prevalence of Campylobacter on the outside of broiler meat packages to the product inside the same packages. Chicken meat products were purchased at retail. Samples comprised whole carcasses and six different cut-up part products. Fifteen packages of eac...

  7. Prevalence of Salmonella in retail chicken meat in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Luu, Quynh Huong; Fries, Reinhard; Padungtod, Pawin; Tran, Thi Hanh; Kyule, Moses N; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Zessin, Karl H

    2006-10-01

    Infection with Salmonella (S.) is the most frequently reported cause of bacterial food-borne illness worldwide. Poultry are a common source and, in recent years, much attention has been focused in determining the prevalence of Salmonella during the different stages in the poultry production chain. This article was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella serovars in retail chicken meat sold in Hanoi. A total of 262 samples were randomly collected from retail markets and examined for the presence of Salmonella. Of these samples, 48.9% were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. Predominant serotypes were S. Agona, S. Emek, S. London. The prevalence of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium was considered. These findings have highlighted the magnitude of Salmonella contamination in retail chicken meat in Hanoi. On the basis of these preliminary survey results, it is recommended that a cost-effective monitoring and surveillance system for Salmonella should be established in Hanoi. This system should be augmented by good agricultural and hygienic practices and well-designed longitudinal research activities on the whole poultry production chain. PMID:17135521

  8. Production of Penicillic Acid and Ochratoxin A on Poultry Feed by Aspergillus ochraceus: Temperature and Moisture Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, C. W.; Sweeney, J. G.; Robbins, J. D.; Burdick, D.

    1973-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, isolated from poultry feed, produced both penicillic acid and ochratoxin A. Studies demonstrating the ability of this fungus to colonize poultry feed and produce these two mycotoxins under various temperatures and moistures indicated that the interaction was complex. The optimal temperature for conidial development did not vary with moisture, but accumulation of both toxins did. A combination of low temperature, 15 or 22 C, and low moisture favored the production of penicillic acid, whereas high temperature, 30 C, and high moisture favored the production of ochratoxin A. PMID:4795527

  9. The influence of an online auction's product price and e-retailer reputation on consumers' perception, attitude, and behavioral intention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wann-Yih; Huang, Po-Ching; Fu, Chen-Su

    2011-06-01

    Online auctions combine the conventional auction model with information technology. However, information asymmetry within such auctions causes risks and uncertainties that influence consumer purchase intentions. In this study, a 2 (product price: high vs. low) × 2 (e-retailer reputation: high vs. low) experimental design was used to understand whether the product price and e-retailer reputation will influence consumers' perceived risk, attitude toward the website and purchase intention. The results of this study indicate that perceived risk negatively influences consumer attitude toward the website and online purchase intention, while consumer attitude toward the website positively influences purchase intention. Moreover, involvement moderates the influence of product price and e-retailer reputation only on social risk but does not have a significant effect on consumer attitude toward the website. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of online auction users' behavior. Finally, the managerial implications, limitations and future research directions are also provided. PMID:21332721

  10. Effect of poultry litter biochar on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth and ethanol production from steam-exploded poplar and corn stover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, Oumou

    The use of ethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass for transportation fuel offers solutions in reducing environmental emission and the use of non-renewable fuels. However, lignocellulosic ethanol production is still hampered by economic and technical obstacles. For instance, the inhibitory effect of toxic compounds produced during biomass pretreatment was reported to inhibit the fermenting microorganisms, hence there was a decrease in ethanol yield and productivity. Thus, there is a need to improve the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol in order to promote its commercialization. The research reported here investigated the use of poultry litter biochar to improve the ethanol production from steam-exploded poplar and corn stover. The effect of poultry litter biochar was first studied on Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 204508/S288C growth, and second on the enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation of two steam-exploded biomasses: (poplar and corn stover). The third part of the study investigated optimal process parameters (biochar loading, biomass loading, and enzyme loading) on the reducing sugars production, and ethanol yield from steam-exploded corn stover. In this study, it has been shown that poultry litter biochar improved the S. cerevisiae growth and ethanol productivity; therefore poultry litter biochar could potentially be used to improve the ethanol production from steam-exploded lignocellulosic biomass.

  11. Poultry Products Management. 2+2+2 Articulated Curriculum in Agricultural Technology: First Year Final Report. July 1, 1989-June 30, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Texas Community Coll., Mount Pleasant.

    This guide is for an articulated two-year high school, two-year college curriculum for poultry products management developed by two postsecondary and five secondary institutions and representatives of the private sector in Texas. The guide includes the following: (1) a brief description of the occupation of poultry products manager; (2) the basic…

  12. Salmonella Enteritidis in Meat, Poultry, and Pasteurized Egg Products Regulated by the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service, 1998 through 2003

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests for Salmonella in meat, poultry, and egg products through three regulatory testing programs: the Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) program, the ready-to-eat (RTE) program for meat and poultry products, and the...

  13. Impact of irradiation on the safety and quality of poultry and meat products: a review.

    PubMed

    O'Bryan, Corliss A; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C; Olson, Dennis G

    2008-05-01

    For more than 100 years research on food irradiation has demonstrated that radiation will make food safer and improve the shelf life of irradiated foods. Using the current food safety technology, we may have reached the point of diminishing returns even though recent figures from the CDC show a significant drop in the number of foodborne illnesses. However, too many people continue to get sick and die from eating contaminated food. New and under utilized technologies such as food irradiation need to be re-examined to achieve new levels of safety for the food supply. Effects of irradiation on the safety and quality of meat and poultry are discussed. Irradiation control of the principle microbial pathogens including viruses, the differences among at-risk sub-populations, factors affecting the diminished rate of improvement in food safety and published D values for irradiating raw meat and poultry are presented. Currently permitted levels of irradiation are probably not sufficient to control pathogenic viruses. Typical gram-negative spoilage organisms are very sensitive to irradiation. Their destruction leads to a significant increase in the acceptable shelf life. In addition, the destruction of these normal spoilage organisms did not provide a competitive growth advantage for irradiation injured food pathogens. Another of the main focuses of this review is a detailed compilation of the effects of most of the food additives that have been proposed to minimize the negative quality effect of irradiation. Most of the antimicrobials and antioxidants used singly or in combination produced an increased lethality of irradiation and a decrease in oxidation by-products. Combinations of dosage, temperature, dietary and direct additives, storage temperature and packaging atmosphere can produce meats that the average consumer will find indistinguishable from non-irradiated meats. A discussion of the production of unique radiological by-products is also included. PMID:18464033

  14. Monitoring Campylobacter in the poultry production chain—from culture to genes and beyond.

    PubMed

    Josefsen, Mathilde H; Bhunia, Arun K; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Fachmann, Mette S R; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in poultry production. Standardized reference culture methods issued by national and international standardization organizations are time-consuming, cumbersome and not amenable to automation for screening of large numbers of samples. The ultimate goal for rapid monitoring of Campylobacter is to prevent contaminated meat from entering the food market. Currently, real-time PCR is fulfilling abovementioned criteria to a certain extent. Further development of real-time PCR, microarray PCR, miniaturized biosensors, chromatographic techniques and DNA sequencing can improve our monitoring capacity at a lower cost. Combined with innovative sampling and sample treatment, these techniques could become realistic options for on-farm and liquid-sample monitoring at slaughterhouses. PMID:25771343

  15. Control of Listeria species food safety at a poultry food production facility.

    PubMed

    Fox, Edward M; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance and control of food-borne human pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, is a critical aspect of modern food safety programs at food production facilities. This study evaluated contamination patterns of Listeria species at a poultry food production facility, and evaluated the efficacy of procedures to control the contamination and transfer of the bacteria throughout the plant. The presence of Listeria species was studied along the production chain, including raw ingredients, food-contact, non-food-contact surfaces, and finished product. All isolates were sub-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify possible entry points for Listeria species into the production chain, as well as identifying possible transfer routes through the facility. The efficacy of selected in-house sanitizers against a sub-set of the isolates was evaluated. Of the 77 different PFGE-types identified, 10 were found among two or more of the five categories/areas (ingredients, food preparation, cooking and packing, bulk packing, and product), indicating potential transfer routes at the facility. One of the six sanitizers used was identified as unsuitable for control of Listeria species. Combining PFGE data, together with information on isolate location and timeframe, facilitated identification of a persistent Listeria species contamination that had colonized the facility, along with others that were transient. PMID:26187831

  16. 76 FR 69146 - Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions-Reopening of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions'' (76 FR 44855) to amend its regulations to... FSIS has concerns. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rule published July 27, 2011, at 76 FR... Coalition's (TLC) petition and attachments referenced in the proposed rule (76 FR 44857). The TLC...

  17. 77 FR 72686 - HACCP Plan Reassessment for Not-Ready-To-Eat Comminuted Poultry Products and Related Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... serotype information can be used to better focus food safety efforts to protect public health. For example... Food Safety and Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 417 HACCP Plan Reassessment for Not-Ready-To-Eat Comminuted Poultry Products and Related Agency Verification Procedures AGENCY: Food Safety and...

  18. Use of FTA Cards for the Transport of DNA Samples of Salmonella spp. from Poultry Products from Southern Brazil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The contamination of products with Salmonella is a major threat to the poultry industry because the possible transmission to humans and animals can produce a huge negative impact. The diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes complicates the diagnostic systems and the transport of live ...

  19. Fish protein substrates can substitute effectively for poultry by-product meal when incorporated in high quality senior dog diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to analytically define several novel fish substrates and determine the effects of feeding diets containing these substrates on total tract nutrient digestibility and on immune status of senior dogs. The control diet contained poultry by-product meal while test diets cont...

  20. Lidar Approach in Estimating Particulate Mass Emissions from a Poultry Production Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, P. A.; Eichinger, W. E.; Prueger, J. H.; Hatfield, J.

    2009-12-01

    The current conventional particulate and mass emission measurements from livestock facilities rely primarily on point indoor/outdoor measurements. These measurements combined with assumed outflow rates from a building lead to emission rates and emission factors from the building. This approach, well established in the literature, poses accuracy and representation issues. To overcome the limitations of point measurement emission estimates, a new remote sensing approach is proposed. A scanning elastic lidar was used to estimate the spatially resolved extinction coefficient associated with particulates originating from a poultry production building. Particulate size distribution and wind co-measurements were combined with the lidar extinction coefficient data to estimate particulate mass fluxes and the emission factor from the building. The particulate size distribution was measured continuously since the size distribution changes significantly during the day. Assumptions of constant size distributions may result in errors of a factor of two in derived quantities. The data analysis from the study showed that the average particulate mass emission value from the poultry production building was 0.13±0.04 g/s (460±150 g/h) and the respective emission factor was 3.0±1.0 g/h AU (per animal unit, 500 kg live weight). The lidar estimated values are lower than the values found in the literature from point measurement studies. The study demonstrates a new innovative method in measuring emissions using scanning lidar technique. As presented in the study, the method can successfully address the need for a better tool for emission measurements in agricultural applications. The outlined measurement approach can be also applied, with careful considerations, to any non-point particulate emissions measurement needs in industry or in urban environment. Lidar, particle sizer and wind anemometer data processing flowchart leading to the particulate mass emission estimates

  1. Milk production, quality, and consumption in Jimma (Ethiopia): Facts and producers', retailers', and consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Piepers, S; Tefera, M; Getachew, Y; Supré, K; DeVliegher, S

    2016-02-01

    Four studies were performed to quantify milk production, quality and consumption in the town Jimma, Ethiopia. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain more insights in dairy farming and marketing, and associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n=188) were collected for 4 consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality [Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues]. Third, (bulk) milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the 3 local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible-and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fourth, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight in milk consumption and associated concerns of consumers. The average dairy farm included in the studies consisted of 5 lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by male, literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71% of the production) and directly to customers (25%) without any quality control, whereas 4% was self-consumed. Shortage of animal nutrition and adulteration of the milk were the main constraints for farmers and retailers, respectively. The median TBC, CC and SCC were 122,500CFU/mL, 1,005CFU/mL and 609,500cells/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 20% of all samples. In general, the milk quality was considered to be poor (TBC>10,000CFU/mL, and/or CC>100CFU/mL, and/or SCC>400,000cells/mL and/or presence of antimicrobial residues) in 97% of all samples. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (38%), 13 (33%), and 2 out of 3 of the milk samples originating from the dairy farms, the milk retailers, and the milk collection centers, respectively. Seven (26%) of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin suggesting the presence of MRSA (Lee, 2003). Local milk is occasionally consumed by adults but more frequently by children. Adults mainly drink spontaneously fermented milk (57% of 105

  2. Hazards associated with Clostridium perfringens in particular reference to predictive models applicable to cooling of cooked meat and poultry products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of C. perfringens food-poisoning is quite common and costly. Although somewhat fastidious in growth characteristics using synthetic laboratory media, the microorganism is very prolific when found in food products. Inadequate cooling of foods in retail food operations is a major safety ...

  3. Buying higher welfare poultry products? Profiling Flemish consumers who do and do not.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, F; Verbeke, W

    2009-12-01

    A substantial number of studies has already investigated differences within the consumer market with regard to attitudes and perceptions in relation to farm animal welfare. Likewise, several studies focused on the gap that exists between positive attitudes and reported consumption or purchase intentions for sustainable food products in general and higher welfare products more specific, and on the factors influencing this attitude-behavior gap. Little or no studies, however, have started from reported pro-welfare behavior to distinguish between consumer groups and to explore the motivations of the respective behavior. With this study, we aim to group consumers according to their reported buying frequency of higher welfare eggs and higher welfare chicken meat. Similarities and dissimilarities between these groups are mapped in terms of individual characteristics, product attribute importance, perceived consumer effectiveness, perception of higher welfare products, and attitude toward a welfare label. The research methodology applied was a quantitative study with cross-sectional consumer survey data collected in Flanders in spring 2007 (n = 469). Pro-welfare behavior was unevenly distributed across different consumer segments, despite a general interest and concern for bird welfare. A consistent choice for standard (no welfare premium) poultry products was related to strong perceived price and availability barriers, to a low importance attached to ethical issues as product attributes, and to a low perceived consumer effectiveness. A consistent choice for products with higher welfare standards to the contrast associated with a high importance attached to ethical issues; a low effect of price and availability perception; a strong association of higher welfare products with product attributes like health, taste, and quality; and a high perceived consumer effectiveness. The identification of market segments with common characteristics is essential for positioning higher

  4. Evaluation Of poultry by-product meal in commercial diets for hybrid striped bass (morone chrysops X M. saxatilis) in pond production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of replacing fishmeal with petfood grade poultry by-product (PBM) on an ideal protein basis in commercial diets for hybrid striped bass (HSB) was evaluated under production conditions in pond culture. A generic production diet (GEN) for HSB was formulated to contain 45% protein, 12% li...

  5. Lime and Micronutrient Use in Clean Chip Residual Substrate Amended with Composted Poultry Litter or Peat for Use in Annual Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clean Chip Residual (CCR) has been identified as possible replacement for pine bark (PB) in nursery and greenhouse production. Poultry litter is a major waste problem in Alabama for which alternative uses need to be explored. Pine bark, CCR, Composted poultry litter (CPL) CPL and peat were tested i...

  6. Spatial Variability of Ammonia Production in Poultry House: Biological, Chemical, and Physical Effects at Microscale.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding factors that affect ammonia emissions in poultry houses is a necessary first step in deploying potential remediation options. In this study, we examined the various factors (i.e., biological, physical, and chemical factors) that potentially affect ammonia emissions in a poultry house....

  7. Optimum poultry litter rates for maximum profit vs. yield in cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton lint yield responds well to increasing rates of poultry litter fertilization, but little is known of how optimum rates for yield compare with optimum rates for profit. The objectives of this study were to analyze cotton lint yield response to poultry litter application rates, determine and co...

  8. A microbial approach to understanding the production of ammonia in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As fertilizer costs increase, poultry litter has become an increasingly valuable commodity. Reducing ammonia (NH3) volatilization from poultry litter is therefore important not only to reduce ventilation costs and improve bird performance but also to retain the fertilizer value of the litter. The g...

  9. Consumer-reported handling of raw poultry products at home: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Bradley, Samantha; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter cause an estimated combined total of 1.8 million foodborne infections each year in the United States. Most cases of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis are associated with eating raw or undercooked poultry or with cross-contamination. Between 1998 and 2008, 20% of Salmonella and 16% of Campylobacter foodborne disease outbreaks were associated with food prepared inside the home. A nationally representative Web survey of U.S. adult grocery shoppers (n = 1,504) was conducted to estimate the percentage of consumers who follow recommended food safety practices when handling raw poultry at home. The survey results identified areas of low adherence to current recommended food safety practices: not washing raw poultry before cooking, proper refrigerator storage of raw poultry, use of a food thermometer to determine doneness, and proper thawing of raw poultry in cold water. Nearly 70% of consumers reported washing or rinsing raw poultry before cooking it, a potentially unsafe practice because "splashing" of contaminated water may lead to the transfer of pathogens to other foods and other kitchen surfaces. Only 17.5% of consumers reported correctly storing raw poultry in the refrigerator. Sixty-two percent of consumers own a food thermometer, and of these, 26% or fewer reported using one to check the internal temperature of smaller cuts of poultry and ground poultry. Only 11% of consumers who thaw raw poultry in cold water reported doing so correctly. The study results, coupled with other research findings, will inform the development of science-based consumer education materials that can help reduce foodborne illness from Salmonella and Campylobacter. PMID:25581194

  10. Effect of climatic variables on production and reproduction traits of colored broiler breeder poultry

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, G. D.; Behura, N. C.; Sardar, K. K.; Mishra, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the important climatic variables affecting production and reproduction in a broiler breeder flock. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for a period of 1 year on colored synthetic female line male and female poultry birds. 630 female progeny and 194 male progenies from 69 sires and 552 dams produced in four consecutive hatches at an interval of 10 days were used for the present study. Each of the seven, body weight and reproduction traits were regressed with nine environmental variables. Initially, the data were subjected to hatch effect and sire effect corrections through best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) method and, then, multiple linear regressions of environmental variables on each trait were applied. Result: The overall regression was significant (p<0.01) in all traits except 20 week age body weight of females. The R2 value ranged from 0.12 to 0.90 for the traits. Regression coefficient values (b values) for maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05) on 5th week age body weight of males. Similarly, evaporation and morning relative humidity (RH) was significant (p<0.05) for 5th week age body weight of females. Almost all b values were significant (p<0.05) for egg production up to 40 week age. The b values representing rainfall, morning RH, afternoon RH, sunshine hours, and rainy days were significant (p<0.05) on bodyweight at 20 week age. All environmental variables except maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05) on body weight of females at 20 weeks of age. Age at sexual maturity was regressed significantly (p<0.05) with evaporation, afternoon RH whereas, egg shape index was regressed significantly (p<0.05) with a maximum temperature, evaporation and afternoon RH. Conclusion: The result indicated that various environmental variables play a significant role in production and reproduction of breeder broiler poultry. Controlling these

  11. Microbiological pathogens: Live poultry considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry products continue to be implicated as the predominate source of food-borne pathogens worldwide. Most food-borne pathogen contamination from poultry originates from ante mortem poultry infections. This book section will address several potential areas of concern regarding the microbial ecolog...

  12. Appraisal of Chicken Production with Associated Biosecurity Practices in Commercial Poultry Farms Located in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Maduka, C. V.; Igbokwe, I. O.; Atsanda, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire-based study of chicken production system with on-farm biosecurity practices was carried out in commercial poultry farms located in Jos, Nigeria. Commercial and semicommercial farms had 75.3% and 24.5% of 95,393 birds on 80 farms, respectively. Farms using deep litter and battery cage systems were 69 (86.3%) and 10 (12.5%), respectively. In our biosecurity scoring system, a correct practice of each indicator of an event scored 1.00 and biosecurity score (BS) of each farm was the average of the scores of biosecurity indicators for the farm, giving BS of zero and 1.00 as absence of biosecurity and optimal biosecurity, respectively. Semicommercial farms had higher BS than commercial farms. The flock size did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the mean BS. Disease outbreaks correlated (r = −0.97) with BS, showing a tendency of reduction of disease outbreaks with increasing BS. Outbreaks were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with deep litter system. In conclusion, the chicken production system requires increased drive for excellent biosecurity practices and weak points in the biosecurity could be ameliorated by extension of information to farmers in order to support expansion of chicken production with robust biosecurity measures that drastically reduce risk of disease outbreak. PMID:27200208

  13. Changing risk of environmental Campylobacter exposure with emerging poultry production systems in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Brena, M C; Mekonnen, Y; Bettridge, J M; Williams, N J; Wigley, P; Sisay Tessema, T; Christley, R M

    2016-02-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of diarrhoea, and its presence in chickens is a significant risk for zoonotic infection. Poultry production is becoming increasingly intensive in Ethiopia and is incorporating more high-producing breeds into traditionally managed smallholdings, especially in peri-urban areas. This cross-sectional study sampled 219 household environments in one peri-urban and two rural areas of Ethiopia, and an additional 20 semi-intensive farms in the peri-urban district. Campylobacter was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-specific assays in 44 samples; 16 of which could be identified as C. jejuni. Flocks in the peri-urban area were at significantly greater odds of detection, including those which only kept indigenous birds under a scavenging system. It was also noted that scavenging flocks of exotic high-production birds (Rhode Island Red) were at slightly greater risk, perhaps as exotic birds are under more stress when kept under traditional management systems. We suggest that changes to the system of chicken production may alter the ecology and epidemiology of Campylobacter in the environment, chickens and people, which may drive emergence of new epidemiological patterns of disease. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which the current management intensification and the distribution programmes of exotic and/or improved indigenous birds may alter Campylobacter epidemiology, ecology and public health risk, before their widespread adoption. PMID:26160752

  14. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Poultry). 381.173 Section 381.173 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  15. Genetically modified feeds in poultry diet: safety, performance, and product quality.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Selvaggi, M; Dario, C; Laudadio, V

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of using biotechnology derived feeds in diets of livestock animals and in regard to human consumption of products from species fed transgenic crops. As a consequence, a large number of poultry nutrition studies have been conducted to evaluate the wholesomeness of transgenic crops by examining performances of animals during growth or egg laying. Studies also evaluated whether foreign DNA and proteins could be detected in meat, egg, and tissue samples from broiler chickens and laying hens fed diets containing transgenic feeds. In all studies, the conclusions were in agreement that the transgenic crops provided comparable performance, carcass and egg yields, and meat and egg composition, when compared with conventional grains. Moreover, it was demonstrated that transgenic proteins and DNA present in livestock feeds are not detectable in food products derived from these animals, using the most sensitive detection methods available, confirming that they are rapidly degraded by normal digestive processes. The lack of significant differences were a result of the similarity in nutrient composition of the genetically modified feeds and lack of differences in intake and digestibility, while there were no evidences that the differences reported for performance response variables and carcass measurements between treatment groups were attributable to the presence of the transgenic gene and protein in the biotechnology derived plants. Results demonstrated that genetically modified feeds are substantially equivalent and they result as safe as existing conventional feeds. PMID:24915369

  16. Public Health Effects of Restricting Retail Tobacco Product Displays and Ads

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David T.; Lindblom, Eric N.; Fleischer, Nancy L.; Thrasher, James; Mohlman, Mary Kate; Zhang, Yian; Monshouwer, Karin; Nagelhout, Gera E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the public health impact from restricting US retail point-of-sale (POS) tobacco product displays and advertising. Methods Based on existing research, this paper estimates the effects on initiation and cessation rates from restricting POS tobacco product displays and ads in the US and uses the SimSmoke simulation model to project related smoking declines and health benefits. Results New comprehensive POS restrictions are projected to reduce smoking prevalence by approximately 16% [range=3%–31%] relative to the status quo by 2065, preventing about 630,000 smoking-attributable deaths [range=108,000–1,225,000], 215,000 low birth weight births [range=33,000–421,000], 140,000 preterm births [range=22,000–271,000], and 1900 infant deaths from SIDSs [range=300–3800]. Conclusions Federal, state, or local action to restrict POS tobacco product displays and ads would contribute to a substantial reduction in smoking-attributed death and disease. PMID:26191538

  17. Zoonotic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from retail chicken meat products and eggs.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Natalie M; Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian; Curtiss, Roy; Mellata, Melha

    2015-02-01

    Chicken products are suspected as a source of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which causes diseases in humans. The zoonotic risk to humans from chicken-source E. coli is not fully elucidated. To clarify the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC in chicken products and to fill existing knowledge gaps regarding ExPEC zoonosis, we evaluated the prevalence of ExPEC on shell eggs and compared virulence-associated phenotypes between ExPEC and non-ExPEC isolates from both chicken meat and eggs. The prevalence of ExPEC among egg-source isolates was low, i.e., 5/108 (4.7%). Based on combined genotypic and phenotypic screening results, multiple human and avian pathotypes were represented among the chicken-source ExPEC isolates, including avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC), uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC), and sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC), as well as an undefined ExPEC group, which included isolates with fewer virulence factors than the APEC, UPEC, and NMEC isolates. These findings document a substantial prevalence of human-pathogenic ExPEC-associated genes and phenotypes among E. coli isolates from retail chicken products and identify key virulence traits that could be used for screening. PMID:25480753

  18. Zoonotic Potential of Escherichia coli Isolates from Retail Chicken Meat Products and Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Natalie M.; Johnson, James R.; Johnston, Brian; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Chicken products are suspected as a source of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), which causes diseases in humans. The zoonotic risk to humans from chicken-source E. coli is not fully elucidated. To clarify the zoonotic risk posed by ExPEC in chicken products and to fill existing knowledge gaps regarding ExPEC zoonosis, we evaluated the prevalence of ExPEC on shell eggs and compared virulence-associated phenotypes between ExPEC and non-ExPEC isolates from both chicken meat and eggs. The prevalence of ExPEC among egg-source isolates was low, i.e., 5/108 (4.7%). Based on combined genotypic and phenotypic screening results, multiple human and avian pathotypes were represented among the chicken-source ExPEC isolates, including avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC), uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC), and sepsis-associated E. coli (SEPEC), as well as an undefined ExPEC group, which included isolates with fewer virulence factors than the APEC, UPEC, and NMEC isolates. These findings document a substantial prevalence of human-pathogenic ExPEC-associated genes and phenotypes among E. coli isolates from retail chicken products and identify key virulence traits that could be used for screening. PMID:25480753

  19. Project Economic Stew: A Study of Poultry and Rice. A Third-grade Economics Project [and] A Bird's Eye View of an Economic Stew: A Study of Poultry and Rice Production in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Penny

    An economics project for third grade children is described and lessons for teaching basic economic concepts are provided. In the first semester, students studied basic economic concepts; in the second semester, they learned about the origin, production, and distribution of rice and poultry and how these products affect the local and state…

  20. Surveillance of tobacco industry retail marketing activities of reduced harm products.

    PubMed

    Slater, Sandy; Giovino, Gary; Chaloupka, Frank

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) and the interest in studying tobacco harm reduction, sound research and surveillance are needed to examine and understand the distribution and availability of PREPs in communities, as well as the tobacco industry's marketing practices surrounding these products. We examined the availability and marketing of PREPs in a national sample of tobacco retail stores. We also compared the price of PREPs to those of premium brand cigarettes and examined the distribution of PREPs in comparison with premium brand cigarettes by store type, urbanization, region, and race/ethnicity. We found that PREPs are not widely available, are priced similarly to leading cigarette brands, and have few promotional offers. We also found some significant differences in the distribution of PREPs and cigarettes, as well as in the distribution of Ariva and Omni, by store type and community demographics. The fact that this study used data collected nationally emphasizes the importance of these findings and helps shed some light on the tobacco industry's PREP marketing strategies. This study's national sample provides a unique perspective that needs to be replicated if and when other PREPs are widely marketed. PMID:18188759

  1. Development and application of novel SNP-based serotyping assays in targeting Salmonella enterica within the poultry production and processing continuum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteriditis (S. Enteriditis) is the leading cause of salmonellosis worldwide. While some S. enterica serotypes are specific to birds, many represent human zoonotic pathogens, thus their presence and survival throughout the continuum of poultry production...

  2. The interim regulated legal market for NPS ('legal high') products in New Zealand: The impact of new retail restrictions and product licensing.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Chris

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand has recently established the world's first regulated legal market for new psychoactive products (NPS) (i.e. 'legal highs'). While the new regime is currently in a transitional phase, a range of retail restrictions and an interim licensing regime for NPS products and operators has been introduced. A product safety assessment framework has been developed to determine if a product should receive an interim licence. As a result of the licensing requirements, the number of NPS retail outlets fell from 3000- 4000 largely convenience stores to 156 specialty stores, and the number of legally available NPS products fell from 200 to fewer than 46. Some of the licensed products contain potent cannabinoid compounds. The licensing system provided, for the first time, information on all the products and operators involved in the sector, and this will assist future monitoring. The effectiveness of the new product safety assessment framework will depend on the quality of the data available on adverse cases. This is a challenge as self-reported information from users is often unreliable, and some emergency department cases do not have all the information required to make an accurate assessment. These data limitations indicate the need for retrospective studies of NPS adverse cases and additional test data. While the new legislation initially reduced the number of NPS retailers by prohibiting convenience outlets, new specialized NPS retail outlets may emerge as the new sector expands. Empirical research is required to measure the impact of the reduction in retail outlets and products on NPS availability. PMID:24817124

  3. Edible apple film wraps containing plant antimicrobials inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, Sadhana; Zhu, Libin; Olsen, Carl W; McHugh, Tara H; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-10-01

    Apple-based edible films containing plant antimicrobials were evaluated for their activity against pathogenic bacteria on meat and poultry products. Salmonella enterica or E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) CFU/g) cultures were surface inoculated on chicken breasts and Listeria monocytogenes (10(6) CFU/g) on ham. The inoculated products were then wrapped with edible films containing 3 concentrations (0.5%, 1.5%, and 3%) of cinnamaldehyde or carvacrol. Following incubation at either 23 or 4 degrees C for 72 h, samples were stomached in buffered peptone water, diluted, and plated for enumeration of survivors. The antimicrobial films exhibited concentration-dependent activities against the pathogens tested. At 23 degrees C on chicken breasts, films with 3% antimicrobials showed the highest reductions (4.3 to 6.8 log CFU/g) of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7. Films with 1.5% and 0.5% antimicrobials showed 2.4 to 4.3 and 1.6 to 2.8 log reductions, respectively. At 4 degrees C, carvacrol exhibited greater activity than did cinnamaldehyde. Films with 3%, 1.5%, and 0.5% carvacrol reduced the bacterial populations by about 3, 1.6 to 3, and 0.8 to 1 logs, respectively. Films with 3% and 1.5% cinnamaldehyde induced 1.2 to 2.8 and 1.2 to 1.3 log reductions, respectively. For L. monocytogenes on ham, carvacrol films induced greater reductions than did cinnamaldehyde films at all concentrations tested. In general, the reduction of L. monocytogenes on ham at 23 degrees C was greater than at 4 degrees C. Added antimicrobials had minor effects on physical properties of the films. The results suggest that the food industry and consumers could use these films as wrappings to control surface contamination by foodborne pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:19799671

  4. Controlling Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production in poultry feed using carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hsin-Bai; Chen, Chi-Hung; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Darre, Michael J; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites primarily produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Contamination of poultry feed with AF is a major concern to the poultry industry due to severe economic losses stemming from poor performance, reduced egg production, and diminished egg hatchability. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of 2 generally regarded as safe (GRAS), natural plant compounds, namely carvacrol (CR) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), on A. flavus and A. parasiticus growth and AF production in potato dextrose broth (PDB) and in poultry feed. In broth culture, PDB supplemented with CR (0%, 0.02%, 0.04% and 0.08%) or TC (0%, 0.005%, 0.01% and 0.02%) was inoculated with A. flavus or A. parasiticus (6 log CFU/mL), and mold counts and AF production were determined on days 0, 1, 3, and 5. Similarly, 200 g portions of poultry feed supplemented with CR or TC (0%, 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.0%) were inoculated with each mold, and their counts and AF concentrations in the feed were determined at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of storage. Moreover, the effect of CR and TC on the expression of AF synthesis genes in A. flavus and A. parasiticus (aflC, nor1, norA, and ver1) was determined using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). All experiments had duplicate samples and were replicated 3 times. Results indicated that CR and TC reduced A. flavus and A. parasiticus growth and AF production in broth culture and chicken feed (P<0.05). All tested concentrations of CR and TC decreased AF production in broth culture and chicken feed by at least 60% when compared to controls (P<0.05). In addition, CR and TC down-regulated the expression of major genes associated with AF synthesis in the molds (P<0.05). Results suggest the potential use of CR and TC as feed additives to control AF contamination in poultry feed. PMID:26217023

  5. Prevalence, characterization, and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas strains from various retail food products in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Vandan; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2011-09-01

    A total of 154 food samples (chicken, fish, and ready-to-eat sprouts) from various retail outlets in Mumbai, India, were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas spp. over a period of 2 y (January 2006 to March 2008). Twenty-two Aeromonas isolates belonging to 7 different species were isolated from 18 (11.7%) food samples. The highest percentages of isolation were from chicken (28.6%) followed by fish (20%) and sprout (2.5%) samples. Aeromonas caviae, A. veronii bv. sobria, and A. salmonicida were the most frequently isolated species from sprouts, chicken, and fish samples, respectively. The genes encoding for putative virulence factors, cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), hemolysin (hly), aerolysin (aer), elastase (ahyB), and lipase (lip) were detected using polymerase chain reaction method in 59.1%, 40.9%, 22.7%, 54.5%, and 31.8% of the strains, respectively. The isolated Aeromonas strains were found to be positive for virulence factors, that is, amylase, DNase, gelatinase, protease, and lipase production. More than 60% isolates were also positive for β-hemolytic activity. All these food isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin and bacitracin, and sensitive to gentamicin, 3rd-generation cephalosporins (ceftazidime, cephotaxime, ceftriaxone), and chloramphenicol. Seventeen (77.2%) isolates harbored single and/or multiple plasmids (approximately 5 to >16 kb). The XbaI digestion patterns of chromosomal DNA of these isolates, using pulsed field gel electrophoresis, showed high genetic diversity among these isolates. Our results demonstrate the presence of various Aeromonas spp. with virulence potential and antimicrobial resistance in different food products marketed in Mumbai, India. The potential health risks posed by consumption of these raw or undercooked food products should not be underestimated. PMID:21824136

  6. A new Lactobacillus plantarum strain, TN8, from the gastro intestinal tract of poultry induces high cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, Riadh; Trabelsi, Imen; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Lassoued, Saloua; Chouayekh, Hichem; Bejar, Samir

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the probiotic potential of 100 strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from different intestinal segments of indigenous poultry in Tunisia. The strains were submitted to a battery of standard tests and criteria commonly used for determining their probiotic properties and attributes. The findings revealed that 19 of the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against 4 pathogenic bacteria, and that 4 (TN1, TN8, TN7, and TN13) showed good resistance to pH 3 and 5% bovine bile. Three isolates, namely TN1, TN8, and TN13, showed sensitivity to several antibiotics and were, therefore, selected for further enzymatic activity assays. Two isolates, namely TN1 and TN8, showed high efficacy of adhesion to chicken enterocytes. The cytokines released after stimulation by the two isolates showed high anti-inflammatory profiles, with an increased rate of Interleukin-10 (IL-10) production for the TN8 strain. Showing the highest performance, TN8 was submitted to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which revealed that the strain was of the species Lactobacillus plantarum. Overall, the findings indicate that the Lactobacilli from poultry intestine has a number of promising properties that make it candidate for application as a probiotic additive in poultry industry. PMID:22634330

  7. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... poultry or eggs must certify on the forms that the poultry or eggs covered are, or are not, subject to...

  8. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... poultry or eggs must certify on the forms that the poultry or eggs covered are, or are not, subject to...

  9. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... poultry or eggs must certify on the forms that the poultry or eggs covered are, or are not, subject to...

  10. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... poultry or eggs must certify on the forms that the poultry or eggs covered are, or are not, subject to...

  11. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... poultry or eggs must certify on the forms that the poultry or eggs covered are, or are not, subject to...

  12. Animal Well-Being in Small Poultry Flocks: Improving bird health and product quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumer interest in farm animal welfare is increasing and, while there is little legislation, voluntary welfare assurance programs exist; however, most small poultry producers do not participate in these programs. Raising birds in small flocks has some inherent welfare advantages, such as ample sp...

  13. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork, and poultry products during chilling.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Vijay K; Baker, David A; Thippareddi, H; Snyder, O Peter; Mohr, Tim B

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Clostridium perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in 10 commercially prepared acidified beef, pork, and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted with organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commercial products ranged from 4.74 to 6.35. Products were inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of C. perfringens spores to achieve ca. 2-log (low) or 4-log (high) inoculum levels, vacuum packaged, and cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 21 h to simulate abusive cooling; the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) recommends a cooling time of 6.5 h. Total germinated C. perfringens populations were determined after plating on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar and incubating the plates anaerobically at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, C. perfringens growth from spores was assessed at an isothermal temperature of 44°C. Growth from spores was inhibited in ground beef with a pH of 5.5 or below, even during extended cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 21 h. In ground beef with a pH of 5.6, the growth was >1 log after 18 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. However, 15 h of cooling controlled the growth to <1 log, regardless of the inoculum level. In addition, no growth was observed in any product with a pH ranging from 4.74 to 5.17, both during exponential abusive cooling periods of up to 21 h and during storage for 21 h at 44°C. While <1-log growth of C. perfringens from spores was observed in the pH 5.63 product cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 15 h or less, the pH 6.35 product supported growth, even after 6 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. These challenge tests demonstrate that adjustment of ground beef to pH of 5.5 or less and of barbeque products to pH of 5.63 or less inhibits C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth during extended cooling periods from 54.4 to 7.2°C up to 15 h. Therefore

  14. Poultry Industry Energy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The poultry industry, a multi-billion dollar business in the United States, uses great amounts of energy in such operations as broiler growing, feed manufacturing, poultry processing and packing. Higher costs and limited supply of fuels common to the industry are predicted, so poultry producers are seeking ways to reduce energy expenditure. NASA is providing assistance to Delmarva Poultry Industry, Inc., an association of some 4,000 growers and suppliers in one of the nation's largest poultry production areas. Delmarva is the East Coast peninsula that includes Delaware and parts of Maryland and Virginia. The upper right photo shows a weather station in the Delmarva area (wind indicator on the pole, other instruments in the elevated box). The station is located at the University of Maryland's Broiler Sub-station, Salisbury; Maryland, where the university conducts research on poultry production and processing. The sub-station is investigating ways of conserving energy in broiler production and also exploring the potential of solar collectors as an alternative energy source. For these studies, it is essential that researchers have continuous data on temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction, solar intensity and cloud cover. Equipment to acquire such data was loaned and installed by NASA's Wallops Flight Center, Wallops Island, Virginia.

  15. Live poultry exposures, Hong Kong and Hanoi, 2006.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Richard; Bich, Tran H; Quang, La Ngoc; Lam, Wendy W T; Leung, Gabriel M; Tien, Truong Q; Ho, Ella Y Y; Anht, Le V

    2007-07-01

    Since 1997, the largest epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) ever recorded has caused 172 human and several billion bird deaths. Recently administered questionnaires determined that live poultry exposures have declined by approximately 63% in Hong Kong since 2004 and that, in Vietnam, domestic backyard exposures to poultry are likely more important than retail exposures. PMID:18214181

  16. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  17. Can probiotics improve the environmental microbiome and resistome of commercial poultry production?

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Adriana A; Hurley-Bacon, Anne L; Zedek, Andrea S; Kwan, Tiffany W; Jordan, Andrea P O; Avellaneda, Gloria; Hofacre, Charles L; Oakley, Brian B; Collett, Stephen R; Maurer, John J; Lee, Margie D

    2013-10-01

    Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and significant amounts of fecal waste. Increasing use of manure and litter as a more "natural" and affordable source of fertilizer may be contributing to contamination of fruits and vegetables with foodborne pathogens. In addition, human and animal manure have been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil and waterways. Therefore, identifying methods to remediate human and animal waste is critical in developing strategies to improve food safety and minimize the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study, we sought to determine whether withdrawing antibiotic growth promoters or using alternatives to antibiotics would reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes or prevalence of pathogens in poultry litter. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) paired with high throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the bacterial community composition of litter from broiler chickens that were treated with streptogramin growth-promoting antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics. The prevalence of resistance genes and pathogens was determined from sequencing results or PCR screens of litter community DNA. Streptogramin antibiotic usage did not elicit statistically significant differences in Shannon diversity indices or correlation coefficients among the flocks. However, T-RFLP revealed that there were inter-farm differences in the litter composition that was independent of antibiotic usage. The litter from all farms, regardless of antibiotic usage, contained streptogramin resistance genes (vatA, vatB, and vatE), macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA and ermB), the tetracycline resistance gene tetM and class 1 integrons. There was inter-farm variability in the distribution of vatA and vatE with no statistically

  18. Measuring the costs of biosecurity on poultry farms: a case study in broiler production in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Farm-level biosecurity provides the foundation for biosecurity along the entire production chain. Many risk management practices are constantly in place, regardless of whether there is a disease outbreak or not. Nonetheless, the farm-level costs of preventive biosecurity have rarely been assessed. We examined the costs incurred by preventive biosecurity for Finnish poultry farms. Methods We used a semi-structured phone interview and obtained results from 17 broiler producers and from 5 hatching egg producers, corresponding to about 10% of all producers in Finland. Results Our results indicate that the average cost of biosecurity is some 3.55 eurocent per bird for broiler producers (0.10 eurocent per bird per rearing day) and 75.7 eurocent per bird for hatching egg producers (0.27 eurocent per bird per rearing day). For a batch of 75,000 broilers, the total cost would be €2,700. The total costs per bird are dependent on the annual number of birds: the higher the number of birds, the lower the cost per bird. This impact is primarily due to decreasing labour costs rather than direct monetary costs. Larger farms seem to utilise less labour per bird for biosecurity actions. There are also differences relating to the processor with which the producer is associated, as well as to the gender of the producer, with female producers investing more in biosecurity. Bird density was found to be positively related to the labour costs of biosecurity. This suggests that when the bird density is higher, greater labour resources need to be invested in their health and welfare and hence disease prevention. The use of coccidiostats as a preventive measure to control coccidiosis was found to have the largest cost variance between the producers, contributing to the direct costs. Conclusions The redesign of cost-sharing in animal diseases is currently ongoing in the European Union. Before we can assert how the risk should be shared or resort to the 'polluter pays' principle

  19. The Antibiofilm Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract Against Salmonella and Listeria Isolates from Poultry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Park, Keun Cheol; Choi, Beom Geun; Park, Jin Hwa; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2016-05-01

    Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. are common foodborne pathogens in poultry and have caused a large number of outbreaks worldwide. Biofilm formation is common in the food industry and is also a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial effect and mechanism of Ginkgo biloba extract against the biofilm formation of Salmonella and Listeria isolates from poultry at retail markets. Bacteria detection, isolation, and enumeration were carried out on 27 chicken and 29 ducks at retail markets. The effects of temperature and G. biloba extract against biofilm formation of Salmonella and Listeria isolates were measured using the crystal violet assay and swimming and swarming motilities. The monitoring results of Salmonella and Listeria in 56 poultry carcasses at retail markets in Korea showed that the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in poultry was low (5.4%), but the prevalence of Listeria spp (78.6%) was high. L. innocua was the predominant serotype (80%) in the isolated Listeria species. Temperature, strain, and surface affected the biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. L. innocua showed the best biofilm formation ability on a 96-well plate, while Salmonella Enteritidis formed the most biofilm on a glass slide. Biofilm formation abilities of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were increased with the increase of temperature. G. biloba extract at 75 μg/mL significantly inhibited biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp (p < 0.05). The mechanism of the antibiofilm effect of the G. biloba extract showed that the motility reduction may be one of the mechanisms of G. biloba extract against some serotypes of Salmonella and Listeria, but not L. monocytogenes. The findings of this study provided the basis for the application of G. biloba extract as a food additive to promote the quality and safety of poultry products. PMID:26954614

  20. Incidence and identification of mesophilic Aeromonas spp. from retail foods.

    PubMed

    Neyts, K; Huys, G; Uyttendaele, M; Swings, J; Debevere, J

    2000-11-01

    Sixty-eight food samples were examined for the presence of mesophilic Aeromonas species both qualitatively and quantitatively. Aeromonads were isolated from 26% of the vegetable samples, 70% of the meat and poultry samples and 72% of the fish and shrimps. Numbers of motile aeromonads present in the food samples varied from <10(2) cfu g(-1) to >10(5) cfu g(-1). GLC analysis of FAMEs was used to identify a selection of presumptive Aeromonas colonies to fenospecies or genomic species level. Aeromonas strains belonging to the Aer. caviae complex, which also includes the potentially pathogenic genospecies HG4, were mostly isolated from vegetables but were also found in meat, poultry and fish. In addition, three strains of the virulent taxon Aer. veronii biovar sobria HG8 were isolated from poultry and minced meat. All members of the Aer. hydrophila complex, predominant in the fish, meat and poultry samples, were classified in the non-virulent taxon HG3. Although the significance of Aeromonas in foods remains undefined, the isolation of Aeromonas HG4 and HG8 strains from a variety of retail foods may indicate that these products can act as possible vehicles for the dissemination of food-borne Aeromonas gastroenteritis. PMID:11069637

  1. Practices associated with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza spread in traditional poultry marketing chains: Social and economic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Paul, Mathilde; Baritaux, Virginie; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Roger, François; Bonnet, Pascal; Ducrot, Christian

    2013-04-01

    In developing countries, smallholder poultry production contributes to food security and poverty alleviation in rural areas. However, traditional poultry marketing chains have been threatened by the epidemics caused by the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) virus. The article presents a value chain analysis conducted on the traditional poultry marketing chain in the rural province of Phitsanulok, Thailand. The analysis is based on quantitative data collected on 470 backyard chicken farms, and on qualitative data collected on 28 poultry collectors, slaughterhouses and market retailers, using semi-structured interviews. The article examines the organization of poultry marketing chains in time and space, and shows how this may contribute to the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in the small-scale poultry sector. The article also discusses the practices and strategies developed by value chain actors facing poultry mortality, with their economic and social determinants. More broadly, this study also illustrates how value chain analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the complex mechanisms associated with the spread of epidemics in rural communities. PMID:23337390

  2. A hybrid DNA extraction method for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of bacterial communities from poultry production samples.

    PubMed

    Rothrock, Michael J; Hiett, Kelli L; Gamble, John; Caudill, Andrew C; Cicconi-Hogan, Kellie M; Caporaso, J Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of DNA extraction protocols can be highly dependent upon both the type of sample being investigated and the types of downstream analyses performed. Considering that the use of new bacterial community analysis techniques (e.g., microbiomics, metagenomics) is becoming more prevalent in the agricultural and environmental sciences and many environmental samples within these disciplines can be physiochemically and microbiologically unique (e.g., fecal and litter/bedding samples from the poultry production spectrum), appropriate and effective DNA extraction methods need to be carefully chosen. Therefore, a novel semi-automated hybrid DNA extraction method was developed specifically for use with environmental poultry production samples. This method is a combination of the two major types of DNA extraction: mechanical and enzymatic. A two-step intense mechanical homogenization step (using bead-beating specifically formulated for environmental samples) was added to the beginning of the "gold standard" enzymatic DNA extraction method for fecal samples to enhance the removal of bacteria and DNA from the sample matrix and improve the recovery of Gram-positive bacterial community members. Once the enzymatic extraction portion of the hybrid method was initiated, the remaining purification process was automated using a robotic workstation to increase sample throughput and decrease sample processing error. In comparison to the strict mechanical and enzymatic DNA extraction methods, this novel hybrid method provided the best overall combined performance when considering quantitative (using 16S rRNA qPCR) and qualitative (using microbiomics) estimates of the total bacterial communities when processing poultry feces and litter samples. PMID:25548939

  3. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  4. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  5. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  6. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  7. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  8. 9 CFR 93.205 - Certificate for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certificate for poultry. 93.205... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  9. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  10. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  11. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  12. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  13. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  14. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  15. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  16. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  17. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  18. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  19. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  20. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  1. 9 CFR 93.205 - Certificate for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for poultry. 93.205... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  2. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  3. 9 CFR 381.194 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and parts of carcasses of poultry that died otherwise... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  4. 9 CFR 381.194 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and parts of carcasses of poultry that died otherwise... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  5. 9 CFR 381.194 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and parts of carcasses of poultry that died otherwise... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  6. 9 CFR 381.194 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and parts of carcasses of poultry that died otherwise... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  7. 9 CFR 381.194 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and parts of carcasses of poultry that died otherwise... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  8. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... seq.) and regulations thereunder (9 CFR part 381), including requirements that the poultry or poultry... Register citations affecting § 94.6, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations...

  9. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... seq.) and regulations thereunder (9 CFR part 381), including requirements that the poultry or poultry... Register citations affecting § 94.6, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations...

  10. Red discoloration of fully cooked poultry meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red or bloody appearance of fully cooked poultry meat is a severe defect. Methods for inducing discoloration for further study, including control of and causes of red discoloration were determined. Cooked retail parts (n=274) showed approximately 11% discoloration and 0.4% bloodiness. To induce r...

  11. A review of the incidence and transmission of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat products in retail and food service environments.

    PubMed

    Lianou, Alexandra; Sofos, John N

    2007-09-01

    Contamination of ready-to-eat products with Listeria monocytogenes may occur at several stages before consumption. Accessibility to the public and relatively limited control interventions at retail and food service establishments (compared with the processing sector of the food industry) and the lack of a specific regulatory framework increase the likelihood of introduction of this pathogen into some foods in these establishments. This review is a compilation of available information on the incidence and transmission of L. monocytogenes through ready-to-eat products at the retail and food service level. The potential transmission of L. monocytogenes within retail and food service operations has been indicated in epidemiological investigations and by survey data. Potential sources of the organism in these operations include the environment, food handlers, and incoming raw ingredients or processed products that have become contaminated after the lethality treatment at the manufacturing facility. L. monocytogenes may be present at retail and food service establishments in various ready-to-eat products, both prepackaged and those packaged in the store, and occasionally at high concentrations. This issue dictates the need for development and application of effective control measures, and potential control approaches are discussed here. Good manufacturing practices, appropriate cleaning, sanitation and hygiene programs, and temperature control required for prevention or inhibition of growth of the pathogen to high levels are critical for control of L. monocytogenes in the retail and food service sector. A comprehensive food safety system designed to be functional in retail and food service operations and based on the philosophy of hazard analysis and critical control point systems and a series of sound prerequisite programs can provide effective control of L. monocytogenes in these environments. However, competent delivery of food safety education and training to retail

  12. Physiological and functional characteristics of Propionibacterium strains of the poultry microbiota and relevance for the development of probiotic products.

    PubMed

    Argañaraz-Martínez, Eloy; Babot, Jaime D; Apella, María C; Perez Chaia, Adriana

    2013-10-01

    The prevention and control of pathogens colonization through probiotics administration in poultry feeding is of increasing interest. The genus Propionibacterium is an attractive candidate for the development of probiotic cultures as they produce short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by carbohydrates fermentation. The presence of strains of this genus in hens of conventional production systems and backyard hens was investigated. Propionibacteria were isolated from the intestine and identified by physiological and biochemical tests. PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene of the isolates was performed and products were compared with sequences from databases. The presence of the genus Propionibacterium was demonstrated in 26% of hens and Propionibacterium acidipropionici and Propionibacterium avidum were the identified species. A comparative study of their physiological and functional characteristics was performed. P. acidipropionici strains were the most resistant to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, but the adhesion to intestinal tissue was strain dependent. Some differences were found between both species with respect to their growth and SCFA production in an in vitro cecal water model, but all the strains were metabolically active. The production of SCFA in cecal slurries inoculated with the strain P. acidipropionici LET 105 was 30% higher than in non-inoculated samples. SCFA concentrations obtained were high enough to inhibit Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis when assayed in a cecal water model. P. acidipropionici LET 105 was also able to compete with Salmonella for adhesion sites on the intestinal mucosa in ex vivo assays. Results contribute to the knowledge of the species diversity of the genus Propionibacterium in the intestine of poultry and provide evidence of their potential for probiotics products development. PMID:23973927

  13. Microbiological pathogens: Live poultry considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food-borne illness is a significant worldwide public health problem. Salmonella is the predominate food-borne pathogen worldwide, and poultry and poultry products are, reportedly, a prevailing vehicle for salmonellosis. More recently, population-based active surveillance by investigators of the Fo...

  14. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  15. 76 FR 22359 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Poultry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Poultry Meat and Other Poultry Products From Sinaloa... importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. DATES: We will... poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico, contact Dr. Magde Elshafie,...

  16. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  17. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  18. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  19. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  20. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  1. 9 CFR 381.103 - Official poultry condemnation certificates; issuance and form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official poultry condemnation... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  2. 9 CFR 381.103 - Official poultry condemnation certificates; issuance and form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Official poultry condemnation... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  3. 9 CFR 381.103 - Official poultry condemnation certificates; issuance and form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official poultry condemnation... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  4. 9 CFR 381.103 - Official poultry condemnation certificates; issuance and form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official poultry condemnation... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  5. 9 CFR 381.103 - Official poultry condemnation certificates; issuance and form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Official poultry condemnation... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  6. Poultry Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Poultry are one of the most badly treated animals in the modern world. It has been shown that they have high levels of both cognition and feelings, and as a result there has been a recent trend of promoting poultry welfare. There is also a tradition of keeping poultry as pets in some parts of the world. However, in modern cities and societies, it is often difficult to maintain contact with pets, particularly for office workers. We propose and describe a novel cybernetics system to use mobile and Internet technology to improve human-pet interaction. It can also be used for people who are allergic to touching animals and thus cannot stroke them directly. This interaction encompasses both visualization and tactile sensation of real objects.

  7. Nitrogen utilization from diets with refined and blended poultry by-products as partial fish meal replacements in diets for low-salinity cultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three trials were performed to evaluate partial fish meal (FM) replacement with poultry by-products in a practical-type diet for Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus reared in low-salinity. Two refined and blended meals (BP67, BP70), two chicken concentrates (CC66, CC70) and one standard pet-food ...

  8. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Arné, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anaïs; Féménia, Françoise; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

  9. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from food and food products of poultry origin in Germany.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Andrea T; Kadlec, Kristina; Hassel, Melanie; Hauschild, Tomasz; Eidam, Christopher; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Schwarz, Stefan

    2011-10-01

    During a survey of fresh chicken and turkey meat as well as chicken and turkey meat products for the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in Germany, 32 (37.2%) of 86 samples were MRSA positive. Twenty-eight of these MRSA isolates belonged to clonal complex 398 (CC398), which is widespread among food-producing animals. These CC398 isolates carried SCCmec elements of type IV or V and exhibited spa type t011, t034, t899, t2346 or t6574 and either the known dru types dt2b, dt6j, dt10a, dt10q, dt11a, dt11v, and dt11ab or the novel dru types dt6m, dt10as, and dt10at. In addition, two MRSA sequence type 9 (ST9) isolates with a type IV SCCmec cassette, spa type t1430, and dru type dt10a as well as single MRSA ST5 and ST1791 isolates with a type III SCCmec cassette, spa type t002, and dru type dt9v were identified. All but two isolates were classified as multiresistant. A wide variety of resistance phenotypes and genotypes were detected. All isolates were negative for the major virulence factors, such as Panton-Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, or exfoliative toxins. In contrast to the MRSA CC398 isolates, the four ST9, ST5, or ST1791 isolates harbored the egc gene cluster for enterotoxin G, I, M, N, O, and U genes. Although the relevance of contamination of fresh poultry meat or poultry products with MRSA is currently unclear, the presence of multiresistant and, in part, enterotoxigenic MRSA emphasizes the need for further studies to elucidate possible health hazards for consumers. PMID:21724898

  10. Incorporation of essential oils and nanoparticles in pullulan films to control foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Mohamed K; Khalaf, Hassan H; Sharoba, Ashraf M; El-Tanahi, Hassan H; Cutter, Catherine N

    2014-04-01

    The incorporation of essential oils and nanotechnology into edible films has the potential to improve the microbiological safety of foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pullulan films containing essential oils and nanoparticles against 4 foodborne pathogens. Initial experiments using plate overlay assays demonstrated that 2% oregano essential oil was active against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium, whereas Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were not inhibited. Two percent rosemary essential oil was active against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and S. Typhimurium, when compared with 1%. Zinc oxide nanoparticles at 110 nm were active against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and S. Typhimurium, when compared with 100 or 130 nm. Conversely, 100 nm silver (Ag) nanoparticles were more active against S. aureus than L. monocytogenes. Using the results from these experiments, the compounds exhibiting the greatest activity were incorporated into pullulan films and found to inhibit all or some of the 4 pathogens in plate overlay assays. In challenge studies, pullulan films containing the compounds effectively inhibited the pathogens associated with vacuum packaged meat and poultry products stored at 4 °C for up to 3 wk, as compared to control films. Additionally, the structure and cross-section of the films were evaluated using electron microscopy. The results from this study demonstrate that edible films made from pullulan and incorporated with essential oils or nanoparticles may improve the safety of refrigerated, fresh or further processed meat and poultry products. PMID:24621108

  11. Outbreaks of H5N1 in poultry in Thailand: the relative role of poultry production types in sustaining transmission and the impact of active surveillance in control

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Patrick; Cauchemez, Simon; Hartemink, Nienke; Tiensin, Thanawat; Ghani, Azra C.

    2012-01-01

    H5N1, highly pathogenic avian influenza, continues to pose a public health risk in the countries of southeast Asia where it has become endemic. However, in Thailand, which experienced two of the largest recorded epidemics in 2004–2005, the disease has been successfully reduced to very low levels. We fitted a spatio-temporal model of the spread of infection to outbreak data collected during the second wave of outbreaks to assess the extent to which different poultry types were responsible for propagating infection. Our estimates suggest that the wave of outbreaks would not have been possible without the contribution of backyard flocks to the susceptibility of a sub-district. However, we also estimated that outbreaks involving commercial poultry, a much larger sector in Thailand than in neighbouring countries, were disproportionately infectious, a factor which was also crucial in sustaining the wave. As a result, implemented measures that aim to reduce the role of commercial farms in the spread of infection, such as the drive to bring aspects of the supply chain ‘in house’, may help to explain the subsequent success in controlling H5N1 in Thailand. We also found that periods of active surveillance substantially improved the rate of outbreak detection. PMID:22356818

  12. Outbreaks of H5N1 in poultry in Thailand: the relative role of poultry production types in sustaining transmission and the impact of active surveillance in control.

    PubMed

    Walker, Patrick; Cauchemez, Simon; Hartemink, Nienke; Tiensin, Thanawat; Ghani, Azra C

    2012-08-01

    H5N1, highly pathogenic avian influenza, continues to pose a public health risk in the countries of southeast Asia where it has become endemic. However, in Thailand, which experienced two of the largest recorded epidemics in 2004-2005, the disease has been successfully reduced to very low levels. We fitted a spatio-temporal model of the spread of infection to outbreak data collected during the second wave of outbreaks to assess the extent to which different poultry types were responsible for propagating infection. Our estimates suggest that the wave of outbreaks would not have been possible without the contribution of backyard flocks to the susceptibility of a sub-district. However, we also estimated that outbreaks involving commercial poultry, a much larger sector in Thailand than in neighbouring countries, were disproportionately infectious, a factor which was also crucial in sustaining the wave. As a result, implemented measures that aim to reduce the role of commercial farms in the spread of infection, such as the drive to bring aspects of the supply chain 'in house', may help to explain the subsequent success in controlling H5N1 in Thailand. We also found that periods of active surveillance substantially improved the rate of outbreak detection. PMID:22356818

  13. Poultry housing emissions perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns for climate change are expanding interest in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from all agricultural sectors; animal production systems are no exception. The focus of this overview is to compare emission factors among egg and meat bird poultry operations, specifically layer and broiler chicke...

  14. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  15. Did the recommended retail price of tobacco products fall in Australia following the implementation of plain packaging?

    PubMed Central

    Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the extent of any fall in recommended retail prices (RRPs) of tobacco products sold in Australia following the 2012 implementation of plain packaging. Methods RRPs published in price lists by the New South Wales Retail Tobacco Traders Association covering the months of November 2011, November 2012 and November 2013 were recorded for all listed brands and pack sizes. Average prices per stick were computed in 2013 dollars for cigarette brands in each of 10 possible pack sizes, for each major tobacco manufacturer, and across market segments. Average prices per gram in Australian dollars adjusted to 2013 prices (AUD2013) were calculated for roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco brands for each major manufacturer. Results Inflation-adjusted average RRPs per stick in November 2013 were on average 6.4% higher than in November 2011 and 3.4% higher than in November 2012. The average RRP per gram of RYO products in November 2013 was 10.2% and 5.4% higher than in November 2011 and November 2012, respectively. Within cigarette brands, the highest increases in RRP from 2011 to 2013 were seen among mainstream and premium brands (10.0% and 10.1%, respectively) and among packs of 30s (18.3%) and 50s (12.5%). Conclusions The RRPs of tobacco products were higher in real terms 1 year after Australia's plain packaging legislation was implemented. These increases exceeded increases resulting from Consumer Price Index (CPI) indexation of duty and occurred across all three major manufacturers for both factory made and RYO brands, all three cigarette market segments and all major pack sizes.

  16. Various Ready-to-Eat Products from Retail Stores Linked to Occurrence of Diverse Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. Isolates.

    PubMed

    Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Fuangpaiboon, Janejira; Turner, Matthew P; Vuddhakul, Varaporn

    2016-02-01

    Listeriosis outbreaks have been associated with a variety of foods. This study investigated the prevalence and diversity of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat (RTE) products and evaluated the performance of a rapid detection method, the 3M molecular detection assay for L. monocytogenes (MDA-LM), for detection of L. monocytogenes. Assay results were compared with those obtained using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration standard culture method described in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Products (n = 200) were purchased from retail stores: 122 aquatic products, 22 products of animal origin, 18 vegetarian products, 15 deli meat products, 13 salad and vegetable products, 4 desserts, 2 egg-based products, and 4 other products. L. monocytogenes prevalence was comparable with both methods. Overall, 15 (7.5%) of 200 samples were positive for L. monocytogenes: 3% of aquatic products, 1.5% of products of animal origin, 1% of vegetarian products, and 2% of deli meat products. Compared with the standard culture method, the sensitivity, specificity, and the accuracy of the MDA-LM were 86.7% (95% confidence interval, 58.4 to 97.7%), 98.4% (95% confidence interval, 95.0 to 99.6%), and 97.5%, respectively. Using the culture-based method, 18 (9%) of 200 samples were positive for Listeria species other than L. monocytogenes. Listeria isolates from these samples were classified into nine allelic types (ATs). The majority of isolates were classified as ATs 58 and 74, which were identified as L. monocytogenes lineages I and IV, respectively. Listeria innocua and Listeria welshimeri also were represented by isolates of multiple ATs. The MDA-LM is a rapid and reliable technique for detecting L. monocytogenes in various RTE foods. Further study is needed to develop effective control strategies to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination in RTE foods. PMID:26818984

  17. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display microbial population of beef strip loins from two different production systems.

    PubMed

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Hess, A M; Belk, K E

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging during storage of strip loins (to simulate export shipment) from steers fattened on intensive grazing systems (Uruguay; UR) or on a high-concentrate diet (United States; US) on retail display life microbial growth. Four or 3 different packaging treatments were applied to UR and US strip loin roasts or steaks during 35 d of storage; treatments were applied 7 d following slaughter. After 35 d of storage, the samples were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, the treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with N and CO (MAP/CO), low-oxygen MAP with N plus CO and CO, and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2, block 1, the treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl--lauroyl--arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2, block 2, the treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. For retail display, VP treatments were sliced and repackaged in PVC overwrap, and MAP treatments were actually PVC overwrap trays that were removed from a master bag with the prescribed gas treatment. Regardless of production system and packaging treatment, mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts of 6.9 to 7.8 and 6.7 to 7.7 log10 CFU/cm, respectively, were obtained at the end of retail display, except for US samples in Exp. 2 (5.5 to 6.3 log CFU/cm). No differences ( > 0.05) were detected for spp. counts among packaging treatments in US steaks at the end of the display time in Exp.1, whereas, for UR steaks, both MAP treatments had lower ( < 0.05) spp. counts than VP treatments. spp. counts were lower ( < 0.05) in the MAP/CO treatment than in the other 3 treatments in US samples on d 6 of retail display for Exp. 2. At the end of display time and for Exp. 1, US steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( < 0.05) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts than samples in both VP treatments; no differences ( > 0

  18. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15... CHLAMYDIOSIS Newcastle Disease § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have been destroyed because of a quarantine for Newcastle disease may not be replaced by birds or poultry...

  19. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.309 Section 205.309 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  20. 7 CFR 205.308 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as â100 percent organicâ or âorganic.â 205.308 Section 205.308 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards,...

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Campylobacter Isolates from Poultry Production Units in Southern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    O'Mahony, Emer; Buckley, James F.; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul; Fanning, Séamus

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the sources and routes of transmission of Campylobacter in intensively reared poultry farms in the Republic of Ireland. Breeder flocks and their corresponding broilers housed in three growing facilities were screened for the presence of Campylobacter species from November 2006 through September 2007. All breeder flocks tested positive for Campylobacter species (with C. jejuni and C. coli being identified). Similarly, all broiler flocks also tested positive for Campylobacter by the end of the rearing period. Faecal and environmental samples were analyzed at regular intervals throughout the rearing period of each broiler flock. Campylobacter was not detected in the disinfected house, or in one-day old broiler chicks. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from environmental samples including air, water puddles, adjacent broiler flocks and soil. A representative subset of isolates from each farm was selected for further characterization using flaA-SVR sub-typing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to determine if same-species isolates from different sources were indistinguishable or not. Results obtained suggest that no evidence of vertical transmission existed and that adequate cleaning/disinfection of broiler houses contributed to the prevention of carryover and cross-contamination. Nonetheless, the environment appears to be a potential source of Campylobacter. The population structure of Campylobacter isolates from broiler farms in Southern Ireland was diverse and weakly clonal. PMID:22163024

  2. 77 FR 58804 - Testing of Product Samples for Listeria monocytogenes: Changes in Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Poultry Products'' (68 FR 34208; Jun. 6, 2003), which declares that post-lethality exposed RTE products... retail slicing, preparation, or packaging operations. \\8\\ U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and...) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national...

  3. Prospects for phosphorus recovery from poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Szogi, A A; Vanotti, M B

    2009-11-01

    Land disposal of poultry litter is an environmental concern often associated to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential water pollution in regions with intense poultry production. Although poultry litter can be moved off the farm and traded as fertilizer, its transportation becomes less economical with increasing distances from the farm. Thus, new litter management alternatives are needed to reduce the environmental impact of P litter application to land. This paper summarizes established and emerging alternative technologies in the U.S. that facilitate handling, concentration, and transporting of litter P. Furthermore, it examines the potential integration of technologies into poultry litter management systems that could reduce poultry litter volume and increase P content in litter byproducts. The adoption of alternative technologies may encourage new opportunities to produce bio-energy, fertilizer, and other valuable P byproducts from poultry litter while reducing environmental impact and promoting sustainable poultry production. PMID:19394817

  4. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep...

  5. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part....

  6. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep...

  7. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part....

  8. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer...

  9. Qualitative and Quantitative Determination and Resistance Patterns of Salmonella from Poultry Carcasses.

    PubMed

    Yamatogi, R S; Oliveira, H C; Possebon, F S; Pantoja, J C F; Joaquim, J G F; Pinto, J P A N; Araújo, J P

    2016-06-01

    Poultry products are important in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens, mainly Salmonella. This genus causes millions of foodborne diseases worldwide every year. Cross-contamination by food sources in human cases of salmonellosis and the increase in resistant strains have become important issues. A qualitative and quantitative Salmonella detection method was utilized in a poultry slaughterhouse in São Paulo State, Brazil. We collected 33 samples from different batches of carcasses. Each sample was analyzed at three process points: postbleeding, postdefeathering, and postchilling. A fourth point, retail simulation, was added to simulate retail market storage at 5°C for 72 h. The qualitative methods revealed 100% (33 samples) contamination at postbleeding, 39% (13 samples) contamination at postdefeathering, 58% (19 samples) contamination at postchilling, and 30% (10 samples) contamination at the retail simulation. The quantitative results, determined by the most-probable-number (MPN) technique, ranged from <0.03 to >2,400 MPN/g. We identified 23 Salmonella serovars; the most prevalent were Mbandaka, Senftenberg, and Enteritidis. Resistance to nalidixic acid was significantly more common (P < 0.05) than resistance to other antimicrobial agents. Five multidrug-resistant strains were identified. This study contributes important epidemiological data and demonstrates the need to improve sanitary conditions in slaughterhouses. PMID:27296598

  10. Application of ISO22000 and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (fmea) for Industrial Processing of Poultry Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varzakas, Theodoros H.; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S.

    Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model has been applied for the risk assessment of poultry slaughtering and manufacturing. In this work comparison of ISO22000 analysis with HACCP is carried out over poultry slaughtering, processing and packaging. Critical Control points and Prerequisite programs (PrPs) have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram and fishbone diagram).

  11. Enumeration and characterization of campylobacter species from retail chicken carcasses in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yao; Cui, Shenghui; Xu, Xiao; Li, Fengqin

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological data have implicated contaminated raw or undercooked chicken as primary vehicles of Campylobacter transmission to humans. Risk assessment relating to Campylobacter contamination of poultry products in China is frequently hampered by the lack of quantitative data. In this study, whole chicken carcasses (n=240) were collected from the retail markets of Beijing. The level of Campylobacter contamination was enumerated by the plate-counting method. The representative Campylobacter isolates were characterized for antimicrobial resistance. Selected representative isolates were further analyzed by the multilocus sequencing typing method for genetic relatedness. Overall, 26.3% (63/240) of the retail whole chicken carcasses were contaminated by Campylobacter, and the values ranged from 2.5 to 7050 colony-forming units (CFU)/g. The 50th percentile of Campylobacter value was 45 CFU/g in chicken carcass. Multidrug-resistant profiles were observed in 33 (39.2%) C. jejuni isolates (from 27 chicken carcasses) and 57 (86.4%) C. coli isolates (from 30 chicken carcasses). One dominant ST (ST6322) and one dominant clonal complex (CC828) consisting of multidrug-resistant C. coli isolates were identified. Our findings showed a high prevalence of Campylobacter contamination in retail chicken carcasses, which could be a source of exposure to multidrug-resistant isolates for consumers. This study provided baseline enumeration data for the quantitative risk assessment and evaluation of new control measures of Campylobacter contamination in retail chicken products in China. PMID:25238587

  12. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection §...

  13. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  14. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  15. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection §...

  16. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  17. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection §...

  18. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection §...

  19. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  20. 9 CFR 381.75 - Poultry used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry used for research. 381.75... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.75...

  1. 9 CFR 381.75 - Poultry used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry used for research. 381.75... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.75...

  2. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection §...

  3. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  4. 9 CFR 381.75 - Poultry used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry used for research. 381.75... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.75...

  5. Fusion of visible and X-ray sensing modalities for the enhancement of bone detection in poultry products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachtsevanos, George; Daley, Wayne D.; Heck, Bonnie S.; Yezzi, Anthony; Ding, Yuhua

    2000-12-01

    The U.S. demand for deboned chicken has risen greatly in the past 5 years, with the expectations that this demand will only continue at an accelerated level. The standard inspection process for bones in meat is for workers to manually feel for bones. It is clear that this time- consuming manual inspection method is insufficient to meet the increasing demand for deboned meat products. Georgia Tech Electrical Engineering faculty and Research Scientists in conjunction with a leading x-ray equipment manufacturer are working together on the development of a system to fuse information from visible images and x-ray images to enhance the accuracy of detection. Currently there are some bones that x-ray systems have difficulty detecting. These are usually relatively thin and are located near the surface of the meat. A primary example is a fanbone (so called because of its shape). We will describe and present results from work geared towards the development of an integrated system that would fuse visible and x-ray information. Significant benefits to the poultry industry are anticipated in terms of reduced processing costs, improved inspection performance and increased throughput through the use of the integrated system to be described. Additionally, generic aspects of the proposed technologies may be applicable to other food processing industries.

  6. Improved poultry house

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of energy and poultry production was explored in three areas: methane production from litter, broiler house insulation, and broiler house HVAC systems. The findings show that while a methane plant would not be popular with individual American poultry producers; the pay back in fuel and fertilizer, if the plant was located in close proximinity to the processing plant, would be favorable. Broiler house insulation has been dramatically improved since the outset of this study. Presently, all new installations in the survey area are the Environmental houses which are fully insulated. HVAC systems have had to keep pace with the introduction of better insulation. The new Environmental houses HVAC systems are fully automated and operating on a positive atmosphere principal. Ammonia and other problems have been kept in check while reducing air changes per house from a high of 7 per hour to as little as 3 per hour.

  7. Poultry litter and switchgrass blending and pelletizing characteritics for biochar production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar characteristics for both soil and energy applications have been documented to be affected by both the parent feedstock and pyrolysis production temperature. Controlling these two variables may yield an ideal product with engineered properties—“A Designer Biochar.” Manure-based biochars are k...

  8. Quantification of zoonotic bacterial pathogens within commercial poultry processing water samples using droplet digital PCR.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raw poultry and poultry products are a significant source of zoonotic bacterial pathogen transmission; thus the sensitive detection of major zoonotic bacterial poultry pathogens (Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes) is a vital food safety issue. While trad...

  9. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: II. Carcass composition, retail product, and quality.

    PubMed

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    A computer simulation model was used to characterize the response in carcass composition, retail product, and quality of steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds (Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise) mated to Hereford and Angus dams, grown under nine backgrounding systems, and finished at either a low (1.0 kg) or high (1.36 kg) ADG. The backgrounding systems were a high ADG (.9 kg) for 111, 167, or 222 d, a medium ADG (.5 kg) for 200, 300, or 400 d, a low ADG (.25 kg) for 300 or 400 d and 0 d backgrounding. For specific genotype x production system combinations, results showed that carcasses of compensating steers may be either leaner, not different in fatness, or fatter than carcasses of steers put on a finishing diet directly after weaning. Systems in which steers gained a greater proportion of the final slaughter weight over long durations of growth restriction resulted in leaner carcasses. There were 12 common production systems in which 13 of the genotypes produced a carcass with a maximum of 28% fat or with a marbling score of 11 or greater. These results suggest sire breeds used to produce these steers can be used over a wide range of nutritional and management environments, and that a mixed group of steers can be fed and managed similarly from weaning to slaughter to produce a carcass with a specified composition, retail product, or quality. PMID:7608000

  10. 9 CFR 381.27 - Inauguration of service; notification concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. 381.27 Section 381.27 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. The inspector in charge or his...

  11. 9 CFR 381.27 - Inauguration of service; notification concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. 381.27 Section 381.27 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. The inspector in charge or his...

  12. 9 CFR 381.27 - Inauguration of service; notification concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. 381.27 Section 381.27 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. The inspector in charge or his...

  13. 9 CFR 381.27 - Inauguration of service; notification concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. 381.27 Section 381.27 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. The inspector in charge or his...

  14. 9 CFR 381.27 - Inauguration of service; notification concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. 381.27 Section 381.27 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. The inspector in charge or his...

  15. 9 CFR 381.169 - Ready-to-cook poultry products to which solutions are added.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... “Young Turkey”). The label must also bear a statement, in bold type, immediately below and adjacent to... product name, with a minimum size of one-fourth inch for a ready-to-cook turkey and...

  16. 9 CFR 381.169 - Ready-to-cook poultry products to which solutions are added.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... “Young Turkey”). The label must also bear a statement, in bold type, immediately below and adjacent to... product name, with a minimum size of one-fourth inch for a ready-to-cook turkey and...

  17. Presence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli recovered from retail chicken in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Xi, Meili; Lv, Xiaoying; Xu, Yunfeng; Feng, Yuqing; Li, Qiong; Yang, Qinnan; Xia, Xiaodong

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli in retail whole chicken in the People 9 s Republic of China. Five hundred seventy-six raw whole chicken samples, randomly purchased from 146 farmers' markets or supermarkets in four provinces from March through December 2010, were analyzed for E. coli contamination, and the E. coli isolates were further tested for the presence of virulence genes and antimicrobial susceptibility. The overall positive rate for E. coli in retail chicken was 69.1%. E. coli prevalence was the highest in Beijing (86.8%), followed by Henan province (78.5%), Shaanxi province (65.3%), and the lowest prevalence was found in Sichuan province (45.8%). Among 398 isolates recovered, only the eae gene was detected in one isolate; no other virulence genes were detected. Resistance was most common to tetracycline (84.4%), followed by nalidixic acid (74.1%), ampicillin (71.1%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (70.1%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (68.8%), and streptomycin (58.5%). Lower resistance was detected to chloramphenicol (43.7%), kanamycin (42.7%), ciprofloxacin (30.2%), gentamicin (29.4%), cefoperazone (13.6%), amikacin (12.6%), gatifloxacin (8%), and cefoxitin (7.8%). Only 3.8% of the isolates were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials. Six percent of the isolates displayed resistance to one antimicrobial, 6.3% to two, and 83.9% to three or more of the antimicrobials. Our findings indicate that retail chicken in China was commonly contaminated with E. coli, and many E. coli strains exhibited multiple drug resistance. The implementation of good manufacturing practices throughout the poultry production chain is necessary to reduce E. coli contamination in retail chicken, and the prudent use of antibiotics is imperative in poultry production in China. PMID:25285496

  18. Environmental impact of using specialty feed ingredients in swine and poultry production: A life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Kebreab, E; Liedke, A; Caro, D; Deimling, S; Binder, M; Finkbeiner, M

    2016-06-01

    Livestock production has a variety of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, water pollution, acidification, and primary energy consumption. The demand for livestock products is expected to grow substantially, creating even more environmental pressure. The use of specialty feed ingredients (SFI) such as supplemented AA and phytase can reduce nutrient input into the system without compromising productivity and consequently can reduce emissions. The global change impact of using SFI in pig and broiler production systems in Europe and North and South America was studied. A life cycle assessment according to international standards (ISO 14040/44) analyzed contributions from producing SFI and animals to global change. Three different alternatives were analyzed. In addition, partial sensitivity analysis was conducted using 5 scenarios for each region for both production systems. Specialty feed ingredient supplementation in pig and broiler diets reduced greenhouse gas emissions (cradle to farm gate) by 56% and 54% in Europe, 17% and 15% in North America, and 33% and 19% in South America, respectively, compared to an unsupplemented diet. A total of 136 Mt CO equivalent (CO eq) was saved in 2012, rising to 146 Mt CO eq in 2050 on the basis of United Nations population projections. Considerable benefits of supplementation with SFI were apparent in European and South American diets when direct land use change was considered because of the reduced demand for soybean meal. The eutrophication potential of unsupplemented diets was reduced by up to 35% in pig and 49% in broiler production systems compared to supplemented alternatives. The acidification potential of supplemented strategies was reduced by up to 30% in pig and 79% in broiler production systems. The primary energy demand was similar in all alternatives, and this could be an area where the SFI industry can improve. Overall, SFI supplementation substantially reduced the global warming, eutrophication

  19. Prevalence of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, in different types of production systems for egg layers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Höglund, J; Nordenfors, H; Uggla, A

    1995-11-01

    This study was undertaken between May and December 1994 to investigate the prevalence of hematophagous mites in Sweden. A particular aim was to establish the relationship between occurrence of mites and certain types of production systems for egg layers. Initially a postal questionnaire study was performed. Some months later this was followed up by inspections, sampling, and interviews on farms. The only mite species found was the red poultry mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. Although this species was found to be present in cage batteries, deep-litter systems, and backyard flocks, it was less prevalent among birds housed in cages. About 4% of the cage systems were found to be affected both according to the results of the postal inquiry and from the field study. However, discrepancies in prevalence were found when comparing the results obtained with these two investigations regarding alternative, deep-litter systems and backyard flocks. According to the inquiry, 21% of the deep-litter flocks were afflicted whereas 33% were found to be afflicted in the field investigation. Among the backyard flocks, 19% were afflicted whereas as many as 67% of the flocks were found to be afflicted upon inspection. These discrepancies were probably due to the fact that the situation had actually changed in some farms during the study period, but possibly also to inherent methodological errors. Farmers were also interviewed with focus on methods of husbandry and control strategies. Most farmers answered that they were combatting the mites by cleaning the empty houses and using chemicals such as organophosphorous compounds, carbamates, and synthetic pyrethroids. In several instances the problems were still not solved despite these curative or preventive measures. A control program for D. gallinae is suggested by regular screening and certification of the ectoparasite status of the birds before their transfer to production sites. PMID:8614688

  20. Analysis of eight organophosphorus pesticide residues in fresh vegetables retailed in agricultural product markets of Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ligang; Liang, Yongchao; Jiang, Xin

    2008-10-01

    A method to effectively remove pigments in fresh vegetables using activated carbon followed cleanup through solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge to further reduce matrix interference and contamination, was established to determine eight organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) by gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD) in this study, and it has been successfully applied for the determination of eight OPPs in various fresh vegetables with the recoveries ranging from 61.8% to 107%. To evaluate eight OPPs residue level, some fresh vegetables retailed at three agricultural product markets (APM) of Nanjing in China were detected, the results showed that phorate in Shanghai green (0.0257 microg g(-1)) and Chinese cabbage (0.0398 microg g(-1)), dimethoate in Shanghai green (0.0466-0.0810 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.077 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.118-0.124 microg g(-1)), methyl-parathion in Shanghai green (0.0903 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.157 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.0924 microg g(-1)), malathion in Shanghai green (0.0342-0.0526 microg g(-1)), chorpyrifos in spinach (0.106-0.204 microg g(-1)), and Chinese cabbage (0.149 microg g(-1)), chlorfenvinfos in carrot (0.094-0.131 microg g(-1)), were found. However, fonofos and fenthion were not detected in all the collected vegetable samples. PMID:18651087

  1. Risk analysis of poultry feed costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction and Aims. Poultry feed continues to be a significant expense in poultry production as the cost of corn and soybean meals remain elevated. Alternative meals are under investigation to reduce production costs while maintaining high feed conversion rates and body weight gain. Two promising...

  2. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... subchapter, in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B. In... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  3. Nitrogen utilization from poultry processing co-products used in diets for Florida pompano

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed represents the highest variable cost associated with fish production. High quality fishmeal (FM) continues to be the principal source of protein for fish, particularly carnivorous species that typically have dietary protein requirements of 40% or more. FM continues to be an expensive protein, w...

  4. No-till corn productivity in a Southeastern USA Ultisoil amended with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerging potential for large-scale renewable bio-energy production has substantially increased the price and demand of corn (Zea mays L.). In order to compete in the new corn market producers in the southeastern USA need to overcome the region’s soil and water limitations. One option is adopting...

  5. ARS Research Review on "Recent progress in developing alternative strategies to antibiotics in poultry production"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global animal industry needs to address the increasing regulatory restrictions on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in animal production. Many AGPs have already been restricted by animal farms in the European Union and soon other countries are expected to be under increasing scrutin...

  6. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., when raw and when cooked. Table V Product name Percent skin Raw Cooked Boneless Turkey Breast or Boneless Turkey Breast Roll 14 Boneless Turkey Thigh or Boneless Turkey Thigh Roll 8 Boneless Turkey or Turkey Roll 15 Boneless Chicken Breast or Boneless Chicken Breast Roll 18 20 Boneless Chicken or...

  7. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., when raw and when cooked. Table V Product name Percent skin Raw Cooked Boneless Turkey Breast or Boneless Turkey Breast Roll 14 Boneless Turkey Thigh or Boneless Turkey Thigh Roll 8 Boneless Turkey or Turkey Roll 15 Boneless Chicken Breast or Boneless Chicken Breast Roll 18 20 Boneless Chicken or...

  8. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., when raw and when cooked. Table V Product name Percent skin Raw Cooked Boneless Turkey Breast or Boneless Turkey Breast Roll 14 Boneless Turkey Thigh or Boneless Turkey Thigh Roll 8 Boneless Turkey or Turkey Roll 15 Boneless Chicken Breast or Boneless Chicken Breast Roll 18 20 Boneless Chicken or...

  9. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., when raw and when cooked. Table V Product name Percent skin Raw Cooked Boneless Turkey Breast or Boneless Turkey Breast Roll 14 Boneless Turkey Thigh or Boneless Turkey Thigh Roll 8 Boneless Turkey or Turkey Roll 15 Boneless Chicken Breast or Boneless Chicken Breast Roll 18 20 Boneless Chicken or...

  10. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., when raw and when cooked. Table V Product name Percent skin Raw Cooked Boneless Turkey Breast or Boneless Turkey Breast Roll 14 Boneless Turkey Thigh or Boneless Turkey Thigh Roll 8 Boneless Turkey or Turkey Roll 15 Boneless Chicken Breast or Boneless Chicken Breast Roll 18 20 Boneless Chicken or...

  11. A renewable flocculant from a poultry slaughterhouse waste and preliminary estimate of production costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken blood (CKB) is a waste product of large processing plants. CKB fractions (frozen and dehydrated) were tested as renewable flocculants, and their actions were compared to that of anionic polyacrylamide, a commercial, polymeric flocculant made from natural gas. The CKB frozen fractions were ...

  12. Practical Poultry Raising. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Kenneth M.

    This manual is designed to provide development workers with the information and tools needed to begin or to improve poultry production. Covered in the individual chapters are the following topics: the nature and scope of poultry production, assessment of local poultry selections, basic information about chickens, country chickens, poultry…

  13. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208 Section 93.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry § 93.208 Articles accompanying poultry....

  14. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208 Section 93.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry § 93.208 Articles accompanying poultry....

  15. Reducing Campylobacter jejuni Colonization of Poultry via Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Neal-McKinney, Jason M.; Samuelson, Derrick R.; Eucker, Tyson P.; Nissen, Mark S.; Crespo, Rocio; Konkel, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease worldwide. While C. jejuni is a commensal organism in chickens, case-studies have demonstrated a link between infection with C. jejuni and the consumption of foods that have been cross-contaminated with raw or undercooked poultry. We hypothesized that vaccination of chickens with C. jejuni surface-exposed colonization proteins (SECPs) would reduce the ability of C. jejuni to colonize chickens, thereby reducing the contamination of poultry products at the retail level and potentially providing a safer food product for consumers. To test our hypothesis, we injected chickens with recombinant C. jejuni peptides from CadF, FlaA, FlpA, CmeC, and a CadF-FlaA-FlpA fusion protein. Seven days following challenge, chickens were necropsied and cecal contents were serially diluted and plated to determine the number of C. jejuni per gram of material. The sera from the chickens were also analyzed to determine the concentration and specificity of antibodies reactive against the C. jejuni SECPs. Vaccination of chickens with the CadF, FlaA, and FlpA peptides resulted in a reduction in the number of C. jejuni in the ceca compared to the non-vaccinated C. jejuni-challenged group. The greatest reduction in C. jejuni colonization was observed in chickens injected with the FlaA, FlpA, or CadF-FlaA-FlpA fusion proteins. Vaccination of chickens with different SECPs resulted in the production of C. jejuni-specific IgY antibodies. In summary, we show that the vaccination of poultry with individual C. jejuni SECPs or a combination of SECPs provides protection of chickens from C. jejuni colonization. PMID:25474206

  16. Long-term spatiotemporal patterns of CH4 and N2O emissions from livestock and poultry production in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kulcu, Recep; Ekinci, Kamil; Evrendilek, Fatih; Ertekin, Can

    2010-08-01

    This study quantified spatiotemporal patterns of CH4 and N2O emissions from livestock and poultry production in Turkey between 1961 and 2007. CH4(enteric) (from enteric fermentation), CH4(manure) (from manure management), and N2O(AWM) (from animal waste management) emissions in Turkey were estimated at 1,164, 216, and 55 Gg in 1961 and decreased to 844, 187, and 39 Gg in 2007, contributing a share of roughly 2% to the global livestock-related CH4 emissions and %1.5 to the global N2O(AWM) emissions, respectively. Total CO2-eq emissions were estimated at 50.7 Tg in 1961 and declined from a maximum value of 60.7 Tg in 1982 to a minimum value of 34.5 Tg in 2003, with a mean emission rate of 48 Tg year(-1) due to a significant reduction in the number of ruminant livestock. The highest mean share of emissions belonged to West Black Sea (14% and 16%) for CH4(enteric) and CH4(manure) and to North East Anatolia (12% and %13) for N2O(AWM) and total CO2-eq emissions, respectively. The highest emission density was 1.7 Mg km(-2) year(-1) for CH4(enteric), 0.3 Mg km(-2) year(-1) for CH4(manure), and 0.07 Mg km(-2) year(-1) for the total CO2-eq emissions in the West and North East Anatolia regions and 0.09 Mg km(-2) year(-1) for N2O(AWM) in the East Marmara region. Temporal and spatial variations in CH4(enteric), CH4(manure), and N2O(AWM) emissions in Turkey were estimated using regression models and ordinary kriging at a 500-m resolution, respectively. PMID:19609697

  17. Unraveling antimicrobial resistance genes and phenotype patterns among Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail chicken products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hidano, Arata; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Hayama, Yoko; Muroga, Norihiko; Kobayashi, Sota; Nishida, Takeshi; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant enterococci are considered crucial drivers for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance determinants within and beyond a genus. These organisms may pass numerous resistance determinants to other harmful pathogens, whose multiple resistances would cause adverse consequences. Therefore, an understanding of the coexistence epidemiology of resistance genes is critical, but such information remains limited. In this study, our first objective was to determine the prevalence of principal resistance phenotypes and genes among Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail chicken domestic products collected throughout Japan. Subsequent analysis of these data by using an additive Bayesian network (ABN) model revealed the co-appearance patterns of resistance genes and identified the associations between resistance genes and phenotypes. The common phenotypes observed among E. faecalis isolated from the domestic products were the resistances to oxytetracycline (58.4%), dihydrostreptomycin (50.4%), and erythromycin (37.2%), and the gene tet(L) was detected in 46.0% of the isolates. The ABN model identified statistically significant associations between tet(L) and erm(B), tet(L) and ant(6)-Ia, ant(6)-Ia and aph(3')-IIIa, and aph(3')-IIIa and erm(B), which indicated that a multiple-resistance profile of tetracycline, erythromycin, streptomycin, and kanamycin is systematic rather than random. Conversely, the presence of tet(O) was only negatively associated with that of erm(B) and tet(M), which suggested that in the presence of tet(O), the aforementioned multiple resistance is unlikely to be observed. Such heterogeneity in linkages among genes that confer the same phenotypic resistance highlights the importance of incorporating genetic information when investigating the risk factors for the spread of resistance. The epidemiological factors that underlie the persistence of systematic multiple-resistance patterns warrant further investigations with appropriate

  18. 9 CFR 93.204 - Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...; deficiencies in the regulatory programs for the control or eradication of animal diseases and...

  19. 9 CFR 93.204 - Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...; deficiencies in the regulatory programs for the control or eradication of animal diseases and...

  20. 9 CFR 93.204 - Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...; deficiencies in the regulatory programs for the control or eradication of animal diseases and...

  1. 9 CFR 93.204 - Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...; deficiencies in the regulatory programs for the control or eradication of animal diseases and...

  2. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  3. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  4. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  5. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  6. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  7. Fat and fatty acid composition of cooked meat from UK retail chickens labelled as from organic and non-organic production systems.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Courtney J; Kliem, Kirsty E; Givens, D Ian

    2015-07-15

    This study compared fat and fatty acids in cooked retail chicken meat from conventional and organic systems. Fat contents were 1.7, 5.2, 7.1 and 12.9 g/100 g cooked weight in skinless breast, breast with skin, skinless leg and leg with skin respectively, with organic meat containing less fat overall (P<0.01). Meat was rich in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, although organic meat contained less than did conventional meat (1850 vs. 2538 mg/100 g; P<0.001). Organic meat was also lower (P<0.001) in 18:3 n-3 (115 vs. 180 mg/100 g) and, whilst it contained more (P<0.001) docosahexaenoic acid (30.9 vs. 13.7 mg/100 g), this was due to the large effect of one supermarket. This system by supermarket interaction suggests that poultry meat labelled as organic is not a guarantee of higher long chain n-3 fatty acids. Overall there were few major differences in fatty acid contents/profiles between organic and conventional meat that were consistent across all supermarkets. PMID:25722144

  8. Use of pet food-grade poultry by-product meal as an alternate protein source in weanling pig diets.

    PubMed

    Zier, C E; Jones, R D; Azain, M J

    2004-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate pet food-grade poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a replacement protein source for fish meal (FM), blood meal (BM), and spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP) in weanling pig diets. In the first study, 200 crossbred pigs (initial BW = 6.5 kg) were weaned (21 d) and randomly allotted to one of four dietary treatments, which included a control and three test diets where PBM was substituted for FM, blood products, or both. Experimental diets were fed during Phase I (d 0 to 5 postweaning) and Phase II (d 5 to 19), and a common Phase III diet was fed from d 19 to 26. Overall (d 0 to 26), there was no difference in performance of pigs fed PBM in place of the other ingredients. However, during Phase I, BW (P < 0.05), ADG (P < 0.02), and intake (P < 0.001) in pigs fed diets containing SDPP were greater than those fed diets with PBM. In Exp. 2, the performance of pigs (n = 100, initial BW = 6.5 kg) fed diets containing 20% PBM (as-fed basis, replacing SDPP, BM, FM, and a portion of the soybean meal) in all phases of the nursery diet was compared with a group fed conventional diets without PBM. There were no differences in overall performance (d 0 to 26); however, ADG (P < 0.10) and feed intake were higher (P < 0.01) for pigs fed the conventional diet than for pigs fed the 20% PBM diet during Phase I (d 0 to 5). Experiment 3 was a slope-ratio assay to determine the ability of PBM to replace SDPP. A total of 320 pigs (initial BW = 7.32 kg) was weaned (21 d) and allotted to five treatment groups in three trials in a blocked design with product (SDPP or PBM) as the first factor, and lysine level (1.08, 1.28, 1.49%; as-fed basis) as the second factor. Growth rate increased with increasing lysine (P < 0.05), regardless of the source. These results indicate that PBM can be used in nursery diets in place of blood meal and fish meal without affecting performance. Furthermore, although feeding PBM in Phase I diets was not equivalent to SDPP

  9. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  10. Prevalence and populations of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products retailed in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Yoshida, Júlia T U; Franco, Bernadette D G de Melo

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of the populations and serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes in 552 refrigerated samples of ground beef, chicken leg, hot dog, and pork sausage collected in supermarkets in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, between May 2008 and July 2009. The supermarkets were selected after stratification by geographical region and by random draw. Tests for presence and enumeration of L. monocytogenes were based on ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd.1:2004 and ISO 11290-2:1998 methods, respectively. Listeria spp. were detected in 469 (85.0%) of the studied meat products. The most frequently isolated species was L. innocua (64.1%), followed by L. monocytogenes (48.7%), L. welshimeri (13.4%), L. seeligeri (7.1%), L. ivanovii (0.2%), and L. grayi subspecies murrayi (0.2%). L. monocytogenes was detected in 269 (48.7%) samples, with highest prevalence in ground beef (59.4%) followed by chicken legs (58.0%), pork sausages (39.8%), and hot dogs (37.7%). The populations were <10(2) colony-forming units/g in the majority of samples (62.5%). Prevalence of serotypes varied according to the type of meat product. These data are relevant for estimating the risks of listeriosis associated with consumption of meat products in Sao Paulo, and for establishing science-based intervention strategies aimed at reducing these risks, especially for pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. PMID:25407460

  11. Applying complex models to poultry production in the future--economics and biology.

    PubMed

    Talpaz, H; Cohen, M; Fancher, B; Halley, J

    2013-09-01

    The ability to determine the optimal broiler feed nutrient density that maximizes margin over feeding cost (MOFC) has obvious economic value. To determine optimal feed nutrient density, one must consider ingredient prices, meat values, the product mix being marketed, and the projected biological performance. A series of 8 feeding trials was conducted to estimate biological responses to changes in ME and amino acid (AA) density. Eight different genotypes of sex-separate reared broilers were fed diets varying in ME (2,723-3,386 kcal of ME/kg) and AA (0.89-1.65% digestible lysine with all essential AA acids being indexed to lysine) levels. Broilers were processed to determine carcass component yield at many different BW (1.09-4.70 kg). Trial data generated were used in model constructed to discover the dietary levels of ME and AA that maximize MOFC on a per broiler or per broiler annualized basis (bird × number of cycles/year). The model was designed to estimate the effects of dietary nutrient concentration on broiler live weight, feed conversion, mortality, and carcass component yield. Estimated coefficients from the step-wise regression process are subsequently used to predict the optimal ME and AA concentrations that maximize MOFC. The effects of changing feed or meat prices across a wide spectrum on optimal ME and AA levels can be evaluated via parametric analysis. The model can rapidly compare both biological and economic implications of changing from current practice to the simulated optimal solution. The model can be exploited to enhance decision making under volatile market conditions. PMID:23960140

  12. 9 CFR 381.145 - Poultry products and other articles entering or at official establishments; examination and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B or 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter A or Subchapter E... inspector in charge to assure compliance with the regulations. Upon such examination, if any such article or portion thereof is found to be adulterated, such article or portion shall, in the case of poultry...

  13. 9 CFR 381.145 - Poultry products and other articles entering or at official establishments; examination and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B or 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter A or Subchapter E... inspector in charge to assure compliance with the regulations. Upon such examination, if any such article or portion thereof is found to be adulterated, such article or portion shall, in the case of poultry...

  14. 9 CFR 381.172 - Requirements for substitute standardized poultry products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... provided in a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B, may be used at the minimum level necessary to... turnips shall not replace noodles in poultry with noodles. (3) An ingredient that is...

  15. 9 CFR 381.172 - Requirements for substitute standardized poultry products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provided in a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B, may be used at the minimum level necessary to... turnips shall not replace noodles in poultry with noodles. (3) An ingredient that is...

  16. 9 CFR 381.172 - Requirements for substitute standardized poultry products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... provided in a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B, may be used at the minimum level necessary to... turnips shall not replace noodles in poultry with noodles. (3) An ingredient that is...

  17. 9 CFR 381.172 - Requirements for substitute standardized poultry products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... provided in a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B, may be used at the minimum level necessary to... turnips shall not replace noodles in poultry with noodles. (3) An ingredient that is...

  18. 9 CFR 381.172 - Requirements for substitute standardized poultry products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... provided in a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B, may be used at the minimum level necessary to... turnips shall not replace noodles in poultry with noodles. (3) An ingredient that is...

  19. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR, chapter III, part 381), must also meet all of the requirements of the PPIA and part 381...) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 94.6, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations...

  20. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR, chapter III, part 381), must also meet all of the requirements of the PPIA and part 381...) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 94.6, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations...

  1. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... thereunder (9 CFR, chapter III, part 381), must also meet all of the requirements of the PPIA and part 381... affecting § 94.6, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations...

  2. Food retailing and food service.

    PubMed

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail). PMID:12951742

  3. Establishment of Rabbiteye Blueberries in Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is abundant in the Southeast where there is also a growing blueberry production. Poultry litter has been used for fertilization of other crops such as cotton and grass with increased yields and growth. This study was conducted to determine if rabbiteye blueberries ‘Tifblue’ and ‘Pre...

  4. Prospects for phosphorus recovery from poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land disposal of poultry litter is an environmental concern in regions with intense poultry production because there is not enough land for crop utilization of its nutrients, especially phosphorus (P). This situation promotes soil P surplus and potential pollution of water resources. Although poultr...

  5. The management of phosphorus in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides an important source of plant nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur. The potential for phosphorus (P) surplus at the farm scale can increase when farming systems change from cropping to intensive poultry and animal production, as P...

  6. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display shelf life of longissimus muscle from two different beef production systems.

    PubMed

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Engle, T E; Delmore, R J; Hess, A M; Belk, K E

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging and production system (PS) on retail display life color (L*, a*, and b*), fatty acid profile (% of total fatty acids), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; mg malondialdehyde/kg of muscle), vitamin E content (µg/g of muscle), and odor (trained panelists) during storage of LM. Four (or 3) different packaging treatments were applied to LM from steers fattened on grazing systems (Uruguayan) or on high-concentrate diets (U.S.). From fabrication to application of treatments, Uruguayan LM were vacuum packaged for air shipment and U.S. LM were also vacuum packaged and kept in a cooler until Uruguayan samples arrived. Treatments were applied 7 d after slaughter. In Exp. 1, treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen (O) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (MAP/CO), low-O MAP with N2 plus CO and carbon monoxide (MAP/CO), and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2 block 1, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl-arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2 block 2, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. After 35 d storage, steaks were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, Uruguayan steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( < 0.05) a* values than VP/PAA and MAP/CO on d 6 of display. For U.S. beef, the MAP/CO had the reddest lean color ( < 0.05) compared with the other 3 packaging treatments on d 6 of display in Exp. 1. Packaging × PS × time interaction was significant ( < 0.05) in Exp. 1. In Exp. 2, MAP/CO in Uruguayan steaks also had the greatest a* values on d 6 of display, but no differences ( > 0.05) were detected among both VP and MAP/CO in U.S. steaks at this time. No significant ( > 0.05) packaging × PS × time interaction was observed in Exp. 2. Only PS (both experiments) and time (Exp. 1) affected ( < 0.05) L* values. In both

  7. 9 CFR 93.217 - Import permit and declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.217 Section 93.217 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  8. 9 CFR 71.16 - Inspection and certification of poultry or other animals for interstate movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... poultry or other animals for interstate movement. 71.16 Section 71.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.16 Inspection and certification of poultry or other animals for interstate movement. (a) Assistance and facilities. When poultry or other animals...

  9. 9 CFR 93.214 - Import permit and declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.214 Section 93.214 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  10. 9 CFR 93.206 - Declaration and other documents for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.206 Section 93.206 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  11. 9 CFR 71.16 - Inspection and certification of poultry or other animals for interstate movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry or other animals for interstate movement. 71.16 Section 71.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.16 Inspection and certification of poultry or other animals for interstate movement. (a) Assistance and facilities. When poultry or other animals...

  12. 9 CFR 93.214 - Import permit and declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.214 Section 93.214 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  13. 9 CFR 71.16 - Inspection and certification of poultry or other animals for interstate movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... poultry or other animals for interstate movement. 71.16 Section 71.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.16 Inspection and certification of poultry or other animals for interstate movement. (a) Assistance and facilities. When poultry or other animals...

  14. 9 CFR 93.217 - Import permit and declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.217 Section 93.217 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  15. 9 CFR 93.217 - Import permit and declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.217 Section 93.217 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  16. 9 CFR 93.206 - Declaration and other documents for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.206 Section 93.206 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  17. 9 CFR 93.217 - Import permit and declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.217 Section 93.217 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  18. 9 CFR 71.16 - Inspection and certification of poultry or other animals for interstate movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry or other animals for interstate movement. 71.16 Section 71.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.16 Inspection and certification of poultry or other animals for interstate movement. (a) Assistance and facilities. When poultry or other animals...

  19. 9 CFR 93.214 - Import permit and declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.214 Section 93.214 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  20. 9 CFR 93.217 - Import permit and declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.217 Section 93.217 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...